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Sample records for imaged luminous infrared

  1. Infrared and color visible image fusion system based on luminance-contrast transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Gong, Wenfeng; Wang, Chensheng

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an infrared and color image fusion algorithm based on luminance-contrast transfer technique is presented. This algorithm shall operate YCbCr transform on color visible image, and obtain the luminance component. Then, the grey-scale image fusion methods are utilized to fuse the luminance component of visible and infrared images to acquire grey-scale fusion image. After that, the grey-scale fusion image and visible image are fused to form color fusion image based on inversed YCbCr transform. To acquire better details appearance, a natural-sense color transfer fusion algorithm based on reference image is proposed. Furthermore, a real-time infrared/visible image fusion system based on FPGA is realized. Finally, this design and achievement is verified experimentally, and the experimental results show that the system can produce a color fusion image with good image quality and real-time performance.

  2. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  3. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  5. The VascuLuminator: effectiveness of a near-infrared vessel imaging system as a support in arterial puncture in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    A practical near-IR blood vessel imaging system, the 'VascuLuminator', was developed to facilitate the puncturing of blood vessels for different procedures. Technical solutions were found for certain difficulties, such as obtaining a maximum image contrast by reducing the interference of IR light present in the surroundings. In phantom studies it was shown that the device is able to visualize blood vessels of different sizes to a clinically relevant maximum depth. In a preliminary clinical study, the use of the VascuLuminator resulted in decrease of the failure rate in blood withdrawal in young children from 13% to 2% and the laboratory technicians were satisfied with the practical application of the device. After this study, the effectiveness of the VascuLuminator was investigated to facilitate arterial cannulation in a group of children undergoing cardiac surgery. In an ongoing study, 71 children up to 3 years of age were included and time of arterial cannulation, number of punctures and puncture site were recorded. In 38 patients, cannulation was performed without the VascuLuminator and in 33 patients with VascuLuminator by pediatric anesthesiologists. The initial results do not show significant differences in time and in number of punctures with and without the use of the VascuLuminator. However, the VascuLuminator was able to visualize the arteries in most cases. In 11 of the 33 cases, the artery was located by using only the near-infrared image was used, without palpating for a pulse or knowledge of anatomical landmarks. Further clinical studies are needed to identify the patients groups that will benefit the most from VascuLuminator-assisted vessel punctures.

  6. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakashima, Asami; and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  7. Infrared Imaging of Transient Luminous Events (1-1.5 microns) Over the Mid-Western US and Comparison with their Visible Wavelength Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Matt; Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, Dominique; Lyons, Walter A.; Cummer, Steven

    2006-10-01

    As part of a coordinated campaign conducted from Yucca Ridge, Colorado during summer, 2005, four sensitive imaging systems were fielded by Utah State University to investigate the signatures of transient luminous events (TLE's) over a broad spectral range, extending from the near ultra violet (0.35 microns) to infrared wavelengths (1.5 microns). These measurements were made in conjunction with high speed video and electromagnetic observations providing detailed information of the TLE dynamics and their structures. The USU instruments consisted of two Gen 3 Xybion cameras, one filtered to observe N2 first positive emissions (665 nm) while the second observed white light emissions. A third intensified camera with an extended blue response was fitted with a broad band filter to observe the N2^+ first negative and N2 second positive emissions (band width, 350-475 nm). Novel infrared measurements were made using an InGaAs imaging array operating at video rates. All four cameras had similar fields of view (25^o) and were co-aligned on a single mount with the high speed imager. We discovered that sprites were easily imaged in the infrared spectral range, and over 30 events were captured with the InGaAs camera arising from thunderstorms over the mid-western United States during early July and mid August. This poster presents new measurements of the optical characteristics of TLEs imaged in the infrared spectral range (1-1.5 microns) and an initial comparison with their visible and near UV signatures.

  8. Calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices (ILMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Lingxi; Li, Ye; Huan, Kewei; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    A method of calibration of imaging luminance measuring devices has been studied. By the device-independent color space transformation, the color image by digital camera could be converted to the CIE's absolute color space lab. Then, the calibration model is fitted between ln(L/t) and luminance. At last, luminance image is obtained and the dynamic range of luminance image could be adjusted by shutter speed.

  9. Infrared Imaging of Transient Luminous Events (1 - 1.5 micron) Over the Mid-Western US and Comparison With Their Visible Wavelength Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, D.; Bailey, M.; Lyons, W. A.; Nelson, T. E.; Cummer, S.; Jaugey, N.; Gerken, E.

    2005-12-01

    As part of a coordinated campaign conducted from Yucca Ridge, Colorado, during summer, 2005, four sensitive imaging systems were fielded by Utah State University to investigate the signatures of transient luminous events (TLEs) over a broad spectral range, extending from the near ultra violet (0.35 microns) to infrared wavelengths (1.5 microns). These measurements were made in conjunction with high speed video and electromagnetic observations providing detailed information of the TLE dynamics and their structures. The USU instruments consisted of two Gen 3 Xybion cameras, one filtered to observe N2 first positive emissions (665 nm) while the second observed white light emissions. A third intensified camera with an extended blue response was fitted with a broad band filter to observe the N2+ first negative and N2 second positive emissions (band width, 350-475 nm). Novel infrared measurements were made using an InGaAs imaging array operating at video rates. All four cameras had similar field of view (25°) and were co-aligned on a single mount with the high speed imager. We discovered that sprites were easily imaged in the infrared spectral range, and over 30 events were captured with the InGaAs camera arising from thunderstorms over the mid-western United States during early July and mid August. This talk will focus on new measurements of the optical characteristics of TLEs imaged in the infrared spectral range (1-1.5 microns) and an initial comparison with their visible and near UV signatures.

  10. Compact radio sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Rodrigo

    2007-08-01

    Radio interferometry is an observational technique of high sensitivity and incomparably high spatial resolution. Moreover, because radio waves can freely propagate through interstellar dust and gas, it allows the study of regions of the universe completely obscured at other wavelengths. This thesis reports the observational and theoretical results of my research during the past four years which are mostly based on interferometric radio data. The COLA sample is an infrared selected sample of active star forming galaxies. We conducted 6 cm VLA and VLBI snapshot observations of the northern half of this sample. The radio emission seen at VLA scales is consistent with being powered by star formation activity because it follows the far infrared to radio correlation. We detect 22% of the sample sources in our VLBI snapshots. Based on luminosity arguments, we argue that these sub-parsec VLBI sources are powered by AGN activity. Furthermore, we find that VLBI detections are preferentially found in sources whose VLA scale structures have the highest peak brightnesses suggesting a strong correlation between compact starburst and AGN activity. This observational result is consistent with the theoretical picture of an Eddington-limited nuclear starburst acting as the last valve in the pipeline transporting the gas from kiloparsec scales onto the accretion disc of a buried AGN. Arp 220 is the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy. For many years this source has been known to harbour a compact (~100 pc) cluster of unresolved 18 cm bright sources believed to be bright core collapse supernovae. Using multiwavelength VLBI observations, we obtained for the first time radio spectra for 18 of these sources. We find that over a half of them have spectra consistent with young supernovae. The rest can be better explained as older supernova remnants interacting with the high density starburst ISM. This finding allowed us to constrain the number of possible scenarios for the Arp 220

  11. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2012-09-01

    We present the AKARI near-infrared (NIR; 2.5-5 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 36 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z = 0.01-0.4. We measure the NIR spectral features including the strengths of 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and hydrogen recombination lines (Br{alpha} and Br{beta}), optical depths at 3.1 and 3.4 {mu}m, and NIR continuum slope. These spectral features are used to identify optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that half of the (U)LIRGs optically classified as non-Seyferts show AGN signatures in their NIR spectra. Using a combined sample of (U)LIRGs with NIR spectra in the literature, we measure the contribution of buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity from the spectral energy distribution fitting to the IRAS photometry. The contribution of these buried AGNs to the infrared luminosity is 5%-10%, smaller than the typical AGN contribution of (U)LIRGs including Seyfert galaxies (10%-40%). We show that NIR continuum slopes correlate well with WISE [3.4]-[4.6] colors, which would be useful for identifying a large number of buried AGNs using the WISE data.

  12. Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, A.

    2010-06-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 248 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which comprise the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) observed with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer in the rest-frame wavelength range between 5 and 38 μm. The GOALS sample enables a direct measurement of the relative contributions of star-formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the total infrared (IR) emission from a large, statistically complete sample of LIRGs in the local Universe. Several diagnostics effective at isolating the AGN contribution to the Mid-infrared (MIR) emission using [NeV], [OIV] and [NeII] gas emission lines, the 6.2 μm PAH equivalent width (EQW) and the shape of the MIR continuum are compared. The [NeV] line which indicates the presence of an AGN is detected in 22% of all LIRGs. The 6.2 μm PAH EQW, [NeV]/LIR, [NeV]/[NeII] and [OIV]/[NeII] ratios, and the ratios of 6.2 μm PAH flux to the integrated continuum flux between 5.3 and 5.8 μm suggest values of around 10% for the fractional AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity of LIRGs. The median of these estimates suggests that for local LIRGs the fractional AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity is ~12%. AGN dominated LIRGs have higher global and nuclear IR luminosities, warmer MIR colors and are interacting more than starburst (SB) dominated LIRGs. However there are no obvious linear correlations between these properties, suggesting that none of these properties alone can determine the activity and evolution of an individual LIRG. A study of the IRAC colors of LIRGs confirms that methods of finding AGN on the basis of their MIR colors are effective at choosing AGN but 50% to 40% of AGN dominated LIRGs are not selected as such with these methods.

  13. The Nature of Optically-Luminous Stellar Clusters in a Large Sample of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilkin, Tatjana

    2011-08-01

    Luminous Star Clusters (SCs) are fundamental building blocks of galaxies, and they provide basic information regarding the mechanisms of star formation and the process of galaxy formation and evolution. In my PhD thesis project I investigated properties of young SCs in a sample of 87 nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR>10^11 L_sun) imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys at 0.4μm (F435W) and 0.9μm (F814W). Many LIRGs are observed to be ongoing mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. They contain extreme starbursts and hence are expected to host particularly rich and luminous populations of SCs. This project represents the largest sample of galaxies with uniformly characterized properties of their SC population. The size of the sample allows an identification of trends in SC properties with merger stage and star formation rate. A large fraction (∼17%) of the cluster population is younger than 10 Myr. There is uncertainty in the determination of the ages of the bulk of the SCs due to an age-extinction degeneracy--the majority of the detected cluster population may have ages of up to a few hundred Myr. The median SC luminosity function index of the LIRG sample is alpha=-1.8, which is in a good agreement with previously published studies in various galaxy types. This sample contains some of the most luminous clusters observed so far, with Mmax (F435W) exceeding -17 mag. LIRGs follow the "brightest cluster--star formation rate" correlation observed for lower luminosity star-forming galaxies quite closely, although a large degree of scatter possibly due to extinction and over-estimation of Star Formation Rates (SFRs) in galaxies containing an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) is present. Thus, the size-of-sample effect and the observed high SFRs are responsible for high luminosity of SCs found in LIRGs. The specific luminosity TL(F435W)--SFR(far-IR + far-UV) relation observed for nearby non-interacting spiral galaxies is not applicable

  14. Gas content of infrared luminous markarian galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandalian, R.; Martin, J.-M.; Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.

    1995-10-01

    The atomic and molecular hydrogen gas properties of a complete sample of Markarian galaxies with flux density at 60 µm higher than 1.95 Jy are presented. We present the improved far-infrared luminosity function of Markarian galaxies; and its comparison with other samples. We find that 40% of the bright IRAS galaxies of far-infrared luminosity higher than 1010.5 L ⊙ are Markarian galaxies. There is an absence of correlation between HI content of Markarian galaxies and current star formation activity, implying that star formation in these systems has complex structure and it is not a simple function of the HI content. On the contrary, the H2 content of Markarian galaxies is well correlated with star formation activity. It is argued that tight correlation between HI and H2 contents is a consequence of transformation of atomic hydrogen into molecular.

  15. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 μm line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 luminous infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 μm line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) × 10{sup –3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ∼10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ∼ 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  17. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN IN THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Evans, Aaron S.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2010-12-20

    Infrared pumping and its effect on the excitation of HCN molecules can be important when using rotational lines of HCN to probe dense molecular gas in galaxy nuclei. We report the first extragalactic detection of (sub)millimeter rotational lines of vibrationally excited HCN, in the dust-enshrouded nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. We estimate the excitation temperature of T{sub vib} {approx} 230 K between the vibrational ground and excited (v{sub 2} = 1) states. This excitation is most likely due to infrared radiation. At this high vibrational temperature the path through the v{sub 2} = 1 state must have a strong impact on the rotational excitation in the vibrational ground level, although it may not be dominant for all rotational levels. Our observations also revealed nearly confusion-limited lines of CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, CS, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HC{sub 3}N at {lambda} {approx} 1 mm. Their relative intensities may also be affected by the infrared pumping.

  18. Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to approximate visibility thresholds for discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization error based on the peak-to-peak luminance of the error image. Experimentally measured visibility thresholds for R, G, and B DCT basis functions can be predicted by a simple luminance-based detection model. This model allows DCT coefficient quantization matrices to be designed for display conditions other than those of the experimental measurements: other display luminances, other veiling luminances, and other spatial frequencies (different pixel spacings, viewing distances, and aspect ratios).

  19. Rest-Frame Mid-Infrared Detection of an Extremely Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.; Brandl, B. R.; vanCleve, J.; Grillmair, C.; Uchid, K. I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first rest-frame of approximately 4 microns detection of a Lyman break galaxy. The data were obtained using the 16 microns imaging capability of the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. The target object, J134026.44+634433.2, is an extremely luminous Lyman break galaxy at z=2.79, first identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra (as reported by Bentz et al.). The source is strongly detected with a flux of 0.94 +/- 0.02 mJy. Combining Spitzer and SDSS photometry with supporting ground-based J- and K-band data, we show that the spectral energy distribution is consistent with an actively star-forming galaxy. We also detect other objects in the Spitzer field of view, including a very red mid-infrared source. We find no evidence of a strong lens among the mid-infrared sources.

  20. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, P.; Randriamanakoto, Z.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Mattila, S.; Ramphul, R.; Ryder, S.; Tekola, A.

    2014-09-01

    We summarize recent results from an Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs). We have constructed the first statistically significant sample of Luminosity Functions (LFs) of Super Star Clusters (SSCs) in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates of the hosts and find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. Finally we present early results of using SSC age and mass properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.

  1. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-07-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 {mu}m data on 20 luminous z {approx} 2 starbursts with S{sub 1.2{sub mm}} > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S{sub 350{sub {mu}m}} > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 {mu}m-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T{sub 1} {approx_equal} 35.5 {+-} 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10{sup 12.9{+-}0.1} L{sub sun} for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at {approx_equal}4 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, assuming {kappa}{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} = 0.15 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply {approx_gt}2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 {mu}m flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z {approx} 1.5-2.5.

  2. Age-Dating Star Clusters in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy VV340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarber, Aara'L.; Evans, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG: i.e., L_IR [8-1000 microns] > 10^11 L_sun) VV 340 is observed to be a pair of z = 0.03 interacting spiral galaxies, with one being observed face-on (VV340North) and one edge-on (VV 340South). The interaction has triggered a burst of star formation in both galaxies, and we make use of Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet (ACS/SBC) and optical (ACS/WFC) imaging data to constrain the age of luminous optical clusters in the face-on galaxy VV 340South. We find that, for an instantaneous starburst, a Salpeter IMF and no reddening, the cluster ages are in the range of 10-300 million years old. However, the clusters can be a young as a few million years with significant amounts of reddening. The upper limit cluster age range is consistent with detailed modeling of a subset of LIRGs which show that pericentric passage in many LIRGs occurred 200-500 million years prior to when these systems are being observed. This study is part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), which is a multi-wavelength campaign designed, in part, to study the evolution of star formation in LIRGs.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  4. Digital image comparison using feature extraction and luminance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachnak, Ray A.; Steidley, Carl W.; Funtanilla, Jeng

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the results of comparing two digital images acquired using two different light sources. One of the sources is a 50-W metal halide lamp located in the compartment of an industrial borescope and the other is a 1 W LED placed at the tip of the insertion tube of the borescope. The two images are compared quantitatively and qualitatively using feature extraction and luminance matching approaches. Quantitative methods included the images' histograms, intensity profiles along a line segment, edges, and luminance measurement. Qualitative methods included image registration and linear conformal transformation with eight control points. This transformation is useful when shapes in the input image are unchanged, but the image is distorted by some combination of translation, rotation, and scaling. The gray-level histogram, edge detection, image profile and image registration do not offer conclusive results. The LED light source, however, produces good images for visual inspection by the operator. The paper presents the results and discusses the usefulness and shortcomings of various comparison methods.

  5. HALESIS projet: Hight Altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croizé, Laurence; Payan, Sébastien; Bureau, Jérome; Duruisseau, Fabrice; Huret, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the discovery of transient luminous events (TLEs) in the high atmosphere [1], as well as the observation of gamma ray flashes of terrestrial origin (Terrestrial Gamma Flashes or TGF) [2] demonstrated the existence of another interaction processes between the different atmospheric layers (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and ionosphere). Indeed, the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena over thunderstorm cells, and the energies involved provide evidence for an impulsive energy transfer between the troposphere and the highest atmospheric layers, which was not considered before. HALESIS (High Altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery) is an innovative project based on hyperspectral imagery. The purpose of this experience is to measure the atmospheric perturbation in the minutes following the occurrence of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) from a stratospheric balloon in the altitude range of 20 to 40 km. The first part of the study has been dedicated to establish the project feasibility. To do that, we have simulated spectral perturbation induced by an isolated blue jet. Theoretical predictions [3] have been used to simulate the radiative perturbation due to O3, NO, NO2, NO+ concentration induced by the blue jet. Simulations have been performed using the line by line radiative transfer model LBLRM [4] taking into account of the Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium hypotheses. Then, the expected signatures have been compared to the available instrumentation. During this talk, HALESIS project and the results of the feasibility study will be presented. Then, the estimated spectral signatures will be confronted with the technical capabilities of different kind of hyperspectral imagers. We will conclude on the project feasibility, but also on the challenges that lie ahead for an imager perfectly suited for experiences like HALESIS. 1. Franz R, Nemzek R, Winckler J. Television image of a large upward electrical

  6. Energy Diagnoses of Nine Infrared Luminous Galaxies Based on 3-4 Micron Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-20

    spectrometer (CGS4; Moun- tain et al. 1990) to obtain 3È4 km spectra of the IRLGs and NGC 253 with UKIRT on Mauna Kea , Hawaii. An observ- ing log is...DIAGNOSES OF NINE INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES BASED ON 3È4 MICRON SPECTRA MASATOSHI IMANISHI1 National Astronomical Observatory , Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588...feature at 7.7 km, systematic studies of the energy sources of IRLGs have been reported based on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectra at

  7. Variable waveband infrared imager

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  8. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  9. Radio continuum properties of luminous infrared galaxies. Identifying the presence of an AGN in the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardoulaki, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Murphy, E. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Evans, A. S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are systems enshrouded in dust, which absorbs most of their optical/UV emission and radiates it again in the mid- and far-infrared. Radio observations are largely unaffected by dust obscuration, enabling us to study the central regions of LIRGs in an unbiased manner. Aims: The main goal of this project is to examine how the radio properties of local LIRGs relate to their infrared spectral characteristics. Here we present an analysis of the radio continuum properties of a subset of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), which consists of 202 nearby systems (z< 0.088). Our radio sample consists of 35 systems, containing 46 individual galaxies, that were observed at both 1.49 and 8.44 GHz with the VLA with a resolution of about 1 arcsec (FWHM). The aim of the project is to use the radio imagery to probe the central kpc of these LIRGs in search of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Methods: We used the archival data at 1.49 and 8.44 GHz to create radio-spectral-index maps using the standard relation between flux density Sν and frequency ν, Sν ~ ν- α, where α is the radio spectral index. By studying the spatial variations in α, we classified the objects as radio-AGN, radio-SB, and AGN/SB (a mixture). We identified the presence of an active nucleus using the radio morphology, deviations from the radio/infrared correlation, and spatially resolved spectral index maps, and then correlated this to the usual mid-infrared ([NeV]/[NeII] and [OIV]/[NeII] line ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm PAH feature) and optical (BPT diagram) AGN diagnostics. Results: We find that 21 out of the 46 objects in our sample (~45%) are radio-AGN, 9 out of the 46 (~20%) are classified as starbursts (SB) based on the radio analysis, and 16 (~35%) are AGN/SB. After comparing to other AGN diagnostics we find 3 objects out of the 46 (~7%) that are identified as AGN based on the radio analysis, but are not classified as such based on

  10. FAINT CO LINE WINGS IN FOUR STAR-FORMING (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Bolatto, Alberto; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-20

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s{sup −1}-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  11. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Rieke, George H.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.

    2010-06-15

    We present results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral mapping observations of 15 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). In this paper, we investigate the spatial variations of the mid-IR emission which includes fine structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, polycyclic aromatic features (PAHs), continuum emission, and the 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature. We also compare the nuclear and integrated spectra. We find that the star formation takes place in extended regions (several kpc) as probed by the PAH emission, as well as the [Ne II]12.81 {mu}m and [Ne III]15.56 {mu}m emissions. The behavior of the integrated PAH emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature is similar to that of local starburst galaxies. We also find that the minima of the [Ne III]15.56 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.81 {mu}m ratio tends to be located at the nuclei and its value is lower than that of H II regions in our LIRGs and nearby galaxies. It is likely that increased densities in the nuclei of LIRGs are responsible for the smaller nuclear [Ne III]15.56 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.81 {mu}m ratios. This includes the possibility that some of the most massive stars in the nuclei are still embedded in ultracompact H II regions. In a large fraction of our sample, the 11.3 {mu}m PAH emission appears more extended than the dust 5.5 {mu}m continuum emission. We find a dependency of the 11.3 {mu}m PAH/7.7 {mu}m PAH and [Ne II]12.81 {mu}m/11.3 {mu}m PAH ratios with the age of the stellar populations. Smaller and larger ratios, respectively, indicate recent star formation. The estimated warm (300 K

  12. Buried Quasars in Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We were awarded l00kS of INTEGRAL spacecraft time (Priority A) to observe the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIG) Mrk 2273 in order to measure the integrated flux of the 20-1003 KeV gamma-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). With this observation we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray backgrounds. Our Priority A 100 kS observation of Mrk 273 was successfully carried out during revolution #73 using 4 separate exposures with the IBIS camera during May, 2003. Our IBIS observations of Mrk 273 were successfully executed, and the source was properly centered in the Field-of-view of the detectors. We are still in the process of interpreting the IBIS gamma-ray data.

  13. Intelligent Luminance Control of Lighting Systems Based on Imaging Sensor Feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoting; Zhou, Qianxiang; Yang, Jin; Jiang, Ting; Liu, Zhizhen; Li, Jie

    2017-02-09

    An imaging sensor-based intelligent Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting system for desk use is proposed. In contrast to the traditional intelligent lighting system, such as the photosensitive resistance sensor-based or the infrared sensor-based system, the imaging sensor can realize a finer perception of the environmental light; thus it can guide a more precise lighting control. Before this system works, first lots of typical imaging lighting data of the desk application are accumulated. Second, a series of subjective and objective Lighting Effect Evaluation Metrics (LEEMs) are defined and assessed for these datasets above. Then the cluster benchmarks of these objective LEEMs can be obtained. Third, both a single LEEM-based control and a multiple LEEMs-based control are developed to realize a kind of optimal luminance tuning. When this system works, first it captures the lighting image using a wearable camera. Then it computes the objective LEEMs of the captured image and compares them with the cluster benchmarks of the objective LEEMs. Finally, the single LEEM-based or the multiple LEEMs-based control can be implemented to get a kind of optimal lighting effect. Many experiment results have shown the proposed system can tune the LED lamp automatically according to environment luminance changes.

  14. Intelligent Luminance Control of Lighting Systems Based on Imaging Sensor Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haoting; Zhou, Qianxiang; Yang, Jin; Jiang, Ting; Liu, Zhizhen; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An imaging sensor-based intelligent Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting system for desk use is proposed. In contrast to the traditional intelligent lighting system, such as the photosensitive resistance sensor-based or the infrared sensor-based system, the imaging sensor can realize a finer perception of the environmental light; thus it can guide a more precise lighting control. Before this system works, first lots of typical imaging lighting data of the desk application are accumulated. Second, a series of subjective and objective Lighting Effect Evaluation Metrics (LEEMs) are defined and assessed for these datasets above. Then the cluster benchmarks of these objective LEEMs can be obtained. Third, both a single LEEM-based control and a multiple LEEMs-based control are developed to realize a kind of optimal luminance tuning. When this system works, first it captures the lighting image using a wearable camera. Then it computes the objective LEEMs of the captured image and compares them with the cluster benchmarks of the objective LEEMs. Finally, the single LEEM-based or the multiple LEEMs-based control can be implemented to get a kind of optimal lighting effect. Many experiment results have shown the proposed system can tune the LED lamp automatically according to environment luminance changes. PMID:28208781

  15. The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. A young clustered starburst revealed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC 4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods: Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results: The nuclear structure of NGC 4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (<49 mas i.e. <8 pc) features spread within a region of 250 mas, i.e. 41 pc. We derive an inverted spectral index α ≥ 0.7 (Sν ∝ να) for the compact radio emission. Conclusions: Brightness temperatures >104.8 K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC 4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.

  16. Ultrabroadband infrared nanospectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Muller, Eric A.; Olmon, Robert L.; Martin, Michael C.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing and ultimately controlling the heterogeneity underlying biomolecular functions, quantum behavior of complex matter, photonic materials, or catalysis requires large-scale spectroscopic imaging with simultaneous specificity to structure, phase, and chemical composition at nanometer spatial resolution. However, as with any ultrahigh spatial resolution microscopy technique, the associated demand for an increase in both spatial and spectral bandwidth often leads to a decrease in desired sensitivity. We overcome this limitation in infrared vibrational scattering-scanning probe near-field optical microscopy using synchrotron midinfrared radiation. Tip-enhanced localized light–matter interaction is induced by low-noise, broadband, and spatially coherent synchrotron light of high spectral irradiance, and the near-field signal is sensitively detected using heterodyne interferometric amplification. We achieve sub-40-nm spatially resolved, molecular, and phonon vibrational spectroscopic imaging, with rapid spectral acquisition, spanning the full midinfrared (700–5,000 cm−1) with few cm−1 spectral resolution. We demonstrate the performance of synchrotron infrared nanospectroscopy on semiconductor, biomineral, and protein nanostructures, providing vibrational chemical imaging with subzeptomole sensitivity. PMID:24803431

  17. A tidal disruption event in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy F01004-2237

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, C.; Spence, R.; Rose, M.; Mullaney, J.; Crowther, P.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs), in which stars are gravitationally disrupted as they pass close to the supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies 1 , are potentially important probes of strong gravity and accretion physics. Most TDEs have been discovered in large-area monitoring surveys of many thousands of galaxies, and a relatively low rate of one event every 104-105 years per galaxy has been deduced 2-4 . However, given the selection effects inherent in such surveys, considerable uncertainties remain about the conditions that favour TDEs. Here we report the detection of unusually strong and broad helium emission lines following a luminous optical flare in the nucleus of the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy F01004-2237. This particular combination of variabi­lity and post-flare emission line spectrum is unlike any known supernova or active galactic nucleus. The most plausible explanation is a TDE — the first detected in a galaxy with an ongoing massive starburst. The fact that this event has been detected in repeat spectroscopic observations of a sample of 15 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies over a period of just 10 years suggests a much higher rate of TDEs in starburst galaxies than in the general galaxy population.

  18. The FUV to Near-IR Morphologies of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Goals Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Bridge, C.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Inami, H.; Psychogyios, A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ˜ 80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z˜ 0.5-3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z≥slant 2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z˜ 0. The change in G-M20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z˜ 0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  19. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A.; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Bridge, C.; Inami, H.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M{sub 20} parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M{sub 20} (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M{sub 20} parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M{sub 20} at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M{sub 20} for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M{sub 20} is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  1. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  2. Infrared transform spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujkovic-Cvijin, Pajo; Lee, Jamine; Gregor, Brian; Goldstein, Neil; Panfili, Raphael; Fox, Marsha

    2012-10-01

    A dispersive transform spectral imager named FAROS (FAst Reconfigurable Optical Sensor) has been developed for high frame rate, moderate-to-high resolution hyperspectral imaging. A programmable digital micromirror array (DMA) modulator makes it possible to adjust spectral, temporal and spatial resolution in real time to achieve optimum tradeoff for dynamic monitoring requirements. The system's F/2.8 collection optics produces diffraction-limited images in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral region. The optical system is based on a proprietary dual-pass Offner configuration with a single spherical mirror and a confocal spherical diffraction grating. FAROS fulfills two functions simultaneously: one output produces two-dimensional polychromatic imagery at the full focal plane array (FPA) frame rate for fast object acquisition and tracking, while the other output operates in parallel and produces variable-resolution spectral images via Hadamard transform encoding to assist in object discrimination and classification. The current version of the FAROS spectral imager is a multispectral technology demonstrator that operates in the MWIR with a 320 x 256 pixel InSb FPA running at 478 frames per second resulting in time resolution of several tens of milliseconds per hypercube. The instrument has been tested by monitoring small-scale rocket engine firings in outdoor environments. The instrument has no macro-scale moving parts, and conforms to a robust, small-volume and lightweight package, suitable for integration with small surveillance vehicles. The technology is also applicable to multispectral/hyperspectral imaging applications in diverse areas such as atmospheric contamination monitoring, agriculture, process control, and biomedical imaging, and can be adapted for use in any spectral domain from the ultraviolet (UV) to the LWIR region.

  3. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  4. Luminous Infrared Sources in the Local Group: Identifying the Missing Links in Massive Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic survey of dusty massive stars (RSGs, LBVs, sgB[e]) in nearby galaxies, with the goal of understanding their importance in massive star evolution. Using the fact that these stars are bright in mid-infrared colors due to dust, we provide a technique for selecting and identifying dusty evolved stars based on the results of Bonanos et al. (2009, 2010), Britavskiy et al. (2014), and archival Spitzer/IRAC photometry. We present the results of our spectroscopic follow-up of luminous infrared sources in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A and WLM. The survey aims to complete the census of dusty massive stars in the Local Group.

  5. MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-10

    We show that the star-forming regions in high-redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have similar physical scales to those in local normal star-forming galaxies. To first order, their higher infrared (IR) luminosities result from higher luminosity surface density. We also find a good correlation between the IR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density in starburst galaxies across over five orders of magnitude of IR luminosity from local normal galaxies to z {approx} 2 SMGs. The intensely star-forming regions of local ULIRGs are significantly smaller than those in their high-redshift counterparts and hence diverge significantly from this correlation, indicating that the ULIRGs found locally are a different population from the high-redshift ULIRGs and SMGs. Based on this relationship, we suggest that luminosity surface density should serve as a more accurate indicator for the IR emitting environment, and hence the observable properties, of star-forming galaxies than their IR luminosity. We demonstrate this approach by showing that ULIRGs at z {approx} 1 and a lensed galaxy at z {approx} 2.5 exhibit aromatic features agreeing with local LIRGs that are an order of magnitude less luminous, but have similar IR luminosity surface density. A consequence of this relationship is that the aromatic emission strength in star-forming galaxies will appear to increase at z>1 for a given IR luminosity compared to their local counterparts.

  6. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  7. IR Fine-Structure Line Signatures of Central Dust-Bounded Nebulae in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Allen, R.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M.; Wolfire, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    To date, the only far-infrared spectroscopic observations of ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been obtained with the European Space Agency s Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer. The spectra of these galaxies are characterized by molecular absorption lines and weak emission lines from photodissociation regions (PDRs), but no far-infrared (greater than 40 microns) lines from ionized regions have been detected. ESA s Herschel Space Observatory, slated for launch in 2007, will likely be able to detect these lines in samples of local and moderate redshift ultra luminous galaxies and to enable measurement of the ionization parameters, the slope of the ionizing continuum, and densities present in the ionized regions of these galaxies. The higher spatial resolution of proposed observatories discussed in this workshop will enable isolation of the central regions of local galaxies and detection of these lines in high-redshift galaxies for study of the evolution of galaxies. Here we discuss evidence for the e.ects of absorption by dust within ionized regions and present the spectroscopic signatures predicted by photoionization modeling of dust-bounded regions.

  8. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  9. The Dynamics and Cold Gas Content of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privon, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the most luminous galaxies in the local universe are understood to be the product of mergers and interactions between disk galaxies. These encounters trigger enhanced star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes; the bulk of which is hidden behind significant extinction from dust. Dynamical simulations matched to individual systems can provide great insight into the merger-driven activity by placing objects on a dynamically-determined merger timeline and by enabling follow-up hydrodynamic simulations which can be used to compare simulations directly with observations. New dynamical models will be presented for luminous infrared galaxies drawn from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG survey, along with a dynamically-motivated merger stage classification system; these are facilitating a detailed comparison of simulated and observed properties of star formation. New observations of the cold ISM in these systems will also be shown,investigating the influence of AGN activity on tracers of high density (> 10^5 cm^-3) molecular gas.

  10. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  11. H2O emission in high-z ultra-luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, A.; Yang, C.; Cox, P.; Neri, R.; Beelen, A.; Bussmann, R. S.; Gavazzi, R.; van der Werf, P.; Riechers, D.; Downes, D.; Krips, M.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Cooray, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Eales, S. A.; Fu, H.; Gao, Y.; Guélin, M.; Harris, A. I.; Jarvis, M.; Lehnert, M.; Leeuw, L.; Lupu, R.; Menten, K.; Michałowski, M. J.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Temi, P.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Glenn, J.; Scott, K. S.

    2013-03-01

    Using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), we report the detection of water vapor in six new lensed ultra-luminous starburst galaxies at high redshift, discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The sources are detected either in the 202-111 or 211-202 H2O emission lines with integrated line fluxes ranging from 1.8 to 14 Jy km s-1. The corresponding apparent luminosities are μLH2O ~ 3-12 × 108 L⊙, where μ is the lensing magnification factor (3 < μ < 12). These results confirm that H2O lines are among the strongest molecular lines in high-z ultra-luminous starburst galaxies, with intensities almost comparable to those of the high-J CO lines, and similar profiles and line widths (~200-900 km s-1). With the current sensitivity of the PdBI, the water lines can therefore easily be detected in high-z lensed galaxies (with F(500 μm) > 100 mJy) discovered in the Herschel surveys. Correcting the luminosities for amplification, using existing lensing models, LH2O is found to have a strong dependence on the infrared luminosity, varying as ~LIR1.2. This relation, which needs to be confirmed with better statistics, may indicate a role of radiative (infrared) excitation of the H2O lines, and implies that high-z galaxies with LIR ≳ 1013 L⊙ tend to be very strong emitters in water vapor, that have no equivalent in the local universe. Herschel (Pilbratt et al. 2010) is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Infrared thermal imaging in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ring, E F J; Ammer, K

    2012-03-01

    This review describes the features of modern infrared imaging technology and the standardization protocols for thermal imaging in medicine. The technique essentially uses naturally emitted infrared radiation from the skin surface. Recent studies have investigated the influence of equipment and the methods of image recording. The credibility and acceptance of thermal imaging in medicine is subject to critical use of the technology and proper understanding of thermal physiology. Finally, we review established and evolving medical applications for thermal imaging, including inflammatory diseases, complex regional pain syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon. Recent interest in the potential applications for fever screening is described, and some other areas of medicine where some research papers have included thermal imaging as an assessment modality. In certain applications thermal imaging is shown to provide objective measurement of temperature changes that are clinically significant.

  13. Visualizing Chemistry with Infrared Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Almost all chemical processes release or absorb heat. The heat flow in a chemical system reflects the process it is undergoing. By showing the temperature distribution dynamically, infrared (IR) imaging provides a salient visualization of the process. This paper presents a set of simple experiments based on IR imaging to demonstrate its enormous…

  14. An x-ray study of luminous infrared galaxies observed with ASCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaki, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Kunieda, H.; Watarai, H.

    The discovery of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) has provided a clue to an evolutionary connection between starburst and active galactic nuclei. The IRAS color is suggested to be a possible trace of the evolution. We present the results of ASCA observations of two ULIRGs, IRAS20551-4250 and IRAS23128-5919, which are southern 100 μm bright galaxies with LIR ~ 1012Lsolar. Both are mergers and have a ``warm'' IRAS color (25μm100μm >= 0.15). The ASCA spectrum of IRAS20551-4250 can be characterized by two components, one of which is a soft thermal component (kT ~ 0.3keV) and the other is a hard power-law component absorbed by a column density of 1022 cm-2. The observed X-ray luminosity is ~ 2.5 × 1042 ergs/s in the rest frame 2-10keV band (assuming H0 = 50 km/s/Mpc). IRAS23128-5919 also shows a hard spectrum (LX ~ 3 × 1042 ergs/s), but thermal emission is not as clear as that in IRAS20551-4250. Since these targets are similar in infrared luminosity as well as in hard X-rays but not in soft X-rays, LIR would be associated with hard X-rays. In addition to these results, we here compare X-ray properties of ULIRGs with IR properties.

  15. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  16. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  17. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  18. Undetectable Changes in Image Resolution of Luminance-Contrast Gradients Affect Depth Perception.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoshiaki; Komine, Kazuteru; Sawahata, Yasuhito; Morita, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    A great number of studies have suggested a variety of ways to get depth information from two dimensional images such as binocular disparity, shape-from-shading, size gradient/foreshortening, aerial perspective, and so on. Are there any other new factors affecting depth perception? A recent psychophysical study has investigated the correlation between image resolution and depth sensation of Cylinder images (A rectangle contains gradual luminance-contrast changes.). It was reported that higher resolution images facilitate depth perception. However, it is still not clear whether or not the finding generalizes to other kinds of visual stimuli, because there are more appropriate visual stimuli for exploration of depth perception of luminance-contrast changes, such as Gabor patch. Here, we further examined the relationship between image resolution and depth perception by conducting a series of psychophysical experiments with not only Cylinders but also Gabor patches having smoother luminance-contrast gradients. As a result, higher resolution images produced stronger depth sensation with both images. This finding suggests that image resolution affects depth perception of simple luminance-contrast differences (Gabor patch) as well as shape-from-shading (Cylinder). In addition, this phenomenon was found even when the resolution difference was undetectable. This indicates the existence of consciously available and unavailable information in our visual system. These findings further support the view that image resolution is a cue for depth perception that was previously ignored. It partially explains the unparalleled viewing experience of novel high resolution displays.

  19. NUSTAR Unveils a Heavily Obscured Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Arevalo, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Imanishi, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286 identified in a 17.5 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation. The source is in an early merging stage and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured (NH ≃(0.95-1.32) × 1024 cm-2) with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick (CT, {log}({N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2)≥slant 24). The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity (L2-10 keV ˜ 3-20 × 1041 erg s-1) and contributes ≲1% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV) and in the infrared did not notice the presence of a buried AGN. NGC 6286 has multiwavelength characteristics typical of objects with the same infrared luminosity and in the same merger stage, which might imply that there is a significant population of obscured low-luminosity AGNs in LIRGs that can only be detected by sensitive hard X-ray observations.

  20. Kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas in nearby luminous infrared interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John; Font, Joan; Rosado, Margarita; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Borlaff, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have observed three luminous infrared galaxy systems which are pairs of interacting galaxies, with the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, and combined the observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of these systems in CO emission to compare the physical properties of the star formation regions and the molecular gas clouds, and specifically the internal kinematics of the star-forming regions. We identified 88 star-forming regions in the Hα emission data cubes, and 27 molecular cloud complexes in the CO emission data cubes. The surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas are significantly higher in these systems than in non-interacting galaxies and the Galaxy, and are closer to the surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas of extreme star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts. The large values of the velocity dispersion also show the enhanced gas surface density. The H II regions are situated on the SFR - σv envelope, and so are also in virial equilibrium. Since the virial parameter decreases with the surface densities of both the star formation rate and the molecular gas, we claim that the clouds presented here are gravitationally dominated rather than being in equilibrium with the external pressure.

  1. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  2. The molecular gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: a new emergent picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Gao, Yu; Xilouris, Manolis; Greve, Thomas R.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a large, multi-J CO, 13CO, and HCN line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR≥ 1010 L⊙) in the local Universe (z≤0.1), complemented by CO J=4-3 up to J=13-12 observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), paints a new picture for the average conditions of the molecular gas of the most luminous of these galaxies with turbulence and/or large cosmic ray (CR) energy densities UCR rather than far-UV/optical photons from star-forming sites as the dominant heating sources. Especially in ULIRGs (LIR>1012 L⊙) the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) can encompass at most a few % of their molecular gas mass while the large UCR˜ 103 UCR, Galaxy, and the strong turbulence in these merger/starbursts, can volumetrically heat much of their molecular gas to Tkin˜ (100-200) K, unhindered by the high dust extinctions. Moreover the strong supersonic turbulence in ULIRGs relocates much of their molecular gas at much higher average densities (≥104 cm-3) than in isolated spirals (˜ 102-103 cm-3). This renders low-J CO lines incapable of constraining the properties of the bulk of the molecular gas in ULIRGs, with substantial and systematic underestimates of its mass possible when only such lines are used. Finally a comparative study of multi-J HCN lines and CO SLEDs from J=1-0 up to J=13-12 of NGC 6240 and Arp 193 offers a clear example of two merger/starbursts whose similar low-J CO SLEDs, and LIR/LCO,1-0 and LHCN, 1-0/LCO,1-0 ratios (proxies of the so-called SF efficiency and dense gas mass fraction), yield no indications about their strongly diverging CO SLEDs beyond J=4-3, and ultimately the different physical conditions in their molecular ISM. The much larger sensitivity of ALMA and its excellent site in the Atacama desert now allows the observations necessary to assess the dominant energy sources of the molecular gas and its mass in LIRGs without depending on the low-J CO lines.

  3. Integrated infrared and visible image sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor imaging devices integrating an array of visible detectors and another array of infrared detectors into a single module to simultaneously detect both the visible and infrared radiation of an input image. The visible detectors and the infrared detectors may be formed either on two separate substrates or on the same substrate by interleaving visible and infrared detectors.

  4. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D. C.; Rich, J. A.; Spoon, H. W. W.; U, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  5. A LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAR INTERACTING WITH A NEARBY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Rizzo, J. Ricardo; Henkel, Christian

    2014-04-01

    G79.29+0.46 is a nebula created by a luminous blue variable (LBV) star candidate characterized by two almost circular concentric shells. In order to investigate whether the shells are interacting with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3 located at the southwestern border of the inner shell, we conducted Jansky Very Large Array observations of NH{sub 3}(1, 1), (2, 2) and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, and combined them with previous Effelsberg data. The overall NH{sub 3} emission consists of one main clump, named G79A, elongated following the shape of the IRDC, plus two fainter and smaller cores to the north, which spatially match the inner infrared shell. We analyzed the NH{sub 3} spectra at each position with detected emission and inferred linewidth, rotational temperature, column density, and abundance maps, and find that: (1) the linewidth of NH{sub 3}(1, 1) in the northern cores is 0.5 km s{sup –1}, slightly larger than in their surroundings; (2) the NH{sub 3} abundance is enhanced by almost one order of magnitude toward the northwestern side of G79A; (3) there is one ''hot slab'' at the interface between the inner infrared shell and the NH{sub 3} peak of G79A; and (4) the western and southern edges of G79A present chemical differentiation, with c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2} tracing more external layers than NH{sub 3}, similar to what is found in photon-dominated regions. Overall, the kinematics and physical conditions of G79A are consistent with both shock-induced and UV radiation-induced chemistry driven by the LBV star. Therefore, the IRDC is not likely associated with the star-forming region DR15, but located farther away, near G79.29+0.46 at 1.4 kpc.

  6. Acoustic wavefield and Mach wave radiation of flashing arcs in strombolian explosion measured by image luminance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Bonadonna, Costanza; Biass, Sebastien

    2014-10-01

    Explosive activity often generates visible flashing arcs in the volcanic plume considered as the evidence of the shock-front propagation induced by supersonic dynamics. High-speed image processing is used to visualize the pressure wavefield associated with flashing arcs observed in strombolian explosions. Image luminance is converted in virtual acoustic signal compatible with the signal recorded by pressure transducer. Luminance variations are moving with a spherical front at a 344.7 m/s velocity. Flashing arcs travel at the sound speed already 14 m above the vent and are not necessarily the evidence of a supersonic explosive dynamics. However, seconds later, the velocity of small fragments increases, and the spherical acousto-luminance wavefront becomes planar recalling the Mach wave radiation generated by large scale turbulence in high-speed jet. This planar wavefront forms a Mach angle of 55° with the explosive jet axis, suggesting an explosive dynamics moving at Mo = 1.22 Mach number.

  7. Assessment of an optically stimulated infrared emission from image intensifier tube photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, Jesse G.; Marasco, Peter L.

    2005-05-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggested that bright, night-vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible, green cockpit displays could cause a veiling luminance in night-vision goggles (NVGs) and degrade visual performance. The mechanism suspected of causing this veiling luminance was an infrared emission from the image intensifier tube photocathode stimulated by visible, NVIS compatible light. This paper describes an effort to measure this stimulated infrared emission from three different image intensifier tubes. Measurements of the emission were analyzed with respect to tube age, the wavelength of incident illumination, and illumination angle of incidence. The emission was found during certain combinations of light wavelengths, angles, and intensities. However, results suggest that this phenomenon is not sufficiently strong to cause observable veiling luminance in NVGs.

  8. Chandra X-ray observations of the hyper-luminous infrared galaxy IRAS F15307+3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Gandhi, P.; Hogan, M. T.; Gendron-Marsolais, M.-L.; Edge, A. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Iwasawa, K.; Mezcua, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (HyLIRGs) lie at the extreme luminosity end of the IR galaxy population with LIR > 1013 L⊙. They are thought to be closer counterparts of the more distant sub-millimeter galaxies, and should therefore be optimal targets to study the most massive systems in formation. We present deep Chandra observations of IRAS F15307+3252 (100 ks), a classical HyLIRG located at z = 0.93 and hosting a radio-loud AGN (L1.4 GHz ˜ 3.5 × 1025 W Hz-1). The Chandra images reveal the presence of extended (r = 160 kpc), asymmetric X-ray emission in the soft 0.3-2.0 keV band that has no radio counterpart. We therefore argue that the emission is of thermal origin originating from a hot intragroup or intracluster medium virializing in the potential. We find that the temperature (˜2 keV) and bolometric X-ray luminosity (˜3 × 1043 erg s-1) of the gas follow the expected LX-ray-T correlation for groups and clusters, and that the gas has a remarkably short cooling time of 1.2 Gyr. In addition, VLA radio observations reveal that the galaxy hosts an unresolved compact steep-spectrum (CSS) source, most likely indicating the presence of a young radio source similar to 3C186. We also confirm that the nucleus is dominated by a redshifted 6.4 keV Fe Kα line, strongly suggesting that the AGN is Compton-thick. Finally, Hubble images reveal an overdensity of galaxies and sub-structure in the galaxy that correlates with soft X-ray emission. This could be a snapshot view of on-going groupings expected in a growing cluster environment. IRAS F15307+3252 might therefore be a rare example of a group in the process of transforming into a cluster.

  9. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  10. Hard X-Ray Emission of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6240 as Observed by Nustar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fiore, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Stern, D.; Urry, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Annuar, A.; Arévalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M. J.; La Massa, S.; Marinucci, A.; Ricci, C.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broadband (approx.0.3-70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger state with two distinct nuclei separated by approx.1.5. Previous Chandra observations resolved the two nuclei and showed that they are both active and obscured by Compton-thick material. Although they cannot be resolved by NuSTAR, we were able to clearly detect, for the first time, both the primary and the reflection continuum components thanks to the unprecedented quality of the NuSTAR data at energies >10 keV. The NuSTAR hard X-ray spectrum is dominated by the primary continuum piercing through an absorbing column density which is mildly optically thick to Compton scattering (tau approx. = 1.2, NH approx. 1.5×10(exp 24)/sq cm. We detect moderately hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux variability up to 20% on short (15-20 ks) timescales. The amplitude of the variability is largest at approx..30 keV and is likely to originate from the primary continuum of the southern nucleus. Nevertheless, the mean hard X-ray flux on longer timescales (years) is relatively constant. Moreover, the two nuclei remain Compton-thick, although we find evidence of variability in the material along the line of sight with column densities NH < or = 2×10(exp 23)/sq cm over long (approx.3-15 yr) timescales. The observed X-ray emission in the NuSTAR energy range is fully consistent with the sum of the best-fit models of the spatially resolved Chandra spectra of the two nuclei.

  11. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  12. Luminous blue variables: An imaging perspective on their binarity and near environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, Christophe; Lobel, Alex; Baade, Dietrich; Mehner, Andrea; Rivinius, Thomas; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Girard, Julien; Mawet, Dimitri; Montagnier, Guillaume; Blomme, Ronny; Kervella, Pierre; Sana, Hugues; Štefl, Stanislav; Zorec, Juan; Lacour, Sylvestre; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Fabrice; Mérand, Antoine; Patru, Fabien; Selman, Fernando; Frémat, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are rare massive stars with very high luminosity. They are characterized by strong photometric and spectroscopic variability related to transient eruptions. The mechanisms at the origin of these eruptions is not well known. In addition, their formation is still problematic and the presence of a companion could help to explain how they form. Aims: This article presents a study of seven LBVs (about 20% of the known Galactic population), some Wolf-Rayet stars, and massive binaries. We probe the environments that surround these massive stars with near-, mid-, and far-infrared images, investigating potential nebula/shells and the companion stars. Methods: To investigate large spatial scales, we used seeing-limited and near diffraction-limited adaptive optics images to obtain a differential diagnostic on the presence of circumstellar matter and to determine their extent. From those images, we also looked for the presence of binary companions on a wide orbit. Once a companion was detected, its gravitational binding to the central star was tested. Tests include the chance projection probability, the proper motion estimates with multi-epoch observations, flux ratio, and star separations. Results: We find that two out of seven of LBVs may have a wide orbit companion. Most of the LBVs display a large circumstellar envelope or several shells. In particular, HD 168625, known for its rings, possesses several shells with possibly a large cold shell at the edge of which the rings are formed. For the first time, we have directly imaged the companion of LBV stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under projects number 085.D-0625(C), 087.D-0426(C, D), and archival data 383.D-0323(A).The reduced NACO images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. The molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies - I. CO lines, extreme physical conditions and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Xilouris, E. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Gao, Yu; Mühle, S.

    2012-11-01

    We report results from a large molecular line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR ≳1011 L) in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.1), conducted during the last decade with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the IRAM 30-m telescope. This work presents the CO and 13CO line data for 36 galaxies, further augmented by multi-J total CO line luminosities available for other infrared (IR) bright galaxies from the literature. This yields a combined sample of N = 70 galaxies with the star formation (SF) powered fraction of their IR luminosities spanning L IR (*)˜(1010-2×1012) L and a wide range of morphologies. Simple comparisons of their available CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) with local ones, as well as radiative transfer models, discern a surprisingly wide range of average interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, with most of the surprises found in the high-excitation regime. These take the form of global CO SLEDs dominated by a very warm (Tkin ≳100 K) and dense (n ≥ 104 cm-3) gas phase, involving galaxy-sized (˜(few) × 109 M⊙) gas mass reservoirs under conditions that are typically found only for ˜(1-3) per cent of mass per typical SF molecular cloud in the Galaxy. Furthermore, some of the highest excitation CO SLEDs are found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) and surpass even those found solely in compact SF-powered hot spots in Galactic molecular clouds. Strong supersonic turbulence and high cosmic ray energy densities rather than far-ultraviolet/optical photons or supernova remnant induced shocks from individual SF sites can globally warm the large amounts of dense gas found in these merger-driven starbursts and easily power their extraordinary CO line excitation. This exciting possibility can now be systematically investigated with Herschel and the Atacama Large Milimeter Array (ALMA). As expected for an IR-selected (and thus SF rate selected) galaxy sample, only few 'cold' CO SLEDs are found, and for

  14. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. III. The Dense Kiloparsec Molecular Concentrations of Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S.

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution (~2farcs3) observations of the local (D L = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The 12CO J = 3-2, 12CO J = 2-1, and 13CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the 12CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T kin > 30 K and n(H2) ~ 0.3-3 × 103 cm-3 to cold dense gas with T kin ~ 10-30 K and n(H2) > 3 × 103 cm-3. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T kin ~ 10-50 K and n(H2) ~ 1-30 × 103 cm-3. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H2 factor, αco to be 0.4 ± 0.3(3 × 10-4/x CO) M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  15. LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY. III. THE DENSE KILOPARSEC MOLECULAR CONCENTRATIONS OF Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: satoki@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw E-mail: myun@astro.umass.edu

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution ({approx}2.''3) observations of the local (D{sub L} = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The {sup 12}CO J = 3-2, {sup 12}CO J = 2-1, and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T{sub kin} > 30 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} to cold dense gas with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-30 K and n(H{sub 2}) > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-50 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 1-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H{sub 2} factor, {alpha}{sub co} to be 0.4 {+-} 0.3(3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}/x{sub CO}) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  16. Infrared imaging spectroradiometer program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Ronald J.; Register, Henry I.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Defense, through the US Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Armament Directorate is sponsoring the development of two types of IR imaging spectroradiometers (project name: IRIS) to measure the spatial/spectral characteristics of various military targets. Design and analysis of several technical approaches were conducted during an initial phase of the program. The technical approaches investigated included: a dispersive imaging spectrometer design utilizing a fiber-optic reformatter (contractor: ERIM); an imaging acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) design (contractor: Westinghouse); a spatial/spectral Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (contractor: Bomem Inc./Canada); a spatially modulated imaging fourier transform spectrometer (contractor: Daedalus Enterprises); an imaging Fabry-Perot design (contractor: Physical Sciences Inc.). Two of these designs were selected for brass board prototype fabrication. An FTIR prototype being built by Bomem Inc., offers an instrument with high sensitivity and high spectral resolution with modest spatial performance. An imaging Fabry-Perot prototype being built by Physical Sciences Inc., offers high spatial resolution with moderate sensitivity and spectral resolution.

  17. Method for improving visualization of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbalista, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Thermography has an extremely important difference from the other visual image converting electronic systems, like XRays or ultrasound: the infrared camera operator usually spend hour after hour with his/her eyes looking only at infrared images, sometimes several intermittent hours a day if not six or more continuous hours. This operational characteristic has a very important impact on yield, precision, errors and misinterpretation of the infrared images contents. Despite a great hardware development over the last fifty years, quality infrared thermography still lacks for a solution for these problems. The human eye physiology has not evolved to see infrared radiation neither the mind-brain has the capability to understand and decode infrared information. Chemical processes inside the human eye and functional cells distributions as well as cognitive-perceptual impact of images plays a crucial role in the perception, detection, and other steps of dealing with infrared images. The system presented here, called ThermoScala and patented in USA solves this problem using a coding process applicable to an original infrared image, generated from any value matrix, from any kind of infrared camera to make it much more suitable for human usage, causing a substantial difference in the way the retina and the brain processes the resultant images. The result obtained is a much less exhaustive way to see, identify and interpret infrared images generated by any infrared camera that uses this conversion process.

  18. The Origin and Evolution of (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR>10^12 L_sun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  19. The Modes of Star Formation in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Candels Team

    2015-01-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, LIR>1012 Lsun) are all interacting and merging systems. To date, studies of ULIRGs at high redshift have found a variety of results due to their varying selection effects and small sample sizes. Some studies have found that mergers still dominate the galaxy morphology while others have found a high fraction of morphologically normal or clumpy star forming disks. Near-infrared imaging is crucial for interpreting galaxy structure at high redshift since it probes the rest frame optical light of a galaxy and thus we can compare directly to studies in the local universe. We explore the evolution of the morphological properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Herschel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z~2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy's position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers?

  20. Near infrared imaging with nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Altinoğlu, Erhan I; Adair, James H

    2010-01-01

    Near infrared imaging has presented itself as a powerful diagnostic technique with potential to serve as a minimally invasive, nonionizing method for sensitive, deep tissue diagnostic imaging. This potential is further realized with the use of nanoparticle (NP)-based near infrared (NIR) contrast agents that are not prone to the rapid photobleaching and instability of their organic counterparts. This review discusses applications that have successfully demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles for NIR imaging, including NIR-emitting semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), resonant gold nanoshells, and dye-encapsulating nanoparticles. NIR QDs demonstrate superior optical performance with exceptional fluorescence brightness stability. However, the heavy metal composition and high propensity for toxicity hinder future application in clinical environments. NIR resonant gold nanoshells also exhibit brilliant signal intensities and likewise have none of the photo- or chemical-instabilities characteristic of organic contrast agents. However, concerns regarding ineffectual clearance and long-term accumulation in nontarget organs are a major issue for this technology. Finally, NIR dye-encapsulating nanoparticles synthesized from calcium phosphate (CP) also demonstrate improved optical performances by shielding the component dye from undesirable environmental influences, thereby enhancing quantum yields, emission brightness, and fluorescent lifetime. Calcium phosphate nanoparticle (CPNP) contrast agents are neither toxic, nor have issues with long-term sequestering, as they are readily dissolved in low pH environments and ultimately absorbed into the system. Though perhaps not as optically superior as QDs or nanoshells, these are a completely nontoxic, bioresorbable option for NP-based NIR imaging that still effectively improves the optical performance of conventional organic agents.

  1. Sizes and Kinematics of Extended Narrow-line Regions in Luminous Obscured AGN Selected by Broadband Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2017-02-01

    To study the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on their galactic ISM, we present Magellan long-slit spectroscopy of 12 luminous nearby obscured AGN ({L}{bol}∼ {10}45.0-46.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, z ∼ 0.1). These objects are selected from a parent sample of spectroscopically identified AGN to have high [O iii]λ5007 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR luminosities and extended emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images, suggesting the presence of extended [O iii]λ5007 emission. We find spatially resolved [O iii] emission (2–35 kpc) in 8 out of 12 of these objects. Combined with samples of higher luminosity obscured AGN, we confirm that the size of the narrow-line region (RNLR) scales with the mid-IR luminosity until the relation flattens at RNLR ∼ 10 kpc. Nine out of 12 objects in our sample have regions with broad [O iii] line widths (w80 > 600 km s‑1), indicating outflows. We define these regions as the kinematically disturbed region (KDR). The size of the KDR ({R}{KDR}) is typically smaller than RNLR by few kiloparsecs but also correlates strongly with the AGN mid-IR luminosity. Given the uncertain outflow mass, we derive a loose constraint on the outflow energy efficiency {η }{med}=\\dot{E}/{L}{bol}∼ 0.007 % {--}7 % . We find no evidence for an AGN luminosity threshold below which outflows are not launched. To explain the sizes, velocity profiles, and high occurrence rates of the outflows in the most luminous AGN, we propose a scenario in which energy-conserving outflows are driven by AGN episodes with ∼108 year durations. Within each episode, the AGN is unlikely to be constantly luminous but could flicker on shorter timescales (≲107 yr) with a moderate duty cycle (∼10%).

  2. HST Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC10214+4724: A gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, P. R.; Armus, L.; Hogg, D. W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    Observations of a distant object in space with the data being taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera. Scientific examination and hypothesis related to this object which appears to be either an extremely luminous dust embedded quasar, or a representative of a new class of astronomical objects (a primeval galaxy).

  3. High-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  4. Simulation of the infrared signature of transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere for a limb line of sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romand, Frédéric; Croizé, Laurence; Payan, Sébastien; Huret, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Transient Luminous Events (TLE) are electrical and optical events which occurs above thunderstorms. Visual signatures are reported since the beginning of the 20th century but the first picture is accidentally recorded from a television camera in 1989. Their occurrence is closely linked with the lightning activity below thunderstorms. TLEs are observed from the base of the stratosphere to the thermosphere (15 - 110 km). They are a very brief phenomenon which lasts from 1 to 300 milliseconds. At a worldwide scale, four TLEs occur each minute. The energy deposition, about some tenth of megajoules, is able to ionize, dissociate and excite the molecules of the atmosphere. Atmospheric discharges in the troposphere are important sources of NO and NO2. TLEs might have the same effects at higher altitudes, in the stratosphere. NOx then can affect the concentration of O3 and OH. Consequently, TLEs could be locally important contributors to the chemical budget of the middle atmosphere. The perturbation of the atmospheric chemistry induced by TLEs has the consequence to locally modify the radiations in the infrared during the minutes following the event. The interest of studying the infrared signature of a TLE is twofold. For the atmospheric sciences it allows to link the perturbed composition to the resulting infrared spectrum. Then, some Defense systems like detection and guiding devices are equipped with airborne infrared sensors so that the TLE infrared signature might disturb them. We want to obtain a quantitative and kinetic evaluation of the infrared signature of the atmosphere locally perturbed by a TLE. In order to do so we must model three phenomena. 1) The plasma/chemistry coupling, which describes how the different energetic levels of atmospheric molecules are populated by the energetic deposition of the TLE. This step lasts the time of the lightning itself. 2) The chemical kinetics which describes how these populations will evolve in the following minutes. 3) The

  5. Identifications of The Most Luminous, Highest-Redshift Objects Discovered by WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic; Stanford, Adam; Jarrett, Tom; Yan, Lin; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Wright, Ned; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc

    2010-08-01

    We request 4 nights to obtain KPNO/FLAMINGOS near-IR photometry and spectroscopy follow-up observations of a sample of extremely luminous, z > 1 galaxy candidates selected from WISE, a new NASA mission which is in the process of surveying the whole sky at 3.4,4.6,12 and 22 (micron) in 6 months (Jan-July 2010). The candidates are selected to have mid-IR colors indicating starburst-dominated spectra at redshifts of z=1.2 - 3, but are 100 times more luminous than local ULIRGs with L_FIR > 10^14 L_⊙, called extreme hyperluminous infrared galaxies (eHyLIRGs). In combination with the WISE mid-infrared photometry, the near-IR photometric and spectroscopic observations will allow us to distinguish high-z targets from local red populations, determine the luminosity, and further study the star formation activity from hydrogen recombination lines, extinction toward the star formation regions, and SED modeling on the stellar population of these galaxies.

  6. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  7. Optical Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Analysis of the Nuclear and Long-Slit Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Kim, D.-C.; Sanders, D. B.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Soifer, B. T.

    1995-05-01

    A spectroscopic survey of a sample of 200 luminous IRAS galaxies (LIGs: L_ir_^7^ > 3 x 10^10^ L_sun_; H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^) was carried out using the Palomar 5 meter and University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescopes. Kim et al. (1995) described the data-taking and data-reduction procedures and presented line and continuum measurements extracted from the nucleus of these objects. In this paper, the nuclear data are combined with circumnuclear measurements on 23 of these galaxies to investigate the properties of the line-emitting gas and underlying stellar population in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear spectra of these galaxies were classified as H II region-like" or "AGN-like" using a large number of line-ratio diagnostics corrected for the underlying stellar absorption features. This correction is an important source of errors in some previous studies. The emission-line spectra of many AGNs were found to-be of relatively low ionization level and were therefore classified as LINER. We confirm that both the fraction of LIGs with AGN spectra and the fraction of Seyferts among the AGN increase with infrared luminosity, reaching values of 62% and 54% at the highest observed luminosities, respectively. The fraction of LINERs, on the other hand, is relatively constant at ~27%. The source of the ionization of the emission-line gas often is a function of the distance from the nucleus. Based on the emission-line ratios and the strengths of the stellar absorption features, circumnuclear starburst activity is a common feature of LIGs, regardless of their nuclear spectral types. The emission-line, absorption-line, continuum, radio, and IRAS properties of the LINERs suggest that most of the LINER emission in these infrared-selected galaxies is produced through shock ionization rather than photoionization by a genuine active nucleus. The nuclear region of Seyfert LIGs is found to be slightly less reddened than that of the LINERs and H II galaxies. The dust distribution generally

  8. Characteristics of luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms as imaged by low-light video

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A. , Inc., Ft. Collins, CO )

    1994-05-15

    An experiment was conducted in which an image-intensified, low-light video camera systematically monitored the stratosphere above distant (100-800 km) mesoscale convective systems over the high plains of the central US for 21 nights between 6 July and 27 August 1993. Complex, luminous structures were observed above large thunderstorm clusters on eleven nights, with one storm system (7 July 1993) yielding 248 events in 410 minutes. Their duration ranged from 33 to 283 ms, with an average of 98 ms. The luminous structures, generally not visible to the naked, dark-adapted eye, exhibited on video a wide variety of brightness levels and shapes including streaks, aurora-like curtains, smudges, fountains and jets. The structures were often more than 10 km wide and their upper portions extended to above 50 km msl. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Optical clearing for luminal organ imaging with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanmei; Yuan, Wu; Mavadia-Shukla, Jessica; Li, Xingde

    2016-08-01

    The imaging depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering biological tissues (such as luminal organs) is limited, particularly for OCT operating at shorter wavelength regions (such as around 800 nm). For the first time, the optical clearing effect of the mixture of liquid paraffin and glycerol on luminal organs was explored with ultrahigh-resolution spectral domain OCT at 800 nm. Ex vivo studies were performed on pig esophagus and bronchus, and guinea pig esophagus with different volume ratios of the mixture. We found that the mixture of 40% liquid paraffin had the best optical clearing effect on esophageal tissues with a short effective time of ˜10 min, which means the clearing effect occurs about 10 min after the application of the clearing agent. In contrast, no obvious optical clearing effect was identified on bronchus tissues.

  10. Characteristics of luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms as imaged by low-light video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which an image-intensified, low-light video camera systematically monitored the stratosphere above distant (100-800 km) mesoscale convective systems over the high plains of the central U.S. for 21 nights between 6 July and 27 August 1993. Complex, luminous structures were observed above large thunderstorm clusters on eleven nights, with one storm system (7 July 1993) yielding 248 events in 410 minutes. Their duration ranged from 33 to 283 ms, with an average of 98 ms. The luminous structures, generally not visible to the naked, dark-adapted eye, exhibited on video a wide variety of brightness levels and shapes including streaks, aurora-like curtains, smudges, fountains and jets. The structures were often more than 10 km wide and their upper portions extended to above 50 km msl.

  11. A COSMIC-RAY-DOMINATED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: NEW INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2010-09-01

    The high-density star formation typical of the merger/starburst events that power the large IR luminosities of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L{sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}>10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) throughout the universe results in extraordinarily high cosmic-ray (CR) energy densities of U{sub CR} {approx} few x(10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}) U{sub CR,Gal} permeating their interstellar medium, a direct consequence of the large supernova remnant number densities in such systems. Unlike far-UV photons emanating from numerous star-forming (SF) sites, these large CR energy densities in ULIRGs will volumetrically heat and raise the ionization fraction of dense (n > 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) UV-shielded gas cores throughout their compact SF volumes. Such conditions can turn most of the large molecular gas masses found in such systems and their high redshift counterparts ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} M {sub sun}) into giant CR-dominated regions (CRDRs) rather than ensembles of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) which dominate in less IR-luminous systems where star formation and molecular gas distributions are much more extended. The molecular gas in CRDRs will have a minimum temperature of T{sub kin} {approx} (80-160) K, and very high ionization fractions of x(e) > 10{sup -6} throughout its UV-shielded dense core, which in turn will fundamentally alter the initial conditions for star formation in such systems. Observational tests of CRDRs can be provided by high-J CO and {sup 13}CO lines or multi-J transitions of any heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) and their isotopologs. Chemical signatures of very high ionization fractions in dense UV-shielded gas such as low [DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] and high [HCO{sup +}]/[CO] abundance ratios would be good probes of CRDRs in extreme starbursts. These tests, along with direct measurements of the high CO line brightness temperatures expected over the areas of compact dense gas disks found in ULIRGs, will soon be feasible as sub

  12. Edge enhanced morphology for infrared image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Liu, Haonan

    2017-01-01

    Edge information is one of the critical information for infrared images. Morphological operators have been widely used for infrared image analysis. However, the edge information in infrared image is weak and the morphological operators could not well utilize the edge information of infrared images. To strengthen the edge information in morphological operators, the edge enhanced morphology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are given and analyzed. Secondly, the pseudo operators which are derived from the edge enhanced dilation and erosion operators are defined. Finally, the applications for infrared image analysis are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed edge enhanced morphological operators. The proposed edge enhanced morphological operators are useful for the applications related to edge features, which could be extended to wide area of applications.

  13. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  14. [Ultra] luminous infrared galaxies selected at 90 μm in the AKARI deep field: a study of AGN types contributing to their infrared emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małek, K.; Bankowicz, M.; Pollo, A.; Buat, V.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Burgarella, D.; Goto, T.; Malkan, M.; Matsuhara, H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to characterize physical properties of ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) detected in the far-infrared (FIR) 90 μm band in the AKARI Deep Field-South (ADF-S) survey. In particular, we want to estimate the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the LIRGs and ULIRGs' infrared emission and which types of AGNs are related to their activity. Methods: We examined 69 galaxies at redshift ≥0.05 detected at 90 μm by the AKARI satellite in the ADF-S, with optical counterparts and spectral coverage from the ultraviolet to the FIR. We used two independent spectral energy distribution fitting codes: one fitting the SED from FIR to FUV (CIGALE) (we use the results from CIGALE as a reference) and gray-body + power spectrum fit for the infrared part of the spectra (CMCIRSED) in order to identify a subsample of ULIRGs and LIRGs, and to estimate their properties. Results: Based on the CIGALE SED fitting, we have found that LIRGs and ULIRGs selected at the 90 μm AKARI band compose 56% of our sample (we found 17 ULIRGs and 22 LIRGs, spanning over the redshift range 0.06 infrared wavelengths. We have detected a significant AGN contribution to the mid-infrared luminosity for 63% of LIRGs and ULIRGs. Our LIRGs contain Type 1, Type 2, and intermediate types of AGN, whereas for ULIRGs, a majority (more than 50%) of AGN emission originates from Type 2 AGNs. The temperature-luminosity and temperature-mass relations for the dust component of ADF-S LIRGs and ULIRGs indicate that these relations are shaped by the dust mass and not by the increased dust heating. Conclusions: We conclude that LIRGs contain Type 1, Type 2, and intermediate types of AGNs, with an AGN contribution to the mid infrared emission at the median level of 13 ± 3

  15. Perceived depth in natural images reflects encoding of low-level luminance statistics.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Norcia, Anthony M

    2014-08-27

    Sighted animals must survive in an environment that is diverse yet highly structured. Neural-coding models predict that the visual system should allocate its computational resources to exploit regularities in the environment, and that this allocation should facilitate perceptual judgments. Here we use three approaches (natural scenes statistical analysis, a reanalysis of single-unit data from alert behaving macaque, and a behavioral experiment in humans) to address the question of how the visual system maximizes behavioral success by taking advantage of low-level regularities in the environment. An analysis of natural scene statistics reveals that the probability distributions for light increments and decrements are biased in a way that could be exploited by the visual system to estimate depth from relative luminance. A reanalysis of neurophysiology data from Samonds et al. (2012) shows that the previously reported joint tuning of V1 cells for relative luminance and binocular disparity is well matched to a predicted distribution of binocular disparities produced by natural scenes. Finally, we show that a percept of added depth can be elicited in images by exaggerating the correlation between luminance and depth. Together, the results from these three approaches provide further evidence that the visual system allocates its processing resources in a way that is driven by the statistics of the natural environment.

  16. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. IV. 12CO J = 6-5 Observations of VV 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Krips, Melanie; Petitpas, Glen R.; Iono, Daisuke; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison; Yun, Min

    2013-11-01

    We present high-resolution (~2.''5) observations of 12CO J = 6-5 toward the luminous infrared galaxy VV 114 using the Submillimeter Array. We detect 12CO J = 6-5 emission from the eastern nucleus of VV 114 but do not detect the western nucleus or the central region. We combine the new 12CO J = 6-5 observations with previously published or archival low-J CO observations, which include 13CO J = 1-0 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array cycle 0 observations, to analyze the beam-averaged physical conditions of the molecular gas in the eastern nucleus. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX and a Bayesian likelihood code to constrain the temperature (T kin), density (n_{H_{2}}), and column density (N_{^{12CO}}) of the molecular gas. We find that the most probable scenario for the eastern nucleus is a cold (T kin = 38 K), moderately dense (n_{H_{2}} = 102.89 cm-3) molecular gas component. We find that the most probable 12CO to 13CO abundance ratio ([12CO]/[13CO]) is 229, which is roughly three times higher than the Milky Way value. This high abundance ratio may explain the observed high 12CO/ 13CO line ratio (>25). The unusual 13CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 line ratio of 0.6 is produced by a combination of moderate 13CO optical depths (τ = 0.4-1.1) and extremely subthermal excitation temperatures. We measure the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, αCO, to be 0.5^{+0.6}_{-0.3} M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, which agrees with the widely used factor for ultra luminous infrared galaxies of Downes & Solomon (αCO = 0.8 M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1).

  17. Clustering properties of luminous red galaxies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil

    We study the 3D spatial clustering properties of luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data, and discuss their cosmological implications. The need to control systematics leads us to propose a new algorithm to photometrically calibrate wide-field imaging surveys. Applying this to the SDSS, we achieve a 1% relative photometric calibration over 8500 square degrees, an improvement of a factor of ~2 over current calibrations. We then calibrate distances, derived from only the SDSS imaging data, to a class of galaxies with very regular colours, the luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Measuring their 2-point correlation function allows us to detect the non-random clustering of galaxies on gigaparsec scales for the first time. We also detect the imprint of acoustic oscillations in the plasma of the early Universe on the clustering of the LRGs. We finally discuss cross-correlating the LRGs with the cosmic microwave background, detecting the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and providing further evidence for a late-time acceleration in the expansion of the Universe.

  18. LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dave, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D.; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; and others

    2012-12-20

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z Almost-Equal-To 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z Almost-Equal-To 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin{sup 2} to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z Almost-Equal-To 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z Almost-Equal-To 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  19. The X-Ray and Mid-infrared Luminosities in Luminous Type 1 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Harrison, Chris M.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Alberts, Stacey; Alexander, David M.; Brodwin, Mark; Del Moro, Agnese; Forman, William R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Pope, Alexandra; Rovilos, Emmanouel

    2017-03-01

    Several recent studies have reported different intrinsic correlations between the active galactic nucleus (AGN) mid-IR luminosity ({L}{MIR}) and the rest-frame 2–10 keV luminosity (L X) for luminous quasars. To understand the origin of the difference in the observed {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations, we study a sample of 3247 spectroscopically confirmed type 1 AGNs collected from Boötes, XMM-COSMOS, XMM-XXL-North, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars in the Swift/XRT footprint spanning over four orders of magnitude in luminosity. We carefully examine how different observational constraints impact the observed {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations, including the inclusion of X-ray-nondetected objects, possible X-ray absorption in type 1 AGNs, X-ray flux limits, and star formation contamination. We find that the primary factor driving the different {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relations reported in the literature is the X-ray flux limits for different studies. When taking these effects into account, we find that the X-ray luminosity and mid-IR luminosity (measured at rest-frame 6 μ {{m}}, or {L}6μ {{m}}) of our sample of type 1 AGNs follow a bilinear relation in the log–log plane: {log}{L}{{X}}=(0.84+/- 0.03)× {log}{L}6μ {{m}}/{10}45 erg s‑1 + (44.60 ± 0.01) for {L}6μ {{m}}< {10}44.79 erg s‑1, and {log}{L}{{X}}=(0.40+/- 0.03)× {log}{L}6μ {{m}}/{10}45 erg s‑1 + (44.51 ± 0.01) for {L}6μ {{m}} ≥slant {10}44.79 erg s‑1. This suggests that the luminous type 1 quasars have a shallower {L}{{X}}{--}{L}6μ {{m}} correlation than the approximately linear relations found in local Seyfert galaxies. This result is consistent with previous studies reporting a luminosity-dependent {L}{{X}}{--}{L}{MIR} relation and implies that assuming a linear {L}{{X}}{--}{L}6μ {{m}} relation to infer the neutral gas column density for X-ray absorption might overestimate the column densities in luminous quasars.

  20. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  1. Infrared image quality evaluation method without reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Song; Ren, Tingting; Wang, Chengsheng; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Zhijie

    2013-09-01

    Since infrared image quality depends on many factors such as optical performance and electrical noise of thermal imager, image quality evaluation becomes an important issue which can conduce to both image processing afterward and capability improving of thermal imager. There are two ways of infrared image quality evaluation, with or without reference image. For real-time thermal image, the method without reference image is preferred because it is difficult to get a standard image. Although there are various kinds of methods for evaluation, there is no general metric for image quality evaluation. This paper introduces a novel method to evaluate infrared image without reference image from five aspects: noise, clarity, information volume and levels, information in frequency domain and the capability of automatic target recognition. Generally, the basic image quality is obtained from the first four aspects, and the quality of target is acquired from the last aspect. The proposed method is tested on several infrared images captured by different thermal imagers. Calculate the indicators and compare with human vision results. The evaluation shows that this method successfully describes the characteristics of infrared image and the result is consistent with human vision system.

  2. Infrared Imaging of Strombolian Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehn, J.; Harris, A. J.; Ripepe, M.

    2001-12-01

    A forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) was used experimentally to capture time series imagery of strombolian eruptions during May and June of 2001 at Stromboli and Etna volcanoes. Though an image is captured only every second or two, eruption sequences covering over 13 hours of imagery over 2 weeks were acquired. Four distinct types of bursts were captured. The first 3 types were observed at Stromboli, and a fourth unique signature was observed at SE crater on Mount Etna. At Stromboli, the three types are; 1) Spatter followed by gas emissions, 2) Gas emissions followed by spatter bursts, and 3) Simultaneous ejections of gas and spatter. Each shows a unique morphology in the time series imagery. The spatter bursts have varying amounts of gas which follow, the gas being much cooler (on the order of 100 degrees Cor more) than the spatter. The volumes of gas estimated using the 2D imagery vary widely, as yet no pattern to this behavior has been discovered. The spatter is not always a single burst, several small sustained (on the order of several seconds) spatter events were observed. The primarily gas bursts showed higher gas volumes and higher gas temperatures than the primarily spatter ejections. Spatter usually, but not always, follows these emissions, and is less voluminous than in the previous ejection type. In the third type, both spatter and gas are ejected simultaneously, the gas emission usually lasting longer than the spatter event. Determination of relative temperatures of the two components is problematic since they overlay one another in the imagery. No relative temperature determinations are made as yet to ejection temperature of spatter in these types due to the relatively small size of the lava bombs in relation to the pixel size in the imagery. However, temperatures over 700 degrees C have been recovered. At Etna a fourth type of burst, mostly gas with a mushroom-shaped structure, followed by a few high ejection angle bombs was observed. These

  3. Role of active galactic nuclei in the luminous infrared galaxy phase at z ≤ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    To understand the interactions between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation during the evolution of galaxies, we investigate 142 galaxies detected in both X-ray and 70 μm observations in the COSMOS (Cosmic Evolution Survey) field. All of our data are obtained from the archive X-ray point-source catalogues from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, and the far-infrared 70 μm point-source catalogue from Spitzer-MIPS observations. Although the IRAC [3.6 μm]-[4.5 μm] versus [5.8 μm]-[8.0 μm] colours of our sample indicate that only ˜63 per cent of our sources would be classified as AGNs, the ratio of the rest-frame 2-10 keV luminosity to the total infrared luminosity (8-1000 μm) shows that the entire sample has comparatively higher X-ray luminosity than that expected from pure star-forming galaxies, suggesting the presence of an AGN in all of our sources. From an analysis of the X-ray hardness ratio, we find that sources with both 70 μm and X-ray detection tend to have a higher hardness ratio relative to the whole X-ray-selected source population, suggesting the presence of more X-ray absorption in the 70 μm detected sources. In addition, we find that the observed far-infrared colours of 70 μm detected sources with and without X-ray emission are similar, suggesting the far-infrared emission could be mainly powered by star formation.

  4. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  5. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (˜4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10-10 phot cm-2 s-1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray-IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray-radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  6. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  7. Infrared thermal imaging in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) is a non-invasive, non-contact technique which allows one to measure and visualize infrared radiation. In medicine, thermal imaging has been used for more than 50 years in various clinical settings, including Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. Imaging and quantification of surface body temperature provides an indirect measure of the microcirculation's overall performance. As such, IRT is capable of confirming the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon, and, with additional cold or heat challenge, of differentiating between the primary and secondary condition. In systemic sclerosis IRT has a potential role in assessing disease activity and monitoring treatment response. Despite certain limitations, thermal imaging can find a place in clinical practice, and with the introduction of small, low-cost infrared cameras, possibly become a part of routine rheumatological evaluation.

  8. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  9. Infrared thermal imaging in connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) is a non-invasive, non-contact technique which allows one to measure and visualize infrared radiation. In medicine, thermal imaging has been used for more than 50 years in various clinical settings, including Raynaud’s phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. Imaging and quantification of surface body temperature provides an indirect measure of the microcirculation’s overall performance. As such, IRT is capable of confirming the diagnosis of Raynaud’s phenomenon, and, with additional cold or heat challenge, of differentiating between the primary and secondary condition. In systemic sclerosis IRT has a potential role in assessing disease activity and monitoring treatment response. Despite certain limitations, thermal imaging can find a place in clinical practice, and with the introduction of small, low-cost infrared cameras, possibly become a part of routine rheumatological evaluation. PMID:28386141

  10. Computerized image analysis of digitized infrared images of breasts from a scanning infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Jonathan F.; Lipari, Charles A.; Elliot, Robert L.

    1998-10-01

    Infrared imaging of the breasts has been shown to be of value in risk assessment, detection, diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. However, infrared imaging has not been widely accepted for a variety of reasons, including the lack of standardization of the subjective visual analysis method. The subjective nature of the standard visual analysis makes it difficult to achieve equivalent results with different equipment and different interpreters of the infrared patterns of the breasts. Therefore, this study was undertaken to develop more objective analysis methods for infrared images of the breasts by creating objective semiquantitative and quantitative analysis of computer assisted image analysis determined mean temperatures of whole breasts and quadrants of the breasts. When using objective quantitative data on whole breasts (comparing differences in means of left and right breasts), semiquantitative data on quadrants of the breast (determining an index by summation of scores for each quadrant), or summation of quantitative data on quadrants of the breasts there was a decrease in the number of abnormal patterns (positives) in patients being screen for breast cancer and an increases in the number of abnormal patterns (true positives) in the breast cancer patients. It is hoped that the decrease in positives in women being screened for breast cancer will translate into a decrease in the false positives but larger numbers of women with longer follow-up will be needed to clarify this. Also a much larger group of breast cancer patients will need to be studied in order to see if there is a true increase in the percentage of breast cancer patients presenting with abnormal infrared images of the breast with these objective image analysis methods.

  11. Characterization of the luminance and shape of ash particles at Sakurajima volcano, Japan, using CCD camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Takahiro; Shimano, Taketo; Nishimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new method for characterizing the properties of volcanic ash at the Sakurajima volcano, Japan, based on automatic processing of CCD camera images. Volcanic ash is studied in terms of both luminance and particle shape. A monochromatic CCD camera coupled with a stereomicroscope is used to acquire digital images through three filters that pass red, green, or blue light. On single ash particles, we measure the apparent luminance, corresponding to 256 tones for each color (red, green, and blue) for each pixel occupied by ash particles in the image, and the average and standard deviation of the luminance. The outline of each ash particle is captured from a digital image taken under transmitted light through a polarizing plate. Also, we define a new quasi-fractal dimension ( D qf ) to quantify the complexity of the ash particle outlines. We examine two ash samples, each including about 1000 particles, which were erupted from the Showa crater of the Sakurajima volcano, Japan, on February 09, 2009 and January 13, 2010. The apparent luminance of each ash particle shows a lognormal distribution. The average luminance of the ash particles erupted in 2009 is higher than that of those erupted in 2010, which is in good agreement with the results obtained from component analysis under a binocular microscope (i.e., the number fraction of dark juvenile particles is lower for the 2009 sample). The standard deviations of apparent luminance have two peaks in the histogram, and the quasi-fractal dimensions show different frequency distributions between the two samples. These features are not recognized in the results of conventional qualitative classification criteria or the sphericity of the particle outlines. Our method can characterize and distinguish ash samples, even for ash particles that have gradual property changes, and is complementary to component analysis. This method also enables the relatively fast and systematic analysis of ash samples that is required for

  12. Coherent infrared imaging camera (CIRIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Emery, M.S.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Wachter, E.A.; Huston, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    New developments in 2-D, wide-bandwidth HgCdTe (MCT) and GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) coupled with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology are now making focal plane array coherent infrared (IR) cameras viable. Unlike conventional IR cameras which provide only thermal data about a scene or target, a coherent camera based on optical heterodyne interferometry will also provide spectral and range information. Each pixel of the camera, consisting of a single photo-sensitive heterodyne mixer followed by an intermediate frequency amplifier and illuminated by a separate local oscillator beam, constitutes a complete optical heterodyne receiver. Applications of coherent IR cameras are numerous and include target surveillance, range detection, chemical plume evolution, monitoring stack plume emissions, and wind shear detection.

  13. Thermal Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Apai, Daniel

    2009-08-05

    High-contrast imaging remains the only way to search for and study weakly-irradiated giant exoplanets. We review here in brief a new high-contrast imaging technique that operates in the 3-5 mum window and show the exquisite sensitivity that can be reached using this technique. The two key advantages of the L-band high-contrast imaging are the superior image quality and the 2-to 4-magnitude gain in sensitivity provided by the red color of giant planets. Most excitingly, this method can be applied to constrain the yet-unexplored giant planet population at radii between 3 and 30 AU.

  14. What produces the far-infrared/submillimetre emission in the most luminous QSOs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonidis, M.

    2017-02-01

    The AGN. I examine the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of two samples of the most powerful, unobscured quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at 2 < z < 3.5, with rest-frame optical luminosities in the range of 46.2 < log νLν (5100 Å) < 47.4, corresponding to the tail of the 2 < z < 4 QSO optical luminosity function. I find that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) could potentially account for the entire broad-band emission from the ultraviolet to the submillimetre (submm), on the basis that the SEDs of these sources are similar to the intrinsic AGN SEDs derived for lower power, lower redshift QSOs. Although this does not preclude substantial star formation in their host galaxies, I find that the AGN dominates the total infrared (IR) luminosity, removing the necessity for a star-forming component in the far-IR/submm. I argue that the origin of the far-IR/submm emission in such powerful QSOs includes a small contribution from the AGN torus but is predominantly linked to dust at kpc-scales heated by the AGN. The latter component accounts for at least 5-10 per cent of the bolometric AGN luminosity and has an implied dust mass of the order of 108 M⊙.

  15. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  16. Infrared Sensor and Imaging System. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    7, 1729 (1968) (3) Robillard, J., Optics & Laser Technology, 6, 117 (1976) (4) Drude P . Wied, Am. 43, 126 (1891) (5) W. Kuhn, Transaction Faraday Soc...Number 4,751,387 RobWard 1491 Date of Patent: Jun. 14, 1988 (54) [NFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM AND FRINPTN OU ET METHOD FRINPTN OUET 1120093 6/1966 Uited...by the infrared scene and enter. E,-Ae p Aw.a8+ p ) 45 ing the aperture of the infrared imaging system can be evauted considering an element dS of the

  17. AN INFRARED-LUMINOUS MERGER WITH TWO BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS: ALMA AND SMA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3256

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Evans, Aaron; Peck, Alison

    2014-12-20

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array and Submillimeter Array observations of the infrared-luminous merger NGC 3256, the most luminous galaxy within z = 0.01. Both of the two merger nuclei separated by 5'' (0.8 kpc) have a molecular gas concentration, a nuclear disk, with Σ{sub mol} > 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. The northern nucleus is more massive and is surrounded by molecular spiral arms. Its nuclear disk is face-on, while the southern nuclear disk is almost edge-on. The high-velocity molecular gas in the system can be resolved into two molecular outflows from the two nuclei. The one from the northern nucleus is part of a starburst-driven superwind seen nearly pole-on. Its maximum velocity is >750 km s{sup –1} and its mass outflow rate is >60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a conversion factor X{sub CO}=N{sub H{sub 2}}/I{sub CO(1−0)} of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} (K km s{sup –1}){sup –1}. The molecular outflow from the southern nucleus is a highly collimated bipolar jet seen nearly edge-on. Its line-of-sight velocity increases with distance, out to 300 pc from the nucleus, to the maximum de-projected velocity of ∼2000 km s{sup –1} for the estimated inclination and ≳1000 km s{sup –1} taking into account the uncertainty. Its mass outflow rate is estimated to be >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the same X {sub CO}. This southern outflow has indications of being driven by a bipolar radio jet from an active galactic nucleus that recently weakened. The sum of these outflow rates, although subject to the uncertainty in the molecular mass estimate, either exceeds or compares to the total star formation rate. The feedback from nuclear activity through molecular outflows is therefore significant in the gas consumption, and hence evolution, of this system.

  18. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis; Piqueras López, Javier; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogério; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional excitation structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and Seyferts using near-IR integral field spectroscopy. This study extends to the near infrared the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64 μm/Brγ- H22.12 μm/Brγ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. active galactic nuclei (AGNs), young main-sequence massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Brγ and H2/Brγ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by AGN, young ionizing stars, and supernovae explosions, respectively. In addition to these high surface brightness regions, the diffuse regions affected by the AGN radiation field cover an area similar to that of Seyferts, but with high values in [FeII]/Brγ that are not as extreme. The extended, non-AGN diffuse regions cover a wide area in the near-IR diagnostic diagram that overlaps that of individual excitation mechanisms (i.e. AGN, young stars, and supernovae), but with its mode value to that of the young star-forming clumps. This indicates that the excitation conditions of the extended, diffuse ISM are likely due to a mixture of the different ionization sources, weighted by their spatial distribution and relative flux contribution. The integrated line ratios in LIRGs show higher excitation conditions i.e. towards AGNs, than those measured by the spatially resolved

  19. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  20. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  1. Functional near-infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Nioka, Shoko; Chance, Britton

    1997-08-01

    We developed a continuous wave (cw) light imaging probe which includes 9 light sources and four pairs detectors (each pair has one 850 nm filtered detector and one 760 nm filtered detector). The light sources are controlled by a computer and the signals from the detectors are converted and processed in the computer. There are 16 measurement sections and total detection area is 9 cm multiplied by 4 cm which can be scanned every 8 seconds. The detector-source uses 2.5 cm spacing. In this study, we present the noise, drift, detectivity and spatial resolution test results of the imager. Changes of oxygenation and blood volume in about 2 cm depth from the surface of brain model can be detected. The temporal resolution is 8 seconds and spatial resolution is about 2 cm. The detectivity of OD changes can reach 0.008. With this cw imaging probe, we measured motor function in motor cortex area, visual function in occipital area, and cognitive activity in frontal forehead area of the human brian when the subjects are stimulated by moving fingers, viewing a flashing light and doing an analogy test, respectively. The experimental results show that the cw imaging probe can be used for functional images of brain activity, base upon changes of oxygenation and blood volume due to the stimulus.

  2. Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Multiple Merger, Extended Massive Star Formation, Galactic Wind, and Nuclear Inflow in NGC 3256

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lípari, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Terlevich, R.; Dottori, H.; Carranza, G.

    2000-08-01

    We report detailed evidence for multiple merger, extended massive star formation, galactic wind, and circular/noncircular motions in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 3256, based on observations of high-resolution imaging (Hubble Space Telescope, ESO NTT), and extensive spectroscopic data (more than 1000 spectra, collected at Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre, Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito, Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, and IUE observatories). We find in a detailed morphological study (resolution ~15 pc) that the extended massive star formation process detected previously in NGC 3256 shows extended triple asymmetrical spiral arms (r~5 kpc), emanating from three different nuclei. The main optical nucleus shows a small spiral disk (r~500 pc), which is a continuation of the external one and reaches the very nucleus. The core shows blue elongated structure (50 pc×25 pc) and harbors a blue stellar cluster candidate (r~8 pc). We discuss this complex morphology in the framework of an extended massive star formation driven by a multiple merger process (models of Hernquist et al. and Taniguchi et al.). We study the kinematics of this system and present a detailed Hα velocity field for the central region (40''×40'' rmax~30''~5 kpc), with a spatial resolution of 1" and errors of +/-15 km s-1. The color and isovelocity maps show mainly (1) a kinematic center of circular motion with ``spider'' shape, located between the main optical nucleus and the close (5") mid-IR nucleus and (2) noncircular motions in the external parts. We obtained three ``sinusoidal rotation curves'' (from the Hα velocity field) around position angle (P.A.) ~55°, ~90°, and ~130°. In the main optical nucleus we found a clear ``outflow component'' associated with galactic winds plus an ``inflow radial motion.'' The outflow component was also detected in the central and external regions (r<=5-6 kpc). The main axis of the inflow region (P.A.~80deg) is practically perpendicular to the

  3. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  4. Infrared imaging of high density protein arrays.

    PubMed

    De Meutter, Joëlle; Vandenameele, Julie; Matagne, André; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2017-04-10

    We propose in this paper that protein microarrays could be analysed by infrared imaging in place of enzymatic or fluorescence labelling. This label-free method reports simultaneously a large series of data on the spotted sample (protein secondary structure, phosphorylation, glycosylation, presence of impurities, etc.). In the present work, 100 μm protein spots each containing about 100 pg protein were deposited to form high density regular arrays. Using arrays of infrared detectors, high resolution images could be obtained where each pixel of the image is in fact a full infrared spectrum. With microarrays, hundreds of experimental conditions can be tested easily and quickly, with no further labelling or chemistry of any kind. We describe how the noise present in the infrared spectra can be split into image noise and detector noise. We also detail how both types of noise can be most conveniently dealt with to generate very high quality spectra of less than 100 pg protein. Finally, the results suggest that the protein secondary structure is preserved during microarray building.

  5. Infrared image denoising applied in infrared sound field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhiqiang; Shen, Guofeng

    2017-03-01

    The research made use of the heat property and explored the distribution of focused ultrasound field. In our experiments, we measured the distribution of heat sources, and then, calculated the distribution of focused ultrasound field via a liner relation. In the experiments, we got a series of infrared images with noise. It's such an important thing to find out a solution to get rid of the noise in those images in order to get an accurate focused ultrasound field distribution. So the investigation following is focused in finding out a filter which can remove most noise in the infrared charts and the distribution of ultrasound filed is not impacted. Experiments compared the effects of different filters by the index of - 6dB width of the temperature rise images. By this index, we can find out a filter which is the most suitable filter for keeping the distribution of focused ultrasound field in steady. All experiments, including simulations, semi-simulations and actual verification experiments used six filters to deal with the raw data to get -6dB width and signal to noise ratio. From the results of experiments, we drew a conclusion that gauss filter is the best to keep the distribution of focused ultrasound field in steady.

  6. The Nobeyama 45 m 12CO(J=1-0) Survey of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Arimatsu, Ko; Evans, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular gas and star formation in local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) are studied along the stage of the galaxy merger sequence. Most local LIRGs are starbursting and are involved with galaxy-galaxy interactions or mergers. The evolution and the direct trigger of the merger-driven starbursts are not clear observationally, although there are several theoretical explanations. In order to address these issues, information of the molecular gas, which is traced by a 12CO(J=1-0) emission line, of an unbiased LIRG sample is required. To this end, a CO survey of 79 galaxies in 62 LIRG systems were conducted with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. A method is developed to estimate the extent of CO gas in galaxies using combinations of two single-aperture telescopes with different beam sizes. The majority of the sources have the CO radius of less than ~ 4 kpc. The CO extent is found to possibly decrease from the early stage to the late stage of the merger. The molecular gas mass in the central several kilo-parsecs is constant throughout the merger sequence. These results statistically support a theoretically predicted scenario where the global gas inflow towards the galaxy center is common in merging LIRGs. The star formation efficiencies (SFE) in the central regions are derived and are high compared to disk star-forming galaxies as is well known. The SFE are found to be fairly independent of the merger stage. The star formation of merging LIRGs may be controlled by a common relation from gas to stars regardless of the merger stage, where SFR and resultant IR luminosity are determined by the amount of the molecular gas supplied by global inflow.

  7. Hard X-ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fiore, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Stern, D.; Urry, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Annuar, A.; Arévalo, P.; Baloković, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M. J.; La Massa, S.; Marinucci, A.; Ricci, C.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.3-70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger state with two distinct nuclei separated by ~1.̋5. Previous Chandra observations resolved the two nuclei and showed that they are both active and obscured by Compton-thick material. Although they cannot be resolved by NuSTAR, we were able to clearly detect, for the first time, both the primary and the reflection continuum components thanks to the unprecedented quality of the NuSTAR data at energies >10 keV. The NuSTAR hard X-ray spectrum is dominated by the primary continuum piercing through an absorbing column density which is mildly optically thick to Compton scattering (τ ≃ 1.2, NH ~ 1.5 × 1024 cm-2). We detect moderately hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux variability up to 20% on short (15-20 ks) timescales. The amplitude of the variability is largest at ~30 keV and is likely to originate from the primary continuum of the southern nucleus. Nevertheless, the mean hard X-ray flux on longer timescales (years) is relatively constant. Moreover, the two nuclei remain Compton-thick, although we find evidence of variability in the material along the line of sight with column densities NH ≤ 2 × 1023 cm-2 over long (~3-15 yr) timescales. The observed X-ray emission in the NuSTAR energy range is fully consistent with the sum of the best-fit models of the spatially resolved Chandra spectra of the two nuclei.

  8. Infrared Imaging Data Reduction Software and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbey, C. N.; McMahon, R. G.; Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.

    Developed to satisfy certain design requirements not met in existing packages (e.g., full weight map handling) and to optimize the software for large data sets (non-interactive tasks that are CPU and disk efficient), the InfraRed Data Reduction software package is a small ANSI C library of fast image processing routines for automated pipeline reduction of infrared (dithered) observations. The software includes stand-alone C programs for tasks such as running sky frame subtraction with object masking, image registration and co-addition with weight maps, dither offset measurement using cross-correlation, and object mask dilation. Although currently used for near-IR mosaic images, the modular software is concise and readily adaptable for reuse in other work. IRDR, available via anonymous ftp at ftp.ast.cam.ac.uk in pub/sabbey

  9. Urban monitoring from infrared satellite images.

    PubMed

    Ghellere, M; Bellazzi, A; Belussi, L; Meroni, I

    2016-12-01

    Starting from an experimental campaign in Milan, the article describes how the infrared signal recorded by Landsat 8 sensors can be used to evaluate and monitor key urban scale environmental variables. The possibility of combining different spectral bands of the infrared signal with previously collected spectral bands is highlighted. The monitored variables have been mapped in geo-referenced images using Geographic Information System (GIS)instruments. In this way, a mapping database is created to be used as a benchmark to study urban heat islands and the environmental changes over the years.

  10. Infrared system with computerized image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. P.; Rex, J. D.; Schummers, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    An object of this invention is to provide a system in which detected signals from an infrared scanner can be used to provide a calibrated display, and by which the data can be stored for later use. In the system according to the invention, image signals originating from an infrared scanner are transformed into a digitized form for storage in a computer and manipulated to produce a calibrated display. This transforms the merely qualitative utility of such a scanner into a quantitative capability allowing analysis of heat energy losses from structures of interest with only modest investments in capital equipment.

  11. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  12. Aural stealth of portable HOT infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Further reduction of size, weight and power consumption of the High Operating Temperature (HOT) infrared (IR) Integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (IDDCA) eventually calls for development of high-speed cryocoolers. In case of integral rotary design, the immediate penalty is the more intensive slapping of compression and expansion pistons along with intensification of micro collisions inherent for the operation of crank-slide linkages featuring ball bearings. Resulting from this is the generation of impulsive vibration export, the spectrum of which features the driving frequency along with numerous multiples covering the entire range of audible frequencies. In a typical design of an infrared imager, the metal light-weight enclosure accommodates a directly mounted IDDCA and an optical train, thus serving as an optical bench and heat sink. This usually results in excitation of structural resonances in the said enclosure and, therefore, in excessive noise generation compromising the aural stealth. The author presents the complex approach to a design of aural undetectable infrared imagers in which the IDDCA is mounted upon the imager enclosure through a silent pad. Special attention is paid to resolving the line of sight stability and heat sinking issues. The demonstration imager relying on Ricor K562S based IDDCA meets the most stringent requirement to 10 meters aural non-detectability distance (per MIL-STD 1474D, Level II) even during boost cooldown phase of operation.

  13. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jörg; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce(4+) in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9 pmol cm(-2) of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the in vivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies.

  14. Visual Comfort Analysis of Innovative Interior and Exterior Shading Systems for Commercial Buildings using High Resolution Luminance Images

    SciTech Connect

    Konis, Kyle; Lee, Eleanor; Clear, Robert

    2011-01-11

    The objective of this study was to explore how calibrated high dynamic range (HDR) images (luminance maps) acquired in real world daylit environments can be used to characterize, evaluate, and compare visual comfort conditions of innovative facade shading and light-redirecting systems. Detailed (1536 x 1536 pixel) luminance maps were time-lapse acquired from two view positions in an unoccupied full scale testbed facility. These maps were analyzed using existing visual comfort metrics to quantify how innovative interior and exterior shading systems compare to conventional systems under real sun and sky conditions over a solstice-to-solstice test interval. The results provide a case study in the challenges and potential of methods of visualizing, evaluating and summarizing daily and seasonal variation of visual comfort conditions computed from large sets of image data.

  15. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  16. Uncooled long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor device employs a combination of an interferometer with an uncooled microbolometer array camera to produce hyperspectral images without the use of bulky, power-hungry motorized components, making it suitable for UAV vehicles, small mobile platforms, or in extraterrestrial environments. The sensor device can provide signal-to-noise ratios near 200 for ambient temperature scenes with 33 wavenumber resolution at a frame rate of 50 Hz, with higher results indicated by ongoing component improvements.

  17. ALMA HCN and HCO+ J =3-2 Observations of Optical Seyfert and Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Confirmation of Elevated HCN-to-HCO+ Flux Ratios in AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of our ALMA observations of three active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated nuclei in optical Seyfert 1 galaxies (NGC 7469, I Zw 1, and IC 4329 A) and eleven luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with various levels of infrared estimated energetic contributions by AGNs at the HCN and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines. The HCN and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines are clearly detected at the main nuclei of all sources, except for IC 4329 A. The vibrationally excited (v 2 = 1f) HCN J = 3 - 2 and HCO+ J = 3 - 2 emission lines are simultaneously covered, and HCN v 2 = 1f J = 3 - 2 emission line signatures are seen in the main nuclei of two LIRGs, IRAS 12112+0305 and IRAS 22491-1808, neither of which shows clear buried AGN signatures in the infrared. If the vibrational excitation is dominated by infrared radiative pumping, through the absorption of infrared 14 μm photons, primarily originating from AGN-heated hot dust emission, then these two LIRGs may contain infrared-elusive, but (sub)millimeter-detectable, extremely deeply buried AGNs. These vibrationally excited emission lines are not detected in the three AGN-dominated optical Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the observed HCN v 2 = 1f to v = 0 flux ratios in these optical Seyferts are still consistent with the intrinsic flux ratios in LIRGs with detectable HCN v 2 = 1f emission lines. The observed HCN-to-HCO+ J = 3 - 2 flux ratios tend to be higher in galactic nuclei with luminous AGN signatures compared with starburst-dominated regions, as previously seen at J = 1 - 0 and J = 4 - 3.

  18. Luminous presence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Paula

    2008-02-01

    The Luminous Presence project examines the use of standard film language in the framing, angle and of points of view of holographic subjects though eight digital holographic stereograms; seven 25 x 25 cm, Hail, Water, Rain, Snow, Sun, Text, Imprint and 1.5 x 1 m, Luminous Presences i. However, before embarking on a discussion of how filmic language can be used in digital holograms it is first important to explain why this line of investigation could be fruitful. Undoubtedly several of the compositional practices which sprung up and evolved throughout the development of the diverse forms of the holographic medium have contributed to a unique hologram pictorial language, however it is well known that the reading of visual imagery of any type relies a great deal on the viewer's knowledge of and experience of other images .The lens-recorded imagery of film is a far more familiar language than that of holograms and the correlation between certain filmic pictorial conventions and emotional responses are well documented and understood. ii . In short the language of film contains a highly nuanced vocabulary of shot types and lens types (which may be criticised as being formulaic) yet are effective in lending emotion to figures.

  19. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  20. Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin

    SciTech Connect

    Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

    2004-09-01

    High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

  1. Near Infrared (nir) Imaging for Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, G. G.; Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    A novel application of near infrared (NIR) signals is presented, which can be used to provide images of many different materials and objects. It is effectively a very low cost non-ionising alternative to many applications currently being investigated using electromagnetic waves at other frequencies, such as THz and X-ray imaging. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from examples industrial quality control, food inspection and various security applications, and the results compared to existing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used in through-transmission mode on biological and medical samples, and images are presented that differentiate between not only flesh and bone, but also various types of soft tissue.

  2. Uncooled Micro-Cantilever Infrared Imager Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Panagiotis, Datskos G.

    2008-02-05

    We report on the development, fabrication and characterization of microcantilever based uncooled focal plane array (FPA) for infrared imaging. By combining a streamlined design of microcantilever thermal transducers with a highly efficient optical readout, we minimized the fabrication complexity while achieving a competitive level of imaging performance. The microcantilever FPAs were fabricated using a straightforward fabrication process that involved only three photolithographic steps (i.e. three masks). A designed and constructed prototype of an IR imager employed a simple optical readout based on a noncoherent low-power light source. The main figures of merit of the IR imager were found to be comparable to those of uncooled MEMS infrared detectors with substantially higher degree of fabrication complexity. In particular, the NETD and the response time of the implemented MEMS IR detector were measured to be as low as 0.5K and 6 ms, respectively. The potential of the implemented designs can also be concluded from the fact that the constructed prototype enabled IR imaging of close to room temperature objects without the use of any advanced data processing. The most unique and practically valuable feature of the implemented FPAs, however, is their scalability to high resolution formats, such as 2000 x 2000, without progressively growing device complexity and cost. The overall technical objective of the proposed work was to develop uncooled infrared arrays based on micromechanical sensors. Currently used miniature sensors use a number of different readout techniques to accomplish the sensing. The use of optical readout techniques sensing require the deposition of thin coatings on the surface of micromechanical thermal detectors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is uniquely qualified to perform the required research and development (R&D) services that will assist our ongoing activities. Over the past decade ORNL has developed a number of unique methods and

  3. Sulfur copolymers for infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namnabat, S.; Gabriel, J. J.; Pyun, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Dereniak, E. L.; van der Laan, J.

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic polymers with low infrared absorption has been investigated as a possible alternative to inorganic metal oxide, semiconductor, or chalcogenide-based materials for a variety of optical devices and components, such as lenses, goggles, thermal imaging cameras and optical fibers. In principle, organic-based polymers are attractive for these applications because of their low weight, ease of processing, mechanical toughness, and facile chemical variation using commercially available precursors. Herein we report on the optical characterization of a new class of sulfur copolymers that are readily moldable, transparent above 500 nm, possess high refractive index (n > 1.8) and take advantage of the low infrared absorption of S-S bonds for potential use in the mid-infrared at 3-5 microns. These materials are largely made from elemental sulfur by an inverse vulcanization process; in the current study we focus on the properties of a chemically stable, branched copolymer of poly(sulfur-random-1,3-diisopropenylbenzene) (poly(S-r- DIB). Copolymers with elemental sulfur content ranging from 50% to 80% by weight were studied by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, and prism coupling for refractive index measurement. Clear correlation between material composition and the optical properties was established, confirming that the high polarizability of the sulfur atom leads to high refractive index while also maintaining low optical loss in the infrared.

  4. Applications for high-speed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Austin A.

    2005-03-01

    The phrase high-speed imaging is generally associated with short exposure times, fast frame rates or both. Supersonic projectiles, for example, are often impossible to see with the unaided eye, and require strobe photography to stop their apparent motion. It is often necessary to image high-speed objects in the infrared region of the spectrum, either to detect them or to measure their surface temperature. Conventional infrared cameras have time constants similar to the human eye, so they too, are often at a loss when it comes to photographing fast-moving hot targets. Other types of targets or scenes such as explosions change very rapidly with time. Visualizing those changes requires an extremely high frame rate combined with short exposure times in order to slow down a dynamic event so that it can be studied and quantified. Recent advances in infrared sensor technology and computing power have pushed the envelope of what is possible to achieve with commercial IR camera systems.

  5. Normalized methodology for medical infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. V. C.; Brioschi, M. L.; Dias, F. G.; Parolin, M. B.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.; Ordonez, J. C.; Colman, D.

    2009-01-01

    A normalized procedure for medical infrared imaging is suggested, and illustrated by a leprosy and hepatitis C treatment follow-up, in order to investigate the effect of concurrent treatment which has not been reported before. A 50-year-old man with indeterminate leprosy and a 20-year history of hepatitis C was monitored for 587 days, starting from the day the patient received treatment for leprosy. Standard therapy for hepatitis C started 30 days later. Both visual observations and normalized infrared imaging were conducted periodically to assess the response to leprosy treatment. The primary end points were effectiveness of the method under different boundary conditions over the period, and rapid assessment of the response to leprosy treatment. The patient achieved sustained hepatitis C virological response 6 months after the end of the treatment. The normalized infrared results demonstrate the leprosy treatment success in spite of the concurrent hepatitis C treatment, since day 87, whereas repigmentation was visually assessed only after day 182, and corroborated with a skin biopsy on day 390. The method detected the effectiveness of the leprosy treatment in 87 days, whereas repigmentation started only in 182 days. Hepatitis C and leprosy treatment did not affect each other.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  8. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES: DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Heath V.; Papovich, Casey; Rieke, George H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Weiner, Benjamin; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-05-20

    We use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study the nature of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion for a sample of 65 IR-luminous galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.6 with F(24 {mu}m) > 1.2 mJy. The MIR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38 {mu}m, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. Our sample of galaxies corresponds to a range of total IR luminosity, L{sub IR} = L(8-1000 {mu}m) = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (median L{sub IR} of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }). We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6-8.0 {mu}m colors indicative of warm dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). Compared to the non-IRAGN, the IRAGN show smaller PAH emission equivalent widths, which we attribute to an increase in mid-IR continuum from the AGN. We find that in both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II] {lambda}12.8 {mu}m emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. We compare the ratio of PAH luminosity to the total IR luminosity, and we show that for most IRAGN star-formation accounts for 10%-50% of the total IR luminosity. We also find no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L{sub 11.3}/L{sub 7.7} and L{sub 6.2}/L{sub 7.7} for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. Interestingly, a small subset of galaxies (8 of 65 galaxies) show a strong excess of [O IV] {lambda}25.9 {mu}m emission compared to their PAH emission, which indicates the presence of heavily-obscured AGN, including 3 galaxies that are not otherwise selected as IRAGN. The low

  9. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  10. A perspective on medical infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L J; Ng, E Y K; Yeo, A C B; Wu, S; Pan, F; Yau, W Y; Chen, J H; Yang, Y

    2005-01-01

    Since the early days of thermography in the 1950s, image processing techniques, sensitivity of thermal sensors and spatial resolution have progressed greatly, holding out fresh promise for infrared (IR) imaging techniques. Applications in civil, industrial and healthcare fields are thus reaching a high level of technical performance. The relationship between body temperature and disease was documented since 400 bc. In many diseases there are variations in blood flow, and these in turn affect the skin temperature. IR imaging offers a useful and non-invasive approach to the diagnosis and treatment (as therapeutic aids) of many disorders, in particular in the areas of rheumatology, dermatology, orthopaedics and circulatory abnormalities. This paper reviews many usages (and hence the limitations) of thermography in biomedical fields.

  11. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  12. Nested object watermarking: comparison of block-luminance and blue channel LSB wet paper code image watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Dittmann, Jana

    2007-02-01

    Annotation watermarking (sometimes also called caption or illustration watermarking) denotes a specific application of watermarks, which embeds supplementary information directly in the media, so that additional information is intrinsically linked to media content and does not get separated from the media by non-malicious processing steps such as image cropping or compression. Recently, nested object annotation watermarking (NOAWM) has been introduced as a specialized annotation watermarking domain, whereby hierarchical object information is embedded in photographic images. In earlier work, the Hierarchical Graph Concept (HGC) has been suggested as a first approach to model object relations, which are defined by users during editing processes, into a hierarchical tree structure. The original HGC method uses a code-book decomposition of the annotation tree and a block-luminance algorithm for embedding. In this article, two new approaches for embedding nested object annotations are presented and experimentally compared to the original HGC approach. The first one adopts the code-book scheme of HGC using an alternative embedding based on Wet Paper Codes in blue-channel LSB domain, whereas the second suggests a new method based on the concept of intrinsic signal inheritance by sub-band energy and phase modulation of image luminance blocks. A comparative experimental evaluation based on more than 100 test images is presented in the paper, whereby aspects of transparency and robustness with respect to the most relevant image modifications to annotations, cropping and JPEG compression, are discussed comparatively for the two code-book schemes and the novel inheritance approach.

  13. Physical Conditions in the Central Parsec Derived from Mid-Infrared Imaging Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Dan; Dwek, Eli; Varosi, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Array camera images of the central 1 parsec of the Galactic Center at eight mid-infrared wavelengths between 4.8 and 20.0 microns with approximately 1 arcsec resolution are used to model the temperature, opacity and bolometric luminosity distributions of the emitting dust in the central parsec, and the extinction in the line of sight. We use the results to discriminate between two mechanisms for heating the dust: heating by radiation from a "central engine" (possibly a massive black hole associated with Sgr A*), or internal heating by luminous stars embedded in or among the dust clouds. The temperature and opacity distributions are consistent with the presence of self-luminous objects imbedded at prominent the IRS source positions. However, temperatures on the northern ann and east-west bar are highest along the inner flank of those structures surrounding the central cavity, while the dust opacity peaks further out from the central cavity. The warm inner ridge suggests heating by centrally located concentrated luminous sources, including IRS3 and IRS7. The of the model results are compared with the distributions of the various stellar populations in the central parsec. There is evidence for physical interaction between the warm emitting dust and luminous stars, including dozens of hot He1 emission line stars and B[] stars. The combined contributions of embedded stars at the IRS source positions and the luminous stars distributed throughout Sgr A West can account for the temperature enhancements and the luminosity distribution in the central parsec computed by the model.

  14. Infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2000-11-01

    A small light weight man portable imaging spectrometer has many applications; gas leak detection, flare analysis, threat warning, chemical agent detection, just to name a few. With support from the US Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a small man portable hyperspectral imaging sensor with an embedded DSP processor for real time processing that is capable of remotely imaging various targets such as gas plums, flames and camouflaged targets. Based upon their spectral signature the species and concentration of gases can be determined. This system has been field tested at numerous places including White Mountain, CA, Edwards AFB, and Vandenberg AFB. Recently evaluation of the system for gas detection has been performed. This paper presents these results. The system uses a conventional infrared camera fitted with a diffractive optic that images as well as disperses the incident radiation to form spectral images that are collected in band sequential mode. Because the diffractive optic performs both imaging and spectral filtering, the lens system consists of only a single element that is small, light weight and robust, thus allowing man portability. The number of spectral bands are programmable such that only those bands of interest need to be collected. The system is entirely passive, therefore, easily used in a covert operation. Currently Pacific Advanced Technology is working on the next generation of this camera system that will have both an embedded processor as well as an embedded digital signal processor in a small hand held camera configuration. This will allow the implementation of signal and image processing algorithms for gas detection and identification in real time. This paper presents field test data on gas detection and identification as well as discuss the signal and image processing used to enhance the gas visibility. Flow rates as low as 0.01 cubic feet per minute have been imaged with this system.

  15. High-speed imaging system of luminous intensity distribution of plasma using light emission CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Hirofumi; Saito, Hideo; Yuasa, Kunio; Yuge, Youji; Nakajima, Masato

    1995-02-01

    The authors developed a light emission computed tomography (LECT) system for plasma diagnosis supporting the high speed data collection function. In this paper, we describe the principles of the system and experiments in reconstructing the luminous intensity distribution of plasma in a discharge tube with the system.

  16. High dynamic range infrared images detail enhancement based on local edge preserving filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiong; Wang, Yuehuan; Bai, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In the field of infrared (IR) image processing, displaying a high dynamic range (HDR) image on a low dynamic range display equipment with a natural visual effect, clear details on local areas and less artifacts is an important issue. In this paper, we present a new approach to display HDR IR images with contrast enhancement. First, the local edge-preserving filter (LEPF) is utilized to separate the image into a base layer and detail layer(s). After the filtering procedure, we use an adaptive Gamma transformation to adjust the gray distribution of the base layer, and stretch the detail layer based on a human visual effect principle. Then, we recombine the detail layer and base layer to obtain the enhance output. Finally, we adjust the luminance of output by applying multiple exposure fusion method. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a significant performance in terms of enhancing details and less artifacts than the state of the arts.

  17. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Prostate Pathology Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Paschalis EP, Boskey AL (1999) J Biomed Opt 4: 14 –21 13. Kidder LH, Kalasinsky VF , Luke JL, Levin IW, Lewis EN (1997) Nat Medicine 3:235–237 14 . Ellis DI...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14 . ABSTRACT The report summarizes progress towards using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging for...3 6 9 12 1 4 7 10 2 5 8 11 15 18 13 16 14 17 96 3 104 5 6 1171 8 12 15 181316 14 17 19 20 22 262321 24 25 2927 30 343128 32 33 35 36 37 38 e. Develop

  19. An infrared upconverter for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Townes, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    An imaging upconverter has been constructed which is suitable for use in the study of the thermal 10-micron radiation from astronomical sources. The infrared radiation is converted to visible radiation by mixing in a 1-cm-long proustite crystal. The phase-matched 2-kayser bandpass is tunable from 9 to 11 microns. The conversion efficiency is 2 by 10 to the -7th power and the field of view of 40 arc seconds on the sky contains several hundred picture elements, approximately diffraction-limited resolution in a large telescope. The instrument has been used in studies of the sun, moon, Mercury, and VY Canis Majoris.

  20. Infrared Imaging System for Studying Brain Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick; Mintz, Frederick; Gunapala, Sarath

    2007-01-01

    A proposed special-purpose infrared imaging system would be a compact, portable, less-expensive alternative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) systems heretofore used to study brain function. Whereas a typical fMRI system fills a large room, and must be magnetically isolated, this system would fit into a bicycle helmet. The system would include an assembly that would be mounted inside the padding in a modified bicycle helmet or other suitable headgear. The assembly would include newly designed infrared photodetectors and data-acquisition circuits on integrated-circuit chips on low-thermal-conductivity supports in evacuated housings (see figure) arranged in multiple rows and columns that would define image coordinates. Each housing would be spring-loaded against the wearer s head. The chips would be cooled by a small Stirling Engine mounted contiguous to, but thermally isolated from, the portions of the assembly in thermal contact with the wearer s head. Flexible wires or cables for transmitting data from the aforementioned chips would be routed to an integrated, multichannel transmitter and thence through the top of the assembly to a patch antenna on the outside of the helmet. The multiple streams of data from the infrared-detector chips would be sent to a remote site, where they would be processed, by software, into a three-dimensional display of evoked potentials that would represent firing neuronal bundles and thereby indicate locations of neuronal activity associated with mental or physical activity. The 3D images will be analogous to current fMRI images. The data would also be made available, in real-time, for comparison with data in local or internationally accessible relational databases that already exist in universities and research centers. Hence, this system could be used in research on, and for the diagnosis of response from the wearer s brain to physiological, psychological, and environmental changes in real time. The images would also be

  1. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  2. Simulating Kinect Infrared and Depth Images.

    PubMed

    Landau, Michael J; Choo, Benjamin Y; Beling, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    With the emergence of the Microsoft Kinect sensor, many developer communities and research groups have found countless uses and have already published a wide variety of papers that utilize the raw depth images for their specific goals. New methods and applications that use the device generally require an appropriately large ensemble of data sets with accompanying ground truth for testing purposes, as well as accurate models that account for the various systematic and stochastic contributors to Kinect errors. Current error models, however, overlook the intermediate infrared (IR) images that directly contribute to noisy depth estimates. We, therefore, propose a high fidelity Kinect IR and depth image predictor and simulator that models the physics of the transmitter/receiver system, unique IR dot pattern, disparity/depth processing technology, and random intensity speckle and IR noise in the detectors. The model accounts for important characteristics of Kinect's stereo triangulation system, including depth shadowing, IR dot splitting, spreading, and occlusions, correlation-based disparity estimation between windows of measured and reference IR images, and subpixel refinement. Results show that the simulator accurately produces axial depth error from imaged flat surfaces with various tilt angles, as well as the bias and standard lateral error of an object's horizontal and vertical edge.

  3. Infrared hyperspectral imaging for chemical vapour detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruxton, K.; Robertson, G.; Miller, W.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Maker, G. T.; Howle, C. R.

    2012-10-01

    Active hyperspectral imaging is a valuable tool in a wide range of applications. One such area is the detection and identification of chemicals, especially toxic chemical warfare agents, through analysis of the resulting absorption spectrum. This work presents a selection of results from a prototype midwave infrared (MWIR) hyperspectral imaging instrument that has successfully been used for compound detection at a range of standoff distances. Active hyperspectral imaging utilises a broadly tunable laser source to illuminate the scene with light at a range of wavelengths. While there are a number of illumination methods, the chosen configuration illuminates the scene by raster scanning the laser beam using a pair of galvanometric mirrors. The resulting backscattered light from the scene is collected by the same mirrors and focussed onto a suitable single-point detector, where the image is constructed pixel by pixel. The imaging instrument that was developed in this work is based around an IR optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source with broad tunability, operating in the 2.6 to 3.7 μm (MWIR) and 1.5 to 1.8 μm (shortwave IR, SWIR) spectral regions. The MWIR beam was primarily used as it addressed the fundamental absorption features of the target compounds compared to the overtone and combination bands in the SWIR region, which can be less intense by more than an order of magnitude. We show that a prototype NCI instrument was able to locate hydrocarbon materials at distances up to 15 metres.

  4. Simulating Kinect Infrared and Depth Images.

    PubMed

    Landau, Michael J; Choo, Benjamin Y; Beling, Peter A

    2015-11-13

    With the emergence of the Microsoft Kinect sensor, many developer communities and research groups have found countless uses and have already published a wide variety of papers that utilize the raw depth images for their specific goals. New methods and applications that use the device generally require an appropriately large ensemble of data sets with accompanying ground truth for testing purposes, as well as accurate models that account for the various systematic and stochastic contributors to Kinect errors. Current error models, however, overlook the intermediate infrared (IR) images that directly contribute to noisy depth estimates. We, therefore, propose a high fidelity Kinect IR and depth image predictor and simulator that models the physics of the transmitter/receiver system, unique IR dot pattern, disparity/depth processing technology, and random intensity speckle and IR noise in the detectors. The model accounts for important characteristics of Kinect's stereo triangulation system, including depth shadowing, IR dot splitting, spreading, and occlusions, correlation-based disparity estimation between windows of measured and reference IR images, and subpixel refinement. Results show that the simulator accurately produces axial depth error from imaged flat surfaces with various tilt angles, as well as the bias and standard lateral error of an object's horizontal and vertical edge.

  5. High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

  6. Short wave infrared imager cockpit interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.

    2007-04-01

    With the introduction of the night-vision goggle (NVG) into vehicle cockpits, the transfer of visual information to the observer became more complex. This problem stems primarily from the fact that the image intensifier tube photocathode was sensitive to much of the visible spectrum. NVGs were capable of sensing and amplifying visible cockpit light, making the observation of the scene outside of the cockpit, the primary use for NVGs, difficult if not impossible. One solution was to establish mutually exclusive spectral bands; a band of shorter wavelengths reserved for transmission of visible information from the cockpit instrumentation to the observer and a longer wavelength region left to the night vision goggle for imaging the night environment. Several documents have been published outlining the night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatible lighting performance enabling this approach, seen as necessary for military and civilian aviation. Recent advances in short wave infrared (SWIR) sensor technology make it a possible alternative to the image intensifiers for night imaging application. However, application-specific integration issues surrounding the new sensor type must still be thoroughly investigated. This paper examines the impact of the SWIR spectral sensitivity on several categories of lighting found in vehicle cockpits and explores cockpit integration issues that may arise from the SWIR spectral sensitivity.

  7. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IV. Biases in the completeness of near-infrared imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snigula, J.; Drory, N.; Bender, R.; Botzler, C. S.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2002-11-01

    We present the results of completeness simulations for the detection of point sources as well as redshifted elliptical and spiral galaxies in the K'-band images of the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS). The main focus of this work is to quantify the selection effects introduced by threshold-based object detection algorithms used in deep imaging surveys. Therefore, we simulate objects obeying the well-known scaling relations between effective radius and central surface brightness, for both de Vaucouleurs and exponential profiles. The results of these simulations, while presented for the MUNICS project, are applicable in a much wider context to deep optical and near-infrared selected samples. We investigate the detection probability as well as the reliability for recovering the true total magnitude with Kron-like (adaptive) aperture photometry. The results are compared with the predictions of the visibility theory of Disney and Phillipps in terms of the detection rate and the lost-light fraction. Additionally, the effects attributable to seeing are explored. The results show a bias against detecting high-redshifted massive elliptical galaxies in comparison to disc galaxies with exponential profiles, and that the measurements of the total magnitudes for intrinsically bright elliptical galaxies are systematically too faint. Disc galaxies, in contrast, show no significant offset in the magnitude measurement of luminous objects. Finally, we present an analytic formula to predict the completeness of point sources using only basic image parameters.

  8. An infrared image enhancement algorithm based on HVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Rongkun; He, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yufeng

    2016-10-01

    Because the infrared images have the disadvantage of low contrast and fuzzy edges, it is not suitable for us to observe them, so it is necessary to first make enhanced processing before recognition. Though the existing enhancement methods do not take into account the characteristics of HVS, the visual effect of the processed images is not good. Therefore, the paper proposes an enhancement algorithm of infrared images that combine multi-resolution wavelet transform with Retinex theory, it blends with the characteristics of HVS in order to make high-frequency details of infrared images strengthen and illumination uniformity strength and the brightness of IR images moderate. Through experimental results and data analysis, it not only improves the infrared images of low contrast and fuzzy detail, but also suppresses the noise in images to strengthen the overall visual effect of the infrared images.

  9. Measurement and infrared image prediction of a heated exhaust flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Edward L.; Mahan, J. Robert; Turk, Jeffrey A.; Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Wardwell, Douglas A.; Hange, Craig E.

    1994-06-01

    The focus of the current research is to numerically predict an infrared image of a jet engine exhaust plume, given field variables such as temperature, pressure, and exhaust plume constituents as a function of spatial position within the plume, and to compare this predicted image directly with measured data. This work is motivated by the need to validate CFD codes through infrared imaging. The technique of reducing the 3D field-variable domain to a 2D infrared image invokes the use of an inverse Monte-Carlo ray trace algorithm and an infrared band model for exhaust gases. This paper describes an experiment in which the above- mentioned field variables were carefully measured. Data from this experiment in the form of velocity plots are shown. The inverse Monte-Carlo ray trace technique is described. Finally, an experimentally obtained infrared image is directly compared to an infrared image predicted from the measured field variables.

  10. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Gerda J; Hoveling, Richelle J M; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-09-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of infrared imaging indicate its suitability for many forensic applications, ranging from the estimation of time of death to the detection of blood stains on dark backgrounds. This paper provides an overview of the principles and instrumentation involved in infrared imaging. Difficulties concerning the image interpretation due to different radiation sources and different emissivity values within a scene are addressed. Finally, reported forensic applications are reviewed and supported by practical illustrations. When introduced in forensic casework, infrared imaging can help investigators to detect, to visualize, and to identify useful evidence nondestructively.

  11. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  12. Pain related inflammation analysis using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bardhan, Shawli; Das, Kakali; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nath, Satyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Medical Infrared Thermography (MIT) offers a potential non-invasive, non-contact and radiation free imaging modality for assessment of abnormal inflammation having pain in the human body. The assessment of inflammation mainly depends on the emission of heat from the skin surface. Arthritis is a disease of joint damage that generates inflammation in one or more anatomical joints of the body. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent appearing form of arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most threatening form of them. In this study, the inflammatory analysis has been performed on the infrared images of patients suffering from RA and OA. For the analysis, a dataset of 30 bilateral knee thermograms has been captured from the patient of RA and OA by following a thermogram acquisition standard. The thermograms are pre-processed, and areas of interest are extracted for further processing. The investigation of the spread of inflammation is performed along with the statistical analysis of the pre-processed thermograms. The objectives of the study include: i) Generation of a novel thermogram acquisition standard for inflammatory pain disease ii) Analysis of the spread of the inflammation related to RA and OA using K-means clustering. iii) First and second order statistical analysis of pre-processed thermograms. The conclusion reflects that, in most of the cases, RA oriented inflammation affects bilateral knees whereas inflammation related to OA present in the unilateral knee. Also due to the spread of inflammation in OA, contralateral asymmetries are detected through the statistical analysis.

  13. Image Quality Indicator for Infrared Inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The quality of images generated during an infrared thermal inspection depends on many system variables, settings, and parameters to include the focal length setting of the IR camera lens. If any relevant parameter is incorrect or sub-optimal, the resulting IR images will usually exhibit inherent unsharpness and lack of resolution. Traditional reference standards and image quality indicators (IQIs) are made of representative hardware samples and contain representative flaws of concern. These standards are used to verify that representative flaws can be detected with the current IR system settings. However, these traditional standards do not enable the operator to quantify the quality limitations of the resulting images, i.e. determine the inherent maximum image sensitivity and image resolution. As a result, the operator does not have the ability to optimize the IR inspection system prior to data acquisition. The innovative IQI described here eliminates this limitation and enables the operator to objectively quantify and optimize the relevant variables of the IR inspection system, resulting in enhanced image quality with consistency and repeatability in the inspection application. The IR IQI consists of various copper foil features of known sizes that are printed on a dielectric non-conductive board. The significant difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials ensures that each appears with a distinct grayscale or brightness in the resulting IR image. Therefore, the IR image of the IQI exhibits high contrast between the copper features and the underlying dielectric board, which is required to detect the edges of the various copper features. The copper features consist of individual elements of various shapes and sizes, or of element-pairs of known shapes and sizes and with known spacing between the elements creating the pair. For example, filled copper circles with various diameters can be used as individual elements to quantify the image sensitivity

  14. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-luminous Quasar with Outflows in Both Absorption and Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-05-01

    SDSS J163459.82+204936.0 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with L IR = 1011.91 {L}⊙ . We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy, appearing as an early-type galaxy in the optical images and spectra, demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ≈ 140 {M}⊙ yr-1, estimated from either the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hβ, He i λλ5876, 10830, and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ≈900 {km} {{{s}}}-1, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines (e.g., a blueshifted broad component of He i λ10830 and the bulk blueshifting of [O iii]λ5007), while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in Na i D and He i λλ3889, 10830, indicative of the active galactic nucleus outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs in the photoionization simulations with Cloudy, the physical properties of the absorption line outflow are derived as follows: density 104 < n H ≲ 105 cm-3, ionization parameter 10-1.3 ≲ U ≲ 10-0.7 , and column density 1022.5 ≲ N H ≲ 1022.9 cm-2, which are similar to those derived for the emission line outflows. This similarity suggests a common origin. Taking advantages of both the absorption lines and outflowing emission lines, we find that the outflow gas is located at a distance of ˜48-65 pc from the nucleus and that the kinetic luminosity of the outflow is 1044-1046 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. J1634+2049 has a off-centered galactic ring on the scale of ˜30 kpc that is proved to be formed by a recent head-on collision by a nearby galaxy for which we spectroscopically measure the redshift. Thus, this quasar is a valuable object in the transitional phase emerging out of dust enshrouding as depicted by the co-evolution scenario invoking galaxy merger (or

  15. Localisation of luminal epithelium edge in digital histopathology images of IHC stained slides of endometrial biopsies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guannan; Sanchez, Victor; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Quenby, Siobhan; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to abnormally high number of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells has recently been made possible by a protocol devised by Quenby et al. Hum Reprod 2009;24(1):45-54. The diagnosis involves detection and counting of stromal and uNK cell nuclei in endometrial biopsy slides immunohistochemically stained with haematoxylin for staining cell nuclei and CD56 as a marker for the uNK cells. However, manual diagnosis is a laborious process, fraught with subjective errors. In this paper, we present a novel method for detection of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the human female uterus lining and localisation of the luminal epithelium edge in endometrial biopsies. Specifically, we employ a local phase symmetry based method to detect stromal cell nuclei and propose an adaptive background removal method that significantly eases the segmentation of uNK cell nuclei regions. We also propose a novel method using alpha shapes for the identification of epithelial cell nuclei and B-Spline curve fitting on identified cell nuclei to localise the luminal epithelium edge. The objective of edge localisation is to avoid cell nuclei near the luminal epithelium edge being counted in the diagnosis process due to their non-relevance to the calculation of stromal to uNK cell ratio that determines the diagnosis of recurrent miscarriages in the end. The resulting algorithm offers a promising potential for computer-assisted diagnosis of recurrent miscarriage due to its high accuracy.

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopic Microscopy: Raman, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, E. Neil; Levin, Ira W.

    1995-02-01

    New instrumental approaches for performing vibrational Raman, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging microscopy are described. The instruments integrate imaging quality filters such as acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), with visible charge-coupled device (CCD) and infrared focal-plane array detectors. These systems are used in conjunction with infinity-corrected, refractive microscopes for operation in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions and with Cassegrainian reflective optics for operation in the mid-infrared spectral interval. Chemically specific images at moderate spectral resolution (2 nm) and high spatial resolution (1 [mu]m) can be collected rapidly and noninvasively. Image data are presented containing 128 × 128 pixels, although significantly larger format images can be collected in approximately the same time. The instruments can be readily configured for both absorption and reflectance spectroscopies. We present Raman emission images of polystyrene microspheres and a lipid/amino acid mixture and near-infrared images of onion epidermis and a hydrated phospholipid dispersion. Images generated from mid-infrared spectral data are presented for a KBr disk containing nonhomogeneous domains of lipid and for 50-[mu]m slices of monkey cerebellum. These are the first results illustrating the use of infrared focal-plane array detectors as chemically specific spectroscopic imaging devices and demonstrating their application in biomolecular areas. Extensions and future applications of the various vibrational spectroscopic imaging techniques are discussed.

  17. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  18. Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Gainer, Christian F.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G. Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Intraoperative applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents can be aided by instrumentation capable of merging the view of surgical field with that of NIR fluorescence. We demonstrate augmented microscopy, an intraoperative imaging technique in which bright-field (real) and electronically processed NIR fluorescence (synthetic) images are merged within the optical path of a stereomicroscope. Under luminance of 100,000 lx, representing typical illumination of the surgical field, the augmented microscope detects 189 nM concentration of indocyanine green and produces a composite of the real and synthetic images within the eyepiece of the microscope at 20 fps. Augmentation described here can be implemented as an add-on module to visualize NIR contrast agents, laser beams, or various types of electronic data within the surgical microscopes commonly used in neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, otolaryngological, and ophthalmic procedures. PMID:26440760

  19. Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeffrey R; Gainer, Christian F; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Intraoperative applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents can be aided by instrumentation capable of merging the view of surgical field with that of NIR fluorescence. We demonstrate augmented microscopy, an intraoperative imaging technique in which bright-field (real) and electronically processed NIR fluorescence (synthetic) images are merged within the optical path of a stereomicroscope. Under luminance of 100,000 lx, representing typical illumination of the surgical field, the augmented microscope detects 189 nM concentration of indocyanine green and produces a composite of the real and synthetic images within the eyepiece of the microscope at 20 fps. Augmentation described here can be implemented as an add-on module to visualize NIR contrast agents, laser beams, or various types of electronic data within the surgical microscopes commonly used in neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, otolaryngological, and ophthalmic procedures.

  20. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-04-20

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr{sup -1}. The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact ({<=}100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 {mu}m and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  1. The Nature of Hard X-Ray (3–24 keV) Detected Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Kenta; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the nature of far-infrared (70 μm) and hard X-ray (3–24 keV) selected galaxies in the COSMOS field detected with both Spitzer and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). By matching the Spitzer-COSMOS catalog with the NuSTAR-COSMOS catalog, we obtain a sample consisting of a hyperluminous infrared galaxy with {log}({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≥slant 13, 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies with 12≤slant {log} ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≤slant 13, and 10 luminous infrared galaxies with 11≤slant {log} ({L}{IR}/{L}ȯ )≤slant 12, i.e., 23 Hy/U/LIRGs in total. Using their X-ray hardness ratios, we find that 12 sources are obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with absorption column densities of {N}{{H}}> {10}22 cm‑2, including several Compton-thick ({N}{{H}}∼ {10}24 cm‑2) AGN candidates. On the basis of the infrared (60 μm) and intrinsic X-ray luminosities, we examine the relation between star formation (SF) and AGN luminosities of the 23 Hy/U/LIRGs. We find that the correlation is similar to that of the optically selected AGNs reported by Netzer, whereas local, far-infrared selected U/LIRGs show higher SF-to-AGN luminosity ratios than the average of our sample. This result suggests that our Hy/U/LIRGs detected both with Spitzer and NuSTAR are likely situated in a transition epoch between AGN-rising and cold-gas diminishing phases in SF-AGN evolutional sequences. The nature of a Compton-thick AGN candidate newly detected above 8 keV with NuSTAR (ID 245 in Civano et al.) is briefly discussed.

  2. The Space Density of Luminous Dusty Star-forming Galaxies at z > 4: SCUBA-2 and LABOCA Imaging of Ultrared Galaxies from Herschel-ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivison, R. J.; Lewis, A. J. R.; Weiss, A.; Arumugam, V.; Simpson, J. M.; Holland, W. S.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.; Omont, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Smail, Ian; Bertoldi, F.; Bremer, M.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Ibar, E.; Negrello, M.; Oteo, I.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Stevens, J. A.; Swinbank, A. M.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-11-01

    Until recently, only a handful of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) were known at z > 4, most of them significantly amplified by gravitational lensing. Here, we have increased the number of such DSFGs substantially, selecting galaxies from the uniquely wide 250, 350, and 500 μm Herschel-ATLAS imaging survey on the basis of their extremely red far-infrared colors and faint 350 and 500 μm flux densities, based on which, they are expected to be largely unlensed, luminous, rare, and very distant. The addition of ground-based continuum photometry at longer wavelengths from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment allows us to identify the dust peak in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with which we can better constrain their redshifts. We select the SED templates that are best able to determine photometric redshifts using a sample of 69 high-redshift, lensed DSFGs, then perform checks to assess the impact of the CMB on our technique, and to quantify the systematic uncertainty associated with our photometric redshifts, σ = 0.14 (1 + z), using a sample of 25 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, each consistent with our color selection. For Herschel-selected ultrared galaxies with typical colors of S 500/S 250 ˜ 2.2 and S 500/S 350 ˜ 1.3 and flux densities, S 500 ˜ 50 mJy, we determine a median redshift, {\\hat{z}}{phot}=3.66, an interquartile redshift range, 3.30-4.27, with a median rest-frame 8-1000 μm luminosity, {\\hat{L}}{IR}, of 1.3 × 1013 L ⊙. A third of the galaxies lie at z > 4, suggesting a space density, ρ z > 4, of ≈6 × 10-7 Mpc-3. Our sample contains the most luminous known star-forming galaxies, and the most overdense cluster of starbursting proto-ellipticals found to date.

  3. Infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter using birefringent prisms.

    PubMed

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Kudenov, Michael W; Stapelbroek, Maryn G; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2011-03-10

    A compact short-wavelength and middle-wavelength infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (IHIP) is introduced. The sensor includes a pair of sapphire Wollaston prisms and several high-order retarders to form an imaging Fourier transform spectropolarimeter. The Wollaston prisms serve as a birefringent interferometer with reduced sensitivity to vibration versus an unequal path interferometer, such as a Michelson. Polarimetric data are acquired through the use of channeled spectropolarimetry to modulate the spectrum with the Stokes parameter information. The collected interferogram is Fourier filtered and reconstructed to recover the spatially and spectrally varying Stokes vector data across the image. The IHIP operates over a ±5° field of view and implements a dual-scan false signature reduction technique to suppress polarimetric aliasing artifacts. In this paper, the optical layout and operation of the IHIP sensor are presented in addition to the radiometric, spectral, and polarimetric calibration techniques used with the system. Spectral and spectropolarimetric results from the laboratory and outdoor tests with the instrument are also presented.

  4. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    The Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI), a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. Thermal imaging of the sky from the ground provides high radiometric contrast during night and polar winter when visible sensors and downward-viewing thermal sensors experience low contrast. In addition to demonstrating successful operation in the Arctic for an extended period and providing data for Arctic cloud studies, a primary objective of this deployment was to validate novel instrument calibration algorithms that will allow more compact ICI instruments to be deployed without the added expense, weight, size, and operational difficulty of a large-aperture onboard blackbody calibration source. This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods produced daily-average cloud amount data sets with correlation coefficient = 0.99, mean difference = 0.0029 (i.e., 0.29% cloudiness), and a difference standard deviation = 0.054. Finally, the ICI instrument generally detected more thin clouds than reported by other ARM cloud products available as of late 2015.

  5. Ten-dollar thermal infrared imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Philip C. D.

    2001-12-01

    A thermal infrared imager of competitive sensitivity and very simple construction is presented. It is a pyroelectric device of 96 pixels, based on ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). It uses a novel charge-dispensing multiplexer based on ordinary light emitting diodes to achieve a noise-equivalent temperature change (NETD) of 0.13 K at a 5 Hz frame rate (2.1 Hz BW). Design information, theory, and measured performance are presented. Achieving such a low total system cost requires the use of the very least expensive optical system, a moulded polyethylene Fresnel lens, whose advantages and limitations are discussed. Several possible improvements, aggregating approximately 30 dB in sensitivity are also discussed, leading to the interesting possibility of few-millikelvin NETD values with an uncooled pyroelectric device of extremely low cost.

  6. High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, B.; Covelli, J.; Davinic, N.; Hailey, J.; Jones, E.; Ortiz, V.; Racine, J.; Satterwhite, D.; Spriesterbach, T.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A low earth orbiting platform for an infrared (IR) sensor payload is examined based on the requirements of a Naval Research Laboratory statement of work. The experiment payload is a 1.5-meter square by 0.5-meter high cubic structure equipped with the imaging system, radiators, and spacecraft mounting interface. The orbit is circular at 509 km (275 nmi) altitude and 70 deg. inclination. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized with pointing accuracy of plus or minus 0.5 deg. in each axis. The experiment payload requires two 15-minute sensing periods over two contiguous orbit periods for 30 minutes of sensing time per day. The spacecraft design is presented for launch via a Delta 2 rocket. Subsystem designs include attitude control, propulsion, electric power, telemetry, tracking and command, thermal design, structure, and cost analysis.

  7. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  9. Multi-Band Large Format Infrared Imaging Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D; Liu, John K.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Ting, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    Large-format and multi-band focal plane arrays (FPA) based on quantum well and quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed for various instruments such as imaging interferometers and hyperspectral imagers. The spectral response of these detectors are tailorable within the mid- and long-wavelength infrared bands.

  10. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ∼ 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ∼8% from local to z ≲ 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub −6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ∼20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub −8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ≲ 1 (U)LIRGs is only ∼17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ∼ 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ∼30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  11. Photothermal imaging through coherent infrared bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Yonat; Tepper, Michal; Harrington, James A.; Ben David, Moshe; Gannot, Israel

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to develop a photothermal imaging system through a coherent infrared bundle. This system will be used to determine the oxygenation level of various tissues, suspected malignant tissues in particular. The oxygenation estimation is preformed using a computerized algorithm. In order to evaluate the system, different bundle configurations were used for the determination of the optimal one. Bundle transmittance and the algorithm's estimation ability were measured, measurements were performed using agar phantoms consisting of varying ratios of Methylene Blue and ICG. A bundle consisting of 19 Teflon waveguides with a of 1.1mm was found to be the optimal configuration with an RMS of the error of 9.38%. At a second stage the system was validated on blood samples with varying oxygenation levels and there oxygenation levels were estimated. This stage had an RMS of the error of 10.16% for the oxygenation level estimation for samples with a 50% oxygenation level and higher. Once the basic system was validated successfully on agar phantoms and blood samples a portable system was designed and built in order to fit the system for portable use. The portable system consists of a white light illuminating source followed by filters transmitting certain wavelengths, a transmitting fiber, a thermal imaging bundle and a portable thermal camera. This portable system will be evaluated in order to have an adequate portable system for implementing the method out of the lab.

  12. Visible-Infrared Hyperspectral Image Projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The VisIR HIP generates spatially-spectrally complex scenes. The generated scenes simulate real-world targets viewed by various remote sensing instruments. The VisIR HIP consists of two subsystems: a spectral engine and a spatial engine. The spectral engine generates spectrally complex uniform illumination that spans the wavelength range between 380 nm and 1,600 nm. The spatial engine generates two-dimensional gray-scale scenes. When combined, the two engines are capable of producing two-dimensional scenes with a unique spectrum at each pixel. The VisIR HIP can be used to calibrate any spectrally sensitive remote-sensing instrument. Tests were conducted on the Wide-field Imaging Interferometer Testbed at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. The device is a variation of the calibrated hyperspectral image projector developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD. It uses Gooch & Housego Visible and Infrared OL490 Agile Light Sources to generate arbitrary spectra. The two light sources are coupled to a digital light processing (DLP(TradeMark)) digital mirror device (DMD) that serves as the spatial engine. Scenes are displayed on the DMD synchronously with desired spectrum. Scene/spectrum combinations are displayed in rapid succession, over time intervals that are short compared to the integration time of the system under test.

  13. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  14. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-06-14

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models.

  15. Cryogenic infrared imaging beryllium telescope for Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    The IRAS mission is the result of an international project involving the cooperation of the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. The Infrared Astronmical Satellite was placed into orbit on January 25, 1983. Its main function is to provide a survey of the entire sky as viewed in four octaves of infrared radiation in the wavelenth region from 8 to 120 microns. The cylindrical structure of the satellite contains a large dewar vessel with 70 liters of superfluid helium. The helium has the function to maintain the contents of the vessel at 2.5 K for the duration of the mission. The IRAS optics is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 24 inches aperture. Because of the operational requirements of the mission, it had been specified that all optical components should be beryllium. Attention is given to the cold performance test conducted with IRAS, plans for future infrared telescopes, and reflectance limits.

  16. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds.

  17. The method of infrared image simulation based on the measured image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shuli; Liu, Liang; Ren, Jiancun

    2015-10-01

    The development of infrared imaging guidance technology has promoted the research of infrared imaging simulation technology and the key of infrared imaging simulation is the generation of IR image. The generation of IR image is worthful in military and economy. In order to solve the problem of credibility and economy of infrared scene generation, a method of infrared scene generation based on the measured image is proposed. Through researching on optical properties of ship-target and sea background, ship-target images with various gestures are extracted from recorded images based on digital image processing technology. The ship-target image is zoomed in and out to simulate the relative motion between the viewpoint and the target according to field of view and the distance between the target and the sensor. The gray scale of ship-target image is adjusted to simulate the radiation change of the ship-target according to the distance between the viewpoint and the target and the atmospheric transmission. Frames of recorded infrared images without target are interpolated to simulate high frame rate of missile. Processed ship-target images and sea-background infrared images are synthetized to obtain infrared scenes according to different viewpoints. Experiments proved that this method is flexible and applicable, and the fidelity and the reliability of synthesis infrared images can be guaranteed.

  18. Infrared image enhancement based on human visual properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyu; Hui, Bin

    2015-10-01

    With the development of modern military, infrared imaging technology is widely used in this field. However, limited by the mechanism of infrared imaging and the detector, infrared images have the disadvantages of low contrast and blurry edge by comparison with the visible image. These shortcomings lead infrared image unsuitable to be observed by both human and computer. Thus image enhancement is required. Traditional image enhancement methods on the application of infrared image, without taking into account the human visual properties, is not convenient for the human observation. This article purposes a new method that combines the layering idea with the human visual properties to enhance the infrared image. The proposed method relies on bilateral filtering to separate a base component, which contains the large amplitude signal and must be compressed, from a detail component, which must be expanded because it contains the small signal variations related to fine texture. The base component is mapped into the proper range which is 8-bit using the human visual properties, and the detail component is applied the method of adaptive gain control. Finally, the two parts are recombined and quantized to 8-bit domain. Experimental results show that this algorithm exceeds most current image enhancement methods in solving the problems of low contrast and blurry detail.

  19. Dynamic infrared imaging for the detection of malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Terry M.; Li, Haifang; Fisher, Paul; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Dulaimy, Khaldoon; Li, Song; O'Hea, Brian; Salvitti, Mathew; Geronimo, Veronica; Geronimo, Christine; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Carvelli, Paola; Weiss, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The potential for malignancy detection using dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) has been investigated in an animal model of human malignancy. Malignancy was apparent in images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of tumour bearing mice. The observation of malignancy was removed by the administration of an agent that blocks vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO). Image patterns similar to those that characterize malignancy could be mimicked in normal mice using an NO producing agent. Apparently DIRI allows for cancer detection in this model through vasodilation caused by malignancy generated NO. Dynamic infrared detection of vasomotor and cardiogenic surface perfusion was validated in human subjects by a comparison with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Dynamic infrared imaging technology was then applied to breast cancer detection. It is shown that dynamic infrared images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of the normal and malignant breast have image pattern differences, which may allow for breast cancer detection.

  20. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging seemingly matured as a technology in the mid-2000s, with commercially successful instrumentation and reports in numerous applications. Recent developments, however, have transformed our understanding of the recorded data, provided capability for new instrumentation, and greatly enhanced the ability to extract more useful information in less time. These developments are summarized here in three broad areas— data recording, interpretation of recorded data, and information extraction—and their critical review is employed to project emerging trends. Overall, the convergence of selected components from hardware, theory, algorithms, and applications is one trend. Instead of similar, general-purpose instrumentation, another trend is likely to be diverse and application-targeted designs of instrumentation driven by emerging component technologies. The recent renaissance in both fundamental science and instrumentation will likely spur investigations at the confluence of conventional spectroscopic analyses and optical physics for improved data interpretation. While chemometrics has dominated data processing, a trend will likely lie in the development of signal processing algorithms to optimally extract spectral and spatial information prior to conventional chemometric analyses. Finally, the sum of these recent advances is likely to provide unprecedented capability in measurement and scientific insight, which will present new opportunities for the applied spectroscopist. PMID:23031693

  2. Photodetector Arrays for Multicolor Visible/Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Liu, John; Ting, David

    2006-01-01

    Monolithic focal-plane arrays of photodetectors capable of imaging the same scenes simultaneously in multiple wavelength bands in the visible and infrared spectral regions have been proposed. In prior visible/infrared imaging systems, it has been standard practice to use separate optical trains to form images in visible and infrared wavelength bands on separate visibleand infrared-photodetector arrays. Because the proposal would enable the detection of images in multiple wavelength bands on the same focal plane, the proposal would make it unnecessary to use multiple optical trains. Hence, multispectral imaging systems could be made more compact and the difficulties of aligning multiple optical trains would be eliminated. Each pixel in an array according to the proposal would contain stacks of several photodetectors. The proposal is a logical extension of prior concepts of arrays of stacked photodetectors for imaging in two or three wavelength bands. For example, such an array was described in Three-Color Focal-Plane Array of Infrared QWIPs (NPO-20683), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 5 (May 2000), page 26a. In one proposed design, (see figure), each pixel would be divided into four subpixels, one being dedicated to a visible- and-near-infrared (V) band, one to a combination of the V band and a verylong- wavelength infrared (VLWIR) band, one to a combination of the V band and a long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) band, and one to a combination of the V band and a medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR) band. For this purpose, each subpixel would include a GaAs-based positive/intrinsic/negative (PIN) photodiode for detection in the V band stacked with three quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), each optimized for one of the aforementioned infrared bands. The stacks of photodetectors in all the subpixels would be identical except for the electrical connections, which would be configured to activate the various wavelengthband combinations.

  3. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    understanding of the formation of solar-type stars and planetary systems from the interstellar medium. However, in most cases the large difference of brightness between the young star and its surrounding material makes it impossible to image directly the circumstellar disk. But when the disk is seen nearly edge-on, the light from the central star will be blocked out by the dust grains in the disk. Other grains below and above the disk midplane scatter the stellar light, producing a typical pattern of a dark lane between two reflection nebulae. The first young stellar object (YSO) found to display this typical pattern, HH 30 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud at a distance of about 500 light-years (140 pc), was imaged by the Hubble Space telescope (HST) in 1996. Edge-on disks have since also been observed with ground-based telescopes in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, sometimes by means of adaptive optics techniques or speckle imaging, or under very good sky image quality, cf. ESO PR Photo 03d/01 with a VLT image of such an object in the Orion Nebula. A surprise discovery ESO PR Photo 12a/02 ESO PR Photo 12a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 459 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 918 pix - 352k] Caption : PR Photo 12a/02 shows a three-colour reproduction of the discovery image of strange-looking object (nicknamed the "Flying Saucer" by the astronomers), obtained with the SOFI multi-mode instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory. Compared to the unresolved stars in the field, the image of this object appears extended. Two characteristic reflection nebulae are barely visible, together with a marginally resolved dark dust lane in front of the star and oriented East-West. Technical information about the photo is available below. Last year, a group of astronomers [1] carried out follow-up observations of new X-ray sources found by the ESA XMM-Newton and NASA Chandra X-ray satellites. They were looking at the periphery of the so-called Rho

  4. Luminous supernovae.

    PubMed

    Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2012-08-24

    Supernovae, the luminous explosions of stars, have been observed since antiquity. However, various examples of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe; luminosities >7 × 10(43) ergs per second) have only recently been documented. From the accumulated evidence, SLSNe can be classified as radioactively powered (SLSN-R), hydrogen-rich (SLSN-II), and hydrogen-poor (SLSN-I, the most luminous class). The SLSN-II and SLSN-I classes are more common, whereas the SLSN-R class is better understood. The physical origins of the extreme luminosity emitted by SLSNe are a focus of current research.

  5. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy Survey: Infrared Imaging and Photometry for 258 Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Daniel A.; LVL Team

    2009-01-01

    Near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the Local Volume Legacy survey, a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program built upon a foundation of GALEX ultraviolet and ground-based Hα imaging of 258 galaxies within 11 Mpc. The Local Volume Legacy survey covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the faintest absolute depth and highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies (such as from SINGS, the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) with improved sampling of the low-luminosity dwarf galaxy population. LVL's unique sample selection results in a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of PAH emission from low-metallicity galaxies. Conversely, the LVL sample shows a tighter correlation in the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio versus ultraviolet spectral slope, due in large part to the lack of luminous early-type galaxies in the Local Volume.

  6. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korsah, Kofi [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  7. Translation of infrared chemical imaging for cardiovascular evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Raman, Jai; Reddy, Vijaya; Dawson, Miranda; Bhargava, Rohit

    2016-03-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging has been applied to study histology of cardiovascular tissue, primarily using Fourier transform IR (FTIR) Imaging. Here we describe results for histologic imaging of cardiac biopsies using a fast, discrete frequency IR (DFIR) imaging system. Histologic classification of tissue is understood in terms of the constituent frequencies and speeded up by careful optimization of the data acquired. Results are compared to FTIR imaging in terms of the signal to noise ratio and information content.

  8. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Levin, Ira W.

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis. PMID:19684917

  10. A small deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao; Wang, Baohua; Wu, Peng; Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive membrane imaging can be widely used in infrared band due to its longer minimum linewidth and loose requirement of RMS to fabricate more easily and reduce production period and manufacturing cost than used in visible band. A deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system was designed, consisting of Φ200mm imaging aperture (actual aperture is Φ500mm) and deployable structure that supports the infrared membrane under tension. Its spectral band width is >1.2μm, field of view is >1°, and diffractive efficiency can be >60%. Stowed size is 150mm×150mm×400mm. Research result of this project can promote the application of diffractive membrane imaging in infrared band and provide an effective and feasible means for achieving extremely large optical primary mirror from compact, lightweight payload.

  11. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  12. Local luminance effect on spatial summation in the foveal vision and its implication on image artifact classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Lin, San-Yuan; Han, Hui-Ya G.; Kuo, Sheng-Tzung; Huang, Kuo-Chung

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the spatial summation effect on pedestals with difference luminance. The targets were luminance modulation defined by Gaussian functions. The size of the Gaussian spot was determined by the scale parameter (standard deviation, σ) which ranged from 0.13°to 1.04°. The local luminance pedestal (2° radius) had mean luminance ranged from 2.9 to 29cd/m2. The no-pedestal condition had a mean luminance 58cd/m2. We used a QUEST adaptive threshold seeking procedure and 2AFC paradigm to measure the target contrast threshold at different target sizes (spatial summation curve) and pedestal luminance. The target threshold decreased as the target spatial extent increased with a slope -0.5 on log-log coordinates. However, if the target size was large enough (σ>0.3°), there was little, if any, threshold reduction as the target size further increased. The spatial summation curve had the same shape at all pedestal luminance levels. The effect of the pedestal was to shift the summation curve vertically on log-log coordinates. Hence, the size and the luminance effects on target detection are separable. The visibility of the Gaussian spot can be modeled by a function with a form f(L)*g(σ) where f(L) is a function of local luminance and g(σ) is a function of size.

  13. Detection of small objects in multi-layered infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Shangqi; Ralph, Jason F.; Goulermas, John Y.

    2008-04-01

    This paper uses super-resolution methods to detect small objects in infrared image sequences from a simulated airborne platform, using image registration techniques for automatic sightline stabilisation. The scene consists of multiple layers, corresponding to a static background scene and layers of cloud cover at varying heights. The motivation is to evaluate the performance of super-resolution methods in the presence of three-dimensional structured infrared clutter.

  14. Comparison of image deconvolution algorithms on simulated and laboratory infrared images

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, D.

    1994-11-15

    We compare Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Entropy, Accelerated Lucy-Richardson, Weighted Goodness of Fit, and Pixon reconstructions of simple scenes as a function of signal-to-noise ratio for simulated images with randomly generated noise. Reconstruction results of infrared images taken with the TAISIR (Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed) are also discussed.

  15. Infrared imaging simulation and detection of ship wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Chang, Shizheng; Xu, Enchi; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Ye; Zhao, Xiaolong; Du, Yongchen; Kou, Wei; Fan, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    The thermal wake would be formed owing to the cooling water or exhaust heat discharged by ship, and the cold wake could be formed by the cool water in the lower part of sea stirred up by the ship propeller or vortexes. Owing to the difference of surface temperature and emissivity between the ship wake and the surrounding ocean the ship wake will be easily detected by the infrared detecting system. The wave of wake also could be detected by the difference of reflected radiance between the background and the Kelvin wake of ship. In this paper the simulating models of infrared imaging of ship wake are developed based on the selfradiation of wake, the reflected radiance of the sky and sun and the transmitted radiance of atmosphere, and the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are investigated. The results show that the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake can be really simulated by the models proposed in this paper. The effects of the detecting height, the angle of view, the NETD of detector and the temperature of wake on the infrared imaging signatures of ship wake are studied. The temperature difference between the ship wake and surrounding ocean is a main fact which effects on the detecting distance. The infrared imaging signatures of ship wake in 8-14μm wave band is stronger than that in 2-5μm wave band whenever the temperature of ship wake is warmer or cooler than the surrounding ocean. Further, the infrared imaging of thermal wake is investigated in the homogenous water and temperature stratified water at different speed of a ship and different flow rate and depth of the discharged water in a water tank. The spreading and decaying laws of infrared signature of ship wake are obtained experimentally. The results obtained in this paper have an important application in the infrared remote sensing of ship wake.

  16. Near-infrared imaging of Markarian 231: Evidence for a double nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Soifer, B. T.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J. R.; Larkin, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Near-infrared (1.2-2.4 micrometers) images are presented for the central 10 arcsec of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Markarian 231. We find a faint, but intrinsically luminous (M(sub k) approximately -20.7) secondary peak in the near-infrared light distribution approximately 3.5 arcsec (2.7 kpc) south of the primary Seyfert 1 nucleus. Since there is no optical or infrared evidence for ongoing star formation at the location of this secondary peak, and its near-infrared luminosity and color are comparable to slightly reddened spiral bulges or elliptical nuclei, we identify this peak with the stripped nucleus of the companion galaxy involved in the Mrk 231 merger event. Depending upon the exact ratio of the masses of the primary and secondary nucleus in the Mrk 231 system we estimate a merger time scale of less than or equal to 10(exp 9) yr. The morphology of the southern nucleus suggests that it may have recently survived a close passage (r less than 200 pc) with the Seyfert 1 nucleus on a highly elliptical orbit, in which case the merger time scale may be significantly shorter (approximately 10(exp 7) yr. We re-calculate the average merger time scale for the seven ultraluminous infrared galaxies with double nuclei in the Bright Galaxy Sample (the BGS) of Soifer et al. (AJ, 98, 766 (1989)) and derive a value of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. Since seven of ten of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the BGS are now known to be double, we estimate the ultraluminous 'phase' may be close to this value. Along with Arp 220 and Mrk 273, Mrk 231 is the third member of the class to possess a high brightness temperature non-thermal radio core and a double nucleus, suggesting the time scale for the generation or fueling of the active nucleus can be much less than the dynamical time scale for the merger of the progenitor nuclei.

  17. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  18. Uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ma, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Zhejiang Dali Technology Co. Ltd. is one of the major players in the China Infrared industry. The company has been working on infrared imagers using uncooled FPAs for about 15 years. It started the research and development of uncooled microbolometer detectors since 2006, and has brought several uncooled detectors into mass production, including 35um 384x288, 25um 160x120, 384x288, 640x480, and 17um 384x288, 640x480. In this presentation, we will describe the uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology.

  19. Bionic research of pit vipers on infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan; Cheng, Teng; Wu, Xiaoping

    2015-07-27

    The members of viperidae crotalinae (pit viper) family have special pit organs to detect infrared radiation in normal room conditions, whereas most artificial uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) operate only in a vacuum chamber. Dissection shows that the pit membrane is a unique substrate-free structure. The temperature rise advantage of this pit organ was verified in comparison with an assumed substrate pit organ (as an artificial FPA structure). Inspired by the pit viper, we introduced this structure to infrared FPA, replacing the conventional substrate FPA. The substrate-free FPA was fabricated by micro-elctromechanical systems (MEMS) process and placed into an infrared imaging system to obtain thermal images of the human body in atmosphere and vacuum working conditions. We show that the infrared capability of the substrate-free pit organ was achieved.

  20. Infrared image super-resolution via transformed self-similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Wei; Han, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lian-fa

    2017-03-01

    Single image super-resolution is of great importance in computer vision. Various methods (e.g. learning methods) have been successfully developed in recent years. Despite the demonstrated success in the natural images, less research focuses on the infrared images. In this paper, we present a transformed self-similarity based super-resolution method without any learning priors, restore high-resolution infrared images from low-resolution ones. We exploit appearance similarity, dense error, and region covariances, and use the detected cues to guide the patch search process. We also add scale cue to consider local scale variations. We then present a compositional framework to simultaneously accommodate the four different cues. Experimental results demonstrate that our method performs better than previous methods, restores pleasant results, and high evaluate scores further show the effectiveness and robustness of our method for the infrared images.

  1. The technology of forest fire detection based on infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Guo-juan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wang, Suo-jian

    2013-09-01

    According to infrared imaging features of forest fire, we use image processing technology which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. We use image processing technology based on infrared imaging features of forest fire which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. In order to the timeliness and accuracy of fire detection, this paper proposes a forest fire detection method based on infrared image technology. We take gray histogram analysis to collected Cruising image. The image which will be detected is segmented by the adaptive dynamic threshold. Then the suspected ignitions are extracted in the image after segmentation. The ignition of forest fire which form image in the infrared image is almost circular. We use the circular degree of suspected ignition as the decision basis of the fire in the infrared image. Through the analysis of position correlation which is the same suspected ignition between adjacent frames, we judge whether there is a fire in the image. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method, we adopt image sequences of forest fire to do experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm under the conditions of different light conditions and complex backgrounds, which can effectively eliminate distractions and extract the fire target. The accuracy fire detection rate is above 95 percent. All fire can be detected. The method can quickly identify fire flame and high-risk points of early fire. The structure of method is clear and efficient which processing speed is less than 25 frames per second. So it meets the application requirement of real-time processing.

  2. Direct Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Sub-10 nm “Luminous Pearls” with Enhanced in Vivo Renewable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wu, Xiang; ...

    2015-04-02

    Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs), possessing unique NIR PL properties, have recently emerged as important materials for a wide variety of applications in chemistry and biology, for which they must endure high-temperature solid-state annealing reactions and subsequent complicated physical post-treatments. Herein, we report on a first direct aqueous-phase chemical synthesis route to NIR PLNPs and present their enhanced in vivo renewable NIR PL. Our method leads to monodisperse PLNPs as small as ca. 8 nm. Such sub-10 nm nanocrystals are readily dispersed and functionalized, and can form stable colloidal solutions in aqueous solution and cell culture medium for biologicalmore » applications. Under biotissue-penetrable red-light excitation, we found that such nanocrystals possess superior renewable PL photoluminescence in vitro and in vivo compared to their larger counterparts currently made by existing methods. In conclusion, we believe that this solid-state-reaction-free chemical approach overcomes the current key roadblock in regard to PLNP development, and thus will pave the way to broad use of these advanced miniature “luminous pearls” in photonics and biophotonics.« less

  3. Direct Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Sub-10 nm “Luminous Pearls” with Enhanced in Vivo Renewable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Wu, Xiang; Huang, Ling; Li, Dongsheng; Fan, Wei; Han, Gang

    2015-04-02

    Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs), possessing unique NIR PL properties, have recently emerged as important materials for a wide variety of applications in chemistry and biology, for which they must endure high-temperature solid-state annealing reactions and subsequent complicated physical post-treatments. Herein, we report on a first direct aqueous-phase chemical synthesis route to NIR PLNPs and present their enhanced in vivo renewable NIR PL. Our method leads to monodisperse PLNPs as small as ca. 8 nm. Such sub-10 nm nanocrystals are readily dispersed and functionalized, and can form stable colloidal solutions in aqueous solution and cell culture medium for biological applications. Under biotissue-penetrable red-light excitation, we found that such nanocrystals possess superior renewable PL photoluminescence in vitro and in vivo compared to their larger counterparts currently made by existing methods. In conclusion, we believe that this solid-state-reaction-free chemical approach overcomes the current key roadblock in regard to PLNP development, and thus will pave the way to broad use of these advanced miniature “luminous pearls” in photonics and biophotonics.

  4. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing of Infrared Astronomical Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lun Xiong

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) images with wavelengths of 60 mu m and 100 mu m contain mainly information on both extra-galactic sources and low-temperature interstellar media. The low-temperature interstellar media in the Milky Way impose a "cirrus" screen of IRAS images, especially in images with 100 mu m wavelength. This dissertation deals with the techniques of removing the "cirrus" clouds from the 100 mu m band in order to achieve accurate determinations of point sources and their intensities (fluxes). We employ an image filtering process which utilizes mathematical morphology and wavelet analysis as the key tools in removing the "cirrus" foreground emission. The filtering process consists of extraction and classification of the size information, and then using the classification results in removal of the cirrus component from each pixel of the image. Extraction of size information is the most important step in this process. It is achieved by either mathematical morphology or wavelet analysis. In the mathematical morphological method, extraction of size information is done using the "sieving" process. In the wavelet method, multi-resolution techniques are employed instead. The classification of size information distinguishes extra-galactic sources from cirrus using their averaged size information. The cirrus component for each pixel is then removed by using the averaged cirrus size information. The filtered image contains much less cirrus. Intensity alteration for extra-galactic sources in the filtered image are discussed. It is possible to retain the fluxes of the point sources when we weigh the cirrus component differently pixel by pixel. The importance of the uni-directional size information extractions are addressed in this dissertation. Such uni-directional extractions are achieved by constraining the structuring elements, or by constraining the sieving process to be sequential. The generalizations of mathematical morphology operations based

  5. High Angular Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Young Stars in Orion BN/KL

    SciTech Connect

    greenhill, l

    2004-06-25

    The authors present Keck LWS images of the Orion BN/KL star forming region obtained in the first multi-wavelength study to have 0.3--0.5 resolution from 4.7 {micro}m to 22 {micro}m. The young stellar objects designed infrared source n and radio source I are believed to dominate the BN/KL region. They have detected extended emission from a probable accretion disk around source n but infer a stellar luminosity on the order of only 2000 L{sub {center_dot}}. Although source I is believed to be more luminous, they do not detect an infrared counterpart even at the longest wavelengths. However, they resolve the closeby infrared source, IRc2, into an arc of knots {approx} 10{sup 3} AU long at all wavelengths. Although the physical relation of source I to IRc2 remains ambiguous, they suggest these sources mark a high density core (10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} pc{sup -3} over {approx} 10{sup 3} AU) within the larger BN/KL star forming cluster. The high density may be a consequence of the core being young and heavily embedded. The authors suggest the energetics of the BN/KL region may be dominated by this cluster core rather than one or two individual sources.

  6. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  7. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  8. Infrared digital imaging of the equine anterior segment.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Richard J; Clode, Alison B; Gilger, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    Ocular photographs are an increasingly important method of documenting lesions for inclusion in medical records, teaching purposes, and research. Availability of affordable high-quality digital imaging equipment has allowed for enhanced capture of desired images because of immediate on-camera viewing and editing. Conversion of the standard digital camera sensor to one that is sensitive to infrared light (i.e. > 760 nm < 1 mm wavelength) can be done inexpensively. In the equine eye, advantages of infrared digital photography include increased contrast of anterior segment images, identification and monitoring of pigmentary changes, and increased visualization of the anterior segment through a cloudy or edematous cornea.

  9. Stripe noise removal for infrared images using guided filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengwei; Xiang, Wei; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Pixels of different columns in the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) have different readout circuit channels, amplifiers in different channels, different 1/f noise characteristics. Such noise may cause obvious stripe noise in the infrared images and degrades the quality of captured images. First, analyzed a stripe noise removal method making use of blurred infrared image based on average filter and pointed out the limitation in this method. Then, gave the reason that lead to the limitation. On the basis of this, introduced guided filter, and came up with an acquiring strip noise correction term method using 1D guided filter to handle the average row vector of the blurred image. The simulation experiment shows that this method is effective and efficient in removing stripe noise. Moreover, this method has a low time complexity, and can be easily implemented in the project.

  10. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  11. Violent cookoff reactions in HMX-based explosives in DDT tubes: Tracking luminous waves with streak imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Gary; Dickson, Peter; Asay, Blaine W.; Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; McAfee, John

    2012-03-01

    Recent implementation of modern high-speed video cameras has permitted the experimental flexibility needed to revisit classic deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) tube experiments and capture novel and valuable results displaying the progression of luminous reaction from a cookoff event. The authors present select data from a series of experiments where the HMX-based high explosives PBX 9501 and LX-07 were heated above 180°C for various durations to impose damage (i.e. phase transitions and void generation) before being driven to cook off. These two explosives have different polymeric binders, HMX mass fractions and cook off responses and a comparison between the two offers mechanistic insights on how thermal explosions evolve. From this series, results will be displayed indicating a wide range of violence from somewhat mild pressure bursts, to intermediate power compressive burns, to high-violence DDT. Image data from high temperature DDT tube experiments, where the explosive was ignited on one end, were also collected and will be included for comparison.

  12. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (<5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  13. Aural stealth of portable cryogenically cooled infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Vilenchick, Herman; Broyde, Ramon; Pundak, Nachman

    2006-05-01

    Novel tactics for carrying out military and antiterrorist operations calls for the development of a new generation of portable infrared imagers, the focal plane arrays of which are maintained at a cryogenic temperature. The rotary Stirling cryogenic engines providing for this cooling are usually mounted directly upon the light thin-walled imager frame, which is used for optical alignment, mechanical stability and heat sinking. The known disadvantage of this design approach is that the wideband vibration export produced by the cooler results in structural resonances and therefore in excessive noise radiation from the above imagers. The "noisy" thermal imager may be detected from quite a long distance using acoustic equipment relying upon a high-sensitive unidirectional microphone or aurally spotted when used in a close proximity to the opponent force. As a result, aural stealth along with enhanced imagery, compact design, low power consumption and long life-times become a crucial figure of merit characterising the modern infrared imager. Achieving the desired inaudibility level is a challenging task. As a matter of fact, even the best examples of modern "should-be silent" infrared imagers are quite audible from as far as 50 meters away even when operating in a steady-state mode. The authors report on the successful effort of designing the inaudible at greater then 10 meters cryogenically cooled infrared imager complying with the stringent MIL-STD-1774D (Level II) requirements.

  14. New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the “Cosmic Shore” program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of <2 h of video. Sprites tend to appear in a single frame simultaneously with maximum lightning brightness. Unique images (a) from nadir of a sprite horizontally displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

  15. Infrared imaging: a potential powerful tool for neuroimaging and neurodiagnostics.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Gunapala, Sarath D

    2017-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is used to detect the subtle changes in temperature needed to accurately detect and monitor disease. Technological advances have made IR a highly sensitive and reliable detection tool with strong potential in medical and neurophotonics applications. An overview of IR imaging specifically investigating quantum well IR detectors developed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a noninvasive, nonradiating imaging tool is provided, which could be applied for neuroscience and neurosurgery where it involves sensitive cellular temperature change.

  16. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  17. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  18. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  19. Arrays of Nano Tunnel Junctions as Infrared Image Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong S.; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Infrared image sensors based on high density rectangular planar arrays of nano tunnel junctions have been proposed. These sensors would differ fundamentally from prior infrared sensors based, variously, on bolometry or conventional semiconductor photodetection. Infrared image sensors based on conventional semiconductor photodetection must typically be cooled to cryogenic temperatures to reduce noise to acceptably low levels. Some bolometer-type infrared sensors can be operated at room temperature, but they exhibit low detectivities and long response times, which limit their utility. The proposed infrared image sensors could be operated at room temperature without incurring excessive noise, and would exhibit high detectivities and short response times. Other advantages would include low power demand, high resolution, and tailorability of spectral response. Neither bolometers nor conventional semiconductor photodetectors, the basic detector units as proposed would partly resemble rectennas. Nanometer-scale tunnel junctions would be created by crossing of nanowires with quantum-mechanical-barrier layers in the form of thin layers of electrically insulating material between them (see figure). A microscopic dipole antenna sized and shaped to respond maximally in the infrared wavelength range that one seeks to detect would be formed integrally with the nanowires at each junction. An incident signal in that wavelength range would become coupled into the antenna and, through the antenna, to the junction. At the junction, the flow of electrons between the crossing wires would be dominated by quantum-mechanical tunneling rather than thermionic emission. Relative to thermionic emission, quantum mechanical tunneling is a fast process.

  20. ASTRO-F : Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, T.

    The ASTRO-F (also known as Infrared Imaging Surveyor: IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan to be launched early 2004 with the M-V rocket and is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. It has a 67-cm aperture telescope and is cooled by 170-liter liquid helium and Stirling-cycle coolers. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers 2 to 26 μm range with large two-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes and will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS), consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer, covers 50 to 200 μm range and makes a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20 110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30'' 50''), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than IRAS. A brief description and the current status of the ASTRO-F mission are presented.

  1. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  2. Enhanced Infrared Surveillance Imaging Report for NA-22

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2005-10-04

    The purpose of this report is to describe our work on enhanced infrared (IR) surveillance using speckle imaging for NA-22. Speckle imaging in this context is an image post-processing algorithm that aims to solve the atmospheric blurring problem of imaging through horizontal or slant path turbulence. We will describe the IR imaging systems used in our data collections and show imagery before and after speckle processing. We will also compare IR imagery with visible wavelength imagery of the same target in the same conditions and demonstrate how going to longer wavelengths can be beneficial in the presence of strong turbulence.

  3. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  4. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  5. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-07

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook.

  6. Near infrared imaging of Uranus and Neptune

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.A.

    1984-10-01

    Imaging of Uranus and Neptune in the deep methane absorption band at 890nm is used to detect high altitude atmospheric hazes and to search for possible undiscovered close in satellites. The appearances of Uranus and Neptune are very different from one another and Uranus seems to be changing with time. The Neptune images show rotation in the direct sense.

  7. OT2_tdiazsan_1: Size is Not Everything: A PACS Emission Line Study of the Most Compact Infrared-luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.

    2011-09-01

    Recent results based on far-infrared (IR) data obtained with Herschel strongly suggest the existence of two modes of star formation that apply to low and high-redshift galaxies: a quiescent mode for disks (or main-sequence galaxies) and a starburst mode probably associated with more efficient nuclear, compact star formation. This dichotomy implies that the properties of the inter stellar medium (ISM) in these two types of systems must be substantially different. We have used the mid- to far-IR colors of galaxies as a proxy for their compactness to select a sample of local, compact luminous IR galaxies ((U)LIRGs; LIR >= 10^11 Lsun) from the IRAS 12-micron sample. Our sample of 73 compact (U)LIRGs includes both Seyfert galaxies as well as purely star-forming systems, and therefore is not biased towards active galaxies only. We will observe the key far-IR [CII]158, [OI]63, and [OIII]88 micron emission lines with Herschel/PACS and use models of photo-dissociation regions (PDRs), shocks, X-ray dissociation regions (XDRs), and dusty AGNs to derive the main physical parameters of the ISM in this important class of systems, which are not being targeted by any Herschel project. Our proposed galaxy sample bridges the gap between other studies focused on the analysis of local galaxies with a range of IR luminosities, mid- to far-IR colors, or more spatially extended IR emission, providing a wider view of the star formation and nuclear activity in local IR-bright galaxies in extreme environments, and thus adding a significant contribution to the Herschel legacy. The total time requested for achieving this goal is 89.8 hours.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  9. Proposal generation method for object detection in infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ning; Jiang, Feng; Yan, Hengchao; Liu, Jixin; Han, Guang

    2017-03-01

    In an infrared image, there is a significant difference between the region of the interested object and its surrounding background. Based on this observation, we propose an effective and efficient proposal generation method which uses a Multi-layer and Multi-size Superpixel Segmentation (MMSS) scheme for object detection in the infrared image. The SLIC (Simple Linear Iterative Clustering) algorithm is applied to partition an infrared image into multi-layer and multi-size superpixels. In each layer, only the individual superpixel and the merging of two adjacent superpixels are used to create the candidate pool of object proposals. A superpixel-based center-surround feature is then defined to measure the discrepancy between the region of the proposal and its surrounding background. To evaluate the performance of the MMSS-based method of proposal generation method, we create an Infrared Interested Object Image Dataset (IIOID), in which the infrared images are collected from several benchmarks and the ground-truth of the interested object segmentation is manually labeled. Compared with several state-of-the-art methods of proposal generation on IIOID, the MMSS-based method has overwhelming superiority in detection recall under different Intersection over Union (IoU) thresholds and is convenient for computation. Furthermore, we implement the MMSS-based method as a processing step for pedestrian detection. Experimental results on benchmark infrared pedestrian image dataset show that the detectors with our method of proposal generation method can greatly reduce the number of candidate windows to be detected and also suppress false positives.

  10. Design of infrared diffractive telescope imaging optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ZhouFeng; Hu, BingLiang; Yin, QinYe; Xie, YongJun; Kang, FuZeng; Wang, YanJun

    2015-10-01

    Diffractive telescope is an updated imaging technology, it differs from conventional refractive and reflective imaging system, which is based on the principle of diffraction image. It has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight telescope. However, one of the great challenges of design this optical system is that the diffractive optical element focuses on different wavelengths of light at different point in space, thereby distorting the color characteristics of image. In this paper, we designs a long-wavelength infrared diffractive telescope imaging system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the infrared optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens, achieving broadband light(from 8μm-12μm) to a common focus with 4.6° field of view. At last, the diffuse spot size and MTF function provide diffractive-limited performance.

  11. Near Infrared (nir) Spectral Imaging for Nde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, G. G.; Hutchins, D. A.; Pallav, P.; Gohel, R.

    2009-03-01

    A novel technique of NIR imaging is presented that gives access to most of the applications currently published as being solely suitable for terahertz waves. This technique also affords the means to provide simultaneous insitu chemical-bond analysis and simultaneously combine chemical/spectral identification with imaging. The two separate features of the technique can be combined in a data fusion that produces a conventional image with chemical data etc superimposed (e.g. via false colours on the image) by imaging software. The technique itself uses NIR beams wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls (circa 850 nm) and various signal recovery techniques commonly found in astronomy. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use and no special sources are required. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from several industrial examples and various security applications and are compared and contrasted directly with their terahertz-derived counterparts. It would appear possible to very cheaply and simply emulate the performance of commercial terahertz systems at a fraction of the cost and with greatly reduced processing times. Also, unlike terahertz, this technique can penetrate bulk water and high humidity atmospheres and be used in transmission mode on biological and medical samples. To illustrate this point, several results are presented of non-ionising x-ray type images that even differentiate between separate types of soft tissue.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Prostate Pathology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    1999) J Biomed Opt 4: 14 –21 13. Kidder LH, Kalasinsky VF , Luke JL, Levin IW, Lewis EN (1997) Nat Medicine 3:235–237 14 . Ellis DI, Goodacre R (2006...not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 14 -03-2008 2...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 FEB 2007 - 14 FEB 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0242 Infrared

  13. Reduction and analysis techniques for infrared imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Infrared detector arrays are becoming increasingly available to the astronomy community, with a number of array cameras already in use at national observatories, and others under development at many institutions. As the detector technology and imaging instruments grow more sophisticated, more attention is focussed on the business of turning raw data into scientifically significant information. Turning pictures into papers, or equivalently, astronomy into astrophysics, both accurately and efficiently, is discussed. Also discussed are some of the factors that can be considered at each of three major stages; acquisition, reduction, and analysis, concentrating in particular on several of the questions most relevant to the techniques currently applied to near infrared imaging.

  14. The Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, S. N.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Guzmán, R.; Gruel, N.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Glenn, P.; Hull-Allen, G.; Myrick, B.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.

    2007-06-01

    We report on the design, manufacture, and scientific performance of the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Astrophysics and Cosmology (FISICA), a fully cryogenic all-reflective image slicing integral field unit (IFU) for the FLAMINGOS near-infrared spectrograph (Elston et al.003). We find that FISICA is capable of delivering excellent scientific results. It now operates as a turnkey instrument at the KPNO 4-m telescope via collaboration with the instrument team, who can assist with the proposal preparation and observations, as well as provide the data reduction tools for integral field spectroscopy.

  15. Nondestructive evaluation technique using infrared thermography and terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Shiozawa, Daiki; Tamaki, Yoshitaka; Iwama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques using pulse heating infrared thermography and terahertz (THz) imaging were developed for detecting deterioration of oil tank floor, such as blister and delamination of corrosion protection coating, or corrosion of the bottom steel plate under coating. Experimental studies were conducted to demonstrate the practicability of developed techniques. It was found that the pulse heating infrared thermography was utilized for effective screening inspection and THz-TDS imaging technique performed well for the detailed inspection of coating deterioration and steel corrosion.

  16. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  17. Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, Gianni; Livi, Massimo; Olivieri, Monica; Sabatini, Maurizio; Torrini, Daniele; Baldini, Stefano; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Falli, Pietro; Maestrini, Mauro

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have been the main design goals of the two programs. In particular the NH90 TTH Thermal Imager is a compact camera operating in the 8 divided by 12 micrometers bandwidth with a single wide field of view. The thermal imager developed for the ATR42 MPA features a three remotely switchable fields of view objective equipped with diffractive optics. Performance goals, innovative design aspects and test results of these two thermal imagers are reported.

  18. Visible and infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy of paintings: pigment mapping and improved infrared reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, John K.; Zeibel, Jason G.; Thoury, Mathieu; Littleton, Roy; Morales, Kathryn M.; Palmer, Michael; de la Rie, E. René

    2009-07-01

    Reflectance imaging spectroscopy, the collection of images in narrow spectral bands, has been developed for remote sensing of the Earth. In this paper we present findings on the use of imaging spectroscopy to identify and map artist pigments as well as to improve the visualization of preparatory sketches. Two novel hyperspectral cameras, one operating from the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and the other in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), have been used to collect diffuse reflectance spectral image cubes on a variety of paintings. The resulting image cubes (VNIR 417 to 973 nm, 240 bands, and SWIR 970 to 1650 nm, 85 bands) were calibrated to reflectance and the resulting spectra compared with results from a fiber optics reflectance spectrometer (350 to 2500 nm). The results show good agreement between the spectra acquired with the hyperspectral cameras and those from the fiber reflectance spectrometer. For example, the primary blue pigments and their distribution in Picasso's Harlequin Musician (1924) are identified from the reflectance spectra and agree with results from X-ray fluorescence data and dispersed sample analysis. False color infrared reflectograms, obtained from the SWIR hyperspectral images, of extensively reworked paintings such as Picasso's The Tragedy (1903) are found to give improved visualization of changes made by the artist. These results show that including the NIR and SWIR spectral regions along with the visible provides for a more robust identification and mapping of artist pigments than using visible imaging spectroscopy alone.

  19. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-11-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA), we have detected 14 new H2O emission lines. These include five 321-312ortho-H2O lines (Eup/k = 305 K) and nine J = 2 para-H2O lines, either 202-111(Eup/k = 101 K) or 211-202(Eup/k = 137 K). The apparent luminosities of the H2O emission lines are μLH2O 6-21 × 108 L⊙ (3 <μ< 15, where μ is the lens magnification factor), with velocity-integrated line fluxes ranging from 4-15 Jy km s-1. We have also observed CO emission lines using EMIR on the IRAM 30 m telescope in seven sources (most of those have not yet had their CO emission lines observed). The velocity widths for CO and H2O lines are found to be similar, generally within 1σ errors in the same source. With almost comparable integrated flux densities to those of the high-J CO line (ratios range from 0.4 to 1.1), H2O is found to be among the strongest molecular emitters in high-redshift Hy/ULIRGs. We also confirm our previously found correlation between luminosity of H2O (LH2O) and infrared (LIR) that LH2O LIR1.1-1.2, with ournew detections. This correlation could be explained by a dominant role of far-infrared pumping in the H2O excitation. Modelling reveals that the far-infrared radiation fields have warm dust temperature Twarm 45-75 K, H2O column density per unit velocity interval NH2O /ΔV ≳ 0.3 × 1015 cm-2 km-1 s and 100 μm continuum opacity τ100> 1 (optically thick), indicating that H2O is likely to trace highly obscured warm dense gas. However, further observations of J ≥ 4 H2O lines are needed to better constrain the continuum optical depth and other physical conditions of the molecular gas and dust. We have also detected H2O+ emission in three sources. A tight correlation

  20. 2001 Mars Odyssey Images Earth (Visible and Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    2001 Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) acquired these images of the Earth using its visible and infrared cameras as it left the Earth. The visible image shows the thin crescent viewed from Odyssey's perspective. The infrared image was acquired at exactly the same time, but shows the entire Earth using the infrared's 'night-vision' capability. Invisible light the instrument sees only reflected sunlight and therefore sees nothing on the night side of the planet. In infrared light the camera observes the light emitted by all regions of the Earth. The coldest ground temperatures seen correspond to the nighttime regions of Antarctica; the warmest temperatures occur in Australia. The low temperature in Antarctica is minus 50 degrees Celsius (minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit); the high temperature at night in Australia 9 degrees Celsius(48.2 degrees Fahrenheit). These temperatures agree remarkably well with observed temperatures of minus 63 degrees Celsius at Vostok Station in Antarctica, and 10 degrees Celsius in Australia. The images were taken at a distance of 3,563,735 kilometers (more than 2 million miles) on April 19,2001 as the Odyssey spacecraft left Earth.

  1. Near-infrared Molecular Probes for In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Bloch, Sharon; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This Unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications. PMID:22470154

  2. Optical and Near-Infrared Imaging of Infrared-Excess Palomar-Green Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surace, Jason A.; Sanders, D. B.; Evans, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    Ground-based high spatial resolution (FWHM<0.3"-0.8") optical and near-infrared imaging (0.4-2.2 μm) is presented for a complete sample of optically selected Palomar-Green QSOs with far-infrared excesses at least as great as those of ``warm'' AGN-like ultraluminous infrared galaxies (Lir/LBBB>0.46). In all cases, the host galaxies of the QSOs were detected, and most have discernible two-dimensional structure. The QSO host galaxies and the QSO nuclei are similar in magnitude at H band. H-band luminosities of the hosts range from 0.5-7.5 L*, with a mean of 2.3 L*, and are consistent with those found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Both the QSO nuclei and the host galaxies have near-infrared excesses, which may be the result of dust associated with the nucleus and of recent dusty star formation in the host. These results suggest that some, but not all, optically selected QSOs may have evolved from an infrared active state triggered by the merger of two similarly sized L* galaxies, in a manner similar to that of the ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  3. Near-infrared imaging spectrometer onboard NEXTSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Woong-Seob; Park, Sung-Joon; Moon, Bongkon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Park, Won-Kee; Park, Youngsik; Kim, Il-Joong; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Lee, Dukhang; Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Minjin; Ko, Jongwan; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Chae, Jangsoo; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The NISS (Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer for Star formation history) is the near-infrared instrument optimized to the first next generation of small satellite (NEXTSat-1) in Korea. The spectro-photometric capability in the near-infrared range is a unique function of the NISS. The major scientific mission is to study the cosmic star formation history in local and distant universe. For those purposes, the NISS will perform the large areal imaging spectroscopic survey for astronomical objects and low background regions. We have paid careful attention to reduce the volume and to increase the total throughput. The newly implemented off-axis optics has a wide field of view (2° x 2°) and a wide wavelength range from 0.9 to 3.8μm. The mechanical structure is designed to consider launching conditions and passive cooling of the telescope. The compact dewar after relay-lens module is to operate the infrared detector and spectral filters at 80K stage. The independent integration of relay-lens part and primary-secondary mirror assembly alleviates the complex alignment process. We confirmed that the telescope and the infrared sensor can be cooled down to around 200K and 80K, respectively. The engineering qualification model of the NISS was tested in the space environment including the launch-induced vibration and shock. The NISS will be expected to demonstrate core technologies related to the development of the future infrared space telescope in Korea.

  4. Near-infrared image filtering for pedestrian surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodhouse, Kathryn N.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2012-04-01

    An image processing approach is investigated which has low computational complexity and which uses nearinfrared imaging. The target application is a surveillance system for pedestrian traffic. Near-infrared light has potential benefits including non-visible illumination requirements. An image-processing algorithm for monitoring pedestrians is implemented in outdoor and indoor environments with frequent traffic. The image sets consist of persons walking in the presence of foreground as well as background objects at different times during the day. The complex, cluttered environments are highly variable, e.g. shadows and moving foliage. The approach consists of thresholding an image and creating a silhouette of selected objects in the scene. Filtering is used to eliminate noise. The computational results using MATLABshow that the algorithm can effectively manipulate near-infrared images and that effective filtering is possible even in the presence of system noise and environmental clutter. The potential for automated surveillance based on near-infrared imaging and neural-network based feature processing is discussed.

  5. Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey {HIPPIES}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing

    2010-09-01

    WFC3 has demonstrated its unprecedented power in probing the early universe. Here we propose to continue our pure parallel program with this instrument to search for LBGs at z 6-8. Our program, dubbed as the Hubble Infrared Pure Parallel Imaging Extragalactic Survey {"HIPPIES"}, will carry on the HST pure parallel legacy in the new decade. We request 205 orbits in Cycle-18, which will spread over 50 high Galactic latitude visits {|b|>20deg} that last for 3 orbits and longer, resulting a total survey area of 230 square arcmin. Combining the WFC3 pure parallel observations in Cycle-17, HIPPIES will complement other existing and forthcoming WFC3 surveys, and will make unique contributions to the study in the new redshift frontier because of the randomness of the survey fields. To make full use of the parallel opportunities, HIPPIES will also take ACS parallels to study LBGs at z 5-6. Being a pure parallel program, HIPPIES will only make very limited demand on the scarce HST resources, but will have potentially large scientific returns. As in previous cycle, we waive all proprietary data rights, and will make the enhanced data products public in a timely manner. {1} The WFC3 part of HIPPIES aims at the most luminous LBG population at z 8 and z 7. As its survey fields are random and completely uncorrelated, the number counts of the bright LBGs from HIPPIES will be least affected by the "cosmic variance", and hence we will be able to obtain the best constraint on the bright-end of the LBG luminosity function at z 8 and 7. Comparing the result from HIPPIES to the hydrodynamic simulations will test the input physics and provide insight into the nature of the early galaxies. {2} The z 7-8 candidates from HIPPIES, most of which will be the brightest ones that any surveys would be able to find, will have the best chance to be spectroscopically confirmed at the current 8-10m telescopes. {3} The ACS part of HIPPIES will produce a significant number of candidate LBGs at z 5 and

  6. MIRIADS: miniature infrared imaging applications development system description and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.; Couture, Michael E.

    2001-10-01

    A cooperative effort between the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Nova Research, Inc., the Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) and Optics 1, Inc. has successfully produced a miniature infrared camera system that offers significant real-time signal and image processing capabilities by virtue of its modular design. This paper will present an operational overview of the system as well as results from initial testing of the 'Modular Infrared Imaging Applications Development System' (MIRIADS) configured as a missile early-warning detection system. The MIRIADS device can operate virtually any infrared focal plane array (FPA) that currently exists. Programmable on-board logic applies user-defined processing functions to the real-time digital image data for a variety of functions. Daughterboards may be plugged onto the system to expand the digital and analog processing capabilities of the system. A unique full hemispherical infrared fisheye optical system designed and produced by Optics 1, Inc. is utilized by the MIRIADS in a missile warning application to demonstrate the flexibility of the overall system to be applied to a variety of current and future AFRL missions.

  7. Infrared and visible image fusion with spectral graph wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Qin, Hanlin; Li, Jia; Zhou, Huixin; Zong, Jing-guo

    2015-09-01

    Infrared and visible image fusion technique is a popular topic in image analysis because it can integrate complementary information and obtain reliable and accurate description of scenes. Multiscale transform theory as a signal representation method is widely used in image fusion. In this paper, a novel infrared and visible image fusion method is proposed based on spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) and bilateral filter. The main novelty of this study is that SGWT is used for image fusion. On the one hand, source images are decomposed by SGWT in its transform domain. The proposed approach not only effectively preserves the details of different source images, but also excellently represents the irregular areas of the source images. On the other hand, a novel weighted average method based on bilateral filter is proposed to fuse low- and high-frequency subbands by taking advantage of spatial consistency of natural images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms seven recently proposed image fusion methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation metrics.

  8. Standoff midwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of ship plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2016-05-01

    Characterization of ship plumes is very challenging due to the great variety of ships, fuel, and fuel grades, as well as the extent of a gas plume. In this work, imaging of ship plumes from an operating ferry boat was carried out using standoff midwave (3-5 μm) infrared hyperspectral imaging. Quantitative chemical imaging of combustion gases was achieved by fitting a radiative transfer model. Combustion efficiency maps and mass flow rates are presented for carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results illustrate how valuable information about the combustion process of a ship engine can be successfully obtained using passive hyperspectral remote sensing imaging.

  9. Standoff midwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of ship plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Characterization of ship plumes is very challenging due to the great variety of ships, fuel, and fuel grades, as well as the extent of a gas plume. In this work, imaging of ship plumes from an operating ferry boat was carried out using standoff midwave (3-5 μm) infrared hyperspectral imaging. Quantitative chemical imaging of combustion gases was achieved by fitting a radiative transfer model. Combustion efficiency maps and mass flow rates are presented for carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results illustrate how valuable information about the combustion process of a ship engine can be successfully obtained using passive hyperspectral remote sensing imaging.

  10. Near infrared fluorescence for image-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) image-guided surgery holds great promise for improved surgical outcomes. A number of NIR image-guided surgical systems are currently in preclinical and clinical development with a few approved for limited clinical use. In order to wield the full power of NIR image-guided surgery, clinically available tissue and disease specific NIR fluorophores with high signal to background ratio are necessary. In the current review, the status of NIR image-guided surgery is discussed along with the desired chemical and biological properties of NIR fluorophores. Lastly, tissue and disease targeting strategies for NIR fluorophores are reviewed. PMID:23256079

  11. AO Infrared Imaging of M71 Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberg, Andres; Richer, H.; Brewer, J.; Davis, S.; Hickson, P.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Hurley, J.; Shara, M.; Hansen, B.; Gebhardt, K.; Fahlman, G.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster we present infrared H and K AO data taken with ALTAIR/NIRI on Gemini North of the globular cluster Messier 71. This data represents approximately 22ks of observations in H and 17ks in K, in a field 22x22 arcsec centered on the core of the cluster. These data were secured under superb conditions and will provide an excellent opportunity to pursue our scientific goals. These goals include the observation of the end of hydrogen-burning main sequence in a moderately metal-rich globular cluster and, by fitting the brightness profile and looking for deviations from a King model, we will search for evidence for a central black hole in this cluster.

  12. High dynamic range infrared radiometry and imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coon, Darryl D.; Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Bandara, K. M. S. V.

    1988-01-01

    The use is described of cryogenically cooled, extrinsic silicon infrared detectors in an unconventional mode of operation which offers an unusually large dynamic range. The system performs intensity-to-frequency conversion at the focal plane via simple circuits with very low power consumption. The incident IR intensity controls the repetition rate of short duration output pulses over a pulse rate dynamic range of about 10(6). Theory indicates the possibility of monotonic and approx. linear response over the full dynamic range. A comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results shows that the model provides a reasonably good description of experimental data. Some measurements of survivability with a very intense IR source were made on these devices and found to be very encouraging. Evidence continues to indicate that some variations in interpulse time intervals are deterministic rather than probabilistic.

  13. Near infrared spectroscopic imaging assessment of cartilage composition: Validation with mid infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palukuru, Uday P; Hanifi, Arash; McGoverin, Cushla M; Devlin, Sean; Lelkes, Peter I; Pleshko, Nancy

    2016-07-05

    Disease or injury to articular cartilage results in loss of extracellular matrix components which can lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). To better understand the process of disease development, there is a need for evaluation of changes in cartilage composition without the requirement of extensive sample preparation. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a chemical investigative technique based on molecular vibrations that is increasingly used as an assessment tool for studying cartilage composition. However, the assignment of specific molecular vibrations to absorbance bands in the NIR spectrum of cartilage, which arise from overtones and combinations of primary absorbances in the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region, has been challenging. In contrast, MIR spectroscopic assessment of cartilage is well-established, with many studies validating the assignment of specific bands present in MIR spectra to specific molecular vibrations. In the current study, NIR imaging spectroscopic data were obtained for compositional analysis of tissues that served as an in vitro model of OA. MIR spectroscopic data obtained from the identical tissue regions were used as the gold-standard for collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content. MIR spectroscopy in transmittance mode typically requires a much shorter pathlength through the sample (≤10 microns thick) compared to NIR spectroscopy (millimeters). Thus, this study first addressed the linearity of small absorbance bands in the MIR region with increasing tissue thickness, suitable for obtaining a signal in both the MIR and NIR regions. It was found that the linearity of specific, small MIR absorbance bands attributable to the collagen and PG components of cartilage (at 1336 and 856 cm(-1), respectively) are maintained through a thickness of 60 μm, which was also suitable for NIR data collection. MIR and NIR spectral data were then collected from 60 μm thick samples of cartilage degraded with chondroitinase ABC as a model

  14. An update of commercial infrared sensing and imaging instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    A classification of infrared sensing instruments by type and application, listing commercially available instruments, from single point thermal probes to on-line control sensors, to high speed, high resolution imaging systems is given. A review of performance specifications follows, along with a discussion of typical thermographic display approaches utilized by various imager manufacturers. An update report on new instruments, new display techniques and newly introduced features of existing instruments is given.

  15. Discovery in translation: near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    When translating new imaging modalities into the clinic, one can expect new discoveries. Owing to the high photon count rates, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) offers exquisite sensitivity and high temporal resolution that enable new insights into human disorders. Herein, the physics of NIRF are highlighted and compared to those involved in nuclear medicine techniques. The initial application of investigational NIRF involving characterization of the lymphatics in humans and animal models of human disease yields discoveries not otherwise attainable with conventional imaging.

  16. Enhanced Target Tracking Through Infrared-Visible Image Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    and infrared video cameras are the most common imaging sensors used for these purposes. A feasibility study on fusing concurrent visible and...involved. Visible cameras are the prevailing imaging sensors, because they are relatively cheap, easy to use, and capable of producing high quality...imagery under favorable conditions. However, visible cameras can be severely affected by many common environmental factors, such as darkness

  17. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  18. Differential thermal infrared imaging for environmental inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Arcangelo; Di Donato, Luigi; Di Fazio, Micaela; Greco, Pasquale; Rainone, Mario L.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial differential thermal imaging has been proposed to characterize the ground temperature distribution of two solid waste landfills. The differential approach permitted detection of regions with thermal abnormalities potentially associated with either biogas leakage and migration or improper landfill settlement and management. Methods, results, limits, and potentialities of the proposed approach are discussed.

  19. THE MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. EXTREME PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE X{sub co} FACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X{sub co} = M(H{sub 2})/L{sub co,1-0} factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X{sub co} distribution with (X{sub co}) {approx} (0.6 {+-} 0.2) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X{sub co}, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities ({>=}10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X{sub co} {approx} (3-6) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X{sub co} to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X{sub co} in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X{sub co} but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only

  20. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  1. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  2. Infrared imaging results of an excited planar jet

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    Planar jets are used for many applications including heating, cooling, and ventilation. Generally such a jet is designed to provide good mixing within an enclosure. In building applications, the jet provides both thermal comfort and adequate indoor air quality. Increased mixing rates may lead to lower short-circuiting of conditioned air, elimination of dead zones within the occupied zone, reduced energy costs, increased occupant comfort, and higher indoor air quality. This paper discusses using an infrared imaging system to show the effect of excitation of a jet on the spread angle and on the jet mixing efficiency. Infrared imaging captures a large number of data points in real time (over 50,000 data points per image) providing significant advantages over single-point measurements. We used a screen mesh with a time constant of approximately 0.3 seconds as a target for the infrared camera to detect temperature variations in the jet. The infrared images show increased jet spread due to excitation of the jet. Digital data reduction and analysis show change in jet isotherms and quantify the increased mixing caused by excitation. 17 refs., 20 figs.

  3. Performance evaluation of infrared imaging system in field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chensheng; Guo, Xiaodong; Ren, Tingting; Zhang, Zhi-jie

    2014-11-01

    Infrared imaging system has been applied widely in both military and civilian fields. Since the infrared imager has various types and different parameters, for system manufacturers and customers, there is great demand for evaluating the performance of IR imaging systems with a standard tool or platform. Since the first generation IR imager was developed, the standard method to assess the performance has been the MRTD or related improved methods which are not perfect adaptable for current linear scanning imager or 2D staring imager based on FPA detector. For this problem, this paper describes an evaluation method based on the triangular orientation discrimination metric which is considered as the effective and emerging method to evaluate the synthesis performance of EO system. To realize the evaluation in field test, an experiment instrument is developed. And considering the importance of operational environment, the field test is carried in practical atmospheric environment. The test imagers include panoramic imaging system and staring imaging systems with different optics and detectors parameters (both cooled and uncooled). After showing the instrument and experiment setup, the experiment results are shown. The target range performance is analyzed and discussed. In data analysis part, the article gives the range prediction values obtained from TOD method, MRTD method and practical experiment, and shows the analysis and results discussion. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of this evaluation tool, and it can be taken as a platform to give the uniform performance prediction reference.

  4. Lyα imaging of a very luminous z=2.3 starburst galaxy with WFPC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Nathan; Lowenthal, James; Woodgate, Bruce

    2000-10-01

    We investigate the Lyα and UV continuum morphology of one of the most luminous known Lymanα emitting galaxies (the `Coup Fourré Galaxy'), associated with a z=2.3 damped Lyα absorption system in the spectrum of the QSO PHL 957. The galaxy is observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (HST WFPC2), through a narrow filter (F410M) corresponding to rest-frame Lyα for a total exposure time of 41.2ks, plus shorter exposures in F555W and F814W. In all three passbands, the galaxy is resolved into a close (~0.35arcsec) pair of two components, CFgA and CFgB, both of which are extended and elongated. The profile of CFgA is consistent with an exponential disk of similar scalelength in Lyα (rexp=0.23arcsec) and continuum (rexp=0.20arcsec), and no evidence of a central point source. In contrast, CFgB is closer to a bulge profile. We find that CFgA has by far the higher ratio of Lyα to continuum flux, and from the observed colours estimate rest-frame equivalent widths of W(Lyα)=151+/-16Å for CFgA and 33+/-13Å for CFgB. From the F814W and F555W magnitudes we estimate the rest-frame blue-band absolute magnitudes (for H0=50kms-1Mpc-1 and q0=0.05) of -23.12 for CFgA and -23.24 for CFgB, significantly brighter than local galaxies of the same size. CFgA shows a remarkable 3.9 magnitudes of surface brightness enhancement relative to local spirals. This object appears to be at the upper limit of both the range of surface brightness evolution observed in z>2 galaxies and the range of W(Lyα) in any star-forming galaxy. We speculate that its extreme surface brightness results from a very luminous starburst (~200Msolaryr-1), triggered by the merger of the two components, and the high W(Lyα) from a brief phase of the starburst in which most Lyα photons can escape, as predicted in the models of Tenorio-Tagle et al. (1999). We also investigated the F410M image of the QSO PHL 957. Subtraction of a normalized point-spead function leaves no significant

  5. HST Infrared Imaging of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Joseph B.; Goullaud, Charles; Blakeslee, John; Mitchiner, Casey; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We have recently obtained high-resolution HST WFC3/IR F110W (J-band) images of 34 early-type galaxies in the MASSIVE study sample. These galaxies are among the most massive in the local universe, and were chosen to study the connection between supermassive central black holes and their host galaxies. To determine accurate masses for the black holes, we are measuring high-precision surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to the galaxies. The WFC3/IR data also allow us to measure high spatial resolution central surface brightness profiles to understand better the nuclear structure and dynamics of the galaxies. We present a first look at the IR images, profiles, and SBF magnitudes for 34 galaxies in the MASSIVE sample.

  6. Relationships Between MRI Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Lexicon Descriptors and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Internal Enhancement is Associated with Luminal B Subtype.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lars J; Zhang, Jing; Baker, Jay A; Soo, Mary S; Johnson, Karen S; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2017-03-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between breast MRI findings using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon descriptors and breast cancer molecular subtypes. In this retrospective, IRB-approved, single institution study MRIs from 278 women with breast cancer were reviewed by one of six fellowship-trained breast imagers. Readers reported BI-RADS descriptors for breast masses (shape, margin, internal enhancement) and non-mass enhancement (distribution, internal enhancement). Pathology reports were reviewed for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Surrogates were used to categorize tumors by molecular subtype: ER/PR+, HER2- (luminal A); ER/PR+, HER2+ (luminal B); ER/PR-, HER2+ (HER2); ER/PR/HER2- (basal). A univariate logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between BI-RADS descriptors and molecular subtypes. Internal enhancement for mass and non-mass enhancement was combined for analysis. There was an association between mass shape and basal subtype (p = 0.039), which was more frequently round (17.1%) than other subtypes (range: 0-8.3%). In addition, there was an association between mass margin and HER2 subtype (p = 0.040), as HER2 cancers more frequently had a smooth margin (33.3%) than other subtypes (range: 4.2-17.1%). Finally, there was an association between internal enhancement and luminal B subtype (p = 0.003), with no cases of luminal B cancer demonstrating homogeneous internal enhancement versus a range of 10.9-23.5% for other subtypes. There are associations between breast cancer molecular subtypes and lesion appearance on MRI using the BI-RADS lexicon.

  7. Target information enhancement using polarized component of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tiaowen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    After a deep study of the principle of infrared polarization imaging detection, the infrared polarization information of target and background is modeled. Considering the partial polarized light can be obtained by the superposition of natural light (unpolarized light) and linearly polarized component while ignoring the component of circularly polarized light, and combing with the degree of polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP), the infrared polarization information is expressed by the multiplying of an intensity factor by a polarization factor. What we have modeled not only can be used to analyze the infrared polarization information visually and profoundly, but also make the extraction of polarized features convenient. Then, faced with different application fields and based on the model, a target information enhancement program is proposed, which is achieved by extracting a linear polarization component in a certain polarized direction. This program greatly improves the contrast between target and background, and can be applied in target detection or identification, especially for camouflage or stealth target. At last, we preliminarily tested the proposed enhancement method exploiting infrared polarization images obtained indoor and outdoor, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the enhancement program.

  8. Advances in submicron infrared vibrational band chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragnea, Bogdan; Leone, Stephen R.

    The technique of infrared near-field microscopy with submicron resolution is an important addition to the chemical sciences arsenal in the last few years. Although related to highly successful scanning optical probe microscopies in the visible, infrared near-field microscopy had to overcome several obstacles, which slowed its development. This review illustrates the history as well as the state of the art of this new field, its limitations and perspectives. At present, two main experimental approaches have been successful: the apertureless metal tip approach and the fibre tip aperture approach. The two variants are compared from the point of view of resolution, ease of implementation in the laboratory and image formation mechanisms. The techniques using chemically specific vibrational absorption contrast are emphasized here, in the general context of chemical microscopy, which includes other methods such as chemical force, Raman and fluorescence microscopies. The phenomenon of surface-enhanced infrared absorption is also mentioned in relation to near-field infrared microscopy, with regard to important aspects of image formation and possible improvements. The main advantages of spatial resolution, chemical sensitivity, non-intrusiveness, minute amounts of specimen and the possibility of quantitative analytical measurements make infrared near-field microscopy a powerful tool. We also examine here possible future applications that go beyond the limits of classical vibrational microspectroscopy, as well as directions for additional advances.

  9. Femtowatt incoherent image conversion from mid-infrared light to near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Nan; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaolu; Han, Jing; Zhang, Shuan

    2017-03-01

    We report on the experimental conversion imaging of an incoherent continuous-wave dim source from mid-infrared light to near-infrared light with a lowest input power of 31 femtowatt (fW). Incoherent mid-infrared images of light emission from a heat lamp bulb with an adjustable power supply at window wavelengths ranging from 2.9 µm to 3.5 µm are used for upconversion. The sum-frequency generation is realized in a laser cavity with the resonant wavelength of 1064 nm pumped by an LD at 806 nm built around a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The converted infrared image in the wavelength range ~785 nm with a resolution of about 120  ×  70 is low-noise detected using a silicon-based camera. By optimizing the system parameters, the upconversion quantum efficiency is predicted to be 28% for correctly polarized, on-axis and phase-matching light.

  10. Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Daddi, E.; Kocevski, D. D.; McIntosh, D. H.; Stanley, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Elbaz, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s-1) at redshift z ≈ 1-3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS-Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm-2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24-48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10-6 Mpc-3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.

  11. Low-Cost Satellite Infrared Imager Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Wavebands Instrument Mass GSD Swath Orbit Altitude Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR)* VIS, NIR, SWIR, MWIR, LWIR 101 kg 1 km 500 km 782...Spacecraft mass 8211 kg Payload mass 101 kg Pointing accuracy 0.5’ per axis Orbit altitude 800 km Imager Parameter Value Waveband (MWIR) 3.40 – 4.12...of the entire 92 kg spacecraft mass . The key mission objective of BIRD during it’s one year mission life, which began in October of 2001, was hot

  12. Astro-F: Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, T.

    2000-11-01

    The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS) is the second infrared satellite mission of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan. It is scheduled to be launched in the middle of 2003 with the M-V rocket of ISAS. It has a 70-cm aperture telescope of SiC mirrors and is cooled to 6 K with Stirling-cycle coolers and 170 liters of liquid helium. It is planned as a second generation infrared sky survey mission. Two scientific instruments share the focal plane. The infrared camera (IRC) covers the 2 to 26 μm range with large 2-dimensional arrays in the imaging and low-resolution spectroscopic modes. The IRC will perform deep sky surveys of selected areas of the sky with a wide field of view (10' × 10') at unprecedented sensitivity, at least 10 times deeper than ISOCAM, and will also provide low-resolution spectra of a large number of objects. The far-infrared Surveyor (FIS) covers the 50 to 200 μm range, consisting of an imaging scanner and a Fourier transform spectrometer. The FIS will make a whole sky survey in four far-infrared bands, which is higher by more than 10 in sensitivity (20-110 mJy), better by several in the spatial resolution (30 arcsec-50 arcsec), and longer in the spectral coverage (200 μm) than the IRAS survey. IRIS will provide a significant data base for future observatory-type missions, such as SIRTF, SOFIA, FIRST, NGST, and HII/L2. A brief description of the IRIS mission is presented.

  13. Atmospheric pressure molecular imaging by infrared MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Shrestha, Bindesh; Vertes, Akos

    2007-01-15

    An atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI imaging interface was developed for an orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer and utilized to analyze peptides, carbohydrates, and other small biomolecules using infrared laser excitation. In molecular imaging experiments, the spatial distribution of mock peptide patterns was recovered with a detection limit of approximately 1 fmol/pixel from a variety of MALDI matrixes. With the use of oversampling for the image acquisition, a spatial resolution of 40 microm, 5 times smaller than the laser spot size, was achieved. This approach, however, required that the analyte was largely removed at the point of analysis before the next point was interrogated. Native water in plant tissue was demonstrated to be an efficient natural matrix for AP infrared laser desorption ionization. In soft fruit tissues from bananas, grapes, and strawberries, potassiated ions of the most abundant metabolites, small carbohydrates, and their clusters produced the strongest peaks in the spectra. Molecular imaging of a strawberry skin sample revealed the distribution of the sucrose, glucose/fructose, and citric acid species around the embedded seeds. Infrared AP MALDI mass spectrometric imaging without the addition of an artificial matrix enables the in vivo investigation of small biomolecules and biological processes (e.g., metabolomics) in their natural environment.

  14. Acousto-optic infrared spectral imager for Pluto fast flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Hillman, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF's) enable the design of compact, two-dimensional imaging spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution and with no moving parts. Tellurium dioxide AOTF's operate from about 400 nm to nearly 5 microns, and a single device will tune continuously over one octave by changing the RF acoustic frequency applied to the device. An infrared (1.2-2.5 micron) Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometer (AImS) was designed that closely conforms to the surface composition mapping objectives of the Pluto Fast Flyby. It features a 75-cm focal length telescope, infrared AOTF, and 256 x 256 NICMOS-3 focal plane array for acquiring narrowband images with a spectral resolving power (lambda/delta(lambda)) exceeding 250. We summarize the instrument design features and its expected performance at the Pluto-Charon encounter.

  15. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  16. An adaptive multi-feature segmentation model for infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Jin; Zhang, Yi; Bai, Lianfa

    2016-04-01

    Active contour models (ACM) have been extensively applied to image segmentation, conventional region-based active contour models only utilize global or local single feature information to minimize the energy functional to drive the contour evolution. Considering the limitations of original ACMs, an adaptive multi-feature segmentation model is proposed to handle infrared images with blurred boundaries and low contrast. In the proposed model, several essential local statistic features are introduced to construct a multi-feature signed pressure function (MFSPF). In addition, we draw upon the adaptive weight coefficient to modify the level set formulation, which is formed by integrating MFSPF with local statistic features and signed pressure function with global information. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can make up for the inadequacy of the original method and get desirable results in segmenting infrared images.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2017-01-16

    Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications. This spectroscopic imaging approach provides the opportunity to obtain the chemical composition of fingermarks and information about possible contaminants deposited at a crime scene. Research that demonstrates the great potential of these techniques for analysis of fingerprint residues, explosive materials and counterfeit drugs will be reviewed. The implications of this research for the examination of different materials are considered, along with an outlook of possible future research avenues for the application of vibrational spectroscopic methods to the analysis of forensic samples.

  18. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thukkani, Arun K; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Novel imaging modalities are required to better identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques before their dire consequences of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. Moving beyond traditional diagnostic methods, the field of molecular imaging offers an innovative approach to report upon critical in vivo biological features of high-risk plaques. Molecular imaging employs engineered, targeted imaging agents in conjunction with sophisticated, high-resolution detection systems. While various modalities have been investigated for this purpose, intravascular near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) strategies are uniquely poised to provide high-resolution readouts of human coronary artery plaques. To date, preclinical animal studies have demonstrated feasibility of both standalone NIRF intravascular imaging as well as dual-modality approaches detecting inflammation and fibrin deposition in coronary-sized arteries. This translatable catheter-based approach is positioned to advance the identification of biologically vulnerable coronary plaques and coronary stents at risk of thrombosis. PMID:23638334

  19. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  20. Onychomycosis diagnosis using fluorescence and infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Ana Paula; Fortunato, Thereza Cury; Stringasci, Mirian D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Inada, Natalia M.

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a common disease of the nail plate, constituting approximately half of all cases of nail infection. Onychomycosis diagnosis is challenging because it is hard to distinguish from other diseases of the nail lamina such as psoriasis, lichen ruber or eczematous nails. The existing methods of diagnostics so far consist of clinical and laboratory analysis, such as: Direct Mycological examination and culture, PCR and histopathology with PAS staining. However, they all share certain disadvantages in terms of sensitivity and specificity, time delay, or cost. This study aimed to evaluate the use of infrared and fluorescence imaging as new non-invasive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and compare them with established techniques. For fluorescence analysis, a Clinical Evince (MM Optics®) was used, which consists of an optical assembly with UV LED light source wavelength 400 nm +/- 10 nm and the maximum light intensity: 40 mW/cm2 +/- 20%. For infrared analysis, a Fluke® Camera FKL model Ti400 was used. Patients with onychomycosis and control group were analyzed for comparison. The fluorescence images were processed using MATLAB® routines, and infrared images were analyzed using the SmartView® 3.6 software analysis provided by the company Fluke®. The results demonstrated that both infrared and fluorescence could be complementary to diagnose different types of onychomycosis lesions. The simplicity of operation, quick response and non-invasive assessment of the nail patients in real time, are important factors to be consider for an implementation.

  1. INFRARED IMAGING OF CARBON AND CERAMIC COMPOSITES: DATA REPRODUCIBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, B.; Howard, D. R.; Ringermacher, H. I.; Hudson, L. D.

    2010-02-22

    Infrared NDE techniques have proven to be superior for imaging of flaws in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and carbon silicon carbide composites (C/SiC). Not only can one obtain accurate depth gauging of flaws such as delaminations and layered porosity in complex-shaped components such as airfoils and other aeronautical components, but also excellent reproducibility of image data is obtainable using the STTOF (Synthetic Thermal Time-of-Flight) methodology. The imaging of large complex shapes is fast and reliable. This methodology as applied to large C/SiC flight components at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will be described.

  2. Practical Applications Using A High Resolution Infrared Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraniak, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems can be classified into three general categories, low resolution, medium resolution and high resolution. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight specific applications best suited to high resolution, television capatable, infrared data acquisition techniques. The data was collected from both ground loped andoaerial based mobile positions where the temperature differentials varied from 15 C to 25 C. Specific applications include scanning building complexes from the exterior using a ground based moving vehicle, scanning buildings, concrete bridge decks and terrain from the air using a helicopter and scanning building interiors using a mobile hand truck.

  3. Infrared Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Photometric Studies of Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    We have continued our program of infrared (IR) photometric, imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric temporal observations of comets to study the properties of comet dust and comet nuclei. During the first two years we digitized our IR data base on P/Halley and other recent comets to facilitate further analysis and comparison with other data bases, and found compelling evidence for the emission of a burst of small grains from P/Halley's nucleus at perihelion. We reported imaging and photometric observations of Comets Austin 1990 V and Swift-Tuttle 1992. The Swift-Tuttle 1992t observations included IR photometry, several 7-14 micron long-slit spectra of the coma and a time-sequence of more than 150 10 micron broadband images of the coma. An analysis of near-IR images of the inner coma of P/Halley obtained on three consecutive nights in 1986 March showed sunwardjets. We completed our analysis of IR imaging spectrosco-photometric data on comets. We also obtained observations of Comets Hyakutake 1996 B2 and Hale/Bopp 1995 01. We obtained infrared imaging, photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric temporal observations of bright comets using a network of five telescopes, with emphasis on simultaneous observations of comets at many wavelengths with different instruments. Our program offers several unique advantages: 1) rapid observational response to new comets with dedicated infrared telescopes; 2) observations within a few degrees of the sun when comets are near perihelion and 3) access to advanced infrared array imagers and spectrometers. In particular, reduction, analysis, publication and archiving of our Jupiter/sl-9 and Comet Hyakutake infrared data received special emphasis. Instrumentation development included installation of the latest version of the innovative FORTH telescope control and a data acquisition system that enables us to control three telescopes remotely by telephone from anywhere in the world for comet observations in broad daylight. We have

  4. Exploring the molecular chemistry and excitation in obscured luminous infrared galaxies. An ALMA mm-wave spectral scan of NGC 4418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Harada, N.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Spaans, M.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Extragalactic observations allow the study of molecular chemistry and excitation under physical conditions which may differ greatly from those found in the Milky Way. The compact, obscured nuclei (CON) of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) combine large molecular columns with intense infrared (IR), ultra-violet (UV), and X- radiation and represent ideal laboratories for the study of the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) under extreme conditions. Aims: Our aim was to obtain for the first time a multi-band spectral scan of a LIRG, and to derive molecular abundances and excitation to be compared to other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We obtained an ALMA Cycle 0 spectral scan of the dusty LIRG NGC 4418, spanning a total of 70.7 GHz in bands 3, 6, and 7. We use a combined local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (NLTE) fit of the spectrum in order to identify the molecular species and to derive column densities and excitation temperatures. We derive molecular abundances and compare them with other Galactic and extragalactic sources by means of a principal component analysis. Results: We detect 317 emission lines from a total of 45 molecular species, including 15 isotopic substitutions and 6 vibrationally excited variants. Our LTE/NLTE fit find kinetic temperatures from 20 to 350 K, and densities between 105 and 107 cm-3. The spectrum is dominated by vibrationally excited HC3N, HCN, and HNC, with vibrational temperatures from 300 to 450 K. We find that the chemistry of NCG 4418 is characterized by high abundances of HC3N, SiO, H2S, and c-HCCCH but a low CH3OH abundance. A principal component analysis shows that NGC 4418 and Arp 220 share very similar molecular abundances and excitation, which clearly set them apart from other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Conclusions: Our spectral scan confirms that the chemical complexity in the nucleus of NGC 4418 is one of the highest ever observed outside our Galaxy. The similar

  5. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  6. Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haase, Katharina; Kröger-Lui, Niels; Pucci, Annemarie; Schönhals, Arthur; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The speed and efficiency of quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared microspectroscopy are demonstrated using two different model organisms as examples. For the slowly moving Amoeba proteus, a quantum cascade laser is tuned over the wavelength range of 7.6 µm to 8.6 µm (wavenumbers 1320 cm(-1) and 1160 cm(-1) , respectively). The recording of a hyperspectral image takes 11.3 s whereby an average signal-to-noise ratio of 29 is achieved. The limits of time resolution are tested by imaging the fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans at a discrete wavenumber of 1265 cm(-1) . Mid-infrared imaging is performed with the 640 × 480 pixel video graphics array (VGA) standard and at a full-frame time resolution of 0.02 s (i.e. well above the most common frame rate standards). An average signal-to-noise ratio of 16 is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these findings constitute the first mid-infrared imaging of living organisms at VGA standard and video frame rate.

  7. NIP: the near infrared imaging photometer for Euclid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Mario; Bender, Ralf; Katterloher, Reinhard; Eisenhauer, Frank; Hofmann, Reiner; Saglia, Roberto; Holmes, Rory; Krause, Oliver; Rix, Hans-Walter; Booth, Jeff; Fagrelius, Parker; Rhodes, Jason; Seshadri, Suresh; Refregier, Alexandre; Amiaux, Jerome; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Boulade, Olivier; Cara, Christophe; Amara, Adam; Lilly, Simon; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; di Giorgio, Anna-Maria; Duvet, Ludovic; Kuehl, Christopher; Syed, Mohsin

    2010-07-01

    The NIP is a near infrared imaging photometer that is currently under investigation for the Euclid space mission in context of ESA's 2015 Cosmic Vision program. Together with the visible camera (VIS) it will form the basis of the weak lensing measurements for Euclid. The NIP channel will perform photometric imaging in 3 near infrared bands (Y, J, H) covering a wavelength range from ~ 0.9 to 2 μm over a field of view (FoV) of ~ 0.5 deg2. With the required limiting point source magnitude of 24 mAB (5 sigma) the NIP channel will be used to determine the photometric redshifts of over 2 billion galaxies collected over a wide survey area of 20 000 deg2. In addition to the photometric measurements, the NIP channel will deliver unique near infrared (NIR) imaging data over the entire extragalactic sky, enabling a wide variety of ancillary astrophysical and cosmological studies. In this paper we will present the results of the study carried out by the Euclid Imaging Consortium (EIC) during the Euclid assessment phase.

  8. Degradation of near infrared and shortwave infrared imager performance due to atmospheric scattering of diffuse night illumination.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Richard

    2013-07-20

    On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes increased imager noise. These phenomena and their quantification are described in this paper.

  9. Infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on fast wavelet image focusing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2009-08-01

    We studied the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the fast wavelet image focusing and tracking. Here we uses the image of the uncooled infrared imager mounted on the two axis gimbal system and the developed new auto focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform. The developed new focusing algorithm on the Daubechies wavelet transform processes the result of the high pass filter effect to meet the direct detection of the objects. This new focusing gives us the distance information of the outside world smoothly, and the information of the gimbal system gives us the direction of objects in the outside world to match the sense of the spherical coordinate system. We installed this system on the hand made electric ground vehicle platform powered by 24VDC battery. The electric vehicle equips the rotary encoder units and the inertia rate sensor units to make the correct navigation process. The image tracking also uses the developed newt wavelet focusing within several image processing. The size of the hand made electric ground vehicle platform is about 1m long, 0.75m wide, 1m high, and 50kg weight. We tested the infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking using the electric vehicle indoor and outdoor. The test shows the good results by the developed infrared image guidance for ground vehicle based on the new wavelet image focusing and tracking.

  10. Infrared Imaging of Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored boundary layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic Boundary layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards finalizing an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans currently to image HyBoLT.

  11. Study on the MWIR imaging ability of optical readout bimaterial microcantilever FPA uncooled infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bingbing; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Chu, Xuhong; Yu, Xiaomei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the medium-wave infrared (MWIR) imaging ability based on optical readout bimaterial microcantilever focal plane array (FPA) uncooled infrared imaging system. Multiband infrared imaging technology has been a hotspot in the field of infrared imaging. In the infrared band, medium-wave infrared (3 5 μm) has minimal attenuation of atmospheric infrared window, and it also covers many atomic and molecular absorption peak. Imaging study on MWIR radiation source also appears particularly important. First of all, we introduce the bimaterial microcantilever IR sensing principle and the fabrication of the bimaterial microcantilever FPA. Secondly, the paper introduces the theory of the optical-thermal-mechnical reading based on FPA. Finally, the experimental platform was constructed to conduct the MWIR imaging experiment. The medium-wave infrared radiation source consists of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) that is pumped by a polarization-maintained, single-mode fiber amplifier. The length of the 50mm periodically polarized LiNbO3 crystal (5%MgO) is used as the nonlinear crystal. The stable cavity of the ring is designed, and the output of the 3 4 μm band is realized by the design of the nonlinear crystal polarization period. And the FPA employed in our experiment contains 256×256 pixels fabricated on a glass substrate, whose working bandwidth is covering the three IR atmospheric windows. The experimental results show that the bimaterial microcantilever FPA has a good imaging ability to the MWIR sources.

  12. Discovery of the Near-infrared Counterpart to the Luminous Neutron-star Low-mass X-Ray Binary GX 3+1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maureen; Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this Ks = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (LX ≈ 1036-1037 erg s-1) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Homan, Jeroen; Linares, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  14. Enhancement system of nighttime infrared video image and visible video image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Piao, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Visibility of Nighttime video image has a great significance for military and medicine areas, but nighttime video image has so poor quality that we can't recognize the target and background. Thus we enhance the nighttime video image by fuse infrared video image and visible video image. According to the characteristics of infrared and visible images, we proposed improved sift algorithm andαβ weighted algorithm to fuse heterologous nighttime images. We would deduced a transfer matrix from improved sift algorithm. The transfer matrix would rapid register heterologous nighttime images. And theαβ weighted algorithm can be applied in any scene. In the video image fusion system, we used the transfer matrix to register every frame and then used αβ weighted method to fuse every frame, which reached the time requirement soft video. The fused video image not only retains the clear target information of infrared video image, but also retains the detail and color information of visible video image and the fused video image can fluency play.

  15. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds.

  16. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  17. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  18. Infrared image acquisition system for vein pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Solís-Villarreal, J.

    2016-09-01

    The physical shape of the hand vascular distribution contains useful information that can be used for identifying and authenticating purposes; which provide a high level of security as a biometric. Furthermore, this pattern can be used widely in health field such as venography and venipuncture. In this paper, we analyze different IR imaging systems in order to obtain high visibility images of the hand vein pattern. The images are acquired in the range of 400 nm to 1300 nm, using infrared and thermal cameras. For the first image acquisition system, we use a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm obtaining the images by reflection. A second system consists only of a ThermaCAM P65 camera acquiring the naturally emanating infrared light from the hand. A method of digital image analysis is implemented using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) to remove noise. Subsequently, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are implemented to get the vein pattern distribution.

  19. Infrared laser ablation sample transfer for MALDI imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Gun; Murray, Kermit K

    2012-04-03

    An infrared laser was used to ablate material from tissue sections under ambient conditions for direct collection on a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) target. A 10 μm thick tissue sample was placed on a microscope slide and was mounted tissue-side down between 70 and 450 μm from a second microscope slide. The two slides were mounted on a translation stage, and the tissue was scanned in two dimensions under a focused mid-infrared (IR) laser beam to transfer material to the target slide via ablation. After the material was transferred to the target slide, it was analyzed using MALDI imaging using a tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Images were obtained from peptide standards for initial optimization of the system and from mouse brain tissue sections using deposition either onto a matrix precoated target or with matrix addition after sample transfer and compared with those from standard MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. The spatial resolution of the transferred material is approximately 400 μm. Laser ablation sample transfer provides several new capabilities not possible with conventional MALDI imaging including (1) ambient sampling for MALDI imaging, (2) area to spot concentration of ablated material, (3) collection of material for multiple imaging analyses, and (4) direct collection onto nanostructure assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI) targets without blotting or ultrathin sections.

  20. First THEMIS Infrared and Visible Images of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This picture shows both a visible and a thermal infrared image taken by the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft on November 2, 2001. The images were taken as part of the ongoing calibration and testing of the camera system as the spacecraft orbited Mars on its 13threvolution of the planet.

    The visible wavelength image, shown on the right in black and white, was obtained using one of the instrument's five visible filters. The spacecraft was approximately 22,000 kilometers (about 13,600 miles) above Mars looking down toward the south pole when this image was acquired. It is late spring in the martian southern hemisphere.

    The thermal infrared image, center, shows the temperature of the surface in color. The circular feature seen in blue is the extremely cold martian south polar carbon dioxide ice cap. The instrument has measured a temperature of minus 120 degrees Celsius (minus 184 degrees Fahrenheit) on the south polar ice cap. The polar cap is more than 900 kilometers (540 miles) in diameter at this time.

    The visible image shows additional details along the edge of the ice cap, as well as atmospheric hazes near the cap. The view of the surface appears hazy due to dust that still remains in the martian atmosphere from the massive martian dust storms that have occurred over the past several months.

    The infrared image covers a length of over 6,500 kilometers (3,900 miles)spanning the planet from limb to limb, with a resolution of approximately 5.5 kilometers per picture element, or pixel, (3.4 miles per pixel) at the point directly beneath the spacecraft. The visible image has a resolution of approximately 1 kilometer per pixel (.6 miles per pixel) and covers an area roughly the size of the states of Arizona and New Mexico combined.

    An annotated image is available at the same resolution in tiff format. Click the image to download (note: it is a 5.2 mB file) [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    NASA's Jet

  1. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O.; Matthews, Alyssa A.; Mei, Fan; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Wilcox, Eric

    2016-08-12

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA’s “Classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. Finally, the coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.

  2. CO2 leak detection through acoustic sensing and infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiwang; Yan, Yong; Ma, Lin; Ma, Yifan; Han, Xiaojuan

    2014-04-01

    When CO2 leakage occurs from a high pressure enclosure, the CO2 jet formed can produce fierce turbulent flow generating acoustic emission with possible phase change, depending on the pressure of the enclosure, and a significant temperature drop in the region close to the releasing point. Acoustic Emission (AE) and infrared imaging technologiesare promising methods for on-line monitoring of such accidental leakage. In this paper, leakage experiments were carried out with a CO2 container under well controlled conditions in a laboratory. Acoustic signals and temperature distribution at the leakage area were acquired using an acoustic sensor and an infraredthermalimaging camera. The acoustic signal was analyzed in both time and frequency domains. The characteristics of the signal frequencies areidentified, and their suitability for leakage detectionis investigated. The location of the leakage can be identified by seeking the lowest temperature area or point in the infrared image.

  3. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O.; Matthews, Alyssa A.; Mei, Fan; Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason; Wilcox, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA's "Classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. The coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.

  4. The Evaluation Of Infrared Imaging Systems Used For Building Inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grot, Richard A.; Chang, Yui-May

    1984-03-01

    The results of the laboratory evaluation of three high resolution infrared imaging systems are presented. The systems were evaluated for their minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) at spatial frequencies from 0.02 to 0.16 cycles per milliradian and at ambient temperatures in the range of -7° C to 20° C. The results of these tests are compared with the predicted dependence of the MRTD given in the ASHRAE Standard 101-83. It is shown that the dependence on temperature of the MRTD of two of the systems is predicted well by the theory given in the ASHRAE standard. The calibration curves of the infrared imaging systems are given. These are in good agreement with those given by the manufacturers of the equipment.

  5. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  6. A visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCord, Thomas (Principal Investigator); Voelker, Mark; Owensby, Pam; Warren, Cris; Mooradian, Greg

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design effort for the construction of a visible-infrared imaging spectrometer for planetary missions, funded by NASA under the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program. The goal was to design and develop a prototype brassboard pushbroom imaging spectrometer covering the 0.35 gm to 2.5 gm spectral region using a simplified optical layout that would minimize the size, mass and parts count of the instrument by using a single holographic grating to disperse and focus light from a single slit onto both the infrared and visible focal plane arrays. Design approaches are presented and analyzed, along with problems encountered and recommended solutions to those problems. In particular, a new type of grating, incorporating two sets of rulings and a filter in a layered structure, is presented for further development.

  7. A Mathematical Model for Simulating Infrared Images of Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    DEFENCE RESEARCH CENTRE SALISBURY SOUTH AUSTRALIA TECHNICAL REPORT ER L-0396-TR A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SIMULATING INFRARED IMAGES OF SHIPS OS SCO1T...lli,wlng purposes: Reports documents prepared for maneagrial purposes, Technical recodAs of scientific end technical work of a permanent value Intended...They are Memoranda usually tentative in nature and reflec the personal views of the author, 3j, . A ~ ~ ~ ,~tu’~’ ’. . . UNCLASSIFIED AR-004.885

  8. Ge/Si Integrated Circuit For Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed integrated circuit consists of focal-plane array of metal/germanium Schottky-barrier photodetectors on same chip with silicon-based circuits that processes signals from photodetectors. Made compatible with underlying silicon-based circuitry by growing germanium epitaxially on silicon circuit wafers. Metal deposited in ultrahigh vacuum immediately after growth of germanium. Combination of described techniques results in high-resolution infrared-imaging circuits of superior performance.

  9. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  10. Near-infrared fundus autoflorescence imaging in solar retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Czepita, Maciej; Machalińska, Anna; Czepita, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare clinical entity caused by photochemical damage to the retinal pigment epithelium layer and photoreceptors of the fovea. Here we describe a case of a 33-year-old female patient diagnosed by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence imaging for signs of damage to the melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium of the fovea. The patient was advised to discontinue looking at the sun with the naked eye. PMID:28293534

  11. An Imaging Infrared (IIR) seeker using a microprogrammed processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, K. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recently developed Imaging Infrared Seeker uses a microprogrammed processor to perform gimbal servo control and system interface while performing the seeker functions of automatic target detection, acquisition, and tracking. The automatic detection mode requires up to 80% of the available capability of a high performance microprogrammed processor. Although system complexity was increased significantly, this approach can be cost effective when the basic computation capacity is already available.

  12. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Nanoprobes for in Vivo Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Chai-Hoon; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes offer advantages of high photon penetration, reduced light scattering and minimal autofluorescence from living tissues, rendering them valuable for noninvasive mapping of molecular events, assessment of therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring of disease progression in animal models. This review provides an overview of the recent development of the design and optical property of the different classes of NIR fluorescent nanoprobes associated with in vivo imaging applications.

  13. Fast infrared chemical imaging with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kevin; Kenkel, Seth; Liu, Jui-Nung; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-06

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm(-1)) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues.

  14. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  15. Requirements for a Moderate-Resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Kuai, Le; Gontijo, I.; DeLeon, Berta; Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Bajpai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of imaging and sounding from space warrants exploration of new methods for obtaining the required information, including changing the spectral band sets, employing new technologies and merging instruments. In some cases we must consider relaxation of the current capability. In others, we expect higher performance. In general our goal is to meet the VIIRS and CrIS requirements while providing the enhanced next generation capabilities: 1) Hyperspectral Imaging in the Vis/NIR bands, 2) High Spatial Resolution Sounding in the Infrared bands. The former will improve the accuracy of ocean color products, aerosols and water vapor, surface vegetation and geology. The latter will enable the high-impact achieved by the current suite of hyperspectral infrared sounders to be achieved by the next generation high resolution forecast models. We examine the spectral, spatial and radiometric requirements for a next generation system and technologies that can be applied from the available inventory within government and industry. A two-band grating spectrometer instrument called the Moderate-resolution Infrared Imaging Sounder (MIRIS) is conceived that, when used with the planned NASA PACE Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) will meet the vast majority of CrIS and VIIRS requirements in the all bands and provide the next generation capabilities desired. MIRIS resource requirements are modest and the Technology Readiness Level is high leading to the expectation that the cost and risk of MIRIS will be reasonable.

  16. A model of PSF estimation for coded mask infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ao; Jin, Jie; Wang, Qing; Yang, Jingyu; Sun, Yi

    2014-11-01

    The point spread function (PSF) of imaging system with coded mask is generally acquired by practical measure- ment with calibration light source. As the thermal radiation of coded masks are relatively severe than it is in visible imaging systems, which buries the modulation effects of the mask pattern, it is difficult to estimate and evaluate the performance of mask pattern from measured results. To tackle this problem, a model for infrared imaging systems with masks is presented in this paper. The model is composed with two functional components, the coded mask imaging with ideal focused lenses and the imperfection imaging with practical lenses. Ignoring the thermal radiation, the systems PSF can then be represented by a convolution of the diffraction pattern of mask with the PSF of practical lenses. To evaluate performances of different mask patterns, a set of criterion are designed according to different imaging and recovery methods. Furthermore, imaging results with inclined plane waves are analyzed to achieve the variation of PSF within the view field. The influence of mask cell size is also analyzed to control the diffraction pattern. Numerical results show that mask pattern for direct imaging systems should have more random structures, while more periodic structures are needed in system with image reconstruction. By adjusting the combination of random and periodic arrangement, desired diffraction pattern can be achieved.

  17. Near-infrared spectral imaging Michelson interferometer for astronomical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, C. W.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of an imaging Michelson interferometer-spectrometer used for near-infrared (0.8 micron to 2.5 microns) spectral imaging are reported. The system employs a rapid scan interferometer modified for stable low resolution (250/cm) performance and a 42 element PbS linear detector array. A microcomputer system is described which provides data acquisition, coadding, and Fourier transformation for near real-time presentation of the spectra of all 42 scene elements. The electronic and mechanical designs are discussed and telescope performance data presented.

  18. Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - An advanced optics technology instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, Colin; Labaw, Clayton; Sobel, Harold; Kahle, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of a special optical filter, the Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, an airborne multispectral IR imaging instrument operating in the thermal emission region (7.5-14 microns), will achieve signal-to-noise ratios greater than 600 with ambient temperature optics. This instrument will be used to do compositional surface mapping of the terrain, and will refine the ability to categorize rock families and types by providing much higher spectral resolution in the emission region than was previously available. Details of the optical system, the detector, the cooler system, and the support electronics are described.

  19. Learning-based compressed sensing for infrared image super resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Wu, Shaochi

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an infrared image super-resolution method based on compressed sensing (CS). First, the reconstruction model under the CS framework is established and a Toeplitz matrix is selected as the sensing matrix. Compared with traditional learning-based methods, the proposed method uses a set of sub-dictionaries instead of two coupled dictionaries to recover high resolution (HR) images. And Toeplitz sensing matrix allows the proposed method time-efficient. Second, all training samples are divided into several feature spaces by using the proposed adaptive k-means classification method, which is more accurate than the standard k-means method. On the basis of this approach, a complex nonlinear mapping from the HR space to low resolution (LR) space can be converted into several compact linear mappings. Finally, the relationships between HR and LR image patches can be obtained by multi-sub-dictionaries and HR infrared images are reconstructed by the input LR images and multi-sub-dictionaries. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quantitatively and qualitatively more effective than other state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Portable cryogenically cooled infrared imager: how silent it might be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Vilenchik, Herman; Broyde, Ramon; Pundak, Nachman; Struckhoff, Andrew

    2007-04-01

    For the sake of weight and compactness, the enclosures of the modern portable cryogenically cooled infrared (IR) imagers are made in the form of a light metal (aluminium, magnesium, titanium) thin-walled shell, serving as an optical bench, accommodating a telescope, an optical train and an Infrared Detector Dewar Cooler Assembly (IDDCA). Such IDDCAs normally rely on miniature rotary Stirling cryogenic coolers, which are known as powerful sources of wideband vibration giving rise to the inherently lightly damped structural resonances in the imager enclosure thus causing loud structure-borne noise. This may lead to an increased range for aural detectability of forward observers who must remain undetected, potentially for long periods of time. Consequently, the aural nondetectability distance becomes one of the crucial figures of merit (along with the overall weight, battery life, imagery quality, etc) characterising the modern portable IR imager. In the novel approach, the IDDCA is mounted within the enclosure using a special silencing pad; effectively attenuating vibration export over the typical high frequency range that contains the relevant structural resonances of the enclosure. The residual noise radiation from the imager enclosure is then attenuated practically to a background level by reshaping the radiation modes thus cancelling the overall volume velocity. This is achieved by finding the "critical point" and affixing there the optimally sized correction mass. The authors report on a successful attempt to develop a cooled imager that is inaudible at greater than 10 meters (even during the cool down phase) per MIL-STD-1774D (Level II).

  1. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  2. Microwave Imaging with Infrared 2-D Lock-in Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiyo, Noritaka; Arai, Mizuki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    We have developed a 3-D electromagnetic field measurement system using 2-D lock-in amplifier. This system uses an amplitude modulated electromagnetic wave source to heat a resistive screen. A very small change of temperature on a screen illuminated with the modulated electromagnetic wave is measured using an infrared thermograph camera. In this paper, we attempted to apply our system to microwave imaging. By placing conductor patches in front of the resistive screen and illuminating with microwave, the shape of each conductor was clearly observed as the temperature difference image of the screen. In this way, the conductor pattern inside the non-contact type IC card could be visualized. Moreover, we could observe the temperature difference image reflecting the shape of a Konnyaku (a gelatinous food made from devil's-tonge starch) or a dried fishbone, both as non-conducting material resembling human body. These results proved that our method is applicable to microwave see-through imaging.

  3. Effects of hypersonic vehicle's optical dome on infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenjun; Cao, Zhiguo; Wang, Wenwu

    2011-09-01

    When an optically guided hypersonic vehicle flies in the atmosphere, the scene is viewed through an optical dome. Because of hypersonic friction with the atmosphere, the optical dome is inevitably covered by a serious shock wave, which threatens to alter the dome's physical parameters and further induce wavefront distortion and degradation of images. By studying the physical phenomena occurring within the optical dome in such an adverse environment, this paper identifies the relationship between the variation of the dome's optical characteristics and the infrared image degradation. The research indicates that the image quality degrades sharply as the vehicle's Mach number increases. Simulations also show that while the thermo-optic effect, elastic-optic effect, thermal deformation, and variation of transmittance have little effect on the optical system, the thermal radiation severely degrades images when vehicles fly at hypersonic speeds. Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  4. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  5. Uncooled emissive infrared imagers for CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Masini, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Raytheon's fourth generation uncooled microbolometer array technology with digital output, High Definition (HD) 1920 × 1200 format and 12 μm cell size enables uncooled thermal infrared (TIR) multispectral imagers with the sensitivity and spatial sampling needed for a variety of Earth observation missions in LEO, GEO and HEO. A powerful combination of small detector cell size, fast optics and high sensitivity achieved without cryogenic cooling leads to instruments that are much smaller than current TIR systems, while still offering the capability to meet challenging measurement requirements for Earth observation missions. To consider how this technology could be implemented for Earth observation missions, we extend our previous studies with visible wavelength CubeSat imagers for environmental observations from LEO and examine whether small thermal infrared imagers based on fourth generation uncooled technology could be made small enough to fit onboard a 3U CubeSat and still meet challenging requirements for legacy missions. We found that moderate spatial resolution (~200 m) high sensitivity cloud and surface temperature observations meeting legacy MODIS/VIIRS requirements could be collected successfully with CubeSat-sized imagers but that multiple imagers are needed to cover the full swath for these missions. Higher spatial resolution land imagers are more challenging to fit into the CubeSat form factor, but it may be possible to do so for systems that require roughly 100 m spatial resolution. Regardless of whether it can fit into a CubeSat or not, uncooled land imagers meeting candidate TIR requirements can be implemented with a much smaller instrument than previous imagers. Even though this technology appears to be very promising, more work is needed to qualify this newly available uncooled infrared technology for use in space. If these new devices prove to be as space worthy as the first generation arrays that Raytheon qualified and built into the THEMIS imager

  6. Plant species discrimination using emissive thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Gilles; Gerhards, Max; Schlerf, Martin; Hecker, Christoph; Udelhoven, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Discrimination of plant species in the optical reflective domain is somewhat limited by the similarity of their reflectance spectra. Spectral characteristics in the visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR) consist of combination bands and overtones of primary absorption bands, situated in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) region and therefore resulting in broad spectral features. TIR spectroscopy is assumed to have a large potential for providing complementary information to VSWIR spectroscopy. So far, in the TIR, plants were often considered featureless. Recently and following advances in sensor technology, plant species were discriminated based on specific emissivity signatures by Ullah et al. (2012) using directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR) measurements in the laboratory. Here we examine if an accurate discrimination of plant species is equally possible using emissive thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy, an explicit spatial technique that is faster and more flexible than non-imaging measurements. Hyperspectral thermal infrared images were acquired in the 7.8⿿11.56 μm range at 40 nm spectral resolution (@10 μm) using a TIR imaging spectrometer (Telops HyperCam-LW) on seven plants each, of eight different species. The images were radiometrically calibrated and subjected to temperature and emissivity separation using a spectral smoothness approach. First, retrieved emissivity spectra were compared to laboratory reference spectra and then subjected to species discrimination using a random forest classifier. Second, classification results obtained with emissivity spectra were compared to those obtained with VSWIR reflectance spectra that had been acquired from the same leaf samples. In general, the mean emissivity spectra measured by the TIR imaging spectrometer showed very good agreement with the reference spectra (average Nash-Sutcliffe-Efficiency Index = 0.64). In species discrimination, the resulting accuracies for emissivity spectra are highly dependent on

  7. Near- and mid-Infrared Resolved Imaging of Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, H. G.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B.; Max, C. E.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-10-01

    We present spatially resolved images of Titan in the near-infrared (1-2.5 μ m) with the W.M. Keck Observatory Adaptive Optics (AO) system and in the mid-infrared (8-13 μ m) with the Keck Long Wave Spectometer (LWS). On 30 October 1999 (UT) we observed a bright cloud band at 70° S latitude in two narrowband filters (each ~1% bandwidth centered on 1.158 μ m and 1.702 μ m) chosen such that they selectively probe the atmosphere above the tropopause. The feature was spatially unresolved in latitude and extended over all visible longitudes. From measurements of a star, the AO system achieved a spatial resolution at 1.158 μ m of 0.032'', or 190 km on Titan. Further, we observed a broad haze band extending over approximately 60o of latitude centered slightly south of Titan's equator. This feature is apparent in near-infrared AO images from October 1999. Mid-infrared LWS images from September and November 1999 with a resolution of ~0.2'' show structure across the disk of Titan, and we compare these with models of haze thermal emission in order to determine the haze distribution. HGR is funded by a NASA-GSRP fellowship. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. Using short-wave infrared imaging for fruit quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural and food products is important for processing, inventory control, and marketing. Fruit size and surface quality are two important quality factors for high-quality fruit such as Medjool dates. Fruit size is usually measured by length that can be done easily by simple image processing techniques. Surface quality evaluation on the other hand requires more complicated design, both in image acquisition and image processing. Skin delamination is considered a major factor that affects fruit quality and its value. This paper presents an efficient histogram analysis and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time surface quality evaluation of Medjool dates. This approach, based on short-wave infrared imaging, provides excellent image contrast between the fruit surface and delaminated skin, which allows significant simplification of image processing algorithm and reduction of computational power requirements. The proposed quality grading method requires very simple training procedure to obtain a gray scale image histogram for each quality level. Using histogram comparison, each date is assigned to one of the four quality levels and an optimal threshold is calculated for segmenting skin delamination areas from the fruit surface. The percentage of the fruit surface that has skin delamination can then be calculated for quality evaluation. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production and proven to be efficient and accurate.

  9. A novel approach to fast noise reduction of infrared image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Chang, Yuan-Chang; Cheng, Hsu-Yung

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a fast noise reduction (FNR) approach to infrared (IR) images. The IR images usually have noise, edges, text information and small objects of interest. The well known standard median filter (MF) is not suitable to process these IR images. The main characteristics of the proposed approach are that no prior knowledge about the IR image noise is necessary and no parameters must be preset. It is developed based on IR imaging mechanism to detect the noisy pixels and on modified median-based filter to remove the noisy pixels in IR images. The FSN approach has the advantage of low computation load. In addition, it can retain reasonably good edges, details and texture information even if the size of the filter window increases. The goal of the proposed approach is feasible for an effective process for reducing noise of IR images, regardless of the filter windows' and objects' sizes. It also significantly speeds up the noise reduction process and can apply to real-time video processing. FNR approach will extend the IR image applications of medicine.

  10. Mid-infrared imaging of Orion BN/KL - Astrometry of IRc2 and the SiO maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.

    1992-01-01

    Array images of Orion BN/KL at nine midinfrared (5-20 microns) wavelengths have revealed a subarcsecond structure near IRc2 which provides new constraints on the relationship between IRc2 and the Orion SiO maser. The infrared source positions have been improved, and IRc2 is found to be displaced 0.8 +/- 0.2 arcsec (at least 400 AU) from the SiO maser, an order of magnitude greater than the separation assumed in the current maser model. The SiO maser and the IRc2 midinfrared source may be physically independent objects. There are indications that IRc2 is eroded on the south side adjacent to the SiO/H2O maser cluster, suggesting that another luminous object near IRc2, most likely a stellar object associated with radio continuum point source 'I', is the host for the Orion SiO maser.

  11. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  12. Upconversion imaging using short-wave infrared picosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Mathez, Morgan; Rodrigo, Peter John; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To the best of our knowledge, we present the first demonstration of short-wavelength infrared image upconversion that employs intense picosecond signal and pump beams. We use a fiber laser that emits a signal beam at 1877 nm and a pump beam at 1550 nm-both with a pulse width of 1 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 21.7 MHz. Due to synchronization of high peak-power pulses, efficient upconversion is achieved in a single-pass setup that employs a bulk lithium niobate crystal. Optimizing the temporal overlap of the pulses for high upconversion efficiency enables us to exploit a relatively large pump beam diameter to upconvert a wider range of signal spatial frequencies in the crystal. The 1877 nm signal is converted into 849 nm-enabling an image to be acquired by a silicon CCD camera. The measured size of the smallest resolvable element of this imaging system is consistent with the value predicted by an improved model that considers the combined image blurring effect due to finite pump beam size, thick nonlinear crystal, and polychromatic infrared illumination.

  13. Application of DIRI dynamic infrared imaging in reconstructive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, Marek; Wang, Chengpu; Jin, Feng; Salvitti, Matthew; Tenorio, Xavier

    2006-04-01

    We have developed the BioScanIR System based on QWIP (Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector). Data collected by this sensor are processed using the DIRI (Dynamic Infrared Imaging) algorithms. The combination of DIRI data processing methods with the unique characteristics of the QWIP sensor permit the creation of a new imaging modality capable of detecting minute changes in temperature at the surface of the tissue and organs associated with blood perfusion due to certain diseases such as cancer, vascular disease and diabetes. The BioScanIR System has been successfully applied in reconstructive surgery to localize donor flap feeding vessels (perforators) during the pre-surgical planning stage. The device is also used in post-surgical monitoring of skin flap perfusion. Since the BioScanIR is mobile; it can be moved to the bedside for such monitoring. In comparison to other modalities, the BioScanIR can localize perforators in a single, 20 seconds scan with definitive results available in minutes. The algorithms used include (FFT) Fast Fourier Transformation, motion artifact correction, spectral analysis and thermal image scaling. The BioScanIR is completely non-invasive and non-toxic, requires no exogenous contrast agents and is free of ionizing radiation. In addition to reconstructive surgery applications, the BioScanIR has shown promise as a useful functional imaging modality in neurosurgery, drug discovery in pre-clinical animal models, wound healing and peripheral vascular disease management.

  14. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, A. G.; Ahn, J-W.; Maingi, R.; Gray, T. K.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2012-05-15

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 {mu}m wavelengths and transmits 7-10 {mu}m wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  15. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Adam G; Ahn, J.W.; Maingi, Rajesh; Gray, T. K.; Roquemore, L.

    2012-01-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 mu m wavelengths and transmits 7-10 mu m wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  16. Indeterminacy and Image Improvement in Snake Infrared ``Vision''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2006-03-01

    Many snake species have infrared sense organs located on their head that can detect warm-blooded prey even in total darkness. The physical mechanism underlying this sense is that of a pinhole camera. The infrared image is projected onto a sensory `pit membrane' of small size (of order mm^2). To get a neuronal response the energy flux per unit time has to exceed a minimum threshold; furthermore, the source of this energy, the prey, is moving at a finite speed so the pinhole substituting for a lens has to be rather large (˜1 mm). Accordingly the image is totally blurred. We have therefore done two things. First, we have determined the precise optical resolution that a snake can achieve for a given input. Second, in view of known, though still restricted, precision one may ask whether, and how, a snake can reconstruct the original image. The point is that the information needed to reconstruct the original temperature distribution in space is still available. We present an explicit mathematical model [1] allowing even high-quality reconstruction from the low-quality image on the pit membrane and indicate how a neuronal implementation might be realized. Ref: [1] A.B. Sichert, P. Friedel, and J.L. van Hemmen, TU Munich preprint (2005).

  17. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented.

  18. Towards an Imaging Mid-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, T.; Aslam, S.; Jones, H.; Kostiuk, T.; Villanueva, G.; Roman, P.; Shaw, G. B.; Livengood, T.; Allen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a concept for a compact, low-mass, low-power, mid-infrared (MIR; 5- 12 microns) imaging heterodyne spectrometer that incorporates fiber optic coupling, Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) local oscillator, photomixer array, and Radio Frequency Software Defined Readout (RFSDR) for spectral analysis. Planetary Decadal Surveys have highlighted the need for miniaturized, robust, low-mass, and minimal power remote sensing technologies for flight missions. The drive for miniaturization of remote sensing spectroscopy and radiometry techniques has been a continuing process. The advent of MIR fibers, and MEMS techniques for producing waveguides has proven to be an important recent advancement for miniaturization of infrared spectrometers. In conjunction with well-established photonics techniques, the miniaturization of spectrometers is transitioning from classic free space optical systems to waveguide/fiber-based structures for light transport and producing interference effects. By their very nature, these new devices are compact and lightweight. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) and Quantum Well Infrared Photodiodes (QWIP) arrays for heterodyne applications are also being developed. Bulky electronics is another barrier that precluded the extension of heterodyne systems into imaging applications, and our RFSDR will address this aspect.

  19. Calcium imaging of infrared-stimulated activity in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Cayce, Jonathan Matthew; Bouchard, Matthew B; Chernov, Mykyta M; Chen, Brenda R; Grosberg, Lauren E; Jansen, E Duco; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a promising neurostimulation technique that can activate neural tissue with high spatial precision and without the need for exogenous agents. However, little is understood about how infrared light interacts with neural tissue on a cellular level, particularly within the living brain. In this study, we use calcium sensitive dye imaging on macroscopic and microscopic scales to explore the spatiotemporal effects of INS on cortical calcium dynamics. The INS-evoked calcium signal that was observed exhibited a fast and slow component suggesting activation of multiple cellular mechanisms. The slow component of the evoked signal exhibited wave-like properties suggesting network activation, and was verified to originate from astrocytes through pharmacology and 2-photon imaging. We also provide evidence that the fast calcium signal may have been evoked through modulation of glutamate transients. This study demonstrates that pulsed infrared light can induce intracellular calcium modulations in both astrocytes and neurons, providing new insights into the mechanisms of action of INS in the brain.

  20. Combined use of visible, reflected infrared, and thermal infrared images for mapping Hawaiian lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Abbott, Elsa; Kahle, Anne

    1991-01-01

    The weathering of Hawaiian basalts is accompanied by chemical and physical changes of the surfaces. These changes have been mapped using remote sensing data from the visible and reflected infrared and thermal infrared wavelength regions. They are related to the physical breakdown of surface chill coats, the development and erosion of silica coatings, the oxidation of mafic minerals, and the development of vegetation cover. These effects show systematic behavior with age and can be mapped using the image data and related to relative ages of pahoehoe and aa flows. The thermal data are sensitive to silica rind development and fine structure of the scene; the reflectance data show the degree of oxidation and differentiate vegetation from aa and cinders. Together, data from the two wavelength regions show more than either separately. The combined data potentially provide a powerful tool for mapping basalt flows in arid to semiarid volcanic environments.

  1. Obstacle detection for helicopter flights by infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio

    2001-08-01

    Helicopters often strike against obstacles such as a power line. To reduce such collisions, we are developing an obstacle detection and warning system for helicopters. This paper describes the techniques to detect wire-like obstacles by infrared (IR) images. Measurements were conducted to gather IR images and to investigate the sensor performance to detect obstacles in different environments. IR images proved that the use of IR cameras could greatly increase the possibility of detecting obstacles that could never be found by naked eyes. The performance to suppress sunlight noise by the 8-12 mm IR camera was also demonstrated. However, the target-to-background contrast of the original IR images was not enough as the advisory by which a pilot maneuvers his helicopter. There were cases that even IR cameras failed to detect obstacles in adverse weather and background conditions. Image processing techniques were then proposed to enhance the contrast of IR images and to improve the coverage in adverse conditions. An experimental millimeter wave (MMW) radar is now being developed to improve the detection performance and to add distance information on the enhanced images. The configuration of the MMW radar and the results of preliminary measurements by the radar were presented.

  2. Shortwave Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy for Analysis of Ancient Paintings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Taixia; Li, Guanghua; Yang, Zehua; Zhang, Hongming; Lei, Yong; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lifu

    2016-11-21

    Spectral analysis is one of the main non-destructive techniques used to examine cultural relics. Hyperspectral imaging technology, especially on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band, can clearly extract information from paintings, such as color, pigment composition, damage characteristics, and painting techniques. All of these characteristics have significant scientific and practical value in the study of ancient paintings and other relics and in their protection and restoration. In this study, an ancient painting, numbered Gu-6541, which had been found in the Forbidden City, served as a sample. A ground-based SWIR imaging spectrometer was used to produce hyperspectral images with high spatial and spectral resolution. Results indicated that SWIR imaging spectral data greatly facilitates the extraction of line features used in drafting, even using a single band image. It can be used to identify and classify mineral pigments used in paintings. These images can detect alterations and traces of daub used in painting corrections and, combined with hyperspectral data analysis methods such as band combination or principal component analysis, such information can be extracted to highlight outcomes of interest. In brief, the SWIR imaging spectral technique was found to have a highly favorable effect on the extraction of line features from drawings and on the identification of colors, classification of paintings, and extraction of hidden information.

  3. Fourier transform infrared imaging and infrared fiber optic probe spectroscopy identify collagen type in connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, Arash; McCarthy, Helen; Roberts, Sally; Pleshko, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues

  4. Design of a Remote Infrared Images and Other Data Acquisition Station for outdoor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béland, M.-A.; Djupkep, F. B. D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.; Ferrarini, G.; Bison, P.; Grinzato, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Infrared Images and Other Data Acquisition Station enables a user, who is located inside a laboratory, to acquire visible and infrared images and distances in an outdoor environment with the help of an Internet connection. This station can acquire data using an infrared camera, a visible camera, and a rangefinder. The system can be used through a web page or through Python functions.

  5. Passive Infrared Thermographic Imaging for Mobile Robot Object Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinders, M. K.; Fehlman, W. L.

    2010-02-01

    The usefulness of thermal infrared imaging as a mobile robot sensing modality is explored, and a set of thermal-physical features used to characterize passive thermal objects in outdoor environments is described. Objects that extend laterally beyond the thermal camera's field of view, such as brick walls, hedges, picket fences, and wood walls as well as compact objects that are laterally within the thermal camera's field of view, such as metal poles and tree trunks, are considered. Classification of passive thermal objects is a subtle process since they are not a source for their own emission of thermal energy. A detailed analysis is included of the acquisition and preprocessing of thermal images, as well as the generation and selection of thermal-physical features from these objects within thermal images. Classification performance using these features is discussed, as a precursor to the design of a physics-based model to automatically classify these objects.

  6. Seeing the Heat: Preliminary Studies of Cryocrystallography Using Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, E. H.; Judge, R. A.; Larson, M.; vanderWoerd, M. J.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As preparation for an extensive study imaging the cryocooling process of macromolecular crystals we have demonstrated the ability to thermally image solid objects and liquids at temperatures far below 273 K. In the case of a large lysozyme crystal qualitative measurements show the cooling process to take about 0.6s with the cooling taking place in a wave from the face of the crystal nearest to the origin of the cryostream, to the point furthest away from the origin. Annealing of this lysozyme crystal, cooled under good cryoprotectant conditions, showed cold striations formed perpendicular to the cooling stream. These striations became more pronounced after successive annealing. Cryocooling of a non-cryoprotected crystal of glucose isomerase displayed an S-shaped cold front wave traveling across the sample. These preliminary results are qualitative but show the power of infrared imaging as a new tool for fundamental and practical cryocrystallography studies.

  7. CHANDRA AND SPITZER IMAGING OF THE INFRARED CLUSTER IN NGC 2071

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Guedel, Manuel; Audard, Marc; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2009-08-10

    We present results of a sensitive Chandra X-ray observation and Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations of the IR cluster lying north of the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B molecular cloud. We focus on the dense cluster core known as NGC 2071-IR, which contains at least nine IR sources within a 40'' x 40'' region. This region shows clear signs of active star formation including powerful molecular outflows, Herbig-Haro objects, and both OH and H{sub 2}O masers. We use Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images to aid in X-ray source identification and to determine young stellar object (YSO) classes using mid-IR colors. Spitzer IRAC colors show that the luminous source IRS 1 is a class I protostar. IRS 1 is believed to be driving a powerful bipolar molecular outflow and may be an embedded B-type star or its progenitor. Its X-ray spectrum reveals a fluorescent Fe emission line at 6.4 keV, arising in cold material near the protostar. The line is present even in the absence of large flares, raising questions about the nature of the ionizing mechanism responsible for producing the 6.4 keV fluorescent line. Chandra also detects X-ray sources at or near the positions of IRS 2, IRS 3, IRS 4, and IRS 6 and a variable X-ray source coincident with the radio source VLA 1, located just 2'' north of IRS 1. No IR data are yet available to determine a YSO classification for VLA 1, but its high X-ray absorption shows that it is even more deeply embedded than IRS 1, suggesting that it could be an even younger, less-evolved protostar.

  8. Infrared Jitter Imaging Data Reduction: Algorithms and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillard, Nicolas

    Jitter imaging (also known as microscanning) is probably one of the most efficient ways to perform astronomical observations in the infrared. It requires very efficient filtering and recentering methods to produce the best possible output from raw data. This paper discusses issues attached to Poisson offset generation, efficient infrared sky filtering, offset recovery between planes through cross-correlation and/or point pattern recognition techniques, plane shifting with subpixel resolution through various kernel-based interpolation schemes, and 3D filtering for plane accumulation. Several algorithms are described for each step, having in mind an automatic data processing in pipeline mode (i.e., without user interaction) as intended for the Very Large Telescope. Implementation of these algorithms in optimized ANSI C (the eclipse library) is also described here.

  9. Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue with Synchrotron Infrared Light

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have become valuable techniques for examining the chemical makeup of biological materials by probing their vibrational motions on a microscopic scale. Synchrotron infrared (S-IR) light is an ideal source for FTIRM and FTIRI due to the combination of its high brightness (i.e., flux density), also called brilliance, and broadband nature. Through a 10-{mu}m pinhole, the brightness of a synchrotron source is 100-1000 times higher than a conventional thermal (globar) source. Accordingly, the improvement in spatial resolution and in spectral quality to the diffraction limit has led to a plethora of applications that is just being realized. In this review, we describe the development of synchrotron-based FTIRM, illustrate its advantages in many applications to biological systems, and propose some potential future directions for the technique.

  10. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  11. A method for evaluating image quality of monochrome and color displays based on luminance by use of a commercially available color digital camera

    SciTech Connect

    Tokurei, Shogo E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Morishita, Junji E-mail: junjim@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to propose a method for the quantitative evaluation of image quality of both monochrome and color liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) using a commercially available color digital camera. Methods: The intensities of the unprocessed red (R), green (G), and blue (B) signals of a camera vary depending on the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor used in the camera. For consistent evaluation of image quality for both monochrome and color LCDs, the unprocessed RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals that corresponded to the luminance of the LCD. Gray scale signals for the monochrome LCD were evaluated by using only the green channel signals of the camera. For the color LCD, the RGB signals of the camera were converted into gray scale signals by employing weighting factors (WFs) for each RGB channel. A line image displayed on the color LCD was simulated on the monochrome LCD by using a software application for subpixel driving in order to verify the WF-based conversion method. Furthermore, the results obtained by different types of commercially available color cameras and a photometric camera were compared to examine the consistency of the authors’ method. Finally, image quality for both the monochrome and color LCDs was assessed by measuring modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and Wiener spectra (WS). Results: The authors’ results demonstrated that the proposed method for calibrating the spectral sensitivity of the camera resulted in a consistent and reliable evaluation of the luminance of monochrome and color LCDs. The MTFs and WS showed different characteristics for the two LCD types owing to difference in the subpixel structure. The MTF in the vertical direction of the color LCD was superior to that of the monochrome LCD, although the WS in the vertical direction of the color LCD was inferior to that of the monochrome LCD as a result of luminance fluctuations in RGB subpixels. Conclusions: The authors

  12. Image reconstruction method IRBis for optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Heininger, Matthias; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Millour, Florentin; Berio, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    IRBis is an image reconstruction method for optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry. IRBis can reconstruct images from (a) measured visibilities and closure phases, or from (b) measured complex visibilities (i.e. the Fourier phases and visibilities). The applied optimization routine ASA CG is based on conjugate gradients. The method allows the user to implement different regularizers, as for example, maximum entropy, smoothness, total variation, etc., and apply residual ratios as an additional metric for goodness-of-fit. In addition, IRBis allows the user to change the following reconstruction parameters: (a) FOV of the area to be reconstructed, (b) the size of the pixel-grid used, (c) size of a binary mask in image space allowing reconstructed intensities < 0 within the binary mask only, (d) the strength of the regularization, etc. The two main reconstruction parameters are the size of the binary mask in image space (c) and the strength of the regularization (d). Several values of these two parameters are tested within the algorithm. The quality of the different reconstructions obtained is roughly estimated by evaluation of the differences between the measured data and the reconstructed image (using the reduced χ2 values and the residual ratios). The best-quality reconstruction and a few reconstructions sorted according to their quality are provided to the user as resulting reconstructions. We describe the theory of IRBis and will present several applications to simulated interferometric data and data of real astronomical objects: (a) We have investigated image reconstruction experiments of MATISSE target candidates by computer simulations. We have modeled gaps in a disk of a young stellar object and have simulated interferometric data (squared visibilities and closure phases) with a signal-to-noise ratio as expected for MATISSE observations. We have performed image reconstruction experiments with this model for different flux levels of the target and

  13. Uncooled infrared monolithic imaging sensor using pyroelectric polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutures, Jean-Louis; Lemaitre, Regine; Pourquier, E.; Boucharlat, Gilles C.; Tribolet, Philippe

    1995-09-01

    P(VF2-TrFE) pyroelectric copolymer is chosen for its high level of compatibility with existing microelectronics processes, and convenient electrical properties for infrared (IR) 8 to 14 micrometer imagery in the performance range of NETD 0.1 K to 1 K. Low cost sensors, achievable thanks to the monolithic silicon wafer processing, standard package assembly, and uncooled operations, allow us to address a lot of low-end applications in which conventional IR imaging techniques -- high priced hybrid mercury cadmium telluride or indium antimonide arrays, liquid nitrogen cooling and sophisticated image processing -- are nowadays incompatible with large volume user's needs and market prices. The paper describes pyroelectric device trade-offs, architecture, and process. Based on the interline architecture, the sensor performances of the TH 7441A 128 by 128 area array infrared detector are presented: compatible with 1 inch optics, the square array is made of an 80 by 80 micrometer squared pixel, on a pixel pitch of 85 micrometer. The CCD multiplexer using patented on-site processing is designed to deliver the image information at the maximum rate of 50 image/s. Lower rates are achievable. Imaging performances are the following: a NETD of 1.7 K is achieved with an integration time of 10 ms and the use of a f/1 optics presenting a transmission of 0.8. Recent improvements in the properties of the pyroelectric sandwich include thermal insulation of the pyroelectric layer through mixed air-polyimide material and pixel side to side insulation. Thanks to on-wafer pixel reticulation, an increased modulation transfer function of 51% at Nyquist frequency is achieved.

  14. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: data reduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley A.; Weiss, Jason; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Do, Tuan; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Marshall, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L.; Simard, Luc; Sohn, Ji Man; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James

    2016-08-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the diffraction-limited first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 μm) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS). The IFS makes use of a lenslet array and slicer for spatial sampling, which will be able to operate in 100's of different modes, including a combination of four plate scales from 4 milliarcseconds (mas) to 50 mas with a large range of filters and gratings. The imager will have a field of view of 34×34 arcsec2 with a plate scale of 4 mas with many selectable filters. We present the preliminary design of the data reduction system (DRS) for IRIS that need to address all of these observing modes. Reduction of IRIS data will have unique challenges since it will provide real-time reduction and analysis of the imaging and spectroscopic data during observational sequences, as well as advanced post-processing algorithms. The DRS will support three basic modes of operation of IRIS; reducing data from the imager, the lenslet IFS, and slicer IFS. The DRS will be written in Python, making use of open-source astronomical packages available. In addition to real-time data reduction, the DRS will utilize real-time visualization tools, providing astronomers with up-to-date evaluation of the target acquisition and data quality. The quick look suite will include visualization tools for 1D, 2D, and 3D raw and reduced images. We discuss the overall requirements of the DRS and visualization tools, as well as necessary calibration data to achieve optimal data quality in order to exploit science cases across all cosmic distance scales.

  15. Exoplanet Community Report on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.; Lawson, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Direct infrared imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets will allow for detailed characterization of the atmospheric constituents of more than 200 nearby Earth-like planets, more than is possible with any other method under consideration. A flagship mission based on larger passively cooled infrared telescopes and formation flying technologies would have the highest angular resolution of any concept under consideration. The 2008 Exoplanet Forum committee on Direct Infrared Imaging of Exoplanets recommends: (1) a vigorous technology program including component development, integrated testbeds, and end-to-end modeling in the areas of formation flying and mid-infrared nulling; (2) a probe-scale mission based on a passively cooled structurally connected interferometer to be started within the next two to five years, for exoplanetary system characterization that is not accessible from the ground, and which would provide transformative science and lay the engineering groundwork for the flagship mission with formation flying elements. Such a mission would enable a complete exozodiacal dust survey (<1 solar system zodi) in the habitable zone of all nearby stars. This information will allow for a more efficient strategy of spectral characterization of Earth-sized planets for the flagship missions, and also will allow for optimization of the search strategy of an astrometric mission if such a mission were delayed due to cost or technology reasons. (3) Both the flagship and probe missions should be pursued with international partners if possible. Fruitful collaboration with international partners on mission concepts and relevant technology should be continued. (4) Research and Analysis (R&A) should be supported for the development of preliminary science and mission designs. Ongoing efforts to characterize the the typical level of exozodiacal light around Sun-like stars with ground-based nulling technology should be continued.

  16. New solutions and technologies for uncooled infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Joël.; Diaz, Frédéric; Fontaine, Christophe; Loiseaux, Brigitte; Lee, Mane-Si Laure; Clienti, Christophe; Lemonnier, Fabrice; Zhang, Xianghua; Calvez, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    The military uncooled infrared market is driven by the continued cost reduction of the focal plane arrays whilst maintaining high standards of sensitivity and steering towards smaller pixel sizes. As a consequence, new optical solutions are called for. Two approaches can come into play: the bottom up option consists in allocating improvements to each contributor and the top down process rather relies on an overall optimization of the complete image channel. The University of Rennes I with Thales Angénieux alongside has been working over the past decade through French MOD funding's, on low cost alternatives of infrared materials based upon chalcogenide glasses. A special care has been laid on the enhancement of their mechanical properties and their ability to be moulded according to complex shapes. New manufacturing means developments capable of better yields for the raw materials will be addressed, too. Beyond the mere lenses budget cuts, a wave front coding process can ease a global optimization. This technic gives a way of relaxing optical constraints or upgrading thermal device performances through an increase of the focus depths and desensitization against temperature drifts: it combines image processing and the use of smart optical components. Thales achievements in such topics will be enlightened and the trade-off between image quality correction levels and low consumption/ real time processing, as might be required in hand-free night vision devices, will be emphasized. It is worth mentioning that both approaches are deeply leaning on each other.

  17. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  18. TIRCIS: thermal infrared compact imaging spectrometer for small satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Lucey, Paul; Crites, Sarah; Garbeil, Harold; Wood, Mark; Pilger, Eric; Gabrieli, Andrea; Honniball, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of reflectance or emittance in tens of narrow, contiguous wavebands, allow for the derivation of laboratory quality spectra remotely, from which the chemical composition and physical properties of targets can be determined. Although spaceborne (e.g. EO-1 Hyperion) hyperspectral data in the 0.4-2.5 micron (VSWIR) region are available, the provision of equivalent data in the log-wave infrared has lagged behind, there being no currently operational high spatial resolution LWIR imaging spectrometer on orbit. TIRCIS (Thermal Infra-Red Compact Imaging Spectrometer), uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer, an uncooled microbolometer array, and push-broom scanning to acquire hyperspectral image data. Radiometric calibration is provided by blackbody targets while spectral calibration is achieved using monochromatic light sources. The instrument has a mass of <15 kg and dimensions of 53 cm × 25 cm ♢ 22 cm, and has been designed to be compatible with integration into a micro-satellite platform. (A precursor to this instrument was launched onboard a 55 kg microsatellite in October 2015). The optical design yields a 120 m ground sample size given an orbit of 500 km. Over the wavelength interval of 7.5 to 14 microns up to 50 spectral samples are possible. Measured signal-to-noise ratios range from peak values of 500:1 to 1500:1, for source temperature of 10 to 100°C.

  19. Systematic infrared image quality improvement using deep learning based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaizhong; Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, Pablo; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Qi; Kitchin, Matthew; Parmley, Andrew; Monge-Alvarez, Jesus

    2016-10-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT, or thermal video) uses thermographic cameras to detect and record radiation in the longwavelength infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. It allows sensing environments beyond the visual perception limitations, and thus has been widely used in many civilian and military applications. Even though current thermal cameras are able to provide high resolution and bit-depth images, there are significant challenges to be addressed in specific applications such as poor contrast, low target signature resolution, etc. This paper addresses quality improvement in IRT images for object recognition. A systematic approach based on image bias correction and deep learning is proposed to increase target signature resolution and optimise the baseline quality of inputs for object recognition. Our main objective is to maximise the useful information on the object to be detected even when the number of pixels on target is adversely small. The experimental results show that our approach can significantly improve target resolution and thus helps making object recognition more efficient in automatic target detection/recognition systems (ATD/R).

  20. Near infrared imaging and {o I} spectroscopy of IC 443 using two micron all sky survey and infrared space observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Cutri, C. M.; Reach, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    We present near-infrared J (1.25 mum), H (1.65 mum), and K-s (2.17 mum) imaging of the entire supernova remnant IC 443 from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) LWS observations of [O I] for 11 positions in the northeast.

  1. An image reconstruction method (IRBis) for optical/infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G.; Schertl, D.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We present an image reconstruction method for optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry called IRBis (image reconstruction software using the bispectrum). We describe the theory and present applications to computer-simulated interferograms. Methods: The IRBis method can reconstruct an image from measured visibilities and closure phases. The applied optimization routine ASA_CG is based on conjugate gradients. The method allows the user to implement different regularizers, apply residual ratios as an additional metric for goodness-of-fit, and use previous iteration results as a prior to force convergence. Results: We present the theory of the IRBis method and several applications of the method to computer-simulated interferograms. The image reconstruction results show the dependence of the reconstructed image on the noise in the interferograms (e.g., for ten electron read-out noise and 139 to 1219 detected photons per interferogram), the regularization method, the angular resolution, and the reconstruction parameters applied. Furthermore, we present the IRBis reconstructions submitted to the interferometric imaging beauty contest 2012 initiated by the IAU Working Group on Optical/IR Interferometry and describe the performed data processing steps.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150  μg/mL ICG and 60  g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150  μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time. PMID:22734775

  3. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 μg/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

  4. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  5. High Speed Buffered Injection Readout for Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, B.; Shaw, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R. O.

    1998-01-01

    Design and operation of a high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for readout of infrared detectors with large detector capacitance is presented. Image lag related to abrupt transitions of signal currents is analyzed.

  6. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  7. An infrared imaging study of galaxies in the local universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Albert D.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Mcleod, Kim K.

    1995-01-01

    This poster was a preliminary report on a survey of galaxies in the local universe at J and K using a NICMOS3 256 x 256 infrared photometric camera attached to the 61 inch telescope on Mt. Bigelow. Deep images are being obtained for a representative sample of galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue. Structural and color parameters are determined for a wide variety of galactic types. These data should prove to be valuable in characterizing stellar populations within disks and bulges, determining if IR-active galaxies have unusual global as well as- nuclear properties, and understanding the effects of evolution and redshift dimming in distant galaxies.

  8. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging Without Harmful Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the detection of transmitted radiation, the spatial organization and composition of materials in the body can be ascertained. In this paper, we describe an original apparatus that teaches these concepts by utilizing near infrared radiation and an up-converting phosphorescent screen to safely probe the contents of an opaque enclosure.

  9. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  10. Visible-Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data of Explosion Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    In a continuing study to capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained new high resolution visible-near infrared images of several explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to obtain images in 224 spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns [1]. The main craters that were imaged were Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, Buggy, and Danny Boy [2]. The 390 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of the detonation of a 104 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a "simple" crater [2]. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology [3] and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also imaged by AVIRIS. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m, Fig. 1) craters were also important targets for AVIRIS as they were excavated in hard welded tuff and basaltic andesite, respectively [3, 4]. This variation in targets will allow the study of ejecta patterns, compositional modifications due to the explosions, and the role of craters as subsurface probes.

  11. Research on method of infrared spectral imaging based on thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Ke-wei; Shi, Xiao-guang; Wu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Xiao-xi

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, technology of thermal imager and spectral imaging is becoming mature, and the application of them is increased. The method is based on the blackbody radiation theory, make use of the infrared thermal imager to collect and analysis the thermal images, distill the temperature value of different pixel of the thermal images, use Matlab to deal blackbody radiation emitted curve fitting according with the temperature value of different pixels, and get the values of the degree of radiation emitted at the same wavelength from the different pixels, then make spectral imaging (1μm~10μm) according to the values. At last, do analysis to spectral imaging of different spectral bands; discuss the limitations of using this method to achieve spectral imaging.

  12. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  13. A robust color image fusion for low light level and infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Hu, Qing-ping; Chen, Yong-kang

    2016-09-01

    The low light level and infrared color fusion technology has achieved great success in the field of night vision, the technology is designed to make the hot target of fused image pop out with intenser colors, represent the background details with a nearest color appearance to nature, and improve the ability in target discovery, detection and identification. The low light level images have great noise under low illumination, and that the existing color fusion methods are easily to be influenced by low light level channel noise. To be explicit, when the low light level image noise is very large, the quality of the fused image decreases significantly, and even targets in infrared image would be submerged by the noise. This paper proposes an adaptive color night vision technology, the noise evaluation parameters of low light level image is introduced into fusion process, which improve the robustness of the color fusion. The color fuse results are still very good in low-light situations, which shows that this method can effectively improve the quality of low light level and infrared fused image under low illumination conditions.

  14. Predicted NETD performance of a polarized infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley; Hodgkin, Van A.; Thompson, Roger; Leonard, Kevin; Krapels, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Polarization filters are commonly used as a means of increasing the contrast of a scene thereby increasing sensor range performance. The change in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is a function of the polarization of the target and background, the type and orientation of the polarization filter(s), and the overall transparency of the filter. However, in the mid-wave and longwave infrared bands (MWIR and LWIR), the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), which directly affects the SNR, is a function of the filter's re-emission and its reflected temperature radiance. This paper presents a model, by means of a Stokes vector input, that can be incorporated into the Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) in order to predict the change in SNR, NETD, and noise equivalent irradiance (NEI) for infrared polarimeter imaging systems. The model is then used to conduct a SNR trade study, using a modeled Stokes vector input, for a notional system looking at a reference target. Future laboratory and field measurements conducted at Night Vision Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) will be used to update, validate, and mature the model of conventional infrared systems equipped with polarization filters.

  15. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  16. Detail enhancement of blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyuan; Zeng, Deguo; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Ziyang; Wei, Fei; Wang, Tiedan

    2016-05-01

    A novel algorithm for enhancing the details of the blurred infrared images based on frequency extrapolation has been raised in this paper. Unlike other researchers' work, this algorithm mainly focuses on how to predict the higher frequency information based on the Laplacian pyramid separation of the blurred image. This algorithm uses the first level of the high frequency component of the pyramid of the blurred image to reverse-generate a higher, non-existing frequency component, and adds back to the histogram equalized input blurred image. A simple nonlinear operator is used to analyze the extracted first level high frequency component of the pyramid. Two critical parameters are participated in the calculation known as the clipping parameter C and the scaling parameter S. The detailed analysis of how these two parameters work during the procedure is figure demonstrated in this paper. The blurred image will become clear, and the detail will be enhanced due to the added higher frequency information. This algorithm has the advantages of computational simplicity and great performance, and it can definitely be deployed in the real-time industrial applications. We have done lots of experiments and gave illustrations of the algorithm's performance in this paper to convince its effectiveness.

  17. Dynamic full-field infrared imaging with multiple synchrotron beams

    PubMed Central

    Stavitski, Eli; Smith, Randy J.; Bourassa, Megan W.; Acerbo, Alvin S.; Carr, G. L.; Miller, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Microspectroscopic imaging in the infrared (IR) spectral region allows for the examination of spatially resolved chemical composition on the microscale. More than a decade ago, it was demonstrated that diffraction limited spatial resolution can be achieved when an apertured, single pixel IR microscope is coupled to the high brightness of a synchrotron light source. Nowadays, many IR microscopes are equipped with multi-pixel Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors, which dramatically improve data acquisition times for imaging large areas. Recently, progress been made toward efficiently coupling synchrotron IR beamlines to multi-pixel detectors, but they utilize expensive and highly customized optical schemes. Here we demonstrate the development and application of a simple optical configuration that can be implemented on most existing synchrotron IR beamlines in order to achieve full-field IR imaging with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Specifically, the synchrotron radiation fan is extracted from the bending magnet and split into four beams that are combined on the sample, allowing it to fill a large section of the FPA. With this optical configuration, we are able to oversample an image by more than a factor of two, even at the shortest wavelengths, making image restoration through deconvolution algorithms possible. High chemical sensitivity, rapid acquisition times, and superior signal-to-noise characteristics of the instrument are demonstrated. The unique characteristics of this setup enabled the real time study of heterogeneous chemical dynamics with diffraction-limited spatial resolution for the first time. PMID:23458231

  18. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) with force–distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties. PMID:27335750

  19. SAFIRE: Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Moseley, Harvey; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Pajot, Francois; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Stacey, Gorden; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 microns-655microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  20. Research on earthquake prediction from infrared cloud images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Yan, Liang; Gong, Jing; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of large earthquakes is frequent all over the word. In the face of the inevitable natural disasters, the prediction of the earthquake is particularly important to avoid more loss of life and property. Many achievements in the field of predict earthquake from remote sensing images have been obtained in the last few decades. But the traditional prediction methods presented do have the limitations of can't forecast epicenter location accurately and automatically. In order to solve the problem, a new predicting earthquakes method based on extract the texture and emergence frequency of the earthquake cloud is proposed in this paper. First, strengthen the infrared cloud images. Second, extract the texture feature vector of each pixel. Then, classified those pixels and converted to several small suspected area. Finally, tracking the suspected area and estimate the possible location. The inversion experiment of Ludian earthquake show that this approach can forecast the seismic center feasible and accurately.

  1. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  2. Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SAFIRE on SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 micrometers - 655 micrometers, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up barometer array in a 16 x 32 format to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge barometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  3. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  4. Functional infrared imaging in medicine: a quantitative diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Merla, A; Romani, G L

    2006-01-01

    The role and the potentialities of high-resolution infrared thermography, combined to bio-heat modelling, have been largely described in the last years in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Quantitative assessment over time of the cutaneous temperature and/or of other biomedical parameters related to the temperature (e.g., cutaneous blood flow, thermal inertia, sympathetic skin response) allows for a better and more complete understanding and description of functional processes involved and/or altered in presence of ailment and interfering with the regular cutaneous thermoregulation. Such an approach to thermal medical imaging requires both new methodologies and tools, like diagnostic paradigms, appropriate software for data analysis and, even, a completely new way to look at data processing. In this paper, some of the studies recently made in our laboratory are presented and described, with the general intent of introducing the reader to these innovative methods to obtain quantitative diagnostic tools based on thermal imaging.

  5. [A review of Dyson optical system in the measure of infrared imaging spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-juan; Tang, Yu-guo; Bayanheshig; Cui, Ji-cheng; Qi, Xiang-dong

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult for the traditional infrared imaging spectrometers to satisfy the requirement of high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and small size simultaneously. The new infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers based on Dyson concentric optical configuration have the advantages of high aperture, high SNR, simpleness small volume and low weight. The Dyson imaging spectrometers can achieve high SNR, which is difficult for the traditional imaging spectrometers for infrared imaging spectrum. The present review introduces the beginning, the development and the present research of the Dyson imaging spectrometers, especially illustrates the principle of Dyson concentric spectrometer, difficulty during its manufacture and the application in the high-performance infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers, providing a reference for the high-performance research of infrared remote sensing imaging spectrometers.

  6. The research on the effect of atmospheric transmittance for the measuring accuracy of infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Chen, Yi-ming; Fu, Xian-bin; Luo, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The effect of atmospheric transmittance on infrared thermal imager temperature measuring accuracy cannot be ignored when the object is far from infrared thermal imager. In this paper, a method of reducing the influence of atmospheric transmittance is proposed for the infrared thermal imager. Firstly, the temperature measuring formula of infrared thermal imager and the effect of atmospheric transmittance on temperature measuring accuracy is analyzed. According to the composition of the atmosphere, the main factors influencing the atmosphere transmittance are determined. Secondly, the temperature measuring model of infrared thermal imager in sea level is established according to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide, the scattering of air molecules and aerosol particulate, and the attenuation effects of weather conditions such as rain and snow. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of the proposed model is verified by the comparison experiments of four different environmental conditions. According to the experiments, the temperature measuring accuracy of the infrared thermal imager is improved.

  7. NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD: SEARCH FOR LUMINOUS GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx}> 6.5 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, Nimish P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Capak, Peter; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2012-09-20

    We present near-infrared (NIR; J and K{sub s}) survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field. The publicly available imaging data were obtained using the MOIRCS instrument on the 8.2 m Subaru and the WIRCam instrument on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These observations fulfill a serious wavelength gap in the GOODS-N data, i.e., lack of deep NIR observations. We combine the Subaru/MOIRCS and CFHT/WIRCam archival data to generate deep J- and K{sub s}-band images, covering the full GOODS-N field ({approx}169 arcmin{sup 2}) to an AB magnitude limit of {approx}25 mag (3{sigma}). We applied z{sub 850}-band dropout color selection criteria, using the NIR data generated here. We have identified two possible Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx}> 6.5 with J {approx}< 24.5. The first candidate is a likely LBG at z {approx_equal} 6.5 based on a weak spectral feature tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} line in the deep Keck/DEIMOS spectrum, while the second candidate is a possible LBG at z {approx_equal} 7 based on its photometric redshift. These z{sub 850}-dropout objects, if confirmed, are among the brightest such candidates found so far. At z {approx}> 6.5, their star formation rate is estimated as 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. If they continue to form stars at this rate, they assemble a stellar mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} after about 400 million years, becoming the progenitors of massive galaxies observed at z {approx_equal} 5. We study the implication of the z{sub 850}-band dropout candidates discovered here, in constraining the bright end of the luminosity function and understanding the nature of high-redshift galaxies.

  8. Automatic solar panel recognition and defect detection using infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Munson, Eric; Abousleman, Glen P.; Si, Jennie

    2015-05-01

    Failure-free operation of solar panels is of fundamental importance for modern commercial solar power plants. To achieve higher power generation efficiency and longer panel life, a simple and reliable panel evaluation method is required. By using thermal infrared imaging, anomalies can be detected without having to incorporate expensive electrical detection circuitry. In this paper, we propose a solar panel defect detection system, which automates the inspection process and mitigates the need for manual panel inspection in a large solar farm. Infrared video sequences of each array of solar panels are first collected by an infrared camera mounted to a moving cart, which is driven from array to array in a solar farm. The image processing algorithm segments the solar panels from the background in real time, with only the height of the array (specified as the number of rows of panels in the array) being given as prior information to aid in the segmentation process. In order to "count" the number the panels within any given array, frame-to frame panel association is established using optical flow. Local anomalies in a single panel such as hotspots and cracks will be immediately detected and labeled as soon as the panel is recognized in the field of view. After the data from an entire array is collected, hot panels are detected using DBSCAN clustering. On real-world test data containing over 12,000 solar panels, over 98% of all panels are recognized and correctly counted, with 92% of all types of defects being identified by the system.

  9. Raman and Infrared Microspectral Imaging of Mitotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    MATTHÄUS, CHRISTIAN; BOYDSTON-WHITE, SUSIE; MILJKOVIĆ, MILOŠ; ROMEO, MELISSA; DIEM, MAX

    2009-01-01

    We report the first ever Raman and infrared microspectroscopic images of human cells at different stages of mitosis. These spectroscopic methods monitor the distribution of condensed nuclear chromatin, and other biochemical components, utilizing inherent protein and DNA spectral markers, and, therefore, do not require the use of any stains. In conjunction with previously reported data from the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle, the complete cell division cycle has now been mapped by spectroscopic methods. Although the results reported here do not offer new insights into the distribution of biochemical components during mitosis, the recognition of cell division without the use of stains, and the possibility of doing so on living cells, may be useful for an automatic, spectroscopic determination of the proliferation rates of cells and tissues. Spectral images were constructed by plotting spectral intensities of DNA or protein versus the coordinates from which spectra were recorded. We found that both Raman and infrared intensities depend on the overall chromatin density variation among the individual subphases of mitosis. PMID:16454901

  10. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  11. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  12. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  13. InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device: The 20 element linear imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, R. D.; Koch, T. L.; Parrish, W. J.; Langan, J. D.; Chase, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The design and fabrication of the 8585 InSb charge coupled infrared imaging device (CCIRID) chip are reported. The InSb material characteristics are described along with mask and process modifications. Test results for the 2- and 20-element CCIRID's are discussed, including gate oxide characteristics, charge transfer efficiency, optical mode of operation, and development of the surface potential diagram.

  14. Mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging of painting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Francesca; Harig, Roland; Miliani, Costanza; Braun, René; Sali, Diego; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G.; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    A novel hyperspectral imaging system (HI90, Bruker Optics), working in the mid-infrared range and recently developed for the remote identification and mapping of hazardous compounds, has here been optimized for investigating painting surfaces. The painting Sestante 10 (1982) by Alberto Burri has been spectrally and spatially investigated with the HI90 system revealing the distribution of inorganic materials constituting the artworks. In order to validate the results obtainable by the imager for the pigment identification previous tests on laboratory models were performed. Yellow, white and blue pigments painted with different binders (namely egg, alkyd, acrylic and vinyl) were investigated by the HI90. Afterwards, the polychrome painting Sestante 10 was investigated focusing the attention on the inorganic material distribution revealing the presence of different extenders (kaolin, BaSO4, CaSO4) mixed with the various silica-based pigments present in the painting. The brightness temperature spectra collected by HI90 have also been compared to single point reflection spectra acquired by a conventional portable FTIR spectrometer (Alpha-R by Bruker Optics) highlighting the good spectral quality of the imaging system. This comparison permitted also to evaluate the spectral response and the diagnostic strengths of the spectral range available by the HI90 imaging (1300-860 cm-1), validating the reliability of the obtained chemical images. This study clearly highlights the high potential of the new hyperspectral imaging system and opens up new perspectives in the current scientific interest devoted to the application of mapping and imaging methods for the study of painting surfaces.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-03-01

    Background - Near-infrared (NIR) imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, offering better spatial and temporal resolution than competing imaging modalities. While NIR lymphatic imaging has begun to be reported in the literature, the technology is still in its infancy and its imaging capabilities have yet to be quantitatively characterized. The objective of this study, therefore, was to characterize the parameters of NIR lymphatic imaging to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for evaluating lymphatic disease. Methods - An NIR imaging system was developed using a laser diode for excitation, ICG as a fluorescent agent, and a CCD camera to detect emission. A tissue phantom with mock lymphatic vessels of known depths and diameters was used as an alternative to in vivo lymphatic vessels due to the greater degree of control with the phantom. Results and Conclusions - When dissolved in an albumin physiological salt solution (APSS) to mimic interstitial fluid, ICG experiences shifts in the excitation/emission wavelengths such that it is maximally excited at 805nm and produces peak fluorescence at 840nm. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being: 900μM (60g/L) albumin and 193.5μM (150μg/mL) ICG. ICG fluorescence can be detected as deep as 6mm, but spatial resolution deteriorates severely below 3mm, thus skewing vessel geometry measurements. ICG packet travel, a common measure of lymphatic transport, can be detected as deep as 5mm.

  16. Imaging spectrometer for ultraviolet-near-infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Thomas; Pettersson, Anders

    1997-05-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new high-speed imaging spectrometer system developed for the spectral analysis of micrometer-sized features in transmitted light. The instrument utilizes the wavelength range from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) (250-975 nm). The extension into the ultraviolet range is to our knowledge unique. The system comprises two white light sources (xenon and halogen lamps), a motorized sample stage, microscope optics with slit-determined field of view, and three (UV, visible and NIR) parallel optical recording channels. The dispersive optical recording system is based on holographic gratings and uses charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras as imaging detectors. The instrument has been fully integrated with data acquisition and control systems. Subsequent data analysis is performed by dedicated software. The instrument provides spectral images from narrow wavelength bands (5 nm). In such an image the spectral information from a selected wavelength band is depicted with its corresponding geometric location, i.e., a single pixel on the CCD chip. Hence, objects can be visualized in different wavelength bands and a spectrum can easily be produced for each location of the object. The instrument can measure objects up to 900 μm×27 mm with a spectral resolution better than 5 nm and a spatial resolution better than 5 μm. The imaging spectrometer system provides a powerful combination of spectroscopy and image processing for use in many applications in research, control and quality assessment, where spectral information and its location are of interest. Although the system has been primarily developed for applications in the pulp and paper industry, it has a vast potential for spectroscopic analysis with a micrometer spatial resolution in general and for measurements of impurities and their locations in products in particular. As an example of a measurement, spectral image data from a wood fiber are presented.

  17. Computational imaging from non-uniform degradation of staggered TDI thermal infrared imager.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Jian Guo; Shi, Yan; Chen, Wangli; Qin, Qianqing; Zhang, Zijian

    2015-09-21

    For the Time Delay Integration (TDI) staggered line-scanning thermal infrared imager, a Computational Imaging (CI) approach is developed to achieve higher spatial resolution images. After a thorough analysis of the causes of non-uniform image displacement and degradation for multi-channel staggered TDI arrays, the study aims to approach one-dimensional (1D) sub-pixel displacement estimation and superposition of images from time-division multiplexing scanning lines. Under the assumption that a thermal image is 2D piecewise C(2) smooth, a sparse-and-smooth deconvolution algorithm with L1-norm regularization terms combining the first and second order derivative operators is proposed to restore high frequency components and to suppress aliasing simultaneously. It is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, with simulation and airborne thermal infrared images, that this is a state-of-the-art practical CI method to reconstruct clear images with higher frequency components from raw thermal images that are subject to instantaneous distortion and blurring.

  18. Fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-05-01

    High-quality image restoration in real time is a challenge for infrared imaging systems. We present a fast approach to infrared image restoration based on shrinkage functions calibration. Rather than directly modeling the prior of sharp images to obtain the shrinkage functions, we calibrate them for restoration directly by using the acquirable sharp and blurred image pairs from the same infrared imaging system. The calibration method is employed to minimize the sum of squared errors between sharp images and restored images from the blurred images. Our restoration algorithm is noniterative and its shrinkage functions are stored in the look-up tables, so an architecture solution of pipeline structure can work in real time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by testing its quantitative performance from simulation experiments and its qualitative performance from a developed wavefront coding infrared imaging system.

  19. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  20. Near-Infrared Absolute Photometric Imaging of the Uranian System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Momary, Thomas W.; Golisch, William; Kaminski, Charles; Wild, Walter J.

    1998-04-01

    We report the first multifilter set of absolutely calibrated near-infrared images of Uranus, its rings, and three major satellites-Titania, Ariel, and Miranda. Along with imagery utilizing the canonical K filter bandpass (effective wavelength 2.20 μm), absolutely calibrated images of the uranian system are presented for the first time for three additional filter bandpasses: J (1.27 μm), H (1.62 μm), and in a narrow bandpass (0.1 μm full-width-at-half-maximum) centered at 1.73 μm (hereafter designated H‧) particularly diagnostic of C-H stretch vibrational absorptions common in hydrocarbons. Multifilter-derived spectra of the southern ring ansa including the bright apoapse of the dominant ɛ ring show no absorptions due to condensable volatiles, including water, ammonia, and light (high H:C) hydrocarbons. Plausible near-infrared spherical geometric and single-scattering particle albedos consistent with Voyager-derived phase functions range from 0.069 to 0.102 and from 0.030 to 0.037, respectively. These are approximately 50% greater than visible values, consistent with the optical properties of charcoal, carbonaceous chondrite material, and the darkside of Iapetus, and consistent with the hypothesis that a primary component of the ring particles is high stoichiometric ratio C:H organics produced by charged-particle and/or photochemical weathering of methane clathrate and/or hydrocarbon ice material originating from nearby moonlets. Additional components consistent with the ring spectrum include silicates such as pyroxene, but not olivine. Analytical modeling of the ring structure indicates ɛ-ring near-infrared opacities of 0.37 ± 0.05 and 1.8 ± 0.3 at apoapsis and periapsis, respectively. Ariel is more than 25% brighter than Miranda and 15% brighter than Titania at all near-infrared wavelengths. Comparisons with UV-visible spectra by Karkoschka (1997,Icarus125, 348-363) show consistency with the hypothesis that the water-ice surfaces of Titania and Ariel

  1. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  2. Micropolarizing device for long wavelength infrared polarization imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Carter, Tony Ray; Samora, Sally; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Alford, Charles Fred; Boye, Robert R.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a four-state pixelated subwavelength optical device that enables mid-wave infrared (MWIR) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) snapshot polarimetric imaging. The polarization information can help to classify imaged materials and identify objects of interest for numerous remote sensing and military applications. While traditional, sequential polarimetric imaging produces scenes with polarization information through a series of assembled images, snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the spatial distribution of all four Stokes parameters simultaneously. In this way any noise due to scene movement from one frame to the next is eliminated. We fabricated several arrays of subwavelength components for MWIR polarization imaging applications. Each pixel unit of the array consists of four elements. These elements are micropolarizers with three or four different polarizing axis orientations. The fourth element sometimes has a micro birefringent waveplate on the top of one of the micropolarizers. The linear micropolarizers were fabricated by patterning nano-scale metallic grids on a transparent substrate. A large area birefringent waveplate was fabricated by deeply etching a subwavelength structure into a dielectric substrate. The principle of making linear micropolarizers for long wavelengths is based upon strong anisotropic absorption of light in the nano-metallic grid structures. The nano-metallic grid structures are patterned with different orientations; therefore, the micropolarizers have different polarization axes. The birefringent waveplate is a deeply etched dielectric one-dimensional subwavelength grating; therefore two orthogonally polarized waves have different phase delays. Finally, in this project, we investigated the near field and diffractive effects of the subwavelength element apertures upon detection. The fabricated pixelated polarizers had a measured extinction ratios larger than 100:1 for pixel sizes in the order of 15

  3. Subaru Near-Infrared Imaging of Herbig Ae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kato, Eri; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Itoh, Yusuke; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2010-04-01

    We report results of H-band (λ = 1.65μm) imaging observations of young intermediate-mass stars using the Subaru 8.2-m Telescope with the adaptive optics AO36 and the infrared coronagraph CIAO. The targets consist of 16 Herbig Ae/Be stars (15 Herbig Ae stars and one Herbig Be star) and four additional main-sequence stars with infrared excesses. Five protoplanetary disks have been spatially resolved around the Herbig Ae stars with ages of 2-8 Myr. The resolved disks have outer radii of several 100 AU, and their surface brightnesses range from 10 mag arcsec-2 to 18 mag arcsec-2. The images reveal various morphologies in optically thick disks: spiral arms around AB Aur, a banana-split structure with an outer arm for HD 142527, a compact circumprimary disk of HD 150193, a faint discontinuous ring around HD 163296, and an unstructured face-on disk of HD 169142. The detection of an optically thick disk in scattered light implies that it is vertically flared, and intercepts stellar light at least in the outer region where those images were obtained. However, the surface brightness distribution, the resolved structure, and other observational characteristics suggest that the disks are unlikely to be continuously flared young disks with small grains well mixed with gas. The detection rate and the disk brightness do not correlate with the stellar age and the disk mass, but there is a tendency that the brightest disks are still surrounded by long-lived envelopes (AB Aur, HD 100546, HD 142527). The significant diversity of the disk structure can be attributed to the multiplicity and the initial condition of the local star-forming environments. The detections of companion candidates around our targeted stars are also reported.

  4. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  5. A novel method for quantifying target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haichao; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Liang, Xiaogeng

    2015-09-01

    Metrics to measure the difficulty of target tracking on the infrared image sequence were seldom studied. This paper proposes an effective method for quantifying target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence. We first analyze the factors interfering with infrared target tracking, and conclude that the intra-frame image quality and the inter-frame variation will jointly make great effects on infrared target tracking. Furthermore, five metrics concerning target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence are proposed: intra-frame degree of occlusion (IFDO), intra-frame degree of confusion (IFDC), inter-frame variation degree of target texture (IFVDTT), inter-frame variation degree of target size (IFVDTS) and inter-frame variation degree of target location (IFVDTL). These metrics complement each other and measure the infrared image sequence concerning target tracking difficulty together. An integrated indicator named sequence difficulty degree (SDD) is proposed by combining these five metrics to intuitively represent the sequence-level tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence. Related experiments are designed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed metrics. Experimental results prove that the proposed metrics are valid to measure infrared image sequences concerning target tracking difficulty, and the performance of the proposed metrics is superior to that of the traditional infrared image sequence metric.

  6. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  7. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Tulio A.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1–2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  8. Novel silicon lenses for long-wave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintz, Gregory; Stephanou, Philip; Petersen, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel silicon lens for Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) imaging are presented. The silicon lenses are planar in nature, and are created using standard wafer scale silicon micro-fabrication processes. The silicon batch processes are used to generate subwavelength structures that introduce spatially varying phase shifts in the incident light. We will show that the silicon lens designs can be extended to produce lenses of varying focal lengths and diameters, thus enabling IR imaging at significantly lower cost and reduced weight and form factor. An optical design program and a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation software tool are used to model the lens performance. The effects of polarization anisotropy are computed for the resultant subwavelength structures. Test samples with lenses with focal lengths in the range of 10 to 50 mm were fabricated. The test sample also included a prism structure, which is characterized by measuring the deflection of a CO2 laser beam and compared to theoretical beam deflection. The silicon lenses are used to produce an image on a VGA micro-bolometer array.

  9. Infrared and visible image fusion for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Saurabh; Gyaourova, Aglika; Bebis, George; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2004-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made in face recognition research over the last decade especially with the development of powerful models of face appearance (i.e., eigenfaces). Despite the variety of approaches and tools studied, however, face recognition is not accurate or robust enough to be deployed in uncontrolled environments. Recently, a number of studies have shown that infrared (IR) imagery offers a promising alternative to visible imagery due to its relative insensitive to illumination changes. However, IR has other limitations including that it is opaque to glass. As a result, IR imagery is very sensitive to facial occlusion caused by eyeglasses. In this paper, we propose fusing IR with visible images, exploiting the relatively lower sensitivity of visible imagery to occlusions caused by eyeglasses. Two different fusion schemes have been investigated in this study: (1) image-based fusion performed in the wavelet domain and, (2) feature-based fusion performed in the eigenspace domain. In both cases, we employ Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to find an optimum strategy to perform the fusion. To evaluate and compare the proposed fusion schemes, we have performed extensive recognition experiments using the Equinox face dataset and the popular method of eigenfaces. Our results show substantial improvements in recognition performance overall, suggesting that the idea of fusing IR with visible images for face recognition deserves further consideration.

  10. Study on shortwave infrared long-distance imaging performance based on multiband imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junwei, Lang; Yueming, Wang; Xizhong, Xiao; Xiaoqiong, Zhuang; Shengwei, Wang; Jun, Liu; Jianyu, Wang

    2013-04-01

    Balloon-borne or ground-based high resolution long range observation has extensive applications in border monitoring and area surveillance. Performance of long-distance oblique or horizontal imaging systems is closely related to the atmospheric transmittance of the observing spectral band. Compared with visible and near infrared, the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band benefits from less scattering effects, which enables it to provide better quality images under harsh atmospheric conditions. We present a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) model including atmospheric influences. Based on the model, image SNR was calculated in the spectral range of 0.4 μm to 2.5 μm. In order to validate the imaging performance model of SWIR, a multi-band camera was designed and spectral imaging experiments were conducted. The results clearly demonstrated the advantage of SWIR imaging. The experiments show that the contrast and SNR of SWIR images reduced insignificantly for long distances and under low visibility conditions. This advantage makes SWIR multiband cameras suitable for long-distance remote sensing and for observing through haze.

  11. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  12. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha

    2015-08-15

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  13. Infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed electron beam.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Shen, Jie; Qu, Miao; Liu, Wenbin; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-08-01

    Infrared imaging diagnostic method for two-dimensional calorimetric diagnostics has been developed for intense pulsed electron beam (IPEB). By using a 100-μm-thick tungsten film as the infrared heat sink for IPEB, the emitting uniformity of the electron source can be analyzed to evaluate the efficiency and stability of the diode system. Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element method heat transfer simulation, combined with Monte Carlo calculation, was performed for error estimation and optimization of the method. The test of the method was finished with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode with pulse duration (FWHM) of 80 ns, electron energy up to 450 keV, and a total beam current of over 1 kA. The results showed that it is possible to measure the cross-sectional energy density distribution of IPEB with energy sensitivity of 0.1 J/cm(2) and spatial resolution of 1 mm. The technical details, such as irradiation protection of bremsstrahlung γ photons and the functional extensibility of the method were discussed in this work.

  14. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  15. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  16. Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquit, Vincent; Price, Jeffery R.; Mériaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    2007-03-01

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. We previously presented work for localizing near-surface veins via near-infrared (NIR) imaging in combination with structured light ranging for surface mapping and robotic guidance. In this paper, we describe experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface. For illumination, we employ an array of NIR LEDs comprising six different wavelength centers from 740nm to 910nm. We capture imagery of each subject under every possible combination of illuminants and determine the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis.

  17. Analysis of Forensic Casework Utilizing Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lanzarotta, Adam

    2016-01-01

    A search of the current scientific literature yields a limited number of studies that describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging for the analysis of forensic casework, which is likely due to the fact that these instruments are fairly new commodities to the field of analytical chemistry and are therefore not yet commonplace in forensic laboratories. This report describes recent forensic case studies that have used the technique for determining the composition of a wide variety of multi-component sample types, including animal tissue sections for toxic inclusions, drugs/dietary supplements, an antibiotic with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) present as several different salt forms, an adulterated bulk API, unknown trace powders for illicit drugs and an ophthalmic solution suspected of being adulterated with bleach. PMID:26927101

  18. Analysis of Forensic Casework Utilizing Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lanzarotta, Adam

    2016-02-24

    A search of the current scientific literature yields a limited number of studies that describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging for the analysis of forensic casework, which is likely due to the fact that these instruments are fairly new commodities to the field of analytical chemistry and are therefore not yet commonplace in forensic laboratories. This report describes recent forensic case studies that have used the technique for determining the composition of a wide variety of multi-component sample types, including animal tissue sections for toxic inclusions, drugs/dietary supplements, an antibiotic with an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) present as several different salt forms, an adulterated bulk API, unknown trace powders for illicit drugs and an ophthalmic solution suspected of being adulterated with bleach.

  19. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  20. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Wright, Shelley A.; Wincentsen, James E.; Anderson, David; Chisholm, Eric M.; Dekany, Richard G.; Dunn, Jennifer S.; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Hayano, Yutaka; Phillips, Andrew C.; Simard, Luc; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Weber, Robert W.; Weiss, Jason L.; Zhang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    IRIS is a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and wide-field imager being developed for first light with the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). It mounts to the advanced adaptive optics (AO) system NFIRAOS and has integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS) to achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution at wavelengths longer than 1 μm. With moderate spectral resolution (R 4000 - 8,000) and large bandpass over a continuous field of view, IRIS will open new opportunities in virtually every area of astrophysical science. It will be able to resolve surface features tens of kilometers across Titan, while also mapping the most distant galaxies at the scale of an individual star forming region. This paper summarizes the entire design and capabilities, and includes the results from the nearly completed preliminary design phase.

  1. Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

  2. Near Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bwambok, David K.; El-Zahab, Bilal; Challa, Santhosh K.; Li, Min; Chandler, Lin; Baker, Gary A.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on near infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 °C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS. PMID:19928781

  3. Thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology: Potentialities and limits

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Gallese, Vittorio; Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered an upcoming, promising methodology in the emotional arena. Driven by sympathetic nerves, observations of affective nature derive from muscular activity subcutaneous blood flow as well as perspiration patterns in specific body parts. A review of 23 experimental procedures that employed fITI for investigations of affective nature is provided, along with the adopted experimental protocol and the thermal changes that took place on selected regions of interest in human and nonhuman subjects. Discussion is provided regarding the selection of an appropriate baseline, the autonomic nature of the thermal print, the experimental setup, methodological issues, limitations, and considerations, as well as future directions. PMID:24961292

  4. Observing temperature fluctuations in humans using infrared imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph; Scully, Christopher G.; Elster, Eric; Gorbach, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate that functional infrared imaging is capable of detecting low frequency temperature fluctuations in intact human skin and revealing spatial, temporal, spectral, and time-frequency based differences among three tissue classes: microvasculature, large sub-cutaneous veins, and the remaining surrounding tissue of the forearm. We found that large veins have stronger contractility in the range of 0.005-0.06 Hz compared to the other two tissue classes. Wavelet phase coherence and power spectrum correlation analysis show that microvasculature and skin areas without vessels visible by IR have high phase coherence in the lowest three frequency ranges (0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.02 Hz, and 0.02-0.06 Hz), whereas large veins oscillate independently. PMID:23538682

  5. Combining near-infrared illuminants to optimize venous imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Price, Jeffery R; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William; Ferrell, Thomas L

    2007-01-01

    The first and perhaps most important phase of a surgical procedure is the insertion of an intravenous (IV) catheter. Currently, this is performed manually by trained personnel. In some visions of future operating rooms, however, this process is to be replaced by an automated system. We previously presented work for localizing near-surface veins via near-infrared (NIR) imaging in combination with structured light ranging for surface mapping and robotic guidance. In this paper, we describe experiments to determine the best NIR wavelengths to optimize vein contrast for physiological differences such as skin tone and/or the presence of hair on the arm or wrist surface. For illumination, we employ an array of NIR LEDs comprising six different wavelength centers from 740nm to 910nm. We capture imagery of each subject under every possible combination of illuminants and determine the optimal combination of wavelengths for a given subject to maximize vein contrast using linear discriminant analysis.

  6. Tailored Near-Infrared Contrast Agents for Image Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Njiojob, Costyl N.; Owens, Eric A.; Narayana, Lakshminarayana; Hyun, Hoon; Choi, Hak Soo; Henary, Maged

    2015-01-01

    The success of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence to be employed for intraoperative imaging relies on the ability to develop a highly stable, NIR fluorescent, nontoxic, biocompatible, and highly excreted compound that retains a reactive functionality for conjugation to a cancer-recognizing peptide. Herein, systematic modifications to previously detailed fluorophore ZW800-1 are explored. Specific modifications, including the isosteric replacement of the O atom of ZW800-1, include nucleophilic amine and sulfur species attached to the heptamethine core. These novel compounds have shown similar satisfactory results in biodistribution and clearance while also expressing increased stability in serum. Most importantly, all of the synthesized and evaluated compounds display a reactive functionality (either a free amino group or carboxylic acid moiety) for further bioconjugation. The results obtained from the newly prepared derivatives demonstrate that the central substitution with the studied linking agents retains the ultralow background in vivo performance of the fluorophores regardless of the total net charge. PMID:25711712

  7. A thermal model for analysis of infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    A mathematical model derived from the equation of heat conduction was developed to assist in interpreting thermal infrared images acquired from aircraft and spacecraft. The model assumes steady state boundary conditions. It contains parameters of rock and soil properties, atmospheric effects, site location, and season. The results predicted provide an explanation for the thermal differences among granite, limestone, and dolomite recorded in the December 1968 daytime and predawn flights over the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site, during which representative thermal inertia and albedo values were used. A second test of the model made use of data acquired during the June 1970 predawn overflight of Mill Creek. A simple model of transient heating of the ground was constructed as an extension of the overall model, in order to examine the effects of atmospheric perturbations. The results obtained are consistent with those of ground observations made at the time of the overflight.

  8. Stripe noise removal for infrared image by minimizing difference between columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Peng

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to eliminate stripe noise in infrared images. The differences between bias voltages in column readout circuit of uncooled infrared sensors result in strong stripe noise which changes slowly in time. The problem can be solved by estimating the bias of each column of infrared images and correcting infrared images with the estimated biases. The bias estimation is translated into an energy optimization problem in the paper. The optimization aims to minimize difference between neighboring columns of images. Our approach can be processed on a single image, or in a recursive way in order to significantly reduce the computation in one frame time. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art the stripe noise removal method using realistic infrared images, and the experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiencies of our proposed approach.

  9. Registration of infrared and visual images based on phase grouping and mutual information of gradient orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhilong; Yang, Guopeng; Chen, Dong; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel infrared and visual image registration method based on phase grouping and mutual information of gradient orientation. The method is specially designed for infrared image navigation, which is different from familiar multi-sensor image registration methods in the field of remote sensing. The central idea is to firstly extract common salient structural features from visual and infrared images through phase grouping, then registering infrared image to visual image and estimating the exterior parameters of the infrared camera. Two subjects are involved in this reports: (1) In order to estimate image gradient orientation accurately, a new method based on Leguerre-Gauss filter is presented. Then the image are segmented by grouping of pixels based on their gradient orientations and ling support regions are extracted as common salient structural features from infrared and visual images of the same ground scene. (2)In order for registering infrared and visual image, coordinate systems are constructed, coordinate transformations are formularized, and the new similarity measures based on orientation mutual information is presented. Quantitative evaluations on real and simulated image data reviews that the proposed method can provide registration results with improved robustness and accuracy.

  10. Preliminary status of POLICAN: A near-infrared imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, R.; Luna, A.; Carrasco, L.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2015-10-01

    POLICAN is a near-infrared (J, H, K) imaging polarimeter developed for the Cananea near infrared camera (CANICA) at the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory (OAGH) located at Cananea, Sonora, México. The camera has a 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe detector (HAWAII array) with a plate scale of 0.32 arcsec/pixel providing a field of view of 5.5 x 5.5 arcmin. POLICAN is mounted externally to CANICA for narrow-field (f/12) linear polarimetric observations. It consists of a rotating super achromatic (1-2.7μm) half waveplate and a fixed wire-grid polarizer as the analyzer. The light is modulated by setting the half waveplate at different angles (0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5°) and linear combinations of the Stokes parameters (I, Q and U) are obtained. Image reduction and removal of instrumental polarization consist of dark noise subtraction, polarimetric flat fielding and background sky subtraction. Polarimetric calibration is performed by observing polarization standards available in the literature. The astrometry correction is performed by matching common stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey. POLICAN's bright and limiting magnitudes are approximately 6th and 16th magnitude, which correspond to saturation and photon noise, respectively. POLICAN currently achieves a polarimetric accuracy about 3.0% and polarization angle uncertainties within 3°. Preliminary observations of star forming regions are being carried out in order to study their magnetic field properties.

  11. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  12. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  13. The Longwave Infrared Imager onboard the Venus Climate Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, M.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Ueno, M.; Suzuki, M.; Hashimoto, G.

    The Longwave Infrared Imager LIR onboard the first Japanese Venus mission PLANET-C or Venus Climate Orbiter operates in the middle infrared region measuring thermal radiation emitted from the cloud-top of the Venusian atmosphere A horizontal wind vector field at the cloud-top height will be retrieved by means of a cloud tracking method Absolute temperature will be also determined with an accuracy of 3K Since solar irradiation scattered by the atmosphere is much weaker than the atmospheric thermal radiation LIR can continuously monitor a hemispheric wind field independent of local time of the apocenter throughout the mission life Wind and temperature fields obtained by LIR will provide key parameters to solve climatological issues on the Venusian atmosphere Use of an uncooled microbolometer array UMBA which needs no cryogenic apparatus as an image sensor contributes to reduction of power consumption and weight of LIR The instrumental field-of-view of 12 degrees is equal to the angle subtended by Venus when observed from a nominal height of the apocenter of 10 Rv The pixel field-of-view corresponds to a spatial resolution of 70 km seen from the apocenter A mechanical shutter functions not only as an optical shutter but also as a reference blackbody Temperature stability of the sensor is especially important because fluctuation of thermal radiation from the internal environment of the sensor itself causes background noise Therefore temperature of the UMBA package is stabilized at 313 -0 1K with a feedback controlled Peltier cooler heater and NETD of 0 3K

  14. Far infrared structure of spiral galaxies from the IRAS CPC images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainscoat, Richard J.; Chokshi, Arati; Doyle, Laurance R.

    1989-01-01

    Significant extended far infrared (50 micron and 100 micron) structure was found for five face-on spiral galaxies (NGC2403, M51, M83, NGC6946, and IC342) from fourteen galaxies searched in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) chopped photometric channel (CPC) catalogue. Images were initially processed to remove instrumental and background artifacts, the isophotal centroids of each image determined, and multiple images of each galaxy (for each wavelength) superimposed and averaged to improve signal-to-noise. Calibration of these images was performed using IRAS survey array data. Infrared isophotes were then superimposed on optical (blue) images so that direct structural comparisons could be made.

  15. An image analysis system for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence lymph imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua Kevin; Xiang, Xiaoyan; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of lymphatic function is crucial for understanding the lymphatic system and diagnosing the associated diseases. Recently, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system is developed for real-time imaging lymphatic propulsion by intradermal injection of microdose of a NIR fluorophore distal to the lymphatics of interest. However, the previous analysis software3, 4 is underdeveloped, requiring extensive time and effort to analyze a NIR image sequence. In this paper, we develop a number of image processing techniques to automate the data analysis workflow, including an object tracking algorithm to stabilize the subject and remove the motion artifacts, an image representation named flow map to characterize lymphatic flow more reliably, and an automatic algorithm to compute lymph velocity and frequency of propulsion. By integrating all these techniques to a system, the analysis workflow significantly reduces the amount of required user interaction and improves the reliability of the measurement.

  16. Measuring glacier surface temperatures with ground-based thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, Caroline; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Wigmore, Oliver; Hellström, Robert È.; Lautz, Laura; Somers, Lauren

    2015-10-01

    Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical glacier melt models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine glaciers. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal microscale processes at the glacier surface, such as the effect of surface cover type and the temperature gradient at the glacier margins on the glacier's temperature dynamics. Infrared images were collected at Cuchillacocha Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on 23-25 June 2014. The infrared images were corrected based on ground truth points and local meteorological data. For the control points, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between infrared and station temperatures was 0.95. The ground-based infrared camera has the potential for greatly improving glacier energy budget studies, and our research shows that it is critical to properly correct the thermal images to produce robust, quantifiable data.

  17. Tone mapping infrared images using conditional filtering-based multi-scale retinex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haibo; Xu, Lingyun; Hui, Bin; Chang, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Tone mapping can be used to compress the dynamic range of the image data such that it can be fitted within the range of the reproduction media and human vision. The original infrared images that captured with infrared focal plane arrays (IFPA) are high dynamic images, so tone mapping infrared images is an important component in the infrared imaging systems, and it has become an active topic in recent years. In this paper, we present a tone mapping framework using multi-scale retinex. Firstly, a Conditional Gaussian Filter (CGF) was designed to suppress "halo" effect. Secondly, original infrared image is decomposed into a set of images that represent the mean of the image at different spatial resolutions by applying CGF of different scale. And then, a set of images that represent the multi-scale details of original image is produced by dividing the original image pointwise by the decomposed image. Thirdly, the final detail image is reconstructed by weighted sum of the multi-scale detail images together. Finally, histogram scaling and clipping is adopted to remove outliers and scale the detail image, 0.1% of the pixels are clipped at both extremities of the histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently increases the local contrast while preventing "halo" effect and provides a good rendition of visual effect.

  18. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  19. A Novel Gradient Vector Flow Snake Model Based on Convex Function for Infrared Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shiping; Zhou, Qin

    2016-10-21

    Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models. We also adopt a new type of coefficients setting in the form of convex function to improve the ability of protecting weak edges while smoothing noises. Experimental results and comparisons against other methods indicate that our proposed snakes model owns better ability in terms of infrared image segmentation than other snakes models.

  20. A Novel Gradient Vector Flow Snake Model Based on Convex Function for Infrared Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shiping; Zhou, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models. We also adopt a new type of coefficients setting in the form of convex function to improve the ability of protecting weak edges while smoothing noises. Experimental results and comparisons against other methods indicate that our proposed snakes model owns better ability in terms of infrared image segmentation than other snakes models. PMID:27775660

  1. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill

    2016-06-01

    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  2. Visible and infrared remote imaging of hazardous waste: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Haack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical global environmental problems is human and ecological exposure to hazardous wastes from agricultural, industrial, military and mining activities. These wastes often include heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals. Traditional field and laboratory detection and monitoring of these wastes are generally expensive and time consuming. The synoptic perspective of overhead remote imaging can be very useful for the detection and remediation of hazardous wastes. Aerial photography has a long and effective record in waste site evaluations. Aerial photographic archives allow temporal evaluation and change detection by visual interpretation. Multispectral aircraft and satellite systems have been successfully employed in both spectral and morphological analysis of hazardous wastes on the landscape and emerging hyperspectral sensors have permitted determination of the specific contaminants by processing strategies using the tens or hundreds of acquired wavelengths in the solar reflected and/or thermal infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper reviews the literature of remote sensing and overhead imaging in the context of hazardous waste and discusses future monitoring needs and emerging scientific research areas.

  3. Galileo infrared imaging spectrometry measurements at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Soderblom, L. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Fanale, F. P.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Ocampo, A. C.; Forsythe, J.; Campell, B.; Granahan, J. C.; Smythe, W. D.; Weissmann, P. R.; Becker, K. J.; Edwards, K.; Kamp, L.; Lo, J.; Mehlman, R.; Torson, J.; Danielson, G. E.; Matson, D. L.; Kieffer, H. H.; Johnson, T. V.

    1994-03-01

    Imaging spectrometer observations were made of the surface of the Moon during the December 1990 flyby of the Earth-Moon system by the Galileo spacecraft. This article documents this data set and presents analyses of some of the data. The near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation obtained 17 separate mosaics of the Moon in 408 spectral channels between about 0.7 and 5.2 micrometers. The instrument was originally designed to operate in orbit about Jupiter and therefore saturates at many spectral channels for most measurement situations at 1 AU. However, sufficient measurements were made of the Moon to verify the proper operation of the instrument and to demonstrate its capabilities. Analysis of these data show that the NIMS worked as expected and produced measurements consistent with previous ground-based telescopic studies. These are the first imaging spectrometer measurements of this type from space for the Moon, and they illustrate several major points concerning this type of observation and about the NIMS capabilities specifically. Of major importance are the difference between framing and scanning instruments and the effects of the spacecraft and the scan platform on the performance of such and experiment. The science return of subsequent NIMS and other investigation measurements will be significantly enhanced by the experience and results gained.

  4. Galileo infrared imaging spectrometry measurements at the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, Thomas B.; Soderblom, Larry A.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly; Ocampo, Adriano; Forsythe, Jennifer; Campbell, Bruce; Granahan, James C.; Smythe, W. D.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer observations were made of the surface of the Moon during the December 1990 flyby of the Earth-Moon system by the Galileo spacecraft. This article documents this data set and presents analyses of some of the data. The near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation obtained 17 separate mosaics of the Moon in 408 spectral channels between about 0.7 and 5.2 micrometers. The instrument was originally designed to operate in orbit about Jupiter and therefore saturates at many spectral channels for most measurement situations at 1 AU. However, sufficient measurements were made of the Moon to verify the proper operation of the instrument and to demonstrate its capabilities. Analysis of these data show that the NIMS worked as expected and produced measurements consistent with previous ground-based telescopic studies. These are the first imaging spectrometer measurements of this type from space for the Moon, and they illustrate several major points concerning this type of observation and about the NIMS capabilities specifically. Of major importance are the difference between framing and scanning instruments and the effects of the spacecraft and the scan platform on the performance of such and experiment. The science return of subsequent NIMS and other investigation measurements will be significantly enhanced by the experience and results gained.

  5. Real-time panoramic infrared imaging system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao-Jun; Shen, Yong-Ge

    2010-11-01

    During the past decades, signal processing architecture, which is based on FPGA, conventional DSP processor and host computer, is popular for infrared or other electro-optical systems. With the increasing processing requirement, the former architecture starts to show its limitation in several respects. This paper elaborates a solution based on FPGA for panoramic imaging system as our first step of upgrading the processing module to System-on-Chip (SoC) solution. Firstly, we compare this new architecture with the traditional to show its superiority mainly in the video processing ability, reduction in the development workload and miniaturization of the system architecture. Afterwards, this paper provides in-depth description of this imaging system, including the system architecture and its function, and addresses several related issues followed by the future development. FPGA has developed so rapidly during the past years, not only in silicon device but also in the design flow and tools. In the end, we briefly present our future system development and introduce those new design tools to make up the limitation of the traditional FPGA design methodology. The advanced design flow through Simulink and Xilinx System Generator (Sysgen) has been elaborated, which enables engineers to develop sophisticated DSP algorithms and implement them in FPGA more efficiently. It is believed that this new design approach can shorten system design cycle by allowing rapid prototyping and refining design process.

  6. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  7. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  8. First results on modeling of ITER infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočan, M.; Reichle, R.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Gunn, J. P.; Kajita, S.; Le Guern, F.; Lisgo, S. W.; Loarer, T.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Sashala Naik, A.; Rigollet, F.; Stratton, B.

    2016-02-01

    Infrared (IR) images of the ITER wide angle viewing system are modeled for the baseline plasma equilibrium and partially detached tungsten divertor, taking into account the three-dimensional structure of the first wall and the divertor. The modeling includes a comprehensive chain of calculations from the heat load specifications up to the synthetic, reflection-free IR images of the surface temperature, T surf. The effect of the optical blur due to finite IR detector size and diffraction/aberrations—approximated by a Gaussian filter—on the measured T surf is investigated. The optical blur characterized by σ = 0.7 pixel (approximately twice the diffraction limit) leads to underestimation of T surf,max on the inner vertical divertor target and near the upper X-point by <6% and <4%, respectively. This is within the required measurement accuracy of 10%. Larger underestimation of T surf,max (<12%) is observed on the outer vertical divertor target. The study demonstrates the importance of keeping the performance of the optical system as close as possible to the diffraction limit.

  9. High-Resolution Mars Camera Test Image of Moon (Infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This crescent view of Earth's Moon in infrared wavelengths comes from a camera test by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on its way to Mars. The mission's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera took the image on Sept. 8, 2005, while at a distance of about 10 million kilometers (6 million miles) from the Moon. The dark feature on the right is Mare Crisium. From that distance, the Moon would appear as a star-like point of light to the unaided eye. The test verified the camera's focusing capability and provided an opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft's Context Camera and Optical Navigation Camera also performed as expected during the test.

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched on Aug. 12, 2005, is on course to reach Mars on March 10, 2006. After gradually adjusting the shape of its orbit for half a year, it will begin its primary science phase in November 2006. From the mission's planned science orbit about 300 kilometers (186 miles) above the surface of Mars, the high resolution camera will be able to discern features as small as one meter or yard across.

  10. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carolina S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pasquini, Celio; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

    2014-10-21

    Hyperspectral images in the near infrared range (HSI-NIR) were evaluated as a nondestructive method to detect fraud in documents. Three different types of typical forgeries were simulated by (a) obliterating text, (b) adding text and (c) approaching the crossing lines problem. The simulated samples were imaged in the range of 928-2524 nm with spectral and spatial resolutions of 6.3 nm and 10 μm, respectively. After data pre-processing, different chemometric techniques were evaluated for each type of forgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate the first two types of adulteration, (a) and (b). Moreover, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used in an attempt to improve the results of the type (a) obliteration and type (b) adding text problems. Finally, MCR-ALS and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), employed as a variable selection tool, were used to study the type (c) forgeries, i.e. crossing lines problem. Type (a) forgeries (obliterating text) were successfully identified in 43% of the samples using both the chemometric methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Type (b) forgeries (adding text) were successfully identified in 82% of the samples using both the methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Finally, type (c) forgeries (crossing lines) were successfully identified in 85% of the samples. The results demonstrate the potential of HSI-NIR associated with chemometric tools to support document forgery identification.

  11. Thermal Infrared Spectral Imager for Airborne Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-01-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is under development which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution for lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of apparent emissivity for various known standard minerals (such as quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  12. Advanced infrared detection and image processing for automated bat censusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Jeffery D.; Kunz, Tomas H.; Horn, Jason; Cleveland, Cutler; Petronio, Susan M.

    2003-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) forms some of the largest aggregations of mammals known to mankind. However, little is known about population sizes and nightly foraging activities. An advanced infrared (IR) thermal imaging system with a real time imaging and data acquisition system is described for censusing Brazilian free-tailed bats during nightly emergences at selected Texas caves. We developed a statistically-based algorithm suitable for counting emerging bats in columns with relative constant trajectories and velocities. Individual bats are not identified and tracked, but instead column density is calculated at intervals of 1/30th of a second and counts are accumulated based upon column velocity. Preliminary evaluation has shown this method to be far more accurate than those previously used to census large bat populations. This real-time automated censusing system allows us to make accurate and repeatable estimates of the number of bats present independent of colony size, ambient light, or weather conditions, and without causing disturbance to the colony.

  13. Engineering performance of IRIS2 infrared imaging camera and spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, Vladimir; Dawson, John; Smith, Greg A.; Waller, Lew; Whittard, John D.; Haynes, Roger; Lankshear, Allan; Ryder, Stuart D.; Tinney, Chris G.

    2004-09-01

    IRIS2, the infrared imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope, has been in service since October 2001. IRIS2 incorporated many novel features, including multiple cryogenic multislit masks, a dual chambered vacuum vessel (the smaller chamber used to reduce thermal cycle time required to change sets of multislit masks), encoded cryogenic wheel drives with controlled backlash, a deflection compensating structure, and use of teflon impregnated hard anodizing for gear lubrication at low temperatures. Other noteworthy features were: swaged foil thermal link terminations, the pupil imager, the detector focus mechanism, phased getter cycling to prevent detector contamination, and a flow-through LN2 precooling system. The instrument control electronics was designed to allow accurate positioning of the internal mechanisms with minimal generation of heat. The detector controller was based on the AAO2 CCD controller, adapted for use on the HAWAII1 detector (1024 x 1024 pixels) and is achieving low noise and high performance. We describe features of the instrument design, the problems encountered and the development work required to bring them into operation, and their performance in service.

  14. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  15. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  16. Enhancing spatial resolution of infrared imagery using overlap of sequence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiahao; Li, Chunlai; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution thermal infrared image, by which the information of a scene can be described in details, is extensively used in many fields including computer vision process, medicine, and remote sensing, etc. This paper introduces a super-resolution reconstruction algorithm in combination of phase related motion estimating algorithm and iterative back-projecting algorithm. Continuous frames of the thermal infrared image aerially shot are extracted, the subpixel displacement of each frame of image relative to the reference image is estimated with the phase related motion estimating algorithm, and then the subpixel displacement data acquired is combined with the iterative back-projecting algorithm to actualize the super-resolution reconstruction of thermal infrared image aerially shot. The thermal infrared images were aerially shot above Zhoushan. The experimental result has proven the image spatial resolution can be effectively improved by this algorithm.

  17. Infrared image non-rigid registration based on regional information entropy demons algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chaoliang; Ma, Lihua; Yu, Ming; Cui, Shumin; Wu, Qingrong

    2015-02-01

    Infrared imaging fault detection which is treated as an ideal, non-contact, non-destructive testing method is applied to the circuit board fault detection. Since Infrared images obtained by handheld infrared camera with wide-angle lens have both rigid and non-rigid deformations. To solve this problem, a new demons algorithm based on regional information entropy was proposed. The new method overcame the shortcomings of traditional demons algorithm that was sensitive to the intensity. First, the information entropy image was gotten by computing regional information entropy of the image. Then, the deformation between the two images was calculated that was the same as demons algorithm. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has better robustness in intensity inconsistent images registration compared with the traditional demons algorithm. Achieving accurate registration between intensity inconsistent infrared images provided strong support for the temperature contrast.

  18. Marker based watershed to segment dim infrared target through image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Xie, Yongchun; Jin, Ting

    2008-10-01

    A novel marker based watershed through image enhancement is proposed to segment the dim infrared target. The dim infrared target is firstly enhanced by CB top-hat transformation and image quantization. Then, the accurate marker of the target can be easily obtained through image binarisation and marker filtering. To calculate an efficient gradient image of the dim target for the watershed segmentation, the gradient image is firstly calculated through Sobel operator and then efficiently enhanced through pseudo top-hat transformation and gradient quantization. Because of the enhancement of the dim target and the gradient image, the watershed can efficiently segment the dim infrared image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is much efficient for dim infrared target segmentation.

  19. Near-surface Thermal Infrared Imaging of a Mixed Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, D. M.; Helliker, B. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of an organism's temperature is of basic physiological importance and therefore necessary for ecosystem modeling, yet most models derive leaf temperature from energy balance arguments or assume it is equal to air temperature. This is because continuous, direct measurement of leaf temperature outside of a controlled environment is difficult and rarely done. Of even greater challenge is measuring leaf temperature with the resolution required to understand the underlying energy balance and regulation of plant processes. To measure leaf temperature through the year, we have mounted a high-resolution, thermal infrared camera overlooking the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest. The camera is co-located with an eddy covariance system and a suite of radiometric sensors. Our camera measures longwave thermal infrared (λ = 7.5-14 microns) using a microbolometer array. Suspended in the canopy within the camera FOV is a matte black copper plate instrumented with fine wire thermocouples that acts as a thermal reference for each image. In this presentation, I will discuss the challenges of continuous, long-term field operation of the camera, as well as measurement sensitivity to physical and environmental parameters. Based on this analysis, I will show that the uncertainties in converting radiometric signal to leaf temperature are well constrained. The key parameter for minimizing uncertainty is the emissivity of the objects being imaged: measuring the emissivity to within 0.01 enables leaf temperature to be calculated to within 0.5°C. Finally, I will present differences in leaf temperature observed amongst species. From our two-year record, we characterize high frequency, daily, and seasonal thermal signatures of leaves and crowns, in relation to environmental conditions. Our images are taken with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to quantify the preferential heating of sunlit portions of the canopy and the cooling effect of wind gusts. Future work will

  20. Thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging from vehicle-carried instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Adams, Paul M.; McAfee, John; Salisbury, John

    2002-09-01

    Stand-off identification in the field using thermal infrared spectrometers (hyperspectral) is a maturing technique for gases and aerosols. However, capabilities to identify solid-phase materials on the surface lag substantially, particularly for identification in the field without benefit of ground truth (e.g. for "denied areas"). Spectral signatures of solid phase materials vary in complex and non-intuitive ways, including non-linear variations with surface texture, particle size, and intimate mixing. Also, in contrast to airborne or satellite measurements, reflected downwelling radiance strongly affects the signature measured by field spectrometers. These complex issues can confound interpretations or cause a misidentification in the field. Problems that remain particularly obstinate are (1) low ambiguity identification when there is no accompanying ground truth (e.g. measurements of denied areas, or Mars surface by the 2003 Mars lander spectrometer); (2) real- or near real-time identification, especially when a low ambiguity answer is critical; (3) identification of intimate mixtures (e.g. two fine powders mixed together) and targets composed of very small particles (e.g. aerosol fallout dust, some tailings); and (4) identification of non-diffuse targets (e.g. smooth coatings such as paint and desert varnish), particularly when measured at a high emission angle. In most studies that focus on gas phase targets or specific manmade targets, the solid phase background signatures are called "clutter" and are thrown out. Here we discuss our field spectrometer images measured of test targets that were selected to include a range of particle sizes, diffuse, non-diffuse, high, and low reflectance materials. This study was designed to identify and improve understanding of the issues that complicate stand-off identification in the field, with a focus on developing identification capabilities to proceed without benefit of ground truth. This information allows both improved

  1. Infrared moving small target detection based on saliency extraction and image sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Kan; Gao, Jin; Li, Chaowei; Gu, Guohua; Wan, Minjie

    2016-10-01

    Moving small target detection in infrared image is a crucial technique of infrared search and tracking system. This paper present a novel small target detection technique based on frequency-domain saliency extraction and image sparse representation. First, we exploit the features of Fourier spectrum image and magnitude spectrum of Fourier transform to make a rough extract of saliency regions and use a threshold segmentation system to classify the regions which look salient from the background, which gives us a binary image as result. Second, a new patch-image model and over-complete dictionary were introduced to the detection system, then the infrared small target detection was converted into a problem solving and optimization process of patch-image information reconstruction based on sparse representation. More specifically, the test image and binary image can be decomposed into some image patches follow certain rules. We select the target potential area according to the binary patch-image which contains salient region information, then exploit the over-complete infrared small target dictionary to reconstruct the test image blocks which may contain targets. The coefficients of target image patch satisfy sparse features. Finally, for image sequence, Euclidean distance was used to reduce false alarm ratio and increase the detection accuracy of moving small targets in infrared images due to the target position correlation between frames.

  2. Digital imaging technology applied to crewstation display measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Leonard Y.; Green, John R.

    1993-12-01

    A `slow scan' CCD camera has been adapted for luminance and radiance measurement of displays used in night vision goggle (NVG) compatible aircraft. A video lightmeter offers several advantages compared to conventional test methods including high speed image capture and color coding of the digital image data. The color coding feature facilitates evaluation of the test display uniformity. Numerical values for luminance and infrared radiance are also extracted from the image data.

  3. Near Infrared Heptamethine Cyanine Dye-Mediated Cancer Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Shi, Chunmeng; Tong, Rong; Qian, Weiping; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Wang, Ruoxiang; Zhu, Guodong; Cheng, Jianjun; Yang, Vincent W.; Cheng, Tianmin; Henary, Maged; Strekowski, Lucjan; Chung, Leland W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has great potential for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumors. In this study, we demonstrate the preferential uptake and retention of two hepatamethine cyanine dyes, IR-783 and MHI-148, in tumor cells and tissues. Experimental Design IR-783 and MHI-148 were investigated for their ability to accumulate in human cancer cells, tumor xenografts and spontaneous mouse tumors in transgenic animals. Time- and concentration-dependent dye uptake and retention in normal and cancer cells and tissues were compared, and subcellular localization of the dyes and mechanisms of the dye uptake and retention in tumor cells were evaluated using organelle-specific tracking dyes and bromosulfophthalein (BSP), a competitive inhibitor of organic anion transporting peptides (OATPs). These dyes were used to detect human cancer metastases in a mouse model and differentiate cancer cells from normal cells in blood. Results These NIR hepatamethine cyanine dyes were retained in cancer cells but not normal cells, in tumor xenografts, and in spontaneous tumors in transgenic mice. They can be used to detect cancer metastasis and cancer cells in blood with a high degree of sensitivity. The dyes were found to concentrate in the mitochondria and lysosomes of cancer cells, probably through OATPs since the dye uptake and retention in cancer cells can be blocked completely by BSP. These dyes, when injected to mice, did not cause systemic toxicity. Conclusions These two heptamethine cyanine dyes are promising imaging agents for human cancers and can be further exploited to improve cancer detection, prognosis and treatment. PMID:20410058

  4. Near-infrared dyes for molecular probes and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Beckford, Garfield; Strekowski, Lucjan; Henary, Maged; Kim, Jun Seok; Crow, Sidney

    2009-02-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence has been used both as an analytical tool as molecular probes and in in vitro or in vivo imaging of individual cells and organs. The NIR region (700-1100 nm) is ideal with regard to these applications due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. NIR dyes are also useful in studying binding characteristics of large biomolecules, such as proteins. Throughout these studies, different NIR dyes have been evaluated to determine factors that control binding to biomolecules, including serum albumins. Hydrophobic character of NIR dyes were increased by introducing alkyl and aryl groups, and hydrophilic moieties e.g., polyethylene glycols (PEG) were used to increase aqueous solubility. Recently, our research group introduced bis-cyanines as innovative NIR probes. Depending on their microenvironment, bis-cyanines can exist as an intramolecular dimer with the two cyanines either in a stacked form, or in a linear conformation in which the two subunits do not interact with each other. In this intramolecular H-aggregate, the chromophore has a low extinction coefficient and low fluorescence quantum yield. Upon addition of biomolecules, the H-and D- bands are decreased and the monomeric band is increased, with concomitant increase in fluorescence intensity. Introduction of specific moieties into the NIR dye molecules allows for the development of physiological molecular probes to detect pH, metal ions and other parameters. Examples of these applications include imaging and biomolecule characterizations. Water soluble dyes are expected to be excellent candidates for both in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells and organs.

  5. Signal and image processing techniques for functional near-infrared imaging of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectro-imaging (NIRSI) is a quickly developing method for the in-vivo imaging of biological tissues. In particular, it is now extensively employed for imaging the human brain. In this non-invasive technique, the information about the brain is obtained from the analysis of spatial light bundles formed by the photons traveling from light sources to detectors placed on the surface of the head. Most significant problems in the functional brain NIRSI are the separation of the brain information from the physiological noise in non-cerebral tissues, and the localization of functional signals. In this paper we describe signal and image processing techniques we developed in order to measure two types of functional cerebral signals: the hemodynamic responses, and neuronal responses. PMID:21738383

  6. Signal and image processing techniques for functional near-infrared imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Webb, Andrew G.

    2005-03-01

    Near-infrared spectro-imaging (NIRSI) is a quickly developing method for the in-vivo imaging of biological tissues. In particular, it is now extensively employed for imaging the human brain. In this non-invasive technique, the information about the brain is obtained from the analysis of spatial light bundles formed by the photons traveling from light sources to detectors placed on the surface of the head. Most significant problems in the functional brain NIRSI are the separation of the brain information from the physiological noise in non-cerebral tissues, and the localization of functional signals. In this paper we describe signal and image processing techniques we developed in order to measure two types of functional cerebral signals: the hemodynamic responses, and neuronal responses.

  7. To assess the intimal thickness, flow velocities, and luminal diameter of carotid arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuru, Madhuri; Jabbar, Afzal; Chandra, Suman

    2004-04-01

    Carotid imaging is a Gold Standard test that provides useful information about the structure and functions of carotid arteries. Spectral imaging helps to evaluate the vessel and hemodynamic changes. High resolution B-mode imaging has emerged as one of the methods of choice for determining the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and its progression and for assessing cardiovascular risks. The measurements made with Doppler correlate well with pathologic measurements. Recent prospective studies have clearly demonstrated that these measurements of carotid intimal thickness are potent predictors of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke. This method appears very attractive as it is non-invasive, extremely safe, well accepted by the patient and relatively inexpensive. It can be performed serially and has the advantage of visualizing the arterial wall in contrast to angiographic techniques which provide only an outline of the arterial lumen. Recently, there has been an interest in the clinical use of this technique in making difficult clinical decisions like deciding on preventive therapies. 30 subjects aged 21-60 years and 30 subjects aged 61-85 years of both sexes are selected after doing a baseline study to exclude Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. The carotid arteries were examined for intimal thickening, blood flow velocities and luminal diameter. With aging there is a narrowing of the carotid vessels and significant increase in intimal thickening with a consequent increase in the blood flow velocities. Inter-observer, intra-observer and instrument variations are seen and there is no significant change in the values when the distal flow pattern is considered for measurements. Aging produces major cardiovascular changes including decreased elasticity and compliance of great arteries leading to structural and functional alterations in heart and vessels. With aging there is increased intimal thickness and increased pulse wave velocity which is clearly

  8. Classification of visible and infrared hyperspectral images based on image segmentation and edge-preserving filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Binge; Ma, Xiudan; Xie, Xiaoyun; Ren, Guangbo; Ma, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The classification of hyperspectral images with a few labeled samples is a major challenge which is difficult to meet unless some spatial characteristics can be exploited. In this study, we proposed a novel spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification method that exploited spatial autocorrelation of hyperspectral images. First, image segmentation is performed on the hyperspectral image to assign each pixel to a homogeneous region. Second, the visible and infrared bands of hyperspectral image are partitioned into multiple subsets of adjacent bands, and each subset is merged into one band. Recursive edge-preserving filtering is performed on each merged band which utilizes the spectral information of neighborhood pixels. Third, the resulting spectral and spatial feature band set is classified using the SVM classifier. Finally, bilateral filtering is performed to remove "salt-and-pepper" noise in the classification result. To preserve the spatial structure of hyperspectral image, edge-preserving filtering is applied independently before and after the classification process. Experimental results on different hyperspectral images prove that the proposed spectral-spatial classification approach is robust and offers more classification accuracy than state-of-the-art methods when the number of labeled samples is small.

  9. The VIRMOS deep imaging survey. IV. Near-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Garilli, B.; Foucaud, S.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Saracco, P.; Bardelli, S.; Busarello, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Paioro, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bertin, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Gregorini, L.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we present a new deep, wide-field near-infrared imaging survey. Our J- and K-band observations in four separate fields (0226-04, 2217+00, 1003+02, 1400+05) complement optical BVRI, ultraviolet and spectroscopic observations undertaken as part of the VIMOS-VLT deep survey (VVDS). In total, our survey spans ~400 arcmin2. Our catalogues are reliable in all fields to at least K˜20.75 and J˜21.50 (defined as the magnitude where object contamination is less than 10% and completeness greater than 90%). Taken together these four fields represents a unique combination of depth, wavelength coverage and area. Most importantly, our survey regions span a broad range of right ascension and declination which allow us to make a robust estimate of the effects of cosmic variance. We describe the complete data reduction process from raw observations to the construction of source lists and outline a comprehensive series of tests carried out to characterise the reliability of the final catalogues. From simulations we determine the completeness function of each final stacked image, and estimate the fraction of spurious sources in each magnitude bin. We compare the statistical properties of our catalogues with literature compilations. We find that our J- and K-selected galaxy counts are in good agreement with previously published works, as are our (J-K) versus K colour-magnitude diagrams. Stellar number counts extracted from our fields are consistent with a synthetic model of our galaxy. Using the location of the stellar locus in colour-magnitude space and the measured field-to-field variation in galaxy number counts we demonstrate that the absolute accuracy of our photometric calibration is at the 5% level or better. Finally, an investigation of the angular clustering of K-selected extended sources in our survey displays the expected scaling behaviour with limiting magnitude, with amplitudes in each magnitude bin in broad agreement with literature values. In summary

  10. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  11. Chromospheres of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Avrett, Eugene

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet imaging of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) reveals a complex variable chromospheric structure. Such atmospheres in luminous cool stars can affect features in the optical spectrum. Constructing semi-empiricalmodel atmospheres of luminous stars including the temperature rise due to a chromosphere allows us to predict potential effects on optical transitions. The radiative transfer code, PANDORA, calculates line strengths in a LTE or non-LTE formulation, spherical symmetry, and includes velocity fields when present. Various aspects of the line calculations and their impact on equivalent widths will be discussed including developing appropriate chromospheric models, comparison to a pure radiative equilibrium model, transitions sensitive to non-LTE and the effects of a realistic spherical non-LTE approximation as compared to a plane-parallel approximation. We discuss the extent to which a chromosphere can impact the determination of stellar abundances.

  12. Thermal Infrared Imager on Hayabusa2: Science and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2015-04-01

    Thermal Infrared Imager TIR was developed and calibrated for Haya-busa2 asteroid explorer, aiming at the investigation of thermo-physical properties of C-class near-Earth sub-km sized asteroid (162173) 1999JU3. TIR is based on the 2D micro-bolometer array with germani-um lens to image the surface of asteroid in 8 to 12 μm wavelength (1), measuring the thermal emission off the asteroid surface. Its field of view is 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels. At least 40 (up to 100) images will be taken during asteroid rotation once a week, mainly from the Home Position which is about 20km sunward from asteroid surface. Therefore TIR will image the whole asteroid with spatial resolution of < 20m per pixel, and the temperature profile of each site on the asteroid will be traced from dawn to dusk regions by asteroid rotation. The scien-tific objectives of TIR include the mapping of asteroid surface condi-tions (regional distribution of thermal inertia), since the surface physical conditions are strongly correlated with thermal inertia. It is so informa-tive on understanding the re-accretion or surface sedimentation process-es of the asteroid to be the current form. TIR data will be used for searching for those sites having the typical particle size of 1mm for best sample collection, and within the proper thermal condition for space-craft safe operation. After launch of Hayabusa2, TIR has been tested successfully, covering from -100 to 150 °C using a single parameter settings (2). This implies that TIR is actually able to map the surface other than the sunlit areas. Performance of TIR was found basically the same as those in the pre-launch test, when the temperature of TIR is well controlled. References: (1) Fukuhara T. et al., (2011) Earth Planet. Space 63, 1009-1018; (2) Okada T. et al., (2015) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 46, #1331.