Science.gov

Sample records for imaging applications part

  1. Clinical applications of imaging biomarkers. Part 1. The neuroradiologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E T S

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application and usage in clinical practice of techniques of detection and measurement of imaging biomarkers. Some commentaries in the article derive from a literature search and include summaries of recently published material compiled and linked to each other by extensive use of the text contained in the material examined.

  2. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Investigation of Cardiovascular Disorders. Part 2: Emerging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Ajit H.; Wang, Hui; Flamm, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a robust noninvasive technique for the investigation of cardiovascular disorders. The coming-of-age of cardiac magnetic resonance—and especially its widening span of applications—has generated both excitement and uncertainty in regard to its potential clinical use and its role vis-à-vis conventional imaging techniques. The purpose of this evidence-based review is to discuss some of these issues by highlighting the current (Part 1, previously published) and emerging (Part 2) applications of cardiac magnetic resonance. Familiarity with the versatile uses of cardiac magnetic resonance will facilitate its wider clinical acceptance for improving the management of patients with cardiovascular disorders. PMID:24808772

  3. Image registration by parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalermwat, Prachya; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; LeMoigne, Jacqueline

    1997-01-01

    In spite of the large number of different image registration techniques, most of these techniques use the correlation operation to match spatial image characteristics. Correlation is known to be one of the most computationally intensive operations and its computational needs grow rapidly with the increase in the image sizes. In this article, we show that, in many cases, it might be sufficient to determine image transformations by considering only one or several parts of the image rather than the entire image, which could result in substantial computational savings. This paper introduces the concept of registration by parts and investigates its viability. It describes alternative techniques for such image registration by parts and presents early empirical results that address the underlying trade-offs.

  4. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×λ) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1).

  5. Parts application handbook study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for a NASA application handbook for standard electronic parts are determined and defined. This study concentrated on identifying in detail the type of information that designers and parts engineers need and expect in a parts application handbook for the effective application of standard parts on NASA projects.

  6. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  7. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    PubMed

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  8. User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

  9. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  10. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  11. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  12. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  13. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  14. Preparing images for publication: part 2.

    PubMed

    Bengel, Wolfgang; Devigus, Alessandro

    2006-08-01

    The transition from conventional to digital photography presents many advantages for authors and photographers in the field of dentistry, but also many complexities and potential problems. No uniform procedures for authors and publishers exist at present for producing high-quality dental photographs. This two-part article aims to provide guidelines for preparing images for publication and improving communication between these two parties. Part 1 provided information about basic color principles, factors that can affect color perception, and digital color management. Part 2 describes the camera setup, discusses how to take a photograph suitable for publication, and outlines steps for the image editing process.

  15. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M; Lee, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  16. Enthesopathies and enthesitis. Part 2: Imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The pathologies of tendon and ligament attachments are called enthesopathies. Enthesitis is one of enthesopathies and it is considered a characteristic sign of rheumatic diseases from the spondyloarthritis group, including peripheral spondyloarthritis. Therefore, enthesitis has been included in a number of clinical classifications for diagnosing these diseases. Clinical diagnosis of enthesitis is based on rather non-specific clinical signs and results of laboratory tests. It is believed that imaging examinations might improve diagnosis, particularly because numerous papers prove that differentiating enthesitis from other enthesopathic processes is possible. On the other hand, a number of authors report the lack of specific signs in imaging as well as typical histological and immunological features that would enable confirmation of clinical diagnosis of enthesitis. The first part of the publication presented theories on the etiopathogenesis of enthesitis (inflammatory, mechanical, autoimmune and associated with the synovio-entheseal complex) as well as on the formation of enthesophytes (inflammatory, molecular and mechanical). This paper – the second part of the article, is a review of the state-of-the-art on the ability of imaging examinations to diagnose enthesitis. It turns out that none of the enthesitis criteria used in imaging examinations is specific for inflammation. As enthesitis may be the only symptom of early spondyloarthritis (particularly in patients with absent HLA-B27 antigen), the lack of its unambiguous picture in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging prompts the search for other signs characteristic of spondyloarthritis and more specific features in imaging in order to make a diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:26672488

  17. Enthesopathies and enthesitis. Part 2: Imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Maśliński, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    The pathologies of tendon and ligament attachments are called enthesopathies. Enthesitis is one of enthesopathies and it is considered a characteristic sign of rheumatic diseases from the spondyloarthritis group, including peripheral spondyloarthritis. Therefore, enthesitis has been included in a number of clinical classifications for diagnosing these diseases. Clinical diagnosis of enthesitis is based on rather non-specific clinical signs and results of laboratory tests. It is believed that imaging examinations might improve diagnosis, particularly because numerous papers prove that differentiating enthesitis from other enthesopathic processes is possible. On the other hand, a number of authors report the lack of specific signs in imaging as well as typical histological and immunological features that would enable confirmation of clinical diagnosis of enthesitis. The first part of the publication presented theories on the etiopathogenesis of enthesitis (inflammatory, mechanical, autoimmune and associated with the synovio-entheseal complex) as well as on the formation of enthesophytes (inflammatory, molecular and mechanical). This paper - the second part of the article, is a review of the state-of-the-art on the ability of imaging examinations to diagnose enthesitis. It turns out that none of the enthesitis criteria used in imaging examinations is specific for inflammation. As enthesitis may be the only symptom of early spondyloarthritis (particularly in patients with absent HLA-B27 antigen), the lack of its unambiguous picture in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging prompts the search for other signs characteristic of spondyloarthritis and more specific features in imaging in order to make a diagnosis as early as possible.

  18. CMOS imager for pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Heynssens, Julie B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Systems and techniques to realize pointing and tracking applications with CMOS imaging devices. In general, in one implementation, the technique includes: sampling multiple rows and multiple columns of an active pixel sensor array into a memory array (e.g., an on-chip memory array), and reading out the multiple rows and multiple columns sampled in the memory array to provide image data with reduced motion artifact. Various operation modes may be provided, including TDS, CDS, CQS, a tracking mode to read out multiple windows, and/or a mode employing a sample-first-read-later readout scheme. The tracking mode can take advantage of a diagonal switch array. The diagonal switch array, the active pixel sensor array and the memory array can be integrated onto a single imager chip with a controller. This imager device can be part of a larger imaging system for both space-based applications and terrestrial applications.

  19. Preparing images for publication: part 1.

    PubMed

    Devigus, Alessandro; Paul, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    Images play a vital role in the publication and presentation of clinical and scientific work. Within clinical photography, color reproduction has always been a contentious issue. With the development of new technologies, the variables affecting color reproduction have changed, and photographers have moved away from film-based to digital photographic imaging systems. To develop an understanding of color, knowledge about the basic principles of light and vision is important. An object's color is determined by which wavelengths of light it reflects. Colors of light and colors of pigment behave differently. Due to technical limitations, monitors and printers are unable to reproduce all the colors we can see with our eyes, also called the LAB color space. In order to optimize the output of digital clinical images, color management solutions need to be integrated in the photographic workflow; however, their use is still limited in the medical field. As described in part 2 of this article, calibrating your computer monitor and using an 18% gray background card are easy ways to enable more consistent color reproduction for publication. In addition, some basic information about the various camera settings is given to facilitate the use of this new digital equipment in daily practice.

  20. An Ultrasonic-Adaptive Beamforming Method and Its Application for Trans-skull Imaging of Certain Types of Head Injuries; Part I: Transmission Mode.

    PubMed

    Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Sadler, Jeff; Wydra, Adrian; Malyarenko, Eugene V; Sinclair, Anthony N; Maev, Roman Gr

    2015-05-01

    A new adaptive beamforming algorithm for imaging via small-aperture 1-D ultrasonic-phased arrays through composite layered structures is reported. Such structures cause acoustic phase aberration and wave refraction at undulating interfaces and can lead to significant distortion of an ultrasonic field pattern produced by conventional beamforming techniques. This distortion takes the form of defocusing the ultrasonic field transmitted through the barrier and causes loss of resolution and overall degradation of image quality. To compensate for the phase aberration and the refractional effects, we developed and examined an adaptive beamforming algorithm for small-aperture linear-phased arrays. After accurately assessing the barrier's local geometry and sound speed, the method calculates a new timing scheme to refocus the distorted beam at its original location. As a tentative application, implementation of this method for trans-skull imaging of certain types of head injuries through human skull is discussed. Simulation and laboratory results of applying the method on skull-mimicking phantoms are presented. Correction of up to 2.5 cm focal point displacement at up to 10 cm depth under our skull phantom is demonstrated. Quantitative assessment of the method in a variety of temporal focusing scenarios is also reported. Overall temporal deviation on the order of a few nanoseconds was observed between the simulated and experimental results. The single-point adaptive focusing results demonstrate strong potential of our approach for diagnostic imaging through intact human skull. The algorithms were implemented on an ultrasound advanced open-platform controlling 64 active elements on a 128-element phased array.

  1. SYMPOSIUM ON MULTIMODALITY CARDIOVASCULAR MOLECULAR IMAGING IMAGING TECHNOLOGY - PART 2

    PubMed Central

    de Kemp, Robert A.; Epstein, Frederick H.; Catana, Ciprian; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The ability to trace or identify specific molecules within a specific anatomic location provides insight into metabolic pathways, tissue components and tracing of solute transport mechanisms. With the increasing use of small animals for research such imaging must have sufficiently high spatial resolution to allow anatomic localization as well as sufficient specificity and sensitivity to provide an accurate description of the molecular distribution and concentration. Methods Imaging methods based on electromagnetic radiation, such as PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, are increasingly applicable due to recent advances in novel scanner hardware, image reconstruction software and availability of novel molecules which have enhanced sensitivity in these methodologies. Results Micro-PET has been advanced by development of detector arrays that provide higher resolution and positron emitting elements that allow new molecular tracers to be labeled. Micro-MRI has been improved in terms of spatial resolution and sensitivity by increased magnet field strength and development of special purpose coils and associated scan protocols. Of particular interest is the associated ability to image local mechanical function and solute transport processes which can be directly related to the molecular information. This is further strengthened by the synergistic integration of the PET with MRI. Micro-SPECT has been improved by use of coded aperture imaging approaches as well as image reconstruction algorithms which can better deal with the photon limited scan data. The limited spatial resolution can be partially overcome by integrating the SPECT with CT. Micro-CT by itself provides exquisite spatial resolution of anatomy, but recent developments of high spatial resolution photon counting and spectrally-sensitive imaging arrays, combined with x-ray optical devices, have promise for actual molecular identification by virtue of the chemical bond lengths of molecules, especially of bio

  2. Applications of Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, Craig; Galbán, Stefanie; Van Dort, Marcian; Luker, Gary D.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Rehemtualla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Today molecular imaging technologies play a central role in clinical oncology. The use of imaging techniques in early cancer detection, treatment response and new therapy development is steadily growing and has already significantly impacted clinical management of cancer. In this chapter we will overview three different molecular imaging technologies used for the understanding of disease biomarkers, drug development, or monitoring therapeutic outcome. They are (1) optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging) (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (3) nuclear imaging (e.g, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)). We will review the use of molecular reporters of biological processes (e.g. apoptosis and protein kinase activity) for high throughput drug screening and new cancer therapies, diffusion MRI as a biomarker for early treatment response and PET and SPECT radioligands in oncology. PMID:21075334

  3. Application-driven computational imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, Scott

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses how the image processing steps involved in computational imaging can be adapted to specific image-based recognition tasks, and how significant reductions in computational complexity can be achieved by leveraging the recognition algorithm's robustness to defocus, poor exposure, and the like. Unlike aesthetic applications of computational imaging, recognition systems need not produce the best possible image quality, but instead need only satisfy certain quality thresholds that allow for reliable recognition. The paper specifically addresses light field processing for barcode scanning, and presents three optimizations which bring light field processing within the complexity limits of low-powered embedded processors.

  4. JPEG2000 Part 10: volumetric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelkens, Peter; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan P.

    2003-11-01

    Recently, the JPEG2000 committee (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1) decided to start up a new standardization activity to support the encoding of volumetric and floating-point data sets: Part 10 - Coding Volumetric and Floating-point Data (JP3D). This future standard will support functionalities like resolution and quality scalability and region-of-interest coding, while exploiting the entropy in the additional third dimension to improve the rate-distortion performance. In this paper, we give an overview of the markets and application areas targeted by JP3D, the imposed requirements and the considered algorithms with a specific focus on the realization of the region-of-interest functionality.

  5. Pediatric electrocardiographic imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jennifer N A

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) has been used in pediatric and congenital heart patients to better understand their electrophysiologic substrates. In this article we focus on the 4 subjects related to pediatric ECGI: (1) ECGI in patients with congenital heart disease and Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, (2) ECGI in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and preexcitation, (3) ECGI in pediatric patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, and (4) ECGI for pediatric cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  6. Industrial Applications of Terahertz Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, J. Axel; Shen, Yao-Chun

    This chapter gives a concise overview of potential industrial applications for terahertz imaging that have been reported over the past decade with a discussion of the major advantages and limitations of each approach. In the second half of the chapter we discuss in more detail how terahertz imaging can be used to investigate the microstructure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. A particular focus in this context is the nondestructive measurement of the coating thickness of polymer coated tablets, both by means of high resolution offline imaging in research and development as well as for in-line quality control during production.

  7. Digital imaging applications in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F Joel W-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2003-03-01

    Digital imaging has progressed at a rapid rate and is likely to eventually replace chemical photography in most areas of professional and amateur digital image acquisition. In pathology, digital microscopy has implications beyond that of taking a photograph. The arguments for adopting this new medium are compelling, and given similar developments in other areas of pathology and radiologic imaging, acceptance of the digital medium should be viewed as a component of the technological evolution of the laboratory. A digital image may be stored, replicated, catalogued, employed for educational purposes, transmitted for further interpretation (telepathology), analyzed for salient features (medical vision/image analysis), or form part of a wider digital healthcare strategy. Despite advances in digital camera technology, good image acquisition still requires good microscope optics and the correct calibration of all system components, something which many neglect. The future of digital imaging in pathology is very promising and new applications in the fields of automated quantification and interpretation are likely to have profound long-term influence on the practice of anatomic pathology. This paper discusses the state of the art of digital imaging in anatomic pathology.

  8. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 20.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the commercial... filing electronically via the ULS. (b) Part 2. This part contains the Table of Frequency Allocations...

  9. 47 CFR 20.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 20.2 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the commercial... filing electronically via the ULS. (b) Part 2. This part contains the Table of Frequency Allocations...

  10. Image wavelet decomposition and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treil, N.; Mallat, S.; Bajcsy, R.

    1989-01-01

    The general problem of computer vision has been investigated for more that 20 years and is still one of the most challenging fields in artificial intelligence. Indeed, taking a look at the human visual system can give us an idea of the complexity of any solution to the problem of visual recognition. This general task can be decomposed into a whole hierarchy of problems ranging from pixel processing to high level segmentation and complex objects recognition. Contrasting an image at different representations provides useful information such as edges. An example of low level signal and image processing using the theory of wavelets is introduced which provides the basis for multiresolution representation. Like the human brain, we use a multiorientation process which detects features independently in different orientation sectors. So, images of the same orientation but of different resolutions are contrasted to gather information about an image. An interesting image representation using energy zero crossings is developed. This representation is shown to be experimentally complete and leads to some higher level applications such as edge and corner finding, which in turn provides two basic steps to image segmentation. The possibilities of feedback between different levels of processing are also discussed.

  11. Clinical applications in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Heneweer, Carola; Grimm, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Molecular imaging is aimed at the noninvasive in vivo characterization and measurement of processes at a cellular and molecular level with clinical imaging methods. Contrast agents are constructed to target markers that are specific either for certain diseases or for functional states of specialized tissues. Efforts are currently focused mainly on processes involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cell tracking is performed for diagnostic purposes as well as for monitoring of novel cell therapies. Visualization of these processes would provide more precise information about disease expansion as well as treatment response, and could lead to a more individualized therapy for patients. Many attempts have shown promising results in preclinical studies; however, translation into the clinic remains a challenge. This applies especially to paediatrics because of more stringent safety concerns and the low prevalence of individual diseases. The most promising modalities for clinical translation are nuclear medicine methods (positron emission tomography [PET] and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) due to their high sensitivity, which allows concentrations below biological activity. However, special dose consideration is required for any application of ionizing radiation especially in children. While very little has been published on molecular imaging in a paediatric patient population beyond fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) tracers, this review will attempt to discuss approaches that we believe have promise for paediatric imaging. These will include agents that already reached clinical trials as well as preclinical developments with high potential for clinical application.

  12. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  13. Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szepesi, Z.

    1971-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

  14. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  15. Programmable resolution imager for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Elisenda; Soriano, German; Espejo, Servando; Dominguez-Castro, Rafael; Linan, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2000-05-01

    In this paper a programmable imager with averaging capabilities will be described which is intended for averaging of different groups or sets of pixels formed by n X n kernels, n X m kernels or any group of randomly- selected pixels across the array. This imager is a 64 X 64 array which uses passive pixels with electronic shutter and anti-blooming structure that can be randomly accessed. The read-out stage includes a sole charge amplifier with programmable gain, a sample-and-hold structure and an analog buffer. This read-out structure is different from other existing imagers with variable resolution since it uses a sole charge amplifier, whereas the conventional structure employs an opamp per column plus another global opamp. this architecture allows a reduction of the fixed-pattern noise observed in standard imagers. The prototype also includes an analog to digital converter which provides the digital output of the images.

  16. Planning applications in image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We describe two interim results from an ongoing effort to automate the acquisition, analysis, archiving, and distribution of satellite earth science data. Both results are applications of Artificial Intelligence planning research to the automatic generation of processing steps for image analysis tasks. First, we have constructed a linear conditional planner (CPed), used to generate conditional processing plans. Second, we have extended an existing hierarchical planning system to make use of durations, resources, and deadlines, thus supporting the automatic generation of processing steps in time and resource-constrained environments.

  17. Merging of range images for inspection or safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mure-Dubois, James; Hügli, Heinz

    2008-08-01

    Range imagers provide useful information for part inspection, robot control, or human safety applications in industrial environments. However, some applications may require more information than range data from a single viewpoint. Therefore, multiple range images must be combined to create a three-dimensional representation of the scene. Although simple in its principle, this operation is not straightforward to implement in industrial systems, since each range image is affected by noise. In this paper, we present two specific applications where merging of range images must be performed. We use the same processing pipeline for both applications : conversion from range image to point clouds, elimination of degrees of freedom between different clouds, validation of the merged results. Nevertheless, each step in this pipeline requires dedicated algorithms for our example applications. The first application is high resolution inspection of large parts, where many range images are acquired sequentially and merged in a post-processing step, allowing to create a virtual model of the part observed, typically larger than the instrument's field of view. The key requirement in this application is high accuracy for the merging of multiple point clouds. The second application discussed is human safety in a human/robot environment: range images are used to ensure that no human is present in the robot’s zone of operation, and can trigger the robot's emergency shutdown when needed. In this case, range image merging is required to avoid uncertainties due to occlusions. The key requirement here is real-time operation, namely the merging operation should not introduce a significant latency in the data processing pipeline. For both application cases, the improvements brought by merging multiple range images are clearly illustrated.

  18. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, S.; Bonifazi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technique that combines the imaging properties of a digital camera with the spectroscopic properties of a spectrometer able to detect the spectral attributes of each pixel in an image. For these characteristics, HSI allows to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of the interactions of light with organic and/or inorganic materials. The results of this interaction are usually displayed as a spectral signature characterized by a sequence of energy values, in a pre-defined wavelength interval, for each of the investigated/collected wavelength. Following this approach, it is thus possible to collect, in a fast and reliable way, spectral information that are strictly linked to chemical-physical characteristics of the investigated materials and/or products. Considering that in an hyperspectral image the spectrum of each pixel can be analyzed, HSI can be considered as one of the best nondestructive technology allowing to perform the most accurate and detailed information extraction. HSI can be applied in different wavelength fields, the most common are the visible (VIS: 400-700 nm), the near infrared (NIR: 1000-1700 nm) and the short wave infrared (SWIR: 1000-2500 nm). It can be applied for inspections from micro- to macro-scale, up to remote sensing. HSI produces a large amount of information due to the great number of continuous collected spectral bands. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterized by lower costs, if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off-line and/or on-line analytical approaches. More and more applications have been thus developed and tested, in these last years, especially in food inspection, with a large range of investigated products, such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and cereals, but also in medicine and pharmaceutical sector, in cultural heritage, in material characterization and in

  20. Diffusion weighted imaging: Technique and applications

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Das, Chandan J; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a method of signal contrast generation based on the differences in Brownian motion. DWI is a method to evaluate the molecular function and micro-architecture of the human body. DWI signal contrast can be quantified by apparent diffusion coefficient maps and it acts as a tool for treatment response evaluation and assessment of disease progression. Ability to detect and quantify the anisotropy of diffusion leads to a new paradigm called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI is a tool for assessment of the organs with highly organised fibre structure. DWI forms an integral part of modern state-of-art magnetic resonance imaging and is indispensable in neuroimaging and oncology. DWI is a field that has been undergoing rapid technical evolution and its applications are increasing every day. This review article provides insights in to the evolution of DWI as a new imaging paradigm and provides a summary of current role of DWI in various disease processes. PMID:27721941

  1. A machine learning approach for body part recognition based on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keigo; Li, Yuanzhong; Ito, Wataru; Shimura, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    Body part recognition based on CT slice images is very important for many applications in PACS and CAD systems. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can recognize which body part a slice image belongs to robustly. We focus on how to effectively express and use the unique statistical information of the correlation between the CT value and the position information of each body part. We apply the machine learning method AdaBoost to express and use this statistical information. Our approach consists of a training process and a recognition process. In the training process, we first define the whole body using a set of specific classes to ensure that training images in the same class have a high similarity, and prepare a training image set (positive samples and negative samples) for each class. Second, the training images are normalized to a fixed size and rotation in each class. Third, features are calculated for each normalized training image. Finally, AdaBoosted histogram classifiers are trained. After the training process, each class has its own classifiers. In the recognition process, given a series of CT images, the scores of all classes for each slice image are calculated based on the classifiers obtained in the training process. Then, based on the scores of each slice and a simple model of body part sequence continuity, we use dynamic programming (DP) to eliminate false recognition results. Experimental results on 440 unknown series including lesions show that our approach has high a recognition rate.

  2. [The image of dentistry. Part 2: The ideal dentist].

    PubMed

    Ramseier, Christoph A; Wolf, Christian A

    2012-01-01

    Our second part of the publication entitled "The image of Dentistry" discusses the properties that correspond to the ideal image of dentistry or even the ideal scientist such as the management of the dental practice, the dentist-patient relationship and the appropriate handling of the patient's emotions such as anxiety or pain. The quality of treatment and the friendly, honest and compassionate attitude of the dentist can immediately affect the image of dentistry. Therefore, the dental professional must try to keep the balance between practice profit, staffing and patient well-being in order to fulfill both social and public health responsibilities.

  3. Perceptual Based Image Fusion with Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    spectral bands from the AVIRIS hyperspectral sensor will be evaluated. 1.4 Approach/ Thesis Organization Chapter one described data processing problems...Based Image Fusion with Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data THESIS A o .:or \\Terry Allen Wilson NTS _ Captain, USAF DTIC Tf-, LI Unannou!c<ej LI...Applications to Hyperspectral Image Data THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of

  4. Prototype Videodisk-Based Part-Task Thermal Imaging Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Foyle, David C.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Thermal images, or infrared images, are representations of the world based on heat, instead of visible light. Research has shown that the resulting thermal image results in perceptual differences leading to difficulties in interpretation (e.g., the determination of slope angle, concavity/convexity), or increased identification latencies. A joint research project between the United States (NASA and U.S. Army) and Israel (Ministry of Defense and Israel Air Force) has resulted in the development of a prototype part-task trainer for the acquisition of perceptual skills associated with thermal imaging usage. This prototype system is videodisk-based under computer control, using recordings of thermal images. A lesson section introduces declarative knowledge, in which the basic physics and heuristics of thermal imagery are taught. An exercise section teaches procedural knowledge, with the user viewing dynamic, actual imagery, with an interactive detection/location determination task. The general philosophy and design of the trainer will be demonstrated.

  5. A Method of Poisson's Ration Imaging Within a Material Part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention, longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to display the data.

  6. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  7. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  8. 45 CFR 611.2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.2 Application of part. This part applies to any program for which Federal... of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal...

  9. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  10. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  11. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  12. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.3 Other applicable rule parts. Other FCC rule parts applicable to the Wireless Communications Service include the following: (a) Part 0. This part describes...

  13. An extensible imaging platform for optical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Gianluca; Azar, Fred S.

    2009-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recently developed an extensible imaging platform (XIP), a new open-source software development platform. XIP can be used to rapidly develop imaging applications designed to meet the needs of the optical imaging community. XIP is a state-of-the-art set of visual 'drag and drop' programming tools and associated libraries for rapid prototyping and application development. The tools include modules tailored for medical imaging, many of which are GPU hardware accelerated. They also provide a friendlier environment for utilizing popular toolkits such as ITK and VTK, and enable the visualization and processing of optical imaging data and standard DICOM data. XIP has built-in functionality for multidimensional data visualization and processing, and enables the development of independently optimized and re-usable software modules, which can be seamlessly added and interconnected to build advanced applications. XIP applications can run "stand alone", including in client/server mode for remote access. XIP also supports the DICOM WG23 "Application Hosting" standard, which will enable plug-in XIP applications to run on any DICOM host workstation. Such interoperability will enable the optical imaging community to develop and deploy modular applications across all academic/clinical/industry partners with WG23 compliant imaging workstations.

  14. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Part II: clinical and imaging considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Burns, SH; O’Connor, SM; Mior, SA

    1991-01-01

    In this, the second of a two part series, we continue to review the recent literature pertaining to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Caused by the compromise of the spinal canal resulting from the superimposition of spondylotic changes upon a congenitally narrowed canal, CSM has a predictable radiographic and clinical presentation. The clinical presentation frequently includes both upper and lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Careful analysis of the plain film images usually reveals a spinal canal measuring 12 mm or less. Additional imaging modalities confirm the diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical and imaging characteristics underlying CSM and stresses the importance of including CSM in the differential diagnosis of patients complaining of neck and leg dysfunctions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

  15. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  16. Ultrawideband radar imaging system for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jafari, H.M.; Liu, W.; Hranilovic, S.; Deen, M.J.

    2006-05-15

    Ultrawideband (UWB) (3-10 GHz) radar imaging systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration and resolution characteristics. The underlying principle of UWB cancer detection is a significant contrast in dielectric properties, which is estimated to be greater than 2:1 between normal and cancerous tissue, compared to a few-percent contrast in radiographic density exploited by x rays. This article presents a feasibility study of the UWB imaging of liver cancer tumors, based on the frequency-dependent finite difference time domain method. The reflection, radiation, and scattering properties of UWB pulses as they propagate through the human body are studied. The reflected and back-scattered electromagnetic energies from cancer tumors inside the liver are also investigated. An optimized, ultrawideband antenna was designed for near field operation, allowing for the reduction of the air-skin interface. It will be placed on the fat-liver tissue phantom with a malignant tumor stimulant. By performing an incremental scan over the phantom and removing early time artifacts, including reflection from the antenna ends, images based on the back-scattered signal from the tumor can be constructed. This research is part of our effort to develop a UWB cancer detection system with good detection and localization properties.

  17. Molecular imaging applications for immunology.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Isabel Junie; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2004-05-01

    The use of multimodality molecular imaging has recently facilitated the study of molecular and cellular events in living subjects in a noninvasive and repetitive manner to improve the diagnostic capability of traditional assays. The noninvasive imaging modalities utilized for both small animal and human imaging include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). Techniques specific to small-animal imaging include bioluminescent imaging (BIm) and fluorescent imaging (FIm). Molecular imaging permits the study of events within cells, the examination of cell trafficking patterns that relate to inflammatory diseases and metastases, and the ability to rapidly screen new drug treatments for distribution and effectiveness. In this paper, we will review the current field of molecular imaging assays (especially those utilizing PET and BIm modalities) and examine how they might impact animal models and human disease in the field of clinical immunology.

  18. Imaging strategies for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M; Suggs, Laura J; Emelianov, Stanislav Y

    2015-02-01

    Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies.

  19. Imaging Strategies for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M.; Suggs, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies. PMID:25012069

  20. Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasen, Nancy C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses various brain imaging techniques, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, single photo emission tomography, and position emission tomography. Describes the uses of these techniques in helping to understand brain functioning. (TW)

  1. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  2. Digital imaging and video: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Andrew L; Hausman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Digital imaging has provided orthopaedic surgeons with new, powerful tools that offer a multitude of applications. Already integral to several common medical devices, digital images can be used for case documentation and presentation as well as for diagnostic and surgical patient care information. Educational presentation has been transformed by the use of computers and digital projectors. Understanding the basic foundations of digital imaging technology is important for effectively creating digital images, videos, and presentations.

  3. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580 B Appendix B to Part 1580 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability...

  5. New applications of Spectral Edge image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alex E.; Montagna, Roberto; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present new applications of the Spectral Edge image fusion method. The Spectral Edge image fusion algorithm creates a result which combines details from any number of multispectral input images with natural color information from a visible spectrum image. Spectral Edge image fusion is a derivative-based technique, which creates an output fused image with gradients which are an ideal combination of those of the multispectral input images and the input visible color image. This produces both maximum detail and natural colors. We present two new applications of Spectral Edge image fusion. Firstly, we fuse RGB-NIR information from a sensor with a modified Bayer pattern, which captures visible and near-infrared image information on a single CCD. We also present an example of RGB-thermal image fusion, using a thermal camera attached to a smartphone, which captures both visible and low-resolution thermal images. These new results may be useful for computational photography and surveillance applications.

  6. [Orbit: Part 1: anatomy, imaging procedures and retrobulbar lesions].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this 2-part review article on diseases of the orbit is to give the reader an insight into the anatomical structure and an overview of the most important diseases in the area of the eye socket. The main focus is on a description of the imaging procedures and their individual advantages and disadvantages. The most important tumors, trauma and degenerative alterations of the orbit are also described.

  7. 19 CFR 204.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 204.1 Section 204.1 Customs... EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.1 Applicability of part. This part 204 applies..., or other program or operation undertaken by the Department of Agriculture, or any agency...

  8. Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

  9. Petrophysical applications of NMR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rothwell, W.P.; Vinegar, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    A system for obtaining high-resolution NMR images of oil field cores is described. Separate proton density and T/sub 2/ relaxation images are obtained to distinguish spatial variations of fluid-filled porosity and the physical nature of the pores. Results are presented for typical sandstones.

  10. Passive terahertz imaging for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

  11. Image registration for luminescent paint applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mclachlan, Blair G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of pressure sensitive luminescent paints is a viable technique for the measurement of surface pressure on wind tunnel models. This technique requires data reduction of images obtained under known as well as test conditions and spatial transformation of the images. A general transform which registers images to subpixel accuracy is presented and the general characteristics of transforms for image registration and their derivation are discussed. Image resection and its applications are described. The mapping of pressure data to the three dimensional model surface for small wind tunnel models to a spatial accuracy of 0.5 percent of the model length is demonstrated.

  12. Scope and applications of translation invariant wavelets to image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chettri, Samir; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William

    1997-01-01

    The first part of this article introduces the notion of translation invariance in wavelets and discusses several wavelets that have this property. The second part discusses the possible applications of such wavelets to image registration. In the case of registration of affinely transformed images, we would conclude that the notion of translation invariance is not really necessary. What is needed is affine invariance and one way to do this is via the method of moment invariants. Wavelets or, in general, pyramid processing can then be combined with the method of moment invariants to reduce the computational load.

  13. Value of Imaging Part I: Perspectives for the Academic Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Bresnahan, Brian; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With payers and policymakers increasingly scrutinizing the value of medical imaging, opportunities abound for radiologists and radiology health services researchers to meaningfully and rigorously demonstrate value. Part one of this two-part series on the value of imaging explores the concept of value in health care from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and discusses the opportunities and challenges for radiologists and health service researchers to demonstrate value. The current absence of meaningful national value metrics also presents an opportunity for radiologists to take the lead on the discussions of these metrics that may serve as the basis for future value-based payments. As both practitioners and investigators, radiologists should consider the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in all they do-interdisciplinary support and cooperation are essential to the success of value-focused imaging research and initiatives that improve patient outcomes. Radiology departments that align their cultures, infrastructures, and incentives to support these initiatives will greatly increase their chances of being successful in these endeavors.

  14. Medical applications of microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lim, Eng Gee; Tang, Yujun; Leach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy.

  15. Industrial applications of process imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, David M.; Sunshine, Gregg; Rosen, Lou; Jochen, Ed

    2001-02-01

    Process imaging is the art of visualizing events inside closed industrial processes. Image processing is the art of mathematically manipulating digitized images to extract quantitative information about such processes. Ongoing advances in camera and computer technology have made it feasible to apply these abilities to measurement needs in the chemical industry. To illustrate the point, this paper describes several applications developed at DuPont, where a variety of measurements are based on in-line, at-line, and off-line imaging. Application areas include compounding, melt extrusion, crystallization, granulation, media milling, and particle characterization. Polymer compounded with glass fiber is evaluated by a patented radioscopic (real-time X-ray imaging) technique to measure concentration and dispersion uniformity of the glass. Contamination detection in molten polymer (important for extruder operations) is provided by both proprietary and commercial on-line systems. Crystallization in production reactors is monitored using in-line probes and flow cells. Granulation is controlled by at-line measurements of granule size obtained from image processing. Tomographic imaging provides feedback for improved operation of media mills. Finally, particle characterization is provided by a robotic system that measures individual size and shape for thousands of particles without human supervision. Most of these measurements could not be accomplished with other (non-imaging) techniques.

  16. Living Brain Optical Imaging: Technology, Methods and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Bernardelli, Chad; Maslov, Konstantin I.

    2017-01-01

    Within the last few decades, optical imaging methods have yielded revolutionary results when applied to all parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this review is to analyze research possibilities and limitations of several novel imaging techniques and show some of the most interesting achievements obtained by these methods. Here we covered intrinsic optical imaging, voltage-sensitive dye, photoacoustic, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy and some other techniques. All of them are mainly applicable for experimental neuroscience but some of them also suitable for the clinical studies. PMID:28251038

  17. Image informatics in systems biology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2005-02-01

    Digital optical microscopy, coupled with parallel processing and a large arsenal of labeling techniques, offers tremendous values to localize, identify, and characterize cells and molecules. This generates many image informatics challenges in requiring new algorithms and tools to extract, classify, correlate, and model image features and content from massive amounts of cellular and molecular images acquired. Image informatics aims to fill this gap. Coupling automated microscopy and image analysis with biostatistical and data mining techniques to provide a system biologic approach in studying the cells, the basic unit of life, potentially leads to many exciting applications in life and health sciences. In this presentation, we describe certain new system biology applications enabled by image informatics technology.

  18. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  19. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  20. 3D imaging system for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin; Abramovich, Gil; Paruchura, Vijay; Manickam, Swaminathan; Vemury, Arun

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of 3D data for many new applications beyond traditional metrology areas. In particular, using 3D data to obtain shape information of both people and objects for applications ranging from identification to game inputs does not require high degrees of calibration or resolutions in the tens of micron range, but does require a means to quickly and robustly collect data in the millimeter range. Systems using methods such as structured light or stereo have seen wide use in measurements, but due to the use of a triangulation angle, and thus the need for a separated second viewpoint, may not be practical for looking at a subject 10 meters away. Even when working close to a subject, such as capturing hands or fingers, the triangulation angle causes occlusions, shadows, and a physically large system that may get in the way. This paper will describe methods to collect medium resolution 3D data, plus highresolution 2D images, using a line of sight approach. The methods use no moving parts and as such are robust to movement (for portability), reliable, and potentially very fast at capturing 3D data. This paper will describe the optical methods considered, variations on these methods, and present experimental data obtained with the approach.

  1. Small pixel uncooled imaging FPAs and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Richard; Franks, Glen; Lacroix, Daniel; Hyland, Sandra; Murphy, Robert

    2010-04-01

    BAE Systems continues to make dramatic progress in uncooled microbolometer sensors and applications. This paper will review the latest advancements in microbolometer technology at BAE Systems, including the development status of 17 micrometer pixel pitch detectors and imaging modules which are entering production and will be finding their way into BAE Systems products and applications. Benefits include increased die per wafer and potential benefits to SWAP for many applications. Applications include thermal weapons sights, thermal imaging modules for remote weapon stations, vehicle situational awareness sensors and mast/pole mounted sensors.

  2. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    PubMed Central

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M. Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps). PMID:22389609

  3. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

  4. Radiometry Using Thermal Images. Part 2. Technical Details.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    IMAGES PART II - TECHNICAL DETAILS R.J. Oermann SUMMARY All parameters describing the Model 782 AGA Thermovision SWB and LWB systems that are...polygon 9 4. Field interlace 9 5. Set up for horizontal LSF measurement 10 6. LSF of SWB for 3 lenses 11 ERL-0428-TR Page 7. LSF of LWB for 3 lenses 11 8...SWB ITF 12 9. LWB WTF 12 10. Vertical LSF of SWB with 33 mm focal length lens 13 11. Vertical MTF of SWB 33 mm focal length lens 13 12. Set up for

  5. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY RAIL TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. B Appendix B to Part 1580—Summary of the Applicability of... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580...

  8. A simple image display application for windows.

    PubMed

    Conrad, G R

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple application for displaying low-to-moderate resolution digital images under the Windows operating environment. The display of scintigraphic images was of special interest, and for this reason the program was designed to show sequences of images and to account for broad ranges of pixel values. In order to function under a variety of Windows versions, the program was developed using the 16-bit Microsoft C +2 compiler and targeted for Windows 3.1 enhanced. It was tested with Trionix images for nuclear medicine and Siemens for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). The resulting application, called SID, successfully read Magnetom, Somatom, Trionix, and Interfile images of dimension 512 or less on Intel-based Windows PCs with 256 color SVGA-compatible (Super Video Graphics Adapters) video hardware. Early applications of the program included remote monitoring of image studies, resident review of teaching cases, review of research images, and preparation of educational materials. This article describes the features, operation, and potential applications of SID.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF SPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of remote sensing using spectral imaging is just being realized through the investigation to a wide variety of environmental issues. Improved spectral and spatial resolution is very important to the detection of effects once regarded as unobservable. A current researc...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This Appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1002 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... B) Pt. 1002, App. B Appendix B to Part 1002—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five... form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate appendix B model form, or modifies a form in accordance...

  16. 40 CFR 51.1001 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1001 Section 51.1001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1001 Applicability of part 51. The provisions...

  17. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... manipulation technique whose validity does not require the acceptance of a particular economic,...

  18. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... manipulation technique whose validity does not require the acceptance of a particular economic,...

  19. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... manipulation technique whose validity does not require the acceptance of a particular economic,...

  20. 39 CFR 3050.1 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 3050.1... Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Accepted analytical principle refers to an analytical principle that... manipulation technique whose validity does not require the acceptance of a particular economic,...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part 202 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1. This appendix contains five model...

  2. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - Model Application Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Application Forms B Appendix B to Part... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. B Appendix B to Part 202—Model Application Forms 1... appear on the creditor's form. 3. If a creditor uses an appropriate Appendix B model form, or modifies...

  4. Fundamentals and applications of magnetic particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Borgert, Jörn; Schmidt, Joachim D; Schmale, Ingo; Rahmer, Jürgen; Bontus, Claas; Gleich, Bernhard; David, Bernd; Eckart, Rainer; Woywode, Oliver; Weizenecker, Jürgen; Schnorr, Jörg; Taupitz, Matthias; Haegele, Julian; Vogt, Florian M; Barkhausen, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique which performs a direct measurement of magnetic nanoparticles, also known as superparamagnetic iron oxide. MPI can acquire quantitative images of the local distribution of the magnetic material with high spatial and temporal resolution. Its sensitivity is well above that of other methods used for the detection and quantification of magnetic materials, for example, magnetic resonance imaging. On the basis of an intravenous injection of magnetic particles, MPI has the potential to play an important role in medical application areas such as cardiovascular, oncology, and also in exploratory fields such as cell labeling and tracking. Here, we present an introduction to the basic function principle of MPI, together with an estimation of the spatial resolution and the detection limit. Furthermore, the above-mentioned medical applications are discussed with respect to an applicability of MPI.

  5. Machine learning applications in cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Andrey

    2017-04-04

    Machine learning (ML) refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on ML applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (for example, variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of ML, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples. This article then presents several example applications at various image processing stages, including the use of supervised learning methods for improving cell segmentation, and the application of active learning for tracking. The review concludes with remarks on parameter setting and future directions.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.16.

  6. Intelligent imaging systems for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Huang, Yingping; Fu, Shan

    2004-03-01

    In common with many other application areas, visual signals are becoming an increasingly important information source for many automotive applications. For several years CCD cameras have been used as research tools for a range of automotive applications. Infrared cameras, RADAR and LIDAR are other types of imaging sensors that have also been widely investigated for use in cars. This paper will describe work in this field performed in C2VIP over the last decade - starting with Night Vision Systems and looking at various other Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. Emerging from this experience, we make the following observations which are crucial for "intelligent" imaging systems: 1. Careful arrangement of sensor array. 2. Dynamic-Self-Calibration. 3. Networking and processing. 4. Fusion with other imaging sensors, both at the image level and the feature level, provides much more flexibility and reliability in complex situations. We will discuss how these problems can be addressed and what are the outstanding issues.

  7. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  8. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    PubMed

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  9. True 3d Images and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; wang@hzgeospace., zheng.

    2012-07-01

    A true 3D image is a geo-referenced image. Besides having its radiometric information, it also has true 3Dground coordinates XYZ for every pixels of it. For a true 3D image, especially a true 3D oblique image, it has true 3D coordinates not only for building roofs and/or open grounds, but also for all other visible objects on the ground, such as visible building walls/windows and even trees. The true 3D image breaks the 2D barrier of the traditional orthophotos by introducing the third dimension (elevation) into the image. From a true 3D image, for example, people will not only be able to read a building's location (XY), but also its height (Z). true 3D images will fundamentally change, if not revolutionize, the way people display, look, extract, use, and represent the geospatial information from imagery. In many areas, true 3D images can make profound impacts on the ways of how geospatial information is represented, how true 3D ground modeling is performed, and how the real world scenes are presented. This paper first gives a definition and description of a true 3D image and followed by a brief review of what key advancements of geospatial technologies have made the creation of true 3D images possible. Next, the paper introduces what a true 3D image is made of. Then, the paper discusses some possible contributions and impacts the true 3D images can make to geospatial information fields. At the end, the paper presents a list of the benefits of having and using true 3D images and the applications of true 3D images in a couple of 3D city modeling projects.

  10. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... This part sets forth the requirements and conditions applicable to commercial mobile radio service... standards and procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for... parts of the radio frequency spectrum may be made available for experimentation. (e) Part 15. This...

  11. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part...

  12. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part I. Image storage and readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, M.; Myles, D.; Wilkinson, C.

    1999-11-01

    The detection of neutrons with imaging plates is based on a sequence of physical processes, which are happening during the neutron exposure and the readout of the image information. These processes are investigated in detail starting with the neutron absorption and conversion to secondary radiation by various neutron converter materials and ending with the detection of the photostimulated luminescence, which is emitted during the readout. It is shown that these processes can be quantified by several key parameters, such as i.e. the neutron absorption cross section, the emitted secondary energy and the conversion efficiency of released secondary energy to storage centers in the storage phosphor. The resulting detector characteristics are described in the second part, namely, Neutron detection with imaging plates - part II: detector characteristics [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 34-39].

  13. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  15. Application of ultrasound in periodontics: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vive K.; Mohan, Ranjana; Bains, Rhythm

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic is a branch of acoustics concerned with sound vibrations in frequency ranges above audible level. Ultrasound uses the transmission and reflection of acoustic energy. A pulse is propagated and its reflection is received, both by the transducer. For clinical purposes ultrasound is generated by transducers, which converts electrical energy into ultrasonic waves. This is usually achieved by magnetostriction or piezoelectricity. Primary effects of ultrasound are thermal, mechanical (cavitation and microstreaming), and chemical (sonochemicals). Knowledge of the basic and other secondary effects of ultrasound is essential for the development of techniques of application. PMID:20142941

  16. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Clare J; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2011-09-30

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The combined advantages of using these phenomena for imaging complex pharmaceutical systems include chemical and structural specificities, high optical spatial and temporal resolutions, no requirement for labels, and the ability to image in an aqueous environment. These features make such imaging well suited for a wide range of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical investigations, including material and dosage form characterisation, dosage form digestion and drug release, and drug and nanoparticle distribution in tissues and within live cells. In this review, non-linear optical phenomena used in imaging will be introduced, together with their advantages and disadvantages in the pharmaceutical context. Research on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical applications is discussed, and potential future applications of the technology are considered.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis with optical tomography, Part 2: image classification.

    PubMed

    Montejo, Ludguier D; Jia, Jingfei; Kim, Hyun K; Netz, Uwe J; Blaschke, Sabine; Müller, Gerhard A; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2013-07-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper on the application of computer-aided diagnosis to diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A comprehensive analysis of techniques for the classification of DOT images of proximal interphalangeal joints of subjects with and without RA is presented. A method for extracting heuristic features from DOT images was presented in Part 1. The ability of five classification algorithms to accurately label each DOT image as belonging to a subject with or without RA is analyzed here. The algorithms of interest are the k-nearest-neighbors, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, self-organizing maps, and support vector machines (SVM). With a polynomial SVM classifier, we achieve 100.0% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Lower bounds for these results (at 95.0% confidence level) are 96.4% and 93.8%, respectively. Image features most predictive of RA are from the spatial variation of optical properties and the absolute range in feature values. The optimal classifiers are low-dimensional combinations (<7 features). These results underscore the high potential for DOT to become a clinically useful diagnostic tool and warrant larger prospective clinical trials to conclusively demonstrate the ultimate clinical utility of this approach.

  18. ICG fluorescence imaging and its medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Mitsuharu; Shikayama, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel optical angiography system, and introduces its medical applications. We developed the optical enhanced imaging system which can observe the blood and lymphatic vessels as the Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence image. The imaging system consists of 760nm light emitted diode (LED) as excite light, CCD camera as a detector, a high-pass optical filter in front of the CCD and video processing system. The advantage of ICG fluorescence method is safe (radiation free), high sensitive, real time monitoring of blood and/or lymphatic flow, small size, easy to operate and cost effective compared to conventional X-ray angiography or scintigraphy. We have applied this method to several clinical applications such as breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) navigation, lymph edema diagnostic and identification of liver segmentation. In each application, ICG fluorescence method shows useful result. It's indicated that this method is promising technique as optical angiography.

  19. Imaging of subsurface lineaments in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin from gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, D.; Pinar, A.; Elmas, A.; Bal, O. Tarhan; Yuksel, S.

    2013-04-01

    Linear anomalies, as an indicator of the structural features of some geological bodies, are very important for the interpretation of gravity and magnetic data. In this study, an image processing technique known as the Hough transform (HT) algorithm is described for determining invisible boundaries and extensions in gravity anomaly maps. The Hough function implements the Hough transform used to extract straight lines or circles within two-dimensional potential field images. It is defined as image and Hough space. In the Hough domain, this function transforms each nonzero point in the parameter domain to a sinusoid. In the image space, each point in the Hough space is transformed to a straight line or circle. Lineaments are depicted from these straight lines which are transformed in the image domain. An application of the Hough transform to the Bouguer anomaly map of the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey, shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Based on geological data and gravity data, the structural features in the southwestern part of the Thrace Basin are investigated by applying the proposed approach and the Blakely and Simpson method. Lineaments identified by these approaches are generally in good accordance with previously-mapped surface faults.

  20. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  1. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. K.; Truong, T. T.; Morvidone, M.; Zaidi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. PMID:21747823

  2. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  3. Application of optical correlation techniques to particle imaging velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Edwards, Robert V.

    1988-01-01

    Pulsed laser sheet velocimetry yields nonintrusive measurements of velocity vectors across an extended 2-dimensional region of the flow field. The application of optical correlation techniques to the analysis of multiple exposure laser light sheet photographs can reduce and/or simplify the data reduction time and hardware. Here, Matched Spatial Filters (MSF) are used in a pattern recognition system. Usually MSFs are used to identify the assembly line parts. In this application, the MSFs are used to identify the iso-velocity vector contours in the flow. The patterns to be recognized are the recorded particle images in a pulsed laser light sheet photograph. Measurement of the direction of the partical image displacements between exposures yields the velocity vector. The particle image exposure sequence is designed such that the velocity vector direction is determined unambiguously. A global analysis technique is used in comparison to the more common particle tracking algorithms and Young's fringe analysis technique.

  4. Imaging In focus: Reflected light imaging: Techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Emily J; Lynch, Iseult; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2017-02-01

    Reflectance imaging is a broad term that describes the formation of images by the detection of illumination light that is back-scattered from reflective features within a sample. Reflectance imaging can be performed in a variety of different configurations, such as confocal, oblique angle illumination, structured illumination, interferometry and total internal reflectance, permitting a plethora of biomedical applications. Reflectance imaging has proven indispensable for critical investigations into the safety and understanding of biomedically and environmentally relevant nano-materials, an area of high priority and investment. The non-destructive in vivo imaging ability of reflectance techniques permits alternative diagnostic strategies that may eventually facilitate the eradication of some invasive biopsy procedures. Reflectance can also provide additional structural information and clarity necessary in fluorescent based in vivo studies. Near-coverslip interrogation techniques, such as reflectance interferometry and total internal reflection, have provided a label free means to investigate cell-surface contacts, cell motility and vesicle trafficking in vivo and in vitro. Other key advances include the ability to acquire superresolution reflectance images providing increased spatial resolution.

  5. Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

  6. Imaging systems and applications: introduction to the feature.

    PubMed

    Imai, Francisco H; Linne von Berg, Dale C; Skauli, Torbjørn; Tominaga, Shoji; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-05-01

    Imaging systems have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging system requires the integration of optics, sensing, image processing, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from design of stimuli for human perception, optics applications, and image enhancement to novel imaging modalities in both color and infrared spectral imaging, gigapixel imaging as well as a systems perspective to imaging.

  7. Passive Synthetic Aperture Hitchhiker Imaging of Ground Moving Targets - Part 2: Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-07-08

    In Part 1 of this work, we present a passive synthetic aperture imaging and velocity estimation method for ground moving targets using a network of passive receivers. The method involves inversion of a Radon transform type forward model via a novel filtered backprojection approach combined with entropy optimization. The method is applicable to noncooperative transmitters of opportunity where the transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms are unknown. Furthermore, it can image multiple targets moving at different velocities in arbitrary imaging geometries. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the performance of our method. First the resolution analysis in position and velocity spaces is presented. The analysis identifies several factors that contribute positively or negativity towards position and velocity resolution. Next, we present a novel theory to analyze and predict smearing artifacts in position images due to error in velocity estimation of moving targets. Specifically, we show that small errors in the velocity estimation result in small positioning errors. We present extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretical results. While our primary interest lies in radar, the theory, methods and algorithms introduced in our work are also applicable to passive acoustic, seismic, and microwave imaging.

  8. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The...

  9. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.901 Applicability of part 51. The...

  10. 17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. This... the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act....

  11. 17 CFR 285.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 15(a) OF THE BRETTON WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.1 Applicability of part. This... the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development pursuant to section 15(a) of the Bretton Woods Agreements Act....

  12. Imaging in pulmonary hypertension, part 1: clinical perspectives, classification, imaging techniques and imaging algorithm.

    PubMed

    McCann, Caroline; Gopalan, Deepa; Sheares, Karen; Screaton, Nicholas

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It has diverse aetiology with differing clinical presentations, imaging features and treatments that range from surgical treatment of proximal chronic thromboembolic disease to targeted medical therapies in small vessel disease. Current classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is clinically based and groups diseases with similar pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. Groupings include conditions characterised by diffuse small vessel diseases such as idiopathic PAH, PH secondary to chronic hypoxic lung disease, left sided cardiac disease, chronic large vessel obstruction such as chronic thromboembolic disease and a miscellaneous group of diseases. The physiological manifestation of all of these diseases is increased pulmonary vascular resistance and PAH and while clinical features may provide a clue to diagnosis imaging plays a fundamental role in establishing a precise diagnosis and therefore guides therapy. A broad range of imaging modalities is available for the patient with suspected PH including chest radiograph, echocardiography, ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, catheter pulmonary angiography as well as cross-sectional CT and MRI. Each modality has its strengths and limitations and different techniques may be used at different stages of diagnostic investigation and frequently complement each other. For example, while MRI and echocardiography permit cardiac structural and functional assessment, CT pulmonary angiography provides exquisite morphological information about the proximal pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma but little functional information. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and MRI) hold the promise of a comprehensive evaluation of the heart, circulation and lung parenchyma in PH. The authors present a multimodality-imaging algorithm for the investigation of patients with suspected PH though

  13. 10 CFR 4.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 4.3 Application of this part. This part applies to any program for which Federal financial assistance is authorized under a law administered...

  14. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  15. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  16. 40 CFR 51.901 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in subparts A through W of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 8-hour NAAQS to the extent they... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.901 Section 51.901 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. 40 CFR 51.1101 - Applicability of part 51.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions in subparts A-X of part 51 apply to areas for purposes of the 2008 NAAQS to the extent they are... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of part 51. 51.1101 Section 51.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  18. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  19. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to each program for which Federal... interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under that property are...

  20. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this part. (a) This part applies to each program for which Federal... interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under that property are...

  1. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... radio service applicable to certain providers in the following services in this part: (1)...

  2. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  3. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  4. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... certain antenna structure registration applications. (g) Part 18 deals with the operation of industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) devices that are not intended for radio communication, (h) Part 20...

  5. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  6. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  7. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 298.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of part. 298.1 Section 298.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.1 Applicability of...

  9. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of this part. 112.2 Section 112.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application...

  10. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  11. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  12. 49 CFR 303.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 303.3 Section 303.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL RIGHTS § 303.3 Application of this...

  13. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  14. 13 CFR 112.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of this part. 112.2 Section 112.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.2 Application...

  15. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  16. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  17. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  18. 22 CFR 141.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.2 Application of this part... shall not mean, if title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered....

  19. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  20. 45 CFR 1203.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1203.2 Section 1203.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1203.2 Application of this...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1542.1 Section 1542.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY General § 1542.1 Applicability...

  6. Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ■ Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ■ Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ■ Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ■ Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ■ The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm."

  7. Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential.

    PubMed

    Patton, Niall; Aslam, Tariq M; MacGillivray, Thomas; Deary, Ian J; Dhillon, Baljean; Eikelboom, Robert H; Yogesan, Kanagasingam; Constable, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    As digital imaging and computing power increasingly develop, so too does the potential to use these technologies in ophthalmology. Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are increasing in prominence in all fields of medical science, and are especially pertinent to modern ophthalmology, as it is heavily dependent on visually oriented signs. The retinal microvasculature is unique in that it is the only part of the human circulation that can be directly visualised non-invasively in vivo, readily photographed and subject to digital image analysis. Exciting developments in image processing relevant to ophthalmology over the past 15 years includes the progress being made towards developing automated diagnostic systems for conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and retinopathy of prematurity. These diagnostic systems offer the potential to be used in large-scale screening programs, with the potential for significant resource savings, as well as being free from observer bias and fatigue. In addition, quantitative measurements of retinal vascular topography using digital image analysis from retinal photography have been used as research tools to better understand the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, advances in electronic media transmission increase the relevance of using image processing in 'teleophthalmology' as an aid in clinical decision-making, with particular relevance to large rural-based communities. In this review, we outline the principles upon which retinal digital image analysis is based. We discuss current techniques used to automatically detect landmark features of the fundus, such as the optic disc, fovea and blood vessels. We review the use of image analysis in the automated diagnosis of pathology (with particular reference to diabetic retinopathy). We also review its role in defining and performing quantitative measurements of vascular topography

  8. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  9. Multidimensional imaging of the thorax: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Ravenel, J G; McAdams, H P; Remy-Jardin, M; Remy, J

    2001-10-01

    Over the past decade, faster CT scan times, thinner collimation, and the development of multirow detectors, coupled with the increasing capability of computers to process large amounts of data in short periods of time, have lead to an expansion in the ability to create diagnostically useful two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images within the thorax. Applications within the thorax include, but are not limited to, evaluation of pulmonary and systemic vasculature, evaluation of the tracheobronchial tree, and delineation of diffuse lung disease. Pulmonary nodule volume and growth can be more accurately predicted, and represents an improvement in the evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule. Multiplanar images increase our understanding of thoracic anatomy and can help to guide bronchoscopic procedures. Because there are strengths and weaknesses to all the reconstruction algorithms, the utility of any given technique is dependent on the clinical question to be answered. For instance, although maximum intensity projection imaging (MIP) is helpful in the evaluation of micronodular lung disease, it is of little value in the diagnosis of aortic dissection. As the ability to generate faster and more precise multidimensional images grow, the demand for such imaging is likely to increase. In this review, the authors discuss the various reconstruction techniques available, followed by a discussion of the clinical applications.

  10. Technology and application advancements of uncooled imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Kohin, Margaret

    2005-05-01

    Having delivered over 30,000 uncooled microbolometer based thermal imaging engines, BAE Systems is the world's leading producer. Advancements in technology include the demonstration of broadband microbolometers on a 46 μm pixel pitch which have excellent sensitivity in the MWIR (NETD ~180 mK, 3-5 μm) and LWIR (NETD ~ 15 mK, 8-12 μm) wavebands. Application advancements include the development of a family of thermal weapons sights for the military which will replace current cooled systems with lighter, lower power systems and the introduction of a new generation of handheld and pole mounted thermal imagers for commercial markets.

  11. Acquisition and applications of 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterian, Paul; Mocanu, Elena

    2007-08-01

    The moiré fringes method and their analysis up to medical and entertainment applications are discussed in this paper. We describe the procedure of capturing 3D images with an Inspeck Camera that is a real-time 3D shape acquisition system based on structured light techniques. The method is a high-resolution one. After processing the images, using computer, we can use the data for creating laser fashionable objects by engraving them with a Q-switched Nd:YAG. In medical field we mention the plastic surgery and the replacement of X-Ray especially in pediatric use.

  12. Image enhancement technology research for army applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; Kemp, Rob A. W.; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-06-01

    Recognition and identification ranges are limited to the quality of the images. Both the received contrast and the spatial resolution determine if objects are recognizable. Several aspects affect the image quality. First of all the sensor itself. The image quality depends on the size of the infrared detector array and the sensitivity. Second, also the intervening atmosphere, in particular over longer ranges, has an impact on the image quality. It degrades the contrast, due to transmission effects, as well as it influences the resolution, due to turbulence blur, of the image. We present studies in the field of infrared image enhancement. Several techniques are described: noise reduction, super resolution, turbulence compensation, contrast enhancement, stabilization. These techniques operate in real-time on COTS/MOTS platforms. They are especially effective in the army theatre, where long horizontal paths, and short line-of-sight limited urban operations are both present. Application of these techniques on observation masts, such as on military camp sites, and on UAVs and moving ground vehicles are discussed. Examples will be presented from several trials in which these techniques were demonstrated, including the presentation of test results.

  13. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  14. Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging Systems and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Mahoney, Colin; Reyes, George; Baw, Clayton La; Li, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports activities in the development of AOTF Polarimetric Hyperspectral Imaging (PHI) Systems at JPL along with field observation results for illustrating the technology capabilities and advantages in remote sensing. In addition, the technology was also used to measure thickness distribution and structural imperfections of silicon-on-silicon wafers using white light interference phenomenon for demonstrating the potential in scientific and industrial applications.

  15. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  16. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  17. Applications review for a Space Program Imaging Radar (SPIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The needs, applications, user support, research, and theoretical studies of imaging radar are reviewed. The applications of radar in water resources, minerals and petroleum exploration, vegetation resources, ocean radar imaging, and cartography are discussed. The advantages of space imaging radar are presented, and it is recommended that imaging radar be placed on the space shuttle.

  18. Adaptive optics retinal imaging: emerging clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Godara, Pooja; Dubis, Adam M; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L; Carroll, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The human retina is a uniquely accessible tissue. Tools like scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography provide clinicians with remarkably clear pictures of the living retina. Although the anterior optics of the eye permit such non-invasive visualization of the retina and associated pathology, the same optics induce significant aberrations that obviate cellular-resolution imaging in most cases. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems use active optical elements to compensate for aberrations in the optical path between the object and the camera. When applied to the human eye, AO allows direct visualization of individual rod and cone photoreceptor cells, retinal pigment epithelium cells, and white blood cells. AO imaging has changed the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists see the retina, helping to clarify our understanding of retinal structure, function, and the etiology of various retinal pathologies. Here, we review some of the advances that were made possible with AO imaging of the human retina and discuss applications and future prospects for clinical imaging.

  19. Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukanen, A.; Leivo, M. M.; Rautiainen, A.; Grönholm, M.; Toivanen, H.; Grönberg, L.; Helistö, P.; Mäyrä, A.; Aikio, M.; Grossman, E. N.

    2012-12-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ~ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

  20. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In his previous articles (1997, 1998, 1999), the author developed a theoretical and applied approach to analyzing interactions between the uses of constructive design elements in a wide range of images and the anticipated responses by their viewers. This Image Presentation Theory--IPT--is based in the traditional cinematic concepts of "window" and…

  1. Medical applications of digital image morphing.

    PubMed

    Penska, Keith; Folio, Les; Bunger, Rolf

    2007-09-01

    The authors present a unique medical technical application for illustrating the success and/or failure of the physiological healing process as a dynamically morphed video. Two examples used in this report include the healing of a severely fractured humerus from an explosion in Iraq and the other of dramatic tissue destruction from a poisonous spider bite. For the humerus, several sequential x-rays obtained throughout orthopedic surgical procedures and the healing process were morphed together representing a time-lapsed video of the healing process. The end result is a video that demonstrates the healing process in an animation that radiologists envision and report to other clinicians. For the brown recluse spider bite, a seemingly benign skin lesion transforms into a wide gaping necrotic wound with dramatic appearance within days. This novel technique is not presented for readily apparent clinical advantage, rather, it may have more immediate application in providing treatment options to referring providers and/or patients, as well as educational value of healing or disease progression over time. Image morphing is one of those innovations that is just starting to come into its own. Morphing is an image processing technology that transforms one image into another by generating a series of intermediate synthetic images. It is the same process that Hollywood uses to turn people into animals in movies, for example. The ability to perform morphing, once restricted to high-end graphics workstations, is now widely available for desktop computers. The authors describe how a series of radiographic images were morphed into a short movie clip using readily available software and an average laptop. The resultant video showed the healing process of an open comminuted humerus fracture that helped demonstrate how amazingly the human body heals in a case presentation in a time-lapse fashion.

  2. Short-lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays Part II: Phantom and In Vivo Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Marko; Byram, Brett C.; Hyun, Dongwoon; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of the paper, we demonstrated through simulation the potential of volumetric Short-lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging to improve visualization of hypoechoic targets in three dimensions. Here, we demonstrate the application of volumetric SLSC imaging in phantom and in vivo experiments using a clinical 3-D ultrasound scanner and matrix array. Using a custom single-channel acquisition tool, we collected partially beamformed channel data from the fully sampled matrix array at high speeds and created matched B-mode and SLSC volumes of a vessel phantom and in vivo liver vasculature. 2-D and 3-D images rendered from the SLSC volumes display reduced clutter and improved visibility of the vessels when compared to their B-mode counterparts. We use concurrently acquired color Doppler volumes to confirm the presence of the vessels of interest and to define the regions inside the vessels used in contrast and CNR calculations. SLSC volumes show higher CNR values than their matched B-mode volumes while the contrast values appear to be similar between the two imaging methods. PMID:24960701

  3. Fundamental performance differences of CMOS and CCD imagers: part V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Pinter, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    Previous papers delivered over the last decade have documented developmental progress made on large pixel scientific CMOS imagers that match or surpass CCD performance. New data and discussions presented in this paper include: 1) a new buried channel CCD fabricated on a CMOS process line, 2) new data products generated by high performance custom scientific CMOS 4T/5T/6T PPD pixel imagers, 3) ultimate CTE and speed limits for large pixel CMOS imagers, 4) fabrication and test results of a flight 4k x 4k CMOS imager for NRL's SoloHi Solar Orbiter Mission, 5) a progress report on ultra large stitched Mk x Nk CMOS imager, 6) data generated by on-chip sub-electron CDS signal chain circuitry used in our imagers, 7) CMOS and CMOSCCD proton and electron radiation damage data for dose levels up to 10 Mrd, 8) discussions and data for a new class of PMOS pixel CMOS imagers and 9) future CMOS development work planned.

  4. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  5. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  6. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  7. 24 CFR 880.104 - Applicability of part 880.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part 880. 880.104 Section 880.104 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM,...

  8. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions applicable to this part. 208.2 Section 208.2 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS... “beneficiary sub-Saharan African country” means those countries so designated by the President under 19...

  9. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND... Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to the Department by the Department of Education Organization...

  10. 34 CFR 98.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of part. 98.1 Section 98.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND... Education that: (a)(1) Was transferred to the Department by the Department of Education Organization...

  11. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  12. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  13. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  14. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  15. 14 CFR 221.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of this part. 221.1 Section 221.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... 415 of the statute shall be constructed, published, filed, posted and kept open for public...

  16. 19 CFR 208.2 - Definitions applicable to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES § 208.2 Definitions applicable to this part. (a) Beneficiary sub-Saharan African country. The term “beneficiary sub-Saharan African country” means those countries so designated by the President under 19...

  17. 19 CFR 208.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 208.1 Section 208.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS WITH RESPECT TO COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY OF TEXTILE FABRIC AND YARN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES §...

  18. DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part II: Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes. [For "DIY Soundcard Based Temperature Logging System. Part I: Design," see EJ1114124.

  19. 13 CFR 117.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of this part. 117.2 Section 117.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF THE AGE DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1975, AS AMENDED §...

  20. 19 CFR 206.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 206.1 Section 206.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND REVIEW...

  1. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  2. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  3. 18 CFR 705.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 705.3 Section 705.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL... authorized under a law administered by the Water Resources Council. It applies to money paid,...

  4. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  5. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  6. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  7. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  8. 19 CFR 207.1 - Applicability of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of part. 207.1 Section 207.1 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  9. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  11. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 231 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Appendix A to Part 231 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES... Arab Republic of Egypt (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned. Of such amount $____ was not...

  14. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  15. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  16. 23 CFR 200.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 200.3 Section 200.3 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... agencies to implement the Title VI Program requirements. The related civil rights laws and regulations...

  17. 22 CFR 209.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of this part. 209.2 Section 209.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NON-DISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  18. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  19. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  1. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  3. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  4. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  5. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  6. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  8. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  9. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  10. 49 CFR 1548.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1548.1 Section 1548.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.1...

  11. 49 CFR 1546.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1546.1 Section 1546.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY General §...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1544.1 Section 1544.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  13. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  14. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  15. 18 CFR 1302.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application of this part. 1302.2 Section 1302.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... financial assistance from TVA. The fact that a type of Federal financial assistance is not listed...

  16. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  17. Application of independent component analysis in face images: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuchi; Lu, Hanqing

    2003-09-01

    Face technologies which can be applied to access control and surveillance, are essential to intelligent vision-based human computer interaction. The research efforts in this field include face detecting, face recognition, face retrieval, etc. However, these tasks are challenging because of variability in view point, lighting, pose and expression of human faces. The ideal face representation should consider the variability so as to we can develop robust algorithms for our applications. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as an unsupervised learning technique has been used to find such a representation and obtained good performances in some applications. In the first part of this paper, we depict the models of ICA and its extensions: Independent Subspace Analysis (ISA) and Topographic ICA (TICA).Then we summaraize the process in the applications of ICA and its extension in Face images. At last we propose a promising direction for future research.

  18. Application of GFP imaging in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Multicolored proteins have allowed the color-coding of cancer cells growing in vivo and enabled the distinction of host from tumor with single-cell resolution. Non-invasive imaging with fluorescent proteins enabled the dynamics of metastatic cancer to be followed in real time in individual animals. Non-invasive imaging of cancer cells expressing fluorescent proteins has allowed the real-time determination of efficacy of candidate antitumor and antimetastatic agents in mouse models. The use of fluorescent proteins to differentially label cancer cells in the nucleus and cytoplasm can visualize the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of cancer cells in vivo including: mitosis, apoptosis, cell-cycle position, and differential behavior of nucleus and cytoplasm that occurs during cancer-cell deformation and extravasation. Recent applications of the technology described here include linking fluorescent proteins with cell-cycle-specific proteins such that the cells change color from red to green as they transit from G1 to S phases. With the macro- and micro-imaging technologies described here, essentially any in vivo process can be imaged, giving rise to the new field of in vivo cell biology using fluorescent proteins.

  19. Applications of digital image analysis capability in Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital image analysis of LANDSAT imagery in water resource assessment is discussed. The data processing systems employed are described. The determination of urban land use conversion of agricultural land in two southwestern Idaho counties involving estimation and mapping of crop types and of irrigated land is described. The system was also applied to an inventory of irrigated cropland in the Snake River basin and establishment of a digital irrigation water source/service area data base for the basin. Application of the system to a determination of irrigation development in the Big Lost River basin as part of a hydrologic survey of the basin is also described.

  20. Image Algebra Application to Image Measurement and Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Wilson, Joseph N.; Davidson, Jennifer L.

    1989-03-01

    It has been well established that the AFATL (Air Force Armament Technical Laboratory) Image Algebra is capable of expressing all image-to-image transformations [1,2] and that it is ideally suited for parallel image transformations {3,4]. In this paper we show how the algebra can also be applied to compactly express image-to-feature transforms including such sequential image-to-feature transforms as chain coding.

  1. A novel application of musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Ferenček, Zrinka Gregurić; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-09-17

    Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders.

  2. A Novel Application of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Ferenček, Zrinka Gregurić; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an attractive modality for imaging muscle and tendon motion during dynamic tasks and can provide a complementary methodological approach for biomechanical studies in a clinical or laboratory setting. Towards this goal, methods for quantification of muscle kinematics from ultrasound imagery are being developed based on image processing. The temporal resolution of these methods is typically not sufficient for highly dynamic tasks, such as drop-landing. We propose a new approach that utilizes a Doppler method for quantifying muscle kinematics. We have developed a novel vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) technique that can be used to measure musculoskeletal contraction velocity, strain and strain rate with sub-millisecond temporal resolution during dynamic activities using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the repeatability and potential applicability of the vTDI technique in measuring musculoskeletal velocities during a drop-landing task, in healthy subjects. The vTDI measurements can be performed concurrently with other biomechanical techniques, such as 3D motion capture for joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography for timing of muscle activation and force plates for ground reaction force. Integration of these complementary techniques could lead to a better understanding of dynamic muscle function and dysfunction underlying the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:24084063

  3. IR Sensors for Imaging and Health Monitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Otto

    2004-03-01

    High-resolution IR detectors for imaging applications are typically based on Schottky monolithic focal plane arrays (PtSi Schottky barrier devices) that are expensive to fabricate and require cryogenic cooling. In applications requiring greater portability and where lower resolution is acceptable (viz. night vision systems used by the military and lightweight cameras used by firefighters), uncooled pyroelectric vidicons are frequently employed. In the vidicon tube, IR radiation is sensed by a pyroelectric target such as triglycine sulfate (TGS), which is read out by scanning an electron beam across the surface (current modulation). The TGS single crystal sensors used in pyroelectric vidicon applications are extremely difficult to fabricate in thin section and can be easily damaged during operation due to their brittle nature. Thus, pyrolectric polymers offer several advantages over TGS sensors in these applications due to their low cost and robustness. However, the pyroelectric polymers traditionally have lower sensitivity. Therefore, we are investigating the pyroelectric performance of a family of copolymers based on poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in the compositional range 75/25 to 50/50 moleperformance and sensitivity of these copolymers were compared to that of TGS active sensor elements. Since the sensitivity of these IR sensors is related in part to material thickness, pyroelectric polymers were spin cast from solution to thicknesses <1 micrometer and subsequently used as free-standing thin films. By applying surface treatments and absorptive coatings to the as-cast pyrolectric polymer films, the temperature resolution has been improved to the point where differences between healthy and damaged tissue in the human body can now be distinguished. Examples of IR images of the human body using these pyroelectric polymer vidicon targets will be presented and will be used to provide a direct comparison between TGS and the pyroelectric copolymers in

  4. Application of CMOS image sensor OV9620 in number recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-feng; Liang, Fei; Xue, Rong-kun

    2009-11-01

    An image acquisition system is introduced, which consists of a color CMOS image sensor (OV9620), SRAM (CY62148), CPLD (EPM7128AE) and DSP (TMS320VC5509A). The CPLD implements the logic and timing control to the system. SRAM stores the image data, and DSP controls the image acquisition system through the SCCB (Omni Vision Serial Camera Control Bus). The timing sequence of the CMOS image sensor OV9620 is analyzed. The imaging part and the high speed image data memory unit are designed. The system structure and its application of CMOS image sensor OV9620 in paper currency number recognition are also introduced. The hardware and software design of the image acquisition and recognition system is given. In this system, we use the template matching character recognition method to guarantee fast recognition speed and high correct recognition probability.

  5. Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1923-01-01

    The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.

  6. Multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gong; Han, Junwei; Zhou, Peicheng; Guo, Lei

    2014-12-01

    The rapid development of remote sensing technology has facilitated us the acquisition of remote sensing images with higher and higher spatial resolution, but how to automatically understand the image contents is still a big challenge. In this paper, we develop a practical and rotation-invariant framework for multi-class geospatial object detection and geographic image classification based on collection of part detectors (COPD). The COPD is composed of a set of representative and discriminative part detectors, where each part detector is a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier used for the detection of objects or recurring spatial patterns within a certain range of orientation. Specifically, when performing multi-class geospatial object detection, we learn a set of seed-based part detectors where each part detector corresponds to a particular viewpoint of an object class, so the collection of them provides a solution for rotation-invariant detection of multi-class objects. When performing geographic image classification, we utilize a large number of pre-trained part detectors to discovery distinctive visual parts from images and use them as attributes to represent the images. Comprehensive evaluations on two remote sensing image databases and comparisons with some state-of-the-art approaches demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the developed framework.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros; Staggs, Michael C.

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOEpatents

    Demos; Stavros , Staggs; Michael C.

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  9. Quality assurance methodology and applications to abdominal imaging PQI.

    PubMed

    Paushter, David M; Thomas, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Quality assurance has increasingly become an integral part of medicine, with tandem goals of increasing patient safety and procedural quality, improving efficiency, lowering cost, and ultimately improving patient outcomes. This article reviews quality assurance methodology, ranging from the PDSA cycle to the application of lean techniques, aimed at operational efficiency, to continually evaluate and revise the health care environment. Alignment of goals for practices, hospitals, and healthcare organizations is critical, requiring clear objectives, adequate resources, and transparent reporting. In addition, there is a significant role played by regulatory bodies and oversight organizations in determining external benchmarks of quality, practice, and individual certification and reimbursement. Finally, practical application of quality principles to practice improvement projects in abdominal imaging will be presented.

  10. Advanced MR Imaging in Pediatric Brain Tumors, Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Maarten; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology.

  11. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

  12. Image and video fingerprinting: forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Frédéric; Chupeau, Bertrand; Massoudi, Ayoub; Diehl, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Fighting movie piracy often requires automatic content identification. The most common technique to achieve this uses watermarking, but not all copyrighted content is watermarked. Video fingerprinting is an efficient alternative solution to identify content, to manage multimedia files in UGC sites or P2P networks and to register pirated copies with master content. When registering by matching copy fingerprints with master ones, a model of distortion can be estimated. In case of in-theater piracy, the model of geometric distortion allows the estimation of the capture location. A step even further is to determine, from passive image analysis only, whether different pirated versions were captured with the same camcorder. In this paper we present three such fingerprinting-based forensic applications: UGC filtering, estimation of capture location and source identification.

  13. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  14. Modular hyperspectral imager enables multiple research applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hô, Nicolas; Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Lavoie, Hugo; Bouffard, François; Dubé, Denis; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Vallières, Christian; Roy, Claude

    2012-09-01

    The MR-i spectroradiometer can support a wide range of applications from its architecture suited to multiple configurations. Its modular 4-port FTIR spectroradiometer architecture allows the simultaneous use of two different detector modules, direct or differential input(s) and multiple telescopes. In a given configuration, MR-i can combine a MWIR focal plane array and a LWIR focal plane array to provide an extended spectral range from the two imaging sensors. The two detector array modules are imaging the same scene allowing synchronized pixel-to-pixel spectral range combination. In another configuration, MR-i can combine two identical focal plane arrays with different attenuation factors and two interleaved integration times per detector array. This configuration generates four sets of hyperspectral data cubes with different dynamic ranges that can be combined to produce a single hyperspectral cube with unmatched dynamic range. This configuration is particularly well suited for high-speed, high-dynamic range characterization of targets such as aircrafts, flares, and explosions. In a third configuration, named iCATSI, the spectroradiometer is used in differential input configuration to provide efficient optical background subtraction. The iCATSI configuration features an MCT detectors array with spectral cutoff near 14 µm. This extended spectral range and high sensitivity allows the detection and identification of a wide range of chemicals.

  15. Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-06-01

    In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation.

  16. Pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion: part I.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Michael M; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A; Thumma, Sridhar; Upadhye, Sampada B; Battu, Sunil Kumar; McGinity, James W; Martin, Charles

    2007-09-01

    Interest in hot-melt extrusion techniques for pharmaceutical applications is growing rapidly with well over 100 papers published in the pharmaceutical scientific literature in the last 12 years. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) has been a widely applied technique in the plastics industry and has been demonstrated recently to be a viable method to prepare several types of dosage forms and drug delivery systems. Hot-melt extruded dosage forms are complex mixtures of active medicaments, functional excipients, and processing aids. HME also offers several advantages over traditional pharmaceutical processing techniques including the absence of solvents, few processing steps, continuous operation, and the possibility of the formation of solid dispersions and improved bioavailability. This article, Part I, reviews the pharmaceutical applications of hot-melt extrusion, including equipment, principles of operation, and process technology. The raw materials processed using this technique are also detailed and the physicochemical properties of the resultant dosage forms are described. Part II of this review will focus on various applications of HME in drug delivery such as granules, pellets, immediate and modified release tablets, transmucosal and transdermal systems, and implants.

  17. Application of fuzzy logic to feature extraction from images of agricultural material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bruce T.

    1999-11-01

    Imaging technology has extended itself from performing gauging on machined parts, to verifying labeling on consumer products, to quality inspection of a variety of man-made and natural materials. Much of this has been made possible by faster computers and algorithms used to extract useful information from the image. In the application of agricultural material, specifically tobacco leaves, the tremendous amount of natural variability in color and texture creates new challenges to image feature extraction. As with many imaging applications, the problem can be expressed as `I see it in the image, how can I get the computer to recognize it?' In this application, the goal is to measure the amount of thick stem pieces in an image of tobacco leaves. By backlighting the leaf, the stems appear dark on a lighter background. The difference in lightness of leaf versus darkness of stem is dependent on the orientation of the leaf and the amount of folding. Because of this, any image thresholding approach must be adaptive. Another factor that allows us to identify the stem from the leaf is shape. The stem is long and narrow, while dark folded leaf is larger and more oblate. These criteria under the image collection limitations create a good application for fuzzy logic. Several generalized classification algorithms, such as fuzzy c-means and fuzzy learning vector quantization, are evaluated and compared. In addition, fuzzy thresholding based on image shape and compactness are applied to this application.

  18. Perfluorocarbon Compounds: Applications In Diagnostic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattrey, Robert F.

    1986-06-01

    Perfluorocarbon compounds (PFC's), well known in industry and of late as synthetic oxygen carriers, have a wide range of significant applications in diagnostic imaging. Their enhancement effect is detectable by ultrasound and magnetic resonance and if radiopaque, such as perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB), by standard radiography and computed tomography (CT). We have utilized PFOB as a CT contrast agent to enhance the blood pool, and as both a CT and an ultrasound contrast agent to enhance the liver, spleen, abscesses, infarctions, and tumors or any tissue where inflammatory cells can be found. PFC's, except for the echogenic enhancement of the vascular space on their first pass to the lung, do not enhance the blood pool on ultrasound. Otherwise, ultrasound applications are similar to those observed for CT. Fluosol, which was available for human trials, is not radiopaque and therefore served as an ultrasound contrast agent. In a preliminary clinical trial, Fluosol produced tumor enhancement in man at 1.6g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed lesions and liver and spleen enhancement at 2.4g/kg allowing the visualization of previously missed non-enhancing lesions. Perfluorocarbon toxicity seems to be related to the constituents of the emulsion rather than the perfluorocarbon itself. Improvements in the emulsifier and emulsification technology has yielded stable emulsions at high concentrations and low toxicity.

  19. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  20. Transcranial Doppler: Techniques and advanced applications: Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind K.; Bathala, Lokesh; Batra, Amit; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Sharma, Vijay K.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only diagnostic tool that can provide continuous information about cerebral hemodynamics in real time and over extended periods. In the previous paper (Part 1), we have already presented the basic ultrasound physics pertaining to TCD, insonation methods, and various flow patterns. This article describes various advanced applications of TCD such as detection of right-to-left shunt, emboli monitoring, vasomotor reactivity (VMR), monitoring of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), monitoring of intracranial pressure, its role in stoke prevention in sickle cell disease, and as a supplementary test for confirmation of brain death. PMID:27011639

  1. Rapid Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribble, Adam; Alali, Sanaz; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its composition, both structural and functional. For example, the polarimetry-derived metric of linear retardance (birefringence) is dependent on tissue structural organization (anisotropy) and can be used to diagnose myocardial infarct; circular birefringence (optical rotation) can measure glucose concentrations. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. To derive this 4x4 matrix it is necessary to observe how a tissue interacts with different polarizations. A well-suited approach for tissue polarimetry is to use photoelastic modulators (PEMs), which dynamically modulate the polarization of light. Previously, we have demonstrated a rapid time-gated Stokes imaging system that is capable of characterizing the state of polarized light (the Stokes vector) over a large field, after interacting with any turbid media. This was accomplished by synchronizing CCD camera acquisition times relative to two PEMs using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Here, we extend this technology to four PEMs, yielding a polarimetry system that is capable of rapidly measuring the complete sample Mueller matrix over a large field of view, with no moving parts and no beam steering. We describe the calibration procedure and evaluate the accuracy of the measurements. Results are shown for tissue-mimicking phantoms, as well as initial biological samples.

  2. Thermal Imaging And Its Application In Defence Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Sardana, H. K.

    2011-10-01

    Thermal imaging is a boon to the armed forces namely army, navy and airforce because of its day night working capability and ability to perform well in all weather conditions. Thermal detectors capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects above absolute zero temperature. The temperature variations of the captured scene are represented as a thermogram. With the advent of infrared detector technology, the bulky cooled thermal detectors having moving parts and demanding cryogenic temperatures have transformed into small and less expensive uncooled microbolometers having no moving parts, thereby making systems more rugged requiring less maintenance. Thermal imaging due to its various advantages has a large number of applications in military and defence. It is popularly used by the army and navy for border surveillance and law enforcement. It is also used in ship collision avoidance and guidance systems. In the aviation industry it has greatly mitigated the risks of flying in low light and night conditions. They are widely used in military aviation to identify, locate and target the enemy forces. Recently, they are also being incorporated in civil aviation for health monitoring of aircrafts.

  3. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  4. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-02-05

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  5. Application of Uncooled Monolithic Thermoelectric Linear Arrays to Imaging Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Paul W.

    Introduction Identification of Incipient Failure of Railcar Wheels Technical Description of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Performance of the Model IR 1000 Imaging Radiometer Initial Application Summary Imaging Radiometer for Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Description Operation Specifications Summary References INDEX CONTENTS OF VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES

  6. An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

    2010-05-01

    Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the

  7. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  8. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  9. 47 CFR 80.3 - Other applicable rule parts of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rule parts of this chapter. Other FCC rule parts applicable to licensees in the maritime services... Allocations and special requirements in international regulations, recommendations, agreements, and...

  10. Formats of image data files that can be used in routine digital light micrography. Part two.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, A

    2003-04-01

    This is part two of an article that describes the properties of the image data files that are encountered routinely in digital light micrography. In the current part of the article, the differences between saving image data as large intact files and smaller files that have had some information removed, i.e., using lossy compression, are related first. Subsequently, appropriate ways of configuring computers to deal with the large intact image data files are suggested. The structures of the image data files used for recording dynamic sequences and kinematic animations of series of digital light micrographs, i.e., movie formats, are then described. Finally, some information is supplied about choosing file formats for compressing both static and dynamic image data sets.

  11. Imaging sigma receptors: applications in drug development.

    PubMed

    Collier, Thomas Lee; Waterhouse, Rikki N; Kassiou, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Sigma receptors have been implicated in a myriad of cellular functions, biological processes and diseases. While the precise biological functions of sigma receptors have not been elucidated, recent work has shed some light on to these enigmatic systems. Sigma receptors have recently been a target of drug development related to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Sigma ligands have also been shown to modulate endothelial cell proliferation and can control angiogenesis which makes them a promising target for oncology applications. Other areas currently being investigated include treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine and immune system disorders. Of interest is that the human sigma-1 receptor gene contains a steroid binding component, and several gonadal steroids, including progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), interact with sigma-1 receptors. Of the steroids examined thus far, progesterone binds with the highest affinity to human sigma-1 receptors, with a reported affinity (Ki) as high as 30 nM while the other steroids exhibit lower affinity. For this and other reasons, sigma-1 receptors have been proposed as a link between the central nervous system and the endocrine and reproductive systems. Taken together, the above information highlights an important yet largely unexplored but promising area of research to examine the biological function and therapeutic potential of sigma receptors. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of these sites with a focus on specific areas where in vivo sigma receptor imaging is currently being investigated.

  12. Robust image modeling technique with a bioluminescence image segmentation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianghong; Wang, Ruiping; Tian, Jie

    2009-02-01

    A robust pattern classifier algorithm for the variable symmetric plane model, where the driving noise is a mixture of a Gaussian and an outlier process, is developed. The veracity and high-speed performance of the pattern recognition algorithm is proved. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has recently gained wide acceptance in the field of in vivo small animal molecular imaging. So that it is very important for BLT to how to acquire the highprecision region of interest in a bioluminescence image (BLI) in order to decrease loss of the customers because of inaccuracy in quantitative analysis. An algorithm in the mode is developed to improve operation speed, which estimates parameters and original image intensity simultaneously from the noise corrupted image derived from the BLT optical hardware system. The focus pixel value is obtained from the symmetric plane according to a more realistic assumption for the noise sequence in the restored image. The size of neighborhood is adaptive and small. What's more, the classifier function is base on the statistic features. If the qualifications for the classifier are satisfied, the focus pixel intensity is setup as the largest value in the neighborhood.Otherwise, it will be zeros.Finally,pseudo-color is added up to the result of the bioluminescence segmented image. The whole process has been implemented in our 2D BLT optical system platform and the model is proved.

  13. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... towers. (g) Part 20 of this chapter governs commercial mobile radio services. (h) Part 21. This part... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5. This part contains rules prescribing the manner in which parts of the radio...

  14. Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Tyo, J Scott; Goldstein, Dennis L; Chenault, David B; Shaw, Joseph A

    2006-08-01

    Imaging polarimetry has emerged over the past three decades as a powerful tool to enhance the information available in a variety of remote sensing applications. We discuss the foundations of passive imaging polarimetry, the phenomenological reasons for designing a polarimetric sensor, and the primary architectures that have been exploited for developing imaging polarimeters. Considerations on imaging polarimeters such as calibration, optimization, and error performance are also discussed. We review many important sources and examples from the scientific literature.

  15. The use of multisensor images for Earth Science applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Stromberg, B.

    1983-01-01

    The use of more than one remote sensing technique is particularly important for Earth Science applications because of the compositional and textural information derivable from the images. The ability to simultaneously analyze images acquired by different sensors requires coregistration of the multisensor image data sets. In order to insure pixel to pixel registration in areas of high relief, images must be rectified to eliminate topographic distortions. Coregistered images can be analyzed using a variety of multidimensional techniques and the acquired knowledge of topographic effects in the images can be used in photogeologic interpretations.

  16. Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging on Matrix Arrays, Part I: Beamforming Methods and Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 × 8 elements in size on a 64 × 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 × 8, 4 × 4, and 2 × 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming. PMID:24960700

  17. Short-lag spatial coherence imaging on matrix arrays, part 1: Beamforming methods and simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dongwoon; Trahey, Gregg E; Jakovljevic, Marko; Dahl, Jeremy J

    2014-07-01

    Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging is a beamforming technique that has demonstrated improved imaging performance compared with conventional B-mode imaging in previous studies. Thus far, the use of 1-D arrays has limited coherence measurements and SLSC imaging to a single dimension. Here, the SLSC algorithm is extended for use on 2-D matrix array transducers and applied in a simulation study examining imaging performance as a function of subaperture configuration and of incoherent channel noise. SLSC images generated with a 2-D array yielded superior contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and texture SNR measurements over SLSC images made on a corresponding 1-D array and over B-mode imaging. SLSC images generated with square subapertures were found to be superior to SLSC images generated with subapertures of equal surface area that spanned the whole array in one dimension. Subaperture beamforming was found to have little effect on SLSC imaging performance for subapertures up to 8 x 8 elements in size on a 64 × 64 element transducer. Additionally, the use of 8 x 8, 4 x 4, and 2 x 2 element subapertures provided 8, 4, and 2 times improvement in channel SNR along with 2640-, 328-, and 25-fold reduction in computation time, respectively. These results indicate that volumetric SLSC imaging is readily applicable to existing 2-D arrays that employ subaperture beamforming.

  18. Learning to detect objects in images via a sparse, part-based representation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivani; Awan, Aatif; Roth, Dan

    2004-11-01

    We study the problem of detecting objects in still, gray-scale images. Our primary focus is the development of a learning-based approach to the problem that makes use of a sparse, part-based representation. A vocabulary of distinctive object parts is automatically constructed from a set of sample images of the object class of interest; images are then represented using parts from this vocabulary, together with spatial relations observed among the parts. Based on this representation, a learning algorithm is used to automatically learn to detect instances of the object class in new images. The approach can be applied to any object with distinguishable parts in a relatively fixed spatial configuration; it is evaluated here on difficult sets of real-world images containing side views of cars, and is seen to successfully detect objects in varying conditions amidst background clutter and mild occlusion. In evaluating object detection approaches, several important methodological issues arise that have not been satisfactorily addressed in previous work. A secondary focus of this paper is to highlight these issues and to develop rigorous evaluation standards for the object detection problem. A critical evaluation of our approach under the proposed standards is presented.

  19. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-15

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  20. Infrared active polarimetric imaging system controlled by image segmentation algorithms: application to decamouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Nicolas; Goudail, François; Plassart, Corentin; Boffety, Matthieu; Feneyrou, Patrick; Leviandier, Luc; Galland, Frédéric; Bertaux, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We describe an active polarimetric imager with laser illumination at 1.5 µm that can generate any illumination and analysis polarization state on the Poincar sphere. Thanks to its full polarization agility and to image analysis of the scene with an ultrafast active-contour based segmentation algorithm, it can perform adaptive polarimetric contrast optimization. We demonstrate the capacity of this imager to detect manufactured objects in different types of environments for such applications as decamouflage and hazardous object detection. We compare two imaging modes having different number of polarimetric degrees of freedom and underline the characteristics that a polarimetric imager aimed at this type of applications should possess.

  1. Image segmentation by iterative parallel region growing with application to data compression and image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.

    1988-01-01

    Image segmentation can be a key step in data compression and image analysis. However, the segmentation results produced by most previous approaches to region growing are suspect because they depend on the order in which portions of the image are processed. An iterative parallel segmentation algorithm avoids this problem by performing globally best merges first. Such a segmentation approach, and two implementations of the approach on NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) are described. Application of the segmentation approach to data compression and image analysis is then described, and results of such application are given for a LANDSAT Thematic Mapper image.

  2. Application of signal detection theory to optics. [image evaluation and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helstrom, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Basic quantum detection and estimation theory, applications to optics, photon counting, and filtering theory are studied. Recent work on the restoration of degraded optical images received at photoelectrically emissive surfaces is also reported, the data used by the method are the numbers of electrons ejected from various parts of the surface.

  3. The Fringe-Imaging Skin Friction Technique PC Application User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    A personal computer application (CXWIN4G) has been written which greatly simplifies the task of extracting skin friction measurements from interferograms of oil flows on the surface of wind tunnel models. Images are first calibrated, using a novel approach to one-camera photogrammetry, to obtain accurate spatial information on surfaces with curvature. As part of the image calibration process, an auxiliary file containing the wind tunnel model geometry is used in conjunction with a two-dimensional direct linear transformation to relate the image plane to the physical (model) coordinates. The application then applies a nonlinear regression model to accurately determine the fringe spacing from interferometric intensity records as required by the Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) technique. The skin friction is found through application of a simple expression that makes use of lubrication theory to relate fringe spacing to skin friction.

  4. Application of Stereo-Imaging Technology to Medical Field

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. Methods We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Results Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. Conclusions The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices. PMID:23115737

  5. Terahertz imaging technique and application in large scale integrated circuit failure inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Zhi-gang; Yao, Jian-quan; Jia, Chun-rong; Xu, De-gang; Bing, Pi-bin; Yang, Peng-fei; Zheng, Yi-bo

    2010-11-01

    Terahertz ray, as a new style optic source, usually means the electromagnetic whose frequencies lies in between 0.1THz~10THz, the waveband region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies in the gap between microwaves and infrared ray. With the development of laser techniques, quantum trap techniques and compound semiconductor techniques, many new terahertz techniques have been pioneered, motivated in part by the vast range of possible applications for terahertz imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. THz imaging technique was introduced, and THz imaging can give us not only the density picture but also the phase information within frequency domain. Consequently, images of suspicious objects such as concealed metallic or metal weapons are much sharper and more readily identified when imaged with THz imaging scanners. On the base of these, the application of THz imaging in nondestructive examination, more concretely in large scale circuit failure inspection was illuminated, and the important techniques of this application were introduced, also future prospects were discussed. With the development of correlative technology of THz, we can draw a conclusion that THz imaging technology will have nice application foreground.

  6. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children.

  7. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  8. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  9. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 5... relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of part 15. (f.... (h) Part 21. This part contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and...

  10. Novel biomedical applications of Cerenkov radiation and radioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Boschi, Federico

    2015-03-01

    The main goals of this review is to provide an up-to-date account of the different uses of Cerenkov radiation (CR) and radioluminescence imaging for pre-clinical small animal imaging. We will focus on new emerging applications such as the use of Cerenkov imaging for monitoring radionuclide and external radiotherapy in humans. Another novel application that will be described is the monitoring of radiochemical synthesis using microfluidic chips. Several pre-clinical aspects of CR will be discussed such as the development of 3D reconstruction methods for Cerenkov images and the use of CR as excitation source for nanoparticles or for endoscopic imaging. We will also include a discussion on radioluminescence imaging that is a more general method than Cerenkov imaging for the detection using optical methods of alpha and gamma emitters.

  11. Seismic shock and vibration isolation 1995. Part 2: Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Chung, H.H.

    1995-07-11

    As pointed out in the introduction of Part 1, the isolation strategy can be used to effectively decouple a` structure from its environment and thus the structure can be protected from damaging seismic loads or unwanted vibrations and noises from the environment. The method has been used for solving vibration and shock problems in machinery and equipment for many years, but its application to the protection of structures from seismic loadings is relatively recent. Owing to the current interest generated by the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, an but one of the papers in this publication deal with seismic isolation. The one paper on vibration isolation by Yonekura discusses a measure to protect buildings from detrimental excitations of running trains. Seismic or base isolation has been used to protect bridges, buildings, industrial facilities, and nuclear reactors from damaging seismic loads since 1970. For each of these applications base isolation offers some unique advantages that the conventional strengthening method cannot. Some of these advantages are discussed in papers presented in this publication.

  12. Theory and Application of Image Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    op onines 1. Imno Mai 3.M imag Ui a yoe l U.S ArmONg iOneerPM Waterways Experiment Station CatalogingVri-Publication Data r Ellis, Michael G. Theory...morphological transforms, edge detection , image crispening, noise cleaning, and other enhancement techniques. The FY92 program, IMAGE92, was completely...USENET Source CDROM X11RIGNU INFO-MAC CUG Library 2 Chapter I The Image Enhancement Pro*e. A Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) network

  13. Clinical applications of functional MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, Artem S; Peck, Kyung K; Brennan, Nicole M Petrovich; Holodny, Andrei I

    2013-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging for neurosurgical planning has become the standard of care in centers where it is available. Although paradigms to measure eloquent cortices are not yet standardized, simple tasks elicit reliable maps for planning neurosurgical procedures. A patient-specific paradigm design will refine the usability of fMR imaging for prognostication and recovery of function. Certain pathologic conditions and technical issues limit the interpretation of fMR imaging maps in clinical use and should be considered carefully. However, fMR imaging for neurosurgical planning continues to provide insights into how the brain works and how it responds to pathologic insults.

  14. Applications of nanosystems to anticancer drug therapy (Part I. Nanogels, nanospheres, nanocapsules).

    PubMed

    Talevi, Alan; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in cancer drug therapy is to maximize the effectiveness of the active agent while reducing its systemic adverse effects. To add more, many widely-used chemoterapeutic agents present unfavorable physicochemical properties (e.g. low solubility, lack of chemical or biological stability) that hamper or limit their therapeutic applications. All these issues may be overcome by designing adequate drug delivery systems; nanocarriers are particularly suitable for this purpose. Nanosystems can be used for targeted-drug release, treatment, diagnostic imaging and therapy monitoring. They allow the formulation of drug delivery systems with user-defined characteristics regarding solubility, biodegradability, particle size, release kinetics and active targeting, among others. This review (Part I) focuses on recent patents published between 2008 and the present day, related to nanospheres, nanocapsules and nanogels applied to anticancer drug therapy. Other nanosystems is covered in a second article (Part II).

  15. BioPartsDB: a synthetic biology workflow web-application for education and research

    PubMed Central

    Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Yang, Kun; Boeke, Jef D.; Bader, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Synthetic biology has become a widely used technology, and expanding applications in research, education and industry require progress tracking for team-based DNA synthesis projects. Although some vendors are beginning to supply multi-kilobase sequence-verified constructs, synthesis workflows starting with short oligos remain important for cost savings and pedagogical benefit. We developed BioPartsDB as an open source, extendable workflow management system for synthetic biology projects with entry points for oligos and larger DNA constructs and ending with sequence-verified clones. Availability and Implementation: BioPartsDB is released under the MIT license and available for download at https://github.com/baderzone/biopartsdb. Additional documentation and video tutorials are available at https://github.com/baderzone/biopartsdb/wiki. An Amazon Web Services image is available from the AWS Market Place (ami-a01d07c8). Contact: joel.bader@jhu.edu PMID:27412090

  16. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  17. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  18. 17 CFR 210.1-01 - Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of Regulation S-X... POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Application of Regulation S-X (17 Cfr Part 210) § 210.1-01 Application of Regulation S-X (17 CFR part 210). (a) This part (together with the Financial Reporting...

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  20. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiographic systems part 1: a novel method for image quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kam L; Ireland, Timothy A; Bernardo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study in benchmarking the performance of fixed digital radiographic general X-ray systems. This paper concentrates on reporting findings related to quantitative analysis techniques used to establish comparative image quality metrics. A systematic technical comparison of the evaluated systems is presented in part two of this study. A novel quantitative image quality analysis method is presented with technical considerations addressed for peer review. The novel method was applied to seven general radiographic systems with four different makes of radiographic image receptor (12 image receptors in total). For the System Modulation Transfer Function (sMTF), the use of grid was found to reduce veiling glare and decrease roll-off. The major contributor in sMTF degradation was found to be focal spot blurring. For the System Normalised Noise Power Spectrum (sNNPS), it was found that all systems examined had similar sNNPS responses. A mathematical model is presented to explain how the use of stationary grid may cause a difference between horizontal and vertical sNNPS responses.

  1. Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

  2. Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  4. Some applications of the imaging proportional chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Dominik, W.; Fabre, J. P.; Gaudaen, J.; Peskov, V.

    1988-02-01

    Photons emitted by avalanches in gases can be detected with an image intensifier coupled to a solid-state camera. Some vapors enhance the emission at wavelengths close to the visible. Progress made in using this technique to image charged particles and Cherenkov photons is described. Results are presented for various gas mixtures containing TEA and TMAE.

  5. Photoacoustic tomography: applications for atherosclerosis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangha, Gurneet S.; Goergen, Craig J.

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a debilitating condition that increases a patient’s risk for intermittent claudication, limb amputation, myocardial infarction, and stroke, thereby causing approximately 50% of deaths in the western world. Current diagnostic imaging techniques, such as ultrasound, digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and optical imaging remain suboptimal for detecting development of early stage plaques. This is largely due to the lack of compositional information, penetration depth, and/or clinical efficiency of these traditional imaging techniques. Photoacoustic imaging has emerged as a promising modality that could address some of these limitations to improve the diagnosis and characterization of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Photoacoustic imaging uses near-infrared light to induce acoustic waves, which can be used to recreate compositional images of tissue. Recent developments in photoacoustic techniques show its potential in noninvasively characterizing atherosclerotic plaques deeper than traditional optical imaging approaches. In this review, we discuss the significance and development of atherosclerosis, current and novel clinical diagnostic methods, and recent works that highlight the potential of photoacoustic imaging for both experimental and clinical studies of atherosclerosis.

  6. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  7. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  8. Laser applications and system considerations in ocular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Ann E.; Muller, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    We review laser applications for primarily in vivo ocular imaging techniques, describing their constraints based on biological tissue properties, safety, and the performance of the imaging system. We discuss the need for cost effective sources with practical wavelength tuning capabilities for spectral studies. Techniques to probe the pathological changes of layers beneath the highly scattering retina and diagnose the onset of various eye diseases are described. The recent development of several optical coherence tomography based systems for functional ocular imaging is reviewed, as well as linear and nonlinear ocular imaging techniques performed with ultrafast lasers, emphasizing recent source developments and methods to enhance imaging contrast. PMID:21052482

  9. Application of optical coherence tomography based microangiography for cerebral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements of in vivo rodent brain imaging are hard to satisfy using traditional technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and two-photon microscopy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging tool that can easily reach at high speeds and provide high resolution volumetric images with a relatively large field of view for rodent brain imaging. Here, we provide the overview of recent developments of functional OCT based imaging techniques for neuroscience applications on rodents. Moreover, a summary of OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) studies for stroke and traumatic brain injury cases on rodents are provided.

  10. In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

  11. Multimodality Image Fusion-Guided Procedures: Technique, Accuracy, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Kruecker, Jochen; Kadoury, Samuel; Kobeiter, Hicham; Venkatesan, Aradhana M. Levy, Elliot Wood, Bradford J.

    2012-10-15

    Personalized therapies play an increasingly critical role in cancer care: Image guidance with multimodality image fusion facilitates the targeting of specific tissue for tissue characterization and plays a role in drug discovery and optimization of tailored therapies. Positron-emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) may offer additional information not otherwise available to the operator during minimally invasive image-guided procedures, such as biopsy and ablation. With use of multimodality image fusion for image-guided interventions, navigation with advanced modalities does not require the physical presence of the PET, MRI, or CT imaging system. Several commercially available methods of image-fusion and device navigation are reviewed along with an explanation of common tracking hardware and software. An overview of current clinical applications for multimodality navigation is provided.

  12. Image acquisition system for traffic monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auty, Glen; Corke, Peter I.; Dunn, Paul; Jensen, Murray; Macintyre, Ian B.; Mills, Dennis C.; Nguyen, Hao; Simons, Ben

    1995-03-01

    An imaging system for monitoring traffic on multilane highways is discussed. The system, named Safe-T-Cam, is capable of operating 24 hours per day in all but extreme weather conditions and can capture still images of vehicles traveling up to 160 km/hr. Systems operating at different remote locations are networked to allow transmission of images and data to a control center. A remote site facility comprises a vehicle detection and classification module (VCDM), an image acquisition module (IAM) and a license plate recognition module (LPRM). The remote site is connected to the central site by an ISDN communications network. The remote site system is discussed in this paper. The VCDM consists of a video camera, a specialized exposure control unit to maintain consistent image characteristics, and a 'real-time' image processing system that processes 50 images per second. The VCDM can detect and classify vehicles (e.g. cars from trucks). The vehicle class is used to determine what data should be recorded. The VCDM uses a vehicle tracking technique to allow optimum triggering of the high resolution camera of the IAM. The IAM camera combines the features necessary to operate consistently in the harsh environment encountered when imaging a vehicle 'head-on' in both day and night conditions. The image clarity obtained is ideally suited for automatic location and recognition of the vehicle license plate. This paper discusses the camera geometry, sensor characteristics and the image processing methods which permit consistent vehicle segmentation from a cluttered background allowing object oriented pattern recognition to be used for vehicle classification. The image capture of high resolution images and the image characteristics required for the LPRMs automatic reading of vehicle license plates, is also discussed. The results of field tests presented demonstrate that the vision based Safe-T-Cam system, currently installed on open highways, is capable of producing automatic

  13. Application of ASAP in integral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-xia; Xu, Zhi-li; Wen, Shao-jie; Wu, Chun-hong

    2012-10-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a technique that is capable of displaying 3D images with continuous parallax in full natural color. At present Integral Imaging is a popular three-dimensional imaging technology. It is becoming the most perspective technique in developing next generation three-dimensional TV (3DTV) and visualization field due to its outstanding advantages. The micro-lens array is used in recording and replaying 3D scene information in this technique with true color, simply reconstruction and non-relevant light source. In order to research really many precision instrument are required. But the price is too high to set up a complicated authentic imaging system. In the same time the imaging condition is very difficult to satisfy. ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) is an advanced imitates optical software to solve reality optical questions. It is used in many research territories. In this paper the ASAP software is proposed to simulate and model the micro-lens array sheet. The ray tracing and energy distribution is completed. According to the study results we can optimum lens designing through modifying the focal length, aperture size and imaging position. We hope the study cost can be reduced and the efficiency can be improved through the use of simulation method to optical design software ASAP.

  14. Uncooled thermal imaging sensor and application advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Peter W.; Cox, Stephen; Murphy, Bob; Grealish, Kevin; Joswick, Mike; Denley, Brian; Feda, Frank; Elmali, Loriann; Kohin, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    BAE Systems continues to advance the technology and performance of microbolometer-based thermal imaging modules and systems. 640x480 digital uncooled infrared focal plane arrays are in full production, illustrated by recent production line test data for two thousand focal plane arrays. This paper presents a snapshot of microbolometer technology at BAE Systems and an overview of two of the most important thermal imaging sensor programs currently in production: a family of thermal weapons sights for the United States Army and a thermal imager for the remote weapons station on the Stryker vehicle.

  15. Image Processing Application for Cognition (IPAC) - Traditional and Emerging Topics in Image Processing in Astronomy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, M.; Roby, W.; Helou, G.; McCollum, B.; Ly, L.; Wu, X.; Laine, S.; Hartley, B.

    2008-08-01

    A new application framework for advanced image processing for astronomy is presented. It implements standard two-dimensional operators, and recent developments in the field of non-astronomical image processing (IP), as well as original algorithms based on nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE). These algorithms are especially well suited for multi-scale astronomical images since they increase signal to noise ratio without smearing localized and diffuse objects. The visualization component is based on the extensive tools that we developed for Spitzer Space Telescope's observation planning tool Spot and archive retrieval tool Leopard. It contains many common features, combines images in new and unique ways and interfaces with many astronomy data archives. Both interactive and batch mode processing are incorporated. In the interactive mode, the user can set up simple processing pipelines, and monitor and visualize the resulting images from each step of the processing stream. The system is platform-independent and has an open architecture that allows extensibility by addition of plug-ins. This presentation addresses astronomical applications of traditional topics of IP (image enhancement, image segmentation) as well as emerging new topics like automated image quality assessment (QA) and feature extraction, which have potential for shaping future developments in the field. Our application framework embodies a novel synergistic approach based on integration of image processing, image visualization and image QA (iQA).

  16. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

  17. Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, É.

    2006-05-01

    This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des

  18. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Prall, M.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Danly, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Nedrow, P.; Wilde, C.; Varentsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. Tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics. PMID:27282667

  19. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    DOE PAGES

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; ...

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allowsmore » imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.« less

  20. High-energy proton imaging for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prall, Matthias; Durante, Marco; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, B.; Graeff, C.; Lang, Phillipp M.; LaTessa, Ciara; Shestov, Less; Simoniello, P.; Danly, Christopher R.; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Merrill, Frank Edward; Nedrow, Paul; Wilde, Carl Huerstel; Varentsov, Dmitry

    2016-06-10

    The charged particle community is looking for techniques exploiting proton interactions instead of X-ray absorption for creating images of human tissue. Due to multiple Coulomb scattering inside the measured object it has shown to be highly non-trivial to achieve sufficient spatial resolution. We present imaging of biological tissue with a proton microscope. This device relies on magnetic optics, distinguishing it from most published proton imaging methods. For these methods reducing the data acquisition time to a clinically acceptable level has turned out to be challenging. In a proton microscope, data acquisition and processing are much simpler. This device even allows imaging in real time. The primary medical application will be image guidance in proton radiosurgery. Proton images demonstrating the potential for this application are presented. As a result, tomographic reconstructions are included to raise awareness of the possibility of high-resolution proton tomography using magneto-optics.

  1. Infrared thermal imagers for avionic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, Gianni; Livi, Massimo; Olivieri, Monica; Sabatini, Maurizio; Torrini, Daniele; Baldini, Stefano; Bardazzi, Riccardo; Falli, Pietro; Maestrini, Mauro

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the design of two second generation thermal imagers that Alenia Difesa OFFICINE GALILEO has successfully developed for the Navigation FLIR of the NH90 Tactical Transportation Helicopter (NH90 TTH) and for the Electro-Optical Surveillance and Tracking System for the Italian 'Guardia di Finanza' ATR42 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (ATR42 MPA). Small size, lightweight and low power consumption have been the main design goals of the two programs. In particular the NH90 TTH Thermal Imager is a compact camera operating in the 8 divided by 12 micrometers bandwidth with a single wide field of view. The thermal imager developed for the ATR42 MPA features a three remotely switchable fields of view objective equipped with diffractive optics. Performance goals, innovative design aspects and test results of these two thermal imagers are reported.

  2. Radiographic image processing for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Martin J.; Kinsella, Timothy E.; Bartels, Keith A.; Light, Glenn M.

    1998-03-01

    One advantage of working with digital images is the opportunity for enhancement. While it is important to preserve the original image, variations can be generated that yield greater understanding of object properties. It is often possible to effectively increase dynamic range, improve contrast in regions of interest, emphasize subtle features, reduce background noise, and provide more robust detection of faults. This paper describes and illustrates some of these processes using real world examples.

  3. Possibility Study of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Algorithm Application to Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an application of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to stitch the cervical-thoracic-lumbar (C-T-L) spine magnetic resonance (MR) images to provide a view of the entire spine in a single image. All MR images were acquired with fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence using two MR scanners (1.5 T and 3.0 T). The stitching procedures for each part of spine MR image were performed and implemented on a graphic user interface (GUI) configuration. Moreover, the stitching process is performed in two categories; manual point-to-point (mPTP) selection that performed by user specified corresponding matching points, and automated point-to-point (aPTP) selection that performed by SIFT algorithm. The stitched images using SIFT algorithm showed fine registered results and quantitatively acquired values also indicated little errors compared with commercially mounted stitching algorithm in MRI systems. Our study presented a preliminary validation of the SIFT algorithm application to MRI spine images, and the results indicated that the proposed approach can be performed well for the improvement of diagnosis. We believe that our approach can be helpful for the clinical application and extension of other medical imaging modalities for image stitching. PMID:27064404

  4. Possibility Study of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) Algorithm Application to Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is an application of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to stitch the cervical-thoracic-lumbar (C-T-L) spine magnetic resonance (MR) images to provide a view of the entire spine in a single image. All MR images were acquired with fast spin echo (FSE) pulse sequence using two MR scanners (1.5 T and 3.0 T). The stitching procedures for each part of spine MR image were performed and implemented on a graphic user interface (GUI) configuration. Moreover, the stitching process is performed in two categories; manual point-to-point (mPTP) selection that performed by user specified corresponding matching points, and automated point-to-point (aPTP) selection that performed by SIFT algorithm. The stitched images using SIFT algorithm showed fine registered results and quantitatively acquired values also indicated little errors compared with commercially mounted stitching algorithm in MRI systems. Our study presented a preliminary validation of the SIFT algorithm application to MRI spine images, and the results indicated that the proposed approach can be performed well for the improvement of diagnosis. We believe that our approach can be helpful for the clinical application and extension of other medical imaging modalities for image stitching.

  5. Using stereoscopic imaging for visualization applications

    SciTech Connect

    Adelson, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of scientific visualization is to simplify the analysis of numerical data by rendering the information as an image. Even when the image is familiar, as in the case of terrain data, preconceptions about what the image should look like and deceptive image artifacts can create misconceptions about what information is actually contained in the scene. One way of aiding the development of unambiguous visualizations is to add stereoscopic depth to the image. Despite the recent proliferation of affordable stereoscopic viewing equipment, few researchers are at this time taking advantage of stereo in their visualizations. It is generally perceived that the rendering time will have to be doubled in order to generate the pair, and so stereoscopic viewing is sacrificed in the name of expedient rendering. We show that this perception is often invalid. The second half of a stereoscopic image can be generated from the first half for a fraction of the computational cost of complete rendering, usually no more than 50% of the cost and in many cases as little as 5%. Using the techniques presented here, the benefits of stereoscopy can be added to existing visualization systems for only a small cost over current single-frame rendering methods.

  6. Mineral mapping and applications of imaging spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Boardman, J.; Mustard, J.; Kruse, F.; Ong, C.; Pieters, C.; Swayze, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopy is a tool that has been used for decades to identify, understand, and quantify solid, liquid, or gaseous materials, especially in the laboratory. In disciplines ranging from astronomy to chemistry, spectroscopic measurements are used to detect absorption and emission features due to specific chemical bonds, and detailed analyses are used to determine the abundance and physical state of the detected absorbing/emitting species. Spectroscopic measurements have a long history in the study of the Earth and planets. Up to the 1990s remote spectroscopic measurements of Earth and planets were dominated by multispectral imaging experiments that collect high-quality images in a few, usually broad, spectral bands or with point spectrometers that obtained good spectral resolution but at only a few spatial positions. However, a new generation of sensors is now available that combines imaging with spectroscopy to create the new discipline of imaging spectroscopy. Imaging spectrometers acquire data with enough spectral range, resolution, and sampling at every pixel in a raster image so that individual absorption features can be identified and spatially mapped (Goetz et al., 1985).

  7. On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

    2014-04-01

    Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

  8. Wood industrial application for quality control using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. J. O.; Neves, J. A. C.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an application of image processing for the furniture industry. It uses an input data, images acquired directly from wood planks where defects were previously marked by an operator. A set of image processing algorithms separates and codes each defect and detects a polygonal approach of the line representing them. For such a purpose we developed a pattern classification algorithm and a new technique of segmenting defects by carving the convex hull of the binary shape representing each isolated defect.

  9. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Westcott, J.L.; Steiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid progress of MRI has been remarkable, and it is clear that it will become an important method for cardiac imaging. Its major advantages are the lack of ionizing radiation and the ability to obtain excellent global images of the cardiac walls and chambers without the need for contrast injection or cardiac catheterization. High resolution surface coil imaging, tissue spectroscopy, and other improvements and applications should be rapidly forthcoming.

  10. Application of Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy to Radiation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Vishwanath, Karthik; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging and spectroscopy is a diverse field that has been of critical importance in a wide range of areas in radiation research. It is capable of spanning a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and has the sensitivity and specificity needed for molecular and functional imaging. This review will describe the basic principles of optical imaging and spectroscopy, highlighting a few relevant applications to radiation research. PMID:22360397

  11. Nanoparticles for Cardiovascular Imaging and Therapeutic Delivery, Part 1: Compositions and Features

    PubMed Central

    Stendahl, John C.; Sinusas, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging agents made from nanoparticles are functionally versatile and have unique properties that may translate to clinical utility in several key cardiovascular imaging niches. Nanoparticles exhibit size-based circulation, biodistribution, and elimination properties different from those of small molecules and microparticles. In addition, nanoparticles provide versatile platforms that can be engineered to create both multimodal and multifunctional imaging agents with tunable properties. With these features, nanoparticulate imaging agents can facilitate fusion of high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging modalities and selectively bind tissues for targeted molecular imaging and therapeutic delivery. Despite their intriguing attributes, nanoparticulate imaging agents have thus far achieved only limited clinical use. The reasons for this restricted advancement include an evolving scope of applications, the simplicity and effectiveness of existing small-molecule agents, pharmacokinetic limitations, safety concerns, and a complex regulatory environment. This review describes general features of nanoparticulate imaging agents and therapeutics and discusses challenges associated with clinical translation. A second, related review to appear in a subsequent issue of JNM highlights nuclear-based nanoparticulate probes in preclinical cardiovascular imaging. PMID:26272808

  12. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  13. Click Reaction: An Applicable Radiolabeling Method for Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Chul

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the click reaction has found rapidly growing applications in the field of radiochemistry, ranging from a practical labeling method to molecular imaging of biomacromolecules. This present review details the development of highly reliable, powerful and selective click chemistry reactions for the rapid synthesis of new radiotracers for molecular imaging.

  14. Some Defence Applications of Civilian Remote Sensing Satellite Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    This report is on a pilot study to demonstrate some of the capabilities of remote sensing in intelligence gathering. A wide variety of issues, both...colour images. The procedure will be presented in a companion report. Remote sensing , Satellite imagery, Image analysis, Military applications, Military intelligence.

  15. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  16. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  17. 75 FR 36505 - Notice of Public Webinar To Discuss the Applicability of 10 CFR 73.55 Requirements to Part 50...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do... of Public Webinar To Discuss the Applicability of 10 CFR 73.55 Requirements to Part 50 Licensees With...: Notice of public Webinar. SUMMARY: The NRC will hold a public Webinar with 16 Part 50 licensees...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  19. 47 CFR 27.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... spectrum may be made available for experimentation. (e) Part 15. This part sets forth the requirements...

  20. Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2006-05-01

    The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurement for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data are used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

  1. Cylindrical Millemeter-Wave Imaging Technique and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2006-08-01

    The wideband microwave or millimeter-wave cylindrical imaging technique has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for several applications including concealed weapon detection and automated body measurements for apparel fitting. This technique forms a fully-focused, diffraction-limited, three-dimensional image of the person or imaging target by scanning an inward-directed vertical array around the person or imaging target. The array is switched electronically to sequence across the array at high-speed, so that a full 360 degree mechanical scan over the cylindrical aperture can occur in 2-10 seconds. Wideband, coherent reflection data from each antenna position are recorded in a computer and subsequently reconstructed using an FFT-based image reconstruction algorithm developed at PNNL. The cylindrical scanning configuration is designed to optimize the illumination of the target and minimize non-returns due to specular reflection of the illumination away from the array. In this paper, simulated modeling data is used to explore imaging issues that affect the cylindrical imaging technique. Physical optics scattering simulations are used to model realistic returns from curved surfaces to determine the extent to which specular reflection affects the signal return and subsequent image reconstruction from these surfaces. This is a particularly important issue for the body measurement application. Also, an artifact in the imaging technique, referred to as "circular convolution aliasing" is discussed including methods to reduce or eliminate it. Numerous simulated and laboratory measured imaging results are presented.

  2. Applications of Microwave Antenna Array for Wireless Power Transmission and Radar Imaging in Complex Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ce

    The focus of my research interests lies in the application of microwave antenna array system and array signal processing techniques to problems in wireless power transmission and radar imaging. The two research areas share the same underlying mathematical principle of time reversality of electromagnetic wave propagation. Based on this principle, the array antenna system and the associated signal processing algorithm are further improved to adapt to different scenarios. In my dissertation, the rest part presents an optimal algorithm for wireless power transmission with beamforming array. The optimal weight distribution on antenna array elements is found based on time reversal eigenmode technique. Our method is adaptive to the medium of the channel and can be applied to arbitrarily positioned antenna without degradation of efficiency. This novel method is analytically studied and verified with numerical electromagnetic simulations. The second part presents a new problem called "Hard-Wall Radar Imaging" (HWRI) has been proposed when the electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the shielding walls (such as metallic walls). The research methodology involves algorithm development combined with experimental results to gain more insights into the real microwave imaging system. First, we implemented the imaging system with the conventional time reversal DORT (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator) imaging algorithm and adapted it into a new signal processing technique (multiplicative array technique) to obtain the image in the proposed scenario. Second, after having identified the drawbacks of the rest imaging system, the imaging system is improved to distributed MIMO radar configuration. The new imaging algorithm is also developed based on the techniques of Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) estimation and adaptive nulling. From this algorithm, the experimental results show that the new imaging system can localize two targets correctly. To resolve the problem of spurious clutter

  3. Electromagnetic inverse applications for functional brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.C.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses an important mathematical and computational problem in functional brain imaging, namely the electromagnetic {open_quotes}inverse problem.{close_quotes} Electromagnetic brain imaging techniques, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), are based on measurements of electrical potentials and magnetic fields at hundreds of locations outside the human head. The inverse problem is the estimation of the locations, magnitudes, and time-sources of electrical currents in the brain from surface measurements. This project extends recent progress on the inverse problem by combining the use of anatomical constraints derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Bayesian and other novel algorithmic approaches. The results suggest that we can achieve significant improvements in the accuracy and robustness of inverse solutions by these two approaches.

  4. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  5. Stereo imaging velocimetry for microgravity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Brian B.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Bethea, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Stereo imaging velocimetry is the quantitative measurement of three-dimensional flow fields using two sensors recording data from different vantage points. The system described in this paper, under development at NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, uses two CCD cameras placed perpendicular to one another, laser disk recorders, an image processing substation, and a 586-based computer to record data at standard NTSC video rates (30 Hertz) and reduce it offline. The flow itself is marked with seed particles, hence the fluid must be transparent. The velocimeter tracks the motion of the particles, and from these we deduce a multipoint (500 or more), quantitative map of the flow. Conceptually, the software portion of the velocimeter can be divided into distinct modules. These modules are: camera calibration, particle finding (image segmentation) and centroid location, particle overlap decomposition, particle tracking, and stereo matching. We discuss our approach to each module, and give our currently achieved speed and accuracy for each where available.

  6. Uncooled thermal imaging sensors for unattended sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohin, Margaret; Figler, Burton D.; Blackwell, Richard J.; Butler, Neal R.; Backer, Brian S.; Gurnee, Mark N.; Murphy, Bob H.

    2002-08-01

    320×240 and 640×480 small pixel uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays have been developed that reduce overall sensor size, weight, power consumption, and cost. At the same time, these sensors still provide the high quality image resolution needed for target recognition and identification. These newly developed small uncooled thermal imaging sensors are being demonstrated in several attended and unattended sensor applications that include Unattended Ground Sensors, Micro Air Vehicles, and Infrared Helmet Sights. This paper describes recent developments at BAE SYSTEMS in uncooled microbolometer sensor technology for unattended sensor applications and presents the latest performance and image data for our 2nd generation systems.

  7. Interferometric fiber optic sensors for biomedical applications of optoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Horacio; Gallego, Daniel; Gutierrez, Rebeca; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    We present a non-metallic interferometric silica optical fiber ultrasonic wideband sensor for optoacoustic imaging applications. The ultrasonic sensitivity of this sensor has been characterized over the frequency range from 1 to 10 MHz. A comparative analysis has been carried out between this sensor and an array of piezoelectric transducers using optoacoustic signals generated from an optical absorbent embedded in a tissue mimicking phantom. Also, a two dimensional reconstructed image of the phantom using the fiber interferometric sensor is presented and compared to the image obtained using the Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-64B. The feasibility of our fiber optic based sensor for wideband ultrasonic detection is demonstrated.

  8. NMR imaging of components and materials for DOE application

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.R.

    1993-12-01

    The suitability for using NMR imaging to characterize liquid, polymeric, and solid materials was reviewed. The most attractive applications for NMR imaging appear to be liquid-filled porous samples, partially cured polymers, adhesives, and potting compounds, and composite polymers/high explosives containing components with widely varying thermal properties. Solid-state NMR line-narrowing and signal-enhancing markedly improve the imaging possibilities of true solid and materials. These techniques provide unique elemental and chemical shift information for highly complex materials and complement images with similar spatial resolution, such as X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  9. Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Ikeda, Teruki; Wada, Satoshi; Tashiro, Hideo; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2001-10-01

    This article reports the outline of a new portable Raman imaging probe and its applications. This probe may be the smallest and lightest Raman imaging probe in the world. It is equipped with an interchangeable long-working distance microscope objective lens. The irradiation area is about 45 and 90 μm and the spatial resolution is 1 μm. In the present study, the Raman imaging probe was used to obtain a Raman image of diamond particles and a Raman mapping of carotenoid in Euglena.

  10. Applications of magnetic resonance image segmentation in neurology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Laarne, Paeivi; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Laasonen, Erkki; Frey, Harry; Eskola, Hannu

    1999-05-01

    After the introduction of digital imagin devices in medicine computerized tissue recognition and classification have become important in research and clinical applications. Segmented data can be applied among numerous research fields including volumetric analysis of particular tissues and structures, construction of anatomical modes, 3D visualization, and multimodal visualization, hence making segmentation essential in modern image analysis. In this research project several PC based software were developed in order to segment medical images, to visualize raw and segmented images in 3D, and to produce EEG brain maps in which MR images and EEG signals were integrated. The software package was tested and validated in numerous clinical research projects in hospital environment.

  11. Application of Laser Imaging for Bio/geophysical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, J. R.; Goltz, S. M.; Depiero, N. L.; Degloria, D. P.; Pagliughi, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    SPARTA, Inc. has developed a low-cost, portable laser imager that, among other applications, can be used in bio/geophysical applications. In the application to be discussed here, the system was utilized as an imaging system for background features in a forested locale. The SPARTA mini-ladar system was used at the International Paper Northern Experimental Forest near Howland, Maine to assist in a project designed to study the thermal and radiometric phenomenology at forest edges. The imager was used to obtain data from three complex sites, a 'seed' orchard, a forest edge, and a building. The goal of the study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the laser imager as a tool to obtain geometric and internal structure data about complex 3-D objects in a natural background. The data from these images have been analyzed to obtain information about the distributions of the objects in a scene. A range detection algorithm has been used to identify individual objects in a laser image and an edge detection algorithm then applied to highlight the outlines of discrete objects. An example of an image processed in such a manner is shown. Described here are the results from the study. In addition, results are presented outlining how the laser imaging system could be used to obtain other important information about bio/geophysical systems, such as the distribution of woody material in forests.

  12. Continuous-terahertz-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Tong; Wang, Ruixue; Zuo, Shasha; Wu, Dong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Molecular imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research and potentially in clinical practice. We present a continuous-terahertz (THz)-wave molecular imaging system for biomedical applications, in which an infrared (IR) laser is integrated into a 0.2-THz reflection-mode continuous-THz-wave imaging system to induce surface plasmon polaritons on the nanoparticles and further improve the intensity of the reflected signal from the water around the nanoparticles. A strong and rapid increment of the reflected THz signal in the nanoparticle solution upon the IR laser irradiation is demonstrated, using either gold or silver nanoparticles. This low-cost, simple, and stable continuous-THz-wave molecular imaging system is suitable for miniaturization and practical imaging applications; in particular, it shows great promise for cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug-delivery monitoring.

  13. Review of polarization imaging for international military application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin; Fu, Qiang; Mo, Chunhe; Zhu, Yong; Liu, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Polarization is a primary characteristic of electromagnetic wave. Polarization is another field of the light except the intensity, wavelength, and coherence. Polarization can indicate the different attributions that decided by objects, such as surface features, roughness, shading, shape and so on. Polarization Imaging is a useful complement to traditional intensity and spectral imaging methods with great potential in many application fields. In the future war, the advantages of polarization are significant for target detection and recognition in the increasingly complicated battlefield environment. In this paper, the research progress is generally introduced in military application in four fields: 1) target polarization characteristics and simulationenhance contrast, distinguish the target and background; 2) polarization transmission characteristics- observe target through the smoke and fog of War; 3) polarization imaging detection methods- improve the imaging quality, enhance the information available; 4) polarization image processing- improve detection and tracking performance.

  14. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds.

  15. Infrared Imaging Tools for Diagnostic Applications in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Gurjarpadhye, Abhijit Achyut; Parekh, Mansi Bharat; Dubnika, Arita; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Inayathullah, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) imaging is a collection of non-invasive imaging techniques that utilize the IR domain of the electromagnetic spectrum for tissue assessment. A subset of these techniques construct images using back-reflected light, while other techniques rely on detection of IR radiation emitted by the tissue as a result of its temperature. Modern IR detectors sense thermal emissions and produce a heat map of surface temperature distribution in tissues. Thus, the IR spectrum offers a variety of imaging applications particularly useful in clinical diagnostic area, ranging from high-resolution, depth-resolved visualization of tissue to temperature variation assessment. These techniques have been helpful in the diagnosis of many medical conditions including skin/breast cancer, arthritis, allergy, burns, and others. In this review, we discuss current roles of IR-imaging techniques for diagnostic applications in dermatology with an emphasis on skin cancer, allergies, blisters, burns and wounds. PMID:26691203

  16. A High Performance Image Data Compression Technique for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack

    2003-01-01

    A highly performing image data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed and pushbroom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging data. The algorithm combines a two-dimensional transform with a bitplane encoding; this results in an embedded bit string with exact desirable compression rate specified by the user. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images acquired from spacecraft instruments. It can also be applied to three-dimensional data cube resulting from hyper-spectral imaging instrument. Flight qualifiable hardware implementations are in development. The implementation is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msampledsec and support quantization from 2 to 16 bits. This paper presents the algorithm, its applications and status of development.

  17. Preclinical Whole-body Fluorescence Imaging: Review of Instruments, Methods and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Frederic; Davis, Scott C.; Valdés, Pablo A.; Pogue, Brain W.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence sampling of cellular function is widely used in all aspects of biology, allowing the visualization of cellular and sub-cellular biological processes with spatial resolutions in the range from nanometers up to centimeters. Imaging of fluorescence in vivo has become the most commonly used radiological tool in all pre-clinical work. In the last decade, full-body pre-clinical imaging systems have emerged with a wide range of utilities and niche application areas. The range of fluorescent probes that can be excited in the visible to near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum continues to expand, with the most value for in vivo use being beyond the 630 nm wavelength, because the absorption of light sharply decreases. Whole-body in vivo fluorescence imaging has not yet reached a state of maturity that allows its routine use in the scope of large-scale pre-clinical studies. This is in part due to an incomplete understanding of what the actual fundamental capabilities and limitations of this imaging modality are. However, progress is continuously being made in research laboratories pushing the limits of the approach to consistently improve its performance in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification. This paper reviews this imaging technology with a particular emphasis on its potential uses and limitations, the required instrumentation, and the possible imaging geometries and applications. A detailed account of the main commercially available systems is provided as well as some perspective relating to the future of the technology development. Although the vast majority of applications of in vivo small animal imaging are based on epi-illumination planar imaging, the future success of the method relies heavily on the design of novel imaging systems based on state-of-the-art optical technology used in conjunction with high spatial resolution structural modalities such as MRI, CT or ultra-sound. PMID:20031443

  18. Ultrasound Elastography--Review of Techniques and Its Clinical Applications in Pediatrics--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Pawluś, Aleksander; Sokołowska-Dąbek, Dąbrówka; Szymańska, Kinga; Inglot, Marcin S; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a novel technique that uses ultrasound waves to assess the elasticity of tissues noninvasively. It provides an ultrasound-based method to detect and display the relative stiffness of tissue. The main principle of sonoelastography is the measurement of tissue distortion in response to external compression. Changes in elasticity and tissue deformation elicited by compression are measured, processed and then shown in real time presentation with color-coded elastograms. One of the most important applications of sonoelastography is the evaluation of liver diseases, mainly liver fibrosis assessment and staging. Although in terms of definite diagnosis the liver biopsy still remains the golden standard, elastography seems to be a very inexpensive, repeatable and noninvasive method to evaluate most of liver conditions. The technique is also applicable in detection and differential diagnosis of focal lesions. It provides better imaging information and therefore more accurate evaluation of the lesions nature, e.g. in liver, lymphatic nodes or thyroid gland. Most of the applications mentioned above are well known and have been described in details in adults. Similarly, most of sonoelastographic studies are based on groups of adults. The purpose of this review article is to bring this technology closer to pediatric clinicians and to summarize some of its current clinical applications that are being pursued. In this part we focus on utility of elastography in liver assessment in pediatric patients.

  19. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information.

  20. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices.

  1. [The application of X-ray imaging in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Kučerová, Stěpánka; Safr, Miroslav; Ublová, Michaela; Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2014-07-01

    X-ray is the most common, basic and essential imaging method used in forensic medicine. It serves to display and localize the foreign objects in the body and helps to detect various traumatic and pathological changes. X-ray imaging is valuable in anthropological assessment of an individual. X-ray allows non-invasive evaluation of important findings before the autopsy and thus selection of the optimal strategy for dissection. Basic indications for postmortem X-ray imaging in forensic medicine include gunshot and explosive fatalities (identification and localization of projectiles or other components of ammunition, visualization of secondary missiles), sharp force injuries (air embolism, identification of the weapon) and motor vehicle related deaths. The method is also helpful for complex injury evaluation in abused victims or in persons where abuse is suspected. Finally, X-ray imaging still remains the gold standard method for identification of unknown deceased. With time modern imaging methods, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are more and more applied in forensic medicine. Their application extends possibilities of the visualization the bony structures toward a more detailed imaging of soft tissues and internal organs. The application of modern imaging methods in postmortem body investigation is known as digital or virtual autopsy. At present digital postmortem imaging is considered as a bloodless alternative to the conventional autopsy.

  2. Advances in computer imaging/applications in facial plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Jiannetto, D F

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressing computer technology, ever-increasing expectations of patients, and a confusing medicolegal environment requires a clarification of the role of computer imaging/applications. Advances in computer technology and its applications are reviewed. A brief historical discussion is included for perspective. Improvements in both hardware and software with the advent of digital imaging have allowed great increases in speed and accuracy in patient imaging. This facilitates doctor-patient communication and possibly realistic patient expectations. Patients seeking cosmetic surgery now often expect preoperative imaging. Although society in general has become more litigious, a literature search up to 1998 reveals no lawsuits directly involving computer imaging. It appears that conservative utilization of computer imaging by the facial plastic surgeon may actually reduce liability and promote communication. Recent advances have significantly enhanced the value of computer imaging in the practice of facial plastic surgery. These technological advances in computer imaging appear to contribute a useful technique for the practice of facial plastic surgery. Inclusion of computer imaging should be given serious consideration as an adjunct to clinical practice.

  3. Four-dimensional MR cardiovascular imaging: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Anthony G; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Haosen; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. Three-dimensional cardiovascular MRI in real-time, or 4D cardiovascular MRI without cardiac and respiratory gating or triggering, remains an important technological goal of the MR cardiovascular research community. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve 4D cardiovascular MR imaging in unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This breakthrough is made possible through a creative use of sparse sampling theory and parallel imaging with phased array coils and a novel implementation of data acquisition and image reconstruction. We have successfully used the technique to perform 4D cardiovascular imaging on rats, achieving 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution with a frame rate of 67 fps. This capability enables simultaneous imaging of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and first-pass myocardial perfusion. This in turn allows multiple cardiac assessments including measurement of ejection fraction, cardiac output, and myocardial blood flow in a single experiment. We believe that the proposed technique can open up many important applications of cardiovascular imaging and have significant impact on the field.

  4. Application of coregistration for imaging of animal models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Bianca; O'Brien, Terence J

    2007-01-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the utilization of small animal imaging for epilepsy research. In vivo imaging studies have the potential to provide important insights into the structural and functional correlates of the development and progression of epilepsy in these models. However, the small size of the rodent brain means that anatomic resolution is often relatively poor for many imaging modalities, particularly those providing functional information such as positron emission tomography. Coregistration of these images with those of higher structural resolution, such as MRI, provides an attractive approach to this problem, and also allows correlations between structural and functional imaging data. Image coregistration is commonly utilized in clinical research and practice. However, its application for small animal images has been, to date, relatively under utilized and largely unvalidated. The current review aims to provide an overview of image coregistration methods, particularly for MRI and PET, and their application to imaging of small animal models of epilepsy. Methodological advantages and potential traps are highlighted.

  5. Selected Applications of Planar Imaging Velocimetry in Combustion Test Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willert, Christian; Stockhausen, Guido; Voges, Melanie; Klinner, Joachim; Schodl, Richard; Hassa, Christoph; Schürmans, Bruno; Güthe, Felix

    This chapter provides an overview on the application of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) in combustion test facilities that are operated at pressures of up to 10 bar. Emphasis is placed on the experimental aspects of each application rather than the interpretation of the acquired flow-field data because many of the encountered problems and chosen solution strategies are unique to this area of velocimetry application. In particular, imaging configurations, seeding techniques, data-acquisition strategies as well as pre- and postprocessing methodologies are outlined.

  6. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... and/or verify the mathematical expectations of game play, where applicable, in accordance with...

  7. 25 CFR 547.4 - What are the rules of general application for this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the rules of general application for this part... of general application for this part? (a) Fairness. No Class II gaming system may cheat or mislead... and/or verify the mathematical expectations of game play, where applicable, in accordance with...

  8. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Topics relative to the application of artificial intelligence to space operations are discussed. New technologies for space station automation, design data capture, computer vision, neural nets, automatic programming, and real time applications are discussed.

  9. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  10. Mechanical parts range-image segmentation by locating critical points of one-dimensional curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Chun; Fan, Kuang-Chao

    1996-02-01

    A modified edge-based segmentation algorithm specially designed for mechanical parts is proposed. The technique used is based on a concept of 3-views of engineering drawings and is a partial parallel algorithm. Mechanical parts considered here are composed of planes, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. At first, a set of critical points is extracted from each row and column of range image by one dimensional curves' segmentation technique. Edge linking process is performed on the map of critical points by morphological dilation, thinning and edge tracking. After that, a connected component labeling procedure is done and all pixels belonging to the same 4-connected region are assigned a unique label. An efficient run-length implementation of local table method is used to do the connected components' analysis. Finally, a robust least squares surface fitting is employed for each label to accommodate the error of previous steps, and outliers are discarded according to errors. Experiments are presented for numerous scenes of both real and synthetic range images of mechanical parts including concave and convex surfaces, noiseless and noisy. The results show that the proposed one dimensional critical point locating method segments the range image of mechanical parts fast and accurately.

  11. Application of optical character recognition in thermal image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W. T.; Sim, K. S.; Tso, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the reliability of the thermal imager compared to other devices that are used in preventive maintenance. Several case studies are used to facilitate the comparisons. When any device is found to perform unsatisfactorily where there is a suspected fault, its short-fall is determined so that the other devices may compensate, if possible. This study discovered that the thermal imager is not suitable or efficient enough for systems that happen to have little contrast in temperature between its parts or small but important parts that have their heat signatures obscured by those from other parts. The thermal imager is also found to be useful for preliminary examinations of certain systems, after which other more economical devices are suitable substitutes for further examinations. The findings of this research will be useful to the design and planning of preventive maintenance routines for industrial benefits.

  12. A martian case study of segmenting images automatically for granulometry and sedimentology, Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunatillake, Suniti; McLennan, Scott M.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Husch, Jonathan M.; Hardgrove, Craig; Skok, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    In planetary exploration, delineating individual grains in images via segmentation is a key path to sedimentological comparisons with the extensive terrestrial literature. Samples that contain a substantial fine grain component, common at Meridiani and Gusev at Mars, would involve prohibitive effort if attempted manually. Unavailability of physical samples also precludes standard terrestrial methods such as sieving. Furthermore, planetary scientists have been thwarted by the dearth of segmentation algorithms customized for planetary applications, including Mars, and often rely on sub-optimal solutions adapted from medical software. We address this with an original algorithm optimized to segment whole images from the Microscopic Imager of the Mars Exploration Rovers. While our code operates with minimal human guidance, its default parameters can be modified easily for different geologic settings and imagers on Earth and other planets, such as the Curiosity Rover’s Mars Hand Lens Instrument. We assess the algorithm’s robustness in a companion work.

  13. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  14. Shaded Relief Images for Cartographic Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    DISPLACEMENT C (DX) AT THE IMAGE PLANE, RATHER THAN BY A CONSTANT ANGLE C AS IN THE TEKTRONIX PERSPECTIVE ROUTINES* C C MULTIPLE IMAGE kiLES MUST READ, PREVIOUS...THE ANALYTICAL HILL SADING PROJECT’ C (UNkPiBLISHLU?-AUTO CARTO kILES ) C C PR~OGRAM bY CYkUS C. 1IlLOX C AUTOMAfED CARIUGkAPHY dRANCH C USAEEL, I~kf...wRITE(1,*)’ ENTER DEVICE AND kILE NAME: 𔃻DDN:FILE.EXT"# * 0027 wRITE(1,4)’ TO INPUT FROM TLRMINAL ENTER *’TI:’’ C NEXT TrWO READ STATEMENTS ALTERED

  15. Spaceborne synthetic-aperture imaging radars - Applications, techniques, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Bicknell, T.; Jordan, R. L.; Wu, C.

    1982-01-01

    In June 1978, the Seasat satellite was placed into orbit around the earth with a synthetic-aperture imaging radar (SAR) as one of the payload sensors. The Seasat SAR provided, for the first time, synoptic radar images of the earth's surface with a resolution of 25 m. In November 1981, the second imaging radar was successfully operated from space on the Shuttle. The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A acquired images over a variety of regions around the world with an imaging geometry different from the one used by the Seasat SAR. The spaceborne SAR principle is discussed, taking into account ambiguities, orbital and environmental factors, range curvature and range walk, surface interaction mechanisms, thermal and speckle noise, key tradeoff parameters, and nonconventional SAR systems. Attention is also given to spaceborne SAR sensors, the digital processing of spaceborne SAR data, the optical processing of spaceborne SAR data, postimage formation processing, data interpretation techniques and applications, and the next decade.

  16. Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Chang Qiang; Chen, Tian Wu; Tang, Meng Yue; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. The lack of early detection and effective interventions is the main reason. Therefore, considerable ongoing efforts aimed at identifying early PC are currently being pursued using a variety of methods. In recent years, the development of molecular imaging has made the specific targeting of PC in the early stage possible. Molecular imaging seeks to directly visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Among different imaging technologies, the magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging has potential in this regard because it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of PC. This topic is reviewed in terms of the contrast agents for MR molecular imaging, the biomarkers related to PC, targeted molecular probes for MRI, and the application of MRI in the diagnosis of PC. PMID:26579537

  17. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50,000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  18. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50 000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  19. X-ray imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

  20. Recent advances in hydrogen peroxide imaging for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hengchang; Aleyasin, Hossein; Dickinson, Bryan C; Haskew-Layton, Renée E; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in physiological signaling as well as pathological conditions. However, the subtleties of peroxide-mediated signaling are not well understood, in part because the generation, degradation, and diffusion of H2O2 are highly volatile within different cellular compartments. Therefore, the direct measurement of H2O2 in living specimens is critically important. Fluorescent probes that can detect small changes in H2O2 levels within relevant cellular compartments are important tools to study the spatial dynamics of H2O2. To achieve temporal resolution, the probes must also be photostable enough to allow multiple readings over time without loss of signal. Traditional fluorescent redox sensitive probes that have been commonly used for the detection of H2O2 tend to react with a wide variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and often suffer from photostablilty issues. Recently, new classes of H2O2 probes have been designed to detect H2O2 with high selectivity. Advances in H2O2 measurement have enabled biomedical scientists to study H2O2 biology at a level of precision previously unachievable. In addition, new imaging techniques such as two-photon microscopy (TPM) have been employed for H2O2 detection, which permit real-time measurements of H2O2 in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in H2O2 probe development and optical imaging technologies that have been developed for biomedical applications.

  1. Application of hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems to industrial inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Charles T.; Folkman, Mark A.; Figueroa, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    The past decade has seen the development of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging spectrometers for use in remote sensing applications in the aerospace business. Correspondingly, advanced electronic imaging techniques have been exploited for use in industrial inspection and manufacturing process control. TRW has been involved in hyperspectral imaging since 1989 for use in remote sensing of earth resources and has developed many instruments and related technologies which can easily be re-applied to unique industrial inspection applications. These instruments operate in the visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared wavebands covering the range from 0.4 microns to 2.5 microns depending on the application. The exploitation of hyperspectral imagers for remote sensing has shown the power of spectral imaging for typing and discrimination tasks, which can be readily applied to industrial applications. In this paper we explain the relevant fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging and how it can be exploited for industrial inspection and process control tasks, particularly those that require color or spectral typing and discrimination. The associated technologies used to perform measurements and reduce the data also are described.

  2. 30 CFR 251.3 - Authority and applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of this part. MMS authorizes you to conduct exploration or scientific research activities under... agencies are exempt from the regulations in this part. (c) G&G exploration or G&G scientific...

  3. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  4. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  5. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  6. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National... extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of the program... located wholly or in part of the space....

  7. 43 CFR 17.2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or... property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or under any such property are included as part of... any facility located wholly or in part of the space....

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Part 1580 Security measure and rule section Freight railroad carriers NOT transporting specified hazardous materials Freight railroad carriers transporting specified hazardous materials (§ 1580.100(b... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 1580 - Summary of the Applicability of Part 1580

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Part 1580 Security measure and rule section Freight railroad carriers NOT transporting specified hazardous materials Freight railroad carriers transporting specified hazardous materials (§ 1580.100(b... an HTUA Passenger railroad carriers and rail transit systems Certain other rail operations...

  10. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  11. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  12. Performance assessment of 3D surface imaging technique for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Recent development in optical 3D surface imaging technologies provide better ways to digitalize the 3D surface and its motion in real-time. The non-invasive 3D surface imaging approach has great potential for many medical imaging applications, such as motion monitoring of radiotherapy, pre/post evaluation of plastic surgery and dermatology, to name a few. Various commercial 3D surface imaging systems have appeared on the market with different dimension, speed and accuracy. For clinical applications, the accuracy, reproducibility and robustness across the widely heterogeneous skin color, tone, texture, shape properties, and ambient lighting is very crucial. Till now, a systematic approach for evaluating the performance of different 3D surface imaging systems still yet exist. In this paper, we present a systematic performance assessment approach to 3D surface imaging system assessment for medical applications. We use this assessment approach to exam a new real-time surface imaging system we developed, dubbed "Neo3D Camera", for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The assessments include accuracy, field of view, coverage, repeatability, speed and sensitivity to environment, texture and color.

  13. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  14. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1. Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    NO. Navy Tactical Applications Guide. Volume 5. Part 1 Indian Ocean (Red Sea/Persian Gulf) Weather Analysis and Forecast Applications 7...tldt It ntctf try mid Idtnlltr by block numOtr) Meteorological Satellite Systems Analysis and Forecast Applications Indian Ocean Northeast Monsoon...by block numbtr) Case studies describing regional environmental analysis and forecast applications based on satellite data and conventional

  15. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2016: Part 2 of 2-myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Hage, Fadi G; AlJaroudi, Wael A

    2017-04-06

    In 2016, the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology published many high-quality articles. Similar to previous years, we will summarize here a selection of the articles that were published in the Journal in 2016 to provide a concise review of the main advancements that have recently occurred in the field. In the first article of this two-part series we focused on publications dealing with positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. This review will place emphasis on myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission-computed tomography summarizing advances in the field including in diagnosis, prognosis, and appropriate use.

  16. Applications Of Digital Image Acquisition In Anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Lewis, James L.

    1981-10-01

    Anthropometric data on reach and mobility have traditionally been collected by time consuming and relatively inaccurate manual methods. Three dimensional digital image acquisition promises to radically increase the speed and ease of data collection and analysis. A three-camera video anthropometric system for collecting position, velocity, and force data in real time is under development for the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The use of a prototype of this system for collecting data on reach capabilities and on lateral stability is described. Two extensions of this system are planned.

  17. Development of prototype shielded cervical intracavitary brachytherapy applicators compatible with CT and MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Michael J.; Jackson, Edward F.; Gifford, Kent A.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Mourtada, Firas

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is an integral part of the treatment regimen for cervical cancer and, generally, outcome in terms of local disease control and complications is a function of dose to the disease bed and critical structures, respectively. Therefore, it is paramount to accurately determine the dose given via ICBT to the tumor bed as well as critical structures. This is greatly facilitated through the use of advanced three-dimensional imaging modalities, such as CT and MR, to delineate critical and target structures with an ICBT applicator inserted in vivo. These methods are not possible when using a shielded applicator due to the image artifacts generated by interovoid shielding. The authors present two prototype shielded ICBT applicators that can be utilized for artifact-free CT image acquisition. They also investigate the MR amenability and dosimetry of a novel tungsten-alloy shielding material to extend the functionality of these devices. Methods: To accomplish artifact-free CT image acquisition, a ''step-and-shoot'' (S and S) methodology was utilized, which exploits the prototype applicators movable interovoid shielding. Both prototypes were placed in imaging phantoms that positioned the applicators in clinically applicable orientations. CT image sets were acquired of the prototype applicators as well as a shielded Fletcher-Williamson (sFW) ovoid. Artifacts present in each CT image set were qualitatively compared for each prototype applicator following the S and S methodology and the sFW. To test the novel tungsten-alloy shielding material's MR amenability, they constructed a phantom applicator that mimics the basic components of an ICBT ovoid. This phantom applicator positions the MR-compatible shields in orientations equivalent to the sFW bladder and rectal shields. MR images were acquired within a gadopentetate dimeglumine-doped water tank using standard pulse sequences and examined for artifacts. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations

  18. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  19. Applications for high-speed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Austin A.

    2005-03-01

    The phrase high-speed imaging is generally associated with short exposure times, fast frame rates or both. Supersonic projectiles, for example, are often impossible to see with the unaided eye, and require strobe photography to stop their apparent motion. It is often necessary to image high-speed objects in the infrared region of the spectrum, either to detect them or to measure their surface temperature. Conventional infrared cameras have time constants similar to the human eye, so they too, are often at a loss when it comes to photographing fast-moving hot targets. Other types of targets or scenes such as explosions change very rapidly with time. Visualizing those changes requires an extremely high frame rate combined with short exposure times in order to slow down a dynamic event so that it can be studied and quantified. Recent advances in infrared sensor technology and computing power have pushed the envelope of what is possible to achieve with commercial IR camera systems.

  20. Electronic terahertz imaging for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trontelj, J.; Sešek, A.

    2016-02-01

    A sophisticated THz system with 3D imaging and narrow band spectroscopy capability is presented in the paper. The key system components are the THz source, THz detector/mixer array, scanning optics, and the signal processing unit. The system is all electronic and is portable. A battery operation option allows several hours of autonomy. The most important parameters of the THz source are output power, illumination beam size and directivity, frequency modulation range, and maximal modulation frequency. The low phase noise is also a very important parameter. Optimization of these parameters is discussed in the paper. The THz source is all solid state, composed of a phase-locked oscillator, an amplifier, and frequency multipliers. The most important element of the THz system is its sensor, which performs both signal detection and at the same time mixing of the LO signal and received signal from the target. The sensor is antenna coupled nanobolometer fabricated in a linear array of eight pixels. The sensors are suspended in the vacuum to achieve an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The quadratic characteristic of the nano-bolometer extends over six decades allowing a large dynamic range and very high LO signal levels. The scanning mirror integrated into the system allows imaging of 1024 to 8162 pixels in the x and y dimensions that are expanded to the third dimension with a resolution of few micrometers.

  1. Integration of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the nondestructive inspection of aeronautic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Paoletti, D.; Maldague, X.

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses in the implementation of infrared and optical imaging techniques for the inspection of aeronautics parts. To this aim, a helicopter blade with known defects is inspected with four different techniques: long pulse thermography, pulsed thermography, digital speckle photography (DSP) and holographic interferometry (HI). The first two techniques belongs to the group of infrared imaging techniques, which are based on the analysis of the infrared thermal patterns in order to detect internal anomalies in the material; whilst the last two (DSP and HI) corresponds to the optical imaging techniques which make use of visible light to measure the material response to an applied stress. Both techniques were applied using the active approach, i.e. an external stimulation is applied in order to produce a gradient in either, the thermal and/or displacement field of the material. The results are then compared in order to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each technique.

  2. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part I: etiopathogenesis, classifications and radiographic features

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewska, Genowefa; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is one of the spondyloarthritis. It is a disease of clinical heterogenicity, which may affect peripheral joints, as well as axial spine, with presence of inflammatory lesions in soft tissue, in a form of dactylitis and enthesopathy. Plain radiography remains the basic imaging modality for PsA diagnosis, although early inflammatory changes affecting soft tissue and bone marrow cannot be detected with its use, or the image is indistinctive. Typical radiographic features of PsA occur in an advanced disease, mainly within the synovial joints, but also in fibrocartilaginous joints, such as sacroiliac joints, and additionally in entheses of tendons and ligaments. Moll and Wright classified PsA into 5 subtypes: asymmetric oligoarthritis, symmetric polyarthritis, arthritis mutilans, distal interphalangeal arthritis of the hands and feet and spinal column involvement. In this part of the paper we discuss radiographic features of the disease. The next one will address magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. PMID:27104004

  3. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    PubMed

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  4. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  5. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  6. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    PubMed Central

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  7. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards and procedures concerning marketing of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 13 contains information and rules for the licensing of commercial radio operators. (e... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION...

  8. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND... Programs, Agency for International Development, International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington... $_____ in Further Guaranteed Payments as defined in Section 204.01(i) of the Standard Terms and...

  9. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND... Programs, Agency for International Development, International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington... $_____ in Further Guaranteed Payments as defined in Section 204.01(i) of the Standard Terms and...

  10. 47 CFR 87.3 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... devices, and for obtaining equipment authorization. (d) Part 13 contains information and rules for the... lighting of antenna towers, and the environmental notification process that must be completed before...

  11. Application of region selective embedded zerotree wavelet coder in CT image compression.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoli; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Qunjing; Hu, Cungang; Deng, Na; Li, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Compression is necessary in medical image preservation because of the huge data quantity. Medical images are different from the common images because of their own characteristics, for example, part of information in CT image is useless, and it's a kind of resource waste to save this part information. The region selective EZW coder was proposed with which only useful part of image was selected and compressed, and the test image provides good result.

  12. The application of high-speed digital image correlation.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

    2008-02-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method of using digital images to calculate two-dimensional displacement and deformation or for stereo systems three-dimensional shape, displacement, and deformation. While almost any imaging system can be used with DIC, there are some important challenges when working with the technique in high- and ultra-high-speed applications. This article discusses three of these challenges: camera sensor technology, camera frame rate, and camera motion mitigation. Potential solutions are treated via three demonstration experiments showing the successful application of high-speed DIC for dynamic events. The application and practice of DIC at high speeds, rather than the experimental results themselves, provide the main thrust of the discussion.

  13. 49 CFR 21.3 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.3 Application of... title VI of the Act is otherwise applicable, that a program is not covered. Other types of Federal... real property or an interest in real property, to the extent that rights to space on, over, or...

  14. Detection Algorithms for Hyperspectral Imaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-26

    Schaum and A. Stocker. Spectrally-selective target detection. Proceedings oflSSSR, 1997. [54] R. A. Schowengerdt. Remote Sensing: Models and...Stein, S. Beaven, L. Hoff, E. Winter, A. Schaum , and A. Stocker. Anomaly detection from fyper- spectral imagery. Signal Processing Magazine, 2002. [58...adaptive processor or a structured covariance matrix. IEEE AES, 36(4): 1115-1125, Oct. 2000. [60] A.D. Stocker and A. Schaum . Application of

  15. 17 CFR Appendix C to Part 30 - Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relief From the Application of Certain of the Part 30 Rules Pursuant to § 30.10 C Appendix C to Part 30... TRANSACTIONS Pt. 30, App. C Appendix C to Part 30—Foreign Petitioners Granted Relief From the Application of... Register citations affecting appendix C to part 30, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...

  16. Applications of ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging to biomedical samples.

    PubMed

    Kazarian, S G; Chan, K L A

    2006-07-01

    FTIR spectroscopic imaging in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode is a powerful tool for studying biomedical samples. This paper summarises recent advances in the applications of ATR-FTIR imaging to dissolution of pharmaceutical formulations and drug release. The use of two different ATR accessories to obtain chemical images of formulations in contact with water as a function of time is demonstrated. The innovative use of the diamond ATR accessory allowed in situ imaging of tablet compaction and dissolution. ATR-FTIR imaging was also applied to obtain images of the surface of skin and the spatial distribution of protein and lipid rich domains was obtained. Chemical images of cross-section of rabbit aorta were obtained using a diamond ATR accessory and the possibility of in situ imaging of arterial samples in contact with aqueous solution was demonstrated for the first time. This experiment opens an opportunity to image arterial samples in contact with solutions containing drug molecules. This approach may help in understanding the mechanisms of treatment of atherosclerosis.

  17. Image quality transfer and applications in diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Daniel C; Zikic, Darko; Ghosh, Aurobrata; Tanno, Ryutaro; Wottschel, Viktor; Zhang, Jiaying; Kaden, Enrico; Dyrby, Tim B; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N; Zhang, Hui; Criminisi, Antonio

    2017-03-03

    This paper introduces a new computational imaging technique called image quality transfer (IQT). IQT uses machine learning to transfer the rich information available from one-off experimental medical imaging devices to the abundant but lower-quality data from routine acquisitions. The procedure uses matched pairs to learn mappings from low-quality to corresponding high-quality images. Once learned, these mappings then augment unseen low quality images, for example by enhancing image resolution or information content. Here, we demonstrate IQT using a simple patch-regression implementation and the uniquely rich diffusion MRI data set from the human connectome project (HCP). Results highlight potential benefits of IQT in both brain connectivity mapping and microstructure imaging. In brain connectivity mapping, IQT reveals, from standard data sets, thin connection pathways that tractography normally requires specialised data to reconstruct. In microstructure imaging, IQT shows potential in estimating, from standard "single-shell" data (one non-zero b-value), maps of microstructural parameters that normally require specialised multi-shell data. Further experiments show strong generalisability, highlighting IQT's benefits even when the training set does not directly represent the application domain. The concept extends naturally to many other imaging modalities and reconstruction problems.

  18. An imaging spectrometer for microgravity application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wallace K.

    1995-01-01

    Flame structure is the result of complex interaction of mechanisms operating in both unwanted fires and controlled combustion systems. The scientific study of gas-jet diffusion flames in reduced-gravity environment is of interest because the effects of buoyancy on flow entrainment and acceleration are lessened. Measurements of flames have been restricted to cinematography, thermocouples, and radiometers. SSG, Inc. is developing an MWIR imaging spectrometer (MIS) for microgravity flame measurements. The device will be delivered to NASA Lewis at the end of this project to demonstrate flame measurements in the laboratory. With proper modifications, the MIS can be used to monitor a gas-jet flame under microgravity on a NASA Learjet or DC-9.

  19. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  20. Phase Sensitive X-Ray Imaging: Towards its Interdisciplinary Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottler, C.; Revol, V.; Kaufmann, R.; Urban, C.; Knop, K.; Sennhauser, U.; Jerjen, I.; Lüthi, T.; Cardot, F.; Niedermann, P.; Morel, J.-P.; Maake, C.; Walt, H.; Knop, E.; Blanc, N.

    2010-04-01

    X-ray phase imaging including phase tomography has been attracting increasing attention during the past few decades. The advantage of X-ray phase imaging is that an extremely high sensitivity is achieved for weakly absorbing materials, such as biological soft tissues, which generate a poor contrast by conventional schemes. Especially for such living samples, where the reduction of the applied dose is of paramount interest, phase sensitive measurements schemes have an inherent potential for a significant dose reduction combined with an image quality enhancement. Several methods have been invented for x-ray phase contrast imaging that either use an approach based on interferometry, diffraction or wave-field propagation. Some of these techniques have a potential for commercial applications, such as in medicine, non-destructive testing, security and inspection. The scope of this manuscript thus deals with one particular such technique that measures the diffraction caused by the specimen by means of a grating interferometer. Examples of measurements are shown that depict the potential of phase contrast imaging for future commercial applications, such as in medical imaging, non-destructive testing and inspection for quality control. The current state of the technology is briefly reviewed as well as its shortcomings to be overcome with regard to the applications.

  1. Geological applications using an electrical micro imaging tool

    SciTech Connect

    Eubanks, D.; Seiler, D.; Russell, B.

    1995-11-20

    The resistivity micro imaging tool introduced by Halliburton produces electrical images that are being used in a variety of geological applications. The tool is a microresistivity-type imaging device with six independent articulating arms extending from the main body.Each arm is mounted with a pad containing a 25-electrode scanning array. The EMI tool and all other micro imaging devices measure changes in resistivity along the borehole wall that correspond to subtle changes in rock composition, grain texture, and fluid properties. High-end graphics software processes the data to produce highly visual 2D and 3D images of the borehole. The paper describes the use of this tool in fault analysis, fracture analysis, rock texture, strata dip analysis, and thin-bed analysis.

  2. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  3. Digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software: an application to human pelvic biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yongwei; Cheng, Liming; Yu, Guangrong; Lou, Yongjian; Yu, Yan; Chen, Bo; Ding, Zuquan

    2008-03-01

    A method of digital image measurement of specimen deformation based on CCD cameras and Image J software was developed. This method was used to measure the biomechanics behavior of human pelvis. Six cadaveric specimens from the third lumbar vertebra to the proximal 1/3 part of femur were tested. The specimens without any structural abnormalities were dissected of all soft tissue, sparing the hip joint capsules and the ligaments of the pelvic ring and floor. Markers with black dot on white background were affixed to the key regions of the pelvis. Axial loading from the proximal lumbar was applied by MTS in the gradient of 0N to 500N, which simulated the double feet standing stance. The anterior and lateral images of the specimen were obtained through two CCD cameras. Based on Image J software, digital image processing software, which can be freely downloaded from the National Institutes of Health, digital 8-bit images were processed. The procedure includes the recognition of digital marker, image invert, sub-pixel reconstruction, image segmentation, center of mass algorithm based on weighted average of pixel gray values. Vertical displacements of S1 (the first sacral vertebrae) in front view and micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view were calculated according to the marker movement. The results of digital image measurement showed as following: marker image correlation before and after deformation was excellent. The average correlation coefficient was about 0.983. According to the 768 × 576 pixels image (pixel size 0.68mm × 0.68mm), the precision of the displacement detected in our experiment was about 0.018 pixels and the comparatively error could achieve 1.11\\perthou. The average vertical displacement of S1 of the pelvis was 0.8356+/-0.2830mm under vertical load of 500 Newtons and the average micro-angular rotation of sacroiliac joint in lateral view was 0.584+/-0.221°. The load-displacement curves obtained from our optical measure system

  4. Novel Applications of Radionuclide Imaging in Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a progressive atherosclerotic disease that leads to stenosis or occlusion of blood vessels supplying the lower extremities. Current diagnostic imaging techniques commonly focus on evaluation of anatomy or blood flow at the macrovascular level and do not permit assessment of the underlying pathophysiology associated with disease progression or treatment response. Molecular imaging with radionuclide-based approaches can offer novel insight into PVD by providing noninvasive assessment of biological processes such as angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. This article discusses emerging radionuclide-based imaging approaches that have potential clinical applications in the evaluation of PVD progression and treatment.

  5. Applications of nanotechnology to imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mohs, Aaron M; Provenzale, James M

    2010-08-01

    In the past decade, numerous advances in the understanding of brain tumor physiology, tumor imaging, and tumor therapy have been attained. In some cases, these advances have resulted from refinements of pre-existing technologies (eg, improvements of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). In other instances, advances have resulted from development of novel technologies. The development of nanomedicine (ie, applications of nanotechnology to the field of medicine) is an example of the latter. In this review, the authors explain the principles that underlay nanoparticle design and function as well as the means by which nanoparticles can be used for imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

  6. X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shedlock, Daniel; Edwards, Talion; Toh, Chin

    2011-06-23

    Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

  7. On combining image-based and ontological semantic dissimilarities for medical image retrieval applications.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Camille; Depeursinge, Adrien; Napel, Sandy; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-10-01

    Computer-assisted image retrieval applications can assist radiologists by identifying similar images in archives as a means to providing decision support. In the classical case, images are described using low-level features extracted from their contents, and an appropriate distance is used to find the best matches in the feature space. However, using low-level image features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases is challenging and the semantic gap between these features and the high-level visual concepts in radiology may impair the system performance. To deal with this issue, the use of semantic terms to provide high-level descriptions of radiological image contents has recently been advocated. Nevertheless, most of the existing semantic image retrieval strategies are limited by two factors: they require manual annotation of the images using semantic terms and they ignore the intrinsic visual and semantic relationships between these annotations during the comparison of the images. Based on these considerations, we propose an image retrieval framework based on semantic features that relies on two main strategies: (1) automatic "soft" prediction of ontological terms that describe the image contents from multi-scale Riesz wavelets and (2) retrieval of similar images by evaluating the similarity between their annotations using a new term dissimilarity measure, which takes into account both image-based and ontological term relations. The combination of these strategies provides a means of accurately retrieving similar images in databases based on image annotations and can be considered as a potential solution to the semantic gap problem. We validated this approach in the context of the retrieval of liver lesions from computed tomographic (CT) images and annotated with semantic terms of the RadLex ontology. The relevance of the retrieval results was assessed using two protocols: evaluation relative to a dissimilarity reference standard defined for pairs of

  8. The future of imaging spectroscopy - Prospective technologies and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaepman, M.E.; Green, R.O.; Ungar, S.G.; Curtiss, B.; Boardman, J.; Plaza, A.J.; Gao, B.-C.; Ustin, S.; Kokaly, R.; Miller, J.R.; Jacquemoud, S.; Ben-Dor, E.; Clark, R.; Davis, C.; Dozier, J.; Goodenough, D.G.; Roberts, D.; Swayze, G.; Milton, E.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopy has existed for more than three centuries now. Nonetheless, significant scientific advances have been achieved. We discuss the history of spectroscopy in relation to emerging technologies and applications. Advanced focal plane arrays, optical design, and intelligent on-board logic are prime prospective technologies. Scalable approaches in pre-processing of imaging spectrometer data will receive additional focus. Finally, we focus on new applications monitoring transitional ecological zones, where human impact and disturbance have highest impact as well as in monitoring changes in our natural resources and environment We conclude that imaging spectroscopy enables mapping of biophysical and biochemical variables of the Earth's surface and atmospheric composition with unprecedented accuracy.

  9. Recent Advances in Computed Tomographic Technology: Cardiopulmonary Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Azadeh; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Murugan, Venkatesh; Otrakji, Alexi; Digumarthy, Subba; Kalra, Mannudeep

    2017-03-01

    Cardiothoracic diseases result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Chest computed tomography (CT) has been an imaging modality of choice for assessing a host of chest diseases, and technologic advances have enabled the emergence of coronary CT angiography as a robust noninvasive test for cardiac imaging. Technologic developments in CT have also enabled the application of dual-energy CT scanning for assessing pulmonary vascular and neoplastic processes. Concerns over increasing radiation dose from CT scanning are being addressed with introduction of more dose-efficient wide-area detector arrays and iterative reconstruction techniques. This review article discusses the technologic innovations in CT and their effect on cardiothoracic applications.

  10. All-optoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Karsten J; Löffler, Torsten; Quast, Holger; Thomson, Mark; Bauer, Tobias; Leonhardt, Rainer; Czasch, Stephanie; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2002-11-07

    We present an all-optoelectronic THz imaging system for ex vivo biomedical applications based on photomixing of two continuous-wave laser beams using photoconductive antennas. The application of hyperboloidal lenses is discussed. They allow for f-numbers less than 1/2 permitting better focusing and higher spatial resolution compared to off-axis paraboloidal mirrors whose f-numbers for practical reasons must be larger than 1/2. For a specific histological sample, an analysis of image noise is discussed.

  11. Single-pixel imaging by Hadamard transform and its application for hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Kyuki; Taguchi, Hiroki; Iwata, Tetsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report on comparisons of single-pixel imagings using Hadamard Transform (HT) and the ghost imaging (GI) in the view point of the visibility under weak light conditions. For comparing the two methods, we have discussed about qualities of images based on experimental results and numerical analysis. To detect images by the TH method, we have illuminated the Hadamard-pattern mask and calculated by orthogonal transform. On the other hand, the GH method can detect images by illuminating random patterns and a correlation measurement. For comparing two methods under weak light intensity, we have controlled illuminated intensities of a DMD projector about 0.1 in signal-to-noise ratio. Though a process speed of the HT image was faster then an image via the GI, the GI method has an advantage of detection under weak light condition. An essential difference between the HT and the GI method is discussed about reconstruction process. Finally, we also show a typical application of the single-pixel imaging such as hyperspectral images by using dual-optical frequency combs. An optical setup consists of two fiber lasers, spatial light modulated for generating patten illumination, and a single pixel detector. We are successful to detect hyperspectrul images in a range from 1545 to 1555 nm at 0.01nm resolution.

  12. Image database generation using image metric constraints: an application within the CALADIOM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeau, Stéphane; Dagobert, Tristan

    2006-05-01

    Performance assessment and optimization of ATR systems poses the problem of developing image databases for learning and testing purposes. An automatic IR image database generation technique is presented in this paper. The principle consists in superimposing segmented background, target and mask (bushes for example) from real images, under the constraint of predefined image characterization metrics. Each image is automatically computed according to a specification which defines the metrics levels to reach, such as the local contrast ΔT RSS (NVESD metric), the Signal to Clutter Ratio, or the masking ratio target/mask. An integrated calibrated sensor model simulates the sensor degradations by using the pre and post-filter MTF, and the 3D noise parameters of the camera. The image generation comes with the construction of a ground truth file which indicates all the parameter values defining the image scenario. A large quantity of images can be generated accordingly, leading to a meaningful statistical evaluation. A key feature is that this technique allows to build learning and testing databases with comparable difficulty, in the sense of the chosen image metrics. The theoretical interest of this technique is presented in the paper, compared to the classical ones which use real or simulated data. An application is also presented, within the CALADIOM project (terrestrial target detection with programmable artificial IR retina combined with IR ATR system). Over 38,000 images were processed by this ATR for training and testing, involving seven armored vehicles as targets.

  13. Laser processing for bio-microfluidics applications (part II).

    PubMed

    Khan Malek, Chantal G

    2006-08-01

    This paper reviews applications of laser-based techniques to the fabrication of microfluidic devices for biochips and addresses some of the challenges associated with the manufacture of these devices. Special emphasis is placed on the use of lasers for the rapid prototyping and production of biochips, in particular for applications in which silicon is not the preferred material base. This review addresses applications and devices based on ablation using femtosecond lasers, infrared lasers as well as laser-induced micro-joining, and the laser-assisted generation of micro-replication tools, for subsequent replication of polymeric chips with a technique like laser LIGA.

  14. Object density-based image segmentation and its applications in biomedical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhua; Tan, Jinglu

    2009-12-01

    In many applications of medical image analysis, the density of an object is the most important feature for isolating an area of interest (image segmentation). In this research, an object density-based image segmentation methodology is developed, which incorporates intensity-based, edge-based and texture-based segmentation techniques. The proposed method consists of three main stages: preprocessing, object segmentation and final segmentation. Image enhancement, noise reduction and layer-of-interest extraction are several subtasks of preprocessing. Object segmentation utilizes a marker-controlled watershed technique to identify each object of interest (OI) from the background. A marker estimation method is proposed to minimize over-segmentation resulting from the watershed algorithm. Object segmentation provides an accurate density estimation of OI which is used to guide the subsequent segmentation steps. The final stage converts the distribution of OI into textural energy by using fractal dimension analysis. An energy-driven active contour procedure is designed to delineate the area with desired object density. Experimental results show that the proposed method is 98% accurate in segmenting synthetic images. Segmentation of microscopic images and ultrasound images shows the potential utility of the proposed method in different applications of medical image processing.

  15. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  16. Third Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Space Applications, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denton, Judith S. (Compiler); Freeman, Michael S. (Compiler); Vereen, Mary (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The application of artificial intelligence to spacecraft and aerospace systems is discussed. Expert systems, robotics, space station automation, fault diagnostics, parallel processing, knowledge representation, scheduling, man-machine interfaces and neural nets are among the topics discussed.

  17. DIY soundcard based temperature logging system. Part II: applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates some simple applications of how temperature logging systems may be used to monitor simple heat experiments, and how the data obtained can be analysed to get some additional insight into the physical processes.

  18. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Perkins, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 {degrees}C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  19. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgrande, N. K.; Durbin, P. F.; Perkins, D. E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses, and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  20. Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging in small animals, part 1: hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, A Y; Stewart, M; Lasker, J; Abdoulaev, G S; Hielscher, A H

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we explore the potential of diffuse optical tomography for brain oximetry. While several groups have already reported on the sensitivity of optical measurements to changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and blood volume, these studies were often limited to single source-detector geometries or topographic maps, where signals obtained from within the brain are projected onto 2-D surface maps. In this two-part study, we report on our efforts toward developing a volumetric optical imaging system that allows one to spatially resolve 3-D hemodynamic effects in rat brains. In part 1, we describe the instrumentation, optical probe design, and the model-based iterative image reconstruction algorithm employed in this work. Consideration of how a priori anatomical knowledge can be incorporated in the reconstruction process is presented. This system is then used to monitor global hemodynamic changes that occur in the brain under various degrees of hypercapnia. The physiologic cerebral response to hypercapnia is well known and therefore allows an initial performance assessment of the imaging system. As expected, we observe global changes in blood volume and oxygenation, which vary linearly as a function of the concentration of the inspired carbon dioxide. Furthermore, experiments are designed to determine the sensitivity of the reconstructions of only 1 mm to inaccurate probe positioning. We determine that shifts can significantly influence the reconstructions. In part 2 we focus on more local hemodynamic changes that occur during unilateral carotid occlusion performed at lower-than-normal systemic blood pressure. In this case, the occlusion leads to a predominantly monohemispherically localized effect, which is well described in the literature. Having explored the system with a well-characterized physiologic effect, we investigate and discuss the complex compensatory cerebrovascular hemodynamics that occur at normotensive blood pressure. Overall, these

  1. Landsat image registration for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

    1982-01-01

    An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

  2. Applications of digital image acquisition in anthropometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.; Lewis, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of a video kinesimeter, a device for the automatic real-time collection of kinematic and dynamic data. Based on the detection of a single bright spot by three TV cameras, the system provides automatic real-time recording of three-dimensional position and force data. It comprises three cameras, two incandescent lights, a voltage comparator circuit, a central control unit, and a mass storage device. The control unit determines the signal threshold for each camera before testing, sequences the lights, synchronizes and analyzes the scan voltages from the three cameras, digitizes force from a dynamometer, and codes the data for transmission to a floppy disk for recording. Two of the three cameras face each other along the 'X' axis; the third camera, which faces the center of the line between the first two, defines the 'Y' axis. An image from the 'Y' camera and either 'X' camera is necessary for determining the three-dimensional coordinates of the point.

  3. Driving micro-optical imaging systems towards miniature camera applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Andreas; Duparré, Jacques; Dannberg, Peter; Leitel, Robert; Bräuer, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Up to now, multi channel imaging systems have been increasingly studied and approached from various directions in the academic domain due to their promising large field of view at small system thickness. However, specific drawbacks of each of the solutions prevented the diffusion into corresponding markets so far. Most severe problems are a low image resolution and a low sensitivity compared to a conventional single aperture lens besides the lack of a cost-efficient method of fabrication and assembly. We propose a microoptical approach to ultra-compact optics for real-time vision systems that are inspired by the compound eyes of insects. The demonstrated modules achieve a VGA resolution with 700x550 pixels within an optical package of 6.8mm x 5.2mm and a total track length of 1.4mm. The partial images that are separately recorded within different optical channels are stitched together to form a final image of the whole field of view by means of image processing. These software tools allow to correct the distortion of the individual partial images so that the final image is also free of distortion. The so-called electronic cluster eyes are realized by state-of-the-art microoptical fabrication techniques and offer a resolution and sensitivity potential that makes them suitable for consumer, machine vision and medical imaging applications.

  4. Flat-panel imaging system for fluoroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeth, Richard E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Day, Derek J.; Gilblom, David L.; Harris, Richard A.; Job, Isaias D.; Klausmeier-Brown, Martin E.; Pavkovich, John M.; Seppi, Edward J.; Shapiro, Edward G.; Wright, Michael D.; Yu, Jiann M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes a multi-mode, digital imager for real- time x-ray applications. The imager has three modes of operation: low dose fluoroscopy, zoom fluoroscopy, and high resolution radiography. These modes trade-off resolution or field-of-view for frame rate and additionally optimize the sensitivity of the imager to match the x-ray dose used in each mode. This large area sensing technology has a form factor similar to that of a film cassette, no geometric image distortion, no sensitivity to magnetic fields, a very large dynamic range which eliminates repeat shots due to over or under exposure, 12 bit digital output and the ability to switch between operating modes in real-time. The imager, which consists of three modules: the Receptor, the Power Supply and the Command Processor, is intended as a component in a larger imaging system. Preliminary characterization of the prototype imager in fluoroscopic mode at entrance exposure rates down to 2.5 (mu) R/frame, indicates that the DQE(f), MTF and low contrast resolution are comparable to that obtained with an image intensifier tube (IIT) coupled to a video camera.

  5. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  6. 14 CFR 91.801 - Applicability: Relation to part 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum weights of more than 75,000 pounds and— (i) If U.S. registered, that have standard airworthiness... achieve results equivalent to those achievable under, part 36 for that airplane. Determinations made under... maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 75,000 pounds operating to or from an airport in the...

  7. 47 CFR 24.2 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures concerning the marketing and importation of radio frequency devices, and for obtaining equipment... conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices. Unlicensed PCS devices operate under subpart D of... contains rules concerning multipoint distribution service and multichannel multipoint distribution...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 600 - Generally Applicable Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4581). Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act of 1972, as amended (21 U.S.C. 1174.... 1271 et seq.). Protection of Human Subjects, 10 CFR part 745. Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act...

  13. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  14. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  15. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  16. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  17. 40 CFR 268.2 - Definitions applicable in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment standard is provided in Subpart D, Part 268, namely lead acid batteries, cadmium batteries, and..., wastewater, sludges, or air emission residues; and intact containers of hazardous waste that are not ruptured... Standards, except fluoride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, and zinc, which can reasonably be expected to...

  18. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  19. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  20. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  1. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... due on ___, 20__, on $_ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $_ was not received on such...

  2. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  3. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  4. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  5. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  6. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 230 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... ___, 20_, on $__ principal amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $__ was not received on such date and has...

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 221 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Part 221 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS... __, on $______ principal 1 amount of Notes held by the undersigned of the Government of Israel, on behalf of the State of Israel (the “Borrower”). Of such amount $______ was not received on such date and...

  8. 17 CFR 289.1 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13(a) OF THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCE... filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by the International Finance Corporation (“IFC”) pursuant to section 13(a) of the International Finance Corporation Act....

  9. The Shaped Charge Concept. Part 3. Applications of Shaped Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    discus.A in Part 2. The MISTEL ( mistletoe ) concept used a fighter aircraft mounted piggyback on the top of a large bomber aircraft The unmanned...Tech. Pub. 2158, p.12. March 1947. Coles, R., and P. L Rickson. ’ Mistletoe - The Deadly Parasite," Air Classics Ouarterly Re’ew. Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 38

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 284 - Overview of Waiver Application Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of Waiver Application Process A Appendix A to Part 284 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... ALLOWANCES Pt. 284, App. A Appendix A to Part 284—Overview of Waiver Application Process A. Standards...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  13. 13 CFR 107.20 - Legal basis and applicability of this part 107.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis and applicability of this part 107. 107.20 Section 107.20 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.20 Legal basis and applicability of this...

  14. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  15. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  16. 34 CFR 609.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Eligible Institution Apply for a Grant? § 609.20 What are the application requirements for a grant under this part? In order to receive a grant under this part, an... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the application requirements for a grant...

  17. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 39 - Application Guidance and Compliance With Core Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Compliance With Core Principles A Appendix A to Part 39 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS Pt. 39, App. A Appendix A to Part 39—Application... with which applicants must demonstrate the ability to comply and with which registered...

  18. 8 CFR 245a.6 - Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart B. 245a.6 Section 245a.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... 1986 (IRCA) Legalization Provisions § 245a.6 Treatment of denied application under part 245a, Subpart...

  19. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 201 - Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Approval of Commodity Eligibility (AID 11) B Appendix B to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  20. The selected examples of the application of computer image analysis in the assessment of environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janczak, Damian; Lewicki, Piotr; Mazur, Robert; Boniecki, Piotr; Dach, Jacek; Przybyl, Jacek; Pawlak, Maciej; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Czekala, Wojciech

    2013-07-01

    The environmental monitoring (EM) is an essential part of protection of the environment, most of the methods of environmental protection based on visual techniques or physico-chemical and biochemical measurements. The automation of traditional methods proceeds at an accelerating rate, modern laboratories prefer this type of tools to conduct a more comprehensive assessment and online monitoring. The application of computer image analysis methods in biomonitoring brings to this discipline the opportunity to develop innovative tools that allow for more precise sensitive and quantified assessment of monitored processes. The application of techniques based on computer image processing technology will dominate in the future and very comfortable and intuitive tool for researchers in the study of the components of the environment quality. The article presents some methods of automation the acute toxicity bioassay based on the application of computational methods.

  1. Recent advances in medical imaging: anatomical and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Grignon, Bruno; Mainard, Laurence; Delion, Matthieu; Hodez, Claude; Oldrini, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the most important recent advances in medical imaging and their potential clinical and anatomical applications. Dramatic changes have been particularly observed in the field of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography (CT) has been completely overturned by the successive development of helical acquisition, multidetector and large area-detector acquisition. Visualising brain function has become a new challenge for MRI, which is called functional MRI, currently based principally on blood oxygenation level-dependent sequences, which could be completed or replaced by other techniques such as diffusion MRI (DWI). Based on molecular diffusion due to the thermal energy of free water, DWI offers a spectrum of anatomical and clinical applications, ranging from brain ischemia to visualisation of large fibrous structures of the human body such as the anatomical bundles of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. In the field of X-ray projection imaging, a new low-dose device called EOS has been developed through new highly sensitive detectors of X-rays, allowing for acquiring frontal and lateral images simultaneously. Other improvements have been briefly mentioned. Technical principles have been considered in order to understand what is most useful in clinical practice as well as in the field of anatomical applications. Nuclear medicine has not been included.

  2. Imaging requirements for medical applications of additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Huotilainen, Eero; Paloheimo, Markku; Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Björkstrand, Roy; Tuomi, Jukka; Markkola, Antti; Mäkitie, Antti

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), formerly known as rapid prototyping, is steadily shifting its focus from industrial prototyping to medical applications as AM processes, bioadaptive materials, and medical imaging technologies develop, and the benefits of the techniques gain wider knowledge among clinicians. This article gives an overview of the main requirements for medical imaging affected by needs of AM, as well as provides a brief literature review from existing clinical cases concentrating especially on the kind of radiology they required. As an example application, a pair of CT images of the facial skull base was turned into 3D models in order to illustrate the significance of suitable imaging parameters. Additionally, the model was printed into a preoperative medical model with a popular AM device. Successful clinical cases of AM are recognized to rely heavily on efficient collaboration between various disciplines - notably operating surgeons, radiologists, and engineers. The single main requirement separating tangible model creation from traditional imaging objectives such as diagnostics and preoperative planning is the increased need for anatomical accuracy in all three spatial dimensions, but depending on the application, other specific requirements may be present as well. This article essentially intends to narrow the potential communication gap between radiologists and engineers who work with projects involving AM by showcasing the overlap between the two disciplines.

  3. Addressing the challenges of thermal imaging for firefighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Poe, George; Terre, William A.; Salapow, Thomas M.; Raimondi, John

    2003-09-01

    By providing visibility through smoke and absolute darkness, thermal imaging has the potential to radically improve the effectiveness and safety of the modern firefighter. Some of the roles of thermal imaging are assisting in detection of victims; navigating through dark, smoke-filled structures; detecting indications of imminent flash-over/roll-over; identifying and attacking the seat and extension of a fire; and surveying for lingering hot spots after a fire is nearly extinguished. In many respects, thermal imaging is ideally suited for these functions. However, firefighting applications present the infrared community some unique and challenging design constraints, not the least of which is an operating environment that is in some ways more harsh than most aerospace applications. While many previous papers have described the benefits of thermal imaging for firefighters, this paper describes several specific engineering challenges of this application. These include large ambient temperature range, rapidly changing scene dynamics, extreme demands on AGC, and large dynamic range requirements. This paper describes these and other challenges in detail and explains how they were addressed and overcome in the design of Evolution 5000, a state-of-the-art thermal imager designed and manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances (MSA) using Indigo System"s Omega miniature uncooled camera core.

  4. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Corbiere, Franck; Belliot, Pierre; Estribeau, Magali

    2004-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding space applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this paper will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments and performances of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process will be presented in the corresponding section.

  5. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  6. Dual plasmonic gold nanoparticles for multispectral photoacoustic imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Vijay; Subhash, Hrebesh; Breathnach, Aedán.; Leahy, Martin; Dockery, Peter; Olivo, Malini

    2014-03-01

    Nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular targeted imaging have widespread interest in diagnostic applications with cellular resolution, specificity and selectivity for visualization and assessment of various disease processes. Of particular interest is gold nanoparticle owing to its tunability of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its relative inertness. Here we present the synthesis of anisotropic multi-branched star shaped gold nanoparticles exhibiting dual-band plasmon absorption peaks and its application as a contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic imaging. The transverse plasmon absorption peak of the synthesised dual plasmonic gold nanostar (DPGNS) was around 700 nm and that of longitudinal plasmon absorption in the longer wavelength region around 1050-1150 nm. Unlike most reported PA contrast agent with surface plasmon absorption in the range of 700 to 800 nm showing moderate tissue penetration, 1050-1200 nm range lies in the farther region of the optical window of biological tissue where scattering and the intrinsic optical extinction of endogenous chromophores is at its minimum. We also present a proof of principle demonstration of DPGNS as contrast agent for multispectral photoacoustic animal imaging. Our results show that DPGNS are promising for PA imaging with extended-depth imaging applications.

  7. Guided wave imaging of part-thickness defects in large structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, P.

    2012-05-01

    Distributed guided ultrasonic wave array systems allow for the efficient structural health monitoring (SHM) of large structures, such as aircraft or ship hulls. Permanently attached sensor arrays have been applied for the detection and imaging of corrosion and fatigue damage. A hybrid model has been developed for the efficient prediction of the sensitivity of guided wave array systems to detect through thickness and part-through fatigue cracks in plate structures. The influence of the orientation of the crack relative to the transducer elements had been predicted from localized 3D Finite Element simulations and verified experimentally. Using the hybrid model, detection and imaging capabilities can be predicted for various defect depths, and the sensor layout and signal processing optimized. This has been demonstrated from laboratory experiments. Part-thickness notches and holes of increasing depth were machined into an aluminum plate and imaged using distributed sensors for the A0 Lamb wave mode. Based on the model predictions the sensitivity for shallow defects can be optimized. The influence of the scattering characteristics on the minimum defect depth that can be imagined has been discussed.

  8. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part I: Clinical classifications and radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewska, Genowefa; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals at the developmental age. Radiography is the primary modality employed in the diagnostic imaging in order to identify changes typical of this disease entity and rule out other bone-related pathologies, such as neoplasms, posttraumatic changes, developmental defects and other forms of arthritis. The standard procedure involves the performance of comparative joint radiographs in two planes. Radiographic changes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis are detected in later stages of the disease. Bone structures are assessed in the first place. Radiographs can also indirectly indicate the presence of soft tissue inflammation (i.e. in joint cavities, sheaths and bursae) based on swelling and increased density of the soft tissue as well as dislocation of fat folds. Signs of articular cartilage defects are also seen in radiographs indirectly – based on joint space width changes. The first part of the publication presents the classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and discusses its radiographic images. The authors list the affected joints as well as explain the spectrum and specificity of radiographic signs resulting from inflammatory changes overlapping with those caused by the maturation of the skeletal system. Moreover, certain dilemmas associated with the monitoring of the disease are reviewed. The second part of the publication will explain issues associated with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are more and more commonly applied in juvenile idiopathic arthritis for early detection of pathological features as well as the disease complications. PMID:27679726

  9. A collaborative biomedical image mining framework: application on the image analysis of microscopic kidney biopsies.

    PubMed

    Goudas, T; Doukas, C; Chatziioannou, A; Maglogiannis, I

    2013-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of biomedical image data is a complex procedure involving several processing phases, like data acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The proper combination and parameterization of the utilized methods are heavily relying on the given image data set and experiment type. They may thus necessitate advanced image processing and classification knowledge and skills from the side of the biomedical expert. In this work, an application, exploiting web services and applying ontological modeling, is presented, to enable the intelligent creation of image mining workflows. The described tool can be directly integrated to the RapidMiner, Taverna or similar workflow management platforms. A case study dealing with the creation of a sample workflow for the analysis of kidney biopsy microscopy images is presented to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed framework.

  10. Wavelet-based compression of pathological images for telemedicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang W.; Jiang, Jianfei; Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Xue G.; Yu, Lun

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we present the performance evaluation of wavelet-based coding techniques as applied to the compression of pathological images for application in an Internet-based telemedicine system. We first study how well suited the wavelet-based coding is as it applies to the compression of pathological images, since these images often contain fine textures that are often critical to the diagnosis of potential diseases. We compare the wavelet-based compression with the DCT-based JPEG compression in the DICOM standard for medical imaging applications. Both objective and subjective measures have been studied in the evaluation of compression performance. These studies are performed in close collaboration with expert pathologists who have conducted the evaluation of the compressed pathological images and communication engineers and information scientists who designed the proposed telemedicine system. These performance evaluations have shown that the wavelet-based coding is suitable for the compression of various pathological images and can be integrated well with the Internet-based telemedicine systems. A prototype of the proposed telemedicine system has been developed in which the wavelet-based coding is adopted for the compression to achieve bandwidth efficient transmission and therefore speed up the communications between the remote terminal and the central server of the telemedicine system.

  11. Adaptive coded aperture imaging: progress and potential future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottesman, Stephen R.; Isser, Abraham; Gigioli, George W., Jr.

    2011-09-01

    Interest in Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging (ACAI) continues to grow as the optical and systems engineering community becomes increasingly aware of ACAI's potential benefits in the design and performance of both imaging and non-imaging systems , such as good angular resolution (IFOV), wide distortion-free field of view (FOV), excellent image quality, and light weight construct. In this presentation we first review the accomplishments made over the past five years, then expand on previously published work to show how replacement of conventional imaging optics with coded apertures can lead to a reduction in system size and weight. We also present a trade space analysis of key design parameters of coded apertures and review potential applications as replacement for traditional imaging optics. Results will be presented, based on last year's work of our investigation into the trade space of IFOV, resolution, effective focal length, and wavelength of incident radiation for coded aperture architectures. Finally we discuss the potential application of coded apertures for replacing objective lenses of night vision goggles (NVGs).

  12. A possible application of magnetic resonance imaging for pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Joanna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

    2011-03-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive method, the experiment can be conducted in situ and allows the studying of the sample and the different processes in vitro or in vivo. 1D, 2D or 3D imaging can be undertaken. MRI is nowadays most widely used in medicine as a clinical diagnostic tool, but has still seen limited application in the food and pharmaceutical sciences. The different imaging pulse sequences of MRI allow to image the processes that take place in a wide scale range from ms (dissolution of compact tablets) to hours (hydration of drug delivery systems) for mobile as well as for rigid spins, usually protons. The paper gives examples of MRI application of in vitro imaging of pharmaceutical dosage based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose which have focused on water-penetration, diffusion, polymer swelling, and drug release, characterized with respect to other physical parameters such as pH and the molecular weight of polymer. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as a model drug. NMR imaging of density distributions and fast kinetics of the dissolution behavior of compact tablets is presented for paracetamol tablets.

  13. a Review of Hyperspectral Imaging in Close Range Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, T. H.; Buckley, S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is an established method for material mapping, which has been conventionally applied from airborne and spaceborne platforms for a range of applications, including mineral and vegetation mapping, change detection and environmental studies. The main advantage of lightweight hyperspectral imagers lies in the flexibility to deploy them from various platforms (terrestrial imaging and from unmanned aerial vehicles; UAVs), as well as the high spectral resolution to cover an expanding wavelength range. In addition, spatial resolution allows object sampling distances from micrometres to tens of centimetres - complementary to conventional nadir-looking systems. When this new type of imaging device was initially released, few instruments were available and the applicability and potential of the method was restricted. Today, a wider range of instruments, with a range of specifications, is available, with significant improvements over the first generation of technology. In this contribution, the state-of-the-art of hyperspectral imaging will be reviewed from a close range measurement perspective, highlighting how the method supplements geometric modelling techniques. An overview of the processing workflow, adjusted to the more complex close range imaging scenario will be given. This includes the integration with 3D laser scanning and photogrammetric models to provide a geometric framework and real world coordinate system for the hyperspectral imagery.

  14. Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

  15. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, Garreth J.

    2016-05-01

    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  16. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  17. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  18. Imaging systems for biomedical applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Radparvar, M.

    1995-06-06

    Many of the activities of the human body manifest themselves by the presence of a very weak magnetic field outside the body, a field that is so weak that an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor is needed for specific biomagnetic measurements. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are extremely sensitive detectors of magnetic flux and have been used extensively to detect the human magnetocardiogram, and magnetoencephalogram. and other biomagnetic signals. In order to utilize a SQUID as a magnetometer, its transfer characteristics should be linearized. This linearization requires extensive peripheral electronics, thus limiting the number of SQUID magnetometer channels in a practical system. The proposed digital SQUID integrates the processing circuitry on the same cryogenic chip as the SQUID magnetometer and eliminates the sophisticated peripheral electronics. Such a system is compact and cost effective, and requires minimal support electronics. Under a DOE-sponsored SBIR program, we designed, simulated, laid out, fabricated, evaluated, and demonstrated a digital SQUID magnetometer. This report summarizes the accomplishments under this program and clearly demonstrates that all of the tasks proposed in the phase II application were successfully completed with confirmed experimental results.

  19. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  20. Fundamental developments in infrared spectroscopic imaging for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Gardner, Peter

    2016-04-07

    Infrared chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field with new advances in instrumentation, data acquisition and data analysis. These developments have had significant impact in biomedical applications and numerous studies have now shown that this technology offers great promise for the improved diagnosis of the diseased state. Relying on purely biochemical signatures rather than contrast from exogenous dyes and stains, infrared chemical imaging has the potential to revolutionise histopathology for improved disease diagnosis. In this review we discuss the recent advances in infrared spectroscopic imaging specifically related to spectral histopathology (SHP) and consider the current state of the field. Finally we consider the practical application of SHP for disease diagnosis and consider potential barriers to clinical translation highlighting current directions and the future outlook.