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Sample records for imaging fecal incontinence

  1. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Fecal Incontinence Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  2. Management of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2008-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, symptom severity, and response to previous therapy. Anorectal manometry and sphincter imaging are useful starting tests. Depending upon the clinical circumstances, additional testing and therapeutic options may be useful. Fecal continence can be improved by measures to regulate bowel habits and pelvic floor retraining. Surgical repair of anal sphincter defects improves fecal continence in the short but not in the long term. Newer surgical therapies and devices are of limited and/or unproven utility.

  3. Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, symptom severity, and response to previous therapy. Anorectal manometry and sphincter imaging are useful starting tests. Depending upon the clinical circumstances, additional testing and therapeutic options may be useful. Fecal continence can be improved by measures to regulate bowel habits and pelvic floor retraining. Surgical repair of anal sphincter defects improves fecal continence in the short but not in the long term. Newer surgical therapies and devices are of limited and/or unproven utility. PMID:21960903

  4. Gaining Control Over Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gump, Kendra; Schmelzer, Marilee

    2016-01-01

    Strategies that improve the regularity and efficiency of defecation can eliminate or minimize episodes of fecal incontinence. The medical-surgical nurse's role in identifying patients with fecal incontinence is discussed, along with various treatments to control bowel elimination.

  5. Fecal incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Syed H

    2007-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is an underreported and underappreciated problem in older adults. Although fecal incontinence is more common in women than in men, this difference narrows with aging. Risk factors that lead to the development of fecal incontinence include dementia, physical disability, and fecal impaction. Treatment options include medical or conservative therapy for older adults who have mild incontinence, and surgical options can be explored in selected older adults if surgical expertise is available.

  6. Economic cost of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Menees, Stacy B; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fenner, Dee E

    2012-05-01

    Despite its prevalence and deleterious impact on patients and families, fecal incontinence remains an understudied condition. Few data are available on its economic burden in the United States. The aim of this study was to quantify per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. A mail survey of patients with fecal incontinence was conducted in 2010 to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, fecal incontinence symptoms, and utilization of medical and nonmedical resources for fecal incontinence. The analysis was conducted from a societal perspective and included both direct and indirect (ie, productivity loss) costs. Unit costs were determined based on standard Medicare reimbursement rates, national average wholesale prices of medications, and estimates from other relevant sources. All cost estimates were reported in 2010 US dollars. This study was conducted at a single tertiary care institution. The analysis included 332 adult patients who had fecal incontinence for more than a year with at least monthly leakage of solid, liquid, or mucous stool. The primary outcome measured was the per patient annual economic costs associated with fecal incontinence. The average annual total cost for fecal incontinence was $4110 per person (median = $1594; interquartile range, $517-$5164). Of these costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs averaged $2353 (median, $1176; interquartile range, $294-$2438) and $209 (median, $75; interquartile range, $17-$262), whereas the indirect cost associated with productivity loss averaged $1549 per patient annually (median, $0; interquartile range, $0-$813). Multivariate regression analyses suggested that greater fecal incontinence symptom severity was significantly associated with higher annual direct costs. This study was based on patient self-reported data, and the sample was derived from a single institution. Fecal incontinence is associated with substantial economic cost, calling for more

  7. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel movement. A child who is constipated may soil his or her underpants. Soiling happens when liquid ... Incontinence and Aging Managing Incontinence Managing Incontinence: A Survey The Patient's Perspective Barriers on Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  8. Fecal incontinence - Challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Saldana Ruiz, Nallely; Kaiser, Andreas M

    2017-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a frequent and debilitating common final pathway symptom resulting from numerous different causes. Incontinence not only impacts the patient’s self-esteem and quality of life but may result in significant secondary morbidity, disability, and cost. Treatment is difficult without any panacea and an individualized approach should be chosen that frequently combines different modalities. Several new technologies have been developed and their specific roles will have to be defined. The scope of this review is outline the evaluation and treatment of patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:28104977

  9. Current Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer Y; Abbas, Maher A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the management of fecal incontinence, which affects more than 1 in 10 people and can have a substantial negative impact on quality of life. Methods: The medical literature between 1980 and April 2012 was reviewed for the evaluation and management of fecal incontinence. Results: A comprehensive history and physical examination are required to help understand the severity and type of symptoms and the cause of incontinence. Treatment options range from medical therapy and minimally invasive interventions to more invasive procedures with varying degrees of morbidity. The treatment approach must be tailored to each patient. Many patients can have substantial improvement in symptoms with dietary management and biofeedback therapy. For younger patients with large sphincter defects, sphincter repair can be helpful. For patients in whom biofeedback has failed, other options include injectable medications, radiofrequency ablation, or sacral nerve stimulation. Patients with postdefecation fecal incontinence and a rectocele can benefit from rectocele repair. An artificial bowel sphincter is reserved for patients with more severe fecal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment algorithm for fecal incontinence will continue to evolve as additional data become available on newer technologies. PMID:24355892

  10. Fecal Incontinence: Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Weiss, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a debilitating problem facing ~2.2% of the U.S. general population over 65 years of age. Etiologic factors include traumatic, neurologic, congenital, and iatrogenic. Most commonly, obstetric trauma causes fecal incontinence as well as poorly performed anorectal surgery or pelvic radiation. Several severity scores and quality of life indexes have been developed to quantify incontinent symptoms. There are several nonsurgical and surgical options for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Biofeedback is among the most successful nonoperative strategies. Depending on the cause, anal sphincter repair, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation are used to treat fecal incontinence with some success. Unfortunately, fecal incontinence is an extremely difficult problem to manage: there has not been one, single treatment option that has proven to be both safe and effective in long-term studies. PMID:22379407

  11. External anal sphincter defects in patients with fecal incontinence: comparison of endoanal MR imaging and endoanal US.

    PubMed

    Dobben, Annette C; Terra, Maaike P; Slors, J Frederik M; Deutekom, Marije; Gerhards, Michael F; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Stoker, Jaap

    2007-02-01

    To prospectively compare in a multicenter study the agreement between endoanal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and endoanal ultrasonography (US) in depicting external anal sphincter (EAS) defects in patients with fecal incontinence. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of all participating centers. A total of 237 consenting patients (214 women, 23 men; mean age, 58.6 years +/- 13 [standard deviation]) with fecal incontinence were examined from 13 different hospitals by using endoanal MR imaging and endoanal US. Patients with an anterior EAS defect depicted on endoanal MR images and/or endoanal US scans underwent anal sphincter repair. Surgical findings were used as the reference standard in the determination of anterior EAS defects. The Cohen kappa statistic and McNemar test were used to calculate agreement and differences between diagnostic techniques. Agreement between endoanal MR imaging and endoanal US was fair for the depiction of sphincter defects (kappa = 0.24 [95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.36]). At surgery, EAS defects were found in 31 (86%) of 36 patients. There was no significant difference between MR imaging and US in the depiction of sphincter defects (P = .23). Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 81% and 89%, respectively, for endoanal MR imaging and 90% and 85%, respectively, for endoanal US. In the selection of patients for anal sphincter repair, both endoanal MR imaging and endoanal US are sensitive tools for preoperative assessment, and both techniques can be used to depict surgically repairable anterior EAS defects. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  12. A Content Incontinent: Report of Liposomal Bupivacaine Induced Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Proper surgical management of anal fistula demands sound clinical judgment and extraordinary care to prevent incontinence and adequate postoperative pain control and provide satisfactory resolution to optimize quality of life. Fecal incontinence can be a devastating complication of procedures performed for fistula in ano. We report a unique case in which temporary incontinence (for less than 4 days) followed injection of liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative pain control after draining seton placement for fistula in ano. Patients and physicians should be aware as it may be mistaken for a more serious anatomical and permanent cause of fecal incontinence. PMID:27747127

  13. Directions for future nursing research on fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Norton, Christine A; Miller, Janis; Krissovich, Marta

    2004-01-01

    As knowledge of the prevalence and impact of fecal incontinence increases, additional research is needed to improve patient outcomes and support the practice of nurses in this area. To outline needs for future nursing research on fecal incontinence in aging adults. Existing literature about fecal incontinence was analyzed to generate a plan for future research. Recommendations for investigation were proposed in the following areas: mechanisms underlying fecal incontinence and common to fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence; assessment of fecal incontinence; management strategies; and tracking a patient's response to fecal incontinence therapies across the healthcare system. Other areas of study identified as priorities included lessening the psychological burden of fecal incontinence, preventing perineal skin problems with appropriate skin care protocols and products, and developing efficacious nursing home routines and environments. Increasing the capacity of nursing research focused on fecal incontinence through funding support and recruitment incentives for new investigators is essential to achieve the proposed agenda.

  14. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient’s life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  16. Outcome measures for fecal incontinence: anorectal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2004-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a symptom attributable to a variety of disorders affecting one or more factors that maintain continence. Objective assessments should complement symptom assessments as outcome measures in therapeutic trials; conceivably, these assessments may also predict the response to therapy. Consistent with existing trends, most therapeutic trials should incorporate anal sphincter pressures and rectal sensation as outcome variables, paying meticulous attention to techniques. Rectal sensation is increased after pelvic floor retraining by biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence; however, the predictive value of improved anal pressures after biofeedback has not been clearly established. Other factors maintaining continence can be assessed by newer approaches. In addition to assessing rectal sensation, a barostat also measures rectal compliance; alterations in rectal compliance modulate rectal perception. Particularly appropriate end points for trials involving surgical repair are sphincter integrity, assessed by endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and puborectalis and pelvic floor motion, assessed by dynamic MRI. Despite disagreement about which technique is superior for evaluating the internal sphincter, MRI performs the same or better than ultrasound for assessing the external sphincter. The utility of measuring pudendal nerve latencies as a marker of pudendal nerve injury is limited; needle electromyography provides a sensitive measure of denervation and can usually identify myopathic damage, neurogenic damage, or mixed injury. These standardized, reproducible assessments of the multifaceted mechanisms maintaining fecal incontinence should be incorporated as outcome variables in therapeutic trials of fecal incontinence.

  17. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  18. Incidence and Characteristics of Incontinence Associated Dermatitis in Community-Dwelling Persons with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Zimmaro; Funk, Taylor; Jacobson, Megan; Savik, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the incidence and characteristics of incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD) in community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of self-reported IAD among community-living individuals with fecal incontinence. The study also examined whether IAD was associated with older age, gender, presence of urinary incontinence, or fecal incontinence severity. Design Secondary data analysis using a prospective cohort design. Subjects and Setting Community-living adults (N = 98) with fecal incontinence (76% female, 34% aged 65+ years, 90% White) who participated in a study about dietary fiber supplementation and were free of IAD at the start. Thirty five percent also had urinary incontinence. Methods Subjects assessed their skin for IAD daily for 52 days reporting types of IAD damage (redness, rash/fungal infection, and skin loss), location of IAD, and symptoms. They reported fecal incontinence on a diary for the first and last 14 study days. Results The incidence of IAD was 41% (40/98). The fecal incontinence severity score for subjects developing IAD was 1.2 higher than those who never had IAD (p < .001). There was no significant association of IAD with age, gender, or dual fecal and urinary incontinence. Incontinence Associated Dermatitis developed within 2 weeks and healed in approximately 1 week. The most common sign and symptom were redness (60% patients) and soreness (78%), respectively. Most subjects (85%) had IAD in one location. Conclusions Assessing for IAD in community-living patients with fecal incontinence is important as IAD is common and causes discomfort. The relatively mild severity of IAD offers WOC nurses opportunity for improving patient outcomes by preventing and managing this problem. PMID:26336048

  19. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when testing should be done do not exist. Clinicians must weigh the risk, benefit, and burden of testing against the need for empiric treatment. All types of FI are initially managed in the same way, which includes lifestyle modification to reduce bowel derangements, improved access to toileting, and initiation of a bulking regimen to improve stool consistency. If initial conservative management fails, pharmaco-logic agents, biofeedback, or surgery may be indicated. PMID:23935551

  20. [Application of sacral nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Ye, Yingjiang; Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Fecal incontinence is one of diseases effecting the quality of life and mental health. Germany surgeon used sacral nerve stimulation(SNS) to treat fecal incontinence at first in 1995. The aim of SNS is to mobilize the ability to control the feces through stimulating the nerves of dominating the sphincter muscles and pelvic floor muscles. Standard SNS includes two stages: evaluation stage of SNS and permanent implantation stage. Preoperative evaluation plays important role in guaranteeing the success of treatment. SNS is the primary treatment of choice for severe fecal incontinence. The complications of SNS include pain, shift of electronic probe, wound dehiscence, bowel dysfunction and infection.

  1. [Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

    1995-09-01

    Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment.

  2. Fecal incontinence in men: Causes and clinical and manometric features

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Ciriza de los Ríos, Constanza; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco; Vara, Jesús; Solís-Herruzo, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the causes and characteristics of fecal incontinence in men and to compare these features with those presented by a group of women with the same problem. METHODS: We analyzed the medical history, clinical and manometric data from 119 men with fecal incontinence studied in our unit and compared these data with those obtained from 645 women studied for the same problem. Response to treatment was evaluated after 6 mo of follow-up. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of patients studied in our unit for fecal incontinence were male. Men took longer than women before asking for medical help. Ano-rectal surgery was the most common risk factor for men related to fecal incontinence. Chronic diarrhea was present in more than 40% of patients in both groups. Decreased resting and external anal sphincter pressures were more frequent in women. No significant differences existed between the sexes regarding rectal sensitivity and recto-anal inhibitory reflex. In 17.8% of men, all presenting soiling, manometric findings did not justify fecal incontinence. Response to treatment was good in both groups, as 80.4% of patients improved and fecal incontinence disappeared in 13.2% of them. CONCLUSION: In our series, it was common that men waited longer in seeking medical help for fecal incontinence. Ano-rectal surgery was the major cause of this problem. Chronic diarrhea was a predisposing factor in both sexes. Manometric differences between groups were limited to an increased frequency of hypotony of the external anal sphincter in women. Fecal incontinence was controllable in most patients. PMID:24976729

  3. Fecal incontinence in an inpatient population: a not uncommon finding.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Brian T; Chepyala, Pavan; Hendon, Shane; Crowell, Michael D; Olden, Kevin W

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in hospitalized patients was determined, as well as the frequency with which physicians query about FI. Using a standardized questionnaire, subjects admitted to general medicine services at three university hospitals were questioned about FI. Investigators also reviewed the subjects' charts to determine if presence or absence of FI was documented. One hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled, and 46% (92/199) reported ongoing FI. Advanced age, looser stools, symptoms of fecal urgency, urinary incontinence, and history of forceps delivery were found to be potential predictors of FI. Only 6% (6/92) with FI had documentation of FI in the medical chart and only 3% (6/199) of the entire sample were queried about FI. Fecal incontinence is an extremely common condition in hospitalized patients. Physician history-taking is severely deficient in this area. Methods to improve FI detection in the hospitalized patient population need to be developed.

  4. Update on the Management of Fecal Incontinence for the Gastroenterologist

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with fecal incontinence respond to conservative measures based upon a careful assessment and a multimodality approach that Is within the expertise of the practicing gastroenterologist. However, there Is a need for new and effective strategies when conservative therapy fails. This article reviews established therapies for fecal incontinence, such as biofeedback, as well as new therapies that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as sacral neuromodulation and an injectable bulking agent. Also reviewed are some of the newer approaches that have not yet been approved by the FDA or that have uncertain efficacy. PMID:27231444

  5. Pregnancy and postpartum bowel changes: constipation and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Grace Hewon; Toto, Erin Lucinda; Schey, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are often associated with many gastrointestinal complaints, including nausea, vomiting, and heartburn; however, the most troublesome complaints in some women are defecatory disorders such as constipation and fecal incontinence, especially postpartum. These disorders are often multifactorial in etiology, and many studies have looked to see what risk factors lead to these complications. This review discusses the current knowledge of pelvic floor and anorectal physiology, especially during pregnancy, and reviews the current literature on causes and treatments of postpartum bowel symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence.

  6. Sacral Nerve Stimulation For Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urgency-Frequency, Urinary Retention, and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. Background: Condition and Target Population Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. The Technology Being Reviewed: Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is

  7. Effects of clonidine in women with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Fletcher, Joel G; Camilleri, Michael; Edge, Jessica; Carlson, Paula; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Some women with urge-predominant fecal incontinence (FI) have diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and a stiffer and hypersensitive rectum. We evaluated the effects of the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine on symptoms and anorectal functions in women with FI in a prospective, placebo-controlled trial. We assessed bowel symptoms and anorectal functions (anal pressures, rectal compliance, and sensation) in 43 women (age, 58 ± 2 y) with urge-predominant FI, randomly assigned to groups given oral clonidine (0.1 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Before and after administration of the medication, anal pressures were evaluated by manometry, and rectal compliance and sensation were measured using a barostat. Anal sphincter injury was evaluated by endoanal magnetic resonance imaging. Bowel symptoms were recorded in daily and weekly diaries. The primary end point was the FI and Constipation Assessment symptom severity score. FI scores decreased from 9.1 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.5 among subjects given placebo and from 8.1 ± 0.4 to 6.5 ± 0.6 among patients given clonidine. Clonidine did not affect FI symptom severity, bowel symptoms (stool consistency or frequency), anal pressures, rectal compliance, or sensation compared with placebo. However, when baseline data were used to categorize subjects as those with or without diarrhea, clonidine reduced the proportion of loose stools in patients with diarrhea only (P = .018). Clonidine also reduced the proportion of days with FI in patients with diarrhea (P = .0825). Overall, clonidine did not affect bowel symptoms, fecal continence, or anorectal functions, compared with placebo, in women with urge-predominant FI. Among patients with diarrhea, clonidine increased stool consistency, with a borderline significant improvement in fecal continence. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number NCT00884832. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Clonidine in Women with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Camilleri, Michael; Edge, Jessica; Carlson, Paula; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Some women with urge-predominant fecal incontinence (FI) have diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and a stiffer and hypersensitive rectum. We evaluated the effects of the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine on symptoms and anorectal functions in women with FI in prospective, placebo-controlled trial. Methods We assessed bowel symptoms and anorectal functions (anal pressures, rectal compliance, and sensation) in 43 women (58±2 y old) with urge-predominant FI randomly assigned to groups given oral clonidine (0.1 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Before and after administration of the test article, anal pressures were evaluated by manometry, and rectal compliance and sensation were measured using a barostat. Anal sphincter injury was evaluated by endoanal magnetic resonance imaging. Bowel symptoms were recorded in daily and weekly diaries. The primary endpoint was the FI and Constipation Assessment symptom severity score. Results FI scores decreased from 9.1±0.3 to 7.6±0.5 among subjects given placebo and from 8.1±0.4 to 6.5±0.6 among patients given clonidine. Clonidine did not affect FI symptom severity, bowel symptoms (stool consistency or frequency), anal pressures, rectal compliance, or sensation, compared to placebo. However, when baseline data were used to categorize subjects as those with or without diarrhea, clonidine reduced the proportion of loose stools in patients with diarrhea only (P=.018). Clonidine also reduced the proportion of days with FI in patients with diarrhea (P=.0825). Conclusions Overall, clonidine did not affect bowel symptoms, fecal continence, or anorectal functions, compared with placebo, in women with urge-predominant FI. Among patients with diarrhea, clonidine increased stool consistency, with a borderline significant improvement in fecal continence. PMID:23891925

  9. Advances in the surgical treatment of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Person, Benjamin; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-03-01

    Although surgery for fecal incontinence has been shown to be effective, it is still very challenging and sometimes frustrating. Overlapping sphincteroplasty, by far the most common procedure, is effective in patients with sphincter defects; however, recent data suggest that success rates tend to deteriorate over time. A thorough preoperative evaluation incorporates numerous factors, including patient characteristics, severity of incontinence, type and size of the sphincter defect as assessed by physical examination, anal ultrasound, and anorectal physiology studies including anal manometry, electromyography, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency assessment. The use of these evaluation methods has allowed better patient assignment for a variety of new alternative treatment options. Innovations in the surgical treatment of fecal incontinence range from simple, office-based sphincter augmentation techniques to surgical implantation of mechanical devices. This article reviews 5 alternative surgical treatment options for fecal incontinence: injection of carbon-coated beads in the submucosa of the anal canal, radiofrequency energy delivery, stimulated graciloplasty, artificial bowel sphincter, and sacral nerve stimulation.

  10. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Laurel R; Brown, Jeanette S; Creasman, Jennifer M; Subak, Leslee L; Van den Eeden, Stephen K; Thom, David H; Varma, Madhulika G; Huang, Alison J

    2012-10-01

    The impact of anal incontinence on women's sexual function is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. This is a cross-sectional study. This investigation was conducted in a community-based integrated health care delivery system. Included were 2269 ethnically diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the previous 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p = 0.06). In comparison with women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR: 1.41 (CI: 1.10-1.82)), low sexual satisfaction (OR: 1.56 (CI: 1.14-2.12)), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR: 1.65 (CI: 1.19-2.28)) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR: 2.66 (CI: 1.76-4.00)), pain (OR: 2.44 (CI: 1.52-3.91)), and orgasm (OR: 1.68 (CI: 1.12-2.51)). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported sexual functioning similar to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. The cross

  11. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Felix W.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary and fecal incontinence (UI, FI) are co-morbid conditions affecting over 50% of nursing home residents. Both forms of incontinence are risk factors for elderly persons to be placed in the nursing home, and such institutionalization itself is a risk factor for developing incontinence. Management should focus on identifying and treating underlying causes, such as detrusor instability, urinary tract infections, diet- or medication-induced diarrhea, constipation and fecal impaction. Despite appropriate management, residents may remain incontinent because of dementia and health or restraint-related immobility. Nursing homes lack the staff and financial resources to provide residents with sufficiently frequent toileting assistance (including prompted voiding). Use of special undergarments and absorbent pads is the usual practice. The article reviews the results of studies that have documented how prompted voiding programs can significantly reduce UI and FI, particularly if the intervention includes dietary and exercise components. Recent systematic anorectal testing of nursing home residents with FI has documented impaired sphincter function (risk factor for FI), decreased rectal sensation and sphincter dyssynergia (risk factor for constipation and impaction). The data suggest that the use of laxatives and stool softeners for prophylaxis against constipation and impaction related to underlying dyssynergia may have produced sufficient fluidity in the stool to predispose the residents with impaired sphincter function to manifest FI. Documentation of non-invasive and efficacious interventions by RCT and the labor costs of implementing these measures can lead to changes in how nursing home care is provided and funded. PMID:18794004

  12. Health Literacy and Emotional Responses Related to Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kristina; Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose was to begin to examine continence literacy of individuals with fecal incontinence (FI) by describing terms by which these individuals referred to FI and to explore their emotional responses to FI. A secondary aim was to compare differences in these results between male versus female and younger (< 65 yrs) versus older persons with FI. Design Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a clinical trial of fiber supplementation for FI. Methods Content analysis of participants’ statements reported in field notes of data collectors and their responses to data forms and questions. Results Six thematic categories of terms for FI emerged. Only one person used the term “fecal incontinence.” Alternate terms described stool characteristics, named other gastrointestinal problems, or referred to FI using a term that seemed to depersonalize the problems. Emotional responses to FI focused on the influence of bothersome symptoms of FI, interference with social activities, and need for control. Others showed use of humor for coping and emotional benefits gained from being in a study. Women were impacted by the social limitations of having FI more than men. Younger people expressed feelings of emotional upset. Conclusion There is need to increase health literacy about fecal incontinence. Continence nurse specialists are well qualified to educate patients about FI and to evaluate if higher continence literacy increases reporting of FI. Understanding the various emotional responses to FI may guide the optimal support that nurses can provide and facilitate better management of FI. PMID:20075695

  13. Patients' experience compared with physicians' recommendations for treating fecal incontinence: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Komesu, Yuko M

    2014-07-01

    Using qualitative methods, we compared physician-recommended treatment options for fecal incontinence to patient knowledge of treatment options. Our hypothesis was that physician recommendations were not being communicated well to patients and that this impaired patients' ability to cope with fecal incontinence. Cognitive interviews were conducted with physicians who routinely care for women with fecal incontinence. Physicians were asked to describe their typical nonsurgical treatment recommendations and counseling for fecal incontinence. Women with bothersome fecal incontinence were recruited to participate in focus groups and asked about personal experience with fecal incontinence symptoms and treatment options. For both physician interviews and patient focus groups, qualitative data analysis was performed using grounded-theory methodology. Physicians identified several barriers patients face when seeking treatment: lack of physician interest toward fecal incontinence, and patient embarrassment in discussing fecal incontinence. Physicians universally recommended fiber and pelvic floor exercise; they felt the majority (approximately 70-80 %) of patients will improve with these therapies. Collectively, patients were able to identify all treatment recommendations given by physicians, although many had discovered these treatments through personal experience. Three concepts emerged regarding treatment options that physicians did not identify but that patients felt were important in their treatment: hope for improvement, personal effort to control symptoms, and encouragement to go on living life fully. Whereas physicians had treatment to offer women with fecal incontinence, women had already found the best treatments through personal research and effort. Women want to hear a message of hope and encouragement and perceive personal effort from providers.

  14. Relation of Bowel Habits to Fecal Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Seide, Barbara M.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Though most women with fecal incontinence (FI) have anorectal dysfunctions, a majority have intermittent symptoms. Variations in bowel habits and daily routine may partly explain this. AIM To compare bowel habits and daily routine between controls and FI, and between continent and incontinent stools among women with FI. METHOD Using a mailed questionnaire, we identified 507 women with FI among 5,300 women in Olmsted County, MN. Bowel habits were compared among 127 randomly selected controls and 154 women with self-reported FI, who did (“active” FI, N = 106) or did not (“inactive” FI, N = 48) have an incontinent episode during a 2-wk bowel diary period. RESULTS Independent risk factors for FI were: rectal urgency (odds ratio [OR] for inactive FI vs controls 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–13.3; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.0, 95% CI 0.9–4.3) and a sense of incomplete evacuation (OR for inactive FI vs controls 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.8; and OR for active FI vs inactive FI 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Similar results were found for stool frequency and form. Among incontinent women, incontinent stools (versus continent stools) were less formed, more likely to occur at work, and to be preceded by rectal urgency. CONCLUSIONS Bowel patterns, rectal urgency, and daily routine influence the occurrence of FI. Stool characteristics explained 46% of the likelihood for incontinence episodes, emphasizing that anorectal sensorimotor dysfunctions must also contribute to FI in women. PMID:18510612

  15. Impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Lynne; Nowak, Madeleine; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the impact of fecal incontinence (FI) on quality of life (QOL) of patients attending urogynecology and colorectal clinics (CCs). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 154 patients (27 male) with FI, who attended the clinics at a regional hospital in North Queensland, Australia in 2003 and 2004, and completed the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL: 1 = very affected; 4 = not affected). RESULTS: More than 22% of patients had their QOL affected severely by FI. Patients reported that they had not previously been asked about FI by a medical practitioner nor did they voluntarily disclose its presence. The median FIQL scores for all participants were: lifestyle = 3.24; coping = 2.23; depression = 2.42; and embarrassment = 2.33. Increasing frequency of soiling had a negative effect on all four FIQL scales (P < 0.001) as did the quantity of soiling (P < 0.01). Female CC patients had poorer FIQL scores than urogynecology clinic patients for lifestyle (P = 0.015), coping (P = 0.004) and embarrassment (P = 0.009), but not depression (P = 0.062), despite having experienced FI for a shorter period. CONCLUSION: Failure to seek treatment for FI degrades the quality of patients’ lives over time. FI assessment tools should incorporate the quantity of fecal loss. PMID:19598304

  16. Factors that Affect Consultation and Screening for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kunduru, Lalitha; Kim, Sung Min; Heymen, Steve; Whitehead, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Fecal incontinence (FI) affects 15% of people age 70 years and older, but only 10%–30% discuss FI with their physicians. We aimed to identify barriers that prevent people from consulting with their physicians, and physicians from screening for FI. Methods We performed structured interviews of 124 individuals with FI (mean 56 years old, 87.9% women) recruited from 6 medical offices at the University of North Carolina Hospitals from June 2012 through March 2013. The subjects completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale questionnaires. Interview questions aimed to determine which patients had consulted physicians for FI. Eleven of the 56 physicians with patients included in the study responded to the survey. Results Eighty-eight of the 124 participants consulted with their physicians about FI (consulters). These individuals had a higher incidence of depression than the 36 subjects who did not consult with their physicians about FI (non-consulters; P=.04), but similar Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores. A smaller proportion of non-consulters were aware of available treatments than consulters (P<.01). Fifty-six percent of non-consulters said their FI was not serious enough to consult a physician. There was no difference between consulters and non-consulters in embarrassment in talking about FI. Among consulters, 88% initiated the conversation about FI with their physician. Seven of the 11 responding physicians screened for FI, and only screened high-risk patients. The 4 physicians who did not screen for FI were unaware of its prevalence, viewed FI as a low priority, or stated that patients were responsible for reporting their own symptoms. Conclusions Based on surveys of physicians and patients, many patients have insufficient knowledge about the availability and effectiveness of treatments for FI. Some people with FI do not discuss it with their physician because their symptoms are mild, and most

  17. Current management of fecal incontinence: Choosing amongst treatment options to optimize outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Koughnett, Julie Ann M; Wexner, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    The severity of fecal incontinence widely varies and can have dramatic devastating impacts on a person’s life. Fecal incontinence is common, though it is often under-reported by patients. In addition to standard treatment options, new treatments have been developed during the past decade to attempt to effectively treat fecal incontinence with minimal morbidity. Non-operative treatments include dietary modifications, medications, and biofeedback therapy. Currently used surgical treatments include repair (sphincteroplasty), stimulation (sacral nerve stimulation or posterior tibial nerve stimulation), replacement (artificial bowel sphincter or muscle transposition) and diversion (stoma formation). Newer augmentation treatments such as radiofrequency energy delivery and injectable materials, are minimally invasive tools that may be good options before proceeding to surgery in some patients with mild fecal incontinence. In general, more invasive surgical treatments are now reserved for moderate to severe fecal incontinence. Functional and quality of life related outcomes, as well as potential complications of the treatment must be considered and the treatment of fecal incontinence must be individualized to the patient. General indications, techniques, and outcomes profiles for the various treatments of fecal incontinence are discussed in detail. Choosing the most effective treatment for the individual patient is essential to achieve optimal outcomes in the treatment of fecal incontinence. PMID:24409050

  18. Evidence-Based Update on Treatments for Fecal Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Isuzu; Richter, Holly E.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent and distressing condition which negatively impacts quality of life. The etiology is often multifactorial, and the evaluation and treatment of this condition can be hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms and currently available treatment options. This article will review the evidence-based update for the management of fecal incontinence. PMID:26880511

  19. Fecal Incontinence: Prevalence, Severity, and Quality of Life Data from an Outpatient Gastroenterology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Alsheik, Eva H.; Coyne, Thomas; Hawes, Sara K.; Merikhi, Laleh; Naples, Scott P.; Kanagarajan, Nandhakumar; Reynolds, James C.; Myers, Scott E.; Ahmad, Asyia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of fecal incontinence varies tremendously as a result of inadequate data collection methods. Few office-based studies have assessed the prevalence of fecal incontinence and none have looked at modifiable risk factors or effect on quality of life. Design, Settings, Patients, and Main Outcome Measures. Five hundred patients who visited our inner city, university-based gastroenterology practice, were asked about symptoms of fecal incontinence. We also retrospectively reviewed 500 charts to identify the frequency of patient-physician reporting of fecal incontinence. Results. Of the 500 patients that were directly questioned, 58 (12%, 43 women, 15 men) admitted to fecal incontinence compared to 12 (2.4%) in the retrospective arm. Patients with fecal incontinence and loose/watery stool reported the lowest quality of life scores. While the average severity score was similar between men and women, women had a significantly lower average quality of life score (3.04 versus 2.51; P < 0.03). Conclusions. The identification of fecal incontinence increases when patients are directly questioned. Identifying and treating patients with loose stool is a potential strategy to improve quality of life in this patient population. In men and women with similar severity of fecal incontinence, women have a significantly lower quality of life. PMID:21960998

  20. The fecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQL) and fecal incontinence severity index (FISI): Validation of the Dutch versions.

    PubMed

    't Hoen, Lisette A; Utomo, Elaine; Schouten, Willem R; Blok, Bertil F M; Korfage, Ida J

    2017-03-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is known to have a major impact on quality of life. The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) have been developed to assess this impact. The aim of this study was to validate the FIQL and FISI in the Dutch language. The study population consisted of women and men experiencing FI and a reference group. The FIQL (four domains) and FISI questionnaires were validated by testing standardized measurement properties: discriminative ability, internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, and responsiveness. A total of 55 patients and 277 reference participants were included. Patients had significant lower and higher scores at the FIQL and FISI, respectively, than references (FIQL: 2.58 ± 0.70 and 3.92 ± 0.36, FISI: 38.57 ± 10.73 and 23.17 ± 15.01; P < 0.001), indicating worse functioning in patients and with this the discriminative abilities of the measures. The FIQL demonstrated adequate internal consistency on all domains (0.72-0.96), except for the embarrassment domain (0.55). The reproducibility was good for both measures. A negative correlation was found between the FIQL and FISI. Furthermore, the FIQL showed a positive (0.77) and the FISI a negative correlation (-0.31) with the Mental Component Summary scale of the SF-12. Responsiveness analysis showed a minimal important change of 0.40 points for the FIQL. Validity and reliability were good in the Dutch FIQL, but inconclusive in the FISI. The Dutch FIQL can support physicians in determining the impact of FI on patient's quality of life. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:710-715, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a multifactorial disorder that imposes considerable social and economic burdens. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and emerging treatment options for FI. A MEDLINE search was conducted for English-language articles related to FI prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment published from January 1, 1990 through June 1, 2013. The search was extended to unpublished trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and relevant publications cited in included articles. Conservative approaches, including dietary modifications, medications, muscle-strengthening exercises, and biofeedback, have been shown to provide short-term benefits. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation was considered ineffective in a randomized clinical trial. Unlike initial studies, sacral nerve stimulation has shown reasonable short-term effectiveness and some complications. Dynamic graciloplasty and artificial sphincter and bowel devices lack randomized controlled trials and have shown inconsistent results and high rates of explantation. Of injectable bulking agents, dextranomer microspheres in non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA Dx) has shown significant improvement in incontinence scores and frequency of incontinence episodes, with generally mild adverse effects. For the treatment of FI, conservative measures and biofeedback therapy are modestly effective. When conservative therapies are ineffective, invasive procedures, including sacral nerve stimulation, may be considered, but they are associated with complications and lack randomized, controlled trials. Bulking agents may be an appropriate alternative therapy to consider before more aggressive therapies in patients who fail conservative therapies. PMID:25014235

  2. Fecal incontinence decreases sexual quality of life, but does not prevent sexual activity in women Running head: Anal incontinence and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff, Laurel R.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Subak, Leslee L.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Thom, David H.; Varma, Madhulika G.; Huang, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of anal incontinence on women’s sexual function is poorly understood. Objective To investigate the relationship between anal incontinence and sexual activity and functioning in women. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings Community-based integrated healthcare delivery system. Patients 2,269 ethnically-diverse women aged 40 to 80 years. Main Outcome Measures Self-administered questionnaires assessed accidental leakage of gas (flatal incontinence) and fluid/mucus/stool (fecal incontinence) in the past 3 months. Additional questionnaires assessed sexual activity, desire and satisfaction, as well as specific sexual problems (difficulty with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, or pain). Multivariable logistic regression models compared sexual function in women with 1) isolated flatal incontinence, 2) fecal incontinence (with or without flatal incontinence), and 3) no fecal/flatal incontinence, controlling for potential confounders. Results Twenty-four percent of women reported fecal incontinence and 43% reported isolated flatal incontinence in the prior 3 months. The majority were sexually active (62% of women without fecal/flatal incontinence, 66% with isolated flatal incontinence, and 60% with fecal incontinence; p=0.06). Compared to women without fecal/flatal incontinence, women with fecal incontinence were more likely to report low sexual desire (OR:1.41 [CI:1.10–1.82]), low sexual satisfaction (OR:1.56 [CI:1.14–2.12]), and limitation of sexual activity by physical health (OR:1.65 [CI:1.19–2.28]) after adjustment for confounders. Among sexually active women, women with fecal incontinence were more likely than women without fecal/flatal incontinence to report difficulties with lubrication (OR:2.66 [CI:1.76–4.00]), pain (OR:2.44 [CI:1.52–3.91]), and orgasm (OR:1.68 [CI:1.12–2.51]). Women with isolated flatal incontinence reported similar sexual functioning to women without fecal/flatal incontinence. Limitations Cross-sectional design

  3. Importance of colonic transit evaluation in the management of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Faye, Alain; Arsac, Michel

    2002-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is common. The potential contribution of colon function to continence has not been studied. Treatment is poorly codified. To evaluate colonic transit time (CTT) and its importance in the management of fecal incontinence we analyzed in a retrospective study the CTT in patients with fecal incontinence, and on this basis in a prospective study used a treatment algorithm taking colonic transit into account. We studied 30 healthy subjects and 171 patients (110 in the retrospective and 61 in the prospective study). Anorectal manometry and CTT measurement using radio-opaque markers were performed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their CTT: rapid (<24 h), normal, and delayed (>65 h). In patients with abnormal CTT modifiers of transit time were used as first line of treatment. Biofeedback therapy was used alone in patients with normal transit and used in the other patients after 6 weeks of medication when there was no or only partial improvement. Incontinent patients had less upper and lower anal pressure and maximal squeeze pressure and longer CTT than controls. Rapid and delayed transit times were found, respectively, in 17% and 32% of patients. After 6 weeks of treatment 77% of patients had recovered from fecal incontinence. Biofeedback therapy increased total improvement to 95%. We conclude that evaluation of CTT is useful in the management of fecal incontinence, and that medical therapy is sufficient to treat most incontinent patients. This implies the use of a careful selection algorithm prior to surgery for fecal incontinence.

  4. Functional disability among older women with fecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    EREKSON, Elisabeth A.; CIARLEGLIO, Maria M.; HANISSIAN, Paul D.; STROHBEHN, Kris; BYNUM, Julie P.W.; FRIED, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of functional disability for basic activities of daily living (ADLs) in older women with fecal incontinence (FI) is not well characterized. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among in community-dwelling older women with fecal incontinence. Study Design We conducted a secondary database analysis of the 2005–06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults conducted by single in-home interviews. FI was defined an affirmative answer to the question, “Have you lost control of your bowels (stool incontinence or anal incontinence)?” with a frequency of “at least monthly”. We then examined functional status. Women were asked about seven basic ADLs. Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Results 1,412 women were included in our analysis. FI, at least monthly, was reported by 5.5% (n=77) of community-dwelling older women. 63.2% (95% CI 50.1, 76.4) of women with FI reported difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADLs and 31.2% (95% CI 18.9, 43.6) specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, women with FI had 2.6 increased odds (95% CI 1.26, 5.35) of difficulty or dependence compared with women with no FI. Other significant risk factors for increased functional difficulty/dependence included obesity (body mass index ≥30kg/m2) and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Consistent with other large epidemiologic studies, we found monthly FI was reported by 5.5% (n/N=77/1,412) of older women. Over 60% of community-dwelling older women with FI report functional difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADL and specifically, over 30% of women with FI report difficulty or dependence using/reaching the toilet. Due to the high prevalence of functional disability in older women with FI, we purpose that initial

  5. Use of Sacral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Overlapping Constipation and Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sreepati, Gouri; James-Stevenson, Toyia

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 51 Final Diagnosis: Fecal incontinence Symptoms: Constipation • fecal incontinence Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Sacral nerve stimulator Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Fecal incontinence and constipation are common gastrointestinal complaints, but rarely occur concurrently. Management of these seemingly paradoxical processes is challenging, as treatment of one symptom may exacerbate the other. Case Report: A 51-year-old female with lifelong neurogenic bladder secondary to spina bifida occulta presented with progressive symptoms of daily urge fecal incontinence as well as hard bowel movements associated with straining and a sensation of incomplete evacuation requiring manual disimpaction. Pelvic floor testing showed poor ability to squeeze the anal sphincter, which indicated sphincter weakness as a major contributor to her fecal incontinence symptoms. Additionally, on defecography she was unable to widen her posterior anorectal angle or relax the anal sphincter during defecation consistent with dyssynergic defecation. A sacral nerve stimulator was placed for management of her fecal incontinence. Interestingly, her constipation also dramatically improved with sacral neuromodulation. Conclusions: This unique case highlights the emerging role of sacral nerve stimulation in the treatment of complex pelvic floor dysfunction with improvement in symptoms beyond fecal incontinence in a patient with dyssynergic-type constipation. PMID:28265107

  6. Use and Evaluation of Disposable Absorbent Products for Managing Fecal Incontinence by Community-Living People

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Lewis, Jaclyn; Hasselman, Keegan; Savik, Kay; Lowry, Ann; Whitebird, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The use of disposable absorbent products by community-dwelling people with fecal incontinence was described. Differences in product use or evaluation based on sex, age, or severity of fecal incontinence were evaluated. Suggestions for modifying absorbent products to be more suitable for fecal incontinence were described. Methods A survey was administered to 189 community-living individuals with fecal incontinence at the start of a clinical trial about the effects of dietary fiber on fecal incontinence Results An absorbent product was used to manage fecal incontinence by 45% (86/189) of respondents. More women (88%, 76/86, p = .009) and older persons 65+ years (44%, 38/86, p = .001) wore an absorbent product. Participants who wore an absorbent product for fecal incontinence had a higher (worse) usual fecal incontinence severity score (median 4.75, range 1–27, p = .006). Sixty three users wore pantiliners and were the only ones who used more than three products per day. Feminine hygiene products were worn more than incontinence products. Half of users were satisfied with the product they used. Evaluations of product features differed by type of product; odor control had some of the lowest ratings. Conclusions Community-living individuals with FI, especially women and older individuals, tend to wear absorbent products. Perceptions of FI severity, preference, leakage of liquid stool, and presence of urinary incontinence influence the product type and pattern of wear. Participants report that modification of several features of absorbent products might make them more suitable for FI and increase satisfaction. PMID:21464770

  7. Anatomical Disruption & Length-Tension Dysfunction of Anal Sphincter Complex Muscles in Women with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sun; Weinstein, Milena; Raizada, Varuna; Jiang, Yanfen; Bhargava, Valmik; Rajasekaran, M. Raj; Mittal, Ravinder K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anal sphincter complex muscles; internal anal sphincter, external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, play important role in the anal continence mechanism. Patients with symptoms of fecal incontinence have weak anal sphincter complex muscles; however, their length-tension properties and relationship to anatomical disruption have never been studied. OBJECTIVE To assess the anatomy of anal sphincter complex muscles using 3D-ultrasound imaging system and determine the relationship between anatomical defects and length-tension property of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles in women with incontinence symptoms and control subjects. DESIGN Severity of anal sphincter muscle damage was determined by static and dynamic 3Dimensional-ultrasound imaging. Length-tension property was determined by anal and vaginal pressure respectively using custom designed probes. PATIENTS 44 asymptomatic controls and 24 incontinent patients participated in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEAUSURES Anatomical defects and length-tension dysfunction of anal sphincter complex muscles in FI patients were evaluated. RESULT Prevalence of injury to sphincter muscles are significantly higher in the incontinent patients compared to controls. 85% of patients but only 9% controls reveal damage to ≥2 of the 3 muscles of anal sphincter complex. Anal and vaginal squeeze pressure increased with increase in the probe size (length-tension curve) in majority of controls. In patients, the increase in anal and vaginal squeeze pressures was either significantly smaller than controls or it decreased with the increasing probe size (abnormal length-tension). CONCLUSIONS Length-tension property of the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles is significantly impaired in incontinent patients. Our findings have therapeutic implication in the treatment of anal incontinence. PMID:24105004

  8. Systematic Review of Animal Models Used in Research of Origins and Treatments of Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Evers, Judith; Jones, James F X; O'Connell, P Ronan

    2017-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder, but its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The aim of this review is to present animal models that have a place in the study of fecal incontinence. A literature review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines performed in August 2016 revealed 50 articles of interest. Search terms included fecal/faecal incontinence and animal model or specific species. Articles not describing an animal model, in vitro studies, veterinary literature, reviews, and non-English articles were excluded. The articles described models in rats (n = 31), dogs (n = 8), rabbits (n = 7), and pigs (n = 4). Different fecal incontinence etiologies were modeled, including anal sphincter lesions (33 articles) ranging from a single anal sphincter cut to destruction of 50% of the anal sphincter by sharp dissection, electrocautery, or diathermy. Neuropathic fecal incontinence (12 articles) was achieved by complete or incomplete pudendal, pelvic, or inferior rectal nerve damage. Mixed fecal incontinence (5 articles) was modeled either by the inflation of pelvic balloons or an array of several lesions including nervous and muscular damage. Anal fistulas (2 articles), anal sphincter resection (3 articles), and diabetic neuropathy (2 articles) were studied to a lesser extent. Bias may have arisen from the authors' own work on fecal incontinence and the absence of blinding to the origins of articles. Validated animal models representing the main etiologies of fecal incontinence exist, but no animal model to date represents the whole pathophysiology of fecal incontinence. Therefore, the individual research questions still dictate the choice of model and species.

  9. Neurostimulation for fecal incontinence after correction of repair of imperforate anus

    PubMed Central

    Bougie, Alexandre; McFadden, Nathalie; Mayer, Sandeep; Lebel, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting the case of a 32-year-old female who had suffered from fecal incontinence (FI). She was born with an imperforate anus and a recto-vaginal fistula; she underwent repair at 6 mo of age. At 29 years of age, she was still fecally incontinent despite extensive pelvic floor reeducation. A magnetic resonance imaging and an anal electromyography were performed. Because her symptoms were considered to be probably due to extra-sphincteric implantation of the neo-anus, a redo was performed of the recto-neo-anal intra-sphincteric anastomosis. A neurostimulator device was subsequently implanted for persistent incontinence. Solid and liquid FI resolved, and her quality of life improved markedly. Combining surgery to correct the position of the neo-anus within the anal sphincter complex and neurostimulation could thus become a new approach in cases of refractory FI for patients with imperforate anus as a newborn. Follow-up into adulthood after pediatric imperforate anus surgery should be recommended for adult patients with persistent FI. PMID:28352637

  10. Validating Endpoints for Therapeutic Trials in Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Noelting, Jessica; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A 50% or greater reduction in the frequency of fecal incontinence (FI) recorded with daily bowel diaries is the primary endpoint in clinical trials of FI. Whether this difference is clinically important is unknown. The relationship between FI symptoms recorded with daily and weekly instruments is unknown. The contribution of psychological factors to quality of life (QOL) in FI is unclear. Methods FI severity was assessed with daily bowel diaries and periodic questionnaires (Fecal Incontinence Severity score [FISS], FIQOL, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scales) for 4 weeks before and during double-blind randomization to placebo or clonidine in 44 women with FI. The reduction in FI frequency was compared to the minimal clinically-important difference (MCID) computed from the FISS. Endpoints of FI were compared between daily and weekly diaries. Key Results The FISS exceeded the MCID in 75% and 83% of patients in whom the FI frequency declined by 50%-74% and ≥75% respectively. Parameters of FI measured with daily and weekly instruments were significantly correlated. The daily parameters explained 71% of the inter-patient variation in the FISS. The SF-36 health scores, rather than the FISS rating, explained a majority of the inter-subject variation in FIQOL. Conclusions & Inferences Most patients who report a ≥50% reduction in FI frequency experience a clinically-important improvement. Weekly questionnaires accurately assess the severity of FI. Self-reported physical and mental health explained a greater proportion of the variance in FIQOL than FI symptom severity. PMID:26948292

  11. Adaptation to Spanish language and validation of the fecal incontinence quality of life scale.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Miguel; Garrigues, Vicente; Soria, Maria Jose; Andreu, Montserrat; Mearin, Fermin; Clave, Pere

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric evaluation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale in the Spanish language. Eleven hospitals in Spain participated in the study, which included 118 patients with active fecal incontinence. All the patients filled out a questionnaire on the severity of their incontinence, a general questionnaire of health (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form), and a Spanish translation of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal), which consists of 29 items in four domains: lifestyle, behavior, depression, and embarrassment. On a second visit, patients repeated the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. For each domain, an evaluation was made of temporal reliability, internal reliability, the convergent validity with the generic questionnaire of health, and the discriminant validity correlating the domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal with the severity of fecal incontinence. For cultural adaptation, the answer alternatives for 14 items were modified. A total of 111 patients (94 percent) completed the study adequately. Temporal reliability (test-retest) was good for all domains except for embarrassment, which showed significant differences (P < 0.02). Internal reliability was good/excellent for all domains (Cronbach alpha >0.80, between 0.84 and 0.96). The four domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal significantly correlated with the domains of the generic questionnaire on health (P < 0.01) and with the scale of severity of fecal incontinence (P < 0.001). All domains of Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal correlated negatively with the need to wear pads (P < 0.01) and with the presence of complete fecal incontinence. The Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida de Incontinencia Anal incorporates sufficient requirements of reliability and validity to be applied to patients with fecal incontinence.

  12. Anal incontinence and fecal urgency following vaginal delivery with episiotomy among primiparous patients.

    PubMed

    Rusavy, Zdenek; Karbanova, Jaroslava; Jansova, Magdalena; Kalis, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    To investigate anal incontinence following mediolateral or lateral episiotomy during a first vaginal delivery. The present prospective follow-up study enrolled primiparous patients who underwent vaginal delivery including mediolateral or lateral episiotomy between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Participants completed interviews before delivery, and were given anal-incontinence questionnaires to be returned for analysis at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Anal incontinence was defined as a St Mark's incontinence score above four and individual anal-incontinence components were analyzed separately; results were compared between the two episiotomy techniques. Questionnaires were returned by 300 and 366 patients who underwent mediolateral and lateral episiotomies, respectively; baseline characteristics were similar. Anal incontinence at 3 months and 6 months was recorded among 21 (7.0%) and 9 (3.0%) patients who underwent mediolateral and 27 (7.4%) and 20 (5.5%) who underwent lateral episiotomy, respectively. The study was underpowered to confirm equivalence between the groups; however, no statistically significant differences were observed in the rates of anal incontinence, flatus, solid or liquid incontinence, and de novo incontinence. Fecal urgency (P=0.017) and de novo fecal urgency (P=0.008) were more prevalent among patients who underwent lateral episiotomies at 6 months. Anal incontinence was comparable between primiparous patients who underwent mediolateral or lateral episiotomy. The association between lateral episiotomy and fecal urgency merits further scientific interest. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary fiber supplementation for fecal incontinence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xiaoyan

    2014-10-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appears related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16 g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  15. Functional disability among older women with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Erekson, Elisabeth A; Ciarleglio, Maria M; Hanissian, Paul D; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P W; Fried, Terri R

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of functional disability for basic activities of daily living (ADLs) in older women with fecal incontinence (FI) is not well characterized. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among community-dwelling older women with FI. We conducted a secondary database analysis of the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults that had been conducted by single in-home interviews. FI was defined as an affirmative answer to the question, "Have you lost control of your bowels (stool incontinence or anal incontinence)?" with a frequency of "at least monthly." We then examined functional status. Women were asked about 7 basic ADLs. Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. We included 1412 women in our analysis. FI, at least monthly, was reported by 5.5% of community-dwelling older women (n = 77); 63.2% (95% CI, 50.1-76.4) of the women with FI reported difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADLs, and 31.2% (95% CI, 18.9-43.6) of the women specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. After adjustment for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, women with FI had 2.6 increased odds (95% CI, 1.26-5.35) of difficulty or dependence compared with women with no FI. Other significant risk factors for increased functional difficulty/dependence included obesity (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m(2)) and depressive symptoms. Consistent with other large epidemiologic studies, we found monthly FI was reported by 5.5% of older women (n/N = 77/1412). More than 60% of community-dwelling older women with FI report functional difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADL and specifically; more than 30% of women with FI report difficulty or dependence using/reaching the toilet. Because of the high prevalence of functional disability in older women with FI, we purpose that initial evaluation and treatment of FI

  16. Long-term durability of sacral nerve stimulation therapy for chronic fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hull, Tracy; Giese, Chad; Wexner, Steven D; Mellgren, Anders; Devroede, Ghislain; Madoff, Robert D; Stromberg, Katherine; Coller, John A

    2013-02-01

    Limited data have been published regarding the long-term results of sacral nerve stimulation, or sacral neuromodulation, for severe fecal incontinence. The aim was to assess the outcome of sacral nerve stimulation with the use of precise tools and data collection, focusing on the long-term durability of the therapy. Five-year data were analyzed. Patients entered in a multicenter, prospective study for fecal incontinence were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months and annually after device implantation. Patients with chronic fecal incontinence in whom conservative treatments had failed or who were not candidates for more conservative treatments were selected. Patients with ≥ 50% improvement over baseline in fecal incontinence episodes per week during a 14-day test stimulation period received sacral nerve stimulation therapy. Patients were assessed with a 14-day bowel diary and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaires. Therapeutic success was defined as ≥ 50% improvement over baseline in fecal incontinence episodes per week. All adverse events were collected. A total of 120 patients (110 women; mean age, 60.5 years) underwent implantation. Seventy-six of these patients (63%) were followed a minimum of 5 years (maximum, longer than 8 years) and are the basis for this report. Fecal incontinence episodes per week decreased from a mean of 9.1 at baseline to 1.7 at 5 years, with 89% (n = 64/72) having ≥ 50% improvement (p < 0.0001) and 36% (n = 26/72) having complete continence. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scores also significantly improved for all 4 scales between baseline and 5 years (n = 70; p < 0.0001). Twenty-seven of the 76 (35.5%) patients required a device revision, replacement, or explant. The therapeutic effect and improved quality of life for fecal incontinence is maintained 5 years after sacral nerve stimulation implantation and beyond. Device revision, replacement, or explant rate was acceptable, but future

  17. [First case of sacral neuromodulation for treatment of urinary and fecal incontinence in Mexico. Case report.].

    PubMed

    Sucar-Romero, S; Decanini-Terán, C; Ruiz-Galindo, G H

    2009-01-01

    Sacral neuromodulation is a new treatment for urinary and fecal incontinence that has demonstrated good therapeutic results. This treatment modality has shown not only to reduce urinary dysfunction symptoms and urinary and fecal incontinence but improve quality of life scores as well. We present a 73 years old female patient with severe fecal and urinary incontinence with major quality of life impact. She was referred after failure of different surgical and conservative therapeutic approaches. Her evaluation met inclusion criteria for sacral neuromodulation treatment. Acute sacral nerve evaluation (PNE) proved to be therapeutic in the patient as measured by at least a 50 percent improvement in her symptoms so a permanent implant (Medtronic InterStim System) was placed. After the implant there was a significant improvement in urinary and fecal functional scores. Fecal Incontinence Severity Index improved from 34 to 8 and Urinary Sandvik's Severity Index from very severe urinary incontinence to minor urinary incontinence after the placement of the implant. Using standard quality of life questionnaires, she improved in the areas of lifestyle,coping and behavior and her experience with depression and self-perception.

  18. Pelvic floor muscle exercise for fecal incontinence quality of life after coloanal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shu-Ling; Lin, Yu-Hua; Yang, Hsing-Yu; Kao, Chia-Chan; Tung, Hong-Yu; Wei, Li-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercise for enhancing fecal incontinence quality of life after coloanal anastomosis in colorectal cancer patients. Methods of improving incontinence have been evaluated in many countries, but never in a Taiwan population. A longitudinal experimental study. Fifty-two colorectal cancer patients who had received colostomy closure and coloanal anastomosis surgery were recruited from a general hospital in southern Taiwan and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 26). Both groups received routine postoperative care. However, the experimental group received private consultations, educational DVDs and pamphlets to instruct them in performing pelvic flow muscle exercise. In all participants, the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale was used to measure quality of life before discharge and at one, two, three, six and nine months after discharge. Generalised estimating equations were used to compare longitudinal effects between the two groups. The generalised estimating equations revealed that all participants had significantly improved Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale scores at two, three, six and nine months after discharge. Compared to the controls, however, the experimental group had significantly higher scores at two, three, and six months after discharge. Patient education in pelvic floor muscle exercise positively affects Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale scores in patients who have received coloanal anastomosis. Early education in pelvic floor muscle exercise can improve management of fecal incontinence symptoms after coloanal anastomosis and can improve quality of life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Managing fecal incontinence: self-care practices of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Zimmaro; Fischer, Lucy Rose; Savik, Kay

    2005-07-01

    Little is known about the ways in which community-dwelling elderly individuals manage fecal incontinence (FI) in their daily lives. In this study, community-dwelling elderly individuals were surveyed at clinics of a health maintenance organization (HMO) to describe the self-care practices used to manage FI and to examine factors that influenced the number of self-care practices used and the reporting of FI to a health care practitioner. Responses of 242 elderly individuals who reported that they had FI several times per year were analyzed. The self-care practices used most commonly were changing diet, wearing a sanitary pad/brief, and reducing activity or exercise. Elderly women and those with a greater severity of FI and more chronic health problems engaged in more self-care practices. Factors associated with reporting FI to a clinician were considering FI to be a problem, uncertainty about the cause of FI, and changing diet to avoid FI. There is a need to promote effective management strategies for FI to older individuals living in the community.

  20. Long-term efficacy and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Anders; Wexner, Steven D; Coller, John A; Devroede, Ghislain; Lerew, Darin R; Madoff, Robert D; Hull, Tracy

    2011-09-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence and is currently under Food and Drug Administration review in the United States for fecal incontinence. Previous reports have focused primarily on short-term results of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence. The present study reports the long-term effectiveness and safety of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients with fecal incontinent episodes more than twice per week were offered participation in this multicentered prospective trial. Patients showing ≥ 50% improvement during test stimulation were offered chronic implantation of the InterStim Therapy system (Medtronic; Minneapolis, MN). The aims of the current report were to provide 3-year follow-up data on patients from that study who underwent sacral nerve stimulation and were monitored under the rigors of an Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational protocol. One hundred thirty-three patients underwent test stimulation with a 90% success rate, of whom 120 (110 females) with a mean age of 60.5 years and a mean duration of fecal incontinence of 7 years received chronic implantation. Mean length of follow-up was 3.1 (range, 0.2-6.1) years, with 83 patients completing all or part of the 3-year follow-up assessment. At 3 years follow-up, 86% of patients (P < .0001) reported ≥ 50% reduction in the number of incontinent episodes per week compared with baseline and the number of incontinent episodes per week decreased from a mean of 9.4 at baseline to 1.7. Perfect continence was achieved in 40% of subjects. The therapy also improved the fecal incontinence severity index. Sacral nerve stimulation had a positive impact on the quality of life, as evidenced by significant improvements in all 4 scales of the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life instrument at 12, 24, and 36 months of follow-up. The most common device- or therapy-related adverse events through the

  1. Standard Compared With Mnemonic Counseling for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B; Dunivan, Gena C; Rogers, Rebecca G; Murrietta, Ambroshia M; Komesu, Yuko M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether women who underwent mnemonic counseling had better recall of fecal incontinence therapies at 2 months and if mnemonic counseling resulted in greater satisfaction with physician counseling and improvement in quality of life when compared to a group who underwent standard counseling. Methods Counseling naive women with fecal incontinence were recruited from an academic Urogynecology clinic. Women underwent physical examinations, completed the Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction, recorded fecal incontinence treatment options they recalled, and completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Manchester Health Questionnaire immediately after counseling and again at 2 months. Results Ninety women consented to participate, were randomized and completed baseline questionnaires. At baseline women did not differ in age, ethnicity, education, fecal incontinence severity index or Manchester Health Questionnaire scores. After counseling the mnemonic group reported higher satisfaction on Quality of the Physician-Patient Interaction (66.4± 6.5 vs 62.2 ± 10.7, p=0.03). Ninety percent (81/90) of women followed-up at 2 months. Our primary endpoint, two month recall of fecal incontinence treatments was not different between groups (2.3 ± 1.6 mnemonic counseling vs 1.8 ± 1.0 standard counseling; p=0.08). Secondary endpoints the mnemonic group reported greater improvement on total Manchester Health Questionnaire (p=0.02), emotional (p=0.03), sleep (0.045), role limitations (<0.01), and physical limitations (p=0.04) when compared to the standard group. Conclusions Fecal incontinence counseling with a mnemonic aid did not improve recall at 2 months but improved patient satisfaction and quality of life at 2 months. PMID:25932833

  2. Temperature-Controlled Delivery of Radiofrequency Energy in Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Arjan P; Lam, Tze J; Meurs-Szojda, Maria M; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F

    2017-08-01

    Controlled delivery of radiofrequency energy has been suggested as treatment for fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical response to the radiofrequency energy procedure is superior to sham in patients with fecal incontinence. This was a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial from 2008 to 2015. This study was conducted in an outpatient clinic. Forty patients with fecal incontinence in whom maximal conservative management had failed were randomly assigned to receiving either radiofrequency energy or sham procedure. Fecal incontinence was measured using the Vaizey incontinence score (range, 0-24). The impact of fecal incontinence on quality of life was measured by using the fecal incontinence quality-of-life score (range, 1-4). Measurements were performed at baseline and at 6 months. Anorectal function was evaluated using anal manometry and anorectal endosonography at baseline and at 3 months. At baseline, Vaizey incontinence score was 16.8 (SD 2.9). At t = 6 months, the radiofrequency energy group improved by 2.5 points on the Vaizey incontinence score compared with the sham group (13.2 (SD 3.1), 15.6 (SD 3.3), p = 0.02). The fecal incontinence quality-of-life score at t = 6 months was not statistically different. Anorectal function did not show any alteration. Patients with severe fecal incontinence were included in the study, thus making it difficult to generalize the results. Both radiofrequency energy and sham procedure improved the fecal incontinence score, the radiofrequency energy procedure more than sham. Although statistically significant, the clinical impact for most of the patients was negligible. Therefore, the radiofrequency energy procedure should not be recommended for patients with fecal incontinence until patient-related factors associated with treatment success are known. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A373.

  3. Sacral nerve stimulation for urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost of sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) to treat urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION Urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, urinary retention, and fecal incontinence are prevalent, yet rarely discussed, conditions. They are rarely discussed because patients may be uncomfortable disclosing their symptoms to a health professional or may be unaware that there are treatment options for these conditions. Briefly, urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine upon a sudden urge. Urgency-frequency is an uncontrollable urge to void, which results in frequent, small-volume voids. People with urgency-frequency may or may not also experience chronic pelvic pain. Urinary retention refers to the inability to void despite having the urge to void. It can be caused by a hypocontractile detrusor (weak or no bladder muscle contraction) or obstruction due to urethral overactivity. Fecal incontinence is a loss of voluntary bowel control. The prevalence of urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, and urinary retention in the general population is 3.3% to 8.2%, and the prevalence of fecal incontinence is 1.4% to 1.9%. About three-quarters of these people will be successfully treated by behaviour and/or drug therapy. For those who do not respond to these therapies, the options for treatment are management with diapers or pads, or surgery. The surgical procedures are generally quite invasive, permanent, and are associated with complications. Pads and/or diapers are used throughout the course of treatment as different therapies are tried. Patients who respond successfully to treatment may still require pads or diapers, but to a lesser extent. SACRAL NERVE STIMULATION Sacral nerve stimulation is a procedure where a small device attached to an electrode is implanted in the abdomen or buttock to stimulate the sacral nerves in an

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for urinary and fecal incontinence four months after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Baydock, Sandra A; Flood, Catherine; Schulz, Jane A; MacDonald, Dianna; Esau, Deborah; Jones, Sandra; Hiltz, Craig B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for urinary and fecal incontinence four months after vaginal delivery. All patients who had vaginal deliveries at a tertiary care hospital over a three-month period were approached during their postpartum hospital stay regarding participation in the study. Participants underwent a telephone interview at four months after their delivery to determine the presence and type of any incontinence. Of 632 patients, 145 (23%) had stress incontinence, 77 (12%) had urge incontinence, 181 (29%) had any urinary incontinence and 23 (4%) had fecal incontinence. In univariate analysis, stress incontinence was found to be increased in patients>or=30 years of age (26.2%) compared with patients<30 years of age (19.3%) (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.8, P=0.05). Urge incontinence was increased in patients who had a forceps delivery (21%) compared with no forceps delivery (9%) (RR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.6, P=0.005), an episiotomy (32.4%) compared with no episiotomy (18.7%) (RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.2-2.9, P<0.01) and a longer second stage of labour (108 min vs. 77 min, P=0.01). The prevalence of any urinary incontinence was increased with forceps delivery (15.5%) compared with no forceps delivery (8.7%) (RR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P=0.01) and maternal age of >or=30 years (34.1%) compared to <30 years (23.5%) (RR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-1.9, P=0.003). In multivariate analysis, the two variables that remained significant for any urinary incontinence were maternal age>or=30 years (P<0.01) and forceps delivery (P<0.01). There were no identified risk factors for fecal incontinence. Urinary incontinence is common in women at four months post partum. Fecal incontinence is less common. Maternal age and forceps assisted delivery were risk factors for urinary incontinence.

  5. Long-term outcomes of anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Sean C; Lowry, Ann C

    2012-04-01

    Thorough and objective analysis of long-term results following anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence will permit the correct application of this operation in the context of newer treatment methods. This investigation aimed to comprehensively review outcomes beyond 5 years in patients undergoing anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence. A systematic review of Embase and MEDLINE articles published between January 1991 and December 2010 was conducted; additional studies were identified by hand-searching bibliographies. A 2-step process was used for screening articles examining sphincter repair or sphincteroplasty in adults with fecal incontinence, with a minimum follow-up of 60 months. Subjective or objective assessment of fecal incontinence in the postoperative period was completed. Data from 16 studies were examined, comprising nearly 900 repairs. There was significant heterogeneity in outcome measures, although most articles utilized at least one established incontinence instrument. In general, most series reported an initial subjectively "good" outcome in the majority of patients, with declines in this proportion over longer follow-up. There was poor correlation between quality of life and the severity of fecal incontinence, with all articles reporting high overall patient satisfaction even if continence declined with time or adaptive measures were needed. No consistent predictive factors for failure were identified. This study was limited by the paucity of level I data with an adequate length of follow-up. Despite worsening results over time, most patients remain satisfied with their surgical outcome postsphincteroplasty. Efforts should be directed at identifying patients who may do poorly following sphincter repair, as well as establishing standardized long-term outcome benchmarks for comparing novel techniques for treating fecal incontinence.

  6. All Incontinence is Not Created Equal: Impact of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence on Quality of Life in Adults with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Cain, Mark P; Whittam, Benjamin; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported that the self-reported amount of urinary incontinence is the main predictor of lower health related quality of life in adults with spina bifida. In this study we sought to determine the impact of fecal incontinence on health related quality of life after correcting for urinary incontinence. An international sample of adults with spina bifida was surveyed online in 2013 to 2014. We evaluated fecal incontinence in the last 4 weeks using clean intervals (less than 1 day, 1 to 6 days, 1 week or longer, or no fecal incontinence), amount (a lot, medium, a little or none), number of protective undergarments worn daily and similar variables for urinary incontinence. Validated instruments were used, including QUALAS-A (Quality of Life Assessment in Spina bifida for Adults) for spina bifida specific health related quality of life and the generic WHOQOL-BREF (WHO Quality of Life, short form). Linear regression was used (all outcomes 0 to 100). Mean age of the 518 participants was 32 years and 33.0% were male. Overall, 55.4% of participants had fecal incontinence, 76.3% had urinary incontinence and 46.9% had both types. On multivariate analysis fecal incontinence was associated with lower bowel and bladder health related quality of life across all amounts (-16.2 for a lot, -20.9 for medium and -18.5 for little vs none, p <0.0001) but clean intervals were not significant (-4.0 to -3.4, p ≥0.18). Conversely, health related quality of life was lower with increased amounts of urinary incontinence (-27.6 for a lot, -18.3 for medium and -13.4 for little vs none, p <0.0001). Dry intervals less than 4 hours were not associated with lower health related quality of life (-4.6, p = 0.053) but the use of undergarments was associated with it (-7.5 to -7.4, p ≤0.01). Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores. Fecal incontinence and urinary incontinence are independent predictors of lower health related quality of

  7. Outcome of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence in patients refractory to percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hotouras, Alexander; Murphy, Jamie; Thin, Noel N; Allison, Marion; Horrocks, Emma; Williams, Norman S; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L

    2013-07-01

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation are both second-line treatments for fecal incontinence, but the comparative efficacy of the 2 therapies is unknown. In our institution, patients with refractory fecal incontinence are generally treated with percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation before being considered for sacral nerve stimulation. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome associated with this treatment algorithm in order to guide future management strategies. All patients with fecal incontinence treated over a 3-year period with tibial nerve stimulation before receiving sacral nerve stimulation were identified from a prospectively recorded database. Demographics and pretreatment anorectal physiological data were available for all patients. This study was conducted at an academic colorectal unit in a tertiary center. Twenty patients (17 female:3 male, median age 55 (33-79) years) were identified to be refractory to percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation. Clinical outcome data were collected prospectively before and after treatment, including 1) Cleveland Clinic Florida-Fecal Incontinence scores and 2) number of incontinence episodes per week. The mean (±SD) pretreatment incontinence score (11.7 ± 3.5) did not differ from the mean incontinence score after 12 sessions of tibial nerve stimulation (10.9 ± 3.6, p = 0.42). All patients were subsequently counseled for sacral nerve stimulation, and 68.4% of them reported a significant therapeutic benefit with an improved incontinence score (7.7 ± 4.1, p = 0.014). This was a nonrandomized study with a relatively small number of patients Sacral nerve stimulation appears to be an effective treatment for patients who do not gain an adequate therapeutic benefit from percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and, thus, should be routinely considered for this patient cohort.

  8. Quality-of-life measures in fecal incontinence: is validation valid?

    PubMed

    Lee, Janet T; Madoff, Robert D; Rockwood, Todd H

    2015-03-01

    Multiple health measurement scales have been used to study patients with fecal incontinence, but none have met the needs for clinical use and research perfectly. These include severity scales and generic and condition-specific quality-of-life scales. Several different approaches have been used to develop and evaluate the internal and external validity of these scales. As a step toward an improved quality-of-life instrument for fecal incontinence, the present study aimed to provide a critical review of the psychometric methodology of existing generic and condition-specific quality-of-life scales by using a standard measurement model. This study is a retrospective review. Two investigators experienced in psychometric methodology reviewed source articles from frequently used fecal incontinence quality-of-life scales. Patients with fecal incontinence were identified. The primary outcome measured was the demonstration of at least 1 reliability criterion, content validity, construct validity, and either criterion validity or discriminative validity. A total of 12 scales were identified. The reported methodology varied considerably. Most scales demonstrated convergent validity and test-retest reliability, whereas very few scales demonstrated internal consistency or predictive validity. Generic scales were found to be reliable and valid, but not responsive to condition severity. There was a wide range of methodology used in scale development and a wide diversity in the psychometric rigor. Variations in scale construction, data reporting, and validity testing made the evaluation of fecal incontinence quality-of -life scales by using a standardized measurement model difficult. Identifying deficiencies in validity testing and reporting of existing scales is vital for future creation of a useful validated instrument to measure quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence.

  9. Associated Factors and the Impact of Fecal Incontinence in Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: From the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network’s BEDRI Study

    PubMed Central

    MARKLAND, Alayne D.; RICHTER, Holly E.; KENTON, Kimberly S.; WAI, Clifford; NAGER, Charles W.; KRAUS, Stephen R.; XU, Yan; TENNSTEDT, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life (QOL) that fecal incontinence (FI) symptoms have on women seeking treatment for urge urinary incontinence (UUI). Study Design Baseline sociodemographic, history, physical examination, and validated questionnaire data were analyzed in 307 women enrolled in the Behavior Enhances Drug Reduction of Incontinence (BEDRI) study for associations with FI. FI was defined as loss of liquid/solid stool occurring at least monthly. Multivariable logistic regression models compared women with FI and UUI to women with only UUI. Results Prevalence of monthly FI was 18%, liquid stool (12%) and solid stool (6%). In multivariable analysis, FI was associated with vaginal delivery, posterior vaginal wall prolapse, higher body mass index, and UUI symptoms. QOL was worse in women with FI/UUI than isolated UUI. Conclusion Women seeking treatment for UUI have high rates of monthly FI with a negative impact on QOL. PMID:19200939

  10. Fecal incontinence in irritable bowel syndrome: Prevalence and associated factors in Swedish and American patients.

    PubMed

    Simrén, M; Palsson, O S; Heymen, S; Bajor, A; Törnblom, H; Whitehead, W E

    2017-02-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a prevalent but poorly recognized problem in the general population with profound negative effects on daily life. The prevalence of FI in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its association with clinical, demographic, and pathophysiological factors remain largely unknown. One US (n=304) and one Swedish (n=168) patient cohort fulfilling Rome III criteria for IBS completed Rome III diagnostic questions on FI and IBS symptoms, and questionnaires on IBS symptom severity, quality of life, anxiety and depression, and work productivity impairment. The patients also underwent assessments of colorectal sensitivity and motility. Fecal incontinence ≥ one day per month was reported by 19.7% (USA) and 13.7% (Sweden) of IBS patients. These proportions rose to 43.4% and 29.8% if patients with less frequent FI were included. Fecal incontinence prevalence was higher in older age groups, with a clear increase above age 40. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with FI reported greater overall IBS symptom severity, more frequent and loose stools, and greater urgency. Negative effects of FI on quality of life, psychological distress, and work productivity were demonstrated. No associations were found between colorectal physiology and FI. Fecal incontinence is common in IBS patients, and similar to previous general population reports, the major risk factors for FI in IBS are older age, rectal urgency, and loose, frequent stools. When IBS patients have comorbid FI, the impact on quality of life, psychological symptoms, and work impairment appears greater. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Fenix System for Fecal Incontinence: An Overview and Surgical Demonstration.

    PubMed

    DeStephano, Christopher C; Chen, Anita H; Pettit, Paul D

    2017-05-03

    This video shows a new technique for the surgical management of fecal incontinence using the Fenix Continence Restoration System (TORAX Medical Inc, Shoreview, MN) in 2 patients. A step-by-step explanation of the video using videos and pictures (educational video) for surgeons (Canadian Task Force classification III). The use of the Fenix System received United States Food and Drug Administration approval under a humanitarian device exemption and can be used with institutional review board approval in patients who have failed previous medical and surgical management of fecal incontinence. The device is a small, flexible band of interlinked titanium, magnetic beads on a titanium string that is placed using a perineal approach around the anal canal. Increased intra-abdominal pressure opens the beads to allow for the passage of stool. Placement of the device was performed in 2 patients. Case 1 is a 63-year-old woman with a long-standing history of fecal incontinence who failed sphincteroplasty, sacral neuromodulation, and an artificial sphincter cuff and pump. Case 2 is a 60-year-old woman with a long-standing history of fecal incontinence secondary to radiation therapy for rectal cancer who failed physical therapy and sacral neuromodulation. Both Fenix Continence Restoration Systems were placed successfully. Long-term postoperative effectiveness is currently being evaluated. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  13. Dynamic Article: Percutaneous Nerve Evaluation Versus Staged Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Fecal Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rice, Teresa C; Quezada, Yarini; Rafferty, Janice F; Paquette, Ian M

    2016-10-01

    Sacral neuromodulation using a 2-staged approach is an established therapy for fecal incontinence. Office-based percutaneous nerve evaluation is a less-invasive alternative to the stage 1 procedure but is seldom used in the evaluation of patients with fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical success of percutaneous nerve evaluation versus a staged approach. This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained, single-institution database of patients treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence. This study was conducted at a single academic medical center. Eighty-six consecutive patients were treated with sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence. Percutaneous nerve evaluation was compared with a staged approach. The primary outcome measured was the proportion of patients progressing to complete implantation based on >50% improvement in Wexner score during the testing phase. Percutaneous nerve evaluation was performed in 45 patients, whereas 41 underwent a staged approach. The mean baseline Wexner score did not differ between testing groups. Success was similar between the staged approach and percutaneous nerve evaluation (90.2% versus 82.2%; p = 0.36). The mean 3-month Wexner score was not significantly different between testing methods (4.4 versus 4.1; p = 0.74). However, infection was more likely to occur after the staged approach (10.5% versus 0.0%; p < 0.05). This study was limited by its retrospective nature and potential for selection bias. Percutaneous nerve evaluation offers a viable alternative to a staged approach in the evaluation of patients for sacral neuromodulation in the setting of fecal incontinence. Not only are success rates similar, but percutaneous nerve evaluation also has the benefit of limiting patients to 1 operating room visit and has lower rates of infection as compared with the traditional staged approach for sacral neuromodulation.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence is highly prevalent among nursing home residents. Previous nursing home studies have identified co-morbidity associated with fecal incontinence, but as this population is increasingly old and frail, we wanted to see if the rate of fecal incontinence had increased and to investigate correlates of fecal incontinence further. Methods Cross-sectional study of the entire nursing home population in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire for all residents in the municipality (980 residents aged ≥65). Statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression. Results The response rate of the study was 90.3%. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 42.3%. In multivariable analysis of FI, residents with diarrhea (OR 7.33, CI 4.39-12.24), urinary incontinence (OR 2.77, CI 1.73-4.42) and dementia (OR 2.17, CI 1.28-3.68) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to those without the condition. Residents residing in a nursing home between 4–5 years had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents who had stayed under a year (OR 2.65, CI 1.20-5.85). Residents with deficiency in feeding (2.17, CI 1.26-3.71), dressing (OR 4.03, CI 1.39-11.65), toilet use (OR 7.37, CI 2.65-20.44) and mobility (OR 2.54, CI 1.07-6.00) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents without deficiencies in activities of daily living (ADL). Needing help for transfer between bed and chair was a protective factor for fecal incontinence compared to residents who transferred independently (OR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.91). Conclusions Fecal incontinence is a prevalent condition in the nursing home population and is associated with ADL decline, frailty, diarrhea and quality of care. This knowledge is important for staff in nursing home in order to provide the best treatment and care for residents with fecal incontinence. PMID:24119057

  15. Six years of experience with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Hanne B; Thompson-Fawcett, Mark; Lundby, Lilli; Krogh, Klaus; Laurberg, Søren; Buntzen, Steen

    2010-04-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is one of many new surgical modalities for fecal incontinence. Short-term results from sacral nerve stimulation have been more encouraging than those from other modalities. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of percutaneous nerve evaluation tests and sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal incontinence from a single center covering a period of 6 years since the procedure was introduced. All of the candidates for a percutaneous nerve evaluation test and sacral nerve stimulation seen at our anal physiology unit between March 2001 and March 2007 were included in the study. A total of 177 patients with fecal incontinence (160 females), median age 59.5 (range, 27-88) years, underwent a percutaneous nerve evaluation test. Of these patients, 142 (80%) had a positive test, including 21 of 25 (84%) patients who required a repeat percutaneous nerve evaluation test. Because of a functional failure, 16 patients underwent a revision of the permanent electrode, 7 of whom (44%) were satisfied with the functional result after the revision. Of 126 patients, 15 (12%) have undergone an explantation, with an infection rate of only 1.6%. Overall, after a median follow-up of 24 (range, 3-72) months, the median Wexner incontinence score decreased from 16 (range, 6-20) to 10 (range, 0-20) (P < .0001). In the 10 patients who underwent at least 6 years of treatment, the effect was sustained, as the median Wexner incontinence score decreased from 20 (range, 12-20) to 7 (range, 2-11) (P < .0001). Sacral nerve stimulation is a simple, safe, and minimally invasive technique with low morbidity and excellent results, which appear to be maintained for the first 6 years after the procedure. For patients who underwent the treatment, median Wexner incontinence score decreased significantly after a median follow-up of 24 (range, 3-72) months. Twelve percent were explanted. The infection rate was 1.6%.

  16. Is electromyography a predictive test of patient response to biofeedback in the treatment of fecal incontinence?

    PubMed

    Lacima, Gloria; Pera, Miguel; González-Argenté, Xavier; Torrents, Abiguei; Valls-Solé, Josep; Espuña-Pons, Montserrat

    2016-03-01

    Biofeedback is effective in more than 70% of patients with fecal incontinence. However, reliable predictors of successful treatment have not been identified. The aim was to identify clinical variables and diagnostic tests, particularly electromyography, that could predict a successful outcome. We included 135 consecutive women with fecal incontinence treated with biofeedback. Clinical evaluation, manometry, ultrasonography, electromyography, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency were performed before therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed using a symptoms diary, Wexner incontinence score and the patient's subjective perception. According to the symptoms diaries, 106 (78.5%) women had a good clinical result and 29 (21.5%) had a poor result. There were no differences in age, severity and type of fecal incontinence. Maximum resting pressure (39.3 ± 19.1 mmHg vs. 33.7 ± 20.2 mmHg; P = 0.156) and maximum squeeze pressure (91.8 ± 33.2 mmHg vs. 79.8 ± 31.2 mmHg; P = 0.127) were higher in patients having good clinical outcome although the difference was not significant. There were no differences in the presence of sphincter defects or abnormalities in electromyographic recordings. Logistic regression analysis found no independent predictive factor for good clinical outcome. Biofeedback is effective in more than 75% of patients with fecal incontinence. Clinical characteristics of patients and results of baseline tests have no predictive value of response to therapy. Specifically, we found no association between severity of electromyographic deficit and clinical response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fecal incontinence in acutely and critically ill patients: options in management.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M

    2006-12-01

    Fecal incontinence presents a major challenge in the comprehensive nursing care of acutely and critically ill patients. When manifested as diarrhea, the effects of fecal incontinence can range from mild (superficial skin irritation) to profound (severe perineal dermatitis, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and sepsis). Fecal incontinence has many etiologies and risk factors. These include damage to the anal sphincter or pelvic floor, liquid stool consistency, abnormal colonic transport, and decreased intestinal capacity. To avoid or minimize complications, the cause of diarrhea should be addressed, fecal leakage prevented, stool contained, and skin integrity preserved. Management options addressing these goals include diet, pharmacological therapy, and the use of containment products. Management options and their respective advantages and disadvantages are presented with a special focus on safety issues. Diverse approaches are safe only if they are knowledgeably selected, carefully instituted, and constantly monitored for their effects on patient outcomes. Research to identify which options work best in selected clinical situations and which combinations of therapies are most effective is needed.

  18. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  19. [Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease].

    PubMed

    Mathias, Arthur Loguetti; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Ferreira, Mariana Aparecida Elisei; Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t test). There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of questionnaires to assess quality of life related to fecal incontinence in children with anorectal malformations and Hirschsprung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Arthur Loguetti; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Ferreira, Mariana Aparecida Elisei; Santos, Maria Mercês; Tannuri, Uenis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. Methods: The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. Results: At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t-test). There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. Conclusions: QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment. PMID:26522822

  1. [Surgical management of urinary and fecal incontinence in neurological sphincter disorders of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Lemelle, J L; Barthelme, H; Schmitt, M

    1999-01-01

    The management of urinary and fecal incontinence in children and adolescents with neurogenic disorders related to congenital or acquired conditions was frequently considered to be of secondary importance compared with orthopaedic complications. The improvement of artificial urinary sphincter and continent urinary diversion techniques allowed to establish for each case an individual plan considering overall, abilities and voiding dysfunction as well as renal complications. Antegrade colonic enema has greatly improved the quality of life of children with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation. Surgical management requires a large contribution by the patients and their closest relatives and complete information about goals, advantages and obligations of surgical management. Surgical principles for bladder augmentation, bladder neck reconstruction and continent urinary diversion are presented and discussed according to data in the recent literature and the author's clinical experience.

  2. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: where are we?

    PubMed

    George, Anil Thomas; Maitra, Rudra Krishna; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2013-12-28

    Neurostimulation remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with faecal incontinence who fails to respond to available conservative measures. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is the main form of neurostimulation that is in use today. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS)--both the percutaneous and the transcutaneous routes--remains a relatively new entry in neurostimulation. Though in its infancy, PTNS holds promise to be an effective, patient friendly, safe and cheap treatment. However, presently PTNS only appears to have a minor role with SNS having the limelight in treating patients with faecal incontinence. This seems to have arisen as the strong, uniform and evidence based data on SNS remains to have been unchallenged yet by the weak, disjointed and unsupported evidence for both percutaneous and transcutaneous PTNS. The use of PTNS is slowly gaining acceptance. However, several questions remain unanswered in the delivery of PTNS. These have raised dilemmas which as long as they remain unsolved can considerably weaken the argument that PTNS could offer a viable alternative to SNS. This paper reviews available information on PTNS and focuses on these dilemmas in the light of existing evidence.

  3. Quality of Life Differences in Female and Male Patients with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Mundet, Lluís; Ribas, Yolanda; Arco, Sandra; Clavé, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To explore and compare quality of life (QoL) differences in female and male patients with fecal incontinence. Methods Ninety-one patients with fecal incontinence (60 women, mean (SD) age 64.13 (9.72) years; 31 men, mean (SD) age 63.61 (13.33) years) were assessed for pathophysiology (anorectal manometry and ultrasound), clinical severity (Wexner and Vaizey scales), QoL (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Score [FIQL]) and health status (EQ-5D). Results External and internal anal sphincter impairment rates were 96.5% and 70.2%, respectively, in women, compared to 30% and 43.3% respectively in men (P < 0.05). Clinical severity was similar in both sexes, with mean (SD) Wexner scores of 10.95 (4.35) for women and 9.81 (4.30) for men, and mean (SD) Vaizey scores of 13.27 (4.66) for women and 11.90 (5.22) for men. Scores for women were significantly lower for all FIQL depression and coping subscales (P < 0.001) and the EQ-5D depression subscale (P < 0.01). EQ-5D index was 0.687 (0.20) for women and 0.835 (0.15) for men (P < 0.001). QoL was negatively affected by female gender (−1.336), anxiety/depression (−1.324) and clinical severity (−0.302), whereas age had a positive impact (0.055 per year) (P < 0.01). Conclusions The pathophysiology of fecal incontinence differed between the sexes. For similar severity scores, impact on QoL was higher in women. Gender had the highest impact on QoL compared to other factors. QoL measurements should be part of assessment and treatment protocols. PMID:26486375

  4. A new technique: prolene mesh sphincteroplasty for the treatment of fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ayan, F; Zengin, K; Ulualp, K

    2008-08-01

    Although successful short-term results have been achieved with the use of overlapping sphincteroplasty and primary end-to- end repairs to treat fecal incontinence due to sphincteric injury, long-term failure rates may reach as high as 50%. This disadvantage associated with tension repairs may be overcome by utilizing a tension-free technique. Here the authors describe a new tension-free technique involving the use of prolene mesh.

  5. Perineal skin care for patients with frequent diarrhea or fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Haugen, V

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of normal skin and a description of perineal skin injury. The focus is to identify the goals for treatment for persons with frequent diarrhea or fecal incontinence as it relates to their perineal skin care. Specific algorithms for acute care and ambulatory settings are defined, and two case studies are presented. The treatment goals include evaluation of and recommendations for reviewing and choosing perineal skin products.

  6. The safety and efficacy of the artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence: results from a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Douglas; Congliosi, Susan M; Spencer, Michael P; Corman, Marvin L; Tan, Patrick; Opelka, Frank G; Burnstein, Marcus; Nogueras, Juan J; Bailey, H Randolph; Devesa, Jose Manuel; Fry, Robert D; Cagir, Burt; Birnbaum, Elisa; Fleshman, James W; Lawrence, Mallory A; Buie, W Donald; Heine, John; Edelstein, Peter S; Gregorcyk, Sharon; Lehur, Paul Antoine; Michot, Francis; Phang, P Terry; Schoetz, David J; Potenti, Fabio; Tsai, Josephine Y

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and impact on quality of life of the Acticon trade mark artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence. A multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted under a common protocol. Patients were evaluated with anal physiology, endoanal ultrasonography, a fecal incontinence scoring system, fecal incontinence quality of life assessment, and overall health evaluation. Patients with a fecal incontinence score of 88 or greater (scale, 1-120) were considered candidates for the study. Implanted patients underwent identical reevaluation at 6 and 12 months postimplant. One hundred twelve of 115 patients (86 females) enrolled were implanted. Mean age was 49 (range, 18-81) years. A total of 384 device-related or potentially device-related adverse events were reported in 99 enrolled patients. Of these events, 246 required no intervention or only noninvasive intervention. Seventy-three revisional operations were required in 51 (46 percent) of the 112 implanted patients. Infection rate necessitating surgical revision was 25 percent. Forty-one patients (37 percent) have had their devices completely explanted, of which 7 have had successful reimplantations. In patients with a functioning neosphincter, improvement in quality of life and anal continence was documented. Mean matched fecal incontinence scores in 63 patients at 6 months follow-up was improved from 105 preimplant to 51 postimplant. In 55 patients at 12 months follow-up, mean matched fecal incontinence scores were 105 preimplant 48 postimplant. A successful outcome was achieved in 85 percent of patients with a functioning device. Intention to treat success rate was 53 percent. Although morbidity and the need for revisional surgery are high, the artificial bowel sphincter can improve anal incontinence and quality of life in patients with severe fecal incontinence.

  7. Late Fecal Incontinence After High-Dose Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Better Prediction Using Longitudinal Definitions

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, Claudio; Rancati, Tiziana; Fellin, Gianni; Vavassori, Vittorio; Cagna, Emanuela; Casanova Borca, Valeria; Girelli, Giuseppe; Menegotti, Loris; Monti, Angelo Filippo; Tortoreto, Francesca; Delle Canne, Stefania; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To model late fecal incontinence after high-dose prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) in patients accrued in the AIROPROS (prostate working group of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology) 0102 trial using different endpoint definitions. Methods and Materials: The self-reported questionnaires (before RT, 1 month after RT, and every 6 months for {<=}3 years after RT) of 586 patients were available. The peak incontinence (P{sub I}NC) and two longitudinal definitions (chronic incontinence [C{sub I}NC], defined as the persistence of Grade 1 or greater incontinence after any Grade 2-3 event; and mean incontinence score [M{sub I}NC], defined as the average score during the 3-year period after RT) were considered. The correlation between the clinical/dosimetric parameters (including rectal dose-volume histograms) and P{sub I}NC (Grade 2 or greater), C{sub I}NC, and M{sub I}NC of {>=}1 were investigated using multivariate logistic analyses. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve were used to assess the predictive value of the different multivariate models. Results: Of the 586 patients, 36 with a Grade 1 or greater incontinence score before RT were not included in the present analysis. Of the 550 included patients, 197 (35.8%) had at least one control with a Grade 1 or greater incontinence score (M{sub I}NC >0). Of these 197 patients, 37 (6.7%), 22 (4.0%), and 17 (3.1%) were scored as having P{sub I}NC, M{sub I}NC {>=}1, and C{sub I}NC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, Grade 2 or greater acute incontinence was the only predictor of P{sub I}NC (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; p = .0009). Grade 3 acute incontinence was predictive of C{sub I}NC (OR, 9.4; p = .02), and percentage of the rectal volume receiving >40 Gy of {>=}80% was predictive of a M{sub I}NC of {>=}1 (OR, 3.8; p = .008) and of C{sub I}NC (OR, 3.6; p = .03). Previous bowel disease, previous abdominal/pelvic surgery, and the use of antihypertensive (protective factor

  8. Prospective study on Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and its Severity instrument for verifying its ability to predict the development of pressure ulcers in patients with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Heejung

    2016-03-01

    Fecal incontinence with loose stools is a risk factor for skin damage that may develop into a pressure ulcer (PU). The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of applying the Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and its Severity (IADS) instrument to patients with fecal incontinence as a tool to predict PU development. This prospective study enrolled 120 intensive care unit patients with bowel incontinence of Bristol Stool type 5, 6, and 7. Trained nurses evaluated IADS scores and the occurrence of PUs daily for 7 days. Patients with higher IADS scores were significantly more likely to develop a PU (odds ratio = 1·22, 95% confidence interval = 1·12-1·33). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed the area under curve to be 0·790, suggesting that higher IADS scores are associated with an increased likelihood of developing a PU (sensitivity 72·5%, specificity 71·2%, using a cut-off value of 8/9). Our results suggest that the IADS instrument can serve as a tool for predicting the occurrence of PUs in patients with fecal incontinence. Patients with IADS scores that exceed eight points should be classified as being at risk of developing a PU, and placed under intensive care as a proactive measure to prevent PU development. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development and validation of the fecal incontinence and constipation quality of life measure in children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Nanigian, Dana K; Nguyen, Thuan; Tanaka, Stacy T; Cambio, Angelo; DiGrande, Angela; Kurzrock, Eric A

    2008-10-01

    Fecal incontinence and constipation in children with spina bifida are recognized to impact quality of life. Most disease specific quality of life instruments on fecal incontinence target adults and/or children without neuropathic bowel. We developed an instrument to evaluate bowel function and its impact on quality of life in children with spina bifida and their caregivers. A 51-item questionnaire termed the FIC QOL (Fecal Incontinence and Constipation Quality of Life) survey was developed from expert opinion, patient interviews, and modification of previously published adult and pediatric studies for nonneuropathic bowel dysfunction. The items are divided into 7 quality of life factor groupings, including bowel program, dietary management, symptoms, travel and socialization, family relationships, caregiver emotional impact and financial impact. The questionnaire was given to caregivers of children with and without spina bifida. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the spina bifida and control groups. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having 41 patients complete 2 surveys within 4 to 6 weeks. Comparing questionnaires from 92 index patients and 52 controls showed a statistically significant difference for all 7 quality of life factor groupings. The FIC QOL instrument objectively demonstrated the negative impact of fecal incontinence and constipation on quality of life in these families. Comparing 82 questionnaires at 2 time points demonstrated the reliability of all FIC QOL questions. The FIC QOL instrument provides a valid and reliable measure of the effect of fecal incontinence and constipation on the quality of life of caregivers and their children with spina bifida.

  10. A randomized physiotherapy trial in patients with fecal incontinence: design of the PhysioFIT-study

    PubMed Central

    Bols, Esther MJ; Berghmans, Bary CM; Hendriks, Erik JM; de Bie, Rob A; Melenhorst, Jarno; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor GMI

    2007-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence (FI) is defined as the recurrent involuntary excretion of feces in inappropriate places or at inappropriate times. It is a major and highly embarrassing health care problem which affects about 2 to 24% of the adult population. The prevalence increases with age in both men and women. Physiotherapy interventions are often considered a first-line approach due to its safe and non-invasive nature when dietary and pharmaceutical treatment fails or in addition to this treatment regime. Two physiotherapy interventions, rectal balloon training (RBT) and pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) are widely used in the management of FI. However, their effectiveness remains uncertain since well-designed trials on the effectiveness of RBT and PFMT versus PFMT alone in FI have never been published. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted. One hundred and six patients are randomized to receive either PFMT combined with RBT or PFMT alone. Physicians in the University Hospital Maastricht include eligible participants. Inclusion criteria are (1) adults (aged ≥ 18 years), (2) with fecal incontinence complaints due to different etiologies persisting for at least six months, (3) having a Vaizey incontinence score of at least 12, (4) and failure of conservative treatment (including dietary adaptations and pharmacological agents). Baseline measurements consist of the Vaizey incontinence score, medical history, physical examination, medication use, anorectal manometry, rectal capacity measurement, anorectal sensation, anal endosonography, defecography, symptom diary, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQL) and the PREFAB-score. Follow-up measurements are scheduled at three, six and 12 months after inclusion. Skilled and registered physiotherapists experienced in women's health perform physiotherapy treatment. Twelve sessions are administered during three months according to a standardized protocol. Discussion This

  11. Effect of a structured skin care regimen on patients with fecal incontinence: a comparison cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Keum Soon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of a structured skin care regimen for critically ill patients with fecal incontinence. A nonrandomized, quasi-experimental research design (comparison cohort) was used for data collection. Seventy-six patients with fecal incontinence, Bristol stool form 5, 6, and 7, and Braden Scale score of 16 or less in the intensive care units (ICUs) at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea, participated in the study. Of the 76 subjects enrolled, 38 were assigned to the experimental group and 38 to the control group. Participants in the active intervention group were being cared for in an ICU; participants in the comparison group were cared for on cardiac, thoracic surgery, general surgery, and neurosurgical ICUs. A structured skin care regimen was developed and implemented, which included the regular use of a no-rinse skin cleanser, application of a skin protectant, and an indwelling fecal drainage system when indicated. Stool consistency was evaluated via the Bristol stool chart. Nurses trained in data collection determined Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis and its Severity (IADS) scores and assessed the perianal and sacral skin for occurrence of pressure ulcers daily over a 7-day period. Patients in the intervention group had significantly lower IADS scores (t = 4.836, P < .001) than subjects in the control group and were less likely to develop a pressure ulcer than were patients in the control group (5 vs. 19, χ2 = 11.936, P = .001). Patients with higher IADS scores were significantly more likely to develop a pressure ulcer (OR = 1.168, 95% CI = 1.074-1.271). A structured skin care regimen decreased IADS scores and occurrence of pressure ulcers. Higher IADS scores were associated with an increased risk for development of pressure ulcers.

  12. Symptoms Associated with Dietary Fiber Supplementation over Time in Individuals with Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. Purpose To compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Methods Subjects (N=189, 77% female, 92% white, (age = 58 years, SD = 14) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to placebo or a supplement of 16g total dietary fiber/day from one of three sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and two segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Results Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. Odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2–2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared to baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Subjects with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Conclusions Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated. PMID:21543963

  13. A 10-Year Follow-Up of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among the Oldest Old in the Community: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye,Truls; Seim, Arnfinn; Krause, Katrina M.; Feightner, John; Hachinski, Vladimir; Sykes, Elizabeth; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is common in the elderly. The epidemiology of fecal and double (urinary and fecal) incontinence is less known. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a national study of elderly living in the community at baseline (n = 8,949) and interviewed in 1991-1992, 1996, and 2001. Using data from the CSHA, we report the…

  14. The impact of fecal and urinary incontinence on quality of life 6 months after childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat; Borello-France, Diane; Janz, Nancy K.; Fine, Paul M.; Whitehead, William; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of postpartum fecal incontinence (FI) and urinary incontinence (UI) on quality of life (QOL). Study Design Seven hundred fifty-nine primiparous women in the Childbirth and Pelvic Symptoms study were interviewed 6 months postpartum. FI and UI were assessed with validated questionnaires. We measured QOL with SF-12 summary scores, health utility index score (a measure of self-rated overall health), and the modified Manchester Health Questionnaire. Results Women with FI had worse self-rated health utility index scores (85.1 ± 9.8 vs 88.0 ± 11.6, P = .02) and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental summary scores (46.8 ± 9.2 vs 51.1 ± 8.7, P < .0001) than women without FI or flatal incontinence. Women with UI had worse SF-12 mental summary scores (48.3 ± 9.8 vs 51.6 ± 7.8, P < .01) and self-rated health utility index scores (84.1 ± 12.5 vs 88.7 ± 10.1, P < .01) than women without UI. Women with both FI and UI had the lowest SF-12 mental summary scores (44.5 ± 9.0). Conclusion Six months after delivery, women experiencing FI or UI reported negative effects on health-related QOL. FI and UI together have a greater impact than either condition alone. PMID:18060960

  15. Use and evaluation of disposable absorbent products for managing fecal incontinence by community-living people.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z; Lewis, Jaclyn; Hasselman, Keegan; Savik, Kay; Lowry, Ann; Whitebird, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The use of disposable absorbent products by community-dwelling people with fecal incontinence (FI) was described. A survey was administered to 189 community-living individuals with FI at the start of a clinical trial about the effects of dietary fiber on FI. Forty-five percent of respondents (86/189) used an absorbent product to manage FI. More women (88%, 76/86, P = .009) and persons aged 65 years and older (44%, 38/86, P = .001) wore an absorbent product. Participants who wore an absorbent product for FI had a higher (worse) FI severity score (median, 4.75; range, 1-27; P = .006). Sixty-three users wore pantiliners and they were the only ones who used more than 3 products per day. Feminine hygiene products were worn more than incontinence products. Half of users were satisfied with the product they used. Evaluations of product features differed by type of product; odor control had some of the lowest ratings. Community-living individuals with FI, especially women and older individuals, tend to wear absorbent products. Perceptions of FI severity, preference, leakage of liquid stool, and presence of urinary incontinence influence the product type and pattern of wear. Participants report that modification of several features of absorbent products might make them more suitable for FI and increase satisfaction.

  16. Infection rates in a large investigational trial of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wexner, Steven D; Hull, Tracy; Edden, Yair; Coller, John A; Devroede, Ghislain; McCallum, Richard; Chan, Miranda; Ayscue, Jennifer M; Shobeiri, Abbas S; Margolin, David; England, Michael; Kaufman, Howard; Snape, William J; Mutlu, Ece; Chua, Heidi; Pettit, Paul; Nagle, Deborah; Madoff, Robert D; Lerew, Darin R; Mellgren, Anders

    2010-07-01

    Treatment options for patients with fecal incontinence (FI) are limited, and surgical treatments can be associated with high rates of infection and other complications. One treatment, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), is approved for FI in Europe. A large multicenter trial was conducted in North America and Australia to assess the efficacy of SNS in patients with chronic fecal incontinence. The aim of this report was to analyze the infectious complication rates in that trial. Adult patients with a history of chronic fecal incontinence were enrolled into this study. Those patients who fulfilled study inclusion/exclusion criteria and demonstrated greater than two FI episodes per week underwent a 2-week test phase of SNS. Patients who showed a > or = 50% reduction in incontinent episodes and/or days per week underwent chronic stimulator implantation. Adverse events were reported to the sponsor by investigators at each study site and then coded. All events coded as implant site infection were included in this analysis. One hundred twenty subjects (92% female, 60.5 +/- 12.5 years old) received a chronically implanted InterStim Therapy device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Patients were followed for an average of 28 months (range 2.2-69.5). Thirteen of the 120 implanted subjects (10.8%) reported infection after the chronic system implant. One infection spontaneously resolved and five were successfully treated with antibiotics. Seven infections (5.8%) required surgical intervention, with infections in six patients requiring full permanent device explantation. The duration of the test stimulation implant procedure was similar between the infected group (74 min) and the non-infected group (74 min). The average duration of the chronic neurostimulator implant procedure was also similar between the infected (39 min) and non-infected group (37 min). Nine infections occurred within a month of chronic system implant and the remaining four infections occurred more than a year

  17. Sacral nerve stimulation: a promising therapy for fecal and urinary incontinence and constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Jason P; Nacion, Kristine M; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Levitt, Marc A; Mousa, Hayat M; Alpert, Seth A; Teich, Steven

    2015-10-01

    This study describes our series of children with bowel and bladder dysfunction (BDD) treated with sacral nerve stimulation in order to begin to identify characteristics associated with better outcomes and guide future therapies. Between May 2012 and February 2014, 29 patients were evaluated before and after sacral nerve stimulator (SNS) placement. A prospective data registry was developed that contains clinical information and patient-reported measures: Fecal Incontinence Qualify of Life Scale, Fecal Incontinence Severity Scale, PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptom Scale, and Vancouver DES Symptom Scale. The median age of patients was 12.1 (interquartile range: 9.4, 14.3) years and the median follow-up period was 17.7 (12.9, 36.4) weeks. 93% had GI complaints and 65.5% had urinary symptoms while 7% had urologic symptoms only. The most common etiologies of BBD were idiopathic (66%) and imperforate anus (27%). Five patients required reoperation due to a complication with battery placement. Six of 11 patients (55%) with a pre-SNS cecostomy tube no longer require an antegrade bowel regimen as they now have voluntary bowel movements. Ten of eleven patients (91%) no longer require anticholinergic medications for bladder overactivity after receiving SNS. Significant improvements have been demonstrated in all four patient-reported instruments for the overall cohort. Early results have demonstrated improvements in both GI and urinary function after SNS placement in pediatric patients with bowel and bladder dysfunction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Executive summary: A Quick Reference Guide for Managing Fecal Incontinence (FI).

    PubMed

    Willson, Margaret M; Angyus, Melissa; Beals, Dawn; Callan, Laurie; Francis, Kathleen; Kingan, Michael J; Porras, Opal Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This article is an executive summary of A Quick Reference Guide for Managing Fecal Incontinence (FI), which was published September 2013 by the WOCN Society's Continence Committee. The quick reference guide provides an overview of fecal incontinence and how it is commonly managed. The information has been compiled so that nurses can quickly access a wide array of information in a single resource to facilitate patient care and patient/staff education. The topics include a definition of FI, epidemiologic data, psychosocial impact, costs, a brief description of bowel physiology, causes of FI, skin complications, assessment, management, patient education, and recommendations for future research. The complete quick reference guide also includes 5 appendices. The appendices provide additional information about predisposing factors for FI, assessment tools, medications and foods that affect gastric or colonic motility, and examples of FI management systems/collectors. The complete quick reference guide is available in the Members-Only library at the WOCN Society's Web site (http://www.wocn.org), and it can also be purchased from the online bookstore at the Society's Web site. This article provides a synopsis of the key features contained in the complete quick reference guide.

  19. The association between urinary and fecal incontinence and social isolation in older women

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Sallis O.; Dick, Madeline A.; McPencow, Alexandra M.; Martin, Deanna K.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between social isolation and urinary incontinence (UI) and fecal incontinence (FI) in older women. Methods We conducted a secondary database analysis of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) for women aged 57 to 85 years old. Our primary outcome was self-report of often feeling isolated. We explored self-report of daily UI and weekly FI. Two logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between often feeling isolated and 1) daily UI and 2) weekly fecal incontinence. Results A total of 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 12.5% (177/1,412) of community-dwelling older women. More women with daily UI reported often feeling isolated (6.6%, 95% CI [1.3–11.9] vs. 2.6%, 95% [1.7–3.5], p=.04) compared with women without daily UI. Women with daily UI had 3.0 (95% CI 1.1, 7.6) increased odds of often feeling isolated after adjusting for depressive symptoms, age, race, education, and overall health. Weekly FI was reported by 2.9% (41/1,412) of women. Weekly FI and often feeling isolated were associated on univariable analysis (Crude Odds Ratio(OR) = 4.6 (95% CI 1.4, 15.1). However after adjusting for depressive symptoms, age, race, education, and overall health the association between weekly FI and often feeling isolated was not significant (Adjusted OR=0.65 (95% CI 0.1, 5.3, p=0.65)). Conclusion After adjusting for confounders, daily UI was significantly associated with often feeling isolated. Weekly FI was not found to be associated with often feeling isolated on multivariable logistic regression. PMID:23159696

  20. Supplementary home biofeedback improves quality of life in younger patients with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Lynne; Sloots, Kathryn; Nowak, Madeleine; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback is a scarce, resource-intensive clinical therapy. It is used to treat patients with bowel problems, including fecal incontinence (FI), who fail to respond to simple dietary advice, medication, or pelvic floor exercises. Populations are aging and younger cohorts use technology in managing their health, affording FI self-management opportunities. Does supplementary home-based biofeedback improve FI and quality of life (QOL)? Seventy-five incontinent participants (12 male), mean age 61.1 years, consented to participate. Thirty-nine patients (5 male) were randomized to the standard biofeedback protocol plus daily home use of a Peritron perineometer (intervention) and 36 patients (7 male) to the standard biofeedback protocol (control). On completion of the study each perineometer exercise session was rated for technique by 2 raters, blinded to the patient and order of sessions. With the exception of Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale lifestyle improvement (intervention--9.1% vs. controls--0.3%, P=0.026) and embarrassment improvement (intervention--50.0% vs. controls--18.3%, P=0.026), supplementary home biofeedback did not result in greater clinical improvement for the intervention group as a whole. However, on stratification around the mean age, continence and QOL of younger people in the intervention group were significantly better than those of their control counterparts. Graphed perineometer sessions demonstrated high compliance and improvement in exercise technique. Perineometers provided reassurance, motivation, and an exercise reminder ensuring that confidence was achieved quickly. Home biofeedback was acceptable and well tolerated by all users. Younger participants significantly benefited from using this technology.

  1. Fecal Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and ...

  2. Obstetric trauma, pelvic floor injury and fecal incontinence: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Fletcher, J G; Melton, L Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2012-06-01

    Current concepts based on referral center data suggest that pelvic floor injury from obstetric trauma is a major risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI) in women. In contrast, a majority of community women only develop FI decades after vaginal delivery, and obstetric events are not independent risk factors for FI. However, obstetric events are imperfect surrogates for anal and pelvic floor injury, which is often clinically occult. Hence, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between prior obstetric events, pelvic floor injury, and FI among community women. In this nested case-control study of 68 women with FI (cases; mean age 57 years) and 68 age-matched controls from a population-based cohort in Olmsted County, MN, pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction and defecation were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obstetric events and bowel habits were recorded. By multivariable analysis, internal sphincter injury (cases-28%, controls-6%; odds ratio (OR): 8.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-34) and reduced perineal descent during defecation (cases-2.6 ± 0.2 cm, controls-3.1 ± 0.2 cm; OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) increased FI risk, but external sphincter injury (cases-25%, controls-4%; P<0.005) was not independently predictive. Puborectalis injury was associated (P<0.05) with impaired anorectal motion during squeeze, but was not independently associated with FI. Grades 3-4 episiotomy (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-11) but not other obstetric events increased the risk for pelvic floor injury. Heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) was associated (P=0.052) with external sphincter atrophy. State-of-the-art imaging techniques reveal pelvic floor injury or abnormal anorectal motion in a minority of community women with FI. Internal sphincter injury and reduced perineal descent during defecation are independent risk factors for FI. In addition to grades 3-4 episiotomy, smoking may be a potentially preventable, risk factor for pelvic floor

  3. The association between fecal incontinence and sexual activity and function in women attending a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B.; Komesu, Yuko M.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis To determine whether fecal incontinence (FI) is associated with sexual activity and to compare sexual function in women with and without FI. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all new patients seen in an academic urogynecology clinic. Women who reported fecal incontinence, as defined by loss of fecal material on the Wexner scale, were compared with those without fecal incontinence. We compared sexual activity and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) scores between groups. Results In our population of women with pelvic floor disorder, 588 women reported FI compared with 527 who did not. On multivariate analysis, FI was not associated with sexual activity status, but was associated with worsened PISQ-12 scores (p<0.001). PISQ-12 item analysis found that women with FI reported more dyspareunia, fear, and avoidance of sexual activity with greater partner problems (all p <0.05) than women without FI. Conclusions Women with FI were as likely to engage in sexual relations as women without FI; however, sexually active women with FI had poorer sexual function than those without FI. PMID:23389640

  4. Comparing community and specialty provider-based recruitment in a randomized clinical trial: clinical trial in fecal incontinence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recruitment of participants to clinical trials remains a significant challenge, especially for research addressing topics of a sensitive nature such as fecal incontinence (FI). The Fiber Study, a randomized controlled trial on symptom management for FI, successfully enrolled 189 community-living adu...

  5. [Incontinence].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, J; Muñoz Bueno, A M; Guerrero Palmero, A; Segovia Gómez, T

    2007-12-01

    Incontinence presents an additional problem for a bedridden patient, among other reasons because incontinence increases the risk of perineal dermatitis. Recently evaluation scales have been drawn up which permit evaluating the effects incontinence provokes on the integrity of the skin and new products have been developed which act as non-irritating barriers and which permit professionals to visually inspect the affected area. These new products increase the arsenal of already known products and tools such as bed pans, catheters, etc. which professionals have at their disposal to control incontinence.

  6. A new method for treating fecal incontinence by implanting stem cells derived from human adipose tissue: preliminary findings of a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sarveazad, Arash; Newstead, Graham L; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Babahajian, Asrin; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2017-02-21

    Anal sphincter defects are a major cause of fecal incontinence causing negative effects on daily life, social interactions, and mental health. Because human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hADSCs) are easier and safer to access, secrete high levels of growth factor, and have the potential to differentiate into muscle cells, we investigated the ability of hADSCs to improve anal sphincter incontinence. The present randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on patients with sphincter defects. They were categorized into a cell group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). Either 6 × 10(6) hADSCs per 3 ml suspended in phosphate buffer saline (treatment) or 3 ml phosphate buffer saline (placebo) was injected. Two months after surgery, the Wexner score, endorectal sonography, and electromyography (EMG) results were recorded. Comparing Wexner scores in the cell group and the control group showed no significant difference. In our EMG and endorectal sonography analysis using ImageJ/Fiji 1.46 software, the ratio of the area occupied by the muscle to total area of the lesion showed a 7.91% increase in the cell group compared with the control group. The results of the current study show that injection of hADSCs during repair surgery for fecal incontinence may cause replacement of fibrous tissue, which acts as a mechanical support to muscle tissue with contractile function. This is a key point in treatment of fecal incontinence especially in the long term and may be a major step forward. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016022826316N2 . Retrospectively registered 7 May 2016.

  7. Prospective cohort study of phenotypic variation based on an anal sphincter function in adults with fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Brochard, C; Bouguen, G; Bodère, A; Ropert, A; Mallet, A-L; Morcet, J; Bretagne, J-F; Siproudhis, L

    2016-10-01

    One-third of patients with fecal incontinence (FI) do not have any anal dysfunction. The aim was to characterize patients with FI with normal anal function compared with patients with anal weakness. The general characteristics and data of anal manometry, endosonography, and defecography of patients who were evaluated for FI at a single institution from 2005 to 2015 were prospectively assessed. Fecal incontinence was defined by the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score (CCIS) >4. Anal weakness was defined by one or more of the three following parameters: <25 mmHg at the upper part of the anal canal, <26 mmHg at the lower part of the anal canal, and <60 mmHg for the mean squeeze pressure. A total of 439 patients with FI were included (152 with normal anal function/287 with anal weakness). Severe constipation (Kess score ≥21) was predominant in patients with normal anal function (44/151 vs 50/284, respectively; p = 0.0054). Fecal incontinence with normal anal function was significantly associated with lower age (>63 years; odds ratio [OR] = 0.29), higher weight (>65 kg; OR = 1.69), fecal urgency (OR = 1.58), less severe FI score (CCIS score >10; OR = 0.52), higher abdominal pressure (>36 mmHg; OR = 2.15), and paradoxical puborectal contraction (OR = 2.07) in a multivariate analysis model. Fecal incontinence with normal anal function is a specific phenotype that involves distal constipation and may be an early stage of FI with anal weakness. Physicians should adapt their management to focus on the treatment of constipation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. OBSTETRIC TRAUMA, PELVIC FLOOR INJURY AND FECAL INCONTINENCE: A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Fletcher, J.G.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Current concepts based on referral center data suggest that pelvic floor injury from obstetric trauma is a major risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI) in women. In contrast, a majority of community women only develop FI decades after vaginal delivery, and obstetric events are not independent risk factors for FI. However, obstetric events are imperfect surrogates for anal and pelvic floor injury, which is often clinically occult. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the relationship between prior obstetric events, pelvic floor injury, and FI among community women. Design In this nested case-control study of 68 women with FI (cases; mean age 57y) and 68 age-matched controls from a population-based cohort in Olmsted County, MN, pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction and defecation were assessed by MRI. Obstetric events and bowel habits were recorded. Results By multivariable analysis, internal sphincter injury (cases-28%, controls-6%; odds ratio [OR], 8.8; 95% CI, 2.3–34) and reduced perineal descent during defecation (cases-2.6 ± 0.2 cm, controls-3.1 ± 0.2 cm; OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.4) increased FI risk, but external sphincter injury (cases-25%, controls-4%;p < 0.005) was not independently predictive. Puborectalis injury was associated (p<0.05) with impaired anorectal motion during squeeze, but was not independently associated with FI. Grade 3–4 episiotomy (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4–11) but not other obstetric events increased the risk for pelvic floor injury. Heavy smoking (≥ 20 pack-years) was associated (p=0.052) with external sphincter atrophy. Conclusions State-of-the-art imaging techniques reveal pelvic floor injury or abnormal anorectal motion in a minority of community women with FI. Internal sphincter injury and reduced perineal descent during defecation are independent risk factors for FI. In addition to grade 3–4 episiotomy, smoking may be a potentially preventable, risk factor for pelvic floor injury

  9. Use of hollow microneedles for targeted delivery of phenylephrine to treat fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyesun; Han, Mee-Ree; Kang, Nae-Gyu; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jung Ho

    2015-06-10

    A hollow microneedle (HM) was prepared to deliver a phenylephrine (PE) solution into the anal sphincter muscle as a method for treating fecal incontinence. The goal of this study was the local targeted delivery of PE into the sphincter muscle through the perianal skin with minimal pain using hollow microneedles, resulting in the increase of resting anal sphincter pressure. PE was administered on the left and the right sides of the anus of a rat through the perianal skin using 1.5mm long HM. An in vivo imaging system study was conducted after injection of Rhodamine B, and a histological study was performed after injection of gentian violet. The resting anal sphincter pressure in response to various drug doses was measured by using an air-charged catheter. Anal pressure change produced by HM administration was compared with change produced by intravenous injection (IV), subcutaneous (SC) injection and intramuscular (IM) injection. The change in mean blood pressure produced by HM administration as a function of PE dose was compared with change produced by PBS injection. A pharmacokinetic study of the new HM administration method was performed. A model drug solution was localized in the muscle layer under the perianal skin at the injection site and then diffused out over time. HM administration of PE induced significant contraction of internal anal sphincter pressure over 12h after injection, and the maximum anal pressure was obtained between 5 and 6h. Compared to IV, SC and IM treatments, HM treatment produced greater anal pressure. There was no increase in blood pressure after HM administration of PE within the range of predetermined concentration. Administration of 800μg/kg of PE using HM produced 0.81±0.38h of tmax. Our study suggests that HM administration enables local delivery of a therapeutic dose of PE to the anal sphincter muscle layer with less pain. This new treatment has great potential as a clinical application because of the ease of the procedure

  10. Impact of Fecal Incontinence and Its Treatment on Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Holly E.

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a physically and psychosocially debilitating disorder which negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). It bears a significant burden not only on patients but also on their families, caretakers, as well as society as a whole. Even though it is considered a somewhat common condition, especially as women age, the prevalence is often underestimated due to patients’ reluctance to report symptoms or seek care. The evaluation and treatment of FI can be also hindered by lack of understanding of the current management options among healthcare providers and how they impact on QOL. This article provides a comprehensive review on the impact of FI and its treatment on QOL in women. PMID:25776296

  11. Survey of Geriatricians on the Impact of Fecal Incontinence on Nursing Home Referral

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Madhusudan; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Palmer, Mary H.; Heymen, Steve; Palsson, Olafur S.; Goode, Patricia S.; Turner, Marsha; Whitehead, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Determine the impact of fecal incontinence (FI) in health care providers’ decisions to refer patients for nursing home (NH) placement. Design Survey of members of the American Geriatrics Society (AGS). Measurements The survey presented a clinical scenario of a 70-year-old woman ready for discharge from a hospital and asked their likelihood of making a NH referral if the patient had (a) no incontinence, (b) urinary incontinence (UI) alone, or (c) FI. Subsequent questions modified the clinical situation to include other conditions that might affect the decision to refer. A second survey of respondents to Survey 1 addressed possible moderators of the decision to refer (e.g., family caregiver presence, diarrhea or constipation, other physical or psychiatric limitations). Significance of differences in the relative risk (RR) for NH referral was tested by Chi square. Results 716 members (24.7% response rate) completed the first survey and 686 of 716 (96%) completed the second. The likelihood of NH referral was increased by FI (RR=4.71, p<0.001) more than UI (RR=1.90, p<0.001). Mobility restrictions, cognitive decline, and multiple chronic illnesses increased the likelihood of NH referral more than FI alone (p<0.001 for each), but in all scenarios, adding FI further increased the likelihood of referral (p<0.001). Having family caregivers willing to help with toileting attenuated the likelihood of referral. Conclusion FI increases the probability that geriatricians will refer to a NH. More aggressive outpatient treatment of FI could possibly delay or prevent NH referral, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. PMID:20487073

  12. Efficacy of anorectal biofeedback in scleroderma patients with fecal incontinence: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Collins, Josephine; Mazor, Yoav; Jones, Michael; Kellow, John; Malcolm, Allison

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether anorectal biofeedback therapy can improve the symptoms of fecal incontinence (FI) in patients with scleroderma when compared to patients with functional FI, and also whether there is any effect on anorectal physiology or quality of life (QOL). FI in patients with scleroderma is highly prevalent and is associated with significant loss of QOL. Biofeedback has been proven to be an effective treatment for functional FI, but there are no data to support its use in scleroderma. 13 consecutive female patients (median age 59, IQR 47-65 years) with scleroderma, and 26 age- and parity-matched female patients with functional FI (disease controls, 2:1), underwent biofeedback therapy for management of FI. Fecal incontinence severity index (FISI), anorectal physiology, feeling of control and QOL were collected before and after 6 weeks of biofeedback therapy, with additional scoring repeated at 6-month follow-up. After biofeedback treatment FISI, feeling of control and QOL significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.005). There was no difference in the degree in improvement in physiology, FISI or QOL between scleroderma patients and functional FI patients. Long-term improvement in FISI and control were seen in both groups and for QOL only in the scleroderma cohort (p < 0.05). Patients with scleroderma benefit from biofeedback therapy to the same extent as that achieved in patients with functional FI. There are significant improvements in symptoms, physiology and QOL. Biofeedback is an effective, low-risk treatment option in this patient group.

  13. Likelihood of Nursing Home Referral for Fecally Incontinent Elderly Patients is Influenced by Physician Views on Nursing Home Care and Outpatient Management of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Nyrop, Kirsten A.; Grover, Madhusudan; Palsson, Olafur S.; Heymen, Steve; Palmer, Mary H.; Goode, Patricia S.; Whitehead, William E.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES (1) Characterize physicians’ management practices for fecal incontinence (FI) among elderly patients, (2) describe physician perceptions of the quality of care for FI provided in nursing homes (NH), and (3) identify physician views and attributes associated with referral of elderly patients with FI to a NH. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING United States. PARTICIPANTS Physician members of the American Geriatrics Society. MEASUREMENTS Questionnaire pertaining to physician views on (1) their own FI management practices, (2) management of FI in NHs, and (3) referral of an elderly patient with FI to a NH. RESULTS Of the respondents (N=606), 54.1% reported screening for FI and 59.3% thought FI could be managed conservatively on an outpatient basis. Only 32.9% believed NHs provide good care for FI, and 27.1% believed NH care conditions exacerbate FI. Responding to a hypothetical vignette, 10.6% would probably or definitely refer an older adult patient with only FI to a NH, and 17.2% were uncertain about whether or not to refer. Logistic regression analysis identified physician characteristics associated with decreased likelihood of NH referral as the belief that FI can be managed conservatively, the belief that NHs provide poor care for FI, longer practice experience, and practicing in an academic medical center. CONCLUSION Most geriatricians believe FI can be managed conservatively and that NH provide poor care for FI. These beliefs plus longer years of practice and practice in an academic setting decrease the likelihood of referral to NH for patients with FI. PMID:21450249

  14. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms ...

  15. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms ...

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Permacol Injection in the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Jennifer; Ayantunde, Abraham; Praveen, Bandipalyam V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Permacol has been gaining popularity in recent times for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI). This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anal submucosal Permacol injection in the treatment of FI. Methods All consecutive patients who underwent Permacol injection for FI over a 3-year period were included. Patients' data relating to obstetric history, anorectal/pelvic operations, type of FI, preoperative anorectal physiology results and follow-up details for outcome measures were collected. Preoperative and postoperative Cleveland Clinic Florida Incontinence Scores (CCFISs) were noted. Patients were surveyed by using a telephone questionnaire to assess the quality of life and other outcome measures. Data were analysed using SPSS ver.19.0. Results Thirty patients (28 females and 2 males) with a median age of 67 years were included in the study. Of those patients, 37%, 50%, and 13% were noted to have passive, mixed and urge FI, respectively. Six of the patients (20%) had repeat Permacol injections, 5 of whom had sustained responses to the first Permacol injection for a mean of 11 months. There was a significant improvement in the CCFIS from a baseline median of 12.5, mean 12.8 interquartile range [IQR], 6–20), to a median of 3.5, mean 4.8 (IQR, 0–20), P < 0.001. Of the patients surveyed by telephone 89% were satisfied with their overall experience and the improvement in their symptoms following Permacol injections. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that Permacol injection for the treatment of FI is safe and effective and has no associated major complications. However, the results are not permanent; consequently, a significant proportion of the patients with an initial response may require repeat injections. PMID:27218098

  17. The association between late-onset fecal incontinence and obstetric anal sphincter defects.

    PubMed

    Oberwalder, Michael; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Baig, M Khurrum; Thaler, Klaus; Cotman, Kathy; Nogueras, Juan J; Weiss, Eric G; Efron, Jonathan; Vernava, Anthony M; Wexner, Steven D

    2004-04-01

    Endoanal ultrasonographic results have demonstrated that clinically occult anal sphincter damage during vaginal delivery is common. This may or may not be associated with postpartum fecal incontinence (FI). Bayesian meta-analysis of the literature revealed that at least two thirds of obstetric sphincter disruptions are asymptomatic in the postpartum period. Women with postpartum asymptomatic sphincter damage may be at increased risk for FI with aging compared with those without sphincter injury. Case series. Tertiary referral center. After excluding patients with other possible causes of FI, the histories of 124 consecutive women with late-onset FI after vaginal delivery were analyzed. Endoanal ultrasonographic findings, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency assessment, and anal manometric results. Eighty-eight women (71%) with a median of 3 vaginal deliveries had sphincter defects on endoanal ultrasonographic results. The mean incontinence score, squeeze and resting pressures, median age at last delivery, and median duration of FI were not significantly different between patients with and without sphincter defects. Pudendal neuropathy was more frequent in patients without sphincter defects (10 [30.3%], left side; 12 [36.4%], right side) than in patients with sphincter defects (12 [14.3%] and 16 [19.3%], respectively), with the difference nearly reaching statistical significance (P =.054 and P =.059, respectively). The median age at onset of FI in patients with a sphincter defect was 61.5 years vs 68.0 years in those without a sphincter defect, which was not statistically significant (P =.08). Analysis of the current patient population revealed that 88 women (71%) with late-onset FI after vaginal delivery had an anatomical sphincter defect. Thus, FI related to anal sphincter defects is likely to occur even in an elderly population who had experienced vaginal deliveries earlier in life.

  18. Obstetric Sphincter Injury Interacts with Diarrhea and Urgency to Increase the Risk of Fecal Incontinence in Women with IBS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Barbara L.; Matthews, Catherine A.; Palsson, Olafur S; Geller, Elizabeth; Turner, Marsha; Parnell, Brent; Crane, Andrea; Jannelli, Mary; Wells, Ellen; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Lin, Feng-Chang; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To confirm that fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI), to identify obstetrical risk factors associated with FI in women with IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), and to determine whether obstetric anal sphincter injuries interact with diarrhea or urgency to explain the occurrence of FI. Methods The study is a supplement to a diary study of bowel symptoms in 164 female patients with IBS. Subjects completed daily bowel symptom diaries for 90 consecutive days and rated each bowel movement (BM) for stool consistency and presence of urgency, pain, and FI. All female participants from the parent study were invited to complete a telephone-administered 33-item bowel symptom and obstetric history questionnaire which included the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Results Out of 164 women in the parent study, 115 (70.1%) completed the interview. Seventy-four (45.1%) reported FI on their diary including 34 (29.6%) who reported at least one episode per month, 112 (97.4%) reported episodes of urgency, and 106 (92.2%) reported episodes of diarrhea. The mean FISI score was 13.9±9.7. Upon multivariable analysis, FI was significantly associated with parity (p=0.007), operative vaginal delivery (p=0.049), obstetrical sphincter lacerations (p=0.007), fecal urgency (p=0.005), diarrhea (p=0.008), and hysterectomy (p=0.004), but was not associated with episiotomy, pelvic organ prolapse, or urinary incontinence. The synergistic interactions of obstetric anal sphincter laceration with urgency (p=0.002) and diarrhea (p=0.004) were significant risk factors for FI. Conclusion Fecal urgency and diarrhea are independent risk factors for FI, and they interact with obstetric anal sphincter laceration to amplify the risk of FI. PMID:23321658

  19. What’s New in the Toolbox for Constipation and Fecal Incontinence?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Constipation and fecal incontinence (FI) are common complaints predominantly affecting the elderly and women. They are associated with significant morbidity and high healthcare costs. The causes are often multi-factorial and overlapping. With the advent of new technologies, we have a better understanding of their underlying pathophysiology which may involve disruption at any levels along the gut–brain–microbiota axis. Initial approach to management should always be the exclusion of secondary causes. Mild symptoms can be approached with conservative measures that may include dietary modifications, exercise, and medications. New prokinetics (e.g., prucalopride) and secretagogues (e.g., lubiprostone and linaclotide) are effective and safe in constipation. Biofeedback is the treatment of choice for dyssynergic defecation. Refractory constipation may respond to neuromodulation therapy with colectomy as the last resort especially for slow-transit constipation of neuropathic origin. Likewise, in refractory FI, less invasive approach can be tried first before progressing to more invasive surgical approach. Injectable bulking agents, sacral nerve stimulation, and SECCA procedure have modest efficacy but safe and less invasive. Surgery has equivocal efficacy but there are promising new techniques including dynamic graciloplasty, artificial bowel sphincter, and magnetic anal sphincter. Despite being challenging, there are no short of alternatives in our toolbox for the management of constipation and FI. PMID:25705618

  20. Fecal Incontinence in Older Women: Are Levator Ani Defects a Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Brincat, Cynthia; Yousuf, Aisha; Patel, Divya A.; DeLancey, John O.L.; Fenner, Dee E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare pelvic floor structure and function between older women with and without fecal incontinence (FI) and young continent women. Study Design Young (YC, n=9) and older (OC, n=9) continent women were compared to older women with FI (OI, n=8). Patients underwent a POP-Q, measurement of levator ani (LA) force at rest (FLAR) and with maximum contraction (FLAC), and MRI. Displacement of structures and LA defects were determined on dynamic MRI. Results LA defects were more common in the OI v. the YC (75% v. 11%, p=0.01) and OC groups (22%, p=0.14); women with FI were more likely to have LA defects than women without (OR 14.0, 95% CI: 1.8-106.5). OI women generated 27.0% and 30.1% less FLAC v. the OC group (p=0.13) and YC groups (p=0.04). During Kegel, OI absolute structural displacements were smaller than in the OC group (p=0.01). Conclusions OI women commonly have LA defects, and cannot augment pelvic floor strength. PMID:20452496

  1. Help-seeking for fecal incontinence in people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Norton, Christine; Dibley, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of factors that influence help-seeking in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related fecal incontinence (FI), and their needs or desire for continence services. We conducted a survey of FI in community-dwelling people with IBD, all members of a United Kingdom IBD charity, and received 3264 responses. As part of the study, we asked 3 questions about help-seeking for IBD-related FI to which respondents were able to give free-text responses. We analyzed the responses to these help-seeking questions, continuing until data saturation when no new themes emerged (617 free text comments analyzed, 19% of total respondents). For the full survey, a mixed-methods design was used to collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative (free-text) responses relating to help-seeking behavior reported in this article were analyzed using a pragmatic thematic approach. Seventy-four percent of the total sample (2415 out of 3264 respondents) reported some degree of FI. Of these, only 38% (n = 927) reported seeking help for FI. In the data reported in this article (n = 617), only 13.5% reported seeking help for FI. Help was described as satisfactory, unsatisfactory, or alternative (acupuncture, counseling, hypnotherapy). Reasons for not seeking help included believing nothing could be done, not knowing who to ask, feeling too embarrassed, ashamed or dirty, and perceived lack of interest, sympathy, or understanding from health care professionals. Although respondents wanted to talk to "someone with specialist knowledge about incontinence" only 6 out of 617 (0.9%) reported awareness of specialist continence services. Standard treatments were rarely mentioned (n = 2). Respondents' focus was on better management of FI rather than on cure. Many people with IBD-related FI are not aware of the services or treatments that are available to help them manage this distressing problem, and most do not seek help

  2. Damaged anal canal as a cause of fecal incontinence after surgical repair for Hirschsprung disease - a preventable and under-reported complication.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Frischer, Jason; Knod, Jennifer Leslie; Dickie, Belinda; Levitt, Marc A; Holder, Monica; Jackson, Lyndsey; Peña, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Fecal incontinence after the surgical repair of Hirschsprung disease is a potentially preventable complication that carries a negative impact on patient's quality of life. Patients that were previously operated for Hirschsprung disease and presented to our bowel management clinic with the complaint of fecal incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a rectal examination under anesthesia looking for anatomic explanations for their incontinence. One hundred three patients were identified. 54 patients had a damaged anal canal. 22 patients also had a patulous anus. The operative reports mentioned the pectinate line in 32 patients, in 12 it was not mentioned, and in 10 patients the operative report was not available. All patients with a damaged anal canal suffered from true fecal incontinence; 45 of them are on daily enemas (41 are clean and 4 are still having "accidents"), 7 are not doing bowel management due to noncompliance and 2 patients have a permanent ileostomy. 49 patients did not have a damaged anal canal, 25 of those responded to changes in diet and medication and are having voluntary bowel movements. Fecal incontinence may occur after an operation for Hirschsprung disease. When the anal canal is damaged, incontinence is always present, severe, and probably permanent. The preservation of the anal canal may avoid this complication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Onset and Risk Factors for Fecal Incontinence in a US Community

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Enrique; Choung, Rok Seon; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The natural history of fecal incontinence (FI) in community subjects is uncertain and the onset rate is unknown. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence, new-onset rate, and risk factors for FI in community subjects. METHODS A random sample of 2,400 community subjects aged ≥ 50 years was surveyed in 1993, using a validated questionnaire. Responders were recontacted in 2003. FI was defined as self-reported problems with leakage of stool. Onset rate was calculated as the proportion of subjects without FI who became new cases. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify predictive factors for developing FI and changes in bowel habit associated with the onset of FI. RESULTS Overall, 1,540 (64%) subjects responded to the initial survey, and 674 (44%) of them responded to the second survey a median of 9 (8.8 – 9.5) years later. The prevalence of FI in the first survey was 15.3% (13.4 – 17.3%). In the second survey, 37 reported incident FI; thus, the onset rate of FI was 7.0% (5.0 – 9.6) per 10 years. Predictive factors at baseline for the onset of FI were self-reported diarrhea (odds ratio (OR) = 3.8 (1.5, 9.4)), incomplete evacuation (OR = 3.4 (1.2, 9.8)), and pelvic radiation (OR = 5.1 (1.01, 25.9)). Development of urgency was the primary predictor among the set of predictors reflecting changes in bowel symptoms that were associated with the onset of FI (OR = 24.9 (10.6, 58.4)). CONCLUSIONS The onset rate of FI is approximately 7% per 10 years in community subjects aged ≥ 50 years. Prevention may be possible if bowel habit is appropriately managed in high-risk individuals. PMID:19844202

  4. Diet and Eating Pattern Modifications Used by Community Living Adults to Manage Their Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Croswell, Emily; Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The study aimed to describe modifications in diet and eating patterns made by community-living people to manage fecal incontinence (FI) and to compare these differences according to sex, age, and FI severity. Subjects and Setting Subjects were 188 community-living adults (77% female, 92% white, 34% ≥ 65 years of age) in the upper Midwest who participated in a study about managing FI with dietary fiber. Methods Subjects were interviewed about diet and eating pattern changes that they made to manage FI and self reported demographic data. FI severity was recorded daily. Results Fifty-five percent of participants perceived that some foods worsen their FI (e.g., fatty or spicy foods and dairy products). More women than men (40 vs 18%, p=.008) reported avoiding foods in order to manage FI. A greater percentage of younger than older people believed that fatty/greasy foods (15% vs. 4%,) and alcohol (14% vs. 3%,) worsened their FI. Subjects with a higher FI severity score appeared to wait until FI was more severe before restricting caffeine than those with lower severity scores (22.2 ± 9.8 vs 11.69 ± 8.3, p = .034). One-third of subjects consumed foods rich in dietary fiber to prevent FI. Subjects also reported altered eating or cooking patterns; skipping meals, or eating at consistent times to manage FI. Conclusions Diet modification for managing FI incorporates involves restriction of some foods, along with adding others foods to the diet. Nursing assessments of self-care practices for FI should include diet and eating pattern changes when developing a plan of care. PMID:21076267

  5. Effect of nifedipine on anorectal sensorimotor functions in health and fecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Jessica; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of increased rectal stiffness in women with fecal incontinence (FI) and rectal urgency are not understood. Our hypothesis was that distention-induced activation of mechanosensitive L-type calcium channels in smooth muscle contributes to increased rectal stiffness in FI. Anal pressures, rectal distensibility (compliance, capacity, and contractile response to sinusoidal oscillation), and rectal sensation were assessed before and after oral nifedipine (30 + 10 mg) or placebo in 16 women with FI and 16 asymptomatic women. At baseline, FI patients had a lower anal pressure increment during squeeze (health, 66.9 ± 7.6: FI, 28.6 ± 5.9, mean ± SE, P ≤ 0.01), lower rectal capacity (P = 0.052), and higher rectal pressures during sinusoidal oscillation (health, 13.7 ± 3.2: FI, 21.7 ± 1.4, mean ± SE, P = 0.02) than the healthy women, which suggests an exaggerated rectal contractile response to distention. Nifedipine decreased mean BP, increased heart rate (P = 0.01 vs. placebo), and reduced anal resting pressure (P ≤ 0.01) but did not significantly modify rectal distensibility in health or FI. Plasma nifedipine concentrations (health, 103 ± 21 ng/ml: FI, 162 ± 34 ng/ml) were correlated with increased rectal compliance (r = 0.6, P = 0.02) in all study participants and, in healthy subjects, with decreased rectal pressures during sinusoidal oscillation (r = 0.86, P = 0.01), indicative of reduced stiffness. No consistent effects on rectal perception were observed. These observations confirm that FI is associated with anal weakness and increased rectal stiffness. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, nifedipine reduced anal resting pressure but did not improve rectal distensibility in FI, outcomes that argue against a predominant contribution of myogenic L-type calcium channels to reduced rectal distensibility in FI. PMID:21493732

  6. Anal sphincteric neurogenic injury in asymptomatic nulliparous women and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Daube, Jasper; Litchy, William; Traue, Julia; Edge, Jessica; Enck, Paul; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2012-07-15

    While anal sphincter neurogenic injury documented by needle electromyography (EMG) has been implicated to cause fecal incontinence (FI), most studies have been uncontrolled. Normal values and the effects of age on anal sphincter motor unit potentials (MUP) are ill defined. The functional significance of anal sphincter neurogenic injury in FI is unclear. Anal pressures and EMG were assessed in 20 asymptomatic nulliparous women (age, 38 ± 5 yr; mean ± SE) and 20 women with FI (54 ± 3 yr). A computerized program quantified MUP duration and phases. These parameters and MUP recruitment were also semiquantitatively assessed by experienced electromyographers in real time. Increasing age was associated with longer and more polyphasic MUP in nulliparous women by quantitative analysis. A higher proportion of FI patients had prolonged (1 control, 7 patients, P = 0.04) and polyphasic MUP (2 controls, 9 patients, P = 0.03) at rest but not during squeeze. Semiquantitative analyses identified neurogenic or muscle injury in the anal sphincter (11 patients) and other lumbosacral muscles (4 patients). There was substantial agreement between quantitative and semiquantitative analyses (κ statistic 0.63 ± 95% CI: 0.32-0.96). Anal resting and squeeze pressures were lower (P ≤ 0.01) in FI than controls. Anal sphincter neurogenic or muscle injury assessed by needle EMG was associated (P = 0.01) with weaker squeeze pressures (83 ± 10 mmHg vs. 154 ± 30 mmHg) and explained 19% (P = 0.01) of the variation in squeeze pressure. Anal sphincter MUP are longer and more polyphasic in older than younger nulliparous women. Women with FI have more severe neurogenic or muscle anal sphincter injury, which is associated with lower squeeze pressures.

  7. Anal sphincteric neurogenic injury in asymptomatic nulliparous women and fecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Daube, Jasper; Litchy, William; Traue, Julia; Edge, Jessica; Enck, Paul; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    While anal sphincter neurogenic injury documented by needle electromyography (EMG) has been implicated to cause fecal incontinence (FI), most studies have been uncontrolled. Normal values and the effects of age on anal sphincter motor unit potentials (MUP) are ill defined. The functional significance of anal sphincter neurogenic injury in FI is unclear. Anal pressures and EMG were assessed in 20 asymptomatic nulliparous women (age, 38 ± 5 yr; mean ± SE) and 20 women with FI (54 ± 3 yr). A computerized program quantified MUP duration and phases. These parameters and MUP recruitment were also semiquantitatively assessed by experienced electromyographers in real time. Increasing age was associated with longer and more polyphasic MUP in nulliparous women by quantitative analysis. A higher proportion of FI patients had prolonged (1 control, 7 patients, P = 0.04) and polyphasic MUP (2 controls, 9 patients, P = 0.03) at rest but not during squeeze. Semiquantitative analyses identified neurogenic or muscle injury in the anal sphincter (11 patients) and other lumbosacral muscles (4 patients). There was substantial agreement between quantitative and semiquantitative analyses (κ statistic 0.63 ± 95% CI: 0.32–0.96). Anal resting and squeeze pressures were lower (P ≤ 0.01) in FI than controls. Anal sphincter neurogenic or muscle injury assessed by needle EMG was associated (P = 0.01) with weaker squeeze pressures (83 ± 10 mmHg vs. 154 ± 30 mmHg) and explained 19% (P = 0.01) of the variation in squeeze pressure. Anal sphincter MUP are longer and more polyphasic in older than younger nulliparous women. Women with FI have more severe neurogenic or muscle anal sphincter injury, which is associated with lower squeeze pressures. PMID:22575218

  8. Effect of nifedipine on anorectal sensorimotor functions in health and fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Edge, Jessica; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2011-07-01

    The mechanisms of increased rectal stiffness in women with fecal incontinence (FI) and rectal urgency are not understood. Our hypothesis was that distention-induced activation of mechanosensitive L-type calcium channels in smooth muscle contributes to increased rectal stiffness in FI. Anal pressures, rectal distensibility (compliance, capacity, and contractile response to sinusoidal oscillation), and rectal sensation were assessed before and after oral nifedipine (30 + 10 mg) or placebo in 16 women with FI and 16 asymptomatic women. At baseline, FI patients had a lower anal pressure increment during squeeze (health, 66.9 ± 7.6: FI, 28.6 ± 5.9, mean ± SE, P ≤ 0.01), lower rectal capacity (P = 0.052), and higher rectal pressures during sinusoidal oscillation (health, 13.7 ± 3.2: FI, 21.7 ± 1.4, mean ± SE, P = 0.02) than the healthy women, which suggests an exaggerated rectal contractile response to distention. Nifedipine decreased mean BP, increased heart rate (P = 0.01 vs. placebo), and reduced anal resting pressure (P ≤ 0.01) but did not significantly modify rectal distensibility in health or FI. Plasma nifedipine concentrations (health, 103 ± 21 ng/ml: FI, 162 ± 34 ng/ml) were correlated with increased rectal compliance (r = 0.6, P = 0.02) in all study participants and, in healthy subjects, with decreased rectal pressures during sinusoidal oscillation (r = 0.86, P = 0.01), indicative of reduced stiffness. No consistent effects on rectal perception were observed. These observations confirm that FI is associated with anal weakness and increased rectal stiffness. At therapeutic plasma concentrations, nifedipine reduced anal resting pressure but did not improve rectal distensibility in FI, outcomes that argue against a predominant contribution of myogenic L-type calcium channels to reduced rectal distensibility in FI.

  9. The magnetic anal sphincter versus the artificial bowel sphincter: a comparison of 2 treatments for fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mark T C; Meurette, Guillaume; Stangherlin, Pierre; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2011-07-01

    Fecal incontinence is a debilitating ailment, and surgery offers the only recourse for the patients in whom conservative treatment fails. This study aims to report the first matched comparison between patients implanted with the magnetic anal sphincter and the artificial bowel sphincter. From December 2008 to June 2010, 10 female patients, median age 64.5 years (range, 42-76), with severe fecal incontinence for a median of 7.5 years (range, 1-40), were implanted with the magnetic anal sphincter. Ten female patients implanted with the artificial bowel sphincter were identified. Both groups were matched for age, etiology, duration of incontinence, and preoperative functional scores. Outcomes measures included length of hospitalization, complications, and changes in functional scores (anorectal physiology, incontinence, and quality of life). Patients with the magnetic anal sphincter had a shorter median operative time (62 vs 97.5 min, P = .0273), length of hospitalization(4.5 vs 10 days, P < .001), and follow-up duration (8 vs 22.5 mo, P = .0068), without a statistically significant difference in 30-day complications (4 vs 2, P = .628) and revision/explantation (1 vs 4, P = .830). Both groups achieved significant improvements in preoperative incontinence (P < .0002) and quality-of-life scores (P < .009). In a comparison of baseline resting anal pressures, patients with the artificial bowel sphincter had significantly higher pressures with the cuff inflated (P = .0082), and those with the magnetic anal sphincter had a significant increase as well (P = .0469). At the latest review, both groups had similar quality-of-life scores (P = .374); patients with the artificial bowel sphincter had higher (median) closed-cuff anal pressures compared with the anal resting pressure of those with a magnetic anal sphincter (89 vs 58.5 cmH2O, P = .0147), together with more constipation (4 vs 1, P = .830) and a trend toward better incontinence scores (P = .0625). This was a

  10. An Evidence-Based Approach to the Evaluation, Diagnostic Assessment and Treatment of Fecal Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a debilitating disorder which negatively impacts quality of life. The etiology is often multifactorial and although most women with FI are able to be treated, many remain untreated because a significant proportion of women do not report their symptoms and seek care. The evaluation and treatment of FI can be also hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms and current options. This article provides a review on the evidence-based evaluation and management for FI. PMID:25505643

  11. SEMI-AUTOMATED VECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF ANORECTAL MOTION BY MAGNETIC RESONANCE DEFECOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND FECAL INCONTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Noelting, Jessica; Bharucha, Adil E.; Lake, David S.; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J.G.; Riederer, Stephen J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inter-observer variability limits the reproducibility of pelvic floor motion measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim was to develop a semi-automated program measuring pelvic floor motion in a reproducible and refined manner. Methods Pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction (squeeze) and rectal evacuation were assessed by MRI in 64 women with fecal incontinence (FI) and 64 age-matched controls. A radiologist measured anorectal angles and anorectal junction motion. A semi-automated program did the same and also dissected anorectal motion into perpendicular vectors representing the puborectalis and other pelvic floor muscles, assessed the pubococcygeal angle, and evaluated pelvic rotation. Key Results Manual and semi-automated measurements of anorectal junction motion (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001) during squeeze and evacuation were correlated, as were anorectal angles at rest, squeeze, and evacuation; angle change during squeeze or evacuation were less so. Semi-automated measurements of anorectal and pelvic bony motion were also reproducible within subjects. During squeeze, puborectalis injury was associated (p ≤ 0.01) with smaller puborectalis but not pelvic floor motion vectors, reflecting impaired puborectalis function. The pubococcygeal angle, reflecting posterior pelvic floor motion, was smaller during squeeze and larger during evacuation. However, pubococcygeal angles and pelvic rotation during squeeze and evacuation did not differ significantly between FI and controls. Conclusion & Inferences This semi-automated program provides a reproducible, efficient and refined analysis of pelvic floor motion by MRI. Puborectalis injury is independently associated with impaired motion of puborectalis, not other pelvic floor muscles in controls and women with FI. PMID:22765510

  12. [Improvement of fecal incontinence with silicone implants in patients with internal anal sphincter injury: First report in North America].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Valdovinos-Díaz, M A; Hagerman-Ruiz Galindo, G; Salinas-Aragón, L E; Ruíz-Campos, M; Castillo-Machado, W

    2011-01-01

    The injection of bulking agents has been described as a useful treatment of urinary and fecal incontinence. Among them, silicone implants have shown benefits in patients with internal anal sphincter (IAS) injury. We describe two patients with a history of hemorrhoidectomy and IAS injuries, which underwent placement of silicone implants. The implants were inserted into the intersphincteric space and the IAS under ultrasound guidance. The Wexner continente score fell from 17 and 19 before treatment, to 6 and 8 at six months follow up, respectively. Patients had no postoperative complications or implants migration. In our patients, injection of silicone implants improved fecal continence score, without postoperative complications or implants migration at six month follow up.

  13. A Predictive Model to Identify Patients With Fecal Incontinence Based on High-Definition Anorectal Manometry.

    PubMed

    Zifan, Ali; Ledgerwood-Lee, Melissa; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional high-definition anorectal manometry (3D-HDAM) is used to assess anal sphincter function; it determines profiles of regional pressure distribution along the length and circumference of the anal canal. There is no consensus, however, on the best way to analyze data from 3D-HDAM to distinguish healthy individuals from persons with sphincter dysfunction. We developed a computer analysis system to analyze 3D-HDAM data and to aid in the diagnosis and assessment of patients with fecal incontinence (FI). In a prospective study, we performed 3D-HDAM analysis of 24 asymptomatic healthy subjects (control subjects; all women; mean age, 39 ± 10 years) and 24 patients with symptoms of FI (all women; mean age, 58 ± 13 years). Patients completed a standardized questionnaire (FI severity index) to score the severity of FI symptoms. We developed and evaluated a robust prediction model to distinguish patients with FI from control subjects using linear discriminant, quadratic discriminant, and logistic regression analyses. In addition to collecting pressure information from the HDAM data, we assessed regional features based on shape characteristics and the anal sphincter pressure symmetry index. The combination of pressure values, anal sphincter area, and reflective symmetry values was identified in patients with FI versus control subjects with an area under the curve value of 1.0. In logistic regression analyses using different predictors, the model identified patients with FI with an area under the curve value of 0.96 (interquartile range, 0.22). In discriminant analysis, results were classified with a minimum error of 0.02, calculated using 10-fold cross-validation; different combinations of predictors produced median classification errors of 0.16 in linear discriminant analysis (interquartile range, 0.25) and 0.08 in quadratic discriminant analysis (interquartile range, 0.25). We developed and validated a novel prediction model to analyze 3D-HDAM data. This

  14. Adverse events of sacral neuromodulation for fecal incontinence reported to the federal drug administration

    PubMed Central

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the nature and severity of AE related to sacral neurostimulation (SNS). METHODS: Based on Pubmed and Embase searches, we identified published trials and case series of SNS for fecal incontinence (FI) and extracted data on adverse events, requiring an active intervention. Those problems were operationally defined as infection, device removal explant or need for lead and/or generator replacement. In addition, we analyzed the Manufacturer and User Device Experience registry of the Federal Drug Administration for the months of August - October of 2015. Events were included if the report specifically mentioned gastrointestinal (GI), bowel and FI as indication and if the narrative did not focus on bladder symptoms. The classification, reporter, the date of the recorded complaint, time between initial implant and report, the type of AE, steps taken and outcome were extracted from the report. In cases of device removal or replacement, we looked for confirmatory comments by healthcare providers or the manufacturer. RESULTS: Published studies reported adverse events and reoperation rates for 1954 patients, followed for 27 (1-117) mo. Reoperation rates were 18.6% (14.2-23.9) with device explants accounting for 10.0% (7.8-12.7) of secondary surgeries; rates of device replacement or explant or pocket site and electrode revisions increased with longer follow up. During the period examined, the FDA received 1684 reports of AE related to SNS with FI or GI listed as indication. A total of 652 reports met the inclusion criteria, with 52.7% specifically listing FI. Lack or loss of benefit (48.9%), pain or dysesthesia (27.8%) and complication at the generator implantation site (8.7%) were most commonly listed. Complaints led to secondary surgeries in 29.7% of the AE. Reoperations were performed to explant (38.2%) or replace (46.5%) the device or a lead, or revise the generator pocket (14.6%). Conservative management changes mostly involved changes in stimulation

  15. Sacral nerve stimulation versus percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of severe fecal incontinence in men.

    PubMed

    Moya, P; Parra, P; Arroyo, A; Peña, E; Benavides, J; Calpena, R

    2016-05-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation and percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation have been described previously as effective treatments for fecal incontinence. Nevertheless, there does not exist any study that compares the efficiency of both. The aim of this study was to compare the use of SNS and PPTNS in males with FI. We conducted a prospective cohort study on men with FI treated with SNS or PTNS in the Coloproctology Unit of the University General Hospital of Elche and Reina Sofia of Murcia between January 2010 and December 2011. Preoperative assessment included physical examination, anorectal manometry, and anal endosonography. Anal continence was evaluated using the Wexner continence grading system. Quality of life was evaluated using the Fecal Incontinence Quality of life Scale. Nineteen patients were included (ten patients SNS and nine PPTNS). SNS improved FI in nine of the ten patients. The mean Wexner score decreased significantly from a median of 14 (12-16) (preoperative) to 4 (1-8) (6-month revision) (p = 0.007). PTNS improved FI in seven of the nine patients. The mean Wexner score decreased significantly from a median of 12 (11-19) (preoperative) to 5 (4-7) (6-month revision) (p = 0.018). Both treatments produced symptomatic improvement without statistical differences between them. Our study was nonrandomized with a relatively small number of patients. PPTNS had similar efficiency to the SNS in our men population. However, more studies are necessary to exclude selection bias and analyze long-term results.

  16. Comparing community and specialty provider-based recruitment in a randomized clinical trial: clinical trial in fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Whitebird, Robin R; Bliss, Donna Zimmaro; Savik, Kay; Lowry, Ann; Jung, Hans-Joachim G

    2010-12-01

    Recruitment of participants to clinical trials remains a significant challenge, especially for research addressing topics of a sensitive nature such as fecal incontinence (FI). In the Fiber Study, a randomized controlled trial on symptom management for FI, we successfully enrolled 189 community-living adults through collaborations with specialty-based and community-based settings, each employing methods tailored to the organizational characteristics of their site. Results show that using the two settings increased racial and ethnic diversity of the sample and inclusion of informal caregivers. There were no differential effects on enrollment, final eligibility, or completion of protocol by site. Strategic collaborations with complementary sites can achieve sample recruitment goals for clinical trials on topics that are sensitive or known to be underreported.

  17. Postoperative issues of sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation: a systematic literature review and treatment guideline.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasuko; Matzel, Klaus; Lundby, Lilli; Buntzen, Steen; Laurberg, Søren

    2011-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge on the incidence and management of suboptimal therapeutic effect and the complications associated with sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence and constipation. This study aimed to review current literature on postoperative issues and to propose a treatment algorithm. PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched using the keywords "sacral nerve stimulation," "sacral neuromodulation," "fecal incontinence," and "constipation" for English-language articles published from January 1980 to August 2010. A further search was conducted on a wider literature using the keywords "complication," "adverse effect," "treatment failure," "equipment failure," "infection," "foreign-body migration," "reoperation," "pain," and "algorithm." Four hundred sixty-one titles were identified, and after a title and abstract review, 135 were subjected to full article review; 89 were finally included in this review. Five articles were added by manual search and consensus. Forty-eight studies were identified as cohort studies reporting on postoperative issues, including 1661 patients who underwent percutaneous nerve evaluation and 1600 patients who proceeded to sacral nerve stimulation therapy. Pooled data showed that the most common problem during percutaneous nerve evaluation was lead displacement (5.3%). The incidence of suboptimal outcome, pain, and infection after implantation was 12.1%, 13.0%, and 3.9%. There was significant underreporting of untoward events, because 60% of the studies did not report complications during percutaneous nerve evaluation, and suboptimal outcome after implantation was not disclosed in 44% of the studies. The incidence of untoward events associated with sacral nerve stimulation appears to be low. However, there is a significant underreporting of the incidence. Using the information from the structured and systematic literature review, we formulated a clinically relevant guideline for reporting and managing postoperative issues

  18. MINIMUM IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FOR SCALES ASSESSING SYMPTOM SEVERITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH FECAL INCONTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Jelovsek, J. Eric; Chen, Zhen; Markland, Alayne D.; Brubaker, Linda; Dyer, Keisha Y.; Meikle, Susie; Rahn, David D.; Siddiqui, Nazeema Y.; Tuteja, Ashok; Barber, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the minimum important difference (MID) for the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), the Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory (CRADI) scale of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire (CRAIQ) scale of the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire (MMHQ). Methods We calculated MIDs using anchor- and distribution-based approaches from a multi-center prospective cohort study investigating adaptive behaviors among women receiving non-surgical and surgical management for fecal incontinence (FI). Patient responses were primarily anchored using a Global Impression of Change scale. The MID was defined as the difference in mean change from baseline between those who indicated they were “a little better” and those who reported “no change” on the Global Impression of Change scale 3 months after treatment. Effect size and standard error of measurement were the distribution methods employed. Results Mean changes (SD) in FISI, CRADI, CRAIQ and MMHQ scores from baseline to 3 months after treatment were −8.8 (12.0), −52.7 (70.0), −60.6 (90.0), and −12.6 (19.2), respectively. The anchor-based MID estimates suggested by an improvement from “No Change” to “A Little Better” were −3.6, −11.4 and −4.7, −18.1 and −8.0 and −3.2 for the FISI, CRADI (long and short version), CRAIQ (long and short version), and MMHQ, respectively. These data were supported by two distribution-based estimates. Conclusions MID values for the FISI are − 4, CRADI (full version – 11; short version −5), CRAIQ (full version – 18; short version – 8) and MMHQ −3. Statistically significant improvements that meet these thresholds are likely to be clinically important. PMID:25185630

  19. Predictors of Fecal Incontinence and Related Quality of Life After a Total Mesorectal Excision With Primary Anastomosis for Patients With Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kornmann, Verena N. N.; Boerma, Djamila; de Roos, Marnix A. J.; van Westreenen, Henderik L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose After total mesorectal excision (TME) with primary anastomosis for patients with rectal cancer, the quality of life (QoL) may be decreased due to fecal incontinence. This study aimed to identify predictors of fecal incontinence and related QoL. Methods Patients who underwent TME with primary anastomosis for rectal cancer between December 2008 and June 2012 completed the fecal incontinence quality of life scale (FIQoL) and Wexner incontinence score. Factors associated with these scores were identified using a linear regression analysis. Results A total of 80 patients were included. Multivariate analysis identified a diverting ileostomy (n = 58) as an independent predictor of an unfavorable outcome on the FIQoL subscale coping/behavior (P = 0.041). Ileostomy closure within and after 3 months resulted in median Wexner scores of 5.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5-8.0) and 10.5 (IQR, 6.0-13.8), respectively (P < 0.001). The median FIQoL score was 15.0 (IQR, 13.1-16.0) for stoma closure within 3 months versus 12.0 (IQR, 10.5-13.9) for closure after 3 months (P = 0.001). Conclusion A diverting ileostomy is a predictor for an impaired FIQoL after a TME for rectal cancer. Stoma reversal within 3 months showed better outcomes than reversal after 3 months. Patients with a diverting ileostomy should be informed about the impaired QoL, even after stoma closure. PMID:25745623

  20. Defecatory dysfunction and fecal incontinence in women with or without posterior vaginal wall prolapse as measured by pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q).

    PubMed

    Augusto, Kathiane Lustosa; Bezerra, Leonardo Robson Pinheiro Sobreira; Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Vasconcelos Neto, José Ananias; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Karbage, Sara Arcanjo Lino; Bilhar, Andreisa Paiva Monteiro; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic Floor Dysfunction is a complex condition that may be asymptomatic or may involve a loto f symptoms. This study evaluates defecatory dysfunction, fecal incontinence, and quality of life in relation to presence of posterior vaginal prolapse. 265 patients were divided into two groups according to posterior POP-Q stage: posterior POP-Q stage ≥2 and posterior POP-Q stage <2. The two groups were compared regarding demographic and clinical data; overall POP-Q stage, percentage of patients with defecatory dysfunction, percentage of patients with fecal incontinence, pelvic floor muscle strength, and quality of life scores. The correlation between severity of the prolapse and severity of constipation was calculated using ρ de Spearman (rho). Women with Bp stage ≥2 were significantly older and had significantly higher BMI, numbers of pregnancies and births, and overall POP-Q stage than women with stage <2. No significant differences between the groups were observed regarding proportion of patients with defecatory dysfunction or incontinence, pelvic floor muscle strength, quality of life (ICIQ-SF), or sexual impact (PISQ-12). POP-Q stage did not correlate with severity of constipation and incontinence. General quality of life perception on the SF-36 was significantly worse in patients with POP-Q stage ≥2 than in those with POP-Q stage <2. The lack of a clinically important association between the presence of posterior vaginal prolapse and symptoms of constipation or anal incontinence leads us to agree with the conclusion that posterior vaginal prolapse probably is not an independent cause defecatory dysfunction or fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of age, gender, and parity on anal canal pressures. Contribution of impaired anal sphincter function to fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S M; Diamant, N E

    1987-07-01

    The contribution of the resting anal canal pressure (RAP) and the maximal squeeze pressure (MSP) to the problem of fecal incontinence was assessed by comparing 143 incontinent patients to a control population of 157 healthy subjects. These parameters were determined using a multilumen continuously perfused catheter and a mechanized rapid pull-through technique. In 10 male volunteers both RAP and MSP were determined using catheters that varied from 3 mm to 18 mm in diameter. In the control population, the RAP was significantly lower in females 40 years of age and over as compared to males. MSP values were significantly lower in females at virtually all ages. In women, parity did not correlate with RAP (coefficient = -0.099, P greater than 0.05) and MSP (coefficient = -0.123, P greater than 0.05) and any decrease in pressures was related to aging. Aging in women was associated with a consistent reduction in RAP (coefficient = -0.614, P less than 0.00005) and MSP (coefficient = -0.372, P = 0.0006). In males, there was a similar but less impressive age-related reduction for the RAP (coefficient = -0.333, P = 0.006) but not for the MSP (coefficient = -0.196, P greater than 0.05). Nine percent of the volunteer population were essentially unable to increase the RAP with maximal squeeze efforts. A linear increase in anal pressures was recorded as catheter diameter increased from 3 to 12 mm. Normative data for the RAP and MSP (mean +/- 2 SD) were constructed for each sex on a decade basis and showed a wide range of pressures for each age grouping. In the group with fecal incontinence (FI) 39% of females and 44% of males fell within the "normal" range for both the RAP and MSP. For all patients with FI, 41% and 17% had impairment of one or both parameters, respectively. It is concluded that: aging affects the RAP in both sexes but to a greater degree in women. The MSP is related to aging in women only; child bearing has no effect upon these parameters; clinical problems of

  2. Prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and associated factors in institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego L B; Amaral, Fabienne L J S; Lima, Kenio C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the prevalence of FI and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted between October and December 2013, in 10 nursing homes (NHs) of the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil). Individuals over the age of 60 were included in the study, while those hospitalized or in terminal phase were excluded. Data collection included sociodemographic information, FI characterization, as well as variables related to the institution itself and to health conditions (comorbidities, medication, pelvic floor surgery, Barthel Index for functional capacity and Pfeiffer test for cognitive status). FI was verified through the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0, which was also used to assess toileting programs. The Chi-square test and the linear Chi-square test were performed for bivariate analysis, as well as logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The final sample consisted of 321 elderly, mostly females, with mean age of 81.5 years. The prevalence of FI was 42.68% (CI 95%, 37.39-48.15). Most residents presenting FI were always incontinent (83.9%) and the most frequent incontinence type was total FI (solid and liquid stools). Incontinence control measures were applied only to 9.7% of the residents. The final model revealed a statistically significant association between FI and functional and cognitive impairments. It is concluded that FI is a health issue that affects almost half of the institutionalized elderly, and is associated with functional and cognitive disability.

  3. BOWEL DISTURBANCES ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT RISK FACTORS FOR LATE ONSET FECAL INCONTINENCE: A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Age, diarrhea and certain chronic illnesses are risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI). However, the contribution of obstetric injury to the development of FI later in life is unclear. We sought to better understand the risk factors for FI. Methods Through the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a nested case-control study of 176 randomly selected women with FI (cases; mean age, 58y) and 176 age-matched community controls was conducted in a population-based cohort from Olmsted County, MN. Risk factors for FI were evaluated by reviewing inpatient and outpatient medical (including original obstetric) records. Analyses focused on conditions which preceded the index date (incidence date of FI for case in each matched pair). Results In 88% of cases, FI began at age ≥ 40y; severity was mild (37%), moderate (58%), or severe (5%). By multivariable analysis, current smoking (odds ratio [OR]=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–15), body mass index (OR per unit=1.1; 95% CI: 1.004–1.1), diarrhea (OR=53; 95% CI: 6.1–471), irritable bowel syndrome (OR=4.8; 95% CI, 1.6–14), cholecystectomy (OR=4.2; 95% CI: 1.2–15), rectocoele (OR=4.9; 95% CI: 1.3–19) and stress urinary incontinence (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–6.5), but not obstetric events, were independent risk factors for FI. Conclusions Bowel disturbances rather than prior obstetric injury are the main risk factors for FI. Measures to ameliorate bowel disturbances and other potentially reversible risk factors should be implemented before anal imaging is performed on women with FI. PMID:20708007

  4. Bowel disturbances are the most important risk factors for late onset fecal incontinence: a population-based case-control study in women.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Schleck, Cathy D; Melton, L Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Age, diarrhea, and certain chronic illnesses are risk factors for fecal incontinence (FI). However, the contribution of obstetric injury to the development of FI later in life is unclear. We sought to better understand the risk factors for FI. Through the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a nested case-control study of 176 randomly selected women with FI (cases; mean age, 58 years) and 176 age-matched community controls was conducted in a population-based cohort from Olmsted County, Minnesota. Risk factors for FI were evaluated by reviewing inpatient and outpatient medical (including original obstetric) records. Analyses focused on conditions that preceded the index date (incidence date of FI for case in each matched pair). In 88% of cases, FI began at age ≥40 years; severity was mild (37%), moderate (58%), or severe (5%). By multivariable analysis, current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-15), body mass index (OR per unit, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.004-1.1), diarrhea (OR, 53; 95% CI, 6.1-471), irritable bowel syndrome (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.6-14), cholecystectomy (OR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2-15), rectocele (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.3-19), and stress urinary incontinence (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-6.5), but not obstetric events, were independent risk factors for FI. Bowel disturbances rather than prior obstetric injury are the main risk factors for FI. Measures to ameliorate bowel disturbances and other potentially reversible risk factors should be implemented before anal imaging is performed on women with FI. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful Treatment of Passive Fecal Incontinence in an Animal Model Using Engineered Biosphincters: A 3-Month Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Jaime L; Zakhem, Elie; Bitar, Khalil N

    2017-09-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary passage of fecal material. Current treatments have limited successful outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop a large animal model of passive FI and to demonstrate sustained restoration of fecal continence using anorectal manometry in this model after implantation of engineered autologous internal anal sphincter (IAS) biosphincters. Twenty female rabbits were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: (a) Non-treated group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy without treatment. (b) Treated group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy followed by implantation of autologous biosphincters. (c) Sham group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy followed by re-accessing the surgical site followed by immediate closure without implantation of biosphincters. Anorectal manometry was used to measure resting anal pressure and recto-anal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) at baseline, 1 month post-sphincterectomy, up to 3 months after implantation and post-sham. Following sphincterectomy, all rabbits had decreased basal tone and loss of RAIR, indicative of FI. Anal hygiene was also lost in the rabbits. Decreases in basal tone and RAIR were sustained more than 3 months in the non-treated group. Autologous biosphincters were successfully implanted into eight donor rabbits in the treated group. Basal tone and RAIR were restored at 3 months following biosphincter implantation and were significantly higher compared with rabbits in the non-treated and sham groups. Histologically, smooth muscle reconstruction and continuity was restored in the treated group compared with the non-treated group. Results in this study provided promising outcomes for treatment of FI. Results demonstrated the feasibility of developing and validating a large animal model of passive FI. This study also showed the efficacy of the engineered biosphincters to restore fecal continence as demonstrated

  6. Sacral nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: causes of surgical revision from a series of 87 consecutive patients operated on in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Voirin, David; Badic, Bogdan

    2010-11-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation is offered to patients presenting with fecal incontinence of neurological or idiopathic etiology, when medical management has failed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of surgical revision following sacral nerve stimulation in consecutive patients who had received implants. From September 2001 to August 2009, 123 patients (105 women) of mean age 56 years were operated on for neurological (n = 104) or idiopathic (n = 19) fecal incontinence. The mean preoperative Cleveland Clinic score was 13/20 (range 6/20 to 19/20). Eighty-seven patients of 123 had a positive test and underwent stimulator implantation. Any stimulator dysfunction was prospectively studied. Among the 87 patients, 36 had surgical revision of the device for the following reasons: device-related failure due to infection in 4 (successful reimplant in 4), electrode displacement in 2, electrode breakage in 2 (reimplantation of electrode in 4), and dysfunction owing to impedance increase of the system in 4; adverse stimulation with pain in 7 (stimulator repositioning in 4 and explantation in 3); battery depletion either spontaneously (n = 6) or owing to a MRI examination (n = 2); total or partial loss of clinical efficacy in 9 (removal of the generator and electrode). Sacral nerve stimulation is a recognized treatment for fecal incontinence. The stimulator reoperation rate is high and is caused by stimulator dysfunction in 24% of cases.

  7. Anterior intussusception descent during defecation is correlated with the severity of fecal incontinence in patients with rectoanal intussusception.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, A; Takahashi, T; Ohta, T; Fujii, W; Kiyasu, Y; Kusanagi, H

    2016-03-01

    Rectoanal intussusception (RAI) is a common finding on evacuation proctography in patients with defecation disorders. However, it remains unclear whether intussusception morphology affects the severity of fecal incontinence (FI). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of morphology during defecation on the severity of FI in patients with RAI. We included 80 patients with FI who were diagnosed as having RAI on evacuation proctography. Various morphological parameters were measured, and the level of RAI was divided by the extent of descent onto (level I) or into (level II) the anal sphincter. FI symptoms were documented using the FI Severity Index (FISI). Twenty-eight patients had level I and 52 had level II RAI. The mean (range) FISI score was 24.0 (8-47). FISI scores tended to be significantly higher in level II than in level I [26.3 (10-47) vs. 21.8 (8-42); p = 0.05]. The mean anterior intussusception descent was significantly greater in level II than in level I [24.2 (9.2-39.5) vs. 17.7 (7.8-39.4) mm; p < 0.0001]. Regression analysis showed that anterior intussusception descent was predictive of increased FISI scores. The severity of FI may be affected by anterior intussusception descent in patients with RAI.

  8. [Prevalence of fecal incontinence in diabetic patients: epidemiological study of patients assisted as outpatients at the Clinical Hospital of the Medical School at the University of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Amaral, S S; Teixeira, M G; Brito, S L; Amaral, G A; Jorge, J M; Habr-Gama, A; Pinotti, H W

    1997-01-01

    The object of this research was to establish the prevalence of fecal incontinence in those diabetics attended as outpatients at the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Individual verbal interviewing was the an adopted method. The classification of diabetes mellitus of World Health Organization was employed (1985). Data was aggregated relative sex, age, color, type of diabetes mellitus, fecal incontinence, duration of diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, intestinal habits (normal, constipation and diarrhea), urgency to evacuate, sensation of incomplete evacuation, urinary incontinence, vaginal deliveries and its characteristics. The study involved 258 diabetics, 167 of female sex having an average age of 56.2 years (17 to 78 years of age) and 91 of the male sex having average age of 55.8 years (10 to 74 years of age). With relation to color, 57% were white, 28.7% mullato, 11.2% black and 3.1% yellow. Fecal incontinence was prevalent in 18.6% of the cases studied. It occurred also in types I and II diabetics with predominance in the male sex. It also occurred in diabetics having an average history of 10.8 years to onset of illness. Peripheral neuropathy was observed in 8.5% of the diabetics investigated however no association was observed between the peripheral neuropathy and fecal incontinence. Constipation occurred in 29.5% of the patients and diarrhea in 21.3%. Incomplete evacuation was apparent in 15.1% of diabetics and urgency to evacuate in 12.8%. A relationship was identified between fecal incontinence with diarrhea and incomplete evacuation in the group investigated. Total vaginal deliveries was 458 with 70 episiotomies and 25 by forceps. There was no statistical evidence of association between the average number of vaginal deliveries, episiotomies and forceps in diabetics demonstrating or not demonstrating fecal incontinence. Urinary incontinence was more prevalent that fecal incontinence. No relationship was

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging of fecal contamination on chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA research partnership center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. Health-related applications of HSI include scanning chickens during processing to help prevent contaminated food from getting to the table. ProVision is working with Sanderson Farms of Mississippi and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. ProVision has a record in its spectral library of the unique spectral signature of fecal contamination, so chickens can be scanned and those with a positive reading can be separated. HSI sensors can also determine the quantity of surface contamination. Research in this application is quite advanced, and ProVision is working on a licensing agreement for the technology. The potential for future use of this equipment in food processing and food safety is enormous.

  10. [Effectiveness of liberal vs. conservative episiotomy in vaginal delivery with reference to preventing urinary and fecal incontinence: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Schlömer, Gabriele; Gross, Mechthild; Meyer, Gabriele

    2003-01-01

    Episiotomy is the most common surgical intervention in the world. In Europe the rate of episiotomy is approximately 30% (23). Reasons for this intervention are the reduction of risk for tears and incontinence. To assess the effects of restricted episiotomy in the prevention of urinary and faecal incontinence. Medline search for 1990-7/2002, Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2002), GEROLIT and SOMED and the Internet. RCTs analysing restrictive or non-restrictive episiotomy were included if they had comprehensive randomisation, follow-up and exclusion of selection bias. Cohort studies were assessed to evaluate the risk of developing faecal incontinence. If possible, data were pooled. Included were all pregnant women with vaginal delivery. Intervention/exposition: Restrictive vs. liberal episiotomy (median, lateral or mediolateral). Incontinence rate (urine and stool) 3 months and 3 years post partum. All included randomised controlled studies met the criteria above, one randomised controlled study used blinded assessment of outcome parameter. Lots of follow-up was 33% (after 3 years). Cohort studies partly were retrospective. 2 randomised controlled studies measuring urinary incontinence were included. The rate for episiotomy was 60% in the intervention group with liberal episiotomy and 27% in the restricted group. No difference could be found in groups measuring urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.83-1.20). Only two included cohort studies measured the effect of episiotomy on faecal incontinence. The chance of developing faecal incontinence in association with episiotomy was more than threefold (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 2.15-6.14). Restrictive episiotomy neither effects the development of urinary incontinence of post partum women (RR 0.98 95%, CI 0.83-1.20) three months and three years after vaginal delivery, nor the risk for trauma. Women without episiotomy suffer significantly less from faecal incontinence (OR = 3.6). Further investigation is required to measure the effect

  11. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  12. What Works to Improve and Manage Fecal Incontinence in Care Home Residents Living With Dementia? A Realist Synthesis of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Buswell, Marina; Goodman, Claire; Roe, Brenda; Russell, Bridget; Norton, Christine; Harwood, Rowan; Fader, Mandy; Harari, Danielle; Drennan, Vari M; Malone, Jo Rycroft; Madden, Michelle; Bunn, Frances

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in care homes is estimated to range from 30% to 50%. There is limited evidence of what is effective in the reduction and management of FI in care homes. Using realist synthesis, 6 potential program theories of what should work were identified. These addressed clinician-led support, assessment, and review; the contribution of teaching and support for care home staff on how to reduce and manage FI; addressing the causes and prevention of constipation; how cognitive and physical capacity of the resident affects outcomes; how the potential for recovery, reduction, and management of FI is understood by those involved; and how the care of people living with dementia and FI is integral to the work patterns of the care home and its staff. Dementia was a known risk factor for fecal incontinence (FI), but how it affected uptake of different interventions or the dementia specific continence and toileting skills staff require, were not addressed in the literature. There was a lack of dementia-specific evidence on continence aids. Most care home residents with FI will be doubly incontinent; there is, therefore, limited value in focusing solely on FI or single causes, such as constipation. Medical and nursing support for continence care is an important resource, but it is unhelpful to create a distinction between what is continence care and what is personal or intimate care. Prompted toileting is an approach that may be particularly beneficial for some residents. Valuing the intimate and personal care work unqualified and junior staff provide to people living with dementia and reinforcement of good practice in ways that are meaningful to this workforce are important clinician-led activities. Providing dementia-sensitive continence care within the daily work routines of care homes is key to helping to reduce and manage FI for this population. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by

  13. Diaper area granuloma of incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, W Z; Abahussein, A A; Alzayer, A A

    1992-05-01

    Granulomas in the diaper area developed in four patients; two male infants following surgery for Hirschsprung's disease and two female children with urinary (and/or fecal) incontinence. The use of the term 'Diaper area granuloma of incontinence' is suggested to describe these lesions seen in the elderly, as well as in incontinent infants and children.

  14. Fecal Incontinence in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress like a new sibling or their parents' divorce. They can't get to a bathroom when they need to go so they hold it. As the rectum fills with stool, the child may lose the urge to go and become ...

  15. Surgical Interventions and the Use of Device-Aided Therapy for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence and Defecatory Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Rao, Satish S C; Shin, Andrea

    2017-08-22

    The purpose of this clinical practice update expert review is to describe the key principles in the use of surgical interventions and device-aided therapy for managing fecal incontinence (FI) and defecatory disorders. The best practices outlined in this review are based on relevant publications, including systematic reviews and expert opinion (when applicable). Best Practice Advice 1: A stepwise approach should be followed for management of FI. Conservative therapies (diet, fluids, techniques to improve evacuation, a bowel training program, management of diarrhea and constipation with diet and medications if necessary) will benefit approximately 25% of patients and should be tried first. Best Practice Advice 2: Pelvic floor retraining with biofeedback therapy is recommended for patients with FI who do not respond to the conservative measures indicated above. Best Practice Advice 3: Perianal bulking agents such as intra-anal injection of dextranomer may be considered when conservative measures and biofeedback therapy fail. Best Practice Advice 4: Sacral nerve stimulation should be considered for patients with moderate or severe FI in whom symptoms have not responded after a 3-month or longer trial of conservative measures and biofeedback therapy and who do not have contraindications to these procedures. Best Practice Advice 5: Until further evidence is available, percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation should not be used for managing FI in clinical practice. Best Practice Advice 6: Barrier devices should be offered to patients who have failed conservative or surgical therapy, or in those who have failed conservative therapy who do not want or are not eligible for more invasive interventions. Best Practice Advice 7: Anal sphincter repair (sphincteroplasty) should be considered in postpartum women with FI and in patients with recent sphincter injuries. In patients who present later with symptoms of FI unresponsive to conservative and biofeedback therapy and evidence of

  16. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer to avoid harvesting fecal-contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal-contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil,...

  17. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system was developed and used to obtain several two-waveband spectral ratios on leafy green vegetables, represented by romaine lettuce and baby spinach in this study. The ratios were analyzed to determine the proper one for detecting bovine fecal contamination on...

  18. Classification of Fecal Contamination on Leafy Greens by Hyperspectral Imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system was developed and used to obtain several two-waveband spectral ratios on leafy green vegetables, represented by romaine lettuce and baby spinach in this study. The ratios were analyzed to determine the proper one for detecting bovine fecal contamination on...

  19. Classification of fecal contamination on leafy greens by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Kang, Sukwon; Chan, Diane E.; Lefcourt, Alan

    2010-04-01

    This paper reported the development of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system using ultraviolet-A excitation (320-400 nm) for detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Six spots of fecal contamination were applied to each of 40 lettuce and 40 spinach leaves. In this study, the wavebands at 666 nm and 680 nm were selected by the correlation analysis. The two-band ratio, 666 nm / 680 nm, of fluorescence intensity was used to differentiate the contaminated spots from uncontaminated leaf area. The proposed method could accurately detect all of the contaminated spots.

  20. Urgency urinary incontinence and the interoceptive network: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ketai, Loren H; Komesu, Yuko M; Dodd, Andrew B; Rogers, Rebecca G; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of urgency urinary incontinence has focused on pharmacologically treating detrusor overactivity. Recent recognition that altered perception of internal stimuli (interoception) plays a role in urgency urinary incontinence suggests that exploration of abnormalities of brain function in this disorder could lead to better understanding of urgency incontinence and its treatment. We sought to: (1) evaluate the relationship between bladder filling, perceived urgency, and activation at brain sites within the interoceptive network in urgency urinary incontinence; (2) identify coactivation of other brain networks that could affect interoception during bladder filling in urgency incontinence; and (3) demonstrate interaction between these sites prior to bladder filling by evaluating their resting-state connectivity. We performed an observational cohort study using functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain function in 53 women with urgency urinary incontinence and 20 controls. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses of covariance were performed to examine differences in functional brain activation between groups during a task consisting of bladder filling, hold (static volume), and withdrawal phases. The task was performed at 3 previously established levels of baseline bladder volume, the highest exceeding strong desire to void volume. All women continuously rated their urge on a 0- to 10-point Likert scale throughout the task and a mixed measures analysis of variance was used to test for differences in urge ratings. Empirically derived regions of interest from analysis of activation during the task were used as seeds for examining group differences in resting-state functional connectivity. In both urgency urinary incontinent participants and controls, changes in urge ratings were greatest during bladder filling initiated from a high baseline bladder volume and urgency incontinent participants' rating changes were greater than controls. During this bladder

  1. Automatic identification of fungi under complex microscopic fecal images.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Haoting; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Juanxiu; Du, Xiaohui; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Automatic identification of fungi in microscopic fecal images provides important information for evaluating digestive diseases. To date, disease diagnosis is primarily performed by manual techniques. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the operator's expertise and subjective factors. The proposed system automatically identifies fungi in microscopic fecal images that contain other cells and impurities under complex environments. We segment images twice to obtain the correct area of interest, and select ten features, including the circle number, concavity point, and other basic features, to filter fungi. An artificial neural network (ANN) system is used to identify the fungi. The first stage (ANN-1) processes features from five images in differing focal lengths; the second stage (ANN-2) identifies the fungi using the ANN-1 output values. Images in differing focal lengths can be used to improve the identification result. The system output accurately detects the image, whether or not it has fungi. If the image does have fungi, the system output counts the number of different fungi types.

  2. Feasibility, acceptability, and adherence of two educational programs for care staff concerning nursing home patients' fecal incontinence: a pilot study preceding a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Blekken, Lene Elisabeth; Nakrem, Sigrid; Gjeilo, Kari Hanne; Norton, Christine; Mørkved, Siv; Vinsnes, Anne Guttormsen

    2015-05-23

    Fecal incontinence has a high prevalence in the nursing home population which cannot be explained by co-morbidity or anatomic and physiological changes of aging alone. Our hypothesis is that fecal incontinence can be prevented, cured, or ameliorated by offering care staff knowledge of best practice. However, it is not clear which educational model is most effective. To assess the effect of two educational programs for care staff, we planned a three armed cluster-randomized controlled trial. There is a lack of research reporting effects of interventions targeting improved continence care processes in older patients. Thus, to improve the quality of the planned trial, we decided to carry out a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the planned design, the interventions (educational programs) and the outcome measures, and to enable a power calculation. This paper reports the results from the pilot study. Three nursing homes, representing each arm of the planned trial, were recruited. Criteria for assessing success of feasibility were pre-specified. Methods, outcome measures, acceptability, and adherence of the components of the intervention were evaluated by descriptive statistical analyses and qualitative content analysis of one focus group interview (n = 7) and four individual interviews. The main study is feasible with one major and some minor modifications. Due to challenges with recruitment and indications supporting the assumption that a single intervention with one workshop is not sufficient as an implementation strategy, the main study will be reduced to two arms: a multifaceted education intervention and control. The components of the multifaceted intervention seemed to work well together and need only minor modification. Important barriers to consider were sub-optimal use of skill-mix, problems of communicating important assessments and care plans, and isolated nurses with an indistinct nurse identity. Overall, the main study is feasible. The

  3. Stress Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  4. Combination therapy with biofeedback, loperamide, and stool-bulking agents is effective for the treatment of fecal incontinence in women - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Jenny; Walter, Susanna A; Johansson, Elin; Ingemansson, Anna; Ryn, Ann-Katrine; Hallböök, Olof

    2015-08-01

    Biofeedback and medical treatments have been extensively used for moderate fecal incontinence (FI). There is limited data comparing and combining these two treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofeedback and medical treatments, separately and in combination. Sixty-four consecutive female patients, referred to a tertiary centre for FI, were included. The patients were randomized to start with either biofeedback (4-6 months) or medical treatment with loperamide and stool-bulking agents (2 months). Both groups continued with a combination of treatments, i.e. medical treatment was added to biofeedback and vice versa. A two-week prospective bowel symptom diary and anorectal physiology were evaluated at baseline, after single- and combination treatments. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. Median number of leakage episodes during two weeks decreased from 6 to 3 (p < 0.0001) from baseline to completion. The patients showed a significant (1) decrease in number of leakages without forewarning (p = 0.04); (2) decrease in number of stools with urgency (p = 0.001); (3) decrease in number of loose stool consistency; and (4) an increase in rectal sensory thresholds, both for maximum tolerable rectal pressure and first sensation (<0.01). The combination treatment was superior to both single treatments in terms of symptoms and functions. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any time point. The combination therapy with biofeedback and medical treatment is effective for symptom relief in FI. The symptom improvement was associated with improved fecal consistency, reduced urgency, and increased rectal sensory thresholds.

  5. An Open-Label, Noncomparative, Multicenter Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of NASHA/Dx Gel as a Bulking Agent for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Dodi, Giuseppe; Jongen, Johannes; de la Portilla, Fernando; Raval, Manoj; Altomare, Donato F.; Lehur, Paul-Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary loss of rectal contents through the anal canal. Reports of its prevalence vary from 1–21%. Studies, have demonstrated a positive effect on FI symptoms with injectable bulking agents. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of NASHA/Dx gel in the treatment of FI. One hundred fifteen eligible patients suffering from FI received 4 injections of 1 mL NASHA/Dx gel. Primary efficacy was based on data from 86 patients that completed the study. This study demonstrated a ≥50% reduction from baseline in the number of FI episodes in 57.1% of patients at 6 months, and 64.0% at 12 months. Significant improvements (P < .001) were also noted in total number of both solid and loose FI episodes, FI free days, CCFIS, and FIQL scores in all 4 domains. The majority of the treatment related AEs (94.9%) were mild or moderate intensity, and (98.7%) of AEs resolved spontaneously, or following treatment, without sequelae. Results of this study indicate NASHA/Dx gel was efficacious in the treatment of FI. Treatment effect was significant both in reduction of number of FI episodes and disease specific quality of life at 6 months and lasted up to 12 months after treatment. PMID:21234379

  6. Effects of transcutaneous tibial nerve stimulation on anorectal physiology in fecal incontinence: a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bouguen, G; Ropert, A; Lainé, F; Pequin, P; Morcet, J; Bretagne, J-F; Siproudhis, L

    2014-02-01

    Transcutaneous electrical tibial nerve stimulation (TENS) is of growing interest for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI), but its mechanism of action remains uninvestigated. We aimed to further assess the anorectal response to TENS in a dynamic model. We performed a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded crossover study in 19 patients suffering from FI to assess the effects of TENS on anorectal function. Anorectal physiology and perception were recorded through two sequences of rectal isobaric distension using an electronic barostat device to measure anal and rectal pressures, rectal volumes, and perception scores. Maximal rectal pressure and volume variation were affected by TENS, with higher mean maximal rectal pressure (5.33 and 4.06 mmHg in the active and sham TENS respectively, p < 0.0001) and lower volume variation (11.45 and 14.7 mL in the active and sham stimulation respectively, p < 0.05). Rectal compliance was not modified by active TENS. Pressure of the upper anal canal was significantly lower with raised isobaric distension in sequences assigned to active TENS. Acute TENS modified anorectal physiology by strengthening the myogenic response to distension rather than increasing muscle relaxation and related rectal compliance in patients with FI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and classification of fecal incontinence: State of the Science Summary for the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Dunivan, Gena; Goode, Patricia S.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Markland, Alayne D.; Matthews, Catherine A.; Mott, Louise; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Whitehead, William E.; Rao, Satish S.C.; Hamilton, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a conference to address major gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of fecal incontinence (FI) and to identify topics for future clinical research. This article is the first of a two-part summary of those proceedings. FI is a common symptom, with a prevalence that ranges from 7 to 15% in community-dwelling men and women, but is often underreported as providers seldom screen for FI and patients do not volunteer the symptom, even though the symptoms can have a devastating impact on quality of life. Rough estimates suggest that FI is associated with a substantial economic burden, particularly in patients who require surgical therapy. Bowel disturbances, particularly diarrhea, the symptom of rectal urgency, and burden of chronic illness are the strongest independent risk factors for FI in the community. Smoking, obesity, and inappropriate cholecystectomy are emerging, potentially modifiable risk factors. Other risk factors for FI include advanced age, female gender, disease burden (co-morbidity count, diabetes), anal sphincter trauma (obstetrical injury, prior surgery), and decreased physical activity. Neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, pelvic floor anatomical disturbances (rectal prolapse) are also associated with FI. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for FI include diarrhea, anal and pelvic floor weakness, reduced rectal compliance, and reduced or increased rectal sensation; many patients have multi-faceted anorectal dysfunctions. The type (urge, passive or combined); etiology (anorectal disturbance, bowel symptoms or both); and severity of FI provide the basis for classifying FI; these domains can be integrated to comprehensively characterize the symptom. Several validated scales for classifying symptom severity and its impact on quality of life are available. Symptom severity scales should incorporate the frequency, volume, consistency

  8. 3D High-definition anorectal manometry: Values obtained in asymptomatic volunteers, fecal incontinence and chronic constipation. Results of a prospective multicenter study (NOMAD).

    PubMed

    Mion, F; Garros, A; Brochard, C; Vitton, V; Ropert, A; Bouvier, M; Damon, H; Siproudhis, L; Roman, S

    2017-08-01

    3D-high definition anorectal manometry (3DARM) may aid the diagnosis of functional anorectal disorders, but data comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects are scarce. We aimed to describe 3DARM values in asymptomatic volunteers and those with fecal incontinence (FI) or chronic constipation (CC), and identify which variables differentiate best these groups. Asymptomatic subjects were stratified by sex, age, and parity. Those with FI or CC were included according to anorectal symptom questionnaires. Endoanal ultrasound examination and 3DARM were performed the same day. Anal pressures were analyzed at rest, during voluntary squeeze, and during push maneuver, and compared between the 3 groups. Anal pressure defects were defined and compared to ultrasound defects. A total of 126 subjects (113 female, mean age 52 years, range 18-83) were included; 36 asymptomatic, 38 FI, 42 CC. Anal resting and squeeze pressures, and rectal sensitivity values were lower in FI women than in the other groups. Typical anal sphincter asymmetry during squeezing was less frequently observed in FI women. A dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found in 70% of asymptomatic subjects, and with a similar frequency in the 2 symptomatic groups. There was slight concordance between 3D-pressure defects and ultrasound defects. 3D anal pressures in asymptomatic women were significantly lower than in men, and in FI compared to asymptomatic women. The classical dyssynergic pattern during push maneuver was found as frequently in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Further studies should try to identify 3DARM variables that could reliably identify dyssynergic defecation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and classification of fecal incontinence: state of the science summary for the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) workshop.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Dunivan, Gena; Goode, Patricia S; Lukacz, Emily S; Markland, Alayne D; Matthews, Catherine A; Mott, Louise; Rogers, Rebecca G; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Whitehead, William E; Rao, Satish S C; Hamilton, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a conference to address major gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of fecal incontinence (FI) and to identify topics for future clinical research. This article is the first of a two-part summary of those proceedings. FI is a common symptom, with a prevalence that ranges from 7 to 15% in community-dwelling men and women, but it is often underreported, as providers seldom screen for FI and patients do not volunteer the symptom, even though the symptoms can have a devastating impact on the quality of life. Rough estimates suggest that FI is associated with a substantial economic burden, particularly in patients who require surgical therapy. Bowel disturbances, particularly diarrhea, the symptom of rectal urgency, and burden of chronic illness are the strongest independent risk factors for FI in the community. Smoking, obesity, and inappropriate cholecystectomy are emerging, potentially modifiable risk factors. Other risk factors for FI include advanced age, female gender, disease burden (comorbidity count, diabetes), anal sphincter trauma (obstetrical injury, prior surgery), and decreased physical activity. Neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and pelvic floor anatomical disturbances (rectal prolapse) are also associated with FI. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for FI include diarrhea, anal and pelvic floor weakness, reduced rectal compliance, and reduced or increased rectal sensation; many patients have multifaceted anorectal dysfunctions. The type (urge, passive or combined), etiology (anorectal disturbance, bowel symptoms, or both), and severity of FI provide the basis for classifying FI; these domains can be integrated to comprehensively characterize the symptom. Several validated scales for classifying symptom severity and its impact on the quality of life are available. Symptom severity scales should incorporate the frequency, volume

  10. MR imaging of the female urethra and supporting ligaments in assessment of urinary incontinence: spectrum of abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Macura, Katarzyna J; Genadry, Rene R; Bluemke, David A

    2006-01-01

    The traditional methods for evaluation of urinary incontinence in women include urodynamics, cystourethroscopy, cystourethrography, and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has not played a major role in the assessment of women with urinary incontinence. However, high-resolution MR imaging allows detailed visualization of the urethral sphincter and supporting ligaments in women and may contribute to the diagnosis and staging of sphincteric incompetence related to intrinsic sphincter deficiency or urethral hypermobility. Both the anatomy and the function of the female urethra can be depicted on MR images. The spectrum of abnormalities detected at MR imaging in women with stress urinary incontinence are classified as (a) findings related to the urethral sphincter deficiency and (b) defects of the urethral support ligaments and urethral hypermobility. These abnormalities include a small urethral sphincter, funneling at the bladder neck, distortion of the urethral support ligaments, cystocele, an asymmetric pubococcygeus muscle, abnormal shape of the vagina, enlargement of the retropubic space, and an increased vesicourethral angle.

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  12. Identifying fecal matter contamination in produce fields using multispectral reflectance imaging under ambient solar illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everard, Colm D.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; O'Donnell, Colm P.

    2016-05-01

    An imaging device to detect fecal contamination in fresh produce fields could allow the producer avoid harvesting fecal contaminated produce. E.coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been associated with fecal contaminated leafy greens. In this study, in-field spectral profiles of bovine fecal matter, soil, and spinach leaves are compared. A common aperture imager designed with two identical monochromatic cameras, a beam splitter, and optical filters was used to simultaneously capture two-spectral images of leaves contaminated with both fecal matter and soil. The optical filters where 10 nm full width half maximum bandpass filters, one at 690 nm and the second at 710 nm. These were mounted in front of the object lenses. New images were created using the ratio of these two spectral images on a pixel by pixel basis. Image analysis results showed that the fecal matter contamination could be distinguished from soil and leaf on the ratio images. The use of this technology has potential to allow detection of fecal contamination in produce fields which can be a source of foodbourne illnesses. It has the added benefit of mitigating cross-contamination during harvesting and processing.

  13. [German Artificial Sphincter System--GASS. Development and in vitro evaluation of a novel, fully-implantable, highly integrated sphincter prosthesis for therapy of high-grade fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Schrag, Hans J; Padilla, Federico F; Doll, A; Goldschmidtböing, Frank; Woias, Peter; Hopt, Ulrich T

    2004-10-01

    No highly integrated sphincter prosthesis for therapy of major fecal incontinence exists. Therefore, we developed a novel neosphincter, made of polyurethane. The GASS consists of a support ring (SR) which includes a fluid reservoir, fixed on the outer diameter of the SR, and a multi-chamber occluding cuff (C(int)) on the inside diameter. The total inflation volume of C(int) is about 23 cc. The integrated micropump based on piezotechnology measures 30x13x1 mm3 (flowrate 1.4 cc/min, max. backpressure 40,000 Pa) . GASS was evaluated around the external sphincter of isolated porcine anal canals. The threshold of continence was defined as the inflating volume which water ceased to leak through the area occluded by C(int) under an induced rectal pressure of 150 cm H2O. Minimal filling volumes maintained continence for liquids against high luminal pressures. A low intraanal resting pressure (delta p(anal)) induced by activated GASS indicates a little risk of ischemic injury of the anal canal in vivo (median delta p(anal) 24.1 mm hg:15 cc vs 46.9 mm hg:21 cc). In summary, a highly integrated and efficient high-tech neosphincter for the therapy of major fecal incontinence could be realized.

  14. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  15. [Postpartum incontinence. Narrative review].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Alós, Rafael; Carceller, M Soledad; Solana, Amparo; Frangi, Andrés; Ruiz, M Dolores; Lozoya, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The development of fecal incontinence after childbirth is a common event. This incontinence responds to a multifactorial etiology in which the most common element is external anal sphincter injury. There are several risk factors, and it is very important to know and avoid them. Sphincter injury may result from perineal tear or sometimes by incorrectly performing an episiotomy. It is very important to recognize the injury when it occurs and repair it properly. Pudendal nerve trauma may contribute to the effect of direct sphincter injury. Persistence of incontinence is common, even after sphincter repair. Surgical sphincteroplasty is the standard treatment of obstetric sphincter injuries, however, sacral or tibial electric stimulation therapies are being applied in patients with sphincter injuries not repaired with promising results. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  17. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feasibility of fluorescence imaging technique for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on chicken carcasses was investigated. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging for inspection of agri...

  18. Detection of fecal residue on poultry carcasses by laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential use of laser-induced fluorescence imaging techniques was investigated for the detection of diluted fecal matters from various parts of the digestive tract, including colon, ceca, small intestine, and duodenum, on poultry carcasses. One of the challenges for using fluorescence imaging f...

  19. Analysis of reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of poultry carcasses for fecal and ingesta detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Smith, Doug P.; Poole, Gavin

    2002-11-01

    Identification and separation of poultry carcasses contaminated by feces and/or crop ingesta are very important to protect the consumer from a potential source of food poisoning. A transportable hyperspectral imaging system was developed to detect fecal and ingesta contamination on the surface of poultry carcasses. Detection algorithms used with the imaging system were developed from visible/near infrared monochromator spectra and with contaminates from birds fed a corn/soybean meal diet. The objectives of this study were to investigate using regions of interest reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images to determine optimal wavelengths for fecal detection algorithms from images of birds fed corn, wheat and milo diets. Spectral and spatial data between 400 and 900 nm with a 1.0 nm spectral resolution were acquired from uncontaminated and fecal and ingesta contaminated poultry carcasses. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined for fecal and ingesta contaminated and uncontaminated skin (i.e. breast, thigh, and wing). Average reflectance spectra of the ROIs were extracted for analysis. Reflectance spectra of contaminants and uncontaminated skin differed. Spectral data pre-processing treatments with a single-term, linear regression program to select wavelengths for optimum calibration coefficients to detect contamination were developed. Fecal and ingesta detection models, specifically a quotient of 2 and/or 3-wavelengths was 100% successful in classification of contaminates.

  20. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by ...

  1. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields.

  2. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging for real-time poultry fecal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, G. W.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin

    2010-04-01

    The ARS multispectral imaging system with three-band common aperture camera was able to inspect fecal contaminants in real-time mode during poultry processing. Recent study has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, cuticle removal filter, median filter, and morphological analysis in real-time mode could remove false positive errors. The ARS research groups and their industry partner are now merging the fecal detection and systemically disease detection systems onto a common platform using line-scan hyperspectral imaging system. This system will aid in commercialization by creating one hyperspectral imaging system with user-defined wavelengths that can be installed in different locations of the processing line to solve significant food safety problems. Therefore, this research demonstrated the feasibility of line-scan hyperspectral imaging system in terms of processing speed and detection accuracy for a real-time, on-line fecal detection at current processing speed (140 birds per minute) of commercial poultry plant. The newly developed line-scan hyperspectral imaging system could improve Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS)'s poultry safety inspection program significantly.

  3. [Urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Incontinence is a common age-dependent and increasing problem in women that may mainly present as stress incontinence, overactive bladder, mixed incontinence or other forms. A thorough history, gynaecological and neurological examination and urinalysis as initial step will lead to the diagnosis and treatment. If midstream urine is difficult to receive, a catheter urine will be easy to obtain. Further investigations as urodynamics, cystoscopy and ultrasound may be required. As initial step, stress incontinence should be treated with physiotherapy and pelvic floor exercises, if not successful with operations as suburethral slings. Slings have good long-term success rates of approximately 85 % with a low morbidity and can even be inserted under local anaesthetic. The treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder consists of bladder training, a behavioural therapy, and mainly anticholinergics. Anticholinergics may cause side effects particularly in the elderly who are under several medications that may add anticholinergic effects as antidepressants, antibiotics or antihistaminics.

  4. An Overview of Bowel Incontinence: What Can Go Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Bowel incontinence, also called fecal incontinence, is the loss of control over liquid or solid stools. It can occur at any age--as a child, teenager, or adult. Severity can range from infrequent leakage of a small amount of stool to total loss of bowel control. Some persons might feel the urge to have a bowel movement but be unable to control it…

  5. Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging to Control the Placement of Tension-Free Transobturator Tape in Female Urinary Stress Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Charlotte M; Kupec, Tomas; Stickeler, Elmar; Goecke, Tamme W; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Najjari, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The objective was to evaluate, by means of tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), the reliability of a novel approach for determining the position of the implanted tension-free transobturator tape (TOT). Furthermore, we analyzed the association between the position of the tape at rest and the subjective cure in stress incontinent women. Methods. This retrospective pilot study consists of 32 stress incontinent women, who underwent TOT procedure and routine sonographic control at day 1 postoperatively and at follow-up visit. TUI was applied on the resulting 4D volumes, thereby delivering 9 axial slices with a 4 mm interslice distance starting at the meatus urethrae internus in caudal direction. The reliability of the approach was tested by two examiners. Postoperative and follow-up ultrasound parameters of uncured and cured patients were analyzed. Results. Measurements of the position of the TOT demonstrated high intraclass correlation coefficients. We found minor differences between sonographic parameters at day 1 postoperatively and at follow-up after a median period of 321 days. In cured patients, the position of the tape was measured in a more caudal position than in uncured patients. Conclusions. TUI can be a reliable method for determining the position of the tape. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the postoperatively determined position can be used as an indicator of future subjective cure.

  6. Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging to Control the Placement of Tension-Free Transobturator Tape in Female Urinary Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kupec, Tomas; Stickeler, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The objective was to evaluate, by means of tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), the reliability of a novel approach for determining the position of the implanted tension-free transobturator tape (TOT). Furthermore, we analyzed the association between the position of the tape at rest and the subjective cure in stress incontinent women. Methods. This retrospective pilot study consists of 32 stress incontinent women, who underwent TOT procedure and routine sonographic control at day 1 postoperatively and at follow-up visit. TUI was applied on the resulting 4D volumes, thereby delivering 9 axial slices with a 4 mm interslice distance starting at the meatus urethrae internus in caudal direction. The reliability of the approach was tested by two examiners. Postoperative and follow-up ultrasound parameters of uncured and cured patients were analyzed. Results. Measurements of the position of the TOT demonstrated high intraclass correlation coefficients. We found minor differences between sonographic parameters at day 1 postoperatively and at follow-up after a median period of 321 days. In cured patients, the position of the tape was measured in a more caudal position than in uncured patients. Conclusions. TUI can be a reliable method for determining the position of the tape. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the postoperatively determined position can be used as an indicator of future subjective cure. PMID:27610378

  7. Bladder and rectal incontinence without paraplegia or paraparesis after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Naritomo; Kurimoto, Yoshihiko; Maruyama, Ryushi; Ujihira, Kosuke; Iba, Yutaka; Hatta, Eiichiro; Yamada, Akira; Nakanishi, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Spinal cord ischemia is a well-known potential complication of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and it is usually manifested by paraplegia or paraparesis. We describe a case in which spinal cord ischemia after EVAR presented by isolated bladder and rectal incontinence without other neurological deficits. A 63-year-old woman presented with intermittent claudication secondary to an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and a left common iliac artery obstruction, for which she underwent EVAR using an aorto-uniiliac (AUI) device and ilio-femoral artery bypass. On postoperative day 3, she developed urinary and fecal incontinence without signs of paraplegia or paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hyper-intense signal in the spinal cord. She received hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and was discharged after 18 days when her urinary and fecal incontinence were almost resolved. This report suggests that spinal cord ischemia after EVAR for aortoiliac occlusive disease might present as bladder and rectal incontinence without other neurological manifestations.

  8. Real-time multispectral imaging system for online poultry fecal inspection using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Kise, Michio; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Smith, Douglas P.; Thai, Chi N.

    2006-10-01

    A prototype real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses has been developed. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (517, 565 and 802-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system with decision tree algorithm. The on-line testing results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. This paper demonstrated both multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. For the software development, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used for on-line application. The UML models included class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram. User interface model included seventeen inputs and six outputs. A window based real-time image processing software composed of eleven components, which represented class, architecture, and activity. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing plant. The run-time of the software including online calibration was fast enough to inspect carcasses on-line with an industry requirement. Based on the preliminary test at the pilot-scale processing line, the system was able to acquire poultry images in real-time. According to the test results, the imaging system is reliable for the harsh environments and UML based image processing software is flexible and easy to be updated when additional parameters are needed for in-plant trials.

  9. Detection of fecal contamination on beef meat surfaces using handheld fluorescence imaging device (HFID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Hyunjeong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Moon S.

    2016-05-01

    Current meat inspection in slaughter plants, for food safety and quality attributes including potential fecal contamination, is conducted through by visual examination human inspectors. A handheld fluorescence-based imaging device (HFID) was developed to be an assistive tool for human inspectors by highlighting contaminated food and food contact surfaces on a display monitor. It can be used under ambient lighting conditions in food processing plants. Critical components of the imaging device includes four 405-nm 10-W LEDs for fluorescence excitation, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, optical filter (670 nm used for this study), and Wi-Fi transmitter for broadcasting real-time video/images to monitoring devices such as smartphone and tablet. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of HFID in enhancing visual detection of fecal contamination on red meat, fat, and bone surfaces of beef under varying ambient luminous intensities (0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 foot-candles). Overall, diluted feces on fat, red meat and bone areas of beef surfaces were detectable in the 670-nm single-band fluorescence images when using the HFID under 0 to 50 foot-candle ambient lighting.

  10. Incontinence in persons with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander; Equit, Monika; Medoff, David; Wagner, Catharina; Curfs, Leopold

    2017-08-01

    To assess the rates of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children, adolescents and adults with Down Syndrome, a genetic syndrome caused by partial or complete triplication (trisomy) of chromosome 21 and characterized by typical facial features, a physical growth delay and mild or moderate intellectual disability. Three hundred and seventeen persons with Down Syndrome (4-51 years) were recruited through a German parent support group (59.6% male, mean age 19.2 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, as well as the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC) for parents or for adults were filled out by parents or care-givers. 17.2% of the sample had nocturnal enuresis, 15.9% had daytime urinary incontinence, and 14.2% had fecal incontinence. Incontinence was present in 64.0% of young children (4-12 years), 10.3% of teens (13-17 years), 12.8% of young adults (18-30 years) and in 22.4% of older adults (>30 years). 13.6% of children and 8.4% of adults had a DBC score in the clinical range. 19.5% of children and 27.8% of adults with incontinence had behavioral problems. There was a significant association between nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and clinical DBC scores in adults. Incontinence in Down Syndrome is mainly present in young children and increases in older adults. Behavioral comorbidity is associated with incontinence only in adults with Down Syndrome. Screening and treatment of incontinence in individuals with Down Syndrome is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging using violet LEDs as excitation sources for fecal matter contaminate identification on spinach leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food safety in the production of fresh produce for human consumption is a worldwide issue and needs to be addressed to decrease foodborne illnesses and resulting costs. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging coupled with multivariate image analysis techniques for detection of fecal contaminates on spina...

  12. Incontinence Treatment: Surgical Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  13. Incontinence in persons with Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C; Niemczyk, J; Equit, M; Curfs, L; von Gontard, A

    2017-02-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a congenital syndrome with a prevalence of 1:15,000. Individuals with AS often have severe intellectual disability, typical dysmorphic signs, and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the rate of incontinence and associated psychological problems in children and adults with AS. Ninety children (4-18 years) and 54 adults (18-31 years) with AS were recruited through a parent support group (55.6% male, mean age 15.1 years). The Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence, the Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-CLUTS), as well as the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for parents (DBC-P) or for adults (DBC-A) were filled out by parents or caregivers. 85.6% of individuals with AS were affected by at least one subtype of incontinence (82.7% nocturnal enuresis (NE), 64.7% daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), and 57.1% fecal incontinence (FI)). 52.5% of the children and 32.6% of adults reached a clinically relevant DBC score. Incontinence was not associated with behavioral problems. NE and DUI were associated with genotype and epilepsy.

  14. Incontinence in children with treated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, J; Equit, M; Hoffmann, L; von Gontard, A

    2015-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and incontinence (nocturnal enuresis, daytime urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence) are common disorders in childhood. Both disorders are strongly associated with each other. ADHD can affect compliance to incontinence therapy in a negative way; it can also affect outcome. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of incontinence, age of bladder and bowel control, and psychological symptoms in children having treatment for ADHD compared to a control group. Forty children having treatment for ADHD (75% boys, mean age 11.4 years) and 43 matched controls (60.5% boys, mean age 10.7 years) were assessed. Their parents filled out questionnaires to assess: child psychopathology (Child Behavior Checklist), incontinence (Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence; Encopresis Questionnaire - Screening Version) and symptoms of the lower urinary tract (International-Consultation-on-Incontinence-Questionnaire - Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms). The ICD-10 diagnoses and children's IQ were measured by standardized instruments (Kinder-DIPS, Coloured Progressive Matrices/Standard Progressive Matrices). Rates of incontinence in the ADHD group (5% nocturnal enuresis, 5% daytime urinary incontinence, 2.5% fecal incontinence) did not differ significantly from incontinence rates in the control group (4.7% daytime urinary incontinence). More children in the ADHD group had Child Behavior Checklist scores in the clinical range. Further ICD-10 disorders were present in eight children with ADHD and in one control child. More children with ADHD had delayed daytime and nighttime bladder control, as well as delayed bowel control, than the controls. The present study showed that if children are treated for their ADHD, according to standard practice guidelines, incontinence rates are similar to those without ADHD. More children with ADHD reached continence at a later age than the controls, which could be an

  15. [Biofeedback effectiveness in patients with fecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Buenrostro-Acebes, José María; Erciga-Vergara, Nancy; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Mosqueda, Maria Elena; Monroy-Argumedo, Montserrat; González-Alvarado, Carlos; Villanueva-Saenz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el origen anómalo de la arteria coronaria izquierda del seno coronario derecho (ACAOS) se caracteriza porque la arteria coronaria principal izquierda se origina anómalamente del seno de valsalva aórtico coronario derecho y cuyo trayecto puede seguir cuatro diferentes caminos hacia el lado izquierdo del corazón. Caso clínico: masculino de 73 años de edad, que ingresó al hospital por dolor precordial de tipo opresivo, intensidad 10/10 con irradiación a brazo izquierdo y cuello, acompañado de diaforesis y nausea. El diagnóstico fue de un síndrome isquémico coronario agudo sometido a terapia trombolítica Su evolución posterior fue no satisfactoria debido a diferentes complicaciones que lo llevaron a la muerte. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico del origen anómalo de la arteria coronaria izquierda del seno opuesto (ACAOS), se establece únicamente a través de métodos de diagnósticos como la angiotomografía computada cardiaca o un cateterismo cardiaco como parte del abordaje de un síndrome isquémico coronario agudo que permiten establecer las características morfológicas de las arterias coronarias como las diferentes variantes anatómicas y sus características particulares respecto a las estructuras adyacentes.

  16. The coexistence of anal incontinence in women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Murat; Kupelioglu, L C; Yasar, L; Savan, K; Akcig, Z; Ozcan, A J

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the coexistentence of anal incontinence (AI) in patients with urinary incontinence (UI). UDI 6 questionnaire was applied to consecutive 800 patients for the determination of symptomatic UI. Cases were also questioned for AI. The patients with the complaint of UI were evaluated for the coexistence of AI. Each patient with AI, had completed the Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence questionnaire for the determination of the severity of AI. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the evaluation of qualitative data. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was done to test the overall significance of all variables that were significantly associated with UI using univariate analysis. There were 233 (29.1%) cases of UI and 105 (13.1%) cases of AI. 60 (7.5%) of these patients were suffering from both UI and AI. 60 (57.1%) of 105 patients with AI also had UI. In patients with UI, the coexistence of AI was found in 25.7%. There was a positive correlation between UI and AI (R = 0.240, Chi-square P < 0.001). In logistic regression model, AI [(OR) 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.26, 5.49], parity and episiotomy were found to be associated with UI. Parity and vaginal delivery by episiotomy were risk factors for the occurrence of AI. AI is positively correlated with UI patients. Symptoms of AI must be questioned in all gynecology patients. Unnecessary episiotomy should be avoided.

  17. Waveband selection and algorithm development to distinguish fecal contamination using multispectral imaging with solar light

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce fields caused by animals or livestock entering the fields can lead to outbreaks of foodbourne illnesses. E.coli O157:H7 originating in the intestines of animals can transfer onto leafy greens via fecal matter. Leafy greens are often eaten fresh without thermal tr...

  18. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using line-Scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and ve...

  19. Automatic identification of human helminth eggs on microscopic fecal specimens using digital image processing and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y S; Park, D K; Kim, H C; Choi, M H; Chai, J Y

    2001-06-01

    In order to automate routine fecal examination for parasitic diseases, we propose in this study a computer processing algorithm using digital image processing techniques and an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. The morphometric characteristics of eggs of human parasites in fecal specimens were extracted from microscopic images through digital image processing. An ANN then identified the parasite species based on those characteristics. We selected four morphometric features based on three morphological characteristics representing shape, shell smoothness, and size. A total of 82 microscopic images containing seven common human helminth eggs were used. The first stage (ANN-1) of the proposed ANN classification system isolated eggs from confusing artifacts. The second stage (ANN-2) classified eggs by species. The performance of ANN was evaluated by the tenfold cross-validation method to obviate the dependency on the selection of training samples. Cross-validation results showed 86.1% average correct classification ratio for ANN-1 and 90.3% for ANN-2 with small variances of 46.0 and 39.0, respectively. The algorithm developed will be an essential part of a completely automated fecal examination system.

  20. Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor disorders after radiation therapy in endometrial cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Segal, Saya; John, Gabriella; Sammel, Mary; Andy, Uduak Umoh; Chu, Christina; Arya, Lily A; Brown, Justin; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-03-18

    To investigate radiation therapy as a risk factor for urinary or fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction in endometrial cancer survivors. We performed a retrospective cohort study of endometrial cancer survivors. Data were collected using a mailed survey and the medical record. Validated questionnaires were used to generate rates of urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor disorders. The incidence rates of pelvic floor disorders were compared across groups with different exposures to radiation. Of the 149 endometrial cancer survivors, 41% received radiation therapy. Fifty-one percent of women reported urine leakage. The rates of urinary incontinence in women exposed and not exposed to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) or whole-pelvis radiation were 48% and 58%, respectively (p=0.47). The incidence of fecal incontinence did not differ between groups, but the score for overall sexual function was significantly higher in women who did not undergo radiation therapy. On multivariable analysis, significant risk factors for urinary incontinence were age (AOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02, 1.10) and BMI (AOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02, 1.11), but treatment with radiation was not significantly associated with urinary incontinence, or fecal incontinence (p>0.05). Age, BMI, and radiation exposure were independent predictors of decreased sexual function score (p<0.01). Local or regional radiation is not associated with urinary or fecal incontinence, but may contribute to sexual dysfunction in endometrial cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the patient with incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gormley, E Ann

    2007-12-01

    The incontinent patient is evaluated in order to make a presumptive diagnosis so that treatment can be offered. The evaluation begins with a history and a physical examination. The history focuses on the description of the patient's incontinence. Assessing the patient's bother and determining their expectations of treatment may further guide how aggressive one needs to be both with the evaluation and the presentation of treatment options. The important parts of the physical exam are an examination of the abdomen and pelvis including a provocative stress test. A urinalysis and a post-void residual (PVR) should be performed in all incontinent patients. Incontinence questionnaires, voiding diaries, and pad weight tests can provide more objective data than the history alone. Upper tract imaging is indicated in the patient with a history of hematuria and in patients with suspected hydroureteronephrosis. Other imaging may be useful to further evaluate other suspected pelvic pathology. Urodynamics are performed to determine if the incontinence is due to bladder or urethral dysfunction or both, to assess if the patient has a storage or emptying problem and lastly in an effort to identify patients whose upper tracts are at risk due to high bladder storage pressures. Cystoscopy is indicated in the work up of some incontinent patients. The evaluation of the incontinent patient consists of a history, a physical, urinalysis and a post-void residual. Optional evaluative tests consist of a variety of urodynamic tests, imaging studies and cystoscopy.

  2. Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion. Comparison with conventional methods of assessment of inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leddin, D.J.; Paterson, W.G.; DaCosta, L.R.; Dinda, P.K.; Depew, W.T.; Markotich, J.; McKaigney, J.P.; Groll, A.; Beck, I.T.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging and fecal excretion in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. We compared these tests to various indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease, to Truelove's grading in ulcerative colitis, and to endoscopy, x-ray, and pathology in both diseases. Eleven controls, 16 patients with Crohn's disease, 13 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 with other types of acute bowel inflammation were studied (positive controls). Indium scanning was performed at 1, 4, and 24 hr. Fourteen of 16 patients with active Crohn's disease had positive scans but in only five was localization accurate. One patient had inactive ulcerative colitis, and the scan was negative. Of 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 10 had positive scans but disease localization was accurate in only four. Disease extent was correctly defined in 1 of the 3 Positive Controls. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of scanning at 1, 4, or 24 hr. /sup 111/In fecal excretion was significantly higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease than in controls, and there was correlation between /sup 111/In fecal excretion and most of the indices of disease activity in Crohn's disease. In ulcerative colitis, /sup 111/In fecal excretion did not correlate with Truelove's grading but reflected colonoscopic assessment of severity. In conclusion, /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scanning lacks sensitivity with respect to disease extent, but fecal excretion of /sup 111/In correlates well with disease severity as determined by other methods.

  3. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  4. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Jay, J; Staskin, D

    1998-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of urinary incontinence, most affected women don't seek help, primarily because of embarrassment or because they are not aware that effective treatment is available. Failure to store urine may be caused by an abnormality in any component of the lower urinary tract. Common abnormalities are poor bladder compliance and bladder outlet failure. Patients who experience failure to empty can present with recurrent urinary tract infections, retention or incontinence. Using a symptom-based classification of incontinence, this would be referred to as overflow incontinence. Other possible categories of urinary incontinence are failure to store and empty and functional incontinence. A combination of a failure to store and empty is difficult to diagnose and treat clinically. Treatments are directed at the particular cause of incontinence and can include medical or surgical therapies.

  5. Incontinence in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Radstaake, Maartje; Didden, Robert; Giesbers, Sanne; Korzilius, Hubert; Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Lang, Russell; von Gontard, Alexander; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2013-11-01

    Frequency and type of incontinence and variables associated with incontinence were assessed in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS; n=71) and in a matched control group (n=69) consisting of individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (ID). A Dutch version of the "Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence" (Beetz, von Gontard, & Lettgen, 1994) was administered and information on primary caretakers' perspectives regarding each individual's incontinence was gathered. Results show that diurnal incontinence and fecal incontinence during the day more frequently occurred in the control group than in the AS group. In both groups, nocturnal enuresis was the most common form of incontinence. More incontinence was seen in individuals with AS who were younger, had a lower level of adaptive functioning and/or had epilepsy. Individuals with AS were able to stay dry for longer periods of time than the controls and often showed both in-toilet urination and urinary accidents during the day, whereas accidents and correct voids during the day were more set apart in the control group. Also, persons with AS had a lower micturition frequency implying possible voiding postponement. Both groups showed high rates of LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) possibly indicative of functional bladder disorders such as voiding postponement, dysfunctional voiding, or even an underactive bladder. In general, most primary caretakers reported severe intellectual disability as the main cause for urinary incontinence. Based on these results incontinence does not appear to be part of the behavioral phenotype of Angelman syndrome. Therefore, pediatric or urologic diagnostics and treatment are recommended for all persons with incontinence and intellectual disability. Further implications for practice and research are given.

  6. The development of a line-scan imaging algorithm for the detection of fecal contamination on leafy geens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Lee, Hoyoung

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a multispectral algorithm, using the line-scan hyperspectral imaging system, to detect fecal contamination on leafy greens. Fresh bovine feces were applied to the surfaces of washed loose baby spinach leaves. A hyperspectral line-scan imaging system was used to acquire hyperspectral fluorescence images of the contaminated leaves. Hyperspectral image analysis resulted in the selection of the 666 nm and 688 nm wavebands for a multispectral algorithm to rapidly detect feces on leafy greens, by use of the ratio of fluorescence intensities measured at those two wavebands (666 nm over 688 nm). The algorithm successfully distinguished most of the lowly diluted fecal spots (0.05 g feces/ml water and 0.025 g feces/ml water) and some of the highly diluted spots (0.0125 g feces/ml water and 0.00625 g feces/ml water) from the clean spinach leaves. The results showed the potential of the multispectral algorithm with line-scan imaging system for application to automated food processing lines for food safety inspection of leafy green vegetables.

  7. The response of the abdominal muscles to pelvic floor muscle contraction in women with and without stress urinary incontinence using ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Chehrehrazi, Mahshid

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the thickness of the abdominal muscles; measured by ultrasound, in response to pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction in women with and without stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A total of 20 non-pregnant female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: continent females (N=10) and females with SUI (N=10). The change in the thickness of the right transverse abdominis muscle (TrAM) and internal oblique muscle (IOM) was measured with ultrasound imaging during PFM contraction in both groups. There was an increase in thickness of the TrAM and IOM muscle during PFM contraction showing a co-contraction of the abdominals during PFM contraction both in women with and without SUI. No significant difference was found in the change in thickness of TrAM (P=0.43) and IOM (P=0.72) in response to PFM contraction between women with and without SUI. In overall, there was no statistical significant difference in co-contraction of abdominal muscles during PFM contraction between SUI women and healthy continent women. It seems that co-activation of the abdominal muscles during PFM contraction exists in continent and stress incontinent women.

  8. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using line-scan led-induced fluorescence imaging techniques

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue because illnesses caused by associated pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables in the United States continue to be a public heal...

  9. Risperidone-associated urinary incontinence in patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imasaka, Yasushi; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Tomoda, Akemi; Mimura, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    We report several cases in which patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation who received risperidone experienced urinary incontinence. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients housed in facilities for patients with autistic disorder with mental retardation. Those who had undergone a medical examination at a hospital in Tokyo from April 1999 to March 2009 were included in the study.Retrospective data were gathered including age, sex, IQ, birth weight, dosage of risperidone, urinary density, as well as existence of urinary and fecal incontinence. We divided the participants into those who did and did not experience urinary incontinence after taking risperidone and compared the 2 groups. Risperidone had been prescribed to 35 patients. In spite of the fact that no patient had a history of urinary incontinence, 14 patients experienced urinary incontinence after receiving risperidone. Moreover, 4 of these 14 patients also had fecal incontinence. Among the variables we examined, the only significant difference between groups was in sex, with significantly more women experiencing incontinence compared with men. When the dose of risperidone was reduced or the patients switched to other drugs, urinary incontinence of the patients improved.Hence, risperidone may have a casual relationship with urinary incontinence. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of possible effect.

  10. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... incontinence. Over time, the leakage may come back. Alternative Names ... Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education and Research. Update of AUA guideline on the ...

  11. Skin care in the frail, elderly, dependent, incontinent patient.

    PubMed

    Jeter, K F; Lutz, J B

    1996-01-01

    Despite a plethora of recommendations, protocols and dictums in the nursing literature, no research studies have defined the basic elements of preventive skin care for incontinent patients, and the prevalence of skin problems associated with incontinence is unknown. Yet the importance of skin care for incontinent elderly or immobilized patients has long been acknowledged. This literature review sought to determine current practices and principles for skin care of frail, elderly, dependent, incontinent patients. Protocols vary widely. And although there is mounting evidence that incontinence, particularly fecal incontinence, is a primary risk factor for pressure ulcer development, most preventive efforts focus on pressure relief, repositioning, and nutrition, rather than incontinence care. More clinical trials are needed in this area. The design and analysis of these trials should take into account the frequency and manner in which skin is cleansed, products used for skin care, risks and benefits of absorbent products and devices, the presence of infection, and patients' concomitant medical conditions and degree of immobility.

  12. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2017-07-06

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence.

  13. EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Thüroff, Joachim W; Abrams, Paul; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Artibani, Walter; Chapple, Christopher R; Drake, Marcus J; Hampel, Christian; Neisius, Andreas; Schröder, Annette; Tubaro, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe), more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  14. [EAU Guidelines on Urinary Incontinence].

    PubMed

    Thüroff, J W; Abrams, P; Andersson, K-E; Artibani, W; Chapple, C R; Drake, M J; Hampel, C; Neisius, A; Schröder, A; Tubaro, A

    2011-01-01

    The first European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on incontinence were published in 2001. These guidelines were periodically updated in past years. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of the 2009 update of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence (UI). The EAU working panel was part of the 4th International Consultation on Incontinence (ICI) and, with permission of the ICI, extracted the relevant data. The methodology of the 4th ICI was a comprehensive literature review by international experts and consensus formation. In addition, level of evidence was rated according to a modified Oxford system and grades of recommendation were given accordingly. A full version of the EAU guidelines on urinary incontinence is available as a printed document (extended and short form) and as a CD-ROM from the EAU office or online from the EAU Web site (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The extent and invasiveness of assessment of UI depends on severity and/or complexity of symptoms and clinical signs and is different for men, women, frail older persons, children, and patients with neuropathy. At the level of initial management, basic diagnostic tests are applied to exclude an underlying disease or condition such as urinary tract infection. Treatment is mostly conservative (lifestyle interventions, physiotherapy, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy) and is of an empirical nature. At the level of specialised management (when primary therapy failed, diagnosis is unclear, or symptoms and/or signs are complex/severe),more elaborate assessment is generally required, including imaging, endoscopy, and urodynamics. Treatment options include invasive interventions and surgery. Treatment options for UI are rapidly expanding. These EAU guidelines provide ratings of the evidence (guided by evidence-based medicine) and graded recommendations for the appropriate assessment and according treatment options and put them into clinical perspective. Copyright

  15. Women's views on autologous cell-based therapy for post-obstetric incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice; Emmanuel, Anton; Athanasakos, Eleni; Parmar, Nina; Parker, Georgina; Green, Belinda; Tailby, Emma; Chandler, Heidi; Cushnie, Julyette; Pembroke, June; Saruchera, Yvonne; Vashisht, Arvind; Day, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Fecal and urinary incontinence are devastating consequences of obstetric-related perineal injury. The aim of the present study is to determine acceptability to parous women of autologous cell-based therapy for fecal and urinary incontinence that arises due to pelvic diaphragm tearing during vaginal childbirth. A multiple choice questionnaire survey was offered to 76 parous women at the Maternity Unit, University College Hospital, London, UK. Seventy completed questionnaires - response rate: 92%. In total, 84% of women indicated a willingness to accept autologous cell-based therapy for obstetric injury-induced incontinence rather than surgery. These observational data provide an indication of likely acceptance of autologous cell-based therapies for birth injury incontinence and will help with designing new therapeutic approaches.

  16. Automated detection of fecal contamination of apples by multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kim, Moon S.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2003-07-01

    Animal feces are a suspected source of contamination of apples by disease-causing organisms such as Escherichia coli O157. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to detect different amounts of feces from dairy cows, deer, and a dairy pasture applied to Red Delicious apples. One day after application, detection for 1:2 and 1:20 dilutions was nearly 100%, and for 1:200 dilutions (<15 ng of dry matter) detection was >80%. Detection after apples had been washed and brushed was lowest for pasture feces; detection for 1:2, 1:20, and 1:200 dilutions of feces was 100%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. This technology may encourage development of commercial systems for detecting fecal contamination of apples.

  17. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infections likely. Bedsores ( pressure sores ) may also develop ... drying the skin. Incontinence problems can cause a yeast infection on the skin. This is an itchy, ...

  18. Incontinence Treatment: Biofeedback

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allis, WI . Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication ... of Hope "For a person who is incontinent, replacing feelings of helplessness with a measure of empowerment , with teaching a person that they can take steps to ...

  19. Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Urinary Incontinence in Adults. December 12, 2007. Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, et al. U.S. Householder ... Rectum Vol. 41, No. 10 October 1998. Drossman DA, Sandler RS, Broom CM, et al. Urgency and ...

  20. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  1. Eldercare at Home: Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... on long trips or in unfamiliar settings. However, diapers and pads can worsen incontinence if the older person relies only on them and does not practice bladder exercises. If pads or diapers are necessary, change them often to avoid odor, ...

  2. Obesity, overweight, and eating problems in children with incontinence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catharina; Equit, Monika; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to analyze the prevalence of eating problems and specific associations between overweight, obesity, and eating behavior in children with incontinence. Forty-three consecutively presented children with incontinence, diagnosed to International Children's Continence Society standards, and 44 matched continent controls were examined prospectively. All children received a physical examination, sonography, and a one-dimensional intelligence test. Child psychopathology was measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4-18). Eating problems were assessed with the German version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for Children (DEBQ-C) and a 40-item-parental questionnaire referring to atypical eating problems. Of the 43 children with incontinence, 23.3% had nocturnal enuresis (NE) only, 37.2% had any form of daytime urinary incontinence (DUI) (isolated or combined with NE) and 39.5% had fecal incontinence (FI) (isolated or combined with NE and/or DUI). Incontinent children showed significantly more CBCL externalizing symptoms (35.7% vs. 6.8%) and total problems (46.3% vs. 6.8%) in the clinical range (>90th percentile), as well as significantly lower mean IQ (105.5 vs. 120.6) than continent controls. Of the children with incontinence, 16.9% were affected by obesity (≥95th body mass index [BMI] percentile) compared with none of the continent controls. Especially in children with FI, the rate of obesity was significantly increased (23.5%). In addition, 46.5% of incontinent children, but none of the controls, had constipation. Again, children with FI (82.4%) had the highest rate of constipation (>DUI: 25% > NE only: 20%). "Food refusal" (FR) and "intense fear of gaining weight" (GW), but not other eating problems, were significantly more common among incontinent children (FR mean score 7.3; GW mean score 1.4) than in controls (FR mean score 5.6; GW mean score 0.7). After controlling for BMI percentiles, FR still was significantly higher in

  3. Homemade male incontinence pouch.

    PubMed

    Lafrades, A R

    1999-09-01

    It is estimated that more than 13 million Americans experience incontinence or loss of bladder control. As a registered nurse specializing in urology, the author created a male drip collector, made from a female sanitary napkin (ALWAYS with Wings). This homemade male incontinence pouch is cost effective, comfortable to use, easy to make, can absorb 20 cc to 70 cc of urine, and is available in any store.

  4. Anal incontinence after two vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter rupture.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lisa K G; Sakse, Abelone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jangö, Hanna

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate prevalence and risk factors for long-term anal incontinence in women with two prior vaginal deliveries without obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) and to assess the impact of anal incontinence-related symptoms on quality of life. This is a nation-wide cross-sectional survey study. One thousand women who had a first vaginal delivery and a subsequent delivery, both without OASIS, between 1997 and 2008 in Denmark were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Women with more than two deliveries in total till 2012 were excluded at this stage. Of the 1000 women randomly identified, 763 were eligible and received a questionnaire. Maternal and obstetric data were retrieved from the national registry. The response rate was 58.3%. In total, 394 women were included for analysis after reviewing responses according to previously defined exclusion criteria. Median follow-up time was 9.8 years after the first delivery and 6.4 years after the second. The prevalence of flatal incontinence, fecal incontinence and fecal urgency were 11.7, 4.1, and 12.3%, respectively. Overall, 20.1% had any degree of anal incontinence and/or fecal urgency. In 6.3% these symptoms affected their quality of life. No maternal or obstetric factors including episiotomy and vacuum extraction were consistently associated with altered risk of anal incontinence in the multivariable analyses. Anal incontinence and fecal urgency is reported by one fifth of women with two vaginal deliveries without OASIS at long-term follow-up. Episiotomy or vacuum extraction did not alter the risk of long-term anal incontinence.

  5. Fecal impaction

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard and dry. This makes it difficult to pass. Fecal impaction often occurs in people who have ... Small, semi-formed stools Straining when trying to pass stools Other possible symptoms include: Bladder pressure or ...

  6. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal ... Results There are no abnormal bacteria or other organisms in the sample. Talk to your provider about ...

  7. Incontinence-related skin damage: essential knowledge.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel

    2007-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis, a clinical manifestation of moisture-associated skin damage, is a common consideration in patients with fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among hospitalized patients, the prevalence rate has been found to be as high as 27%. Exposure to skin surface irritants may be a predictor and the condition, in turn, may be a factor in pressure ulcer risk because skin integrity is compromised. Differential diagnosis, usually based on visual examination, can help determine whether incontinence-associated dermatitis or a pressure ulcer is present. Prevention comprises following a structured skin care regimen that includes gentle cleansing, moisturization, and application of a skin protectant or moisture barrier. Treatment goals include protecting the skin from further exposure to irritants, establishing a healing environment, and eradicating any cutaneous infection. This concise review of relevant literature underscores the scant amount of evidence-based information available and highlights the need for further studies that involve comparing protocol and product efficacy to determine best practice for this oft-encountered condition.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Urinary incontinence. Noninvasive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C; Cafiero, M R

    1999-06-01

    One in six women older than 45 experiences incontinence, but 31% of them never discuss their condition with anyone. A proactive approach on the part of all health care providers is needed to break this silence, particularly among clinicians who care for women. Urinary incontinence is classified as stress, urge, mixed, overflow or functional incontinence. Differential diagnosis of incontinence is essential to choosing appropriate treatment options. This article outlines noninvasive treatment options that are specific to diagnosis.

  11. [Conservative treatment of urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Soljanik, I; Schorsch, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    Urinary incontinence can be treated with medicinal products in addition to active pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation. A local hormone therapy should be first discussed with the gynaecologist. The active substance duloxetine has been used for a few years for treating stress incontinence. Several older and newer active substances are available for treating irritable bladder and stress incontinence.

  12. Incontinence: The Potential Budget Buster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Someone who lives with incontinence, whether bowel, bladder, or both, knows the social stigma and personal toll on his life. Incontinence is the ever-present shadowy silhouette lurking over almost every decision, sometimes requiring complex preplanning. In this article, the author describes the challenges of incontinence and discusses how she…

  13. [Sexuality and incontinence].

    PubMed

    Buffat, J

    2009-03-18

    Incontinence is anything that inhibits the expression of sexuality. Male problems like premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunctions are forms of incontinence. The inability to retain ejaculation or maintain erection long enough to give pleasure to the partner generates feelings of shame and guilt which weaken virility. Feminine sexual dysfunctions like loss of desire, anorgasmia and vaginismus are results of excessive continence due to negative familial and religious education, moral and social values. The sexologist's task is first to find out the origins of the sexual trouble then to propose an adequate treatment.

  14. Faecal incontinence in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Owen, R E; Choo, P W; Jayaratnam, F J

    1991-04-01

    Faecal incontinence is distressing both to the patient and the carers. However with accurate diagnosis of its cause, the condition can often be treated. Causes can be classified by pathophysiology. The most common cause in the elderly is faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Other causes include inflammatory conditions of the bowel, neurological disorder, functional incontinence and iatrogenic incontinence. Management depends on an accurate diagnosis. A proper bowel and drug history is important. A rectal examination is mandatory, in order not to miss a diagnosis of faecal impaction with overflow incontinence. Specific treatment is directed at the cause.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Intestinal Symptoms and Fecal Continence in Patients With Conformal Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Keller, Monika; Astner, Sabrina T.; Heinrich, Christine; Scholz, Christian; Pehl, Christian; Kerndl, Simone; Prause, Nina; Busch, Raymonde; Molls, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank B.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the intestinal symptoms and fecal continence in patients who had undergone conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 men who had undergone definitive CRT for prostate cancer were evaluated. The patients were assessed before, during (treatment Weeks 4 and 6), and 2, 12, and 24 months after CRT completion. The intestinal symptoms and fecal continence were evaluated with comprehensive standardized questionnaires. Results: The intestinal symptoms were mostly intermittent, with only a small minority of patients affected daily. Defecation pain, fecal urge, and rectal mucous discharge increased significantly during therapy. Defecation pain and rectal mucous discharge had returned to baseline levels within 8 weeks and 1 year after CRT, respectively. However, fecal urge remained significantly elevated for {<=}1 year and then returned toward the pretreatment values. The prevalence of rectal bleeding was significantly elevated 2 years after CRT. Fecal continence deteriorated during CRT and remained impaired at 1 year after treatment. Incontinence was mostly minor, occurring less than once per week and predominantly affecting incontinence for gas. Conclusion: Intestinal symptoms and fecal incontinence increased during prostate CRT. Except for rectal bleeding, the intestinal symptoms, including fecal incontinence, returned to baseline levels within 1-2 years after CRT. Thus, the rate of long-term late radiation-related intestinal toxicity was low.

  16. Urinary incontinence in community-dwelling older Mexican American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Markland, Alayne D; Gerety, Meghan B; Goode, Patricia S; Kraus, Stephen R; Cornell, John; Hazuda, Helen P

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to measure prevalence and correlates of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling Mexican American (MA) and European American (EA) women from a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Participants were MA and EA women, aged 65 years and older, in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA), of whom 421 (97.4%) responded to the question "How often do you have difficulty holding your urine until you can get to a toilet." Measurements included sociodemographic, functional, cognitive, psychosocial, and clinical status variables derived from bilingual interviews and performance-based tests. Urinary incontinence prevalence was 36.6% (n=154). MA women reported less incontinence than did EAs (29% versus 45%, p=0.001). In multivariable analyses in MA women, urinary incontinence correlated with the presence of fecal incontinence (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.0) and more dependency in activities of daily living (1.4, 1.1-1.8) after controlling for significant sociodemographic factors. In EA women, only age >75 (4.2, 1.4-12.4) was associated with urinary incontinence. MA women were less likely to report incontinence compared to EAs, despite MAs having increased number of children, less education, higher BMI, and more diabetes. Further research is needed to evaluate risk factors for urinary incontinence among MA women.

  17. Symptoms of Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... might feel the urge to have a bowel movement, but impaired muscles are unable to control it ... sure when an episode might strike. The personal impact of incontinence becomes even more profound as sufferers begin to withdraw from social situations because of the problem. They may participate ...

  18. Recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury and the risk of long-term anal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne; Sakse, Abelone

    2017-06-01

    Women with an obstetric anal sphincter injury are concerned about the risk of recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury in their second pregnancy. Existing studies have failed to clarify whether the recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury affects the risk of anal and fecal incontinence at long-term follow-up. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury influenced the risk of anal and fecal incontinence more than 5 years after the second vaginal delivery. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a postal questionnaire study in women with obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery and 1 subsequent vaginal delivery. The questionnaire was sent to all Danish women who fulfilled inclusion criteria and had 2 vaginal deliveries 1997-2005. We performed uni- and multivariable analyses to assess how recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury affects the risk of anal incontinence. In 1490 women with a second vaginal delivery after a first delivery with obstetric anal sphincter injury, 106 had a recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. Of these, 50.0% (n = 53) reported anal incontinence compared with 37.9% (n = 525) of women without recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. Fecal incontinence was present in 23.6% (n = 25) of women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury and in 13.2% (n = 182) of women without recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury. After adjustment for third- or fourth-degree obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery, maternal age at answering the questionnaire, birthweight of the first and second child, years since first and second delivery, and whether anal incontinence was present before the second pregnancy, the risk of flatal and fecal incontinence was still increased in patients with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.70), P = .03, and adjusted odds ratio, 1.98 [95% confidence interval, 1

  19. Pressure Ulcer Risk in the Incontinent Patient: Analysis of Incontinence and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers From the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence™ Survey.

    PubMed

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; Ribble, David; Emmons, Kirsten; VanGilder, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To measure the prevalence of incontinence in the 2013-2014 International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence (IPUP) surveys and determine the relative risk of developing a facility-acquired pressure ulcers (FAPUs) by stage and by Braden Scale score groupings. The IPUP survey is an observational, cross-sectional cohort database designed to determine the frequency and severity of pressure ulcers in various populations. The survey includes acute care (91.4%), long-term acute care (1.7%), rehabilitation patients (1.7%) and long-term care residents (5.2%). Geographic distribution included 182,832 patients in the United States, 22,282 patients in Canada, and the rest of the world, primarily in Europe and the Middle East. We analyzed data from the 2013 and 2014 IPUP surveys to better understand the relationship between incontinence and the frequency and severity of FAPUs. The IPUP survey is an annual voluntary survey of patients who are hospitalized or who reside in long-term care facilities. Data were collected over a 24-hour period within each participating facility. Data collection included limited demographics, presence and stage of pressure ulcers, and pressure ulcer risk assessment score (Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk, Braden Q, Norton, Waterlow, and others). In addition, data were collected on pertinent pressure ulcer risk factors including the number of linen layers, use of a pressure redistributing surface, adherence to repositioning schedule, and whether moisture management was provided in the last 24 hours. We aggregated data by urinary, urinary catheter, fecal, fecal management system, double (urinary and fecal), and ostomy incontinence category. If patients were managed by indwelling urinary catheter or fecal management systems, they were considered incontinent in this analysis. In order to analyze ulcers likely to be affected by incontinence, we defined a subset of ulcers as Relevant Pressure Ulcers, which are ulcers that are facility-acquired, non

  20. [Incontinence--a common issue for people with Parkinson's disease. A systematic literature review].

    PubMed

    Siegl, Eva; Lassen, Britta; Saxer, Susi

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is among the most common neurological diseases. About 4.1 million people are attected worldwide. The course of Parkinson's disease is chronically progressive. With L-Dopa therapy the life expectancy of people being affected by Parkinon's disease is not shortened compared with people who are not affected. Therefore people with Parkinson's disease often suffer from the serious effects for decades which include motor symptoms as well as vegetative disturbance, which concerns bladder function and functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary and fecal incontinence involve severe impairment of quality of life. In this review the occurence of urinary and fecal incontinence should be determined in order to be able to describe its extent. There are different measures for treatment or improvement. These are reviewed based on the following research question: Which effects do interventions have in improving urinary and fecal incontinence in persons with Parkinson's disease compared to usual care? In order to answer the questions a systematic review was conducted. The literature search occured in the electronic databases Cochrane database, PubMed and CINAHL. Three studies investigating the prevalence with a total sample size of n = 1077 and for the evaluation of interventions four studies with a total sample size of n = 48 have been included. 25 percent of the women with Parkinson's disease suffer from urgency incontinence compared to seven percent of the women without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). Among men with Parkison's disease 28 percent are affected and six percent among men without Parkinson's disease (p < 0.01). In respect to stress and fecal incontinence there were no significant differences between people affected and people not affected by Parkinson's disease. With pelvic floor muscle exercises and accompanying measures as well as with injections of botulinum toxin A a reduction of urinary incontinence seems to be possible. Due to

  1. The prevalence of incontinence in people with cognitive impairment or dementia living at home: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari M; Rait, Greta; Cole, Laura; Grant, Robert; Iliffe, Steve

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence in people with cognitive impairment or dementia, living at home. We searched electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BNI, and the Cochrane Library (including DARE, NTIS), from January 1, 1990 to 2012 week 13 (April 4) for studies reporting prevalence data of urinary and fecal incontinence in the population of interest. Quality assessments of studies considered risk of bias in criteria for prevalence studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the included study populations and results, meta-analysis was not appropriate and a narrative analysis was undertaken. From 427 references, eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies provided prevalence rates as findings incidental to their primary question. Populations and assessment tools were varied. Reported prevalence of urinary incontinence ranged from 1.1% in a general community population to 38% in those receiving home care services. Reported rates of fecal incontinence were from 0.9% in a community population to 27% in a population attending an old age psychiatry outpatient clinic. The prevalence of incontinence in people with dementia or cognitive impairment living at home has not been clearly established. Population level data is required to inform clinicians and to reliably underpin decision-making in service planning, resource allocation and interventions for people with dementia and incontinence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mode of delivery after obstetric anal sphincter injury and the risk of long-term anal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne; Sakse, Abelone

    2016-06-01

    Primiparous women have an increased risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury; because most of these patients deliver again, there are major concerns about mode of delivery: the risk of recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury and the risk of long-term symptoms of anal incontinence. Although an elective cesarean delivery protects against recurrent obstetric anal sphincter injury, it is uncertain how the second delivery affects the risk of long-term anal incontinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mode of delivery for a second pregnancy, after a documented obstetric anal sphincter injury at the time of first delivery, had a significant impact on the prevalence of anal and fecal incontinence in the long term. We performed a population-based questionnaire cohort study that evaluated anal and fecal incontinence, fecal urgency, and affected quality of life caused by anal incontinence in 1978 patients who had obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery and a second vaginal (n = 1472 women; 71.9%) or elective cesarean delivery (n = 506 women; 24.7%) delivery. We performed uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses to compare groups. Long-term anal incontinence was reported in 38.9% of patients (n = 573) with second vaginal compared with 53.2% (n = 269) with elective cesarean delivery. The corresponding numbers that reported anal incontinence before the second pregnancy was 29.4% for those with vaginal delivery compared with 56.2% of those with elective cesarean delivery (ie, there was a significantly larger change in the risk of anal incontinence in the group with a second vaginal delivery compared with the change in the group with elective cesarean in second delivery). However, adjusted for important maternal and obstetric characteristics, the risk of long-term anal incontinence was nonsignificantly lower in patients with elective cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.05; P = .09

  3. A Qualitative Study of Family Caregiver Experiences of Managing Incontinence in Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chien-Ning; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Yu, Po-Jui; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Incontinence is a common problem faced by family caregivers that is recognized as a major burden and predictor of institutionalization. However, few studies have evaluated the experiences of family caregivers caring for stroke survivors with incontinence. Purpose To describe experiences of caregivers managing incontinence in stroke survivors. Design This qualitative descriptive study employed a grounded-theory approach. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten family caregivers of stroke survivors with incontinence were conducted during 2011. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Findings Data analysis identified four themes: chaos, hypervigilance, exhaustion, and creating a new life. There were nine related subcategories: fluster, dirtiness, urgency, fear of potential health-hazard, physically demanding and time-consuming, mentally draining, financial burden, learning by doing, and attitude adjustment. Together, these described a process of struggling to cope with the care of stroke survivors with urinary/fecal incontinence. Of the four categories, “creating a new life” developed gradually over time to orient caregivers to their new life, while the other three categories occurred in a chronological order. Conclusion The research highlighted unique caring experiences of family caregivers of stroke patients, which focused solely on the ‘incontinence issue’. Understanding these experiences may help nurses provide better support and resources for family caregivers when caring for stroke survivors with incontinence. PMID:26066345

  4. Incontinence after prostatectomy: coping with incontinence after prostate cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary H; Fogarty, Linda A; Somerfield, Mark R; Powel, Lorrie L

    2003-01-01

    To describe the nature of postprostatectomy urinary incontinence, determine how men manage postsurgery urinary incontinence, identify men's perceptions of adequacy of preoperative counseling, and identify men's expectations regarding the probability of postsurgery incontinence. Survey. United States. Members of US TOO International, who experienced urinary incontinence after surgery. Copies of the survey (N = 370) were mailed to all chapters of US TOO International, a prostate cancer support group, for distribution to members. A letter of invitation also was posted on the US TOO International Web site and in the monthly newsletter. Men who desired to complete the survey (N = 130) called the researcher's office, and a copy of the survey and a stamped return envelope was mailed to them. Surveys returned to the researchers from June 1998 to January 1999 were included in the analyses. Urinary incontinence, management of urinary incontinence, and coping. 166 men returned surveys. The majority was Caucasian (95%) and married (83%). The median age was 67 years, 87% of the men rated their health as good or excellent, and 114 men (69%) reported becoming incontinent after surgery. Most men experienced stress incontinence symptoms. The majority (89 of 111 men) reported that they were told preoperatively that urinary incontinence was a possible complication. Overall, regardless of length of time since surgery, men (74%) thought that incontinence was an important problem to resolve. Men used containment devices such as pads, special undergarments, and even sanitary napkins as management strategies. The majority of men (54%) used pelvic muscle exercises, especially those who were fewer than two years postsurgery (72%). Urinary incontinence is a prevalent postoperative complication for men, even up to five years after surgery, and a source of great distress for some. Men reported stress and urge incontinence symptoms and used an array of strategies to contain their urine. Finding

  5. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time inspection of poultry carcasses with fecal material and ingesta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In poultry processing plants, fecal material and ingesta are the primary source of carcass contamination with microbial pathogens. The current practice of the poultry inspection in the United States is primarily human visual observations. Since the visual inspection is becoming more challenging in p...

  6. Increased yield pressure in the anal canal during sacral nerve stimulation: a pilot study with the functional lumen imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Haas, S; Liao, D; Gregersen, H; Lundby, L; Laurberg, S; Krogh, K

    2017-02-01

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a well-established treatment for fecal incontinence but its mode of action remains obscure. Anal sphincter function is usually evaluated with manometry but resistance to distension may be a more appropriate parameter than luminal pressure. The functional lumen imaging probe allows detailed description of distension properties of the anal canal. Our objective in this study was to characterize the impact of SNS on distension properties of the anal canal in patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence. We studied 10 women (median age 64 [44-79] years) with idiopathic fecal incontinence at baseline and during SNS. The luminal geometry of the anal canal was examined with the FLIP at rest and during squeeze and the distensibility of the anal canal was investigated during filling of the bag. All patients were successfully treated with SNS and the mean Wexner Incontinence Score was reduced from 14.9 ± 4 to 7.1 ± 4.8 (P<.001). The pressure required to open the narrowest point of the anal canal during distension (yield pressure) increased from 14.5 ± 12.2 mmHg at baseline to 20.5 ± 13.3 mmHg during SNS (P<.01). The pressure-strain elastic modulus increased non-significantly from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 1.6 kPa, indicating increased stiffness of the anal canal. The yield pressure and the resistance to distension increased in response to SNS for idiopathic fecal incontinence. This will inevitably increase the resistance to flow through the anal canal, which may contribute to the benefits of sacral nerve stimulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing problem for elderly patients, their families and friends, and the health professionals who care for them. It is a heterogeneous condition, and appropriate management depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of the multiple factors that can play a role in its cause and perpetuation. Identifying reversible causes of transient incontinence, and appropriate management of incontinence that is associated with acute illness, can be important in preventing the problem from becoming established. A thorough diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence in the elderly, and appropriate use of the different types of therapy, will greatly improve the management in these cases. The need and opportunities for research to improve the management of incontinent elderly persons should be considered by all those involved in caring for this population. PMID:7039134

  8. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences.

  9. Urinary incontinence following radical vulvectomy.

    PubMed

    Reid, G C; DeLancey, J O; Hopkins, M P; Roberts, J A; Morley, G W

    1990-05-01

    Although incontinence has been reported after radical vulvectomy, its relationship to operative technique, anatomy, and treatment has not been defined. Twenty-one patients having vulvectomies for vulvar cancer were prospectively evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively with urodynamic function studies. A portion of the urethra was removed in four patients undergoing radical vulvectomy, and 14 had a vulvectomy excision that came within 1 cm of the distal urethra. Six patients (28%) developed a change of continence, with three developing total incontinence, two stress incontinence, and one urge incontinence. All four patients who had a portion of the urethra excised developed stress or total incontinence. The other two patients with incontinence (one total, one urge) had the vulvectomy excision that came close to the urethra. No patient had a change in continence when surgery did not involve or come close to the urethra. When the four patients with a distal urethral resection were compared with patients in whom the urethra was not excised, there was a significant decrease postoperatively in functional urethral length (P less than .0001), anatomical urethral length (P less than .0001), and distal urethral pressure transmission ratios in Q3 (P = .004), Q4 (P = .02), and Q5 (P = .005); but no difference in urethral support (Q-tip test), flow rates, residual urine, bladder capacity, maximal urethral pressure, resting closure pressure, or squeeze pressure. Histologic examination of urethral specimens demonstrated that a portion of the compressor urethrae muscle was often excised. Radical vulvectomy by itself does not cause incontinence, but it would appear that removal of a portion of the urethra increases the chance of incontinence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Management of male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggested for early postoperative and mild incontinence. For surgical treatment the artificial urinary sphincter is still labeled the gold standard despite the introduction of several more minimally invasive treatments. However, as yet there is no consensus on the optimal timing and best modality for managing these men. Well designed, centrally funded clinical trials are required to establish which treatment modality to offer and when in the broad spectrum of male incontinence. This review focuses mainly on the management of post-prostatectomy incontinence since the management of other types varies little from the modalities of treatment in women. PMID:20877603

  11. Incontinence-associated skin damage in nursing home residents: a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Zimmaro Bliss, Donna; Zehrer, Cindy; Savik, Kay; Thayer, Debra; Smith, Graham

    2006-12-01

    More than half of the nursing home population is incontinent of urine or feces, presenting challenges to perineal skin health. To determine the occurrence and severity of skin damage in nursing home residents with incontinence, a secondary analysis of data collected from a multisite, open-label, quasi-experimental study of cost and efficacy of four regimens for preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis in nursing home residents was performed. Sixteen randomly selected nursing homes from across the US were included in the study. Participating nursing home residents were incontinent of urine and/or feces and free of skin damage. Of the 1,918 persons screened, 51% (n = 981) qualified for prospective surveillance. Perineal skin was assessed over a 6-week period; frequency, type, and severity of skin damage were observed. Skin damage developed after a median of 13 (range 6 to 42) days in 45 out of 981 residents (4.6%), of which 3.4% was determined to be incontinence-associated dermatitis. Some residents (14 out of 45, 31%) had incontinence-associated dermatitis of other skin damage in more than one area. This study is one of the first to report the characteristics of incontinence-associated dermatitis in a large sample of nursing home residents. The sample size and random selection of nursing homes impart generalizability to the findings. Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a risk in nursing home residents, especially those with fecal incontinence. These findings suggest that the rate and severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis are low with close monitoring and use of a defined skin care regimen that includes a pH-balanced cleanser and moisture barrier.

  12. A decade of research on Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis (IAD): Evidence, knowledge gaps and next steps.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-02-01

    Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis (IAD) is one of the clinical manifestations of Moisture- Associated Skin Damage (MASD). IAD is a common problem in aged patients with fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Update about IAD terminology, etiology, epidemiology, observation, prevention, and treatment. Integrative review. The lack of an ICD-10 code and an internationally validated and standardized method for IAD data collection contribute to a variation in epidemiological data. Frequent episodes of incontinence (especially fecal), occlusive containment products, poor skin condition, reduced mobility, diminished cognitive awareness, inability to perform personal hygiene, pain, pyrexia, certain medications (antibiotics, immunosuppressants), poor nutritional status, and critical illness are associated with IAD. Correctly diagnosing IAD and distinguish it from pressure ulcers is difficult. Even though the clinical presentation of partial thickness pressure ulcers and IAD is similar, the underlying etiologic factors differ. However, incontinence and IAD were found to be risk factors for pressure ulcer development. IAD management should essentially focus on skin cleansing to remove dirt, debris and microorganisms; skin moisturization to repair or augment the skin's barrier; and the application of a skin barrier product to prevent skin breakdown by providing an impermeable or semi-permeable barrier on the skin. The body of evidence is still limited, but growing since the last decade. Incontinence causes disruptions of the skin barrier function and leads to superficial skin damage. Macerated skin and superficial skin changes due to incontinence are associated with pressure ulcer development. Skin maceration, chemical irritation, and physical irritation should be targeted to effectively prevent and treat IAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  14. Nocturnal incontinence in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Roozen, Sylvia; Olivier, Leana; Niemczyk, Justine; von Gontard, Alexander; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kok, Gerjo; Viljoen, Denis; Curfs, Leopold

    2017-03-23

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are one of the leading preventable causes of intellectual disabilities (ID). Not much is known about the topic of pediatric incontinence related to FASD, for example nocturnal enuresis (NE), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), and fecal incontinence (FI). So far, incontinence problems have been examined among children with other specific syndromes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible presence of incontinence among children with FASD in a South African cohort. The South African version of the combined questionnaire including the "Parental Questionnaire: Enuresis/Urinary Incontinence" and "Encopresis Questionnaire - Screening Version"; and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were assessed by the "International-Consultation-on-Incontinence-Questionnaire - Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptom" (ICIQ-CLUTS) among 99 interviewees (e.g. mothers, grandparents) of children with FASD. Moreover, scores on the "Griffiths Mental Development Scales - Extended Revised" (GMDS-ER) were obtained of all included children for further statistical analysis. The overall incontinence rate was 20% (n = 20), in children diagnosed within the FASD spectrum (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS n = 17, partial fetal alcohol syndrome or pFAS, n = 1, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder or ARND n = 2). NE affected 16% (n = 16) of children with a FASD (FAS n = 13, pFAS n = 1, and ARND n = 2). DUI was reported in one child (FAS), and FI in 4% (n = 4) of children (again, only FAS). No indication of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in the clinical range was reported (sample mean score = 5.17). Based on the GMDS-ER, 88% of the children scored lower than 10th percentile. This is a first study to examine the problems of incontinence among children diagnosed within the spectrum of FASD. The rates for children with a FASD are lower than the rates for many children with special needs, but much higher than for typically

  15. Urinary incontinence - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help with my urinary incontinence? What are Kegel exercises? What can I do when I want ... tape Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Self catheterization - ...

  16. Does electrostimulation cure urinary incontinence?

    PubMed

    Fall, M

    1984-04-01

    A followup study is presented of a prospective series of women treated with an inflatable intravaginal electrode carrier and an external pulse generator. The devices were individually adjustable with respect to electrode positioning and stimulation parameters. The study included 40 women with detrusor instability and/or genuine stress incontinence. The primary results for urge symptoms were favorable. Of the patients 73 per cent were primarily free of symptoms during treatment and 45 per cent remained free of symptoms after withdrawal of treatment, including two-thirds in whom re-education persisted during the followup of 6 years. Of the patients with genuine stress incontinence 40 per cent exhibited persistent re-education. There were considerable discrepancies between symptomatic cure or improvement, and the urodynamic findings at followup. Intravaginal electrical stimulation may be regarded as the treatment of choice for urge incontinence due to detrusor instability, and in mixed stress and urge incontinence. The method also is an alternative to an operation in some women with genuine stress incontinence.

  17. Factors associated with urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; Voyle, G J; Sweetnam, P M; Milbank, J; Richards, C J; Stephenson, T P

    1982-03-01

    Possible aetiological factors for urinary incontinence were examined in a prevalence study among a random sample of 1000 women aged 18 and over. Infective factors were not markedly associated with incontinence but mechanical factors such as parity and obesity were. No association was found, however, between a history of perineal damage at childbirth and incontinence. Women with incontinence had on average a higher score for a 'neuroticism' trait elicited by questionnaire than women without the disorder.

  18. [Intrinsic sphincter deficiency and female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Cour, F; Le Normand, L; Lapray, J-F; Hermieu, J-F; Peyrat, L; Yiou, R; Donon, L; Wagner, L; Vidart, A

    2015-06-01

    Stress urinary female incontinence (SUI) is primary due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) and urethral hypermobility. Despite a lack of standardised international definition, ISD needs to be clearly diagnosed in order to be correctly treated. This work is an update about the female ISD produced from a review of a published article. This review of article published on this subject in the Medline (Pubmed database), selected according to their scientific relevants, of consensus conferences and published guidelines, has been performed by the committee for women pelvic floor surgery of the French Urological Association. Although there is no international consensus definition, we can consider that the ISD is a composite concept combining urodynamic data (MUCP < 20 or 30 cmH20) and one or more clinical information (no urethral mobility, negative urethral support test, failure of a first surgery, leakage during abdominal straining, high stress incontinence scores). Imaging can provide additional evidence for intrinsic sphincter deficiency diagnosis, but the correlation between imaging and function remains low. By standardizing methodology and interpretations to better diagnose women with ISD, it may be possible to improve preoperative planning and outcomes for these patients. A retropubic midurethral sling can be performed as a first surgery. In case of a lack of urethral mobility, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) remains the gold standard. Adjustable continence therapy (ACT(®)) can be proposed as an alternative option. The efficacy and safety of muscle-derived cell therapy in ISD needs more studies. Injection of bulking agents may be an option according to the severity and the expectations of the patient. Bladder overactivity needs to be treated as first-line in case of mixed urinary incontinence. In elderly women, a careful evaluation of the bladder contractility and comorbidity must be performed. A geriatric evaluation can be necessary. Clinical and

  19. Urinary Incontinence: Management and Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, defined as the involuntary leakage of urine, is a common health problem in both women and men. Children may also suffer from this condition. Management and treatment of urinary incontinence depends primarily on the specific type of incontinence and the underlying problem causing the leakage for a given patient. Because…

  20. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    PubMed

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  1. [Guidelines concerning urinary incontinence in elderly: construction and validation of GRAPPPA algorithm].

    PubMed

    Amarenco, G; Gamé, X; Petit, A-C; Fatton, B; Jeandel, C; Robain, G; Scheiber-Nogueira, C; Vetel, J-M; Mares, P

    2014-03-01

    Provide guidelines presented as an algorithm for practical evaluation and first line therapy of urinary incontinence in elderly. Guidelines using formalized consensus guidelines method. These guidelines have been validated by a group of 40 experts quoting proposals, subsequently reviewed by an independent group of multidisciplinary experts (urologist, general practitioner, neurologist, gynecologist, geriatrist, specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation). By means of 3 rounds of interrogation of the expert panel, GRAPPPA algorithm was constructed. This algorithm take in account both evaluation and first line therapeutic options in the different type of incontinences observed in this population (urge, stress and mixed incontinence). Initial evaluation consists to track down urinary retention (and subsequently fecal stool impaction, use of anticholinergic or morphinic drugs), urinary tract infection and cognitive impairment. Haematuria, bladder-pelvic pain, history of radiotherapy or recent pelvic surgery, lead to refer the patient to a specialized unit. First line therapy is in all the cases pelvic floor training, use of local oestrogenotherapy and dietetic measures. In urge incontinence, anticholinergic drugs may be used. Implementation of this algorithm may promote best practice in management of urinary incontinence in elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary incontinence: is cesarean delivery protective?

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid

    2006-10-01

    About half of all women develop transient urinary incontinence during pregnancy. Three months postpartum, the prevalence and incidence rates of urinary incontinence are 9% to 31% and 7% to 15%, respectively. Antenatal incontinence increases the risk of postpartum incontinence, which in turn increases the risk of long-term persistent incontinence. After the first delivery, women delivered vaginally have two-fold more incontinence than those delivered by cesarean. The protective effect of cesarean on urinary incontinence may dissipate after further deliveries, decreases with age, and is not present in older women. Data are mixed about whether cesarean done before labor confers greater protection than cesarean done after labor. To understand the true impact of cesarean delivery on urinary incontinence, future studies must compare incontinence by planned (not actual) delivery modes, consider a woman's entire reproductive career, focus on leakage severe enough to be problematic, consider other bladder symptoms as well as incontinence, and take into account other risk factors, particularly antepartum urinary incontinence.

  3. Post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Z; Birns, J; Bhalla, A

    2013-11-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common problem affecting more than one-third of acute stroke patients and persisting in up to a quarter at 1 year. It is well established that this condition is a strong marker of stroke severity and is associated with poorer functional outcomes and increased institutionalisation and mortality rates compared with those who remain continent. Despite evidence linking better outcomes to those patients who regain continence, the results of national audits have demonstrated that the management of UI following stroke is suboptimal, with less than two-thirds of stroke units having a documented plan to promote continence. Current evidence supports a thorough assessment to categorise the type and severity of post-stroke urinary incontinence. An individually tailored, structured management strategy to promote continence should be employed. This has been associated with better stroke outcomes and should be the aim of all stroke health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. EMerging BiomARKers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EMBARK) study identifies fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum IL-22 as a novel combination of biomarkers for Crohn's disease activity: role of cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Faubion, William A; Fletcher, Joel G; O'Byrne, Sharon; Feagan, Brian G; de Villiers, Willem Js; Salzberg, Bruce; Plevy, Scott; Proctor, Deborah D; Valentine, John F; Higgins, Peter D; Harris, Jeffrey M; Diehl, Lauri; Wright, Lilyan; Tew, Gaik Wei; Luca, Diana; Basu, Karen; Keir, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    In Crohn's disease (CD), clinical symptoms correspond poorly to inflammatory disease activity. Biomarkers reflective of mucosal and bowel wall inflammation would be useful to monitor disease activity. The EMBARK study evaluated disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD, and used endoscopy with or without cross-sectional imaging for biomarker discovery. UC (n=107) and CD (n=157) patients were characterized and underwent ileocolonoscopy (ICO). A subset of CD patients (n=66) also underwent computed tomography enterography (CTE). ICO and CTE were scored by a gastroenterologist and radiologist who incorporated findings of inflammation into a single score (ICO-CTE) for patients that underwent both procedures. Serum and fecal biomarkers were evaluated for association with the Mayo Clinic endoscopy score in UC patients and with ICO alone or ICO-CTE in CD patients. Individual biomarkers with a moderate degree of correlation (P≤0.3) were evaluated using multivariate analysis with model selection using a stepwise procedure. In UC, ordinal logistic regression using Mayo Clinic endoscopy subscore selected the combination of fecal calprotectin and serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9; pseudo R(2)=0.353). In CD, we found that use of the ICO-CTE increased specificity of known biomarkers. Using ICO-CTE as the dependent variable for biomarker discovery, the selected biomarkers were the combination of fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum IL-22 (r=0.699). Incorporation of both ICO and CTE into a single measure increased biomarker performance in CD. Combinations of fecal calprotectin and serum MMP9 for UC, and combinations of fecal calprotectin, serum MMP9, and serum interleukin-22 in CD, demonstrated the strongest association with imaging/endoscopy-defined inflammation.

  5. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  6. [Therapy for urinary incontinence in general practice].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Füsgen, I

    2009-08-01

    In national and international guidelines the general practitioner plays an important role in the diagnosis and first-line therapy for urinary incontinence. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data concerning details of the management of incontinence in primary care in Germany. Therefore a series of nationwide educational events for general practitioners and gynaecologists was used to perform a survey dealing with the situation of urinary incontinence in general practice. With 2530 questionnaires filled out and returned, this is the largest European survey on this subject. General practitioners declare in 57.3 % to be often involved with urinary incontinence. They usually question elderly patients about urinary incontinence (73.7 %) or those patients with diseases carrying the risk of developing urinary incontinence (64.9 %). Based on the diagnostic options in primary care, an incontinence anamnesis and urine evaluation are performed. A sonography or micturition diary was more infrequent in primary care in this survey. General practitioners most frequent refer the patient to a specialist (76.6 %) or prescribe the incontinence-type anticholinergic drugs (59.4 %) or absorbent products (45.4 %); duloxetine (27.3 %) is less frequently prescribed. The knowledge about urinary incontinence is gained in educational events (72.2 %); the course of studies was the source of incontinence skills for general practitioners only in 35 %. In conclusion, this survey gives a realistic view on the incontinence management in primary care in Germany. The majority of general practitioners are engaged in incontinence, perform basic diagnostic features and prescribe drugs or absorbent products. The course of (university medical school) studies as a source of skills to diagnose or to treat incontinence should be improved.

  7. Interactions of Factors and Profiles of Incontinent Nursing Home Residents and Hospital Patients: A Classification Tree Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Manuela; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the interactions among well-known influencing factors for urinary incontinence (UI), fecal incontinence (FI), and double urinary and fecal incontinence (DI) in the nursing home and hospital setting and to identify profiles of UI, FI, and DI residents and patients. Data from more than 4200 residents and patients from 16 nursing homes and 36 hospitals were collected. This was a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was used for data collection. The Austrian version of the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems survey was used to collect data about different nursing care problems (eg, pressure ulcer and incontinence). To improve objectivity, 2 nurses assessed each resident/patient. The Care Dependency Scale (CDS) was used to measure the degree of care dependency regarding different needs such as mobility, with lower scores indicating a higher level of care dependency. A classification and regression tree analysis was used to determine the interactions among factors and develop profiles of incontinent residents and patients. Interactions between the CDS-items of states of Dress/Undress, Hygiene, Mobility, and Eat/Drink and age based on incontinence were found in nursing home residents. In contrast, interactions between the CDS-items Hygiene and Eat/Drink, as well as age and gender based on incontinence, were identified in hospitalized patients. Residents with UI were care dependent with reference to the CDS-item Dress/Undress. Patients with UI were older than 77.5 years and completely, or to a great extent, care dependent with reference to the CDS-item Hygiene. Nursing home residents with DI were completely, or to a great extent, care dependent with regard to the CDS-item Hygiene and completely care dependent with reference to the CDS-item Dress/Undress. In comparison, hospitalized DI patients were completely, or to a great extent, care dependent with regard to the CDS-item Hygiene. The results of this study show that

  8. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  9. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  10. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  11. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  12. High Costs of Urinary Incontinence Among Women Electing Surgery to Treat Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Brubaker, Linda; Chai, Toby C.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Diokno, Ananias C.; Goode, Patricia S.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Kusek, John W.; Leng, Wendy W.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Norton, Peggy; Tennstedt, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate costs for incontinence management, health-related quality of life, and willingness to pay for incontinence improvement in women electing surgery for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS A total of 655 incontinent women enrolled in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial, a randomized surgical trial. Baseline out-of-pocket costs for incontinence management were calculated by multiplying self-report of resources used (supplies, laundry, dry cleaning) by national resource costs ($2006). Health-related quality of life was estimated with the Health Utilities Index Mark 3. Participants estimated willingness to pay for 100% improvement in incontinence. Potential predictors of these outcomes were examined by using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS Mean age was 52±10 years, and mean number of weekly incontinence episodes was 22±21. Mean and median (25%, 75% interquartile range) estimated personal costs for incontinence management among all women were $14±$24 and $8 (interquartile range $3, $18) per week, and 617 (94%) women reported any cost. Costs increased significantly with incontinence frequency and mixed compared with stress incontinence. The mean and median Health Utilities Index Mark 3 scores were 0.73±0.25 and 0.84 (interquartile range 0.63, 0.92). Women were willing to pay a mean of $118±$132 per month for complete resolution of incontinence, and willingness to pay increased significantly with greater expected incontinence improvement, household income, and incontinent episode frequency. CONCLUSION Urinary incontinence is associated with substantial costs. Women spent nearly $750 per year out of pocket for incontinence management, had a significant decrement in quality of life, and were willing to pay nearly $1,400 per year for cure. PMID:18378749

  13. [Urinary incontinence in patients with acute ictus].

    PubMed

    Suñer Soler, R; Vega Iñigo, R; García Garrido, L; García Gutiérrez, T; Mascort Toral, Z; Segura Martín, T; Dávalos Errando, A

    2000-02-01

    This project won the "Ausonia" Incontinence First Prize among those projects submitted during 1999. This article analyzes the prevalence of urinary incontinence among patients diagnosed as suffering acute ictus after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. The authors also investigate those factors associated with acute ictus incontinence, how incontinence influences a patient's evolution, and how incontinence affects the environment where recuperation occurs, at home or in an institution, while the patient is recovering. The results confirm that acute urinary incontinence is a forecasting factor, independent of the poor middle and long range functional prognosis, and that the potential prognosis is superior than the seriousness of the neurological deficit at the moment a patient enters a hospital.

  14. [Female urinary incontinence: An update].

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J

    2017-03-16

    The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care.

  15. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  16. Discreet products for women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra

    It is estimated that 10 million women in the UK suffer with urinary incontinence (Hunskarr et al, 2004). Many women consider bladder weakness to be an inevitable consequence of childbirth or the menopause. Haslam (2004) reported on a telephone survey that examined whether women were aware of stress urinary incontinence, their attitude to it and the impact it had on their daily lives. In the UK, 505 women were interviewed, 206 of whom responded positively to a question about symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, giving a prevalence rate of 41 per cent. There is also evidence that most patients with urinary incontinence do not present to their doctors

  17. New treatment for faecal incontinence using zinc-aluminium ointment: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, G; Zarate, A J; Inostroza, G; Meneses, X; Falloux, E; Molina, O; Molina, M E; Bellolio, F; Zúñiga, A

    2012-05-01

    In a randomized double-blind study the therapeutic effect of a novel zinc-aluminium ointment was compared with placebo in patients with faecal incontinence. A randomized double-blind trial was performed. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive the ointment or a placebo. All were evaluated prior to and 3 weeks after ointment application, using the Wexner incontinence score and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQL) score. Fifty patients were randomized and six were lost to follow-up, leaving 24 in the treatment and 20 in the placebo group. The average ages were 61.3 and 60.7 years. The respective Wexner scores prior to intervention were 16.6 and 16.7. They decreased significantly after treatment to 8.5 and 13.1 (P<0.001 and P=0.002 respectively). There was a significant difference in the final scores, favouring the treatment group (P=0.001). The FIQL scores for the treatment group were also significantly better in all parameters compared with those of the placebo group. The study shows that the zinc-aluminium based ointment decreases faecal incontinence significantly compared with placebo. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Controlling anal incontinence in women by performing anal exercises with biofeedback or loperamide (CAPABLe) trial: Design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Jelovsek, J. Eric; Markland, Alayne D.; Whitehead, William E.; Barber, Matthew D.; Newman, Diane K.; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Dyer, Keisha; Visco, Anthony; Sung, Vivian W.; Sutkin, Gary; Meikle, Susan F.; Gantz, Marie G.

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this trial are to determine the efficacy and safety of two treatments for women experiencing fecal incontinence. First, we aim to compare the use of loperamide to placebo and second, to compare the use of anal sphincter exercises with biofeedback to usual care. The primary outcome is the change from baseline in the St. Mark's (Vaizey) Score 24 weeks after treatment initiation. As a Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) trial, subjects are enrolling from eight PFDN clinical centers across the United States. A centralized data coordinating center supervises data collection and analysis. These two first-line treatments for fecal incontinence are being investigated simultaneously using a two-by-two randomized factorial design: a medication intervention (loperamide versus placebo) and a pelvic floor strength and sensory training intervention (anal sphincter exercises with manometry-assisted biofeedback versus usual care using an educational pamphlet). Interventionists providing the anal sphincter exercise training with biofeedback have received standardized training and assessment. Symptom severity, diary, standardized anorectal manometry and health-related quality of life outcomes are assessed using validated instruments administered by researchers masked to randomized interventions. Cost effectiveness analyses will be performed using prospectively collected data on care costs and resource utilization. This article describes the rationale and design of this randomized trial, focusing on specific research concepts of interest to researchers in the field of female pelvic floor disorders and all other providers who care for patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:26291917

  19. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fat, Fecal Qualitative or Quantitative Related tests: Xylose Absorption Test , Celiac Disease Antibody Tests , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , ... is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: For the ...

  20. Urinary incontinence: the role of menopause.

    PubMed

    Trutnovsky, Gerda; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Mann, Kristy Pamela; Dietz, Hans P

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of menopause and hormone therapy on the symptoms and signs of stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. Records of women who attended a tertiary urogynecological unit were reviewed retrospectively. A standardized interview included evaluations of symptoms, menopause age (ie, time since last menstrual period or onset of menopausal symptoms), current or previous hormone use, and visual analogue scales for bother. Multichannel urodynamics, including urethral pressure profilometry and determination of abdominal leak point pressure, was performed. Of 382 women seen during the inclusion period, 62% were postmenopausal. Current systemic or local hormone use was reported by 7% and 6%, respectively. Two hundred eighty-eight women (76%) reported symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 5.7, and 273 women (72%) reported symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, with a mean bother of 6.4. On univariate analysis, symptoms and bother of urge incontinence were significantly related to menopause age, whereas this relationship was not found for stress incontinence. After calendar age was controlled for, length of menopause showed no significant relationship with any symptom or sign of urinary incontinence. Hormone deficiency after menopause is unlikely to play a major role in urinary incontinence.

  1. Giggle incontinence: Evolution of concept and treatment.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bridget Linehan; Blais, Samantha

    2017-06-07

    Giggle incontinence is a sudden and involuntary episode of urinary incontinence that is provoked by an episode of laughter. Decades of case studies and small research studies have formed the basis of what is known about giggle incontinence; however, much remains unknown about this type of incontinence, leaving the recommendations for clinical management somewhat unguided. A systematic review of 22 articles on the topic of "giggle incontinence" and related terms was conducted, including all published articles and commentaries since the term was first seen in print in 1959. This review provides a historical context for the diagnosis, a summary of what is known about its etiology, and a summary of current treatments. There is disagreement about the pathophysiology of laughter incontinence, with two differing explanations. The first emphasizes the neurologic origin of the cascade of events during laughter and urination, and draws a likeness to cataplexy and other CNS disorders, and emphasizes treatment with methylphenidate. The second emphasizes urologic dysfunction, with biofeedback and bladder retraining as the recommended therapy. Comprehensive treatment of children with laughter incontinence requires an appreciation of both concepts. Since inception of the concept there has been question about the appropriateness of the term "giggle incontinence." This review encourages discussion among readers/clinicians about the term and the essential qualities of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urinary Incontinence: Causes and Methods of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebling, Tomas L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the third of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. Here, the author introduces the types and physiology of urinary incontinence. The author also…

  3. Managing a common dermatological problem: incontinence dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nazarko, Linda

    2007-08-01

    Incontinence dermatitis is an under-recognized and under-researched problem that mostly affects older people who have continence problems. Nurses who are aware of the risk factors can provide care that reduces the risk of this distressing problem. If incontinence dermatitis occurs, evidence-based care can be used to treat the person and reduce the risks of further complications.

  4. Urinary incontinence and nocturia in healthy schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, S

    1994-09-01

    A frequency/volume chart was used to investigate the micturition pattern of healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-15 years. Of 242 objectively and subjectively healthy children, incontinence was recorded by 36 (14.9%). Nocturnal enuresis, defined as at least one wet night in three months, occurred in 19 (7.9%) children and daytime incontinence occurred with the same frequency. Four girls had both symptoms. Twenty-seven (11.2%) children woke up to void during the night of the investigation but habitual nocturia was established for only 4.1%. There was no difference in the micturition pattern between continent and incontinent children, and there was no correlation between incontinence, nocturnal micturitions and recorded oral fluid intake. At a follow-up one year later, using a questionnaire administrated to the same children, a persistent high rate of incontinence confirmed the original findings.

  5. Mapping liquid distribution in absorbent incontinence products.

    PubMed

    Landeryou, M A; Yerworth, R J; Cottenden, A M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews methods available for mapping the distribution of fluid in incontinence pad materials to assist with evaluating existing products and developing new ones, and to provide data for building and validating predictive models. Specifically, the following technologies are considered and their strengths and limitations described: discrete sensors based on conductance, temperature or optical measurements, optical imaging, gravimetric methods, X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. It is suggested that the ideal method would enable fluid distribution to be mapped in three dimensions with good spatial and time resolution in single materials and composite structures of simple and complex geometries under static and dynamic mechanical loading. It would also allow liquid to be mapped in products when worn by users. It is concluded that, although each existing method meets some of these requirements, and each requirement is met, at least reasonably well, by at least one method, improved techniques are needed. The particular need for methods that can provide some measurement of liquid saturation within absorbent products, both in the laboratory and in real use, is highlighted. In many cases, simple methods used appropriately are sufficient to elicit the important aspects of liquid transport and storage within absorbent products.

  6. Role of clinical pathway in improving the quality of care for patients with faecal incontinence: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zeiad I; Lim, Michael; Stojkovic, Stevan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the development and implementation of the Integrated Rapid Assessment and Treatment (IRAT) pathway for the management of patients with fecal incontinence and measure its impact on patients’ care. METHODS Patients referred to the colorectal unit in our hospital for the management of faecal incontinence were randomised to either the Standard Care pathway or the newly developed IRAT pathway in this feasibility study. The IRAT pathway is designed to provide a seamless multidisciplinary care to patients with faecal incontinence in a timely fashion. On the other hand, patients in the Standard Pathway were managed in the general colorectal clinic. Percentage improvements in St. Marks Incontinence Score, Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score and Rockwood Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale after completion of treatment in both groups were the primary outcome measures. Secondary endpoints were the time required to complete the management and patients’ satisfaction score. χ2, Mann-Whitney-U and Kendall tau-c correlation coefficient tests were used for comparison of outcomes of the two study groups. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered significant. RESULTS Thirty-nine patients, 34 females, consented to participate. Thirty-one (79.5%) patients completed the final assessment and were included in the outcome analysis. There was no significant difference in the quality of life scales and incontinence scores. Patients in the IRAT pathway were more satisfied with the time required to complete management (P = 0.033) and had stronger agreement that all aspects of their problem were covered (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION Despite of the lack of significant difference in outcome measures, the new pathway has positively influenced patient’s mindset, which was reflected in a higher satisfaction score. PMID:28217378

  7. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  8. Nonsurgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Parker, William P; Griebling, Tomas Lindor

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in elderly women with significant associated morbidity. Incontinence can by grouped into several types: stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, overflow incontinence, functional incontinence, and mixed urinary incontinence. Careful evaluation, including history and physical examination, is critical to making the correct diagnosis and guiding therapy. A variety of nonsurgical treatments, including behavioral therapies, pelvic floor muscle exercise, medications, and other treatments, are available; can be successful for many older women; and may preclude the need for surgery. Working closely with the patient, understanding her goals of care, and targeting treatments accordingly are essential for success.

  9. Social networks lack useful content for incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B

    2011-10-01

    To assess the incontinence resources readily available for patients among social networks. Social networks allow users to connect with each other and share content and are a widely popular resource on the Internet. These sites attract millions of users; however, social media are underused in the healthcare industry. A search for "incontinence" was performed on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube in September 2010. The first 30 results were reviewed for each. The results were evaluated as useful or not useful and additionally catalogued as healthcare professionals, commercial products, or complementary and alternative medicine resources. On Facebook, 4 results (13%) were informative, 12 (40%) advertised commercial incontinence products, and 14 (47%) had no usable information. Of the live "tweets" reviewed on Twitter, 18 (60%) linked to incontinence-related healthcare information (none were from, or referred one to, healthcare professionals), 9 (30%) advertised for commercial incontinence products, 1 (3%) advertised complementary and alternative medicine resources, and 2 (7%) were humorous. Of 4 Twitter user results, 1 was comic, 1 provided incontinence-related health information, and 2 were incontinence medical supply companies. There were 14 (47%) informational YouTube videos, of which 9 came from healthcare professionals or professional organizations. Of the remainder, 12 (40%) were commercial, 1 (3%) advertised complementary and alternative medicine resources, and the remaining 3 (10%) were not useful. The results of our study show that social networks have insufficient useful incontinence content, especially from healthcare professionals and incontinence organizations. Medical professionals and societies should target these avenues to reach and educate patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  11. A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted.

  12. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish What is Urinary Incontinence? (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Diagnosis and Tests Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy (National Institute ...

  13. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2010-04-01

    Urinary incontinence remains a common and distressing condition affecting many women and is known to have a significant effect on quality of life (QoL). Whilst conservative and behavioural therapy are important in the management of women with both stress incontinence and overactive bladder (OAB) ultimately many may benefit from pharmacological therapy. Antimuscarinic drugs are the commonly used agents in the treatment of OAB although often compliance and persistence are affected by adverse effects. Consequently many newer agents remain under investigation. In addition duloxetine has recently been introduced for the management of women with stress incontinence and may offer an alternative to surgery in selected cases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and new developments in the management of women with urinary incontinence as well as reviewing the role of oestrogen therapy in relation to lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  14. Urinary Incontinence and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Intimate Relationship Satisfaction Among Midlife Women.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Lori; Meize-Grochowski, Robin

    To explore associations among symptoms of urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms, and measures of psychosocial health that may be assessed during a well-woman screening examination and the possible contribution of these variables to the relationship satisfaction of partnered midlife women living with urinary incontinence. Exploratory correlational design using self-report questionnaires. Community recruitment by posted fliers, advertisements, and social media. Partnered women, ages 45 to 65 years, with urinary incontinence (N = 57). Self-report measures of severity of incontinence symptoms, relationship satisfaction, self-concept/emotional health (self-esteem, body image, depression, anxiety), and relationship factors (sexual quality of life, incontinence-related communication). Data were analyzed using Spearman rho correlation with an exploration of the contribution of study factors to relationship satisfaction through standard multiple regression. The severity of urinary incontinence symptoms had no significant correlation with scores on relationship satisfaction or psychosocial health. Measures of self-concept/emotional health and relationship factors were significantly correlated with each other (rs = .40-.75, p < .01) and with relationship satisfaction (rs = .35-.71, p < .05). Preliminary exploration of the contribution of study factors to relationship satisfaction through exploratory regression analysis showed unique contributions from sexual quality of life (18.7%, p < .001) and depression (8.7%, p = .004). Midlife women with urinary incontinence, regardless of symptom severity, might benefit from screening for poorer sexual quality of life and mild depression symptoms because these two study factors significantly contributed to poorer intimate relationship satisfaction among this study's participants. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [A prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Stadnicka, Grazyna; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna J; Bień, Agnieszka M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to work out a prophylactic program for strain urinary incontinence. Analysis of literature on the subject and results of own investigations presented in the first part of the paper indicate that the program of prophylaxis of strain urinary incontinence should primarily include: (1) Preparation of the medical staff (nurses, midwives) for propagating health education among women on prevention of strain urinary incontinence. (2) Preparation of adequate educational materials in the form of brochures, leaflets, information posters about symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of urinary incontinence indicating health care institutions available to all women when the disease is suspected or already present. (3) Propagation of problems connected with strain urinary incontinence in the mass media providing information to a wide audience in order to make people realize the significance of this social problem and break stereotypes associated with this disease of "shame". (4) Preparation of sets of exercises for the muscles of the base of the pelvis to be performed during pregnancy, confinement and menopause to maintain their proper function. (5) Indicating factors predisposing to strain urinary incontinence with focus on possibilities of their reduction or elimination.

  16. Factors influencing intact skin in women with incontinence using absorbent products: results of a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yoshie; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi; Konya, Chizuko; Sugama, Junko

    2010-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in elderly incontinent people. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and compare properties of intact skin on the buttocks and subumbilicus area in elderly people wearing absorbent products and to identify pad environment factors that affect skin properties. Study participants included 45 elderly (age range: 68 to 103 years) female residents of one nursing home who were incontinent of feces and urine (dual incontinence group--DIG, n = 35) or feces only (fecal incontinence group--FIG, n= 10). Skin pH and hydration were measured and factors believed to affect the perineal environment and contribute to the development of IAD were assessed. In both DIG and FIG, skin hydration levels and pH were higher in the coccygeal than in the subumbilical area. Skin hydration of the sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (P = 0.019) and skin pH on the coccygeal region and sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (coccygeal region, P = 0.013; sacral region, P = 0.023). Absorbent pad surface pH (P &0.01) and excessive sweating (P = 0.006) were significantly related to skin pH. Results show that properties of perineal skin in elderly women with incontinence are affected by occlusion with pads, increasing the risk of IAD. Studies comparing the effect of various types of pads and pad-change frequencies on skin properties are needed.

  17. Selecting appropriate absorbent products to treat urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Urinary incontinence can have a significant negative effect on a person's life, especially if left unmanaged and untreated. Continence assessment, often carried out by community nurses, is an important element in the management of a person's urinary incontinence, and so is the selection of appropriate absorbent incontinence pads. This article reviews: the causes and effects of urinary incontinence; how to derive the most appropriate information from a continence assessment; strategies for selecting incontinence pads for a person, on the basis of the results of the continence assessment; and some of the problems and risks associated with the use of incontinence pads.

  18. Urinary incontinence in the elderly. Drug treatment options.

    PubMed

    Chutka, D S; Takahashi, P Y

    1998-10-01

    Urinary incontinence is commonly seen in the elderly. It has multiple complications and is often the reason an elderly person is forced to abandon independent living and enter a nursing home. There are multiple causes of urinary incontinence: it is not a single entity or a specific diagnosis. In most patients, the incontinence can be placed into 1 of the following 4 categories: detrusor overactivity (urge incontinence), overflow incontinence, stress incontinence (outlet incompetence) or functional incontinence. To understand the pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, some knowledge of the urinary tract anatomy and physiology is required. It is also important to know how the anatomy and physiology changes in response to the aging process. Successful treatment depends on the specific cause of the incontinence. If incorrectly diagnosed, various treatments may actually worsen the incontinence or cause other problems. Since most elderly patients do not volunteer a problem of urinary incontinence, questions regarding the presence of symptoms must be asked. In most patients, the specific type of incontinence can be diagnosed with a thorough medical history and physical examination. Several simple and widely available laboratory tests may also be useful in the evaluation. Occasionally, urological consultation or urodynamic testing should be performed. Once correctly diagnosed, there are a large number of pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatments (behavioural, surgical) available. This article concentrates on the pharmacological therapies for patients with various types of urinary incontinence. Since most patients with urinary incontinence are elderly, they are more susceptible to the effects as well as the adverse effects of medications. This must be taken into account before any pharmacological therapy is initiated. Although many elderly patients believe their symptoms of urinary incontinence to be a part of growing old, urinary incontinence is never a

  19. Effects of bariatric surgery on urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bulbuller, Nurullah; Habibi, Mani; Yuksel, Mustafa; Ozener, Onur; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Oner, Osman Zekai; Kazak, Mehmet Altug

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is an important modifiable etiological factor associated with several diseases. There is strong evidence that urinary incontinence (UI) is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Aim One of the many benefits experienced by obese patients after bariatric surgery is decrease in UI. To investigate this correlation, we aimed to examine the effects of weight loss on UI in female patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and methods Obese female patients (n=120), ≥18 years of age, and planning to undergo LSG were included in this prospective study. We administered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) to the patients prior to surgery and 6 months after the surgery. Using the collected data, we determined the incidence of UI and examined the relationship between the preoperative and postoperative BMI and UI values. Results The mean age of the patients was 39.19 (standard deviation [SD] =9.94) years and the mean preoperative BMI was 46.17 (SD =5.35). Of the 120 patients, 72 (60%) complained of UI preoperatively. Among these 72 patients, 23 (31.95%) described urge incontinence, 18 (25%) stress incontinence, and 31 (43.05%) mixed-type incontinence. At 6 months postoperatively, the percentage of excess weight loss was 70.33% (SD =14.84%). For all three UI subtypes, the 6-month postoperative ICIQ-UI-SF and IIQ-7 scores decreased significantly compared to the preoperative scores (P<0.05). Conclusion LSG results in a clinically significant improvement in most common types of UI, regardless of patient reproductive history, existence of comorbid conditions, and smoking status. PMID:28176911

  20. Patient Satisfaction with Stress Incontinence Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Wai, Clifford Y.; Litman, Heather J.; France, Diane Borello; Menefee, Shawn A.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kraus, Stephen R; Johnson, Harry W.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To identify predictors and correlates of patient satisfaction 24 months after Burch colpopexy or autologous fascial sling for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Participants were the 655 randomized subjects in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr). Variables potentially associated with satisfaction were tested in bivariate analysis, including demographics, baseline clinical characteristics of incontinence, and outcomes on validated subjective and objective measures. Satisfaction with treatment was defined as a response of “completely satisfied” or “mostly satisfied” on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) at 24 months. Variables significantly related to satisfaction were entered into multivariable regression models to test their independent association with satisfaction. Results At 24 months post-surgery, 480 (73%) participants completed the PSQ. Mean (±SD) age of the sample was 52 (±10) years and 77% were white. Most (82%) were completely or mostly satisfied with their surgery related to urine leakage. In the final multivariable model, patient satisfaction was associated with greater reduction in SUI symptoms (from baseline to 24 months; OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.10, 1.24) and greater reductions in symptom distress (OR=1.16; CI:1.08, 1.24). Lower odds of satisfaction were associated with greater urge incontinence symptoms at baseline (OR=0.09, CI:0.04, 0.22), detrusor overactivity at 24 months (OR=0.29, CI:0.12, 0.69), and a positive stress test at 24 months (OR=0.45, CI:0.22, 0.91). Conclusions Stress incontinent women who also have urge incontinence symptoms may benefit from additional preoperative counseling to set realistic expectations about potential surgical outcomes or proactive treatment of urge incontinence symptoms to minimize their post-operative impact. PMID:20976815

  1. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Benjamin R; Telford, Karen J; Carlson, Gordon L; Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Kiff, Edward S

    2017-05-01

    Men with passive fecal leakage represent a distinct clinical entity in which the pathophysiology remains unclear. Standard anorectal investigations fail to demonstrate consistent abnormalities in this group. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new test of anal sphincter function with greater sensitivity and discriminatory ability than conventional anal manometry. The aim of this study was to determine whether men with fecal leakage have an abnormality in anal sphincter function that is detectable by anal acoustic reflectometry. This was an age-matched study of continent and incontinent men. The study was conducted at a university teaching hospital. Male patients with isolated symptoms of fecal leakage were recruited. Anal acoustic reflectometry, followed by conventional anal manometry, was performed. Results were then compared with those from an age-matched group of men with no symptoms of anal incontinence or anorectal pathology. Variables measured with anal acoustic reflectometry and anal manometry in the incontinent and continent men were compared. Thirty subjects were recruited, of whom 15 were men with fecal leakage and 15 were continent men. There was a significantly higher incidence of previous anorectal surgery in the men with leakage. The anal acoustic reflectometry variables of opening and closing pressure were significantly lower in leakers compared with continent subjects (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001). Hysteresis was significantly greater in the male leaker group (p = 0.026). No difference was seen in anal manometry. With a larger sample size, the effect of previous anorectal surgery and the presence of an anal sphincter defect could be clarified. Anal acoustic reflectometry is a sensitive test of anal sphincter function and, unlike anal manometry, can discriminate male leakers from continent subjects. An identifiable abnormality has been detected using anal acoustic reflectometry, which may further our understanding of the pathogenesis in this group.

  2. Rectal fecal impaction treatment in childhood constipation: enemas versus high doses oral PEG.

    PubMed

    Bekkali, Noor-L-Houda; van den Berg, Maartje-Maria; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van Wijk, Michiel P; Bongers, Marloes E J; Liem, Olivia; Benninga, Marc A

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that enemas and polyethylene glycol (PEG) would be equally effective in treating rectal fecal impaction (RFI) but enemas would be less well tolerated and colonic transit time (CTT) would improve during disimpaction. Children (4-16 years) with functional constipation and RFI participated. One week before disimpaction, a rectal examination was performed, symptoms of constipation were recorded, and the first CTT measurement was started. If RFI was determined, then patients were assigned randomly to receive enemas once daily or PEG (1.5 g/kg per day) for 6 consecutive days. During this period, the second CTT measurement was started and a child's behavior questionnaire was administered. Successful rectal disimpaction, defecation and fecal incontinence frequencies, occurrence of abdominal pain and watery stools, CTTs (before and after disimpaction), and behavior scores were assessed. Ninety-five patients were eligible, of whom 90 participated (male, n = 60; mean age: 7.5 +/- 2.8 years). Forty-six patients received enemas and 44 PEG, with 5 dropouts in each group. Successful disimpaction was achieved with enemas (80%) and PEG (68%; P = .28). Fecal incontinence and watery stools were reported more frequently with PEG (P < .01), but defecation frequency (P = .64), abdominal pain (P = .33), and behavior scores were comparable between groups. CTT normalized equally (P = .85) in the 2 groups. Enemas and PEG were equally effective in treating RFI in children. Compared with enemas, PEG caused more fecal incontinence, with comparable behavior scores. The treatments should be considered equally as first-line therapy for RFI.

  3. Cell Therapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melanie L; Izeta, Ander; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Amend, Bastian; Brinchmann, Jan E

    2015-08-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is the involuntary loss of urine and is a common condition in middle-aged and elderly women and men. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by leakage of urine when coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting, and exercise, even standing leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Other types of UI also exist such as urge incontinence (also called overactive bladder), which is a strong and unexpected sudden urge to urinate, mixed forms of UI that result in symptoms of both urge and stress incontinence, and functional incontinence caused by reduced mobility, cognitive impairment, or neuromuscular limitations that impair mobility or dexterity. However, for many SUI patients, there is significant loss of urethral sphincter muscle due to degeneration of tissue, the strain and trauma of pregnancy and childbirth, or injury acquired during surgery. Hence, for individuals with SUI, a cell-based therapeutic approach to regenerate the sphincter muscle offers the advantage of treating the cause rather than the symptoms. We discuss current clinically relevant cell therapy approaches for regeneration of the external urethral sphincter (striated muscle), internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle), the neuromuscular synapse, and blood supply. The use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells is a major step in the right direction, but they may not be enough for regeneration of all components of the urethral sphincter. Inclusion of other cell types or biomaterials may also be necessary to enhance integration and survival of the transplanted cells.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  5. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  6. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920... garment for incontinence. (a) Identification. A protective garment for incontinence is a device that... garment from the patient's excreta. This generic type of device does not include diapers for infants....

  7. [Stress urinary incontinence. Its surgical management].

    PubMed

    Neri Ruz, E S; Azcona Arteaga, F J

    1991-10-01

    Ninety eight patients with stress urinary incontinence treated surgically at Central Military Hospital, were studied. We analyzed the risk factors as age, weight, height, parity, menopause age, and previous medical and surgical procedures. They were divided in two groups. The Group I, vaginal approach, with 35 patients and Group II, retropubic surgery, with 63 patients. There were no differences both groups regarding age, weight, height, parity and menopausal age. The most frequent illness associated with stress urinary incontinence, was pelvic floor relaxation. The complications were 17.1% and 33.3%, respectively. The efficacy of Burch is procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence, with a success rate of 84.1% versus 62.1% in the vaginal approach, was confirmed.

  8. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: reducing adverse events.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Mark; Colegrave, Melanie; Ousey, Karen

    2016-10-13

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in patients with faecal and/or urinary incontinence. Urine alters the normal skin flora and increases permeability of the stratum corneum and faecal enzymes on the skin contribute to skin damage. Faecal bacteria can then penetrate the skin, increasing the risk of secondary infection. However, IAD can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. This includes appropriate use of containment devices. This article also looks at HARTMANN incontinence pads that have been developed to absorb the fluids that cause IAD and maintain the skin's acidic pH. The acidic pH of the skin contributes to its barrier function and defence against infection. Therefore, maintaining an acidic pH will help protect the skin from damage.

  9. Incontinence: enhancing care in women's prisons.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Norton, Christine; Wells, Amanda

    There is no evidence on the prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence symptoms in women prisoners. To explore the extent and management of bladder and bowel symptoms to inform prison health services and prison nursing practice. An anonymous self-report questionnaire tailored to low levels of English literacy, and administered in one women's prison. Women prisons have a higher reported prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence, constipation and nocturnal enuresis than community populations; this is an unrecognised health problem. Prison primary care nurses should consider introducing sensitive but direct questions on bladder and bowel symptoms into admission assessment processes.

  10. Female Epispadias Presenting as Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan

    2017-01-01

    Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  11. Female Epispadias Presenting as Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jonuzi, Asmir; Popovic, Nusret; Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milišic, Emir; Karavdic, Kenan; Paddy, Dewan

    2017-01-01

    Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly affecting 1 in 484,000 females. The presenting features of female epispadias are urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 6-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence who on physical examination had a bifid clitoris and labia minora. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux and a funnel shaped proximal urethra. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, one-stage reconstruction of the urethra, bladder neck, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  12. [Fecal microbiota transplantation: review].

    PubMed

    Barbut, F; Collignon, A; Butel, M-J; Bourlioux, P

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained an increasing medical interest, since the recognition of the role of disturbed microbiota in the development of various diseases. To date, FMT is an established treatment modality for multiple recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI), despite lack of standardization of the procedure. Persisting normalization of the disturbed colonic microbiota associated with RCDI seems to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of FMT. For other diseases, FMT should be considered strictly experimental, only offered to patients in an investigational clinical setting. Although the concept of FMT is appealing, current expectations should be damped until future evidence arises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vindigni, Stephen M; Surawicz, Christina M

    2017-03-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the transfer of stool from a healthy donor into the colon of a patient whose disease is a result of an altered microbiome, with the goal of restoring the normal microbiota and thus curing the disease. The most effective and well-studied indication for FMT is recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend FMT for other gastrointestinal diseases, but studies are under way. There is also insufficient evidence to recommend FMT for nongastrointestinal diseases at this time. The field is rapidly emerging.

  14. Brain Mechanisms Underlying Urge Incontinence and its Response to Pelvic Floor Muscle Training.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Derek; Clarkson, Becky; Tadic, Stasa D; Resnick, Neil M

    2015-09-01

    Urge urinary incontinence is a major problem, especially in the elderly, and to our knowledge the underlying mechanisms of disease and therapy are unknown. We used biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training and functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate cerebral mechanisms, aiming to improve the understanding of brain-bladder control and therapy. Before receiving biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training functionally intact, older community dwelling women with urge urinary incontinence as well as normal controls underwent comprehensive clinical and bladder diary evaluation, urodynamic testing and brain functional magnetic resonance imaging. Evaluation was repeated after pelvic floor muscle training in those with urge urinary incontinence. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was done to determine the brain reaction to rapid bladder filling with urgency. Of 65 subjects with urge urinary incontinence 28 responded to biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training with 50% or greater improvement of urge urinary incontinence frequency on diary. However, responders and nonresponders displayed 2 patterns of brain reaction. In pattern 1 in responders before pelvic floor muscle training the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the adjacent supplementary motor area were activated as well as the insula. After the training dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area activation diminished and there was a trend toward medial prefrontal cortex deactivation. In pattern 2 in nonresponders before pelvic floor muscle training the medial prefrontal cortex was deactivated, which changed little after the training. In older women with urge urinary incontinence there appears to be 2 patterns of brain reaction to bladder filling and they seem to predict the response and nonresponse to biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle training. Moreover, decreased cingulate activation appears to be a consequence of the improvement

  15. Prevention of incontinence-related skin breakdown for acute and critical care patients: comparison of two products.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Mary; Droegemueller, Carol; Rivers, Sonja; Deuser, William E

    2012-01-01

    Perineal protection products were compared for their efficacy in preventing skin breakdown in the hospitalized patient with urinary and/or fecal incontinence. Each product was used for the duration of the hospital stay with daily observations for perineal skin condition. Results indicated the spray product and wipe product were comparable in rate of skin breakdown prevention. Findings suggest the wipe product is more cost-effective for use during hospitalization, and the spray product preserves skin integrity over a longer period of time, beyond average hospitalization duration.

  16. Incontinence Pad Usage in Medical Welfare Facilities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Ji Soon; Kim, Jeong-Wha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of urinary incontinence and the usage of incontinence pads by elderly residents in Korean medical welfare facilities were investigated. Methods From a total of 1,832 facilities, 33 medical welfare facilities in the capital area were randomly selected; all nursing homes were excluded. All data were collected by questionnaires to investigate the residents' age and sex, the presence or absence of urinary incontinence, incontinence pad usage per month, and management methods for urinary incontinence. Surveys were also conducted from January 2010 to August 2010. Results A total number of residents in medical welfare facilities were 2,783, and all of them were selected for this study. Approximately, 65.3% of residents (1,816 individuals) had incontinence. The mean usage was 75 incontinence pads per month. Only 15.6% of residents received proper management for urinary incontinence, while the remaining 84.4% of residents did not have any experience in evaluating or managing their urinary symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary incontinence in medical welfare facilities in Korea was about 65.3%. However, the management of urinary incontinence was insufficient. Urologists should make further efforts for the proper management of urinary incontinence in elders in these facilities. PMID:24466466

  17. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: a comparative case-matched study.

    PubMed

    Al Asari, S; Meurette, G; Mantoo, S; Kubis, C; Wyart, V; Lehur, P-A

    2014-11-01

    The study assessed the initial experience with posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for faecal incontinence and compared it with sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) performed in a single centre during the same timespan. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted at the colorectal unit, University Hospital, Nantes, France, from May 2009 to December 2010. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with chronic severe faecal incontinence underwent neurostimulation including PTNS in 21 and SNS in 57. The main outcome measures were faecal incontinence (Wexner score) and quality of life (Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, FIQL) scores in a short-term follow-up. No significant differences were observed in patients' characteristics. Of 57 patients having SNS, 18 (32%) failed peripheral nerve evaluation and 39 (68%) received a permanent implant. Two (5%) developed a wound infection. No adverse effects were recorded in the PTNS group. There was no significant difference in the mean Wexner and FIQL scores between patients having PTNS and SNS at 6 (P = 0.39 and 0.09) and 12 months (P = 0.79 and 0.37). A 50% or more improvement in Wexner score was seen at 6 and 12 months in 47% and 30% of PTNS patients and in 50% and 58% of SNS patients with no significant difference between the groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation is a valid method of treating faecal incontinence in the short term when conservative treatment has failed. It is easier, simpler, cheaper and less invasive than SNS with a similar short-term outcome. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Management of patients with faecal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Duelund-Jakobsen, Jakob; Worsoe, Jonas; Lundby, Lilli; Christensen, Peter; Krogh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence, defined as the involuntary loss of solid or liquid stool, is a common problem affecting 0.8–8.3% of the adult population. Individuals suffering from faecal incontinence often live a restricted life with reduced quality of life. The present paper is a clinically oriented review of the pathophysiology, evaluation and treatment of faecal incontinence. First-line therapy should be conservative and usually include dietary adjustments, fibre supplement, constipating agents or mini enemas. Biofeedback therapy to improve external anal sphincter function can be offered but the evidence for long-term effect is poor. There is good evidence that colonic irrigation can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life, especially in patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence. Surgical interventions should only be considered if conservative measures fail. Sacral nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive procedure with high rate of success. Advanced surgical procedures should be restricted to highly selected patients and only performed at specialist centres. A stoma should be considered if other treatment modalities fail. PMID:26770270

  19. Electrokinetic properties of incontinence nonwoven devices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the water transport properties of nonwoven incontinence devices is a prerequisite to the design of cotton-based nonwovens. A complete understanding of the interfacial moisture movement which occurs between the layers of coverstock, acquisition layer, distribution layer, absorbent...

  20. Incontinence products and devices for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2004-08-01

    Devices and products to contain or collect the urine are part of the management of bladder dysfunction, particularly urinary incontinence (UI) (Newman, Bliss, & Fader, in press). The aim of continence nurse experts and those who care for incontinent individuals during the past decade has been to greatly decrease the indiscriminate use of absorbent pads and garments, external collecting devices, and indwelling catheterization, through the successful treatment of urinary incontinence (UI) with behavioral interventions, drug therapies, and new surgical procedures. However, these products and devices can be beneficial for persons who are elderly, fail treatment and remain incontinent, who are too ill or disabled to participate in behavioral programs, who cannot be helped by medications, or who have a type of UI that cannot be alleviated by other interventions (Newman, 2003). The judicious use of products to contain urine loss and maintain skin integrity is a first-line defense for these patients (Fantl et al., 1996). Urinary collection devices and products that are appropriate for elderly patients, that are used by nurses in all clinical settings, and are available at local pharmacies, retail stores, medical equipment dealers or directly from manufacturers are discussed.

  1. Faecal incontinence products and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra

    Faecal incontinence has been defined as the involuntary or inappropriate passage of faeces (Royal College of Physicians, 1995). It is a distressing and isolating problem that affects people of all ages, with an estimated incidence of 1-2 per cent of the population (Soffer and Hull, 2000). Many people must rely on continence products to manage this stigmatising and embarrassing problem.

  2. Coping with the Impact of Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartley, Cheryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Part 2 of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. In this article, the author contends that it is extremely important to teach children coping skills…

  3. The medical management of urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Ahmed; Drake, Marcus J; Hashim, Hashim

    2010-01-15

    Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine; it affects millions of people worldwide, causing significant detrimental effects on their quality of life. Direct expenses, such as containment products, long-term drug prescriptions and surgery, complemented by indirect costs, such as reduced employment productivity, result in overall expenditure running to billions of dollars. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) occurs on physical exertion, and results from weakness of the bladder outlet. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) results from inability to resist a sudden compelling desire to pass urine, arising as a consequence of bladder dysfunction. Clinical evaluation clarifies the underlying mechanisms and excludes diseases causing similar symptoms. Urodynamic studies to measure bladder and abdominal pressures and deduce the bladder and outlet function are undertaken when invasive treatments are being considered or when the nature of the incontinence is not entirely clear. Initial management of SUI involves pelvic floor muscle exercise training; if insufficient symptom improvement results, surgical measures are needed. UUI treatment commences with advice on suitable fluid intake and measures to improve ability to defer voiding, followed by antimuscarinic drugs. Refractory UUI is a difficult problem, currently managed with a range of surgical interventions, including bladder injections of botulinum-A neurotoxin, augmentation cystoplasty and nerve stimulation methods. New treatment options are needed, because of the risk of impeding voiding function, resulting in urinary retention. Persistent leakage is controlled with containment products, such as pads, or collection devices, such as catheters.

  4. Functional daytime incontinence: non-pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    van Gool, J D; Vijverberg, M A; Messer, A P; Elzinga-Plomp, A; de Jong, T P

    1992-01-01

    In children with 'functional incontinence', defined as any form of (daytime) wetting caused by non-neuropathic bladder/sphincter dysfunction, most signs and symptoms are rooted in habitual non-physiological responses to signals from bladder and urethra. These responses develop at toddler age, when children learn how to remain dry. Once they have become a habit, incomplete bladder emptying and recurrent urinary tract infections come into play, reiterating the non-physiological responses into fixed patterns of bladder/sphincter dysfunction with functional incontinence as the leading symptom. Non-pharmacological treatment of functional incontinence implies relearning and training the normal responses to signals from bladder and urethra: a cognitive process, with perception of the signals reinforced by biofeedback. This type of treatment is best combined with long-term chemoprophylaxis. Severe cases will benefit from anticholinergic drugs, as adjuvants to the training programme. Urodynamics play a crucial role in documenting the specific patterns of incontinence and in providing biofeedback. For a successful programme, psychological screening of the children is indispensable.

  5. Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Bosco Ramos; Guarisi, Telma; Camargo, Ana Carolina Marchesini de; Gollop, Thomaz Rafael; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Borges, Pítia Cárita de Godoy

    2010-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence, urge incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence among women residing in the city of Jundiaí (São Paulo, Brazil), and the relation between the type of incontinence and the obstetric history of these women. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted. A total of 332 women were interviewed; they were seen for whatever reason at the public primary healthcare units of the city of Jundiaí, from March 2005 to April 2006. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and consisted of questions used in the EPINCONT Study (Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trondelag). Statistical analysis was carried out using the χ2 test and odds ratio (95%CI). Urinary incontinence was a complaint for 23.5% of the women interviewed. Stress urinary incontinence prevailed (50%), followed by mixed urinary incontinence (35%) and urge incontinence (15%). Being in the age group of 35-64 years, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had only vaginal delivery or cesarean section, with uterine contraction, regardless of the number of pregnancies, were factors associated with stress urinary incontinence. However, being in the age group of 55 or older, having a body mass index of 30 or greater and having had three or more pregnancies, only with vaginal deliveries, were factors associated with mixed urinary incontinence. One third of the interviewees complained of some type of urinary incontinence, and half of them presented stress urinary incontinence. Cesarean section, only when not preceded by contractions, was not associated with stress urinary incontinence. The body mass index is only relevant when the stress factor is present.

  6. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  7. Fecal Pellet Flux in the Mesopelagic Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koweek, D.; Shatova, O.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), located 75km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running sediment trap time-series of its kind, continually collecting deep sea particle flux since 1978. Recent application of digital microphotography to the size-fractionated OFP sediment trap material has generated a wealth of new quantitative visual information on particle flux composition, its changes with depth, and its temporal variability. We examined the fecal pellet flux at 1500m depth using image analysis of digital archives, in conjunction with data on the overlying surface ocean from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) programs, to investigate the role of mesoscale physical forcing on mesopelagic particle flux variability. During 2007, a productive cyclonic eddy, a mode water eddy and an anticyclonic eddy passed over the OFP site. Fecal pellet flux was enhanced during passage of both the cyclonic and mode water eddies. Total mass flux (TMF) was also enhanced during the productive cyclonic eddy, but was not influenced by the passage of the mode water eddy. No increase in fecal pellet flux or TMF was apparent during passage of the anticyclonic eddy despite indications of increased zooplankton abundance from ADCP backscatter intensity. Fecal pellet size frequency distributions indicate the presence of two, and sometimes three, distinct size classes. No seasonal trend in mean size of fecal pellets was observed for any size class, implying that the size distribution of the zooplankton populations producing the pellets is relatively constant throughout the year. We also investigated fecal pellet flux changes with depth at 500, 1500 and 3200m. Fecal pellet flux, and the fecal pellet contribution to TMF, were greatest at 500m and decreased with depth. The use of quantitative image analysis holds great potential as a powerful analytical tool in studies of marine particulate flux.

  8. [Fecal microbiota transplantation].

    PubMed

    García-García-de-Paredes, Ana; Rodríguez-de-Santiago, Enrique; Aguilera-Castro, Lara; Ferre-Aracil, Carlos; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can no longer be seen as an enemy. Nowadays, there is enough evidence to place the microbiota as a key element in human homeostasis. Despite initial skepticism, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a real therapeutic alternative for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Moreover, this procedure has shown promising results in ulcerative colitis and other non-gastrointestinal disorders. There is still a lack of knowledge and clinical trials with long- term follow-up. Therefore, the available data should be interpreted with caution. In this document we provide a detailed review of the literature on the intestinal microbiota and FMT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  9. Glycemic Control and Urinary Incontinence in Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karter, Andrew J.; Thai, Julie N.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Huang, Elbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many studies have shown that diabetes increases the risk for urinary incontinence, it is unclear whether poor glycemic control in women with diabetes is associated with incontinence. This study aims to determine the relationship between the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and urinary incontinence in a large, diverse cohort of older women. Methods We examined 6026 older women who responded to a survey (62% response rate) and were enrolled in the Diabetes and Aging Study, an ethnically stratified random sample of patients with diabetes enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Our primary independent variable was the mean of all HbA1c measurements in the year preceding the survey. Outcomes included the presence/absence of incontinence and limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. We used modified Poisson regression and ordinal logistic regression models to account for age, race, body mass index, parity, diabetes treatment, duration of diabetes, and comorbidity. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported incontinence (mean age 59±10 years). After adjustment, HbA1c levels were not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, among women reporting incontinence, HbA1c ≥9% was associated with more limitations due to incontinence than HbA1c <6% (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.57). Conclusion In this cross-sectional analysis, HbA1c level is not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, for women with incontinence, poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥9%) is associated with more limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether improving glycemic control to HbA1c <9% leads to fewer limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. PMID:24032999

  10. [Nursing diagnoses of urinary incontinence in patients with stroke].

    PubMed

    Leandro, Telma Alteniza; Araujo, Thelma Leite de; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Oliveira, Tyane Mayara Ferreira de; Lopes, Ana Cecília Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Identifying the prevalence of Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), Urge urinary incontinence (UUI), Functional urinary incontinence (FUI), Overflow urinary incontinence (OUI) and Reflex urinary incontinence (RUI) nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics in stroke patients. A cross-sectional study with 156 patients treated in a neurological clinic. Data were collected through interviews and forwarded to nurses for diagnostic inference. 92.3% of the patients had at least one of the studied diagnoses; OUI showed the highest prevalence (72.4%), followed by FUI (53.2%), RUI (50.0%), UUI (41.0%) and SUI (37.8%). Overdistended bladder and reports of inability to reach the toilet in time to avoid urine loss were the most prevalent defining characteristics. A statistically significant association of the defining characteristics with the studied diagnosis was verified. The five incontinence diagnoses were identified in the evaluated patients, with different prevalence.

  11. Predictors of female urinary incontinence at midlife and beyond.

    PubMed

    Menezes, M; Pereira, M; Hextall, A

    2010-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is an important middle age health issue and approximately 20% of women over 40 years of age have problems with continence. Urinary incontinence poses a significant negative impact on social functioning and quality of life to many individuals. It is estimated that around three million people are regularly incontinent in the UK with a prevalence of about 40 per 1000 adults. There are various factors which can cause incontinence such as pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, menopause, or just inherent connective-tissue weakness. All of these factors can cause pathophysiology changes in the muscular and fascial structures of the pelvic floor and lead to pelvic support defects and possibly pelvic floor dysfunction. We aim with this review article to highlight predictors or predisposing factors of incontinence; in order to help clinicians during their decisions and put in place a policy of a preventive strategy to decrease the incontinence rate in the general population.

  12. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12): validation of the Dutch version.

    PubMed

    't Hoen, Lisette A; Utomo, Elaine; Steensma, Anneke B; Blok, Bertil F M; Korfage, Ida J

    2015-09-01

    To establish the reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. The PISQ-12 was translated into Dutch following a standardized translation process. A group of 124 women involved in a heterosexual relationship who had had symptoms of urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse for at least 3 months were eligible for inclusion. A reference group was used for assessment of discriminative ability. Data were analyzed for internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability. An alteration was made to item 12 and was corrected for during the analysis. The patient group comprised 70 of the 124 eligible women, and the reference group comprised 208 women from a panel representative of the Dutch female population. The Dutch PISQ-12 showed an adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.57 - 0.69, increasing with correction for item 12 to 0.69 - 0.75, for the reference and patient group, respectively. Scores in the patient group were lower (32.6 ± 6.9) than in the reference group (36.3 ± 4.8; p = 0.0001), indicating a lower sexual function in the patient group and good discriminative ability. Reproducibility was excellent with an intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement of 0.93 (0.88 - 0.96). A positive correlation was found with the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) measure representing good criterion validity. Due to the small number of patients who had received treatment at the 6-month follow-up, no significant responsiveness could be established. This study showed that the Dutch version of the PISQ-12 has good validity and reliability. The PISQ-12 will enable Dutch physicians to evaluate sexual dysfunction in women with pelvic floor disorders.

  13. Anal incontinence and Quality of Life in late pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, H H; Mørkved, S; Stordahl, A; Sandvik, L; Wibe, A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the association between different types of anal incontinence (AI) and Quality of Life (QoL) in late pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Two maternity units in Norway 2009-2010. Primiparae aged 18 or over. Participants answered questions about AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy on the St. Mark's score and impact of QoL in the Fecal Incontinence QoL score. Socioeconomic data were obtained from hospital records. Self-reported AI and impact on QoL. 1571 primiparae responded; 573 (37%) had experienced AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. One third of the incontinent women reported reduced QoL in the domain 'Coping'. 'Women experiencing urgency alone reported markedly better QoL compared to any other AI symptoms. AI appeared to have the strongest impact on the domains 'Coping' and 'Embarrassment'. Depression was only associated with experiencing the combination of all three symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 13; 95%confidence interval (CI) 3.2-51]. Experiencing flatus alone weekly or more was associated with the highest impact on 'Embarrassment' (OR 20; 95%CI 6.4-61) compared with all other symptoms or combination of AI symptoms, except the combination of all three AI symptoms. Between 3 and 10% of the primiparae in this material experienced AI to such a extent that it affected QoL. The greatest impact was seen in the QoL domain 'Coping'. These findings highlight the importance of an increased awareness of AI in late pregnancy among health professionals and the need to implement routine discussions about AI with expectant and new mothers. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Double incontinence as a first symptom of saddle embolism of the aorta leads to sudden paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2015-11-01

    An aortic saddle embolus causing cauda equine syndrome followed by paraplegia is an exceedingly rare phenomenon in post-operative period in coronary artery bypass grafting. In non-CABG cases, reported documentation of neurological recovery from this event is even rarer. A 57-year-old male 8 days after uneventful OPCAP presented with severe lower extremity pain and sudden fecal and urinary incontinence, followed by the absence of pulsations in the lower limbs and paraplegia, during 20-minute period. He underwent immediate bilateral transfemoral embolectomy. The postoperative period was uneventful. The paraplegia recovered immediately after embolectomy and recovery from anesthesia. An angiography has been made to verify that a high origin of the great radicular artery above T12 level may be responsible for better recovery of paraplegia when its ostium obstructed by a saddle embolus relieved using embolectomy. Early surgical intervention in restoring the blood flow into the great radicular artery may prevent severe histological changes hitherto responsible for non-recovery from paraplegia in the earlier reports. Three unique characteristics of this article are as follows: 1) Occurrence of this complication in the post-operative period in off-pump CABG surgery; 2) Commencing of emboli with bizarre symptoms of double incontinence; 3) Combination of cauda equine syndrome and complete paralysis.

  15. MASD part 2: incontinence-associated dermatitis and intertriginous dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce M; Gray, Mikel; Bliss, Donna Z; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Logan, Susan; Baharestani, Mona M; Colwell, Janice C; Goldberg, Margaret; Ratliff, Catherine R

    2011-01-01

    A consensus panel was convened to review current knowledge of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and to provide recommendations for prevention and management. This article provides a summary of the discussion and the recommendations in regards to 2 types of MASD: incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and intertriginous dermatitis (ITD). A focused history and physical assessment are essential for diagnosing IAD or ITD and distinguishing these forms of skin damage from other types of skin damage. Panel members recommend cleansing, moisturizing, and applying a skin protectant to skin affected by IAD and to the perineal skin of persons with urinary or fecal incontinence deemed at risk for IAD. Prevention and treatment of ITD includes measures to ensure that skin folds are dry and free from friction; however, panel members do not recommend use of bed linens, paper towels, or dressings for separating skin folds. Individuals with ITD are at risk for fungal and bacterial infections and these infections should be treated appropriately; for example, candidal infections should be treated with antifungal therapies.

  16. Mixed Incontinence: How Best to Manage It?

    PubMed

    Porena, Massimo; Costantini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Although common in women, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is under-reported and under-treated. It is linked to concomitant disturbances, which may be due to childbirth, ageing, or other medical conditions, in the complex bladder-urethra coordinated system of urine storage and emptying. Primary care physicians can evaluate MUI through history and simple clinical assessment or they can avail of more complex device and tools, such as urodynamic assessment. There is a wide range of therapeutic options. The recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence offers innovative strategies for therapy but products risk being introduced without long-term safety and efficacy assessment. Direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of MUI.

  17. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  18. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  19. Double incontinence in a cohort of nulliparous pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Espuña-Pons, Montserrat; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Sánchez, Emília

    2012-11-01

    To estimate the frequency of double incontinence, and to identify associated risk factors during pregnancy and postpartum in previously continent nulliparous women. A cohort study in healthy, nulliparous, continent pregnant women, attending the public healthcare system of Catalonia (Spain) was designed. The field work was conducted during the control visits of pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and in the postpartum. Double incontinence was defined as a situation in which participants reported simultaneously urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence with the help of a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates, and their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated, as well as the impact on daily life. Multivariable logistic regressions in pregnancy and postpartum were estimated to assess the association of potential risk factors. The prevalence rate of double incontinence during pregnancy was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.0-10.3). Age over 35 years, and family history of UI were associated to a higher risk of double incontinence. After delivery, the prevalence rate decreased to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.4-4.6); only 6.7% of women with double incontinence in pregnancy had a persistency of their symptoms in early postpartum. Instrumental vaginal deliveries carried 2.2 times more risk of double incontinence than spontaneous ones. Episiotomy implied a higher risk for double incontinence. Symptoms of double incontinence are prevalent during first pregnancy; age and other intrinsic factors may favor the occurrence of double incontinence throughout gestation, while instrumental delivery and episiotomy increase the risk of double incontinence in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Urinary incontinence in a vulnerable population: older women.

    PubMed

    Criner, J A

    2001-01-01

    Urinary incontinence creates a tremendous hardship on older women and results in social isolation, anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, and decreased life satisfaction. Stress, urge, overflow, and functional incontinence can be treated by behavioral methods, medications, or invasive techniques. The nurse should complete a health history before making an informed decision with the older women about the most appropriate treatment plan. There can be improved quality of life for women with incontinence if health care providers focus on this problem.

  1. Measurement of Dynamic Urethral Pressures with a High Resolution Manometry System in Continent and Incontinent Women

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Anna C; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Nager, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is caused by urethral dysfunction during dynamic conditions, but current technology has limitations in measuring urethral pressures under dynamic conditions. An 8-French high resolution manometry catheter (HRM) currently in clinical use in gastroenterology may accurately measure urethral pressures under dynamic conditions because it has a 25ms response rate and circumferential pressure sensors along the length of the catheter (ManoScan® ESO, Given Imaging). We evaluated the concordance, repeatability, and tolerability of this catheter. Methods We measured resting, cough, and strain maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCPs) using HRM and measured resting MUCPs with water perfusion side-hole catheter urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in 37 continent and 28 stress incontinent subjects. Maneuvers were repeated after moving the HRM catheter along the urethral length to evaluate whether results depend on catheter positioning. Visual analog pain scores evaluated the comfort of HRM compared to UPP. Results The correlation coefficient for resting MUCPs measured by HRM vs. UPP was high (r = 0.79, p<0.001). Repeatability after catheter repositioning was high for rest, cough, and strain with HRM: r= 0.92, 0.89, and 0.89. Mean MUCPs (rest, cough, strain) were higher in continent than incontinent subjects (all p < 0.001) and decreased more in incontinent subjects than continent subjects during cough and strain maneuvers compared to rest. Conclusions This preliminary study shows that HRM is concordant with standard technology, repeatable, and well tolerated in the urethra. Incontinent women have more impairment of their urethral closure pressures during cough and strain than continent women. PMID:25185595

  2. [Causes and diagnosis of female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Schorsch, I; Soljanik, I; Stanislaus, P; Bauer, R; Mayer, M; Hocaoglu, Y; Becker, A; May, F

    2007-09-20

    The primary cause of stress incontinence is birth traumata. However, obesity, asthma, chronic constipation or hard physical work can also overtax the pelvic floor and lead to injury of the connective tissue and a slackening of the ligamentous apparatus. Pelvic floor defects are initially diagnosed simply through a thorough urogynaecological examination. To predict the success of a surgical treatment, the functions can be tested by performing simulated operations.

  3. Slings in iatrogenic male incontinence: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, M.; Giberti, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The increasing number of prostatectomies entails an increasing number of patients suffering from iatrogenic incontinence despite improved surgical techniques. The severity of this problem often requires invasive treatments such as periurethral injection of bulking agents, artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, and sub-urethral sling positioning. The artificial urethral sphincter has represented, until today, the gold standard but, in the recent years, sling systems have been investigated as minimally invasive alternative options. Today, three different sling procedures are commonly performed: bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems. The aim of this review is to critically report the current status of sling systems in the treatment of iatrogenic male incontinence. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched and all articles between 1974 and 2009 were evaluated. Results: With regard to bone-anchored, readjustable, and trans-obturator slings systems, cure rates ranged between 58.0% and 86.0%, 55.5% and 73.0%, and 40.0% and 63.0%, respectively, while major complication rates ranged between 0 and 14.5%, 10.0 and 22.2%, and 0 and 10.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Suburethral slings are the only alternative techniques which can be favorably compared with the AUS, showing more advantages with respect to AUS implantations which are mainly represented by a quick and less invasive approach, low morbidity, and low costs. In spite of the difficulty in identifying the most effective sling procedure, overall, sling systems can be recommended for patients with persistent mild or moderate incontinence. However, the indication can also be extended to patients with severe incontinence, after appropriate counseling, allowing AUS implantation in the event of sling failure. PMID:20877609

  4. A modified inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire and the Vaizey Incontinence questionnaire are more sensitive measures of acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy than RTOG grading

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Usman; McGough, Camilla; Hackett, Claire; Blake, Peter; Harrington, Kevin J.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Tait, Diana; Norman, Andrew R.; Andreyev, H. Jervoise N. . E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Simple scales with greater sensitivity than Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading to detect acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy, could be clinically useful. Methods and Materials: Do questionnaires used in benign gastrointestinal diseases detect toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy? The patient-completed Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBDQ) and Vaizey Incontinence questionnaires were compared prospectively at baseline and at Week 5 to physician-completed RTOG grading. Results: A total of 107 patients, median age 63 years, were recruited. After 5 weeks of treatment, patients with gynecologic and gastrointestinal cancer were more symptomatic than urologic patients (p 0.012; p = 0.014). Overall, 94% had altered bowel habits, 80% loose stool, 74% frequency, 65% difficult gas, 60% pain, >48% distress, 44% tenesmus, >40% restrictions in daily activity, 39% urgency, 37% fecal incontinence, and 40% required antidiarrheal medication. The median RTOG score was 1 (range, 0-2), median IBDQ score 204.5 (range, 74-224), and median Vaizey score 5 (range, 0-20). Chemotherapy preceding radiotherapy increased fecal incontinence (p 0.002). RTOG scores stabilized after 3 weeks, IBDQ scores peaked at Week 4, and Vaizey scores worsened throughout treatment. IBDQ and Vaizey scores distinguished between groups with different RTOG scores. Conclusion: The IBDQ and Vaizey questionnaires are reliable and sensitive, offering greater insight into the severity and range of symptoms compared with RTOG grading.

  5. Treatment of mixed urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Gomelsky, Alex; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2011-10-01

    Deciding on an optimal therapy for mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is challenging, as a single-treatment modality may be inadequate for alleviating both the urge and stress component. A MEDLINE search was conducted regarding English-language literature pertaining to the treatment for MUI focusing on literature within the last 18 months. Behavioral therapy and lifestyle modification, such as moderate weight loss and caffeine reduction, should be considered first-line options for all women with MUI. The addition of pelvic floor muscle therapy may have an additional salutary effect. Treatment of the urge component with antimuscarinics is effective; however, the stress component is likely to persist after therapy. Treatment with vaginal estrogen cream may help in the short-term, but long-term benefits are unknown. Anti-incontinence surgery may have a positive impact on both the stress and urge components of MUI; however, it appears that women with MUI may have lower cure rates compared to women with pure stress urinary incontinence. The optimum treatment of MUI may often require multiple treatment modalities. Although surgery may often have a positive impact on both components, its routine implementation should be approached with caution and patients should be carefully selected and counseled. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  6. [Sport and urinary incontinence in women].

    PubMed

    Lousquy, R; Jean-Baptiste, J; Barranger, E; Hermieux, J-F

    2014-09-01

    Women are more attentive to their physical appearance and a quarter of French women use to practice a regular physical activity. Benefits of sport on general health are recognized. However, sport may be the cause of various diseases when it is poorly chosen or improperly performed. In literature, intensive exercise is a risk factor for urinary incontinence, defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine". It is essentially stress urinary incontinence, occurring because of the phenomenon of intrabdominal hyperpressure, inherent with certain activities, and excess capacity of sphincters. Some sports are more risky than others, and high-level sportswomen are the most exposed. Health professionals must invest in information, screening, prevention, counseling and treatment track athletes So, the general practitioner and the doctor of sports play a vital role in informing, screening, prevention, therapeutic and monitoring of sportswomen. Better information is needed because according to the severity of incontinence and its impact, there are simple, effective, more or less invasive treatment options. The aim of this study was to establish an inventory of scientific knowledge and to improve the management of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacteriuria is associated with urge urinary incontinence in older women

    PubMed Central

    Rodhe, Nils; Englund, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of urinary incontinence in elderly people living in the community. Bacteriuria and urinary incontinence are common conditions and often coexisting in this population; the authors have previously reported the prevalence of bacteriuria to be 22.4% in women and 9.4% in men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The catchment area of a primary healthcare centre in a Swedish middle-sized town. Subjects Residents, except for those in nursing homes, aged 80 and over. Participation rate: 80.3% (431/537). Main outcome measures Urinary cultures and questionnaire data on urinary incontinence. Results In women the OR for having bacteriuria increased with increasing frequency of urinary incontinence; the OR was 2.83 (95% CI 1.35–5.94) for women who were incontinent daily as compared with continent women. Reporting urge urinary incontinence increased the risk of having bacteriuria: 3.36 (95% CI 1.49–7.58) in comparison with continent women while there was no significant association between stress urinary incontinence and bacteriuria. The prevalence of bacteriuria among men was too low to make any meaningful calculations about the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of incontinence. Conclusion Bacteriuria is associated with more frequent leakage and predominantly with urge urinary incontinence. The causes of this association and their clinical implications remain unclear. There might be some individuals who would benefit from antibiotic treatment, but further studies are warranted. PMID:18297561

  8. Factors Related to Urinary Incontinence among the Malaysian Elderly.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, S A; Hamid, T A; Shahar, S; Mun, C Y

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition in the elderly that is the spontaneous leakage of urine. It is an age-related problem and increases especially in people aged above 65 years. It can cause many psychological, behavioral, biological, economic and social effects. The treatment of urinary incontinence can reduce morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of variables including age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, body weight, blood elements and nutritional parameters on urinary incontinence among the Malaysian elderly. The study was on 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of independent variables for urinary incontinence among respondents. The findings indicated that approximately 3.80% of subjects had urinary incontinence. In addition, constipation was found a significant factor that increased the risk of urinary incontinence in samples (p=0.006; OR=3.77). The increase in dietary monounsaturated fat (p=0.038; OR=0.59) and plasma triglyceride levels (p=0.029; OR=0.56) significantly reduced the risk of incontinence in subjects. Many of suspected variables including socio-demographic factors, diseases, nutritional minerals, blood components and body weight were non-relevant factors to urinary incontinence in respondents. Constipation increased the risk of urinary incontinence in subjects, and increase in dietary monounsaturated fat and plasma triglyceride levels decreased the risk.

  9. [A survey on urinary incontinence in the institutionalized elderly].

    PubMed

    Homma, Y; Takai, K; Takahashi, S; Higashihara, E; Aso, Y; Urushibara, A

    1992-08-01

    A survey on urinary incontinence in 161 (41 male, 120 female) institutionalized elderly was independently performed by urologists and attending nurses. Urinary incontinence was found in 107 cases (66%), with 76 cases (47%) suffering from severe leakage (more than 5 times a day and needs diaper). The prevalences of incontinence and severe leakage were 63% and 52% at geriatric hospitals, 59% and 29% at intermediate care centers and 78% and 63% at nursing homes, respectively. The risk factors for incontinence were consciousness disturbance, urinary urgency, impaired mobility and dementia, and those for severe leakage were apathy, loss of urinary sensation, dementia and impaired mobility. The type of incontinence was considered functional one in 81% of cases. The agreement of the incontinence type evaluated by urologists and that by nurses was found in 90% of incontinent cases. Incontinence was estimated "incurable" in 54% of cases by attending nurses. These observations indicate a high prevalence of severe and "incurable" incontinence in the institutionalized elderly, urgently warranting an effective remedy for the increasing aged society.

  10. Urinary incontinence in the aged, Part 2: Management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, P; Fuentevilla-Clifton, A

    1992-06-01

    Treatments for urge incontinence associated with uninhibited bladder contractions include medications with anticholinergic and smooth muscle relaxant properties as well as habit training, bladder retraining, contingency therapy, and biofeedback. Pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises improve stress incontinence in 60 to 90% of female patients. For patients who fail to improve with pelvic floor exercises, a combination of an alpha-adrenergic agent and conjugated estrogen is recommended. Surgery is particularly effective in elderly women with significant pelvic prolapse. Management of overflow incontinence requires surgery or intermittent/chronic catheterization. Functional incontinence may be improved with correction of the underlying disorder and availability of a motivated caregiver.

  11. The Challenge of Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Graham

    1989-01-01

    By 2021 Canada will have an enormous population older than 65 years of age. Before the wholesale introduction of programs for seniors with urinary incontinence, careful evaluation of present treatments and the extent to which they can usefully be applied in the community is necessary. We need more information about the diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in the elderly and about both patient and caregiver compliance with treatment for urinary incontinence. There is a great need for research on the efficiency of programs targeted at the incontinent group and for community surveys to reassess the problem's long-term consequences. PMID:21249070

  12. German version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire for urinary incontinence health related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Christian; Lehr, Dirk; Janhsen, Ellen; Steuber, Christian; Gäbel, Elisabeth; von Gontard, Alexander; Bachmann, Hannsjörg

    2009-10-01

    We translated and cross-culturally adapted the English version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire, and tested the reliability and validity of the German version. This cross-sectional study was done at 3 tertiary referral centers for childhood urinary incontinence. The self-reported and proxy English version was translated and cross-culturally adapted. From July 2007 to April 2008 we evaluated the German version in 91 boys and 54 girls with a mean +/- SD age of 9.3 +/- 2.2 years (range 6 to 18) with nonneurogenic urinary incontinence and in their parents. For concurrent criterion related validity, the German questionnaire scales were compared with those of the DCGM-10/-12. On reliability testing of the self-reported and proxy German versions Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 and 0.86, respectively. Interrater convergence between the self-reported and proxy versions showed an ICC of 0.81. Reproducibility was satisfactory for the self-reported and proxy versions (ICC 0.77, 95% CI 0.77-0.90 and 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-0.84, respectively). German version scores correlated with DCGM-10/-12 scores (self-report and proxy r = -0.71 and -0.69, respectively). Mean German version total scores were 23.0 in boys and 23.9 in girls. Except for a slight significant association between age and German version total score in the proxy version (p = 0.01), age, sex and incontinence type or severity (number of wet days/nights per 14 days) were not significantly associated with German version total scores. The German version of the Pediatric Incontinence Questionnaire is a valid and reliable outcome measure to assess health related quality of life in children and adolescents with urinary incontinence.

  13. Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric: development and initial validation of a urinary incontinence instrument for the older pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Caleb P; Park, John M; Bloom, David A; Wan, Julian; Dunn, Rodney L; Wei, John T

    2007-10-01

    Although urinary incontinence is common in children, no validated pediatric instruments exist for measuring urinary incontinence symptoms and bother. We developed and validated a patient reported pediatric survey for urinary incontinence measurement. The Incontinence Symptom Index-Pediatric is an 11-item instrument comprising 2 domains, that is 1) impairment and 2) symptom severity, including subdomains for stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, insensate urinary incontinence, nocturnal urinary incontinence and pad use. The survey was self-administered twice, 2 weeks apart, to boys and girls ages 11 to 17 years. Children completed the survey independently. Cases consisted of patients presenting to pediatric urology clinic with the chief complaint of urinary incontinence. Controls consisted of healthy children presenting for evaluation up at a general pediatric practice. Formal validation analysis was performed. A total of 19 subjects per arm completed at least 1 survey. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 for the complete instrument. Item-scale correlations were greater than 0.60 for all except 1 item. Test-retest reliability was also good (r = 0.97, p <0.0001). Discriminative validity was good with a total severity scale score of 9.3 in wet children and 0.7 in controls (p <0.0001). Impairment scale scores differed by 2.2 points (p <0.0001). Mean scores differed significantly between subscales for all domains except pad use. The most dramatic difference was in the urge urinary incontinence domain, which differed by a mean of 3.6 points (p = 0.0002). This pilot study provides initial validation of a survey instrument for urinary incontinence in children and adolescents. This instrument can be used in children ages 11 to 17 years to objectively and reproducibly measure patient reported urinary incontinence.

  14. Pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence 15-23 years after first delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Volløyhaug, I; Mørkved, S; Salvesen, Ø; Salvesen, Kå

    2015-06-01

    To study the association between pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) and mode of delivery and to calculate the risks of PFD comparing caesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery to normal vaginal delivery 15-23 years after childbirth. A subgroup analysis comparing forceps and vacuum delivery was planned. Cross-sectional study. Postal questionnaire. 1641 (53%) of 3115 women who delivered their first child in Trondheim, Norway, between January 1990 and December 1997. A questionnaire including questions on symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence and surgery for these conditions. Prevalence of PFD measured by symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse or surgery (sPOP), urinary incontinence or surgery (UI) and fecal incontinence or surgery (FI). When caesarean delivery was compared to normal vaginal delivery the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for sPOP was 0.42 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.21-0.86) and the aOR for UI was 0.65 (95% CI 0.46-0.92). Operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased risk of sPOP (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.48) and FI (aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.26-3.06) when compared with normal vaginal delivery. There were no differences in sPOP, UI or FI in a subgroup analysis comparing forceps and vacuum delivery. Caesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk and operative vaginal delivery with increased risk of pelvic floor dysfunction 15-23 years after first delivery, but there were no differences between forceps and vacuum delivery. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Thermotolerant non-fecal source Klebsiella pneumoniae: validity of the fecal coliform test in recreational waters.

    PubMed Central

    Caplenas, N R; Kanarek, M S

    1984-01-01

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermotolerant K. pneumoniae was falsely identified as fecal source bacteria. Since there is a lack of specificity in the currently used standard for fecal coliform evaluation, a more reliable health risk assessment for fecal coliform bacteria is recommended. PMID:6388365

  16. Clinical course of a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence symptoms followed at a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Lebl, Adrienne; Fagundes, Simone Nascimento; Koch, Vera Hermina Kalika

    2016-01-01

    To characterize a cohort of children with non-neurogenic daytime urinary incontinence followed-up in a tertiary center. Retrospective analysis of 50 medical records of children who had attained bladder control or minimum age of 5 years, using a structured protocol that included lower urinary tract dysfunction symptoms, comorbidities, associated manifestations, physical examination, voiding diary, complementary tests, therapeutic options, and clinical outcome, in accordance with the 2006 and 2014 International Children's Continence Society standardizations. Female patients represented 86.0% of this sample. Mean age was 7.9 years and mean follow-up was 4.7 years. Urgency (56.0%), urgency incontinence (56.0%), urinary retention (8.0%), nocturnal enuresis (70.0%), urinary tract infections (62.0%), constipation (62.0%), and fecal incontinence (16.0%) were the most prevalent symptoms and comorbidities. Ultrasound examinations showed alterations in 53.0% of the cases; the urodynamic study showed alterations in 94.7%. At the last follow-up, 32.0% of patients persisted with urinary incontinence. When assessing the diagnostic methods, 85% concordance was observed between the predictive diagnosis of overactive bladder attained through medical history plus non-invasive exams and the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity achieved through the invasive urodynamic study. This subgroup of patients with clinical characteristics of an overactive bladder, with no history of urinary tract infection, and normal urinary tract ultrasound and uroflowmetry, could start treatment without invasive studies even at a tertiary center. Approximately one-third of the patients treated at the tertiary level remained refractory to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. School Experiences of an Adolescent with Medical Complexities Involving Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filce, Hollie Gabler; Bishop, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The educational implications of chronic illnesses which involve incontinence are not well represented in the literature. The experiences of an adolescent with multiple complex illnesses, including incontinence, were explored via an intrinsic case study. Data were gathered from the adolescent, her mother, and teachers through interviews, email…

  18. The Management of Urinary Incontinence by Community-Living Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitteness, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored ways elderly people (N=30) manage urinary incontinence. Subjects tended to dismiss their urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging and used various behavioral and psychological strategies to maintain their independence, usually without any assistance from the health professions. Management strategies commonly involved some degree of…

  19. Urinary incontinence in the bitch: an update.

    PubMed

    Reichler, I M; Hubler, M

    2014-06-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the filling phase of the bladder (Abrams et al. 2002), is a commonly seen problem in veterinary practice. Urinary sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) after spaying is the most common micturition disorder, and its medical treatment is normally successful, even though the underlying pathophysiological mechanism is not fully understood. Hormonal changes inducing structural and functional alterations in the bladder, as well as in the urethra composition, are discussed. To manage incontinent patients successfully, possible underlying abnormalities besides USMI should be ruled out. In the majority of cases, history, physical examination and simple tests including urinalysis and urine bacterial culture lead to a presumed aetiology. If USMI is the most likely cause, then the advantage of further diagnostic tests should be discussed with the owner before starting a trial therapy with alpha-adrenergic drugs. Potential side effects of this therapy have to be mentioned even though they rarely occur. It is important to thoroughly evaluate the success of the initial treatment. Its failure should lead to further diagnostic testing. Specialized clinical assessments may provide an aetiological diagnosis, and this could serve as a basis for discussing further treatment options. Surgical procedures, which may in rare cases cause irreversible side effects, may be instituted. If incontinence reoccurs after initial treatment was successfully performed, the diagnostic work-up including urinalysis should always be repeated. As results of urinalysis did not correlate well with results of bacterial culture, a urine culture is recommended (Comer and Ling 1981). Cystocentesis is the preferred method of urine collection (Bartges 2004). Equivocal results of quantitative cultures of urine samples obtained during midstream voiding or by catheterization require repeat collection by cystocentesis (Comer and Ling 1981).

  20. Surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sumit; Salle, Joao Luiz Pippi

    2013-08-01

    The surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder and congenital anomalies is challenging, and continues to evolve with new surgical innovations. The goal of these surgical procedures is to achieve complete and socially acceptable urinary dryness, while preserving volitional voiding where possible, without causing damage to the upper tracts. This review focuses on recent studies and highlights the pros and cons of these advances, based on our experience. The short-term success in achieving urinary continence has to be tempered with the long-term implications of these reconstructive procedures, about which our knowledge is limited.

  1. Promoting social continence using incontinence management products.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Lindsay

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem which affects men and women for a variety of reasons. For some people with UI cure is not achievable. For others, time is required to accurately diagnose and treat their urinary symptoms. In order to improve quality of life for people with UI, health professionals require awareness of the products available to achieve social continence. Continence products and devices fall into three categories: collective devices, containment products and occlusive devices. This article provides a brief overview of the more common products available and discusses some of the common benefits and drawbacks to their use.

  2. Parturition events and risk of urinary incontinence in later life.

    PubMed

    Thom, David H; Brown, Jeanette S; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona I; Creasman, Jennifer M; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between specific events during vaginal deliveries and urinary incontinence later in life. A retrospective cohort study of 1,521 middle-aged and older women with at least one vaginal delivery who were long-term members of an integrated health delivery system. Age, race/ethnicity, current incontinence status, medical, surgical history, pregnancy and parturition history, menopausal status, hormone replacement, health habits, and general health were obtained by questionnaire. Labor and delivery records, archived since 1948, were abstracted by professional medical record abstractors to obtain parturition events including induction, length of labor stages, type of anesthesia, episiotomy, instrumental delivery, and birth weight. The primary dependent variable was current weekly urinary incontinence (once per week or more often) versus urinary incontinence less than monthly (including no incontinence) in past 12 months. Associations of parturition events and later incontinence were assessed in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 56 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, weekly urinary incontinence significantly associated with age at first birth (P = 0.036), greatest birth weight (P = 0.005), and ever having been induced for labor (OR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.06-2.16, P = 0.02). Risk of incontinence increased from OR = 1.35 (95%CI = 0.92-1.97, P = 0.12) for women with one induction to OR = 2.67 (95%CI = 1.25-5.71, P = 0.01) for women with two or more inductions (P = 0.01 for trend). No other parturition factors were associated with incontinence. Younger age at first birth, greatest birth weight, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of incontinence in later life. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parturition Events and Risk of Urinary Incontinence in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.; Schembri, Michael; Ragins, Arona I.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between specific events during vaginal deliveries and urinary incontinence later in life. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1521 middle-aged and older women with at least 1 vaginal delivery who were long-term members of an integrated health delivery system. Age, race/ethnicity, current incontinence status, medical, surgical history, pregnancy and parturition history, menopausal status, hormone replacement, health habits, and general health were obtained by questionnaire. Labor and delivery records, archived since 1948, were abstracted by professional medical record abstractors to obtain parturition events including induction, length of labor stages, type of anesthesia, episiotomy, instrumental delivery, and birth weight. The primary dependent variable was current weekly urinary incontinence (once per week or more often) vs urinary incontinence less than monthly (including no incontinence) in past 12 months. Associations of parturition events and later incontinence were assessed in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Results The mean age of participants was 56 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, weekly urinary incontinence significantly associated with age at first birth (p=.036), greatest birth weight (p=.005), and ever having been induced for labor (OR=1.51; 95% CI=1.06–2.16, p=.02). Risk of incontinence increased from OR=1.35 (95% CI=0.92–1.97, p=0.12) for women with one induction to OR=2.67 (95% CI= 1.25–5.71, p=.01) for women with 2 or more inductions (p=0.01 for trend). No other parturition factors were associated with incontinence. Conclusions Younger age at first birth, greatest birth weight, and induction of labor were associated with an increased risk of incontinence in later life. PMID:21780171

  4. Women with Diabetes: Understanding Urinary Incontinence and Help Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Ashmi M.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Morrill, Michelle Y.; Schembri, Michael; Thom, David H.; Brown, Jeanette S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of urinary incontinence by diabetes status and race and evaluate beliefs and help-seeking around incontinence in a population-based cohort of women with and without diabetes. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,270 middle-aged and older racially/ethnically diverse women in Diabetes RRISK. Incontinence, help-seeking behavior, and beliefs were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in-person interviews. Incontinence characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics were compared using univariate analysis and multivariate models. Results Women with diabetes reported weekly incontinence significantly more than women without diabetes (Weekly: 35.4% vs. 25.7%, respectively, p <0.001). Race prevalence patterns were similar (white and Latina women with the most prevalent incontinence and African-American and Asian women with the least) among women with and without diabetes. Less than 50% of women with diabetes discussed their incontinence with a doctor (42.2% vs. 55.5% (of women without diabetes) p <0.003). Women with diabetes were more likely than women without diabetes to report believing that incontinence is a rare condition (17% vs. 6%, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Incontinence is highly prevalent among women with diabetes. Race prevalence patterns are similar among women with and without diabetes. Understanding help-seeking behaviors are important to ensure appropriate care for patients. Physicians should be alert for urinary incontinence because it is often unrecognized and thereby under-treated among women with diabetes. PMID:20727547

  5. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient’s gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  6. Informatics in radiology: dual-energy electronic cleansing for fecal-tagging CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenli; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, June-Goo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    Electronic cleansing (EC) is an emerging technique for the removal of tagged fecal materials at fecal-tagging computed tomographic (CT) colonography. However, existing EC methods may generate various types of artifacts that severely impair the quality of the cleansed CT colonographic images. Dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonography is regarded as a next-generation imaging modality. EC that makes use of dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonographic images promises to be effective in reducing cleansing artifacts by means of applying the material decomposition capability of dual-energy CT. The dual-energy index (DEI), which is calculated from the relative change in the attenuation values of a material at two different photon energies, is a reliable and effective indicator for differentiating tagged fecal materials from various types of tissues on fecal-tagging CT colonographic images. A DEI-based dual-energy EC scheme uses the DEI to help differentiate the colonic lumen-including the luminal air, tagged fecal materials, and air-tagging mixture-from the colonic soft-tissue structures, and then segments the entire colonic lumen for cleansing of the tagged fecal materials. As a result, dual-energy EC can help identify partial-volume effects in the air-tagging mixture and inhomogeneous tagging in residual fecal materials, the major causes of EC artifacts. This technique has the potential to significantly improve the quality of EC and promises to provide images of a cleansed colon that are free of the artifacts commonly observed with conventional single-energy EC methods.

  7. Informatics in Radiology: Dual-Energy Electronic Cleansing for Fecal-Tagging CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, June-Goo; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cleansing (EC) is an emerging technique for the removal of tagged fecal materials at fecal-tagging computed tomographic (CT) colonography. However, existing EC methods may generate various types of artifacts that severely impair the quality of the cleansed CT colonographic images. Dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonography is regarded as a next-generation imaging modality. EC that makes use of dual-energy fecal-tagging CT colonographic images promises to be effective in reducing cleansing artifacts by means of applying the material decomposition capability of dual-energy CT. The dual-energy index (DEI), which is calculated from the relative change in the attenuation values of a material at two different photon energies, is a reliable and effective indicator for differentiating tagged fecal materials from various types of tissues on fecal-tagging CT colonographic images. A DEI-based dual-energy EC scheme uses the DEI to help differentiate the colonic lumen—including the luminal air, tagged fecal materials, and air-tagging mixture—from the colonic soft-tissue structures, and then segments the entire colonic lumen for cleansing of the tagged fecal materials. As a result, dual-energy EC can help identify partial-volume effects in the air-tagging mixture and inhomogeneous tagging in residual fecal materials, the major causes of EC artifacts. This technique has the potential to significantly improve the quality of EC and promises to provide images of a cleansed colon that are free of the artifacts commonly observed with conventional single-energy EC methods. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23479680

  8. Natural progression of anal incontinence after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Nordenstam, Johan; Altman, Daniel; Brismar, Sophia; Zetterström, Jan

    2009-09-01

    The aim of work is to study the natural progression of anal incontinence (AI) in women 10 years after their first delivery and to identify risk factors associated with persistent AI. A prospective cohort study of 304 primiparous women with singleton, cephalic delivery giving vaginal childbirth in 1995. Questionnaires distributed and collected at delivery, 9 months, 5 years and 10 years after, assessing anorectal symptoms, subsequent treatment, and obstetrical events. Women, 246 of 304, answered all questionnaires (81%). Thirty-five of 246 (14%) had a sphincter tear at the first delivery. One hundred ninety-six of 246 (80%) women had additional vaginal deliveries and no caesarean sections. The prevalence of AI at 10 years after the first delivery was 57% in women with a sphincter tear and 28% in women, a nonsignificant increase compared to the 5-year follow-up. Women who sustained a sphincter tear at the first delivery had an increased risk of severe AI (RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-11.8). Neither age, nor subsequent deliveries added to the risk. Severe AI at baseline and 5 years after delivery were independently strong predictors of severe AI at 10 years (RR 12.6, CI 3.3-48.3, and RR 8.3, CI 3.9-17.8, respectively). Persistent anal incontinence 10 years after the first parturition is frequent and sometimes severe, especially if vaginal delivery was complicated by an anal sphincter disruption.

  9. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen.

  10. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-05-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. [Transobturator slings for female stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana; Jesus, André; Carvalho, Maria; Carvalho, Giselda; Marques, João; Falcão, Francisco; Torgal, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A incontinência urinária de esforço afeta 20 a 40% das mulheres. Os slings colocados sob a uretra média, aplicados por via transobturadora, são a terapêutica consensualmente aceite na atualidade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia e possíveis complicações associadas à aplicação dos slings colocados por via transobturadora no tratamento da incontinência urinária de esforço. Material e Métodos: Avaliaram-se retrospetivamente 363 doentes submetidas a cirurgia de incontinência urinária de esforço por via transobturadora, nos Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, no período de 1 Janeiro de 2008 a 1 Julho de 2010. Resultados: A média das idades das doentes foi de 56 anos [28-86]. Além da correção da incontinência urinária de esforço, em 13,5% das mulheres foi associada outra cirurgia vaginal. A maioria (95,3%) das mulheres apresentou hipermobilidade da uretra. Ocorreram complicações per-operatórias em 0,8%, complicações pós-operatórias imediatas em 5,2% e complicações pós-operatórias tardias em 15,7%. A taxa de sucesso global foi de 93,7%. A taxa de sucesso nas doentes com uretra fixa foi 77,8%, verificando-se melhores resultados (94,5%) naquelas com hipermobilidade da uretra (p = 0,02). A taxa de sucesso foi comparável nas doentes com e sem cirurgias vaginais associadas. Discussão: As técnicas transobturadoras têm taxas de sucesso elevadas, tendo-se tornado o tratamento de primeira linha para as doentes com IUE, independentemente se tratadas pela técnica outside-in (TOT®) ou pela inside-out (TVT-O®). Ambas as técnicas foram concebidas com o intuito de evitar a passagem no espaço retropúbico, reduzindo assim o número de complicações. Conclusão: As taxas de cura para as abordagens transobturadoras oscilam entre 80 e 95%. A taxa de cura aumenta quando o mecanismo responsável pela incontinência urinária de esforço é a hipermobilidade da uretra

  12. Surgery for faecal incontinence in adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven R; Wadhawan, Himanshu; Nelson, Richard L

    2010-09-08

    Faecal incontinence is a debilitating problem with significant medical, social and economic implications. Treatment options include conservative, non-operative interventions (e.g. pelvic floor muscle training, biofeedback, drugs) and surgical procedures. A surgical procedure may be aimed at correcting an obvious mechanical defect, or augmenting a functionally deficient but structurally intact sphincter complex. To assess the effects of surgical techniques for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults who do not have rectal prolapse. Our aim was firstly to compare surgical management with non-surgical management and secondly, to compare the various surgical techniques. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 26 November 2009), the Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Specialised Register (searched 26 November 2009), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009) and EMBASE (1 January 1998 to 30 June 2009) were undertaken. The British Journal of Surgery (1 January 1995 to 30 June 2009) Colorectal Diseases (1 January 2000 to 30 June 2009) and the Diseases of the Colon and Rectum (1 January 1995 to 30 June 2009) were specifically handsearched. The proceedings of the UK Association of Coloproctology meeting held from 1999 to 2009 were perused. Reference lists of all relevant articles were searched for further trials. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of surgery in the management of adult faecal incontinence (other than surgery for rectal prolapse). Three reviewers independently selected studies from the literature, assessed the methodological quality of eligible trials and extracted data. The three primary outcome measures were: change or deterioration in incontinence, failure to achieve full continence, and the presence of faecal urgency. Thirteen trials were included with a total sample size of 440 participants. Two trials included a group managed non-surgically. One trial compared levator with anal plug electrostimulation

  13. Increasing costs of urinary incontinence among female Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Anger, Jennifer T; Saigal, Christopher S; Madison, Rodger; Joyce, Geoffrey; Litwin, Mark S

    2006-07-01

    We measured the financial burden of urinary incontinence in the United States from 1992 to 1998 among women 65 years old or older. We analyzed Medicare claims for 1992, 1995 and 1998 and estimated spending on the treatment of urinary incontinence. Total costs were stratified by type of service (inpatient, outpatient and emergency department). Costs of urinary incontinence among older women nearly doubled between 1992 and 1998 in nominal dollars, from $128 million to $234 million, primarily due to increases in physician office visits and ambulatory surgery. The cost of inpatient services increased only slightly during the period. The increase in total spending was due almost exclusively to the increase in the number of women treated for incontinence. After adjusting for inflation, per capita treatment costs decreased about 15% during the study. This shift from inpatient to outpatient care likely reflects the general shift of surgical procedures to the outpatient setting, as well as the advent of new minimally invasive incontinence procedures. In addition, increased awareness of incontinence and the marketing of new drugs for its treatment, specifically anticholinergic medication for overactive bladder symptoms, may have increased the number of office visits. While claims based Medicare expenditures are substantial, they do not include the costs of pads or medications and, therefore, underestimate the true financial burden of incontinence on the aging community.

  14. The experience of flatus incontinence from a bowel ostomy: a hermeneutic phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Annells, Merilyn

    2006-01-01

    To interpret and present possible meanings in the stories of people with bowel ostomies about their experience of impact of flatus incontinence on their life and being. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided by a Gadamerian perspective. Six people with a bowel ostomy were recruited from a city in Australia. In-depth, nonstructured interviews generated rich text. Interviews were videotaped. A variety of interpretive, hermeneutic techniques were applied for text interpretation Nine existential themes of meaning emerged: I am undignified, I am a secret, I am always with gas, I am not myself alone, I am without choice, I am a seeker of control, I am the smell, I am not normal, and I am living a life-sort of. Through symbiotic interpretation, writing, and re-writing, themes were encompassed in a short story: a creative synthesis of actual events and interpreted understandings for ostomates about possible meanings of experiencing flatus incontinence. Flatus incontinence for people with bowel ostomies can be quite discommoding and impact on their interactions, self-image, sexuality, social activity, and psychological well-being. Nurses need to understand this for empathetic interaction, patient assessment, intervention selection, research planning, and pertinent education.

  15. Management of urinary incontinence in women: scientific review.

    PubMed

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Straus, Sharon E

    2004-02-25

    Urinary incontinence is a common health problem among women that negatively impacts quality of life. Therefore, it is important that primary care physicians have an understanding of how to manage urinary incontinence effectively. To review the most recent, high-quality evidence regarding the etiology and management of urinary incontinence in women. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the ACP Journal Club were performed to identify English-language articles published between 1998-2003 that focused on the etiology or treatment of urinary incontinence in adult women. The references of each retrieved article were reviewed and an expert in the field was contacted to identify additional relevant articles. Using a combination of more than 80 search terms, we included articles of etiology that were cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, or systematic reviews of cohort, case-control, and/or cross-sectional studies. Studies of treatment had to be randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials. The quality of each article was assessed independently by each author and inclusion (n = 66) was determined by consensus. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with urinary incontinence, some of which are amenable to modification. Factors associated with incontinence include age, white race, higher educational attainment, pregnancy-related factors, gynecological factors, urological and gastrointestinal tract factors, comorbid diseases, higher body mass index, medications, smoking, caffeine, and functional impairment. There are several effective nonpharmacological treatments including pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, bladder training, and prompted voiding. Anticholinergic drugs are effective in the treatment of urge urinary incontinence. Several surgical interventions are effective in the management of stress incontinence, including open retropubic colposuspension and

  16. Urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Valdevenito, J P; Águila, F; Naser, M; Manríquez, V; Wenzel, C; Díaz, J P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the results of urodynamic study in women with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms, including the characteristics of the overactive detrusor. No other clinical assessments were taken into account. A retrospective study in women with urinary incontinence consecutively evaluated by urodynamic study. From a total of 710 women, only 108 (15%) with pure stress urinary incontinence symptoms were selected. Women with prior urinary incontinence surgery, pelvic organ prolapse (stage ≥iii), pelvic radiotherapy, using medication active on the lower urinary tract and neurological diseases were excluded. Infusion rate was 70 ml/min. Detrusor overactivity was induced only by cough. A standardized cough stress test with progressive cough intensity was carried out. Reference urodynamic values for stress incontinent women are described. Urodynamic stress incontinence was observed in 79 women (73.1%), detrusor overactivity in 4 (3.7%) and mixed urodynamic diagnosis in 15 (13.8%). Test was inconclusive in 10 patients (9.2%). Two women had detrusor overactivity incontinence (1.9%). One patient had detrusor overactivity induced by cough without urodynamic stress incontinence (0.9%). There was an association between detrusor overactivity and nocturia ≥2 (P=.002; odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.39). One woman had a bladder outlet obstruction (0.9%). In women with pure stress urinary incontinence, without knowing the outcome of other clinical assessments, urodynamic study can provide useful information to define the proper therapy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis: literature review.

    PubMed

    Beeckman, Dimitri; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Heyneman, Alexander; Defloor, Tom

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a review conducted to describe the current evidence about the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis and to formulate recommendations for clinical practice and research. Incontinence-associated dermatitis is a common problem in patients with incontinence. It is a daily challenge for healthcare professionals to maintain a healthy skin in patients with incontinence. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, reference lists and conference proceedings were explored up to September 2008. Publications were included if they reported research on the prevention and treatment of incontinence-associated dermatitis. As little consensus about terminology was found, a very sensitive filter was developed. Study design was not used as a selection criterion due to the explorative character of the review and the scarce literature. Thirty-six publications, dealing with 25 different studies, were included. The implementation of a structured perineal skin care programme including skin cleansing and the use of a moisturizer is suggested. A skin protectant is recommended for patients considered at risk of incontinence-associated dermatitis development. Perineal skin cleansers are preferable to using water and soap. Skin care is suggested after each incontinence episode, particularly if faeces are present. The quality of methods in the included studies was low. Incontinence-associated dermatitis can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. Prevention and treatment should also focus on a proper use of incontinence containment materials. Further research is required to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of various interventions.

  18. Vascular incontinence: incontinence in the elderly due to ischemic white matter changes

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Panicker, Jalesh; Fowler, Clare J; Tateno, Fuyuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyuzaki, Yohei; Ogawa, Emina; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    This review article introduces the new concept of vascular incontinence, a disorder of bladder control resulting from cerebral white matter disease (WMD). The concept is based on the original observation in 1999 of a correlation between the severity of leukoareosis or WMD, urinary symptoms, gait disorder and cognitive impairment. Over the last 20 years, the realization that WMD is not a benign incidental finding in the elderly has become generally accepted and several studies have pointed to an association between geriatric syndromes and this type of pathology. The main brunt of WMD is in the frontal regions, a region recognized to be crucial for bladder control. Other disorders should be excluded, both neurological and urological, such as normal-pressure hydrocephalus, progressive supranuclear palsy, etc., and prostatic hyperplasia, physical stress incontinence, nocturnal polyuria, etc. Treatment involves management of small vessel disease risk factors and anticholinergic drugs that do not easily penetrate the blood brain barrier to improve bladder control. PMID:23139851

  19. Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Mixed Urinary Incontinence in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Laor, Leanna; Dunphy, Claire; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) is a common clinical problem in the community and hospital setting. The broad definition of the term makes it difficult to diagnose, as well as determine effective treatment strategies. There are no current guidelines recommended for physicians. The estimated prevalence of this condition is approximately 30% in all women with incontinence. It has also been suggested that patients with MUI report more bothersome symptoms than either stress or urge incontinence; approximately 32% of 40- to 64-year-olds with MUI report symptoms of depression. The authors examine the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of patients with MUI. PMID:27222643

  20. Expert system for management of urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this nursing informatics and outcomes research study was to determine the effectiveness of an expert system for disseminating knowledge to ambulatory women health care consumers with urinary incontinence. Clinical knowledge from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) patient guideline for urinary incontinence and research literature for behavioral treatments provided the knowledge base for the expert system. Two experimental groups (booklet and expert system) and one control group were utilized. Study results suggest the use of an expert system as one effective communication means for disseminating clinical information in an advisory capacity to ambulatory women with urinary incontinence. PMID:8563340

  1. Kegel's exercises with biofeedback therapy for treatment of stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Burns, P A; Marecki, M A; Dittmar, S S; Bullough, B

    1985-02-01

    True stress incontinence due to a weakened pelvic floor is one of the most frequently cited urologic complaints of multiparous women past age 40. One treatment modality currently used to treat stress incontinence is exercising the pubococcygeus muscle. Combining biofeedback therapy with a vaginal probe (perineometer) helps patients identify the muscle, provides immediate feedback and assists the nurse and patient in assessing problem resolution. This article describes an intervention program using biofeedback, and measured Kegel's exercises on a small number of women with symptoms of stress incontinence. The lessening of symptoms became a major factor in continued compliance with the exercise program.

  2. Review of current technologies for urinary incontinence: strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Fader, M

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of continence products is available, and this paper focuses on products to prevent incontinence (such as urinals and commodes) and to contain or manage urinary incontinence (such as absorbent pads, penile sheaths and urethral catheters). Drawing on results from published clinical evaluations at the Continence Product Evaluation Network at UCL and at other centres, the strengths and limitations of the major categories of incontinence products currently on the market are reviewed. It is concluded that, although products for continence have improved considerably over the last 20 years, there is considerable scope for the designer and engineer to improve on current products.

  3. [The artificial sphincter: therapy for faecal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, U

    2012-08-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) challenges a patient's professional, social and sexual life. Often the patient becomes depressive and socially isolated. If able to break open for therapy the patient should receive as first line a conservative treatment (like dietary measures, pelvic re-education, biofeedback, bulking agents, irrigation). When is the time to implant an artificial anal sphincter? If conservative therapy fails as well as surgical options (like a sphincteroplasty - if indicated a reconstruction of the pelvic floor if insufficient, or a sacral nerve stimulation) an ultimo surgical procedure should be offered to appropriate and compliant patients: an artificial anal sphincter. Worldwide, there are two established devices on the market: the artificial bowel sphincter® (ABS) from A. M. S. (Minnetonka, MN, USA) and the soft anal band® from A. M. I. (Feldkirch, Austria). How to implant the artificial anal sphincter? Both devices consist of a silicon cuff which can be filled with fluid. Under absolute aseptic conditions this cuff is placed in the lithotomy position by perianal incisions around the anal canal below the pelvic floor. A silicon tube connects the anal cuff with a reservoir (containing fluid) which is placed either behind the pubis bone in front of the bladder (ABS) or below the costal arch (anal band). With a pump placed in the scrotum/labia (ABS) or by pressing the balloon (anal band) in both types operated by the patient the fluid is shifted forth and back between the anal cuff and the reservoir closing or opening the anal canal. Both systems are placed completely subcutaneously. Both devices improve significantly the anal continence. Both systems have a high rate of reoperations. However, the causes for the redos are different. The ABS is associated with high infection and anal penetration rates of the cuff leading to an explantation rate to up to 60 % of the implants. This kind of complication seems to be much lower with the anal band. The major

  4. Effects of urinary incontinence on psychosocial outcomes in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Grzeda, Mariusz T; Heron, Jon; von Gontard, Alexander; Joinson, Carol

    2016-12-10

    To examine whether daytime wetting and bedwetting urinary incontinence (UI) in childhood and adolescence are associated with psychosocial problems in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine the association between trajectories of UI from 4 to 9 years and self-reported psychosocial problems in adolescence (13-14 years) including depressive symptoms, peer victimisation, poor self-image and school experiences (negative perception of school and teachers, problems with peer relationships). Sample sizes ranged from 5162 (perception of teachers) to 5887 (self-image). We also examined associations between self-reported UI at 14 years and psychosocial problems. Relative to normative development, adolescents who experienced delayed development of bladder control had poorer self-image [standardised mean difference = 0.18 (95% CI 0.04, 0.32)], more negative perceptions of school [0.18 (0.02, 0.34)] and more problems with peer relationships at school [0.25 (0.10, 0.40)]. Persistent wetting (bedwetting with daytime wetting) in childhood was associated with increased problems with peer relationships in adolescence [0.19 (0.03, 0.34)]. The strongest associations between adolescent UI and psychosocial problems were found for daytime wetting (reference = no UI at 14 years): depressive symptoms [OR = 3.04 (95% CI 1.91-4.84)], peer victimisation [2.14 (1.48-3.10)], poor self-image (t = -8.49, p < 0.001) and problems with peer relationships (t = -4.69, p < 0.001). Children with delayed development of bladder control and persistent wetting have increased psychosocial problems in adolescence. Adolescents with UI reported a range of psychosocial problems and clinicians should be aware that they might require support from psychological services.

  5. Animal Models of Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common health problem significantly affecting the quality of life of women worldwide. Animal models that simulate SUI enable the assessment of the mechanism of risk factors for SUI in a controlled fashion, including childbirth injuries, and enable preclinical testing of new treatments and therapies for SUI. Animal models that simulate childbirth are presently being utilized to determine the mechanisms of the maternal injuries of childbirth that lead to SUI with the goal of developing prophylactic treatments. Methods of assessing SUI in animals that mimic diagnostic methods used clinically have been developed to evaluate the animal models. Use of these animal models to test innovative treatment strategies has the potential to improve clinical management of SUI. This chapter provides a review of the available animal models of SUI, as well as a review of the methods of assessing SUI in animal models, and potential treatments that have been tested on these models. PMID:21290221

  6. Managing faecal retention and incontinence in neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E; Cowan, P; Stokes, M

    The large number of patients with faecal retention and/or incontinence in continuing care wards and rehabilitation units presents a considerable challenge. In order to maintain dignity and minimize the unpleasant odour so commonly associated with these wards and units, effective bowel management should be planned for individual patients. For an effective bowel management regime a team approach should be adopted, involving, where possible, the patient and carer as well as all the health professionals administering the care. Two case studies illustrate the use of assessment and management of bowel problems in patients with severe complex neurodisability. Bowel dysfunction in this patient population, in general, is poorly covered in the literature. The present article, by relating theory to practice, offers information and guidance for nurses working with patients who have bowel-related problems.

  7. Caffeine and urinary incontinence in US women.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Richter, Holly E; Redden, David T; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize associations between caffeine consumption and severity of urinary incontinence (UI) in US women. We hypothesized that moderate and high caffeine intake would be associated with UI in US women when controlling for other factors associated with UI. US women participated in the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey. Using the Incontinence Severity Index, UI was categorized as "any" and "moderate/severe". Types of UI included stress, urge, mixed, and other. Food diaries were completed, and average water (grams/day), total dietary moisture (grams/day), and caffeine (milligrams/day) intake were calculated into quartiles. Stepwise logistic regression models were constructed adjusting for sociodemographics, chronic diseases, body mass index, self-rated health, depression, physical activity, alcohol use, dietary water and moisture intake, and reproductive factors. From the 4,309 nonpregnant women (aged ≥20 years) who had complete UI and dietary data, UI prevalence for any UI was 41.0 % and 16.5 % for moderate/severe UI, with stress UI the most common type (36.6 %). Women consumed a mean caffeine intake of 126.7 mg/day. After adjusting for multiple factors, caffeine intake in the highest quartile (≥204 mg/day) was associated with any UI [prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.47, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.01], but not moderate/severe UI (POR 1.42, 95 % CI 0.98-2.07). Type of UI (stress, urgency, mixed) was not associated with caffeine intake. Caffeine intake ≥204 mg/day was associated with any UI but not with moderate/severe UI in US women.

  8. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Bela I; Shveiky, David; Gutman, Robert E; Jacoby, Vanessa; Sokol, Andrew I; Rodabough, Rebecca; Howard, Barabara V; Blanchette, Patricia; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50-79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic, health/physical forms and personal habit questionnaires were used. Statistical analyses included univariate and logistic regression methods. The baseline UI rate was 66.5 %, with 27.3 % of participants having stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 23 % having urge UI (UUI), and 12.4 % having mixed UI (MUI). 41.8 % of women had undergone hysterectomy, with 88.1 % having had the procedure before age 54. Controlling for health/physical variables, hysterectomy was associated with UI at BL (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.19, 1.32) and over the 3-year study period (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.11, 1.36). Excluding women with UI at BL, a higher incidence of UUI and SUI episodes was found in hysterectomy at year 3. Among women who had undergone hysterectomy, those with bilateral oophorectomy (BSO) did not have increased odds of developing UI at BL or over the 3-year study period. Hormone use was not associated with a change in UI incidence (estrogen + progesterone, p = 0.17; unopposed estrogen, p = 0.41). Risk of UI is increased in postmenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy compared with women with uteri.

  9. [Neurogenic urinary incontinence. Value of surgical management].

    PubMed

    Kutzenberger, J

    2008-06-01

    Damage to the CNS, the cauda equina, and the pelvic nerval structures causes neurogenic bladder dysfunction with neurogenic urinary incontinence (NUI). The definitive diagnosis of NUI is made with urodynamic examination methods. The most frequent cause of NUI is neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The treatment concept must take into account the physical and emotional restrictions. The treatment of NUI due to NDO is a domain of conservative therapy, i.e., mostly antimuscarinics and intermittent catheterization (IC). In about 30%, there is a good chance for therapy failures. An advancement in therapy is the injection of BTX-A into the detrusor. The missing drug approval is a disadvantage.Operative treatments are considered if conservative and minimally invasive therapies are unsuccessful. Sacral deafferentation (SDAF) and sacral anterior root stimulator implantation (SARSI) are available as organ-preserving techniques only for paraplegics with NDO and reflex urinary incontinence and neuromodulation for the other forms of NDO provided that a successful percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) test has previously taken place. Augmentation cystoplasty is indicated if SDAF and neuromodulation cannot be used and the bladder wall is damaged irreversibly by fibrosis. Kidney function of at least 25% and acceptance of IC are prerequisites. Myectomy (autoaugmentation) has an indication similar to augmentation cystoplasty but there must not be any fibrosis. Bladder neck insufficiency (BNI) caused by paralysis or iatrogenically can be treated by the implantation of an alloplastic sphincter high at the bladder neck. A stable reservoir function is required. If not all methods are possible, the ileum conduit or the suprapubic bladder fistula can be the last resort.

  10. Olanzapine as a Cause of Urinary Incontinence: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Lateef Olutoyin; Adegun, Patrick T; Tareo, Peter O

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is one of the most commonly used antipsychotics. Though olanzapine is commonly associated with endocrine side effects, it is generally well tolerated by most patients and is rarely associated with urinary incontinence. This report highlights the case of a 23 -year old male patient with schizophrenia who developed severe urinary incontinence following the use of olanzapine. No medications were given to relieve the incontinence contrary to some other studies where ephedrine was used. Olanzapine was changed to trifluoperazine, and the patient's condition improved within two days. Urinary incontinence, though uncommon, is an embarrassing side effect of olanzapine which could negatively affect drug compliance. As such, clinicians should enquire about it in order to improve the patient's health. PMID:23139697

  11. Consider Acupuncture for Incontinence, Not Certain Infertility Cases

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166898.html Consider Acupuncture for Incontinence, Not Certain Infertility Cases Research yields mixed results for this traditional ... and the other on a cause of female infertility. A research team found acupuncture did improve symptoms ...

  12. Managing faecal incontinence or leakage: the Peristeen Anal Plug.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Willie

    Incontinence can be a devastating problem to many individuals. It is embarrassing and limiting socially, and prevents those with the problem from going about their day-to-day activities. People adopt coping strategies to manage the problem and those with urinary incontinence often look for containment products such as disposable pads or nappy-style products. These products have been developed using different absorbent materials and are accessible to sufferers in local supermarkets. Absorbency of the products has improved so that once wetted, they hold urine more easily. However, the same cannot be said for faecal incontinence management products and there are few that can be called upon to manage this devastating condition. The Peristeen Anal Plug, developed originally as the Conveen Anal Plug, stands alone in the search for a device to manage faecal incontinence or leakage.

  13. What's best--reusable or disposable incontinence products?

    PubMed

    Haeker, S

    1986-05-01

    To use paper or cloth? The director of nursing for a 72-bed intermediate care facility opted to continue using reusable incontinence products based on the results of a three-week study conducted by her staff.

  14. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c<6.5%), ii) those with relatively controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.5–8.5%), and iii) those with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  15. [Sleep and nocturnal incontinence in hospital or institutional care].

    PubMed

    Walk, Eliane; Schwartz, Chantal; Hidot, Nathalie; Mazin, Véronique; Pochon, Sandrine; Renaux-Bouttier, Valérie; Guyon, Anne; Greusard, Claire; Wenger, Isabelle

    A survey carried out in 2004 studied the link between quality of sleep and the nocturnal management of incontinence. This same survey was repeated 10 years later. The results reveal the impact on quality of sleep, the deteriorating management of incontinence with the lenghtening of waiting time and the causes of waking. This discussion process on the quality of sleep must continue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The risk of anal incontinence in obese women.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; Falconer, Christian; Rossner, Stephan; Melin, Ingela

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this study was to estimate the risk of anal incontinence in morbidly obese women and to identify risk factors associated with anal incontinence in an obese population sample. A case-control study based on the registry of a university hospital obesity unit. A consecutive sample of women with body mass index > or = 35 (obesity class II) was randomly matched by age, gender and residential county to control subjects using the computerised Register of the Total Population. Data were collected by a self-reported postal survey including detailed questions on medical and obstetrical history, obesity history, socioeconomic indices, life style factors and the validated Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. The questionnaire was returned by 131/179 (73%) of the cases and 453/892 (51%) of the control subjects. Compared to the control group, obese women reported a significantly increased defecation frequency (p < 0.001), inability to discriminate between flatus and faeces (p < 0.001) and flatus incontinence (p < 0.001). Compared with non-obese women, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for flatus incontinence in morbidly obese women was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.1]. A history of obstetric sphincter injury was independently associated with an increased risk of flatus incontinence (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.0-9.2) and incontinence of loose stools (OR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.4-31.4). Other medical and life style interactions did not remain at significant levels in an adjusted multivariable analysis. Obese women are at increased risk for mild to moderate flatus incontinence.

  17. Fecal transplant policy and legislation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Aekka, Apoorva; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-07

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has garnered significant attention in recent years in the face of a reemerging Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) epidemic. Positive results from the first randomized control trial evaluating FMT have encouraged the medical community to explore the process further and expand its application beyond C. difficile infections and even the gastrointestinal domain. However promising and numerous the prospects of FMT appear, the method remains limited in scope today due to several important barriers, most notably a poorly defined federal regulatory policy. The Food and Drug Administration has found it difficult to standardize and regulate the administration of inherently variable, metabolically active, and ubiquitously available fecal material. The current cumbersome policy, which classifies human feces as a drug, has prevented physicians from providing FMT and deserving patients from accessing FMT in a timely fashion, and subsequent modifications seem only to be temporary. The argument for reclassifying fecal material as human tissue is well supported. Essentially, this would allow for a regulatory framework that is sufficiently flexible to expand access to care and facilitate research, but also appropriately restrictive and centralized to ensure patient safety. Such an approach can facilitate the advancement of FMT to a more refined, controlled, and aesthetic process, perhaps in the form of a customized and well-characterized stool substitute therapy.

  18. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  19. Efficacy of Physiotherapy for Urinary Incontinence following Prostate Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bakuła, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The study enrolled 81 with urinary incontinence following radical prostate-only prostatectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The patients were divided into two groups. The patients in Group I were additionally subdivided into two subgroups with respect to the physiotherapeutic method used. The patients of subgroup IA received a rehabilitation program consisting of three parts. The patients of subgroup IB rehabilitation program consist of two parts. Group II, a control group, had reported for therapy for persistent urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy but had not entered therapy for personal reasons. For estimating the level of incontinence, a 1-hour and 24-hour urinary pad tests, the miction diary, and incontinence questionnaire were used, and for recording the measurements of pelvic floor muscles tension, the sEMG (surface electromyography) was applied. The therapy duration depended on the level of incontinence and it continued for not longer than 12 months. Superior continence outcomes were obtained in Group I versus Group II and the difference was statistically significant. The odds ratio for regaining continence was greater in the rehabilitated Group I and smaller in the group II without the rehabilitation. A comparison of continence outcomes revealed a statistically significant difference between Subgroups IA versus IB. The physiotherapeutic procedures applied on patients with urine incontinence after prostatectomy, for most of them, proved to be an effective way of acting, which is supported by the obtained results. PMID:24868546

  20. Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Male Urinary Incontinence?

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Hirayama, Fumi

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and urinary incontinence among Japanese men. Seven hundred men aged 40-75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual alcohol consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Among the 683 eligible male participants, 49 men (7.2%) experienced urine leakage for the past 2.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.9). Their prevalence of alcohol drinking (beer, sake, shochu, wine, whisky) was lower than others without the condition, even though the daily mean ethanol intakes were similar between the two groups, 31.8 g (SD 45.4) and 31.3 g (SD 41.9), respectively. Relative to non-drinkers, the adjusted odds of urinary incontinence were 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.96) for low ethanol intake, and up to 32 g per day and 0.53 (95% CI 0.22 to 1.28) for drinking, at most, one can (350 mL) of beer daily. However, higher levels of alcohol consumption had no significant benefit in reducing the incontinence risk. The findings suggested an inverse association between urinary incontinence and low alcohol consumption particularly beer in middle-aged and older Japanese men. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Identification of Key Odorants in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Gunnar; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify key odorants in used disposable absorbent incontinence products. DESIGN: Descriptive in vitro study SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Samples of used incontinence products were collected from 8 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area of Sweden. Products were chosen from a larger set of products that had previously been characterized by descriptive odor analysis. METHODS: Pieces of the used incontinence products were cut from the wet area, placed in glass bottles, and kept frozen until dynamic headspace sampling of volatile compounds was completed. Gas chromatography–olfactometry was used to identify which compounds contributed most to the odors in the samples. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Twenty-eight volatiles were found to be key odorants in the used incontinence products. Twenty-six were successfully identified. They belonged to the following classes of chemical compounds: aldehydes (6); amines (1); aromatics (3); isothiocyanates (1); heterocyclics (2); ketones (6); sulfur compounds (6); and terpenes (1). CONCLUSION: Nine of the 28 key odorants were considered to be of particular importance to the odor of the used incontinence products: 3-methylbutanal, trimethylamine, cresol, guaiacol, 4,5-dimethylthiazole-S-oxide, diacetyl, dimethyl trisulfide, 5-methylthio-4-penten-2-ol, and an unidentified compound. PMID:28328644

  2. [Urinary incontinence in the elderly can be treated].

    PubMed

    van Houten, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A recent survey on the use of drugs for incontinence in the elderly stated that only anticholinergic drugs used for urge incontinence have a slight positive effect on incontinence episodes. However, this does not mean that there are no potential treatments for incontinence in the frail elderly. The Dutch surveillance on problems in the care sector, the 'National prevalence survey of care problems' ('Landelijke prevalentiemeting zorgproblemen'), shows that between 2004 and 2014 the prevalence of urinary incontinence dropped from 76% to 49%. This fall in prevalence is due to the policies developed by institutions, and by training for nurses and physicians. Successful treatment begins with assessment of functionality (mobility and cognition), assessment of relevant multimorbidity and reconsideration of the use of drugs with an impact on continence. As a next step, bladder retraining and pelvic floor exercises may be used if the elderly person is able to perform these exercises independently. An anticholinergic drug can be tried as a last resort if there is urge incontinence and there are no contraindications.

  3. Minimising postoperative incontinence following radical prostatectomy: considerations and evidence.

    PubMed

    Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P

    2006-11-01

    To review evidence regarding perioperative predictors of incontinence after radical prostatectomy (RP), related anatomic and patient factors, and surgical techniques used to minimise incontinence. A search of the Pubmed, Cancerlit, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science databases was performed for the key words prostatectomy, incontinence, and continence. Relevant articles were reviewed, summarised, and analysed. Enhanced understanding of pelvic anatomy applied to surgical approaches has improved continence rates following RP; however, incontinence remains a potential adverse outcome. Evidence suggests that increasing patient body weight and prostate volume are not associated with continence outcomes, but increasing patient age may be predictive. Behavioural therapy may aid in early return to continence although the timing of therapy and benefit of biofeedback assistance are unclear. Various surgical techniques are used to improve continence, but no evidence overwhelmingly supports any specific technique. At best, evidence supports early return to continence with some techniques. No technique significantly increased margin positivity solely at the experimental anatomic site. Despite enhanced knowledge of anatomy and improved surgical approach, incontinence persists as a potential adverse outcome of RP. Urologists may not find an evidence-based rationalisation for any particular surgical technique due to the nature of surgical series, variability in the definition of incontinence, and individual surgical skills, preferences, and techniques. Giving careful consideration to the trial design can potentially improve the resulting level of evidence.

  4. Incontinence in Intellectual Disability: An Under Recognized Cause

    PubMed Central

    Sagayaraj, Benjamin; V.T.T., Rajan; Kumar, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome may develop urinary incontinence during adolescence or nearing adulthood. Most often low mental ability, behavioural issues, urinary tract infection, hypothyroidism, atlanto-axial subluxation or sexual abuse may be suspected to be the reason. We report a case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome (TCS) and Lipoma of Filum terminale with Cauda equina in normal position, as a cause of bowel and bladder incontinence. The need for operating with Cauda Equina in normal position is debated. But a conscious decision was taken to operate and the incontinence improved markedly which was documented by using a standardized questionnaire (King’s questionnaire) and thereby making a difference in the child’s life. A literature search did not result in any case of Down syndrome with tethered cord syndrome and secondary incontinence as presentation. Considering the possibility of TCS as a cause of incontinence, often neglected even in normal children, careful evaluation and correction of such problems will make a difference in the life of many intellectually disabled children. Incontinence should not be casually attributed to intellectual disability without ruling out other causes. PMID:26500975

  5. [Urodynamic studies in the child with urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Schwöbel, M; Bodmer, C

    1998-01-01

    Voiding disorders in children are frequent. To establish an exact anamnesis, it has to be distinguished between enuresis and incontinence and this may consequently already have a therapeutical effect. Enuresis is defined as a normal void occurring at an inappropriate time or place. Incontinence is an involuntary loss of urine and a pathological voiding habit, often in combination with urinary infections. The causes of an enuresis are always functional, the causes for incontinence may be organic or functional. Organic causes are neurogenic bladder dysfunctions or structural anomalies of the lower urinary tract. The functional causes are divided in urge incontinence, dysfunctional voiding, lazy bladder syndrome and stress incontinence. The most important screening examination in each child with voiding disorders is the uroflowmetry, in combination with an electromyography (EMG) of pelvic floor and abdominal muscles. For registration of the muscle activity, surface electrodes are used that only show muscle groups, but do not hurt on application. Cystometry, an invasive method, is used as a second step. The therapy of functional incontinence consists in bladder training, physiotherapy of the pelvic floor and biofeedback. Medicaments are given in second priority. The therapy of functional voiding disorders is only successful in cooperation with the child and its parents.

  6. Increasing Discussion Rates of Incontinence in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Gangnon, Ronald E; Chewning, Betty; Wald, Arnold

    2015-11-01

    A minority of women with urinary incontinence (UI) and even fewer with fecal incontinence (FI) report having discussed it with a health care provider in the past year. Thus our aim was to evaluate whether the use of an electronic pelvic floor assessment questionnaire (ePAQ-PF) improves communication about incontinence in primary care. Women 40 years and older who were scheduled for an annual wellness physical at an internal medicine clinic between August 2007 and August 2008 were randomized to complete the ePAQ-PF prior to (n = 145) or after (n = 139) their visit. Clinicians of women in the intervention group received the ePAQ-PF report prior to the visit. Outcome measures from clinic note abstraction included mention of UI (primary) and FI. Participant-reported outcome measures included discussion of UI and FI and initiator of discussion. Discussions of UI was more common in the intervention group than the control group: (27% vs. 19%; odds ratio [OR], 1.6 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.9-2.8, particularly for women over 60 (33% vs. 12%; OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.2-11.8) and for women with UI (42% vs. 25%; OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.1-4.1). The intervention primarily led to an increase in clinician-initiated UI discussions which were more common in the intervention group (18% vs. 4%, OR 4.8, 95%CI 1.9-12.0) Participants in the intervention group more frequently reported discussion of FI (14% vs. 6%; OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1-6.0) which was clinician initiated in over half the cases (9% vs. 3%; OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.1-11.0). Use of the ePAQ-PF prior to clinic visits increases discussion of UI and FI, particularly clinician-initiated discussion. These findings suggest that such instruments may increase the detection and treatment of this often "silent" affliction.

  7. Challenges of Conducting Multi-Center, Multi-Disciplinary Urinary Incontinence Clinical Trials: Experience of the Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network

    PubMed Central

    Steers, William; Richter, Holly; Nyberg, Leroy; Kusek, John; Kraus, Stephen; Dandrea, Kimberly; Chai, Toby; Brubaker, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Aims The Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network (UITN) was established in 2000 as a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional network by the National Institute for Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to investigate treatments for urinary incontinence in women. Methods Over 8 years this network composed of urologists, urogynecologists, geriatricians, behavioral psychologists, physical therapists, nurses, epidemiologists, social scientists and statisticians from nine academic sites and a Data Coordinating Center has been effective in designing and completing prospective randomized clinical trials for treatments of urinary incontinence in women. Results Two major clinical trials have been completed and a third has completed recruitment. The focus of the completed trials was a comparison of surgical methods to treat stress urinary incontinence whereas the third examined the potential benefit of combined behavioral intervention and antimuscarinic drug therapy to eliminate the need for long-term use of drug therapy alone to manage urge urinary incontinence. The scientific output of the network measured by abstracts, original papers and presentations demonstrates the productivity of the network. Conclusions Many unique challenges are posed by a multi-disciplinary team located at sites across the United States undertaking several clinical trials. This review presents some of the logistics, barriers, tactics, and strategies used to create this successful clinical trials network focused on urinary incontinence. PMID:19030190

  8. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001), multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009), gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02) and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035). Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent. Investigar os fatores de risco para a incontinência urinária (IU) no puerpério e as suas características. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com 344 puérperas (77 casos e 267 controles), com até 90 dias pós-parto. Foi aplicado, em um único momento, um questionário para os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, e dois outros para avaliar a perda urinária, situações de perda e o tipo de IU. Apresentaram IU de esforço 45,5%, perda urinária diversas vezes ao dia 44,2%, sendo 71,4% em pequena quantidade e 57,1% ao tossir ou espirrar. Em 70,1% dos casos a IU iniciou-se na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. Ao ajustar-se um modelo de regressão logística bin

  9. Knowledge and understanding of urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Katherina; Hunter, Kathleen F.; Wagg, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate family physicians’ knowledge of, attitudes toward, and understanding of urinary incontinence (UI), as well as their perceptions of barriers to continence care, as a foundation for designing interventions to improve service provision for those in northern Alberta who suffer from UI. Design Descriptive survey using a standardized instrument. The survey instrument was completed either by telephone interview or on paper copy faxed back to the researchers, depending on participant preference. Setting Northern Alberta. Participants Random sample of family physicians (N = 158). Main outcome measures Physician knowledge of and attitudes toward UI, UI management practices, and barriers to providing UI care. Results Survey response rate was 10.6% (158 of 1488); 84.2% (133 of 158) of respondents practised in urban settings, 44.9% (71 of 158) had been in practice for fewer than 15 years, 24.1% (38 of 158) reported having no training in UI management since graduation, and 53.8% (85 of 158) reported that they proactively discussed UI with their patients. Overall, 70.0% of respondents felt fairly confident in managing UI. Most family physicians referred patients for specialist care, with few referrals to community services. Respondents thought that continence services were scarce, with long waiting times, and that such services were generally overstretched; they believed that although high-quality continence care was a personal priority, it was not a priority focus for their practice partnerships or networks. In terms of the highest ranked areas for improvement in UI management, increased awareness and understanding among physicians (ranked first by 28.5% of respondents), followed by dedicated incontinence clinics or nurses for referral (17.7%) and improving patient awareness and understanding (12.0%). Conclusion There continues to be considerable variation in knowledge about UI management and a relative overreliance on specialist care, despite

  10. Comparison of Perineal Sonographically Measured and Functional Urodynamic Urethral Length in Female Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Janetzki, Nadine; Kennes, Lieven; Stickeler, Elmar; Serno, Julia; Behrendt, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To detect the anatomical insufficiency of the urethra and to propose perineal ultrasound as a useful, noninvasive tool for the evaluation of incontinence, we compared the anatomical length of the urethra with the urodynamic functional urethral length. We also compared the urethral length between continent and incontinent females. Methods. 149 female patients were enrolled and divided into four groups (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence; control). Sonographically measured urethral length (SUL) and urodynamic functional urethral length (FUL) were analyzed statistically. Standardized and internationally validated incontinence questionnaire ICIQ-SF results were compared between each patient group. Results. Perineal SUL was significantly longer in incontinent compared to continent patients (p < 0.0001). Pairwise comparison of each incontinent type (stress, urge, or mixed incontinence) with the control group showed also a significant difference (p < 0.05). FUL was significantly shorter in incontinent patients than in the control group (p = 0.0112). But pairwise comparison showed only a significant difference for the stress incontinence group compared with the control group (p = 0.0084) and not for the urge or mixed incontinent group. No clear correlation between SUL, FUL, and ICIQ-SF score was found. Conclusions. SUL measured by noninvasive perineal ultrasound is a suitable parameter in the assessment of female incontinence, since incontinent women show a significantly elongated urethra as a sign of tissue insufficiency, independent of the type of incontinence. PMID:27819004

  11. Football practice and urinary incontinence: Relation between morphology, function and biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Roza, Thuane Da; Brandão, Sofia; Oliveira, Dulce; Mascarenhas, Teresa; Parente, Marco; Duarte, José Alberto; Jorge, Renato Natal

    2015-06-25

    Current evidence points to a high prevalence of urinary incontinence among female athletes. In this context, this study aims to assess if structural and biomechanical characteristics of the pubovisceral muscles may lead to urine leakage. Clinical and demographic data were collected, as well as pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Furthermore, computational models were built to verify if they were able to reproduce similar biomechanical muscle response as the one measured by dynamic imaging during active contraction by means of the percent error. Compared to the continent ones (n=7), incontinent athletes (n=5) evidenced thicker pubovisceral muscles at the level of the midvagina (p=0.019 and p=0.028 for the right and left sides, respectively). However, there were no differences neither in the strength of contraction in the Oxford Scale or in the displacement of the pelvic floor muscles during simulation of voluntary contraction, which suggests that urine leakage may be related with alterations in the intrafusal fibers than just the result of thicker muscles. Additionally, we found similar values of displacement retrieved from dynamic images and numerical models (6.42 ± 0.36 mm vs. 6.10 ± 0.47 mm; p=0.130), with a percent error ranging from 1.47% to 17.20%. However, further refinements in the mechanical properties of the striated skeletal fibers of the pelvic floor muscles and the inclusion of pelvic organs, fascia and ligaments would reproduce more realistically the pelvic cavity.

  12. Urinary Incontinence Symptoms and Impact on Quality of Life in Patients Seeking Outpatient Physical Therapy Services

    PubMed Central

    Alappattu, Meryl; Neville, Cynthia; Beneciuk, Jason; Bishop, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and types of urinary incontinence (UI) in patients seeking outpatient physical therapy for neuro-musculoskeletal conditions. Design Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Patients A convenience sample of patients that positively responded to a UI screening question were included in this study. Methods Data were collected for age, sex, and primary treatment condition classified into one of the following (i.e. urinary dysfunction; fecal dysfunction; pelvic pain; spine; neurological disorders; or extremity disorders); UI type (i.e. mixed, urge, stress, or insensible); UI symptom severity; and quality of life impact. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of UI type, symptom severity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact, and pad use were compared between treatment groups. Results The mean age of the sample (n=599) was 49.8 years (SD=18.5) and 94.7% were female. The urinary dysfunction group comprised 44.2% of the total sample, followed by the spine group with 25.7%, and pelvic pain with 17.2%. The urinary dysfunction group scored significantly higher on UI symptom severity and impact on quality of life compared to the pelvic pain and spine groups, but not compared to the extremity disorders, fecal dysfunction, or neurological disorders group. Conclusion These preliminary data indicate that UI is a condition afflicting many individuals who present to outpatient physical therapy beyond those seeking care for UI. We recommend using a simple screening measure for UI and its impact on HRQoL as part of a routine initial evaluation in outpatient physical therapy settings. PMID:26863987

  13. Usage results of a mobile app for managing urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jeff; Zhang, Amy; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiao Hui

    2015-04-01

    Slight changes in urinary incontinence severity may be difficult to notice, so that even high functioning patients are unable to detect if urinary incontinence is improving or worsening. We describe a recently released free software app, iDry®, that enables individuals with urinary incontinence to document incontinence symptoms, view progress, evaluate effectiveness of interventions and report status to their health care provider. After 2 field trials, iDry was published as a free download from the Apple® App Store and was downloaded 1,231 times in the first 19 months. iDry also collects large quantities of anonymized usage data for research purposes. Data analysis shows that long-term users had significantly more severe urinary incontinence symptoms (p ≤ 0.01) than short-term users. Short-term users reduced pad use by 20% but long-term users' pad use remaining unchanged. Average leakage was reduced 14.6 mg per day for short-term vs 4.5 mg per day for long-term users, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.93) due to high data variability (SD 611). There was no significant difference between long-term and short-term users in severity of self-reported stress and urge incontinence. Bladder training positively correlated with a reduction in pad use (p=0.03) and leakage amount (p=0.02). Overall our findings suggest that iDry is a useful, accessible and convenient tool to document urinary incontinence symptoms and improvement, but controlled studies are needed to assess its effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the function of the pelvic floor in primiparae before and during pregnancy with the status post partum concerning symptoms of incontinence, sphincter ruptures, bladder-neck mobility and the influence of the different modes of deliveries. Methods Questionnaire evaluating symptoms of urinary and anal incontinence in nulliparous women before and after delivery and correlating these symptoms with functional changes of the pelvic floor based on a careful gynaecologic examination as well as perineal and endoanal ultrasound. Results 112 women were included in our study and came for the first visit, 99 women returned for follow-up 6 months after childbirth. Stress and flatus incontinence significantly increased from before pregnancy (3 and 12%) to after childbirth (21 and 28%) in women with spontaneous delivery or vacuum extraction. No new symptoms occurred after c-section. There was no significant difference between the bladder neck position before and after delivery. The mobility of the bladder neck was significantly higher after vaginal delivery using a vacuum extraction compared to spontaneous delivery or c-section. The bladder neck in women with post partum urinary stress incontinence was significantly more mobile than in continent controls. The endoanal ultrasound detected seven occult sphincter defects without any correlation to symptoms of anal incontinence. Conclusion Several statistically significant changes of the pelvic floor after delivery were demonstrated. Spontaneous vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction increases the risk for stress or anal incontinence, delivery with vacuum extraction leads to higher bladder neck mobility and stress incontinent women have more mobile bladder necks than continent women. PMID:20696633

  15. [Pelvic floor rehabilitation for female urinary incontinence: mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Deffieux, X; Billecocq, S; Demoulin, G; Rivain, A-L; Trichot, C; Thubert, T

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the proven mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation in women presenting with urinary incontinence. Review of literature (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database) using following keywords: female; urinary incontinence; overactive bladder syndrome; stress urinary incontinence; bladder training; bladder diary; pelvic floor muscle training; pelvic floor rehabilitation; physiotherapy; cognitive therapies. Among 2906 articles (animal and anatomical studies have been excluded); 66 have been selected because they focused on the evaluation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of pelvic floor rehabilitation concerning female urinary incontinence. Studies on pelvic floor muscles training exercises showed a significant increase in the force of contraction of these muscles and it was correlated with improved scores of urinary incontinence and pad test (coefficient of correlation r ranged from 0.23 to 0.34) for women presenting with stress urinary incontinence. These studies have not observed an increase in the maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) or correction of urethral hypermobility related with the improvement of incontinence after rehabilitation sessions. Studies concerning pelvic floor stimulation observed an increase in the force of contraction of pelvic floor muscles after rehabilitation and a decrease in the intensity of detrusor contractions without changing the MUCP. There is very little data on the precise mechanisms of action of biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy. In studies that objectively evaluated the mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation, it was observed that pelvic floor muscles voluntary exercises and electrostimulation resulted an increase in force of contraction of these muscles without changing the MUCP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic contributions to urgency urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Richter, Holly E; Whitehead, Nedra; Arya, Lily; Ridgeway, Beri; Allen-Brady, Kristina; Norton, Peggy; Sung, Vivian; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Komesu, Yuko; Gaddis, Nathan; Fraser, Matthew O; Tan-Kim, Jasmine; Meikle, Susan; Page, Grier P

    2015-06-01

    We identify genetic variants associated with urgency urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women. A 2-stage genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify variants associated with urgency urinary incontinence. The WHI GARNET substudy with 4,894 genotyped post-reproductive white women was randomly split into independent discovery and replication cohorts. Genome-wide imputation was performed using IMPUTE2 with the 1000 Genomes ALL Phase I integrated variant set as a reference. Controls reported no urgency urinary incontinence at enrollment or followup. Cases reported monthly or greater urgency urinary incontinence and leaked sufficiently to wet/soak underpants/clothes. Logistic regression models were used to predict urgency urinary incontinence case vs control status based on genotype, assuming additive inheritance. Age, obesity, diabetes and depression were included in the models as covariates. Following quality control, 975,508 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2,241 cases (discovery 1,102; replication 1,133) and 776 controls (discovery 405, replication 371) remained. Genotype imputation resulted in 9,077,347 single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 available for analysis. Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication samples identified 6 loci on chromosomes 5, 10, 11, 12 and 18 associated with urgency urinary incontinence at p <10(-6). Of the loci 3 were within genes, the zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) gene on chromosome 18q11, the ADAMTS16 gene on chromosome 5p15 and the CIT gene on chromosome 12q24. The other 3 loci were intergenic. Although environmental factors also likely contribute, this first exploratory genome-wide association study for urgency urinary incontinence suggests that genetic variants in the ZFP521, CIT and ADAMTS16 genes might account for some of the observed heritability of the condition. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  17. Treatment Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Eric S; Wein, Alan J

    2004-01-01

    Treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women are designed to prevent the involuntary loss of urine from the urethra during increases in intraabdominal pressure that occur during physical activity, coughing, or sneezing. Effective nonsurgical therapies include behavioral therapy (eg, bladder training, fluid and dietary modification) and drug therapy. Surgical therapy for this condition has existed for well over 100 years. Currently, approximately 200 different surgical procedures have been described. Because of the physiologic risks inherent in surgical procedures, the cost of hospitalization, and the loss of productivity during convalescence, surgeons continue to modify their techniques to improve efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness, and to minimize invasiveness. No single procedure or intervention is optimal for all patients. Having a variety of treatment options offers the possibility of tailoring therapy to the desires and needs of the individual patient. The key to an optimal therapeutic outcome is an accurate diagnosis combined with the selection of an appropriate intervention that is acceptable to the patient after balancing multiple factors. PMID:16985862

  18. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Benezech, Alban; Bouvier, Michel; Vitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequent symptom since its prevalence can vary between 5% and 15% of the general population. It has a particular negative impact on quality of life. Many tools are currently available for the treatment of FI, from conservative measures to invasive surgical treatments. The conservative treatment may be dietetic measures, various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation. If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approaches such as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation. In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainly external anal sphincter repair. Although these different therapeutic options are available, new techniques are arriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover, most of them are non-invasive such as local application of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections, rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. New more invasive techniques with promising results are also coming such as anal magnetic sphincter and antropylorus transposition. This review reports the main current available treatments of FI and the developing therapeutics tools. PMID:26909229

  19. Urinary incontinence and loneliness in Canadian seniors.

    PubMed

    Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; Gilmour, Heather

    2013-10-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI), a prevalent condition among seniors, can have substantial impacts on quality of life. Data from the 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging were used to examine the prevalence of UI, as well as the relationship between UI and loneliness in a sample of 16,369 people aged 65 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships, while adjusting for potential confounders. In 2008/2009, an estimated 512,000 seniors reported that they experienced UI. Women were more likely than men to have this complaint (14% versus 9%), as were older seniors. Those with UI were significantly more likely to be lonely than were those without the condition (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 2.0). This association persisted when socio-demographic, social and functional health factors were taken into account (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.7). This study highlights the prevalence of UI among Canadian seniors and its correlation with loneliness, which, itself, is associated with negative health outcomes. Further research is needed to establish exactly how UI has an impact on seniors' feelings of loneliness.

  20. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  1. DYNAMICS OF AQUATIC FECAL CONTAMINATION, FECAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, AND CORRELATION OF BACTEROIDALES HOST-SPECIFIC MARKERS DETECTION WITH FECAL PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution impairs the health and productivity of coastal waters and causes human disease. PCR of host-specific 16S rDNA sequences from anaerobic Bacteroidales bacteria offers a promising method of tracking fecal contamination and identifying its source(s). Before Bacteroida...

  2. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...

  3. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in American Indian women from a South Dakota tribe.

    PubMed

    Fiegen, Michael M; Benson, Kevin D; Hanson, Jessica D; Prasek, Jennifer; Hansen, Keith A; VanEerden, Peter

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors for urinary incontinence in a Northern Plains tribe of American Indian women. The Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form was used to assess urinary incontinence in a sample of American Indian women from one tribe. This was a cross-sectional convenience sampling of 234 eligible participants. Participant's ages ranged from 18 to 80 years. Stata/Se 9.1 software was used in statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of urinary stress incontinence was 15.4%, urgency incontinence 2.14%, and mixed incontinence 20.5%. Both stress and urgency incontinence was found to be low in this sample population. A reduced prevalence of stress and urgency incontinence is seen in our sample. Our study group showed a high prevalence of known risk factors associated with urinary incontinence. We intend to extend our study for further understanding of this patient population.

  4. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...

  5. Anticholinergic Therapy vs. OnabotulinumtoxinA for Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Visco, Anthony G.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R.; Menefee, Shawn A.; Schaffer, Joseph; Lowder, Jerry; Khandwala, Salil; Sirls, Larry; Spino, Cathie; Nolen, Tracy L.; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anticholinergic medications and onabotulinumtoxinA are used to treat urgency urinary incontinence, but data directly comparing the two types of therapy are needed. METHODS We performed a double-blind, double-placebo–controlled, randomized trial involving women with idiopathic urgency urinary incontinence who had five or more episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per 3-day period, as recorded in a diary. For a 6-month period, participants were randomly assigned to daily oral anticholinergic medication (solifenacin, 5 mg initially, with possible escalation to 10 mg and, if necessary, subsequent switch to trospium XR, 60 mg) plus one intradetrusor injection of saline or one intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA plus daily oral placebo. The primary outcome was the reduction from baseline in mean episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the 6-month period, as recorded in 3-day diaries submitted monthly. Secondary outcomes included complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence, quality of life, use of catheters, and adverse events. RESULTS Of 249 women who underwent randomization, 247 were treated, and 241 had data available for the primary outcome analyses. The mean reduction in episodes of urgency urinary incontinence per day over the course of 6 months, from a baseline average of 5.0 per day, was 3.4 in the anticholinergic group and 3.3 in the onabotulinumtoxinA group (P = 0.81). Complete resolution of urgency urinary incontinence was reported by 13% and 27% of the women, respectively (P = 0.003). Quality of life improved in both groups, without significant between-group differences. The anticholinergic group had a higher rate of dry mouth (46% vs. 31%, P = 0.02) but lower rates of catheter use at 2 months (0% vs. 5%, P = 0.01) and urinary tract infections (13% vs. 33%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Oral anticholinergic therapy and onabotulinumtoxinA by injection were associated with similar reductions in the frequency of

  6. Fecal Source Identification with Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases that originate from fecal pollution remain a significant public health issue. Current fecal indicator technologies recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality testing do not discriminate between different animal sources of fecal ...

  7. Fecal Source Identification with Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne diseases that originate from fecal pollution remain a significant public health issue. Current fecal indicator technologies recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality testing do not discriminate between different animal sources of fecal ...

  8. Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary -incontinence.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Cardozo, L

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug therapy unpopular. The principle aim of this thesis is to assess the role of antidiuresis in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence and also to examine its role as a 'designer therapy' which women can choose to use as, or when, required. In addition both the patients' and clinicians' attitudes towards treatment have been studied to clarify the meaning of 'cure', and to determine treatment acceptability, overall outcome and patient satisfaction. In the first study the patients' concept of cure is explored as well as their expectations regarding treatment and outcome. The second study examines cure from the clinician's perspective in addition to reviewing outcome measures in the clinical and research settings. Finally in the third study the use of desmopressin in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence is reported.

  9. Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D.; Cardozo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug therapy unpopular. The principle aim of this thesis is to assess the role of antidiuresis in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence and also to examine its role as a ‘designer therapy’ which women can choose to use as, or when, required. In addition both the patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards treatment have been studied to clarify the meaning of ‘cure’, and to determine treatment acceptability, overall outcome and patient satisfaction. In the first study the patients’ concept of cure is explored as well as their expectations regarding treatment and outcome. The second study examines cure from the clinician’s perspective in addition to reviewing outcome measures in the clinical and research settings. Finally in the third study the use of desmopressin in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence is reported. PMID:25478070

  10. Incontinence-associated dermatitis in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Foxley, Susan; Baadjies, Ruth

    Evidence-based patient care for those with urinary and faecal incontinence involves routine tasks that are integral to essential patient care. However, over the past few decades, researchers have demonstrated how ritualistic practice in this area has become. There is also a growing range of skin care products that can be used to prevent incontinence-associated dermatitis and for nurses, deciding which ones to use can be problematic Incontinent patients have a 22% higher risk of developing pressure ulcers - when immobile this risk increases to 30% - and the often indiscriminate use of various lotions, without a significant evidence base, is a growing cause of concern. Maintaining healthy skin for those patients who have a spinal cord injury and also experience urinary and faecal incontinence is a challenge faced by nurses in primary and secondary care. Research undertaken in secondary care demonstrates that standardization to an evidence-based skin care regime, to be used after incontinent episodes, improves patient care in this specialist area.

  11. Fecal bacterial diversity in a wild gorilla.

    PubMed

    Frey, Julie C; Rothman, Jessica M; Pell, Alice N; Nizeyi, John Bosco; Cranfield, Michael R; Angert, Esther R

    2006-05-01

    We describe the bacterial diversity in fecal samples of a wild gorilla by use of a 16S rRNA gene clone library and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Clones were classified as Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae, Bacteroidetes, Spirochetes, and Planctomycetes. Our data suggest that fecal populations did not change temporally, as determined by T-RFLP.

  12. TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION WITH BACTEROIDALES MOLECULAR MARKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TILLAMOOK BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although amplification of source-specific molecular markers from Bacteroidales fecal bacteria can identify several different kinds of fecal contamination in water, it remains unclear how this technique relates to fecal indicator measurements in natural waters. The objectives of t...

  13. TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION WITH BACTEROIDALES MOLECULAR MARKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TILLAMOOK BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although amplification of source-specific molecular markers from Bacteroidales fecal bacteria can identify several different kinds of fecal contamination in water, it remains unclear how this technique relates to fecal indicator measurements in natural waters. The objectives of t...

  14. Optimal optical filters of fluorescence excitation and emission for poultry fecal detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: An analytic method to design excitation and emission filters of a multispectral fluorescence imaging system is proposed and was demonstrated in an application to poultry fecal inspection. Methods: A mathematical model of a multispectral imaging system is proposed and its system parameters, ...

  15. [Urinary stress incontinence in the female: comparison of incontinence theories and new tension-free surgical procedures].

    PubMed

    Perucchini, D; Fink, D

    2002-01-01

    Urethral sphincter competence involves a complicated inter action of many factors which act in concert. Stress incontinence occurs due to damage to the urethral support and loss or deterioration of urethral sphincter function as a consequence of delivery or aging. Recent research indicates that a more integrated, comprehensive view regarding the different structures, both inside and outside the urethra, is needed to explain the mechanism of incontinence. According to the theories of de Lancey, urinary stress incontinence is caused by defects in the supporting tissues that both actively and passively stabilize the urethra in its correct anatomical position. The integral theory of Petros and Ulmstein explains how laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments may cause stress incontinence favored by laxity in the ligamentous insertion points of the vagina. Colposuspension procedures have dominated incontinence surgery for the last 50 years. The introduction of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure was a real innovation that has challenged our understanding of the continence mechanism and taught us the importance of the midurethra. Different modifications of the tension-free procedures have been introduced recently and are discussed in this paper.

  16. Clinical and urodynamic studies in 100 elderly incontinent patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castleden, C M; Duffin, H M; Asher, M J

    1981-01-01

    Clinical details were noted and urodynamic studies carried out on 100 elderly patients referred to an incontinence clinic, of whom 48 attended as day patients. Thirty patients had no problem apart from their incontinence, and only 38 had a clinically detectable neurological lesion. The average mental orientation score in 48 of the patients was 7.6, 23 patients scoring the top score of 10. Most patients were mobile without assistance from another person. Patients could be placed into one of four diagnostic groups according to the appearance of the cystometric tracings, but no bladder capacity or pressure was characteristic of any group. The maximum urethral closure pressure and functional profile length were similar for each group within each sex. There was no correlation between clinical and urodynamic findings, yet each of the four diagnostic categories have different therapeutic implications. It is concluded that urodynamic investigation is necessary in elderly incontinent patients before treatment. PMID:6786455

  17. Evaluation of a behavioral treatment for female urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Santacreu, Marta; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a medical, psychological, social, economic, and hygienic problem. Although it is difficult to state its prevalence, all authors agree that it is related to age and gender. This study aimed to carry out a urinary incontinence behavioral treatment in order to reduce urine leakages in 14 participants recruited from a senior center. The program consists of daily training of the pelvic floor muscles with a weekly control by a supervisor during a 2-month period and follow-up of results 2 months after the last control session. Urinary incontinence episodes were reduced by 75.67% after program completion. It appears that pelvic floor muscles training, carried out under controlled and constant supervision, significantly reduces urinary leakage. Moreover, maintaining this improvement after treatment depends on the continuation of the exercises as well as on the urinary leakage frequency baseline and the urinary leakage frequency during the last treatment session. PMID:21753868

  18. Psychocultural meanings of urinary incontinence in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Higa, Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Mores; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify and analyze studies in health literature about the psychocultural meanings reported by women who experience urinary incontinence (UI). A bibliographical search was executed in the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed and Medscape. The present review showed that studies note several meanings. The articles were grouped in three categories defined as significant: according to age experiences, cultural-religious experiences and experiences in self-care. The studies revealed that the degree of anguish and the range of the difficulties experienced are related both with age, ethnic group or religion and with the perception each individual has of her incontinence, which will lead to different levels of emotional disorders and to seeking (or not seeking) treatment. Besides, barriers regarding self-care are perceived. It is concluded that the UI may cause suffering and incontinent women have difficulties to deal with this problem.

  19. A 4-year-old boy presenting with persistent urinary incontinence: Questions.

    PubMed

    Keenswijk, Werner; Walle, Johan Vande

    2017-05-01

    A 4-year-old boy was referred to the nephrologist with daytime urinary incontinence and suspicion of an overactive bladder. At the age of 17 months he had been referred to the pediatric endocrinologist because of polyuria and polydipsia in order to exclude diabetes insipidus. Repeated water deprivation tests and a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain were normal. Diabetes insipidus was excluded, and primary polydipsia was thought to be most likely since diabetes mellitus also had been excluded. At the current presentation, he drank up to 3 L a day and quite often had wet diapers. He also seemed to pass stools infrequently and with difficulty. Curiously his grandmother had similar symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia since childhood and had been diagnosed with primary polydipsia. The physical examination of our pediatric patient was normal. In the differential diagnosis we included diabetes insipidus but also contemplated other possibilities, such as nephronophthisis, tubulopathies and hypercalciuria. Laboratory results including urinalysis and an ultrasound of the kidney did not show any abnormalities, making a tubulopathy or hypercalciuria unlikely. A desmopressin test by the intravenous route came back completely normal, pointing to another cause than diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing for the nephronophthisis came back negative but was positive for a missense mutation in the AVPR2 gene (p.Arg104Cys) associated with partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. He was started on daily desmopressin. Within 3 days the urinary incontinence resolved as did the polyuria and faecal incontinence. His grandmother was referred to the geneticist and eventually the adult nephrologist. This case highlights the importance of being thorough when confronted with a difficult diagnosis. It also emphasizes that a test result does not necessarily equate to the presence or absence of a condition since the test with 100 % sensitivity and specificity has yet to be discovered.

  20. Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cell Injection Therapy for Postprostatectomy Incontinence: A Phase I Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yang, Jung Dug; Suh, Jang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report our initial experience with transurethral injection of autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) for the treatment of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods After providing written informed consent, six men with persistent urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy were enrolled in the study. Under general anesthesia, about 50 mL of adipose tissue was obtained from the patients by liposuction. ADRCs were obtained by separation with centrifugation using the Celution cell-processing device. A mixture of ADRCs and adipose tissue were transurethrally injected into the submucosal space of the membranous urethra. Functional and anatomical improvement was assessed using a 24-h pad test, validated patient questionnaire, urethral pressure profile, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during 12-week follow-up. Results Urine leakage volume was improved with time in all patients in the 24-h pad test, with the exemption of temporal deterioration at the first 2 weeks post-injection in 2 patients. Subjective symptoms and quality of life assessed on the basis of questionnaire results showed similar improvement. The mean maximum urethral closing pressure increased from 44.0 to 63.5 cm H2O at 12 weeks after injection. MRI showed an increase in functional urethral length (from 6.1 to 8.3 mm) between the lower rim of the pubic bone and the bladder neck. Adverse events, such as pelvic pain, inflammation, or de novo urgency, were not observed in any case during follow-up. Conclusion This study demonstrated that transurethral injection of autologous ADRCs can be a safe and effective treatment modality for postprostatectomy incontinence. PMID:27401646

  1. Development of a wearable microwave bladder monitor for the management and treatment of urinary incontinence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krewer, F.; Morgan, F.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.; O'Halloran, M.

    2014-05-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as the inability to stop the flow of urine from the bladder. In the US alone, the annual societal cost of incontinence-related care is estimated at 12.6 billion dollars. Clinicians agree that those suffering from urinary incontinence would greatly benefit from a wearable system that could continually monitor the bladder, providing continuous feedback to the patient. While existing ultrasound-based solutions are highly accurate, they are severely limited by form-factor, battery size, cost and ease of use. In this study the authors propose an alternative bladder-state sensing system, based on Ultra Wideband (UWB) Radar. As part of an initial proof-of-concept, the authors developed one of the first dielectrically and anatomically-representative Finite Difference Time Domain models of the pelvis. These models (one male and one female) are derived from Magnetic Resonance images provided by the IT'IS Foundation. These IT'IS models provide the foundation upon which an anatomically-plausible bladder growth model was constructed. The authors employed accurate multi-pole Debye models to simulate the dielectric properties of each of the pelvic tissues. Two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were completed for a range of bladder volumes. Relevant features were extracted from the FDTD-derived signals using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and then classified using a k-Nearest-Neighbour and Support Vector Machine algorithms (incorporating the Leave-one-out cross-validation approach). Additionally the authors investigated the effects of signal fidelity, noise and antenna movement relative to the target as potential sources of error. The results of this initial study provide strong motivation for further research into this timely application, particularly in the context of an ageing population.

  2. Sexual function following surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jha, Swati; Moran, Paul; Greenham, Helen; Ford, Caroline

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sexual function in women before and after surgery for urodynamic stress incontinence in the absence of pelvic organ prolapse. This was a prospective questionnaire survey. Fifty-four women undergoing surgery (tension-free vaginal tape/tension-free vaginal tape-obturator) for urodynamic stress incontinence with no evidence of detrusor overactivity or concomitant prolapse were assessed preoperatively and 6 months post operatively. Assessment was based on the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ), the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement. Paired t-tests were used for comparing pre- and post-op scores and unpaired t-tests for comparing observations between groups. Spearman's rank correlation was used for testing whether two numerically scored items were related, and McNemar test was used to compare pre- and postoperative responses to individual questions. ICIQ scores showed significant improvement after surgery (p < 0.001). Women completing PISQ were significantly younger (mean = 54) than those who did not (mean = 65; p < 0.001). The total PISQ score was better postoperatively (preoperative = 87.2, postoperative = 92.7; p < 0.001), with improvements in both the physical (preoperative = 31.0, postoperative = 35.2; p < 0.001) and partner-related domains (preoperative = 18.8, postoperative = 19.9; p = 0.002) but no improvement in behaviour emotive domains (preoperative = 37.3, postoperative = 37.6; p = 0.70). There was a reduction in episodes of coital incontinence postoperatively (preoperatively = 16/54, postoperatively = 39/54; p < 0.002). Previous vaginal surgery, oestrogen status of respondents and hysterectomy status did not affect the PISQ. Surgical correction of stress incontinence is associated with an improvement in sexual function.

  3. Predictive factors of stress incontinence after posterior sacral rhizotomy.

    PubMed

    Chinier, Eva; Egon, Guy; Hamel, Olivier; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    The Brindley procedure, used since the 1980s, consists of implantation of a stimulator for sacral anterior root stimulation combined with a posterior sacral rhizotomy to enable micturition. Patients suitable for the procedure are patients with detrusor overactivity and a complete spinal cord lesion with intact sacral reflexes. S2 to S4 posterior sacral rhizotomy abolishes sacral hyperreflexia and may lead to decreased urethral closure pressure and loss of reflex adaptation of continence, leading to stress incontinence. In this retrospective study of 96 patients from Nantes or Le Mans, implanted with a Finetech-Brindley stimulator, we analyzed the incidence of stress incontinence one year after surgery and looked for predictive factors of stress incontinence one year after posterior sacral rhizotomy: age, gender, level of injury between T10 and L2 , previous urethral surgery, incompetent bladder neck, Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure before surgery less than 30 cmH2 O, compliance before surgery less than 30 ml/cmH2 0. Patients with persistent involuntary detrusor contractions with or without incontinence after surgery were excluded. One year after surgery, 10.4% of the patients experienced stress incontinence. Urethral closure pressure was significantly decreased by 18% after posterior sacral rhizotomy (P = 0.002). This study highlights the only significant predictive factor of stress incontinence after rhizotomy: incompetent bladder neck (P = 0.002). As screening of patients undergoing the Brindley procedure is essential to achieve optimal postoperative results, on the basis of this study, we propose preoperative assessment to select the population of patients most likely to benefit from the Brindley procedure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sensory Characterization of Odors in Used Disposable Absorbent Incontinence Products

    PubMed Central

    Widén, Heléne; Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Hall, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to characterize the odors of used incontinence products by descriptive analysis and to define attributes to be used in the analysis. A further objective was to investigate to what extent the odor profiles of used incontinence products differed from each other and, if possible, to group these profiles into classes. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Used incontinence products were collected from 14 residents with urinary incontinence living in geriatric nursing homes in the Gothenburg area, Sweden. METHODS: Pieces were cut from the wet area of used incontinence products. They were placed in glass bottles and kept frozen until odor analysis was completed. A trained panel consisting of 8 judges experienced in this area of investigation defined terminology for odor attributes. The intensities of these attributes in the used products were determined by descriptive odor analysis. Data were analyzed both by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey post hoc test and by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. RESULTS: An odor wheel, with 10 descriptive attributes, was developed. The total odor intensity, and the intensities of the attributes, varied considerably between different, used incontinence products. The typical odors varied from “sweetish” to “urinal,” “ammonia,” and “smoked.” Cluster analysis showed that the used products, based on the quantitative odor data, could be divided into 5 odor classes with different profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The used products varied considerably in odor character and intensity. Findings suggest that odors in used absorptive products are caused by different types of compounds that may vary in concentration. PMID:28328646

  5. Anal sphincter trauma and anal incontinence in urogynecological patients.

    PubMed

    Guzmán Rojas, R A; Kamisan Atan, I; Shek, K L; Dietz, H P

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of evidence of residual obstetric anal sphincter injury, to evaluate its association with anal incontinence (AI) and to establish minimal diagnostic criteria for significant (residual) external anal sphincter (EAS) trauma. This was a retrospective analysis of ultrasound volume datasets of 501 patients attending a tertiary urogynecological unit. All patients underwent a standardized interview including determination of St Mark's score for those presenting with AI. Tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) was used to evaluate the EAS and the internal anal sphincter (IAS). Among a total of 501 women, significant EAS and IAS defects were found in 88 and 59, respectively, and AI was reported by 69 (14%). Optimal prediction of AI was achieved using a model that included four abnormal slices of the EAS on TUI. IAS defects were found to be less likely to be associated with AI. In a multivariable model controlling for age and IAS trauma, the presence of at least four abnormal slices gave an 18-fold (95% CI, 9-36; P < 0.0001) increase in the likelihood of AI, compared with those with fewer than four abnormal slices. Using receiver-operating characteristics curve statistics, this model yielded an area under the curve of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.80-0.92). Both AI and significant EAS trauma are common in patients attending urogynecological units, and are strongly associated with each other. Abnormalities of the IAS seem to be less important in predicting AI. Our data support the practice of using, as a minimal criterion, defects present in four of the six slices on TUI for the diagnosis of significant EAS trauma. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Update on current care guidelines: urinary incontinence (female)].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Female urinary incontinence (UI) is divided into stress (SUI), urgency (UUI), mixed (MUI) and overflow incontinence (chronic retention). Advanced age, obesity and pregnancy are the most important risk factors. Standardised questionnaires are used in diagnosis. The pad test, cough stress test and bladder diary are objective tools. A gynaecological examination includes pelvic floor muscle palpation and residual urine measurement. Urodynamics, cystoscopy and ultrasonography are complementary tools. Guided pelvic floor-muscle training is the first-line therapy. UUI can be treated with anticholinergic medicines. If conservative treatments are ineffective, SUI and MUI can be treated surgically with mid-urethral slings (TVT TOT and TVT-0).

  7. Prevention and management of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nix, Denise; Haugen, Vicki

    2010-06-01

    Perineal dermatitis, recently relabelled 'incontinence-associated dermatitis' (IAD), is an inflammation of the skin that occurs when urine and/or stool comes into contact with the skin. It can range in severity from erythema with or without loss of skin integrity to infection. IAD affects as many as 41% of adults in long-term care; it is costly, painful and, for the most part, preventable. An effective plan of care for individuals with IAD must include assessment and management of incontinence aetiology, perineal skin and risk assessment, gentle cleansing and moisturization, application of skin barriers and treatment of secondary infection, and the use of containment devices if indicated.

  8. Reusables get high marks in adult incontinence care market.

    PubMed

    Tison-Rossman, J

    1992-11-01

    The adult incontinence care market is coming of age. As environmental concerns gradually erode the popularity of disposables, nursing homes and hospitals are looking at reusables in a new light. In addition, the aging of the U.S. population is expected to increase the demand for incontinence care products. A recent study found that the sales of reusable cloth diapers and pads accounted for $385 million annually. All of these factors add up to a lucrative market for textile rental companies that can supply these products.

  9. Clinical outcome of fascial slings for female stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    de Rossi, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    We studied 27 women with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence who had undergone surgery using fascial sling technique. During a mean follow-up of 20 months, all patients were continent. We observed a significant statistical reduction of urge symptoms. De novo detrusor hyperactivity and sensitive urgency were observed in 7.4% and 3.7% of patients, respectively. Two patients developed urinary flow problems. One patient had a bladder perforation during dissection. Urinary retention was observed in 3.7% and resolved spontaneously in 48 hours. We conclude that in the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence, slings promote clinical cure with few complications.

  10. A newly designed deodorant pad for urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Fukui, J; Sakai, Y; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, T; Ogawa, A; Shirai, H

    1990-08-01

    The authors designed a new pad for urinary incontinence. It is composed of a cloth of acrylonitrile copper sulfide and another cloth of iron-phthalocyanine. In vitro experiments showed that acrylonitrile copper sulfide cloth inhibited the growth of most bacteria causing urinary tract infection, and that iron-phthalocyanine cloth effectively eliminated bad-smelling gases. The use of this pad relieved diaper-dermatitis and diminished offensive smells from feces and urine. This pad was well received by nurses and helpers taking care of incontinent elderly people.

  11. [Enuresis and pediatric urinary incontinence : Diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Goepel, M; Reitz, A; Braun, P

    2016-12-01

    Differentiated non-invasive diagnostic procedures allow a discrimination between nocturnal enuresis and behavior-linked urinary incontinence in children with daytime symptoms, which are different entities of a pathological pediatric micturition syndrome. The article describes the diagnostic procedure as well as the therapeutic approach to all forms of micturition disorders in childhood. All behavioral, medical and biofeedback therapeutic methods according to the recently published S2k guidelines from the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) on enuresis and non-organic (functional) incontinence in children and adolescents are mentioned and discussed.

  12. [Fecal transplantation the future therapy?].

    PubMed

    Rebizak, Ewelina; Sierant, Katarzyna; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria play an important role in human physiology, taking part in the metabolism, absorption of nutrients and regulation of the immune system. In many illnesses the bacterial imbalance in the digestive tract occurs, and fecal transplantation is one method that allows you to restore the balance. The essence of the described method is to replace the pathogenesis, abnormal bacterial flora with the flora occurring in normal healthy individuals. So far, the main use of the method described in the article is resistant to antibiotics Clostridium difficile infection, which gives you a chance to avoid total colectomy. The article presents an accurate description of the same procedure to prepare the material, the selection of donor, recipient preparation and diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes and obesity, in which this method of treatment is currently practised.

  13. Urinary Incontinence Management Costs are Reduced Following Burch or Sling Surgery for Stress Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Brubaker, Linda; Kusek, John W.; Schembri, Mr. Michael; Lukacz, Emily S.; Kraus, Stephen R.; Chai, Toby C.; Norton, Peggy; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of Burch and fascial sling surgery on out-of-pocket urinary incontinence (UI) management costs at 24 months post-operatively and identify predictors of change in cost among women enrolled in a randomized trial comparing these procedures. Methods Resources used for UI management (supplies, laundry, dry cleaning) were self-reported by 491 women at baseline and 24 months post-surgery and total out-of-pocket costs for UI management (in 2012 US dollars) were estimated. Data from the two surgical groups were combined to examine change in cost for UI management over 24 months. Univariate and bivariate changes in cost were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Predictors of change in cost were examined using multivariate mixed models. Results At baseline mean (±SD) age of participants was 53±10 years, and frequency of weekly UI episodes was 23±21. Weekly UI episodes decreased by 86% at 24 months (P<0.001). Mean weekly cost was $16.60±$27 (median $9.39) at baseline and $4.57±$15 (median $0.10) at 24 months (P<0.001), a decrease of 72%. In multivariate analyses, cost decreased by $3.38±$0.77 per week for each decrease of 1 UI episode per day (P<0.001) and was strongly associated with greater improvement in UDI and IIQ scores (P<0.001) and decreased 24-hour pad weight (P<0.02). Conclusion Following Burch or fascial sling surgery, UI management cost at 24 months decreased by 72% ($625 per woman per year) and was strongly associated with decreasing UI frequency. Reduced out-of-pocket expenses may be a benefit of these established urinary incontinence procedures. PMID:24631433

  14. Evaluation of the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs: 566 cases (2003-2008).

    PubMed

    Forsee, Kara M; Davis, Garrett J; Mouat, Emily E; Salmeri, Katharine R; Bastian, Richard P

    2013-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs and categorize affected dogs by age at time of ovariohysterectomy, number of litters prior to ovariohysterectomy, body weight, treatment of affected dogs, and severity of incontinence and to determine associations among these variables. Retrospective case series. 566 ovariohysterectomized dogs. An attempt was made to contact owners of 912 dogs ovariohysterectomized between January 2003 and January 2008 to discuss presence or absence of urinary incontinence. The actual number of responders was 566. Those owners with incontinent pets received a questionnaire further assessing degree of incontinence, diagnostic testing, treatment, and history. The prevalence of acquired urinary incontinence was determined to be 5.12% (29/566 dogs) on the basis of results of phone surveys and questionnaires. There was no significant difference in the age at time of ovariohysterectomy between incontinent and continent groups. A significant association was found between body weight and incontinence, with incontinence rates higher among larger (≥ 15 kg [33.1 lb]) dogs. Larger dogs were approximately 7 times as likely (OR, 7.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 21.1]) to develop acquired urinary incontinence, compared with small dogs (< 15 kg). Although acquired urinary incontinence in female dogs is known to be associated with ovariohysterectomy, the prevalence in this study was low.

  15. High-grade internal rectal prolapse: Does it explain so-called "idiopathic" faecal incontinence?

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, A L A; Buchs, N C; Prapasrivorakul, S; Cunningham, C; Jones, O M; Hompes, R; Lindsey, I

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a multifactorial disorder, with multiple treatment options. The role of internal rectal prolapse in the aetiology of faecal incontinence is debated. Recent data has shown the importance of high-grade internal rectal prolapse in case of faecal incontinence. We aimed to determine the incidence and relevance of internal rectal prolapse in patients with faecal incontinence without an anal sphincter defect. Patient data, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, were assessed. All females with moderate to severe pure faecal incontinence, without obstructed defecation and sphincter muscle defects, were included. Data on defecation proctography, anorectal physiology and incontinence scores were analysed. Of 2082 females in the database, 174 fitted the inclusion criteria. High-grade internal rectal prolapse was found in 49% of patients and was associated predominantly with urge faecal incontinence. Passive faecal incontinence was more common in low-grade compared to high-grade internal rectal prolapse patients. Maximum resting pressure was lower in older patients and in patients with high-grade compared to low-grade internal rectal prolapse. Internal rectal prolapse grade was not significantly correlated with faecal incontinence severity score. High-grade internal rectal prolapse is common in female patients suffering particularly urge faecal incontinence, without anal sphincter lesions. Defecation proctography should be routine in the work up of faecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of Life of Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Bo Eun; Kim, Gi Yon; Roh, Young Sook; You, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review studies that have examined the quality of life of women with urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods A review was conducted that used the databases PubMED, Proquest, CINAHL, and Sciencedirect. Articles were included that were published in English between 2005 and 2010 the key words use were urinary incontinence, women, and quality of life. Results A total of 18 studies were identified, and the prevalence of urinary incontinence varied depending on the definition of incontinence used and the age of the population studied. The Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QoL), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-short form (IIQ-7), and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were the most commonly used instruments. Demographic, medical, physical, psychological, health, and intervention factors were reported as influencing factors on the quality of life of women with incontinence. Age, severity of urinary incontinence, type of urinary incontinence, number of urinary incontinence episodes, body weight, stress, and help-seeking behavior were statistically significant variables influencing quality of life. Conclusion Future studies are needed to identify factors related to quality of life among women with incontinence and to use validated instruments according to specific subjects. PMID:21179330

  17. Moving fecal microbiota transplantation into the mainstream.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Robert; Griesbach, Cheryl L; DiBaise, John K

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (aka fecal transplantation, fecal bacteriotherapy, FMT) has become increasing utilized to treat recurrent and refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Almost 600,000 cases of CDI occur each year in the United States. Of these, an estimated 15,000 patients have a recurrence. The management of recurrent disease has been challenging for patients and clinicians. Increasingly, FMT has been recognized as an effective option for these patients. This article explores why FMT has reemerged as a practical therapeutic modality. In the process, the logistics by which the procedure is performed and the factors that may affect quality, safety, and patient outcomes will be described.

  18. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:26327826

  19. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in women studying nursing and related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Opara, Józef; Czerwińska-Opara, Wioletta Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Urinary incontinence is a growing problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women studying nursing. Respondents completed a questionnaire assessing urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms and quality of life. Short forms to assess symptoms of distress for urinary incontinence and quality of life: UDI-6 and IIQ-7 have been used. The study's conclusions are as follows: 1) among the 113 interviewed women, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) was observed in 25% of respondents; this prevalence is similar to the age-matched population; 2) among the triggering factors mentioned in stress urinary incontinence the most frequent were: coughing, laughing and sneezing; 3) moderate impact of incontinence on quality of life has been shown, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  20. [Urinary incontinence - what can be done by the family doctor and when is the urologist needed?].

    PubMed

    Keller, Isabelle Sonja; Brachlow, Jan Frederic; Padevit, Christian; Kurz, Michael; John, Hubert

    2014-10-01

    About 15% of the women and 10% of the men past the age of 65 years suffer from urinary incontinence. In most cases, accurate history taking can help differentiate between urge incontinence, stress incontinence and overflow incontinence, and is essential in choosing the appropriate treatment. Initial diagnostic testing can be conducted by the general practitioner, especially tests to exclude urinary tract infections or to rule out an overactive bladder. Patient education on changes to fluid intake and voiding habits as well as advice on suitable incontinence products are important first steps in the management of urinary continence. Also, drug treatment can be initiated in general practice. Patients with refractory urinary incontinence, particularly those who did not respond to anticholinergic medication, should be referred to a urologist for further evaluation since there may be an underlying tumour or other disorder of the bladder that is causing the incontinence.

  1. Diagnosis and office-based treatment of urinary incontinence in adults. Part two: treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Masahito; Heidelbaugh, Joel J.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem in both men and women. In this review article we address treatment of the various forms of incontinence with conservative treatments, medical therapy, devices and surgery. The US Preventive Services Task Force, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PubMed were reviewed for articles focusing on urinary incontinence. Conservative therapy with education, fluid and food management, weight loss, timed voiding and pelvic floor physical therapy are all simple office-based treatments for incontinence. Medical therapy for incontinence currently is only available for urgency incontinence in the form of anticholinergic medication. Condom catheters, penile clamps, urethral inserts and pessaries can be helpful in specific situations. Surgical therapies vary depending on the type of incontinence, but are typically offered if conservative measures fail. PMID:23904858

  2. The minimum important difference for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sirls, Larry T; Tennstedt, Sharon; Brubaker, Linda; Kim, Hae-Young; Nygaard, Ingrid; Rahn, David D; Shepherd, Jonathan; Richter, Holly E

    2015-02-01

    Minimum important difference (MID) estimates the minimum degree of change in an instrument's score that correlates with a patient's subjective sense of improvement. We aimed to determine the MID for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) using both anchor based and distribution based methods derived using data from the Trial of Midurethral Slings (TOMUS). Instruments for the anchor-based analyses included the urogenital distress inventory (UDI), incontinence impact questionnaire (IIQ), patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I), incontinence episodes (IE) on 7-day bladder diary, and satisfaction with surgical results. After confirming moderate correlation (r ≥ 0.3) of ICIQ-UI SF and each anchor, MIDs were determined by calculating the difference between the mean instrument scores for individuals with the smallest amount of improvement and with no change. The distribution-based method of MID assessment was applied using effect sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 SD (small to medium effects). Triangulation was used to examine these multiple MID values in order to converge on a small range of values. Anchor-based MIDs range from -4.5 to -5.7 at 12 months and from -3.1 to 4.3 at 24 months. Distribution-based MID values were lower. Triangulation analysis supports a MID of -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. The recommended MIDs for ICIQ-UI SF are -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. In surgical patients, ICIQ-UI SF score changes that meet these thresholds can be considered clinically meaningful. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Minimum Important Difference for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Urinary Incontinence Short Form in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Sirls, Larry T.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Brubaker, Linda; Kim, Hae-Young; Nygaard, Ingrid; Rahn, David D.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minimum important difference (MID) estimates the minimum degree of change in an instrument's score that correlates with a patient's subjective sense of improvement. We aimed to determine the MID for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) using both anchor based and distribution based methods derived using data from the Trial of Midurethral Slings (TOMUS). Materials and Methods Instruments for the anchor-based analyses included the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), Patient Global Impression of improvement (PGI-I), incontinence episodes (IE) on 7-day bladder diary and satisfaction with surgical results. After confirming moderate correlation (r ≥0.3) of ICIQ-UI SF and each anchor, MIDs were determined by calculating the difference between the mean instrument scores for individuals with the smallest amount of improvement and with no change. The distribution-based method of MID assessment was applied using effect sizes of 0.2 and 0.5 SD (small to medium effects). Triangulation was used to examine these multiple MID values in order to converge on a small range of values. Results Anchor-based MIDs range from -4.5 to -5.7 at 12 months and from -3.1 to 4.3 at 24 months. Distribution-based MID values were lower. Triangulation analysis supports a MID of -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. Conclusion The recommended MIDs for ICIQ-UI SF are -5 at 12 months and -4 at 24 months. In surgical patients, ICIQ-UI SF score changes that meet these thresholds can be considered clinically meaningful. PMID:24273137

  4. Nursing management of stress urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Jeanette

    Although urinary incontinence is not a subject spoken about in general conversation, it is a cause of concern for many people. Stress urinary incontinence is common, being reported by 16.8% of women (Hunskaar et al, 2002). In the past, women with stress urinary incontinence were often dismissed as having an inevitable problem resulting from childbirth and the hormonal changes associated with ageing. They were often made to feel that they just had to put up with the problem--this is no longer the case. Conservative therapy is advocated as the primary intervention for those suffering with stress urinary incontinence and nurses are ideally placed to be a source of information and help. Furthermore, nurses can develop their skills in order to encompass therapies to become more specialist and effective. In 2000, the Department of Health (DoH) issued guidance on establishing integrated continence services (DoH, 2000). This becomes mandatory for older people from April 2004 (DoH, 2001a).

  5. Is caffeine intake associated with urinary incontinence in Japanese adults?

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults. A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively. No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI.

  6. Staying Trim, Strong May Cut Risk of Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... in decreasing the odds of new or worsening stress type of urinary incontinence," she said. The study was published recently in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society . SOURCES: Anne Suskind, M.D., assistant professor of urology, University of California, San Francisco; Megan Schimpf, M.D., ...

  7. Self-injury and incontinence in psychogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Peguero, E; Abou-Khalil, B; Fakhoury, T; Mathews, G

    1995-06-01

    Two patients who incurred significant injuries during psychogenic seizures prompted us to do a telephone survey of self-injury and incontinence in 102 consecutive patients diagnosed with psychogenic seizures by EEG-closed-circuit TV (EEG-CCTV) monitoring. Seventy-three patients (or a close family member or friend) were reached by telephone and responded to our survey. During typical attacks of psychogenic seizures, 40% reported injuries, 44% reporting tongue biting, and 44% reported urinary incontinence. Suicide attempts were reported by 32% and were more common in those with self-injury and urinary incontinence. We compared the results of patients with psychogenic seizures with those of 30 patients with refractory epilepsy documented by ictal recordings, using a similar telephone survey. Injuries of all types were more commonly reported by epilepsy patients. Burn injuries were reported only by patients with epilepsy. Suicide attempts were more commonly reported by the psychogenic seizure group. Self-injury and incontinence are commonly reported by psychogenic seizure patients. In view of their significant association with suicide attempts, they may indicate an underlying depression.

  8. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  9. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for patients with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Allison, Marion

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a new, non-invasive treatment for faecal incontinence. It is given in an outpatient setting and has few side effects. An increasing number of studies confirm its efficacy. This article discusses the procedure, reports early experiences of using PTNS at one centre in the UK and considers cost effectiveness.

  10. Incontinence--an aggressive approach to treatment: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dornan, P R

    2005-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that, for some, leaking urine may be a barrier to physical activity. Although important from a lifestyle point of view, bladder problems and incontinence also affect both men and women socially, psychologically and economically. For example, it can be particularly distressing when incontinence occurs post-prostate surgery, especially if these patients were continent before surgery. This case series outlines an aggressive, innovative, exercise-based approach to the management of stress incontinence post-prostatectomy. The program attempts to enhance neuromuscular and vascular systems associated with continence, with emphasis placed on the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. The program was undertaken by 14 incontinent post-prostatectomy patients (mean age 63.5 y, using a mean of 3.5 sanitary pads per day). The program was initiated a mean of two months post-op and had a mean duration of six months. Upon completion of the program. 10 patients were found to be completely dry with three retaining a small leakage (a few drops). The 14th could not comply with the program because of illness. The results of this study appear promising in this patient population. There are indications for further research.

  11. Assessment of the female patient with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Frankie

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the pelvic floor anatomy and all of its components is crucial when performing pelvic floor examination and assessing patients suffering from urinary incontinence. It is important for urology nurses to understand the pelvic floor, including the muscle, nerve, and fascia involved; external and internal examination of the vulva; and global assessment of the patient.

  12. The meanings of silence in Brazilian women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Higa, Rosângela; Chvatal, Vera Lucia Soares; de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    We explored the meanings of silence for Brazilian women with urinary incontinence (UI). The sample consisted of 8 women, aged 30 to 45 years. Respondents worked as housekeepers or cleaning staff and were from lower social, economic, and educational strata. Their years of formal education varied from 0 to 8 years and they earned up to 4.5 times the Brazilian minimum wage, which is equivalent to US$900. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was employed to gather data. Individual semistructured interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed, including researchers' observations of subjects' nonverbal behaviors. The interviews began with the question: "Can you tell me about your experience with urinary incontinence?" Data were analyzed using a content analysis technique. Respondents avoided discussing UI and initially resisted labeling themselves as incontinent, but their nonverbal behaviors provided clues to the psychosocial distress caused by urinary leakage. Results suggest that respondents' underprivileged social, economic, and cultural situation may aggravate their limitations when expressing their feelings. We found that the women employed silence as a means to contain the psychosocial distress created by their UI, and that the silence itself should be interpreted as an expression of distress associated with UI. The silence of Brazilian women with UI is an essential element of communication about incontinence. We believe that the silence used by these women expresses the pain and anxiety they experienced, and it acts as an adaptive psychosocial mechanism.

  13. Is Caffeine Intake Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Japanese Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Fumi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults. Methods A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Results Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively. Conclusions No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI. PMID:22712048

  14. [Urinary incontinence induced by the antidepressants - case report].

    PubMed

    Krhut, J; Gärtner, M

    2015-01-01

    Case study of the patient with urinary incontinence induced by the antidepressant mirtazapin and the review of the related literature. Case Report. Department of Urology, University Hospital Ostrava-Poruba. A case of 55-years old patiens, who was reffered to the surgical treatment of the urinary incontinence. We found a major discrepancies during the evaluation that led us to suspect that this is not a common uncomplicated case of stress urinary incontinence. Based on the detailed history we identified the antidepressant mirtazapine as a likely causal factor. After discontinuing mirtazapin patient has achieved full control of the continence. Given that antidepressants affects adrenergic and dopaminergic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system, they may affect the lower urinary tract function. This work presents a case report where the disclosure of the less common cause of incontinence saved the patientoriginally proposed surgical treatment and allowed the effective restoration of the continence. We emphasize the need to consider the potential interaction of antidepressants with lower urinary tract function in daily practice.

  15. [The defecation balloon proctogram in the study of idiopathic incontinence].

    PubMed

    Ciarelli, A; Ciarelli, F; Mascia, D; Tentarelli, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their findings in the study of idiopathic rectal incontinence using a defecatory balloon proctogram. The study provides a detailed anatomico-functional analysis of the sphincteric tract and, together with manometric and electromyographic studies, is useful in assessing the need for reconstructive surgery and for monitoring the results of ileoanal and coloanal anastomoses, sphincteric plastic surgery and posterior anal plastic surgery.

  16. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920 Section 876.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5920 Protective...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5920 - Protective garment for incontinence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protective garment for incontinence. 876.5920 Section 876.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5920 Protective...

  18. Prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in a cohort of nuns.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Gunhilde M; Chin, Michelle; Glantz, Chris; Guzick, David

    2002-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among a group of nulliparous nuns and to assess risk factors for developing incontinence. Information on symptoms of urinary incontinence, as well as medical history and demographic data were obtained from 149 nuns. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was determined, and a logistic regression model was used to estimate the impact of demographic and medical risk factors on the likelihood of incontinence. The mean (+/- standard deviation) age of our sample of nuns was 68 (+/-11.7). All but one were white, 96% were postmenopausal, and 25% were taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.3 +/- 5.6. According to their self-reported symptoms, half the nuns had urinary incontinence. Of these, 22 nuns (30%) had stress incontinence, 18 (24%) had urge incontinence, 26 (35%) had mixed incontinence, and 8 (11%) had urine loss unrelated to stress and urge. More than half the incontinent nuns used sanitary pads for protection. From univariate analyses, statistically significant risk factors for urinary incontinence included BMI, current HRT use, multiple urinary tract infections, hypertension, arthritis, depression, hysterectomy, and previous spinal surgery. From multivariate logistic regression, only BMI, multiple urinary tract infections, and depression remained statistically significant after adjusting for the other variables. The prevalence of incontinence in nulliparous, predominantly postmenopausal nuns is similar to rates reported in parous, postmenopausal women. Even in the absence of pelvic floor trauma from childbirth, urine loss is associated with symptoms of stress incontinence more often than with symptoms of urge incontinence.

  19. Clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs used to treat urge incontinence.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2003-01-01

    Urge incontinence (also known as overactive bladder) is a common form of urinary incontinence, occurring alone or as a component of mixed urinary incontinence, frequently together with stress incontinence. Because of the pathophysiology of urge incontinence, anticholinergic/antispasmodic agents form the cornerstone of therapy. Unfortunately, the pharmacological activity of these agents is not limited to the urinary tract, leading to systemic adverse effects that often promote nonadherence. Although the pharmacokinetics of flavoxate, propantheline, scopolamine, imipramine/desipramine, trospium chloride and propiverine are also reviewed here, only for oxybutynin and tolterodine are there adequate efficacy/tolerability data to support their use in urge incontinence. Oxybutynin is poorly absorbed orally (2-11% for the immediate-release tablet formulation). Controlled-release oral formulations significantly prolong the time to peak plasma concentration and reduce the degree of fluctuation around the average concentration. Significant absorption occurs after intravesical (bladder) and transdermal administration, although concentrations of the active N-desethyl metabolite are lower after transdermal compared with oral administration, possibly improving tolerability. Food has been found to significantly affect the absorption of one of the controlled-release formulations of oxybutynin, enhancing the rate of drug release. Oxybutynin is extensively metabolised, principally via N-demethylation mediated by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A isozyme. The pharmacokinetics of tolterodine are dependent in large part on the pharmacogenomics of the CYP2D6 and 3A4 isozymes. In an unselected population, oral bioavailability of tolterodine ranges from 10% to 74% (mean 33%) whereas in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers and poor metabolisers mean bioavailabilities are 26% and 91%, respectively. Tolterodine is metabolised via CYP2D6 to the active metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl-tolterodine and via CYP3A

  20. The development of national quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products for adult incontinence.

    PubMed

    Muller, Nancy; McInnis, Elaine

    2013-09-01

    Disposable absorbent products are widely used in inpatient care settings and in the community to manage adult urinary and fecal incontinence, but few product standards exist to help guide their production or optimal use. Increasing costs and reduced revenues have caused a number of states to evaluate absorbent product use among persons who receive care at home with the assistance of the Medicaid Waiver Program, further increasing concerns about the lack of product performance standards. To address these issues, the National Association For Continence (NAFC) formed a council of experts and key stakeholders with the objective of establishing national, independent quality performance standards for disposable absorbent products provided by states to Waiver Program recipients. The Council consisted of representatives from five purposefully selected states, technical directors from six nonwoven product manufacturers, an officer of the nonwoven manufactures trade association, a delegate from an academic nursing program and professional societies, a family caregiver, and a patient representative. Following a consensus method and guidelines for use, nine specific recommendations were developed, posted for public comment, and further refined. Final recommendations for product performance assessment include: rewet rate (a measure of a product's ability to withstand multiple incontinent episodes between changes), rate of acquisition (a measure of the speed at which urine is drawn away from the skin by a product, product retention capacity (a measure of a product's capacity to hold fluid without rewetting the skin), sizing options, absorbency levels, product safety, closure technology, breathable zones (a measure of the air permeability across a textile-like fabric at a controlled differential pressure), and elasticity. The Council also