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Sample records for imaging guidelines implementation

  1. Summary of the proceedings of the international forum 2016: "Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support - how can radiologists implement imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine?"

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2016, the issue of implementing imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine was analysed. The legal environment in the USA requires that after January 1, 2017, physicians must consult government-approved, evidence-based appropriate-use criteria through a clinical decision support system when ordering advanced diagnostic imaging exams. The ESR and the National Decision Support Company are developing "ESR iGuide", a clinical decision support system for European imaging referral guidelines using ESR imaging referral guidelines based on ACR Appropriateness Criteria. In many regions of the world, the situation is different and quite diverse, depending on the specific features of health care systems in different countries, but there are, unlike in the USA and EU, no legal obligations to implement imaging referral guidelines into the clinical practice. Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support implementation is a complex issue everywhere and the legal environment surrounding it even more so; how they will be implemented into the clinical practice in different areas of the world needs yet to be decided.

  2. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  3. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  4. Guideline implementation: Surgical attire.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Surgical attire helps protect patients from microorganisms that may be shed from the hair and skin of perioperative personnel. The updated AORN "Guideline for surgical attire" provides guidance on scrub attire, shoes, head coverings, and masks worn in the semirestricted and restricted areas of the perioperative setting, as well as how to handle personal items (eg, jewelry, backpacks, cell phones) that may be taken into the perioperative suite. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel adhere to facility policies and regulatory requirements for attire. The key points address the potential benefits of wearing scrub attire made of antimicrobial fabric, covering the arms when in the restricted area of the surgical suite, removing or confining jewelry when wearing scrub attire, disinfecting personal items that will be taken into the perioperative suite, and sending reusable attire to a health care-accredited laundry facility after use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  5. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  10. GOSIP implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Van Norman, H.J.

    1996-07-01

    GOSIP (Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile) is a subset of ISO`s OSI protocol standards relevant to US Government operations. As a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), GOSIP is required by law for all Federal agencies. Mandatory standards-based communications products are required when purchasing functionality equivalent to what is specified in GOSIP. This unprecedented requirement by the Federal government has caused considerable confusion concerning practical implementation of relatively immature and untested technologies. Many organizations already have substantial investment in one or more proprietary network architectures. This paper examines issues associated with conversion to the GOSIP system.

  11. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  12. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  13. Guidelines for Implementing Teletraining Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    Designed to provide change agents with a framework for planning and implementing successful teletraining systems, this paper discusses strategies for the introduction of sophisticated teletraining technology into corporate training programs without adversely affecting a client organization's social environment. Teletraining is defined as an…

  14. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC19 Coral Reef Conservation Program... Implementation Guidelines for the Coral Reef Conservation Program. SUMMARY: This document provides NOAA's revised Grant Program Implementation Guidelines (Guidelines) for the Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP...

  15. Bridging the Guideline Implementation Gap: A Systematic, Document-Centered Approach to Guideline Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Michel, George; Essaihi, Abdelwaheb; Thornquist, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A gap exists between the information contained in published clinical practice guidelines and the knowledge and information that are necessary to implement them. This work describes a process to systematize and make explicit the translation of document-based knowledge into workflow-integrated clinical decision support systems. Design: This approach uses the Guideline Elements Model (GEM) to represent the guideline knowledge. Implementation requires a number of steps to translate the knowledge contained in guideline text into a computable format and to integrate the information into clinical workflow. The steps include: (1) selection of a guideline and specific recommendations for implementation, (2) markup of the guideline text, (3) atomization, (4) deabstraction and (5) disambiguation of recommendation concepts, (6) verification of rule set completeness, (7) addition of explanations, (8) building executable statements, (9) specification of origins of decision variables and insertions of recommended actions, (10) definition of action types and selection of associated beneficial services, (11) choice of interface components, and (12) creation of requirement specification. Results: The authors illustrate these component processes using examples drawn from recent experience translating recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's guideline on management of chronic asthma into a workflow-integrated decision support system that operates within the Logician electronic health record system. Conclusion: Using the guideline document as a knowledge source promotes authentic translation of domain knowledge and reduces the overall complexity of the implementation task. From this framework, we believe that a better understanding of activities involved in guideline implementation will emerge. PMID:15187061

  16. Guidelines for Implementing Workplace Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Marie H.

    This document provides guidelines for implementing workplace literacy programs. Project leadership selection, characteristics and skills, education and experience, and roles and responsibilities are reviewed. Community and business involvement, partnership development, and the voluntary advisory council components of a marketing workplace literacy…

  17. Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy (Shirley) & Associates, Sierra Madre, CA.

    The Implementation of Job Placement Services Guidelines Project was designed to strengthen placement programs and services for California community college vocational students, and for all students needing part-time employment to realize their educational goals. The project was designed to test the validity and relevance of quality indicators…

  18. Reporting guidelines for implementation and operational research.

    PubMed

    Hales, Simon; Lesher-Trevino, Ana; Ford, Nathan; Maher, Dermot; Ramsay, Andrew; Tran, Nhan

    2016-01-01

    In public health, implementation research is done to improve access to interventions that have been shown to work but have not reached many of the people who could benefit from them. Researchers identify practical problems facing public health programmes and aim to find solutions that improve health outcomes. In operational research, routinely-collected programme data are used to uncover ways of delivering more effective, efficient and equitable health care. As implementation research can address many types of questions, many research designs may be appropriate. Existing reporting guidelines partially cover the methods used in implementation and operational research, so we ran a consultation through the World Health Organization (WHO), the Alliance for Health Policy & Systems Research (AHPSR) and the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and developed guidelines to facilitate the funding, conduct, review and publishing of such studies. Our intention is to provide a practical reference for funders, researchers, policymakers, implementers, reviewers and editors working with implementation and operational research. This is an evolving field, so we plan to monitor the use of these guidelines and develop future versions as required.

  19. Epilepsy Imaging Study Guideline Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, William D; Cross, J Helen; Duncan, John S; Stefan, Hermann; Theodore, William H

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of limited economic resources, as well as potential adverse effects of ‘over testing,’ has increased interest in ‘evidence-based’ assessment of new medical technology. This creates a particular problem for evaluation and treatment of epilepsy, increasingly dependent on advanced imaging and electrophysiology, since there is a marked paucity of epilepsy diagnostic and prognostic studies that meet rigorous standards for evidence classification. The lack of high quality data reflects fundamental weaknesses in many imaging studies but also limitations in the assumptions underlying evidence classification schemes as they relate to epilepsy, and to the practicalities of conducting adequately powered studies of rapidly evolving technologies. We review the limitations of current guidelines and propose elements for imaging studies that can contribute meaningfully to the epilepsy literature. PMID:21740417

  20. Computer-based Guideline Implementation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Liaw, Yischon; Brandt, Cynthia A.; Corb, Geoffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    In this systematic review, the authors analyze the functionality provided by recent computer-based guideline implementation systems and characterize the effectiveness of the systems. Twenty-five studies published between 1992 and January 1998 were identified. Articles were included if the authors indicated an intent to implement guideline recommendations for clinicians and if the effectiveness of the system was evaluated. Provision of eight information management services and effects on guideline adherence, documentation, user satisfaction, and patient outcome were noted. All systems provided patient-specific recommendations. In 19, recommendations were available concurrently with care. Explanation services were described for nine systems. Nine systems allowed interactive documentation, and 17 produced paper-based output. Communication services were present most often in systems integrated with electronic medical records. Registration, calculation, and aggregation services were infrequently reported. There were 10 controlled trials (9 randomized) and 10 time-series correlational studies. Guideline adherence improved in 14 of 18 systems in which it was measured. Documentation improved in 4 of 4 studies. PMID:10094063

  1. Developing and implementing dietary guidelines in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    Single nutrients are no solution to the problem of malnutrition. It is essential that food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are developed and implemented to overcome the diet related diseases and promote health in the population. A multidisciplinary group was constituted to develop FBDGs in India. A manual with scientific details and an abridged version were prepared with 6 goals and 14 dietary guidelines covering all age groups to overcome the public health nutritional problems. The guidelines are based on dietary patterns and specific outcomes of health and disease. Dietary diversification has been suggested as the practical approach. Diets from locally available and culturally accepted foods in household measures have been suggested to ensure optimal health. For successful implementation of FBDGs, political/bureaucratic commitment are essential. It must become a tool in the developmental plans for food, nutrition, agriculture, rural, educational and biotechnology policies. Workshops and meetings were organized to sensitise the administrative set-up. The intersectoral nature of FBDG for implementation was highlighted. The department of women and child development, which is responsible for implementing the National Nutritional Policy, was recognized as nodal agency. Meetings were organised for secondary target audiences. The press was invited to participate in popularization of the FBDGs. Social marketing strategies were used to match the local dietary and cultural aspects. Interpersonal communication and professional societies were used for better dissemination. Industry and legislative bodies were requested to take active action in this regard. The FBDGs have to be implemented to achieve food and nutrition security and the Millennium Development Goals.

  2. Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242

  3. Guidelines for Implementing Training Effectiveness Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Clarence A.

    The document presents guidelines for planning, implementing, and documenting training effectiveness evaluations. The guidelines are intended to assist researchers in coping with many of the constraints associated with executing empirical research in operational settings. (NTIS)

  4. Implementing Guidelines One Patient at a Time.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Alex R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important component of health care delivery. Although guidelines can be viewed negatively, as "cookbook medicine," many guidelines have improved care delivery. Work is needed to refine guidelines in real-world settings and to assure that they are patient-centered.

  5. Reflections on Implementing the ITC's International Guidelines for Test Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, Cheryl D.

    2001-01-01

    Considers ways to implement the International Guidelines for Test Use (International Test Commission, 2001) to maximize their intended impact . The process calls for customizing the guidelines for specific assessment contexts and needs and using the guidelines to generate competency standards. (SLD)

  6. Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from developing a surgical site infection. The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel develop protocols for patient skin antisepsis. The key points include the need for the patient to take a preoperative bath or shower and the need for perioperative personnel to manage hair at the surgical site, select a safe and effective antiseptic for the individual patient, perform a safe preoperative surgical site prep, and appropriately store skin antiseptics. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  7. Creation and implementation of standardised craniofacial views for the Institute Of Medical Illustrators National Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Vetter (1) states, "Standardisation is the key word in all discussions of clinical photography". As part of clinical photography standardised guidelines form an integral part of providing a basis to obtaining standardised images. The Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI) provides sets of standardised guidelines that have been developed in consultation with relevant clinicians, providing theory and standardised images that are to be considered as guides to good clinical photography practice. At the time of the study there were no official standardised IMI guidelines for craniofacial photography, for this reason, the primary objective of this project was to produce a set of standardised craniofacial guidelines that could be utilised by other clinical photographers for guidance on taking craniofacial images. This paper describes the development, evaluation and implementation of the guidelines.

  8. Guidelines for Implementing State Skill Standards Certificate Program in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Workforce Development, Madison.

    This packet contains guidelines, a student competency checklist, and student evaluation sheet for use in a Wisconsin school-to-work state skill standards certificate program in construction. The guidelines provide a planning resource for implementing the program, which was created in partnership with unions, employers, the state Department of…

  9. Digital Imaging and Conservation: Model Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the intersection of conservation and digital imaging based on guidelines at the Cornell University (Ithaca, NY) library. Discusses the digitization of artifacts; assessing the condition prior to scanning; scanning considerations, including temperature and humidity, lighting, and security; stable storage of artifacts after scanning; and…

  10. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  11. Overactive Bladder and Continence Guidelines: implementation, inaction or frustration?

    PubMed

    Wagg, A; Cardozo, L; Chapple, C; Diaz, D C; de Ridder, D; Espuna-Pons, M; Haab, F; Kelleher, C; Kolbl, H; Milsom, I; Van Kerrebroeck, P; Vierhout, M; Kirby, M

    2008-10-01

    Guidelines for the management of continence and overactive bladder are generally available across Europe. For a majority of countries, these have been adopted by professional societies in either urology or gynaecology for local use. There has, however, been little monitoring of formal implementation of these guidelines and seldom any attempt to audit their operation. The state of continence care therefore remains largely unknown. This article reviews current guidelines and their status across Europe and examines what might be relevant from other disease areas to promote successful implementation.

  12. A practical approach to implementing new CDC GBS guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shawna M; Bridges, Margie A; Knudsen, Alexis L; Vezeau, Toni M

    2013-01-01

    Group beta streptococcus (GBS) is a well-documented pathogen causing serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The CDC guidelines for managing clients who test positive for GBS in pregnancy were revised and published in 2010. However, CDC and extant literature provide limited guidance on implementation strategies for these new recommendations. Although several algorithms are included in the CDC (2010) document, none combine the maternal risk factors for practical and consistent implementation from pregnancy to newborn. In response to confusion upon initial education of these guidelines, we developed an algorithm for maternal intrapartum management. In addition, we clarified the CDC (2010) newborn algorithm in response to provider request. Without altering the recommendations, both algorithms provide clarification of the CDC (2010) guidelines. The nursing process provides an organizational structure for the discussion of our efforts to translate the complex guidelines into practice. This article could provide other facilities with tools for dealing with specific aspects of the complex clinical management of perinatal GBS.

  13. State Laws and Guidelines for Implementing RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    The legal source of schools' use of response to intervention (RTI) is a matter of federal and state special education laws, although its implementation is largely a matter of general education practice. The only mention of RTI is in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and it is limited to identification of students with…

  14. Implementation of study results in guidelines and adherence to guidelines in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Waldfahrer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines were introduced in hospital- and practice-based otorhinolaryngology in the 1990ies, and have been undergoing further development ever since. There are currently 20 guidelines on file at the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head & Neck Surgery. The society has cooperated in further 34 guidelines. The quality of the guidelines has been continuously improved by concrete specifications put forward by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V., AWMF). Since increasing digitalization has made access to scientific publications quicker and simpler, relevant study results can be incorporated in guidelines more easily today than in the analog world. S2e and S3 guidelines must be based on a formal literature search with subsequent evaluation of the evidence. The consensus procedure for S2k guidelines is also regulated. However, the implementation of guidelines in routine medical practice must still be considered inadequate, and there is still a considerable need for improvement in adherence to these guidelines. PMID:28025601

  15. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  16. Guidelines for Implementing Change: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masekela, Belinda; Nienaber, Rita

    To attain and sustain a competitive advantage organizations are continually faced with the need to change their structures, processes and technologies. Converting to new technology and implementing a new information management system in an organization results in inevitable changes in organizational procedures impacting on the people involved. A major problem encountered during this process is resistance to change, which may contribute to total failure of this system. Change management is the process that can be used to negate this impact and assist employees in transitioning to a new way of doing things.

  17. Successful implementation of spacer treatment guideline for acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C; Maskell, G; Marks, M; South, M; Robertson, C; LENNEY, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination.
METHODS—Defined strategies were used for the development and implementation of a guideline, assessed by a prospective, descriptive, study using notes review, and patient, nursing, and medical staff telephone contact. The setting was a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria, Australia with 25 000 yearly admissions, and asthma accounting for about 7% of total. The first 200 children and families to use the guideline after its introduction were evaluated.
RESULTS—A total of 191 (95.5%) children were treated according to the guideline. Six (3.0%) children were given nebulisers appropriately based on severity; five (2.5%) were given nebulisers at parental or child choice; and four (2.0 %) who did not have severe asthma, received nebulised treatment inappropriately.
CONCLUSIONS—Successful implementation of a new evidence based guideline can be achieved using specific strategies for promoting the application of research findings in the clinical arena.

 PMID:11159290

  18. Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Cynthia

    2005-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. This paper summarizes a review of scientific studies using the gluten-free diet, nutritional risk factors, controversial elements of the diet, and its implementation in treating celiac disease. Treatment for celiac disease requires elimination of the storage proteins found in wheat, rye, and barley. The inclusion of oats and wheat starch is controversial. Research supports that oats may be acceptable for patients with celiac disease and can improve the nutritional quality of the diet. However, use of oats is not widely recommended in the United States because of concerns of potential contamination of commercial oats. Studies assessing the contamination of commercial oats are limited. Research indicates no differences in patients choosing a strict wheat starch-containing, gluten-free diet vs. a naturally gluten-free diet. Factors other than trace gluten may be the cause of continued villous atrophy in some patients. The impact of nutrient malabsorption caused from untreated celiac disease is well documented. The diet and gluten-free products are often low in B vitamins, calcium, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, and fiber. Few gluten-free products are enriched or fortified, adding to the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Patients newly diagnosed or inadequately treated have low bone mineral density, imbalanced macronutrients, low fiber intake, and micronutrient deficiencies. Also troubling is the increased incidence of obesity seen in persons with celiac disease following a gluten-free diet. Because of the nutritional risks associated with celiac disease, a registered dietitian must be part of the health care team that monitors the patient's nutritional status and compliance on a regular basis.

  19. Osteoporosis guideline implementation in family medicine using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Janet; Karampatos, Sarah; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan; Thabane, Lehana; Nash, Lynn; Mehan, Upe; Kozak, Joseph; Feldman, Sid; Hirsch, Steve; Jovaisas, Algis V.; Cheung, Angela; Lohfeld, Lynne; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify family physicians’ learning needs related to osteoporosis care; determine family physicians’ preferred modes of learning; and identify barriers to using electronic medical records (EMRs) to implement osteoporosis guidelines in practice. Design Web-based survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians. Main outcome measures Quantitative and qualitative data about learning needs related to osteoporosis diagnosis and management; preferred mode of learning about guidelines; and barriers to using EMRs to implement guidelines. Results Of the 12 332 family physicians invited to participate in the survey, 8.5% and 7.0% provided partial or fully completed surveys, respectively. More than 80% of respondents agreed that the priority areas for education were as follows: selecting laboratory tests for secondary osteoporosis and interpreting the test results; interpreting bone mineral density results; determining appropriate circumstances for ordering anterior-posterior lumbar spine x-ray scans; and understanding duration, types, and adverse effects of pharmacotherapy. Qualitative analysis revealed that managing moderate-risk patients was a learning need. Continuing medical education was the preferred mode of learning. Approximately 80% of respondents agreed that the scarcity of EMR tools to aid in guideline implementation was a barrier to using guidelines, and 50% of respondents agreed that if EMR-embedded tools were available, time would limit their ability to use them. Conclusion This survey identified key diagnostic- and treatment-related topics in osteoporosis care that should be the focus of future continuing professional development for family physicians. Developers of EMR tools, physicians, and researchers aiming to implement guidelines to improve osteoporosis care should consider the potential barriers indicated in this study.

  20. How to Implement the NCAA Financial Audit Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Lawrence C., Jr.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions for implementing new National Collegiate Athletic Association guidelines for intercollegiate athletics program financial audits include forming an internal task force, preparing an organization chart, choosing the type of audit, conducting a survey of booster groups, preparing a schedule of revenues and expenditures, selecting an…

  1. Cardiac advanced life support-surgical guideline: overview and implementation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest in the immediate postoperative recovery period in a patient who underwent cardiac surgery is typically related to reversible causes-tamponade, bleeding, ventricular arrhythmias, or heart blocks associated with conduction problems. When treated promptly, 17% to 79% of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery survive to discharge. The Cardiac Advanced Life Support-Surgical (CALS-S) guideline provides a standardized algorithm approach to resuscitation of patients who experience cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to discuss the CALS-S guideline and how to implement it.

  2. Imaging Guidelines for Enhancing Justifications for Radiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Baek, Jung Hwan; Jung, Seung Eun; Do, Kyung Hyun; Yong, Hwan Seok; Kim, Min-Jeong; Choi, Miyoung; Lee, Min; Choi, Sol Ji; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A

    2016-02-01

    Justification in the field of radiology refers to the appropriate use of radiologic imaging modalities, and may be achieved by establishing clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs). Recently, CIGs have been shown to be useful in selecting the proper medical imaging modality, resulting in the reduction of inappropriate radiologic examinations, thereby enhancing justifications. However, the development of CIGs is both time-consuming and difficult as the methodology of evidence-based medicine should be adhered to. Thus, although the radiologic societies in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and USA are already developing and implementing CIGs in their clinical practices, CIGs are not yet readily available in many other countries owing to differences in medical circumstances and resources. In this review, we assess the role and limitations of CIGs by examining the current status of CIGs in developed countries, and also describe the specific efforts made to establish CIGs in Korea.

  3. Imaging Guidelines for Enhancing Justifications for Radiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Justification in the field of radiology refers to the appropriate use of radiologic imaging modalities, and may be achieved by establishing clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs). Recently, CIGs have been shown to be useful in selecting the proper medical imaging modality, resulting in the reduction of inappropriate radiologic examinations, thereby enhancing justifications. However, the development of CIGs is both time-consuming and difficult as the methodology of evidence-based medicine should be adhered to. Thus, although the radiologic societies in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and USA are already developing and implementing CIGs in their clinical practices, CIGs are not yet readily available in many other countries owing to differences in medical circumstances and resources. In this review, we assess the role and limitations of CIGs by examining the current status of CIGs in developed countries, and also describe the specific efforts made to establish CIGs in Korea. PMID:26908986

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline Selection, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    patient education , which will reduce the incidence of disease or injury. Quality is improved along with patient outcomes, as physician practice...the guideline. Following selection, staff and patient education , monitoring of outcomes and other CPG metrics, as well as continuous reevaluation...implement such a staff and patient education program due to regulatory requirements, but should do so simply because protecting their workers and

  5. Implementation of Anaphylaxis Management Guidelines: A Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Grabenhenrich, Linus; Hompes, Stephanie; Gough, Hannah; Ruëff, Franziska; Scherer, Kathrin; Pföhler, Claudia; Treudler, Regina; Mahler, Vera; Hawranek, Thomas; Nemat, Katja; Koehli, Alice; Keil, Thomas; Worm, Margitta

    2012-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis management guidelines recommend the use of intramuscular adrenaline in severe reactions, complemented by antihistamines and corticoids; secondary prevention includes allergen avoidance and provision of self-applicable first aid drugs. Gaps between recommendations and their implementation have been reported, but only in confined settings. Hence, we analysed nation-wide data on the management of anaphylaxis, evaluating the implementation of guidelines. Methods Within the anaphylaxis registry, allergy referral centres across Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on severe anaphylaxis cases. Based on patient records, details on reaction circumstances, diagnostic workup and treatment were collected via online questionnaire. Report of anaphylaxis through emergency physicians allowed for validation of registry data. Results 2114 severe anaphylaxis patients from 58 centres were included. 8% received adrenaline intravenously, 4% intramuscularly; 50% antihistamines, and 51% corticoids. Validation data indicated moderate underreporting of first aid drugs in the Registry. 20% received specific instructions at the time of the reaction; 81% were provided with prophylactic first aid drugs at any time. Conclusion There is a distinct discrepancy between current anaphylaxis management guidelines and their implementation. To improve patient care, a revised approach for medical education and training on the management of severe anaphylaxis is warranted. PMID:22590513

  6. Implementing thrombolytic guidelines in stroke care: perceived facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Stecksén, Anna; Lundman, Berit; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Asplund, Kjell

    2014-03-01

    We performed a qualitative study to identify facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of national guidelines on thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. We interviewed physicians and nurses at nine Swedish hospitals using 16 explorative, semistructured interviews, and selected hospitals based on their implementation rate of new stroke care methods according to data from the Swedish Stroke Register, Riks-Stroke. Through content analysis, we identified facilitators and barriers to implementation, which we classified into three categories: (a) individuals, (b) social interactions and context, and (c) organizational and resource issues. Insights obtained from this study can be used to identify target areas for improving the implementation of thrombolytic therapy and other new methods in stroke care.

  7. Automating Guidelines for Clinical Decision Support: Knowledge Engineering and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Geoffrey J.; Tu, Samson W.; Oshiro, Connie; Martins, Susana; Ashcraft, Michael; Yuen, Kaeli W.; Wang, Dan; Robinson, Amy; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    As utilization of clinical decision support (CDS) increases, it is important to continue the development and refinement of methods to accurately translate the intention of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) into a computable form. In this study, we validate and extend the 13 steps that Shiffman et al.5 identified for translating CPG knowledge for use in CDS. During an implementation project of ATHENA-CDS, we encoded complex CPG recommendations for five common chronic conditions for integration into an existing clinical dashboard. Major decisions made during the implementation process were recorded and categorized according to the 13 steps. During the implementation period, we categorized 119 decisions and identified 8 new categories required to complete the project. We provide details on an updated model that outlines all of the steps used to translate CPG knowledge into a CDS integrated with existing health information technology. PMID:28269916

  8. [General Strategies for Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Flores, Adriana Abigail; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Torres-Arreola, Laura Laura

    2015-01-01

    The need to use clinical practice guidelines (CPG) arises from the health conditions and problems that public health institutions in the country face. CPG are informative documents that help improve the quality of care processes and patient safety; having among its objectives, to reduce the variability of medical practice. The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social designed a strategic plan for the dissemination, implementation, monitoring and control of CPG to establish an applicable model in the medical units in the three levels of care at the Instituto. This paper summarizes some of the strategies of the plan that were made with the knowledge and experience of clinicians and managers, with which they intend to promote the adoption of the key recommendations of the guidelines, to promote a sense of belonging for health personnel, and to encourage changes in organizational culture.

  9. Implementation of Clinical Guidelines via a Computer Charting System

    PubMed Central

    Schriger, David L.; Baraff, Larry J.; Buller, Kelly; Shendrikar, Manali Ayatchit; Nagda, Sameer; Lin, Edward J.; Mikulich, Vladislav J.; Cretin, Shan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The authors have shown that clinical guidelines embedded in an electronic medical record improved the quality, while lowering the cost, of care for health care workers who incurred occupational exposures to body fluid. They seek to determine whether this system has similar effects on the emergency department care of young children with febrile illness. Design: Off-on-off, interrupted time series with intent-to-treat analysis. Setting: University hospital emergency department. Subjects: 830 febrile children less than 3 years of age and the physicians who treated them. Interventions: Implementation of an electronic medical record that provides real-time advice regarding the content of the history and physical examination and recommendations regarding laboratory testing, treatment, diagnosis, and disposition. Measurements: Documentation of essential items in the medical record and after-care instructions; compliance with guidelines regarding testing, treatment, and diagnosis; charges. Results: The computer was used in 64 percent of eligible cases. Mean percentage documentation of 21 essential history and physical examination items increased from 80 percent during the baseline period to 92 percent in the intervention phase (13 percent increase; 95 percent CI, 10-15 percent). Mean percentage documentation of ten items in the after-care instructions increased from 48 percent at baseline to 81 percent during the intervention phase (33 percent increase; 95 percent confidence interval, 28-38 percent). All documentation decreased to baseline when the computer system was removed. There were no demonstrable improvements in appropriateness of care, nor was there evidence that appropriateness worsened. Mean charges were not changed by the intervention. Conclusion: The intervention markedly improved documentation, had little effect on the appropriateness of the process of care, and had no effect on charges. Results for the febrile child module differ from those for the

  10. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  11. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  12. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  13. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  14. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  15. Memoranda about Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance - Science Policy Council Cancer Guidelines Implementation Workgroup Communication I and II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memoranda from the Chair of EPA's Science Policy Council to the Science Policy Council and the Science Policy Council Steering Committee regarding Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance.

  16. [Prevention of perioperative hypothermia : Implementation of the S3 guideline].

    PubMed

    Horn, E-P; Klar, E; Höcker, J; Bräuer, A; Bein, B; Wulf, H; Torossian, A

    2017-01-09

    To improve perioperative quality and patient safety, the German S3 guideline should be consistently implemented to avoid perioperative hypothermia. Perioperative normothermia is a quality indicator and should be achieved by anesthesiologists and surgeons. To detect hypothermia early during the perioperative process, measuring body temperature should be started 1-2 h preoperatively. Patients should be actively warmed for 20-30 min before starting anesthesia. Prewarming is most effective and should be included in the preoperative process. Patients should be informed about the risks of perioperative hypothermia and members of the perioperative team should be educated. A standard operating procedure (SOP) to avoid hypothermia should be introduced in every operative unit. The incidence of postoperative hypothermia should be evaluated in operative patients every 3-6 months. The goals should be to measure body temperature in >80% of patients undergoing surgery and for >70% to exhibit a core temperature >36 °C at the end of surgery.

  17. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    PubMed

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  18. Continuing Education, Guideline Implementation, and the Emerging Transdisciplinary Field of Knowledge Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses continuing education and the implementation of clinical practice guidelines or best evidence, quality improvement, and patient safety. Continuing education focuses on the perspective of the adult learner and is guided by well-established educational principles. In contrast, guideline implementation and related concepts…

  19. Developing and implementing health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service.

    PubMed

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H; Bowden, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability.

  20. Developing and Implementing Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Institutional Food Service123

    PubMed Central

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H.; Bowden, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability. PMID:22585909

  1. Introducing the Canadian Thoracic Society framework for guideline dissemination and implementation, with concurrent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir; Licskai, Christopher; Van Dam, Anne; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) is leveraging its strengths in guideline production to enable respiratory guideline implementation in Canada. The authors describe the new CTS Framework for Guideline Dissemination and Implementation, with Concurrent Evaluation, which has three spheres of action: guideline production, implementation infrastructure and knowledge translation (KT) methodological support. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research 'Knowledge-to-Action' process was adopted as the model of choice for conceptualizing KT interventions. Within the framework, new evidence for formatting guideline recommendations to enhance the intrinsic implementability of future guidelines were applied. Clinical assemblies will consider implementability early in the guideline production cycle when selecting clinical questions, and new practice guidelines will include a section dedicated to KT. The framework describes the development of a web-based repository and communication forum to inventory existing KT resources and to facilitate collaboration and communication among implementation stakeholders through an online discussion board. A national forum for presentation and peer-review of proposed KT projects is described. The framework outlines expert methodological support for KT planning, development and evaluation including a practical guide for implementers and a novel 'Clinical Assembly-KT Action Team', and in-kind logistical support and assistance in securing peer-reviewed funding.

  2. Clinical imaging guidelines part 2: Risks, benefits, barriers, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Malone, James; del Rosario-Perez, Maria; Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Jung, Seung Eun; Holmberg, Ola; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    A recent international meeting was convened by two United Nations bodies to focus on international collaboration on clinical appropriateness/referral guidelines for use in medical imaging. This paper, the second of 4 from this technical meeting, addresses barriers to the successful development/deployment of clinical imaging guidelines and means of overcoming them. It reflects the discussions of the attendees, and the issues identified are treated under 7 headings: ■ Practical Strategy for Development and Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Governance Arrangements and Concerns with Deployment of Guidelines; ■ Finance, Sustainability, Reimbursement, and Related Issues; ■ Identifying Benefits and Radiation Risks from Radiological Examinations; ■ Information Given to Patients and the Public, and Consent Issues; ■ Special Concerns Related to Pregnancy; and ■ The Research Agenda. Examples of topics identified include the observation that guideline development is a global task and there is no case for continuing it as the project of the few professional organizations that have been brave enough to make the long-term commitment required. Advocacy for guidelines should include the expectations that they will facilitate: (1) better health care delivery; (2) lower cost of that delivery; with (3) reduced radiation dose and associated health risks. Radiation protection issues should not be isolated; rather, they should be integrated with the overall health care picture. The type of dose/radiation risk information to be provided with guidelines should include the uncertainty involved and advice on application of the precautionary principle with patients. This principle may be taken as an extension of the well-established medical principle of "first do no harm."

  3. Operational Earthquake Forecasting: Proposed Guidelines for Implementation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is to provide the public with authoritative information about how seismic hazards are changing with time. During periods of high seismic activity, short-term earthquake forecasts based on empirical statistical models can attain nominal probability gains in excess of 100 relative to the long-term forecasts used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Prospective experiments are underway by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) to evaluate the reliability and skill of these seismicity-based forecasts in a variety of tectonic environments. How such information should be used for civil protection is by no means clear, because even with hundredfold increases, the probabilities of large earthquakes typically remain small, rarely exceeding a few percent over forecasting intervals of days or weeks. Civil protection agencies have been understandably cautious in implementing formal procedures for OEF in this sort of “low-probability environment.” Nevertheless, the need to move more quickly towards OEF has been underscored by recent experiences, such as the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake sequence and other seismic crises in which an anxious public has been confused by informal, inconsistent earthquake forecasts. Whether scientists like it or not, rising public expectations for real-time information, accelerated by the use of social media, will require civil protection agencies to develop sources of authoritative information about the short-term earthquake probabilities. In this presentation, I will discuss guidelines for the implementation of OEF informed by my experience on the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, convened by CalEMA, and the International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting, convened by the Italian government following the L’Aquila disaster. (a) Public sources of information on short-term probabilities should be authoritative, scientific, open, and

  4. Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategy Patterns in Veterans Affairs Primary Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2007-01-01

    Background The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mandated the system-wide implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in the mid-1990s, arming all facilities with basic resources to facilitate implementation; despite this resource allocation, significant variability still exists across VA facilities in implementation success. Objective This study compares CPG implementation strategy patterns used by high and low performing primary care clinics in the VA. Research Design Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low performance on six CPGs. Subjects One hundred and two employees (management, quality improvement, clinic personnel) involved with guideline implementation at each VAMC primary care clinic. Measures Participants reported specific strategies used by their facility to implement guidelines in 1-hour semi-structured interviews. Facilities were classified as high or low performers based on their guideline adherence scores calculated through independently conducted chart reviews. Findings High performing facilities (HPFs) (a) invested significantly in the implementation of the electronic medical record and locally adapting it to provider needs, (b) invested dedicated resources to guideline-related initiatives, and (c) exhibited a clear direction in their strategy choices. Low performing facilities exhibited (a) earlier stages of development for their electronic medical record, (b) reliance on preexisting resources for guideline implementation, with little local adaptation, and (c) no clear direction in their strategy choices. Conclusion A multifaceted, yet targeted, strategic approach to guideline implementation emphasizing dedicated resources and local adaptation may result in more successful implementation and higher guideline adherence than relying on standardized resources and taxing preexisting channels. PMID:17355583

  5. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Hesse, B; Lindhardt, T B; Acampa, W; Anagnostopoulos, C; Ballinger, J; Bax, J J; Edenbrandt, L; Flotats, A; Germano, G; Stopar, T Gmeiner; Franken, P; Kelion, A; Kjaer, A; Le Guludec, D; Ljungberg, M; Maenhout, A F; Marcassa, C; Marving, J; McKiddie, F; Schaefer, W M; Stegger, L; Underwood, R

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "prevailing or general consensus". The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.

  6. Implementing Thrombosis Guidelines in Cancer Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Bounameaux, Henri; Brenner, Benjamin; Büller, Harry R.; Kakkar, Ajay; Pabinger, Ingrid; Streiff, Michael; Debourdeau, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent and serious complication in patients with cancer. It is an independent prognostic factor of death in cancer patients and the second leading cause of death, but physicians often underestimate its importance, as well as the need for adequate prevention and treatment. Management of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer requires the coordinated efforts of a wide range of clinicians, highlighting the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. However, a lack of consensus among various national and international clinical practice guidelines has contributed to knowledge and practice gaps among practitioners, and inconsistent approaches to venous thromboembolism. The 2013 international guidelines for thrombosis in cancer have sought to address these gaps by critically re-evaluating the evidence coming from clinical trials and synthesizing a number of guidelines documents. An individualized approach to prophylaxis is recommended for all patients. PMID:25386357

  7. Guideline Implementation: Energy-Generating Devices, Part 1-Electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Sheryl P

    2017-03-01

    Energy-generating devices are standard equipment in the surgical suite, with electrosurgical units being the most common type of electrical device used in the OR. Prevention of injuries to patients and personnel related to the use of energy-generating devices is a key component of the perioperative nurse's role. The AORN "Guideline for safe use of energy-generating devices" provides guidance on the use and maintenance of devices that deliver energy in the forms of radiofrequency waves, ultrasound waves, or lasers. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which address precautions specific to electrosurgical units, patients with implanted electronic devices, and minimally invasive surgery, and documentation of the use of energy-generating devices. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  8. 2 CFR 180.35 - By when must a Federal agency implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false By when must a Federal agency implement these guidelines? 180.35 Section 180.35 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  9. 2 CFR 180.30 - Where does a Federal agency implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where does a Federal agency implement these guidelines? 180.30 Section 180.30 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT...

  10. 2 CFR 180.20 - What must a Federal agency do to implement these guidelines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must a Federal agency do to implement these guidelines? 180.20 Section 180.20 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  11. Implementing clinical guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: barriers and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Overington, Jeff D.; Huang, Yao C.; Abramson, Michael J.; Brown, Juliet L.; Goddard, John R.; Bowman, Rayleen V.; Fong, Kwun M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic lung disease characterised by progressive fixed airflow limitation and acute exacerbations that frequently require hospitalisation. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COPD are now widely available. However, the uptake of these COPD guidelines in clinical practice is highly variable, as is the case for many other chronic disease guidelines. Studies have identified many barriers to implementation of COPD and other guidelines, including factors such as lack of familiarity with guidelines amongst clinicians and inadequate implementation programs. Several methods for enhancing adherence to clinical practice guidelines have been evaluated, including distribution methods, professional education sessions, electronic health records (EHR), point of care reminders and computer decision support systems (CDSS). Results of these studies are mixed to date, and the most effective ways to implement clinical practice guidelines remain unclear. Given the significant resources dedicated to evidence-based medicine, effective dissemination and implementation of best practice at the patient level is an important final step in the process of guideline development. Future efforts should focus on identifying optimal methods for translating the evidence into everyday clinical practice to ensure that patients receive the best care. PMID:25478199

  12. Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Guidelines for Research Mentorship: Development and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Wester, Kelly L.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Chang, Catherine Y.; Hays, Danica G.; Pepperell, Jennifer; Spurgeon, Shawn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe guidelines endorsed by the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision for research mentorship, including characteristics of mentors and mentees. Suggestions for implementing the guidelines at the individual, program, institution, and professional levels are focused on enhancing mentoring relationships as well as…

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, App. C Appendix C to Part 224—Guidelines for...

  14. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals:...

  15. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENT THE NATIONAL GUIDELINES ON NEWBORN CARE IN A RURAL MOUNTAINOUS PROVINCE OF VIETNAM

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Le Minh; Ha, BuiThiThu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the disparity in neonatal health among regions to ensure every mother and her newborn receive the health care they need is a priority in Vietnam. This study was conducted to assess the barriers in implementing the National guidelines on newborn care in a rural mountainous province of Vietnam. Qualitative methods were applied with 28 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions in DakNong province. The results showed that there exist many barriers in implementing the national guideline in newborn care services. There is a big gap between health policy development and policy implementation. The Vietnam government had approved a good strategy and guidelines. Efforts now need to focus on implementing the national guideline and improving quality of care. PMID:27516812

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 224 - Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for Electronic Submission of Reflectorization Implementation Compliance Reports C Appendix C to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. A systematic approach to implementing and evaluating clinical guidelines: The results of fifteen years of Preventive Child Health Care guidelines in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Margot A H; van Dommelen, Paula; Dunnink, Trudy

    2015-07-01

    Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) services are delivered to all children in the Netherlands by approximately 5500 doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants. In 1996, The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports asked for the development of evidence-based PCHC guidelines. Since 1998, twenty-five guidelines have been published. Levels of implementation affect outcomes and so implementation and evaluation of the actual use of guidelines are essential. At the outset, there was a national implementation plan with six main activities: a) determinant analysis before the implementation of a guideline, b) innovation strategies tailored to the determinants, c) dissemination to all professionals, d) ongoing evaluation of the awareness and use of the guidelines, e) trained implementation coordinator(s) in each PCHC organization and f) a national help desk. The awareness and use of the guidelines in random samples of doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants were surveyed using questionnaires. The respondents stated (on a 7-point scale) the proportion of all children they had exposed to given core elements in a guideline. The aim is for at least 90% of the professionals to be aware of the guideline and for 80% to perform the core elements for all (or nearly all) children. The six main activities, with the exception of ongoing evaluation, were gradually put into place, albeit only gradually, between 1998 and 2015 for all guidelines. In 2012, the use of individual core elements in all guidelines, dating from before 2012, varied from 28% to 100%. One guideline met both criteria of 90% awareness and 80% use, and three guidelines nearly met these criteria. Looking back on fifteen years of PCHC guidelines, we may conclude that the guidelines produced recently are implemented in accordance with the national implementation plan. Unfortunately, the evaluation of guideline use continues to be a difficulty.

  19. [The German program for disease management guidelines--implementation with pathways and quality management].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Lelgemann, Monika; Kopp, Ina

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, physicians enrolled in disease management programs are legally obliged to follow evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. That is why a Program for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Program) was established in 2002 aiming at implementation of best-practice evidence-based recommendations for nationwide as well as regional disease management programs. Against this background the article reviews programs, methods and tools for implementing DM-CPGs via clinical pathways as well as regional guidelines for outpatient care. Special reference is given to the institutionalized program of adapting DM-CPGs for regional use by primary-care physicians in the State of Hesse.

  20. Incorporation of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline development process.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Kelly E; Klein, Teri E; Hoffman, James M; Muller, Daniel J; Whirl-Carrillo, Michelle; Gong, Li; McDonagh, Ellen M; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Thorn, Caroline F; Schwab, Matthias; Agundez, Jose A G; Freimuth, Robert R; Huser, Vojtech; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Crews, Kristine R; Scott, Stuart A; Wadelius, Mia; Swen, Jesse J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, C Michael; Roden, Dan; Relling, Mary V; Williams, Marc S; Johnson, Samuel G

    2014-02-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) publishes genotype-based drug guidelines to help clinicians understand how available genetic test results could be used to optimize drug therapy. CPIC has focused initially on well-known examples of pharmacogenomic associations that have been implemented in selected clinical settings, publishing nine to date. Each CPIC guideline adheres to a standardized format and includes a standard system for grading levels of evidence linking genotypes to phenotypes and assigning a level of strength to each prescribing recommendation. CPIC guidelines contain the necessary information to help clinicians translate patient-specific diplotypes for each gene into clinical phenotypes or drug dosing groups. This paper reviews the development process of the CPIC guidelines and compares this process to the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines.

  1. What influences the implementation of the New Zealand stroke guidelines for physiotherapists and occupational therapists?

    PubMed

    Mudge, Suzie; Hart, Anna; Murugan, Sankaran; Kersten, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To explore perceived barriers and facilitators to the use of the New Zealand (NZ) stroke guidelines by occupational therapists and physiotherapists. Methods A qualitative descriptive methodology was used. Eligible physiotherapists and occupational therapists (NZ registered, working in one of two hospitals, treating at least 10 patients with stroke in the previous year) were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews to elicit their perceptions of the utility and feasibility of the NZ stroke guidelines and identify barriers and facilitators to their implementation. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Conventional content analysis with constant comparative methods was used for coding and analysis. Results The main themes influencing guideline implementation were resources and characteristics of the guidelines, the organization, the patient and family and the therapist. Insufficient resources were a major barrier that crossed many of the themes. Participants suggested a range of strategies relating to the organization to improve therapists' alignment to the guidelines. Conclusion Alignment to the guidelines in NZ is influenced both positively and negatively by a range of interacting factors, consistent with other studies. Alignment might be improved by the introduction of some relatively simple strategies, such as ring-fencing time for access to resources and training in the use of the guidelines. Many of the barriers and related interventions are likely to be more complex. Implications for rehabilitation Alignment with stroke guidelines has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Therapist alignment with the implementation of the New Zealand stroke guidelines is influenced by guideline characteristics, organizational characteristics, resources, patient and family characteristics and therapist characteristics. Frequently encountered barriers related to limited resources, particularly time. Ring-fencing regular time for access to

  2. Implementation of Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The successful implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines relies heavily on primary care physicians (PCPs) providing risk factor evaluation, intervention and patient education. The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree of awareness and implementation of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention in clinical practice (CEIPC guidelines) among PCPs. Methods A cross-sectional survey of PCPs was conducted in Spain between January and June 2011. A random sample of 1,390 PCPs was obtained and stratified by region. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Results More than half (58%) the physicians were aware of and knew the recommendations, and 62% of those claimed to use them in clinical practice, with general physicians (without any specialist accreditation) being less likely to so than family doctors. Most PCPs (60%) did not assess cardiovascular risk, with the limited time available in the surgery being cited as the greatest barrier by 81%. The main reason to be sceptical about recommendations, reported by 71% of physicians, was that there are too many guidelines. Almost half the doctors cited the lack of training and skills as the greatest barrier to the implementation of lifestyle and behavioural change recommendations. Conclusions Most PCPs were aware of the Spanish adaptation of the European guidelines on CVD prevention (CEIPC guidelines) and knew their content. However, only one third of PCPs used the guidelines in clinical practice and less than half CVD risk assessment tools. PMID:23506390

  3. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale) for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological frameworks, we developed an

  4. Compressive Sensing Image Sensors-Hardware Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, Mohammadreza; Deen, M. Jamal; Shirani, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The compressive sensing (CS) paradigm uses simultaneous sensing and compression to provide an efficient image acquisition technique. The main advantages of the CS method include high resolution imaging using low resolution sensor arrays and faster image acquisition. Since the imaging philosophy in CS imagers is different from conventional imaging systems, new physical structures have been developed for cameras that use the CS technique. In this paper, a review of different hardware implementations of CS encoding in optical and electrical domains is presented. Considering the recent advances in CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) technologies and the feasibility of performing on-chip signal processing, important practical issues in the implementation of CS in CMOS sensors are emphasized. In addition, the CS coding for video capture is discussed. PMID:23584123

  5. SU-D-18C-06: Initial Experience with Implementing MRI Safety Guidelines for Patients with Pacemakers - Medical Physicist Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    James, J; Place, V; Panda, A; Edmonson, H; Felmlee, J; Pooley, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Several institutions have developed MRI guidelines for patients with MR-unsafe or MR-conditional pacemakers. Here we highlight the role of a medical physicist in implementing these guidelines for non-pacemaker dependent patients. Guidelines: Implementing these guidelines requires involvement from several medical specialties and a strong collaboration with the site MRI supervisor to develop a structured workflow. A medical physicist is required to be present during the scan to supervise the MR scanning and to maintain a safety checklist that ensures: 1) uninterrupted patient communication with the technologist, 2) continuous patient physiologic monitoring (e.g. blood pressure and electrocardiography) by a trained nurse, 3) redundant patient vitals monitoring (e.g. pulse oximetry) due to the possibility of in vivo electrocardiography reading fluctuations during image acquisition. A radiologist is strongly recommended to be available to review the images before patients are discharged from the scanner. Pacemaker MRI should be restricted to 1.5T field strength. The MRI sequences should be optimized by the physicist with regards to: a) SAR: limited to <1.5 W/Kg for MR-unsafe pacemakers in normal operating mode, b) RF exposure time: <30 min, c) Coils: use T/R coils but not restricted to such, d) Artifacts: further optimization of sequences whenever image quality is compromised due to the pacemaker. In particular, cardiac, breast and left-shoulder MRIs are most susceptible to these artifacts. Possible strategies to lower the SAR include: a) BW reduction, 2) echo-train-length reduction, 3) increase TR, 4) decrease number of averages, 5) decrease flip angle, 6) reduce slices and/or a combination of all the options. Conclusion: A medical physicist in collaboration with the MR supervisor plays an important role in the supervision/implementation of safe MR scanning of pacemaker patients. Developing and establishing a workflow has enabled our institution to scan over

  6. Implementation of National Guidelines for Healthy School Meals: The Relationship between Process and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holthe, Asle; Larsen, Torill; Samdal, Oddrun

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of policy interventions at the school level is often considered an organizational change process. The main goal of the present study was to examine the degree of implementation of Norwegian national guidelines for healthy school meals and how organizational capacity at the school level contributed to the degree of…

  7. Implementation of Pharmaceutical Practice Guidelines by a Project Model Based: Clinical and Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Karamikhah, Razieh; Mahdavinia, Azadeh; Samiei, Hasan; Petramfar, Peyman; Niknam, Ramin

    2015-10-01

    All around the world a few studies have been found on the effect of guideline implementation on direct medications' expenditure. The goal of this study was to evaluate cost savings of guideline implementation among patients who had to receive 3 costly medications including albumin, enoxaparin, and pantoprazole in a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, Iran.An 8-month prospective study was performed in 2 groups; group 1 as an observational group (control group) in 4 months from June to September 2014 and group 2 as an interventional group from October 2014 to January 2015.For group 1 the pattern of costly medications usage was determined without any intervention. For group 2, after guideline implementation, the economic impact was evaluated by making comparisons between the data achieved from the 2 groups.A total of 12,680 patients were evaluated during this study (6470 in group 1; 6210 in group 2). The reduction in the total value of costly administered drugs was 56% after guideline implementation. Such reduction in inappropriate prescribing accounts for the saving of 85,625 United States dollars (USD) monthly and estimated 1,027,500 USD annually.Guideline implementation could improve the adherence of evidence-based drug utilization and resulted in significant cost savings in a major teaching medical center via a decrease in inappropriate prescribing of costly medications.

  8. Codifying Implementation Guidelines for a Collaborative Improvement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Paul; Coghlan, David

    2008-01-01

    The application of action learning in inter-organizational settings is largely undeveloped. This article presents a description of and reflection on an action learning approach to enabling collaborative improvement in the extended manufacturing enterprise. The article focuses in particular on implementing the action learning approach. However, the…

  9. School-Based Management: Rationale and Implementation Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Lori Jo

    1995-01-01

    School-based management (SBM), the decentralization of decision-making authority to the school site, comes in many variations. However, all forms of SBM require a rethinking of how and where budgeting, curriculum, and personnel decisions are made. This bulletin provides an overview of what SBM is and how it is implemented by summarizing some of…

  10. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing: 2014 update.

    PubMed

    Martin, M A; Hoffman, J M; Freimuth, R R; Klein, T E; Dong, B J; Pirmohamed, M; Hicks, J K; Wilkinson, M R; Haas, D W; Kroetz, D L

    2014-05-01

    The Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines for HLA-B Genotype and Abacavir Dosing were originally published in April 2012. We reviewed recent literature and concluded that none of the evidence would change the therapeutic recommendations in the original guideline; therefore, the original publication remains clinically current. However, we have updated the Supplementary Material online and included additional resources for applying CPIC guidelines to the electronic health record. Up-to-date information can be found at PharmGKB (http://www.pharmgkb.org).

  11. Guidelines for the implementation of an open source information system

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This work was initially performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to help with the Open Source Task of the 93 + 2 Initiative; however, the information should be of interest to anyone working with open sources. The authors cover all aspects of an open source information system (OSIS) including, for example, identifying relevant sources, understanding copyright issues, and making information available to analysts. They foresee this document as a reference point that implementors of a system could augment for their particular needs. The primary organization of this document focuses on specific aspects, or components, of an OSIS; they describe each component and often make specific recommendations for its implementation. This document also contains a section discussing the process of collecting open source data and a section containing miscellaneous information. The appendix contains a listing of various providers, producers, and databases that the authors have come across in their research.

  12. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. Methods In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). Results The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. Conclusions When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies. PMID:22405400

  13. 75 FR 4769 - Availability of Grant Funds and Proposed Implementation Guidelines; Withdrawal of Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Proposed Implementation Guidelines; Withdrawal of Solicitation for the Marine Aquaculture Initiative AGENCY... solicitation of applications for the NOAA Marine Aquaculture Initiative 2010, which was published in the NOAA... notice, beginning on page 3110, was a solicitation of applications for the NOAA Marine...

  14. Web-Based Social Work Courses: Guidelines for Developing and Implementing an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Fenster, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based courses in schools of social work have proliferated over the past decade, the literature contains few guidelines on steps that schools can take to develop such courses. Using Knowles's framework, which delineates tasks and themes involved in implementing e-learning in social work education, this article describes the cultivation…

  15. Identification of attributes that promote the adoption and implementation of 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a larger study, this research was to identify attributes of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) that would promote their adoption and implementation by participants in a nutrition intervention. Project procedures were guided by the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory. To identif...

  16. Do guidelines on first impression make sense? Implementation of a chest pain guideline in primary care: a systematic evaluation of acceptance and feasibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most guidelines concentrate on investigations, treatment, and monitoring instead of patient history and clinical examination. We developed a guideline that dealt with the different aetiologies of chest pain by emphasizing the patient's history and physical signs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the guideline's acceptance and feasibility in the context of a practice test. Methods The evaluation study was nested in a diagnostic cross-sectional study with 56 General Practitioners (GPs) and 862 consecutively recruited patients with chest pain. The evaluation of the guideline was conducted in a mixed method design on a sub-sample of 17 GPs and 282 patients. Physicians' evaluation of the guideline was assessed via standardized questionnaires and case record forms. Additionally, practice nursing staff and selected patients were asked for their evaluation of specific guideline modules. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively for frequencies, means, and standard deviations. In addition, two focus groups with a total of 10 GPs were held to gain further insights in the guideline implementation process. The data analysis and interpretation followed the standards of the qualitative content analysis. Results The overall evaluation of the GPs participating in the evaluation study regarding the recommendations made in the chest pain guideline was positive. A total of 14 GPs were convinced that there was a need for this kind of guideline and perceived the guideline recommendations as useful. While the long version was partially criticized for a perceived lack of clarity, the short version of the chest pain guideline and the heart score were especially appreciated by the GPs. However, change of clinical behaviour as consequence of the guideline was inconsistent. While on a concrete patient related level, GPs indicated to have behaved as the guideline recommended, the feedback on a more general level was heterogeneous. Several suggestions to improve

  17. Implementation of WHO guidelines on management of severe malnutrition in hospitals in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Jacqueline L.; Funk, Matthias; Guevara, Victor C.; Saloojee, Haroon; Doe, James Y.; Palmer, Ayo; Weber, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the problems, benefits, feasibility, and sustainability of implementation of WHO guidelines on management of severe malnutrition. METHODS: A postal survey invited staff from 12 African hospitals to participate in the study. Five hospitals were evaluated and two were selected to take part in the study: a district hospital in South Africa and a mission hospital in Ghana. At an initial visit, an experienced paediatrician reviewed the situation in the hospitals and introduced the principles of the guidelines through a participatory approach. During a second visit about six months later, the paediatrician reviewed the feasibility and sustainability of the introduced changes and helped find solutions to problems. At a final visit after one year, the paediatrician reassessed the overall situation. FINDINGS: Malnutrition management practices improved at both hospitals. Measures against hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, and infection were strengthened. Early, frequent feeding was established as a routine practice. Some micronutrients for inclusion in the diet were not locally available and needed to be imported. Problems were encountered with monitoring of weight gain and introducing a rehydration solution for malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Implementation of the main principles of the WHO guidelines on severe malnutrition was feasible, affordable, and sustainable at two African hospitals. The guidelines could be improved by including suggestions on how to adapt specific recommendations to local situations. The guidelines are well supported by experience and published reports, but more information is needed about some components and their impact on mortality. PMID:12764489

  18. A PASCAL Implementation of the Image Algebra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    RFIT/GE/ENO/0-59 UNCLARSSIFI:ED F/O 9/2 mhhhhmhmhmhlmE~hNGh hh h 1.8 7 11111.25 111 .4 111. CRCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART THESI A PASCAL IMPLEMENTATION...OF THEIMAGE ALGEBRAII"-E T 1 THESIS I Christopher J. TitusD Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/86D-59 &pvv-ed fo, public rleaso, SDl~tjbUtim UnUimted...DTIC ELECTE MAR! 7 ig .4. e.4 JD A PASCAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE IMAGE ALGEBRA THESIS Christopher J. Titus Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/86D-59 Approved for

  19. Policies and Procedures That Facilitate Implementation of Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines in U.S. Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Polk, Deborah E; Nolan, Beth A D; Shah, Nilesh H; Weyant, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which dental schools in the United States have policies and procedures in place that facilitate the implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines. The authors sent surveys to all 65 U.S. dental schools in 2014; responses were obtained from 38 (58%). The results showed that, of the nine policies and procedures examined, only two were fully implemented by 50% or more of the responding schools: guidelines supported through clinical faculty education or available chairside (50%), and students informed of guidelines in both the classroom and clinic (65.8%). Although 92% of the respondents reported having an electronic health record, 80% of those were not using it to track compliance with guidelines. Five schools reported implementing more policies than the rest of the schools. The study found that the approach to implementing guidelines at most of the responding schools did not follow best practices although five schools had an exemplary set of policies and procedures to support guideline implementation. These results suggest that most dental schools are currently not implementing guidelines effectively and efficiently, but that the goal of schools' having a comprehensive implementation program for clinical guidelines is achievable since some are doing so. Future studies should determine whether interventions to improve implementation in dental schools are needed.

  20. Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for Level 3 and 4 PSHAs - Experience Gained from Actual Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norm A.; Boore, David M.; Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Knepprath, Nichole E.

    2009-01-01

    In April 1997, after four years of deliberations, the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee released its report 'Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts' through the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as NUREG/CR-6372, hereafter SSHAC (1997). Known informally ever since as the 'SSHAC Guidelines', SSHAC (1997) addresses why and how multiple expert opinions - and the intrinsic uncertainties that attend them - should be used in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses (PSHA) for critical facilities such as commercial nuclear power plants. Ten years later, in September 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a 13-month agreement with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) titled 'Practical Procedures for Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines and for Updating PSHAs'. The NRC was interested in understanding and documenting lessons learned from recent PSHAs conducted at the higher SSHAC Levels (3 and 4) and in gaining input from the seismic community for updating PSHAs as new information became available. This study increased in importance in anticipation of new applications for nuclear power facilities at both existing and new sites. The intent of this project was not to replace the SSHAC Guidelines but to supplement them with the experience gained from putting the SSHAC Guidelines to work in practical applications. During the course of this project, we also learned that updating PSHAs for existing nuclear power facilities involves very different issues from the implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for new facilities. As such, we report our findings and recommendations from this study in two separate documents, this being the first. The SSHAC Guidelines were written without regard to whether the PSHAs to which they would be applied were site-specific or regional in scope. Most of the experience gained to date from high-level SSHAC studies has been for site-specific cases, although three

  1. Simulation as an ethical imperative and epistemic responsibility for the implementation of medical guidelines in health care.

    PubMed

    Garbayo, Luciana; Stahl, James

    2017-03-01

    Guidelines orient best practices in medicine, yet, in health care, many real world constraints limit their optimal realization. Since guideline implementation problems are not systematically anticipated, they will be discovered only post facto, in a learning curve period, while the already implemented guideline is tweaked, debugged and adapted. This learning process comes with costs to human health and quality of life. Despite such predictable hazard, the study and modeling of medical guideline implementation is still seldom pursued. In this article we argue that to systematically identify, predict and prevent medical guideline implementation errors is both an epistemic responsibility and an ethical imperative in health care, in order to properly provide beneficence, minimize or avoid harm, show respect for persons, and administer justice. Furthermore, we suggest that implementation knowledge is best achieved technically by providing simulation modeling studies to anticipate the realization of medical guidelines, in multiple contexts, with system and scenario analysis, in its alignment with the emerging field of implementation science and in recognition of learning health systems. It follows from both claims that it is an ethical imperative and an epistemic responsibility to simulate medical guidelines in context to minimize (avoidable) harm in health care, before guideline implementation.

  2. Guidelines for Creating, Implementing, and Evaluating Mind-Body Programs in a Military Healthcare Setting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine; Firth, Kimberly; Smeeding, Sandra; Wolever, Ruth; Kaufman, Joanna; Delgado, Roxana; Bellanti, Dawn; Xenakis, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of mind-body skills can improve individual and family resilience, particularly related to the stresses of illness, trauma, and caregiving. To operationalize the research evidence that mind-body skills help with health and recovery, Samueli Institute, in partnership with experts in mind-body programming, created a set of guidelines for developing and evaluating mind-body programs for service members, veterans, and their families. The Guidelines for Creating, Implementing, and Evaluating Mind-Body Programs in a Military Healthcare Setting outline key strategies and issues to consider when developing, implementing, and evaluating a mind-body focused family empowerment approach in a military healthcare setting. Although these guidelines were developed specifically for a military setting, most of the same principles can be applied to the development of programs in the civilian setting as well. The guidelines particularly address issues unique to mind-body programs, such as choosing evidence-based modalities, licensure and credentialing, safety and contraindications, and choosing evaluation measures that capture the holistic nature of these types of programs. The guidelines are practical, practice-based guidelines, developed by experts in the fields of program development and evaluation, mind-body therapies, patient- and family-centered care, as well as, experts in military and veteran's health systems. They provide a flexible framework to create mind-body family empowerment programs and describe important issues that program developers and evaluators are encouraged to address to ensure the development of the most impactful, successful, evidence-supported programs possible.

  3. Optimal Pain Assessment in Pediatric Rehabilitation: Implementation of a Nursing Guideline.

    PubMed

    Kingsnorth, Shauna; Joachimides, Nick; Krog, Kim; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn Smith

    2015-12-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the Registered Nurses' Association promotes a Best Practice Spotlight Organization initiative to enhance evidence-based practice. Qualifying organizations are required to implement strategies, evaluate outcomes, and sustain practices aligned with nursing clinical practice guidelines. This study reports on the development and evaluation of a multifaceted implementation strategy to support adoption of a nursing clinical practice guideline on the assessment and management of acute pain in a pediatric rehabilitation and complex continuing care hospital. Multiple approaches were employed to influence behavior, attitudes, and awareness around optimal pain practice (e.g., instructional resources, electronic reminders, audits, and feedback). Four measures were introduced to assess pain in communicating and noncommunicating children as part of a campaign to treat pain as the fifth vital sign. A prospective repeated measures design examined survey and audit data to assess practice aligned with the guideline. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (KNAS) was adapted to ensure relevance to the local practice setting and was assessed before and after nurses' participation in three education modules. Audit data included client demographics and pain scores assessed annually over a 3-year window. A final sample of 69 nurses (78% response rate) provided pre-/post-survey data. A total of 108 pediatric surgical clients (younger than 19 years) contributed audit data across the three collection cycles. Significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to optimal pain care for children with disabilities were noted following adoption of the pain clinical practice guideline. Targeted guideline implementation strategies are central to supporting optimal pain practice.

  4. The Risks and Benefits of Implementing Glycemic Control Guidelines in Frail Elders with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sei J.; Boscardin, W. John; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Huang, Elbert S.; Rice-Trumble, Kathy; Eng, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES To determine the hypo- and hyper-glycemic outcomes associated with implementing the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) guideline for Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)<8% in frail older patients with diabets. DESIGN/SETTING Guideline Implementation in PACE (Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly) PARTICIPANTS All patients in the Before (10/02–12/04, n=338), Early (1/05–6/06, n=289) and Late phases of guideline implementation (7/06–12/08, n=385) with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and at least one HbA1c measurement. INTERVENTION Clinician education in 2005 with annual monitoring of the proportion of each clinician’s patients with diabetes with HbA1c<8%. MEASUREMENTS Hypoglycemia (Blood sugar or BS<50), hyperglycemia (BS>400) and severe hypoglycemia (Emergency room or ER visit for hypoglycemia) RESULTS Before, Early and Late groups were similar in mean age, race/ethnicity, comorbidity and functional dependency. Antihyperglycemic medication use increased with more patients using metformin (28% Before versus 42% Late, p<0.001) and insulin (23% Before versus 34% Late, p<0.001), with more patients achieving the AGS glycemic target of HbA1c<8% (74% Before versus 84% Late, p<0.001). Episodes of hyperglycemia (per 100 person-years) decreased dramatically (159 Before versus 46 Late, p<0.001) and episodes of hypoglycemia were unchanged (10.1 versus 9.3, p=0.50). Episodes of severe hypoglycemia were increased in the Early period (1.1 Before versus 2.9 Early, p=0.03). CONCLUSION Implementing the AGS glycemic control guideline for frail elders led to fewer hyperglycemic episodes, but more severe hypoglycemic episodes requiring ER visits in the Early implementation period. Future glycemic control guideline implementation efforts should be coupled with close monitoring for severe hypoglycemia in the early implementation period. PMID:21480838

  5. The cost of implementing the Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Wish, J; Roberts, J; Besarab, A; Owen, W F

    1999-01-01

    For a clinical practice guideline to be accepted by the end-user, the system of reimbursement for the targeted service must be favorable. The National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) Guideline recommendations were developed without primary concern for the costs of their execution. Arguably, an unfavorable financial environment and excessive mercantile behavior by providers and payers would offer a considerable hindrance to their implementation. Toward addressing these concerns, three leaders in the development of the DOQI Guidelines for the Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Renal Failure, Hemodialysis Adequacy, and Vascular Access, have evaluated the hypothesis that implementing the recommendations of the DOQI Guidelines will increase the treatment costs for dialysis providers but will effect savings in the entire end-stage renal disease (ESRD) program. Their analyses suggest that under the current reimbursement system, this assumption may be true. However, restructured global reimbursement in the ESRD program will permit financial incentives for dialysis providers and the payer to coincide.

  6. A New Security Paradigm for Anti-Counterfeiting: Guidelines and an Implementation Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Mikko

    Product counterfeitingand piracy continue to plague brand and trademark owners across industry sectors. This chapter analyses the reasons for ineffectiveness of past technical anti-counterfeitingstrategies and formulates managerial guidelines for effective use of RFID in anti-counterfeiting. An implementation roadmap toward secure authentication of products tagged with EPC Gen-2 tags is proposed and possible supply chain locations for product checks are discussed.

  7. Using a knowledge translation framework to implement asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care.

    PubMed

    Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ± 24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (P< 0.001) post-intervention; 71% reported urgent/emergent healthcare visits at baseline (2.94 visits/year) vs. 45% (1.45 visits/year) (P< 0.001); 39% reported absenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ± 7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1.

  8. Guidelines for Implementing Advanced Distribution Management Systems-Requirements for DMS Integration with DERMS and Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-08-01

    This guideline focuses on the integration of DMS with DERMS and microgrids connected to the distribution grid by defining generic and fundamental design and implementation principles and strategies. It starts by addressing the current status, objectives, and core functionalities of each system, and then discusses the new challenges and the common principles of DMS design and implementation for integration with DERMS and microgrids to realize enhanced grid operation reliability and quality power delivery to consumers while also achieving the maximum energy economics from the DER and microgrid connections.

  9. Adherence to guidelines on cervical cancer screening in general practice: programme elements of successful implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is still only limited understanding of whether and why interventions to facilitate the implementation of guidelines for improving primary care are successful. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of the intervention, to ascertain which elements work well or less well. AIM: To assess the associations of key elements of a nationwide multifaceted prevention programme with the successful implementation of cervical screening guidelines in general practice. DESIGN OF STUDY: A nationwide prospective cohort study. SETTING: A random sample of one-third of all 4,758 general practices in The Netherlands (n = 1,586). METHOD: General practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands were exposed to a two-and-a-half-year nationwide multifaceted prevention programme to improve the adherence to national guidelines for cervical cancer screening. Adherence to guidelines at baseline and after the intervention and actual exposure to programme elements were assessed in the sample using self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Both baseline and post-measurement questionnaires were returned by 988 practices (response rate = 62%). No major differences in baseline practice characteristics between study population, non-responders, and all Netherlands practices were observed. After the intervention all practices improved markedly (P<0.001) in their incorporation of nine out of 10 guideline indicators for effective cervical screening into practice. The most important elements for successful implementation were: specific software modules (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervalsfor all nine indicators ranged from OR = 1.85 [95% CI = 1.24-2.77] to OR = 10.2 [95% CI = 7.58-14.1]); two or more 'practice visits' by outreach visitors (ORs and 95% CIs for six indicators ranged from OR = 1.46 [95% CI= 1.01-2.12] to OR = 2.35 [95% CI = 1.63-3.38]); and an educational programme for practice assistants (ORs and 95% CIs for four indicators ranged from OR = 1.57 [95% CI = 1

  10. Monitoring of clinical imaging guidelines part 3: norms, standards, and regulations.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Neil; Ebdon-Jackson, Steve; Remedios, Denis; Holmberg, Ola; del Rosario Perez, Maria; Bettmann, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    It is known that the use of imaging in clinical situations is not always optimal, leading to suboptimal health care and potential radiation risk. There may be overuse of imaging, underuse, or use of the wrong modality. The use of clinical imaging guidelines is likely to improve the use of imaging, but roadblocks exist. Some of these relate to regulatory oversight and mandates. There is wide variation by country and region in the regulatory setting, ranging from actual absence of regulatory authorities to mandated availability of clinical imaging guidelines in the European Community. Collaborative efforts to ensure that clinical imaging guidelines are at least available is a good starting point. Regulatory oversight and support are necessary to ensure the use of clinical imaging guidelines. Regulations should address 3 areas: availability, clinical utilization, and adherence to and revision of guidelines. The use of both internal and external audits, with the aim of both use of and adherence to guidelines and quality improvement, is the best tool for enhancing use. The major challenges that need to be addressed, collaboratively, to ensure the dissemination and use of clinical imaging guidelines are the development of regulations, of regulatory structures that can be effectively deployed, and of benchmarks for adherence and for utility.

  11. Implementation of a Prolonged Infusion Guideline for Time-Dependent Antimicrobial Agents at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Kubiak, David W; Degrado, Jeremy R; Reardon, David P; Szumita, Paul M

    Administration of time-dependent beta-lactam antibiotic as a prolonged infusion may maximize the pharmacodynamic target of time above the minimum inhibitory concentration. We describe the implementation of a prolonged infusion at a tertiary academic medical center, and a 1-year compliance analysis with the guideline. After performing a thorough literature search, a guideline was developed by members of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Department of Pharmacy. Approval and endorsement of the guideline was obtained by the Antimicrobial Subcommittee and Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee. Physical champions were instrumental in the implementation of the guideline institution-wide. We then performed a 1-year retrospective analysis of guideline compliance from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. Noncompliant administrations were obtained from smart infusion pumps. The total number of doses administered was taken from pharmacy information resources. In total, nearly 85,000 time-dependent doses were administered. Compliance with the prolonged infusion guideline was 89%. Rates of compliance did not significantly differ between medications (P = 0.555). Obtaining support from key stakeholders in collateral services and institutional leadership was vital for the success of this guideline. Compliance with the guideline 1 year after implementation was high. Implementation of a prolonged infusion guideline is feasible with institutional support and motivation.

  12. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging: challenges of implementation.

    PubMed

    Loch, Ronald; Fowler, Kathryn; Schmidt, Ryan; Ippolito, Joseph; Siegel, Cary; Narra, Vamsi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of cancer and cancer deaths in men. Screening methods and optimal treatments have become controversial in recent years. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining popularity as a tool to assist diagnosis, risk assessment, and staging. However, implementation into clinical practice can be difficult, with many challenges associated with image acquisition, postprocessing, interpretation, reporting, and radiologic-pathologic correlation. Although state-of-the-art technology is available at select sites for targeting tissue biopsy and interpreting multiparametric prostate MRI, many institutions struggle with adapting this new technology into an efficient multidisciplinary model of patient care. This article reviews several of the challenges that radiologists should be aware of when integrating prostate MRI into their clinical practice.

  13. Embedded Implementation of VHR Satellite Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Balla-Arabé, Souleymane; Ginhac, Dominique; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Processing and analysis of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images provide a mass of crucial information, which can be used for urban planning, security issues or environmental monitoring. However, they are computationally expensive and, thus, time consuming, while some of the applications, such as natural disaster monitoring and prevention, require high efficiency performance. Fortunately, parallel computing techniques and embedded systems have made great progress in recent years, and a series of massively parallel image processing devices, such as digital signal processors or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), have been made available to engineers at a very convenient price and demonstrate significant advantages in terms of running-cost, embeddability, power consumption flexibility, etc. In this work, we designed a texture region segmentation method for very high resolution satellite images by using the level set algorithm and the multi-kernel theory in a high-abstraction C environment and realize its register-transfer level implementation with the help of a new proposed high-level synthesis-based design flow. The evaluation experiments demonstrate that the proposed design can produce high quality image segmentation with a significant running-cost advantage. PMID:27240370

  14. Embedded Implementation of VHR Satellite Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Balla-Arabé, Souleymane; Ginhac, Dominique; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-27

    Processing and analysis of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images provide a mass of crucial information, which can be used for urban planning, security issues or environmental monitoring. However, they are computationally expensive and, thus, time consuming, while some of the applications, such as natural disaster monitoring and prevention, require high efficiency performance. Fortunately, parallel computing techniques and embedded systems have made great progress in recent years, and a series of massively parallel image processing devices, such as digital signal processors or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), have been made available to engineers at a very convenient price and demonstrate significant advantages in terms of running-cost, embeddability, power consumption flexibility, etc. In this work, we designed a texture region segmentation method for very high resolution satellite images by using the level set algorithm and the multi-kernel theory in a high-abstraction C environment and realize its register-transfer level implementation with the help of a new proposed high-level synthesis-based design flow. The evaluation experiments demonstrate that the proposed design can produce high quality image segmentation with a significant running-cost advantage.

  15. Implementation of asthma guidelines to West Australian community pharmacies: an exploratory, quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Trevenen, Michelle; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacy assistants are often the first point of contact for patients presenting in community pharmacies. The current role of pharmacy assistants in the supply of asthma-reliever medications (short-acting β-agonists) was identified as a barrier to appropriate guideline-based care. The aim of this research was to devise and evaluate a team-based intervention to formalise the role of pharmacy assistants and to improve asthma guideline-based care in community pharmacy. Design A controlled pre-post intervention study was conducted in 336 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth, Western Australia. Pharmacies were stratified into 2 groups (187 intervention and 149 control) based on known confounders for asthma control. The intervention was designed using a common-sense approach and resources developed included a checklist, videos and web page. Delivery was via workshops (25 pharmacies) or academic detailing (162 pharmacies). Pharmacy practice was assessed preintervention and postintervention via covert simulated patient methodology. Primary outcome measures included patient medical referral, device use demonstration and counselling, internal referral and/or direct involvement of a pharmacist in consultations. Results There was a significant increase in patient medical referral in intervention pharmacies from 32% to 47% (p=0.0007) from preintervention to postintervention, while control pharmacies showed a non-significant decrease from 50% to 44% (p=0.22). Device counselling was not routinely carried out at any stage or in any cohort of this research and no significant changes in internal referral were observed. Conclusions Increases in medical referral indicate that asthma guideline compliance can be improved in community pharmacy if implementation employs a team-based approach and involves pharmacy assistants. However, results were variable and the intervention did not improve practice related to device counselling or internal referral/pharmacist involvement

  16. Implementation of surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Belgium according to the ECDC guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the new guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe, produced by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), were tested in Belgium. This study aimed at (1) testing the usefulness and applicability in the field of the ECDC guidelines for the surveillance of IMS in Europe and (2) surveying IMS throughout Belgium. Methods First, the scenarios, which Belgium is facing, were identified according to the ECDC guidelines. Second, the surveillance strategy and the methods were identified based on the guidelines and adjusted to the Belgium context. Two areas colonised by IMS and 20 potential points of entry (PoE) were selected. Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (CO2-baited) traps (23) and oviposition traps (147) were set-up, and larval sampling was performed monthly or bi-monthly from July till October 2012. Finally, the costs and workload of the surveillance activities were compared to the estimates provided by the ECDC guidelines. Results Surveillance at 20 potential PoE (complying with scenario 1) revealed that no new IMS were established in Belgium. Surveillance at two sites colonised by IMS (scenario 2) indicated that although control measures have drastically reduced the Ae. j. japonicus population this species is still present. Furthermore, Ae. koreicus is permanently established. For both scenarios, the problems encountered are discussed and recommendations are given. In addition, the actual workload was lower than the estimated workload, while the actual costs were higher than the estimated ones. Conclusions The ECDC guidelines are helpful, applicable and efficient to implement surveillance of IMS in Belgium. Recommendations were customised to the local context (political demands, salary and investment costs, and existing expertise). The workload and costs related to the preparatory phase (i.e., planning, contacts with the PoE, writing a protocol) were found to be missing in the cost evaluation suggested in the guidelines

  17. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Reporting Guidelines to Advance the Implementation of the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge—the need for ‘research on research’—and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  18. Incorporating equity into developing and implementing for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Sandoval-Vargas, Gisella; Mosquera, Paola

    2011-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are useful tools for clinical decision making, processes standardization and quality of care improvements. The current General Social Security and Health System (GSSHS) in Colombia is promoting the initiative of developing and implementing CPG based on evidence in order to improve efficiency and quality of care. The reduction of inequalities in health should be an objective of the GSSHS. The main propose of this analysis is to argue why it is necessary to consider the incorporation of equity considerations in the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines based on the evidence. A series of reflections were made. Narrative description was used for showing the arguments that support the main findings. Among them are: 1. Differential effectiveness by social groups of interventions could diminish final effectiveness of CPG in the GSSHS; 2. To not consider geographical, ethnic, socioeconomic, cultural and access diversity issues within the CPG could have a potential negative impacts of the CPG; 3. Overall effectiveness of GPC could be better if equity issues are included in the quality verification checklist of the guideline questions; 4. Incorporating equity issues in the process of developing CPG could be cost effective, because improve overall effectiveness of CPG. Conclusions To include equity issues in CPG can help in achieving more equitable health outcomes. From this point of view CPG could be key tools to promote equity in care and health outcomes.

  19. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  20. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and atrial fibrillation guidelines in practice: barriers to and strategies for optimal implementation.

    PubMed

    Camm, A John; Pinto, Fausto J; Hankey, Graeme J; Andreotti, Felicita; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2015-07-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for stroke, increasing the risk five-fold. Strokes in patients with AF are more likely than other embolic strokes to be fatal or cause severe disability and are associated with higher healthcare costs, but they are also preventable. Current guidelines recommend that all patients with AF who are at risk of stroke should receive anticoagulation. However, despite this guidance, registry data indicate that anticoagulation is still widely underused. With a focus on the 2012 update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of AF, the Action for Stroke Prevention alliance writing group have identified key reasons for the suboptimal implementation of the guidelines at a global, regional, and local level, with an emphasis on access restrictions to guideline-recommended therapies. Following identification of these barriers, the group has developed an expert consensus on strategies to augment the implementation of current guidelines, including practical, educational, and access-related measures. The potential impact of healthcare quality measures for stroke prevention on guideline implementation is also explored. By providing practical guidance on how to improve implementation of the ESC guidelines, or region-specific modifications of these guidelines, the aim is to reduce the potentially devastating impact that stroke can have on patients, their families and their carers.

  1. Coordinated, Collaborative and Coherent: Developing and Implementing E-Learning Guidelines within a National Tertiary Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddaby, Gordon; Milne, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to discusses two complementary initiatives focussed on developing and implementing e-learning guidelines to support good pedagogy in e-learning practice. Design/methodology/approach: The first initiative is the development of a coherent set of open access e-learning guidelines for the New Zealand tertiary sector. The second…

  2. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and atrial fibrillation guidelines in practice: barriers to and strategies for optimal implementation

    PubMed Central

    Camm, A. John; Pinto, Fausto J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Andreotti, Felicita; Hobbs, F.D. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an independent risk factor for stroke, increasing the risk five-fold. Strokes in patients with AF are more likely than other embolic strokes to be fatal or cause severe disability and are associated with higher healthcare costs, but they are also preventable. Current guidelines recommend that all patients with AF who are at risk of stroke should receive anticoagulation. However, despite this guidance, registry data indicate that anticoagulation is still widely underused. With a focus on the 2012 update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of AF, the Action for Stroke Prevention alliance writing group have identified key reasons for the suboptimal implementation of the guidelines at a global, regional, and local level, with an emphasis on access restrictions to guideline-recommended therapies. Following identification of these barriers, the group has developed an expert consensus on strategies to augment the implementation of current guidelines, including practical, educational, and access-related measures. The potential impact of healthcare quality measures for stroke prevention on guideline implementation is also explored. By providing practical guidance on how to improve implementation of the ESC guidelines, or region-specific modifications of these guidelines, the aim is to reduce the potentially devastating impact that stroke can have on patients, their families and their carers. PMID:26116685

  3. [How to implement a guideline from theory to practice: the example of the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Edison F; Rocha, Ana T C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the existing barriers for the dissemination of medical guidelines, and to present strategies that facilitate the adaptation of the recommendations into clinical practice. The literature shows that it usually takes several years until new scientific evidence is adopted in current practice, even when there is obvious impact in patients' morbidity and mortality. There are some examples where more than thirty years have elapsed since the first case reports about the use of a effective therapy were published until its utilization became routine. That is the case of fibrinolysis for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Some of the main barriers for the implementation of new recommendations are: the lack of knowledge of a new guideline, personal resistance to changes, uncertainty about the efficacy of the proposed recommendation, fear of potential side-effects, difficulties in remembering the recommendations, inexistence of institutional policies reinforcing the recommendation and even economical restrains. In order to overcome these barriers a strategy that involves a program with multiple tools is always the best. That must include the implementation of easy-to-use algorithms, continuous medical education materials and lectures, electronic or paper alerts, tools to facilitate evaluation and prescription, and periodic audits to show results to the practitioners involved in the process. It is also fundamental that the medical societies involved with the specific medical issue support the program for its scientific and ethical soundness. The creation of multidisciplinary committees in each institution and the inclusion of opinion leaders that have pro-active and lasting attitudes are the key-points for the program's success. In this manuscript we use as an example the implementation of a guideline for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, but the concepts described here can be easily applied to any other guideline

  4. Chronic kidney disease guideline implementation in primary care: a qualitative report from the TRANSLATE CKD study

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Bonnie M.; York, Trevor R.M.; Sand, Jessica; Fox, Chester H.; Kahn, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) are optimally situated to identify and manage early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nonetheless, studies have documented suboptimal PCP understanding, awareness, and management of early CKD. The TRANSLATE CKD study is an ongoing national mixed-methods cluster randomized control trial that examines the implementation of evidence-based guidelines for CKD into primary care practice. Methods As part of mixed-methods process evaluation, semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone with 27 providers participating in the study. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes. Themes were categorized according to the four domains of Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Results Identified themes illuminated the complex work undertaken in primary care practices to manage CKD. Barriers to guideline implementation were identified in each of the four NPT domains, including: 1) lack of knowledge and understanding around CKD (coherence), 2) difficulties engaging providers and patients in CKD management (cognitive participation), 3) limited time and competing demands (collective action), and 4) challenges obtaining and utilizing data to monitor progress (reflexive monitoring). Conclusions Addressing the barriers to implementation with concrete interventions at the levels at which they occur, informed by NPT, will ultimately improve the quality of CKD patient care. PMID:26355134

  5. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  6. Implementation of nationwide image sharing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, SeungWook; Sim, Jungsuk; Ko, Wonsun; Park, ChanHyung; Lee, Jaeha; Lim, DongHyun; Lee, Juhyuk; Han, Jungu; Lee, Jongsu; Hong, HeonPyo; Choi, Bongsuk

    2003-05-01

    Korea is one of the leading countries in PACS implementation, and over 15% of all hospitals has been introducing and running in PACS. With the support of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Computerization of Agency and National Cancer Center had a plan to try integration of PACS with a purpose of sharing medical image information. The target hospitals have been selected with over 500 beds, and the distance between hospitals from 40km and to 250km. As the vendors of PACS and HIS that had implemented in target hospitals were different, the 'sharing host' has been developed for the purpose of their integration, which enables communication through DICOM and HL7. In order to monitor the communication among the sharing hosts, the 'sharing center' also has been developed. This project was completed by November 2002. We expected that approximate of 100 doctors including 50 radiologists would use this project, high patient"s satisfaction and the decrease in national insurance fee for test and evaluation period. This project is the first attempt that the government has tried to integrate the independent PACS and HIS. On the model of this project, the government will try to expand it through all nation-wide.

  7. The European Bioanalysis Forum community's evaluation, interpretation and implementation of the European Medicines Agency guideline on Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Peter; Companjen, Arjen; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Golob, Michaela; Luedtke, Silke; Timmerman, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) 2011 guideline on bioanalytical method validation (BMV) was evaluated and subsequently intensely discussed by the European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) during a 2-day workshop (EBF Workshop on the implementation of the EMA guideline on BMV, Château de Limelette, Limelette, Belgium, 15-16 March 2012). The goal of the evaluation and discussions was to come to a uniform interpretation of the guideline and thus to help facilitate a smooth implementation at our laboratories. Up front preparations for the workshop by dedicated teams concentrated on challenges on implementation: ambiguities, technical or operational challenges and issues in general. In addition, common understandings were identified as well as main differences to the 2011 US FDA guideline. The guideline was perceived as being well written with a clear structure, separating method validation from sample analysis and treating all relevant aspects one-by-one in a logical order. It is the first BMV guideline clearly addressing the specifics for ligand binding assays and it shows a good match with current scientific thinking. The EBF community considers the EMA BMV guideline an excellent basis for countries that are in the process of developing or updating their own BMV guideline.

  8. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Graham, Richard N J; Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm(3)) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly.

  9. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm3) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly. PMID:26781558

  10. The essence of the Japan Radiological Society/Japanese College of Radiology Imaging Guideline.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Murayama, Sadayuki; Okada, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kataoka, Masako; Kaji, Yasushi; Imamura, Keiko; Takehara, Yasuo; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ohno, Kazuko; Awai, Kazuo; Hirai, Toshinori; Kojima, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Shuji; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Murakami, Takamichi; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Gabata, Toshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Tohno, Eriko; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Monzawa, Shuichi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is undoubtedly important in modern medicine, and final clinical decisions are often made based on it. Fortunately, Japan has the highest numbers of diagnostic imaging instruments, such as CT and MRI devices, and boasts easy access to them as well as a high level of diagnostic accuracy. In consequence, a very large number of imaging examinations are performed, but diagnostic instruments are installed in so many medical facilities that expert management of these examinations tends to be insufficient. Particularly, in order to avoid risks, clinicians have recently become indifferent to indications of imaging modalities and tend to rely on CT or MRI resulting in increasing the number of imaging examinations in Japan. This is a serious problem from the viewpoints of avoidance of unnecessary exposure and medical economy. Under these circumstances, the Japan Radiological Society and Japanese College of Radiology jointly initiated the preparation of new guidelines for diagnostic imaging. However, the field of diagnostic imaging is extremely wide, and it is impossible to cover all diseases. Therefore, in drafting the guidelines, we selected important diseases and focused on "showing evidence and suggestions in the form of clinical questions (CQs)" concerning clinically encountered questions and "describing routine imaging techniques presently considered to be standards to guarantee the quality of imaging examinations". In so doing, we adhered to the basic principles of assuming the readers to be "radiologists specializing in diagnostic imaging", "simultaneously respecting the global standards and attending to the situation in Japan", and "making the guidelines consistent with those of other scientific societies related to imaging". As a result, the guidelines became the largest ever, consisting of 152 CQs, nine areas of imaging techniques, and seven reviews, but no other guidelines in the world summarize problems concerning diagnostic imaging in the form

  11. Measuring legal implementation of the international guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights.

    PubMed

    Watchirs, H

    2001-01-01

    With over 36 million people now living with the virus and over 21 million people dying of AIDS in the last two decades, HIV/AIDS is a global health and security problem. These shocking figures eclipse the human toll of many wars, and reveal in themselves that human rights are not being respected, protected, or fulfilled, either through negligent omissions or violations. A human rights approach to the epidemic was advocated early by advocates such as Jonathan Mann, who recognized that infections thrived in conditions of inequality. This approach was crystallized in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights that were developed at the Second International Consultation in 1996 convened by UNAIDS and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The Guidelines cover three main areas: improving governmental responses in terms of multisectoral responsibility and accountability; widespread law reform and legal support services; and supporting increased private sector and community participation in effective responses to the epidemic. This article focuses on the half of the twelve Guidelines that concern rights that are justiciable and amenable to law reform. It highlights the responsibilities of States Parties to human rights treaties, as they bear the principal burden of the obligations to implement.

  12. Clinical imaging guidelines part 4: challenges in identifying, engaging and collaborating with stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Bettmann, Michael A; Oikarinen, Helja; Rehani, Madan; Holmberg, Ola; del Rosario Perez, Maria; Naidoo, Anusha; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Dreyer, Keith; Ebdon-Jackson, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The effective development and use of clinical imaging guidelines requires an understanding of who the stakeholders are, what their interests in the process are, and what roles they should play. If the appropriate stakeholders are not engaged in the right roles, it is unlikely that clinical imaging guidelines will be successfully developed, relied on, and actually used. Some stakeholders are obvious: for the development of clinical imaging guidelines, both imagers and those who request examinations, such as general practitioners, internists, and medical specialists, must be involved. To gain acceptance, other relevant groups are stakeholders, including medical societies, other health care professionals, insurers, health IT experts and vendors, and patients. The role of stakeholders must be dictated by their specific interest. For some, involvement in the creation of guidelines is the right role. For others, such as regulators or insurers, reviews or invitations to comment are required, and for others, such as medical educators, it is probably sufficient to provide information and create awareness. Only through a careful consideration of who the stakeholders are and what are their interests are the successful development, acceptance, and use of clinical imaging guidelines likely to occur. Future efforts must focus on collaboration, particularly among groups that create clinical imaging guidelines and those that can support their use, and on regulatory roles and mandates.

  13. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to

  14. Creative Implementation of 3Rs Principles within Industry Programs: Beyond Regulations and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  15. Creative implementation of 3Rs principles within industry programs: beyond regulations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-03-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science.

  16. (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT: Joint EANM and SNMMI procedure guideline for prostate cancer imaging: version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Fendler, Wolfgang P; Eiber, Matthias; Beheshti, Mohsen; Bomanji, Jamshed; Ceci, Francesco; Cho, Steven; Giesel, Frederik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Hope, Thomas A; Kopka, Klaus; Krause, Bernd J; Mottaghy, Felix M; Schöder, Heiko; Sunderland, John; Wan, Simon; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Fanti, Stefano; Herrmann, Ken

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this guideline is to provide standards for the recommendation, performance, interpretation and reporting of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT for prostate cancer imaging. These recommendations will help to improve accuracy, precision, and repeatability of (68)Ga-PSMA PET/CT for prostate cancer essentially needed for implementation of this modality in science and routine clinical practice.

  17. Development and implementation of a piperacillin-tazobactam extended infusion guideline.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Lynley S; Tokumaru, Sheri; Clark, Nina M; Garofalo, John; Paek, Jamie L; Grim, Shellee A

    2011-12-01

    Administration of β-lactam antibiotics by extended infusion optimizes the pharmacodynamic properties and bactericidal activity of these agents resulting in a potential improvement in patient outcomes and reduction in drug expenditure. Consequently, a pharmacist-led piperacillin-tazobactam extended 4-hour infusion guideline was implemented hospital-wide at a 500-bed academic medical center. Each piperacillin-tazobactam infusion was prospectively monitored for 5 weeks to ensure accurate administration and identify barriers to guideline adherence. Overall, a total of 103 patients received 1215 doses of piperacillin-tazobactam by extended infusions. In all, 98% of the doses were administered at the correct extended infusion rate and 94% of the doses were given at the scheduled time. There were a total of 20 missed doses and 53 delayed doses, accounting for 2% and 4% of the total administered doses, respectively. The primary barrier to adherence was the patient not being on the unit at the time of the scheduled dose followed by the piperacillin-tazobactam dose not being available on the floor. While insufficient power prevented meaningful evaluation of clinical outcomes, we anticipate a conservative annual estimated cost savings of $108,529. Key elements contributing to our success included consistent pharmacy leadership, multidisciplinary involvement, thorough inservicing to health care professionals, hospital-wide implementation, and extensive quality assurance monitoring.

  18. The adaptation and implementation of guidelines for responsible media reporting on suicide in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Tančič Grum, Alenka; Poštuvan, Vita; Podlesek, Anja; De Leo, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The existing literature provides evidence of the link between media reporting and suicide in terms of either preventive or provocative effects. Hence, working with media representatives on responsible reporting on suicide is of great importance. Until recently in Slovenia, there has been an obvious lack of communication between media representatives and suicidologists. The aims of the present study were twofold; firstly, to introduce the adaptation and dissemination of intervention on responsible media reporting, and secondly, to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented intervention on suicide reporting. Methods We used a pre-post research design. Newspaper articles were retrieved over two 12-month periods: the baseline period and the follow-up period. In between, we had a year of implementation of our intervention program (launching and disseminating the Guidelines via workshops). Each retrieved article was rated qualitatively with respect to its adherence to the Guidelines. Results The comparison of baseline and follow-up periods revealed some significant differences. Reporting in the follow-up period was less sensationalistic, there was less reporting about specific cases of suicides and more about causes of suicide and pathways out of mental distress. Furthermore, in the follow-up period, there was a significant improvement related to headlines of media articles. Contact information about where to seek help was more often included in the articles. Conclusion The findings are promising, but working with the media needs to be continuous and ongoing if sustainable results are to be achieved. PMID:28289461

  19. Avoiding twisted pixels: ethical guidelines for the appropriate use and manipulation of scientific digital images.

    PubMed

    Cromey, Douglas W

    2010-12-01

    Digital imaging has provided scientists with new opportunities to acquire and manipulate data using techniques that were difficult or impossible to employ in the past. Because digital images are easier to manipulate than film images, new problems have emerged. One growing concern in the scientific community is that digital images are not being handled with sufficient care. The problem is twofold: (1) the very small, yet troubling, number of intentional falsifications that have been identified, and (2) the more common unintentional, inappropriate manipulation of images for publication. Journals and professional societies have begun to address the issue with specific digital imaging guidelines. Unfortunately, the guidelines provided often do not come with instructions to explain their importance. Thus they deal with what should or should not be done, but not the associated 'why' that is required for understanding the rules. This article proposes 12 guidelines for scientific digital image manipulation and discusses the technical reasons behind these guidelines. These guidelines can be incorporated into lab meetings and graduate student training in order to provoke discussion and begin to bring an end to the culture of "data beautification".

  20. Avoiding Twisted Pixels: Ethical Guidelines for the Appropriate Use and Manipulation of Scientific Digital Images

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Digital imaging has provided scientists with new opportunities to acquire and manipulate data using techniques that were difficult or impossible to employ in the past. Because digital images are easier to manipulate than film images, new problems have emerged. One growing concern in the scientific community is that digital images are not being handled with sufficient care. The problem is twofold: (1) the very small, yet troubling, number of intentional falsifications that have been identified, and (2) the more common unintentional, inappropriate manipulation of images for publication. Journals and professional societies have begun to address the issue with specific digital imaging guidelines. Unfortunately, the guidelines provided often do not come with instructions to explain their importance. Thus they deal with what should or should not be done, but not the associated ‘why’ that is required for understanding the rules. This article proposes 12 guidelines for scientific digital image manipulation and discusses the technical reasons behind these guidelines. These guidelines can be incorporated into lab meetings and graduate student training in order to provoke discussion and begin to bring an end to the culture of “data beautification”. PMID:20567932

  1. Enhanced implementation of low back pain guidelines in general practice: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines may improve treatment quality, but the uptake of guideline recommendations is often incomplete and slow. Recently new low back pain guidelines are being launched in Denmark. The guidelines are considered to reduce personal and public costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a complex, multifaceted implementation strategy of the low back pain guidelines will reduce secondary care referral and improve patient outcomes compared to the usual simple implementation strategy. Methods/design In a two-armed cluster randomised trial, 100 general practices (clusters) and 2,700 patients aged 18 to 65 years from the North Denmark region will be included. Practices are randomly allocated 1:1 to a simple or a complex implementation strategy. Intervention practices will receive a complex implementation strategy, including guideline facilitator visits, stratification tools, and quality reports on low back pain treatment. Primary outcome is referral to secondary care. Secondary outcomes are pain, physical function, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction with care and treatment outcome, employment status, and sick leave. Primary and secondary outcomes pertain to the patient level. Assessments of outcomes are blinded and follow the intention-to-treat principle. Additionally, a process assessment will evaluate the degree to which the intervention elements will be delivered as planned, as well as measure changes in beliefs and behaviours among general practitioners and patients. Discussion This study provides knowledge concerning the process and effect of an intervention to implement low back pain guidelines in general practice, and will provide insight on essential elements to include in future implementation strategies in general practice. Trial registration Registered as NCT01699256 on ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:24139140

  2. Guidelines for a graph-theoretic implementation of structural equation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Little, Amanda M.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is increasingly being chosen by researchers as a framework for gaining scientific insights from the quantitative analyses of data. New ideas and methods emerging from the study of causality, influences from the field of graphical modeling, and advances in statistics are expanding the rigor, capability, and even purpose of SEM. Guidelines for implementing the expanded capabilities of SEM are currently lacking. In this paper we describe new developments in SEM that we believe constitute a third-generation of the methodology. Most characteristic of this new approach is the generalization of the structural equation model as a causal graph. In this generalization, analyses are based on graph theoretic principles rather than analyses of matrices. Also, new devices such as metamodels and causal diagrams, as well as an increased emphasis on queries and probabilistic reasoning, are now included. Estimation under a graph theory framework permits the use of Bayesian or likelihood methods. The guidelines presented start from a declaration of the goals of the analysis. We then discuss how theory frames the modeling process, requirements for causal interpretation, model specification choices, selection of estimation method, model evaluation options, and use of queries, both to summarize retrospective results and for prospective analyses. The illustrative example presented involves monitoring data from wetlands on Mount Desert Island, home of Acadia National Park. Our presentation walks through the decision process involved in developing and evaluating models, as well as drawing inferences from the resulting prediction equations. In addition to evaluating hypotheses about the connections between human activities and biotic responses, we illustrate how the structural equation (SE) model can be queried to understand how interventions might take advantage of an environmental threshold to limit Typha invasions. The guidelines presented provide for

  3. Developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch physical therapy COPD clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation planning. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch COPD guideline for physical therapists and its recommended measurement instruments. Methods An overall questionnaire, based on two existing questionnaires, was constructed to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The construct of the questionnaire was assessed in a cross-sectional study among 246 chest physical therapists. Factor analysis was conducted to explore underlying dimensions. Psychometric properties were analyzed using Cronbach’s alpha. Barriers and facilitators were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results Some 139 physical therapists (57%) responded. Factor analysis revealed 4-factor and 5-factor solutions with an explained variance of 36% and 39% respectively. Cronbach’s alpha of the overall questionnaire was 0.90, and varied from 0.66 to 0.92 for the different factors. Underlying domains of the 5-factor solution were characterized as: attitude towards using measurement instruments, knowledge and skills of the physical therapist, applicability of the COPD guideline, required investment of time & money, and patient characteristics. Physical therapists showed a positive attitude toward using the COPD guideline. Main barriers for implementation were required time investment and financial constraints. Conclusions The construct of the questionnaire revealed relevant underlying domains for the identification of barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The questionnaire allowed for tailoring to the target group and may be used across health care professionals as basis for in-depth analysis

  4. From the EBM pyramid to the Greek temple: a new conceptual approach to Guidelines as implementation tools in mental health.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Lukersmith, S; Sullivan, W

    2017-04-01

    Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development. In addition to these advances, a new framework based on the philosophy of science is required. Guidelines should be defined as implementation decision support tools for improving the decision-making process in real-world practice and not only as a procedure to optimise the knowledge base of scientific discovery and corroboration. A shift from the model of the EBM pyramid of corroboration of evidence to the use of broader multi-domain perspective graphically depicted as 'Greek temple' could be considered. This model takes into account the different stages of scientific knowledge (discovery, corroboration and implementation), the sources of knowledge relevant to guideline development (experimental, observational, contextual, expert-based and experiential); their underlying inference mechanisms (deduction, induction, abduction, means-end inferences) and a more precise definition of evidence and related terms. The applicability of this broader approach is presented for the development of the Canadian Consensus Guidelines for the Primary Care of People with Developmental Disabilities.

  5. Research and guidelines for implementing Fatigue Risk Management Systems for the French regional airlines.

    PubMed

    Cabon, Philippe; Deharvengt, Stephane; Grau, Jean Yves; Maille, Nicolas; Berechet, Ion; Mollard, Régis

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes research that aims to provide the overall scientific basis for implementation of a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) for French regional airlines. The current research has evaluated the use of different tools and indicators that would be relevant candidates for integration into the FRMS. For the Fatigue Risk Management component, results show that biomathematical models of fatigue are useful tools to help an airline to prevent fatigue related to roster design and for the management of aircrew planning. The Fatigue Safety assurance includes two monitoring processes that have been evaluated during this research: systematic monitoring and focused monitoring. Systematic monitoring consists of the analysis of existing safety indicators such as Air Safety Reports (ASR) and Flight Data Monitoring (FDM). Results show a significant relationship between the hours of work and the frequency of ASR. Results for the FDM analysis show that some events are significantly related to the fatigue risk associated with the hours of works. Focused monitoring includes a website survey and specific in-flight observations and data collection. Sleep and fatigue measurements have been collected from 115 aircrews over 12-day periods (including rest periods). Before morning duties, results show a significant sleep reduction of up to 40% of the aircrews' usual sleep needs leading to a clear increase of fatigue during flights. From these results, specific guidelines are developed to help the airlines to implement the FRMS and for the airworthiness to oversight the implementation of the FRMS process.

  6. Implementation of an Evidence Based Guideline for Assessment and Documentation of the Civil Commitment Process.

    PubMed

    Perrigo, Tabitha L; Williams, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement an evidence-based practice guideline for assessment and documentation of the civil commitment process. Participants included six civil commitment examiners who conduct court ordered psychiatric evaluations at two crisis intervention centers in rural area of southeaster state. Data collection was conducted utilizing a chart audit tool both pre and post intervention of 100 civil commitment evaluations. The intervention included the development of an evidenced based form for documentation of civil commitment evaluations and a one on one educational training session was conducted for each participant. Descriptive statistics (t test) was utilized to analyze the data collected. The project demonstrated a significant increase as 25.5 % of evaluations contained the America Psychiatric Association's recommended 11 domains of assessment prior to implementation compared to 65.6 % (p value = 0.018) post implementation. Moreover, participants with family practice training showed an increase in commitment rates from 60 to 77.3 % (p value = 0.066). Whereas, psychiatric trained participants showed a decrease from 83.75 to 77.66 % (p value = 0.38). Demonstrating that court ordered evaluations guided by a standardized form based on evidence affected examiners recommendations for commitments.

  7. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Vera Lúcia Fonseca; Fernandes, Filipa Alexandra Veludo

    2016-01-01

    Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r), Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r), Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice. PMID:27027676

  8. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  9. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  10. European Commission project: European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan; Deistler, Albert; Bering, Robert; Schedlich, Claudia; Rooze, Magda; Orengo, Francisco; Zurek, Gisela; Krtickova, Michaela

    2011-06-01

    After disasters, the individual health and well-being of first responders and affected population are affected for years. Therefore, psychosocial help is needed. Although most victims recover on their own, a minority of survivors, members of rescue teams, or relatives develop long-term, disaster-related psychic disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This subgroup especially should receive timely and appropriate psychosocial help. Many European countries offer post-disaster psychosocial care from a variety of caregivers (i.e., professionals and volunteers, non-governmental organizations, church or commercial organizations). Therefore, European standards for providing post-disaster psychosocial support currently is required. This article describes the project European Guideline for Target Group-Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare-Implementation, supported by the European Commission.

  11. Applying the knowledge to action framework to plan a strategy for implementing breast cancer screening guidelines: an interprofessional perspective.

    PubMed

    Munce, Sarah; Kastner, Monika; Cramm, Heidi; Lal, Shalini; Deschêne, Sarah-Maude; Auais, Mohammad; Stacey, Dawn; Brouwers, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) interventions may be one solution to improving the uptake of clinical guidelines. IKT research initiatives are particularly relevant for breast cancer research and initiatives targeting the implementation of clinical guidelines and guideline implementation initiatives, where collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of practitioners, patients, caregivers, and policy makers is needed for producing optimum patient outcomes. The objective of this paper was to describe the process of developing an IKT strategy that could be used by guideline developers to improve the uptake of their new clinical practice guidelines on breast cancer screening. An interprofessional group of students as well as two faculty members met six times over three days at the KT Canada Summer Institute in 2011. The team used all of the phases of the action cycle in the Knowledge to Action Framework as an organizing framework. While the entire framework was used, the step involving assessing barriers to knowledge use was judged to be particularly relevant in anticipating implementation problems and being able to inform the specific KT interventions that would be appropriate to mitigate these challenges and to accomplish goals and outcomes. This activity also underscored the importance of group process and teamwork in IKT. We propose that an a priori assessment of barriers to knowledge use (i.e., level and corresponding barriers), along with the other phases of the Knowledge to Action Framework, is a strategic approach for KT strategy development, implementation, and evaluation planning and could be used in the future planning of KT strategies.

  12. [Guideline on diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis: imaging prior to appendectomy is recommended].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Olaf J; Go, Peter M N Y H; Puylaert, Julien B C M; Kazemier, Geert; Heij, Hugo A

    2010-01-01

    Every year, over 2500 unnecessary appendectomies are carried out in the Netherlands. At the initiative of the Dutch College of Surgeons, the evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis was developed. This guideline recommends that appendectomy should not be carried out without prior imaging. Ultrasonography is the recommended imaging technique in patients with suspected appendicitis. After negative or inconclusive ultrasonography, a CT scan can be carried out. Appendectomy is the standard treatment for acute appendicitis; this can be done either by open or laparoscopic surgery. The first choice treatment of appendicular infiltrate is conservative treatment.

  13. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, A. David (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for enhancing or extending visual representation of a selected region of a visual image, where visual representation is interfered with or distorted, by supplementing a visual signal with at least one audio signal having one or more audio signal parameters that represent one or more visual image parameters, such as vertical and/or horizontal location of the region; region brightness; dominant wavelength range of the region; change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image, with respect to a reference parameter value; and time rate of change in a parameter value that characterizes the visual image. Region dimensions can be changed to emphasize change with time of a visual image parameter.

  14. Connecting Marketing and Implementation Research and Library Program Development: A Case Study of the Implementation of [U.S.] National Guidelines and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Ken; Cavill, Pat

    This case study examined: (1) what market research is required for planning for the implementation of "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning," the 1998 national guidelines for effective school library media programs; (2) what issues need to be addressed and what target audiences are required to effect change, as well as…

  15. Implementation of the NCSS Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues: Exemplar Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert A., Ed.

    This document contains the Guidelines for Teaching Science-Related Social Issues adopted in 1982 by the National Council for the Social Studies and 10 examplar lessons each keyed to particular guidelines and drawing upon contemporary issues. The premise upon which the guidelines are based is that science is a social issue and that the examination…

  16. Multifaceted implementation of stroke prevention guidelines in primary care: cluster‐randomised evaluation of clinical and cost effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Bibby, John; Eastham, Joe; Harrison, Stephen; McGeorge, Maureen; Patterson, Chris; Price, Nick; Russell, Daphne; Russell, Ian; Small, Neil; Walsh, Matt; Young, John

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of implementing evidence‐based guidelines for the prevention of stroke. Design Cluster‐randomised trial Setting Three primary care organisations in the North of England covering a population of 400 000. Participants Seventy six primary care teams in four clusters: North, South & West, City I and City II. Intervention Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were developed and implemented using a multifaceted approach including evidence‐based recommendations, audit and feedback, interactive educational sessions, patient prompts and outreach visits. Outcomes Identification and appropriate treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation or TIA, and cost effectiveness. Results Implementation led to 36% increase (95% CI 4% to 78%) in diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, and improved treatment of TIA (odds ratio of complying with guidelines 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8). Combined analysis of atrial fibrillation and TIA estimates that compliance was significantly greater (OR 1.46 95% CI 1.10 to 1.94) in the condition for which practices had received the implementation programme. The development and implementation of guidelines cost less than £1500 per practice. The estimated costs per quality‐adjusted life year gained by patients with atrial fibrillation or TIA were both less than £2000, very much less than the usual criterion for cost effectiveness. Conclusions Implementation of evidence‐based guidelines improved the quality of primary care for atrial fibrillation and TIA. The intervention was feasible and very cost effective. Key components of the model include contextual analysis, strong professional support, clear recommendations based on robust evidence, simplicity of adoption, good communication and use of established networks and opinion leaders. PMID:17301206

  17. EANM procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT and SPECT/CT: 2015 revision.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Hein J; Acampa, Wanda; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos; Ballinger, Jim; Bengel, Frank; De Bondt, Pieter; Buechel, Ronny R; Cuocolo, Alberto; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L F; Flotats, Albert; Hacker, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Kaufmann, Philip A; Lindner, Oliver; Ljungberg, Michael; Lonsdale, Markus; Manrique, Alain; Minarik, David; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Trägårdh, Elin; de Wit, Tim C; Hesse, Birger

    2015-11-01

    Since the publication of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedural guidelines for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in 2005, many small and some larger steps of progress have been made, improving MPI procedures. In this paper, the major changes from the updated 2015 procedural guidelines are highlighted, focusing on the important changes related to new instrumentation with improved image information and the possibility to reduce radiation exposure, which is further discussed in relation to the recent developments of new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Introduction of the selective coronary vasodilator regadenoson and the use of coronary CT-contrast agents for hybrid imaging with SPECT/CT angiography are other important areas for nuclear cardiology that were not included in the previous guidelines. A large number of minor changes have been described in more detail in the fully revised version available at the EANM home page: http://eanm.org/publications/guidelines/2015_07_EANM_FINAL_myocardial_perfusion_guideline.pdf .

  18. Taking the next step to privacy compliance for hospitals: implementing the OHA guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beardwood, John

    2003-01-01

    The recently released "Guidelines for Managing Privacy, Data Protection and Security for Ontario Hospitals," prepared by the Ontario Hospital eHealth Council Privacy and Security Working Group (the "Guidelines") are useful in that they provide a comprehensive overview of the types of issues raised for hospitals by existing and pending privacy legislation, and a very high-level framework for addressing same. However, the Guidelines are, as stated high-level guidelines only,--leaving hospital management to grapple with the next big step towards privacy compliance: how to operationalize the Guidelines within their particular hospital.

  19. Testing of hardware implementation of infrared image enhancing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Sosnowski, T.; PiÄ tkowski, T.; Trzaskawka, P.; Kastek, M.; Kucharz, J.

    2012-10-01

    The interpretation of IR images depends on radiative properties of observed objects and surrounding scenery. Skills and experience of an observer itself are also of great importance. The solution to improve the effectiveness of observation is utilization of algorithm of image enhancing capable to improve the image quality and the same effectiveness of object detection. The paper presents results of testing the hardware implementation of IR image enhancing algorithm based on histogram processing. Main issue in hardware implementation of complex procedures for image enhancing algorithms is high computational cost. As a result implementation of complex algorithms using general purpose processors and software usually does not bring satisfactory results. Because of high efficiency requirements and the need of parallel operation, the ALTERA's EP2C35F672 FPGA device was used. It provides sufficient processing speed combined with relatively low power consumption. A digital image processing and control module was designed and constructed around two main integrated circuits: a FPGA device and a microcontroller. Programmable FPGA device performs image data processing operations which requires considerable computing power. It also generates the control signals for array readout, performs NUC correction and bad pixel mapping, generates the control signals for display module and finally executes complex image processing algorithms. Implemented adaptive algorithm is based on plateau histogram equalization. Tests were performed on real IR images of different types of objects registered in different spectral bands. The simulations and laboratory experiments proved the correct operation of the designed system in executing the sophisticated image enhancement.

  20. The service context for clinical guidelines: supporting guideline implementation by assuring and improving the quality of service in which clinicians work.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Adrian

    2011-08-01

    This paper argues that accreditation schemes and quality networks promote good contexts for the implementation of clinical guidelines. It raises questions about how organizational standards should be developed, structured and focused, how clinical guidelines and organizational standards should connect, how to practically increase the number of such schemes and their scope, and the role of professional bodies in this. There is a considerable amount of administration involved in running an accreditation scheme or quality network and there are risks involved in starting in new areas. One way forward is for professional bodies to partner to share risks and to build a common operating platform for the administration of the work across the professional bodies. This platform could be guided by topic experts within the bodies.

  1. The CLUES study: a cluster randomized clinical trial for the evaluation of cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The appropriate care for people with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality. One strategy for improving the care for these patients involves the implementation of evidence-based guidelines. To date, little research concerning the impact of such implementation strategies in our setting has been published. Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted tailored intervention in the implementation of three cardiovascular risk-related guidelines (hypertension, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia) in primary care in the Basque Health Service compared with usual implementation. Methods/Design A two-year cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care in two districts in the Basque Health Service. All primary care units are randomized. Data from all patients with diabetes, hypertension and those susceptible to coronary risk screening will be analyzed. Interventions. The control group will receive standard implementation. The experimental group will receive a multifaceted tailored implementation strategy, including a specific web page and workshops for family physicians and nurses. Endpoints. Primary endpoints: annual request for glycosylated hemoglobin, basic laboratory tests for hypertension, cardiovascular risk screening (women between 45–74 and men between 40–74 years old). Secondary endpoints: other process and clinical guideline indicators. Analysis: Data will be extracted from centralized computerized medical records. Analysis will be performed at a primary care unit level weighted by cluster size. Discussion The main contribution of our study is that it seeks to identify an effective strategy for cardiovascular guideline implementation in primary care in our setting. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN88876909 PMID:24156549

  2. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low-income and middle-income countries: overview of the Breast Health Global Initiative Global Summit 2007.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin O; Yip, Cheng-Har; Smith, Robert A; Shyyan, Roman; Sener, Stephen F; Eniu, Alexandru; Carlson, Robert W; Azavedo, Edward; Harford, Joe

    2008-10-15

    Breast cancer outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) correlate with the degree to which 1) cancers are detected at early stages, 2) newly detected cancers can be diagnosed correctly, and 3) appropriately selected multimodality treatment can be provided properly in a timely fashion. The Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) invited international experts to review and revise previously developed BHGI resource-stratified guideline tables for early detection, diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare systems. Focus groups addressed specific issues in breast pathology, radiation therapy, and management of locally advanced disease. Process metrics were developed based on the priorities established in the guideline stratification. The groups indicated that cancer prevention through health behavior modification could influence breast cancer incidence in LMCs. Diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages will reduce breast cancer mortality. Programs to promote breast self-awareness and clinical breast examination and resource-adapted mammographic screening are important early detection steps. Breast imaging, initially with ultrasound and, at higher resource levels with diagnostic mammography, improves preoperative diagnostic assessment and permits image-guided needle sampling. Multimodality therapy includes surgery, radiation, and systemic therapies. Government intervention is needed to address drug-delivery problems relating to high cost and poor access. Guideline dissemination and implementation research plays a crucial role in improving care. Adaptation of technology is needed in LMCs, especially for breast imaging, pathology, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment. Curricula for education and training in LMCs should be developed, applied, and studied in LMC-based learning laboratories to aid information transfer of evidence-based BHGI guidelines.

  3. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of Endoleaks following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.; Uberoi, R.; Cil, B.; Munneke, G.; Tsetis, D.

    2013-02-15

    Major concerns after aortic aneurysm repair are caused by the presence of endoleaks, which are defined as persistent perigraft flow within the aortic aneurysm sac. Diagnosis of endoleaks can be performed with various imaging modalities, and indications for treatment are based on further subclassifications. Early detection and correct classification of endoleaks are crucial for planning patient management. The vast majority of endoleaks can be treated successfully by interventional means. Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of endoleaks are described in this article.

  4. FPGA implementation of image enhancement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karan; Jain, Aditya; Srivastava, Atul Kumar

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this paper is designing, modeling, simulation and synthesis of four Image Enhancement techniques on FPGA. Image Enhancement Algorithms can be classified as point processing Techniques, in which operation is done on pixel level and Spatial Filtering Technique, in which operation is performed within neighborhood of a pixel. Algorithms of all the techniques are studied and hardware circuits are realized for them. Then hardware logic is modeled in Matlab Simulink using Xilinx System Generator Block set and synthesized onto Virtex4 xc4vsx35-10ff668 FPGA chip. Using hardware co-simulation feature of FPGA kit, the algorithms developed are validated.

  5. Setting priorities in global child health research investments: guidelines for implementation of CHNRI method.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Igor; Gibson, Jennifer L; Ameratunga, Shanthi; El Arifeen, Shams; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Maureen; Black, Robert E; Brown, Kenneth H; Campbell, Harry; Carneiro, Ilona; Chan, Kit Yee; Chandramohan, Daniel; Chopra, Mickey; Cousens, Simon; Darmstadt, Gary L; Meeks Gardner, Julie; Hess, Sonja Y; Hyder, Adnan A; Kapiriri, Lydia; Kosek, Margaret; Lanata, Claudio F; Lansang, Mary Ann; Lawn, Joy; Tomlinson, Mark; Tsai, Alexander C; Webster, Jayne

    2008-12-01

    This article provides detailed guidelines for the implementation of systematic method for setting priorities in health research investments that was recently developed by Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI). The target audience for the proposed method are international agencies, large research funding donors, and national governments and policy-makers. The process has the following steps: (i) selecting the managers of the process; (ii) specifying the context and risk management preferences; (iii) discussing criteria for setting health research priorities; (iv) choosing a limited set of the most useful and important criteria; (v) developing means to assess the likelihood that proposed health research options will satisfy the selected criteria; (vi) systematic listing of a large number of proposed health research options; (vii) pre-scoring check of all competing health research options; (viii) scoring of health research options using the chosen set of criteria; (ix) calculating intermediate scores for each health research option; (x) obtaining further input from the stakeholders; (xi) adjusting intermediate scores taking into account the values of stakeholders; (xii) calculating overall priority scores and assigning ranks; (xiii) performing an analysis of agreement between the scorers; (xiv) linking computed research priority scores with investment decisions; (xv) feedback and revision. The CHNRI method is a flexible process that enables prioritizing health research investments at any level: institutional, regional, national, international, or global.

  6. Comparison between two super-resolution implementations in PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guoping; Pan, Tinsu; Qiao, Feng; Clark, John W; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2009-04-01

    Super-resolution (SR) techniques are used in PET imaging to generate a high-resolution image by combining multiple low-resolution images that have been acquired from different points of view (POV). In this article, the authors propose a novel implementation of the SR technique whereby the required multiple low-resolution images are generated by shifting the reconstruction pixel grid during the image reconstruction process rather than being acquired from different POVs. The objective of this article is to compare the performances of the two SR implementations using theoretical and experimental studies. A mathematical framework is first provided to support the hypothesis that the two SR implementations have similar performance in current PET/CT scanners that use block detectors. Based on this framework, a simulation study, a point source study, and a NEMA/IEC phantom study were conducted to compare the performance of these two SR implementations with respect to contrast, resolution, noise, and SNR. For reference purposes, a comparison with a native reconstruction (NR) image using a high-resolution pixel grid was also performed. The mathematical framework showed that the two SR implementations are expected to achieve similar contrast and resolution but different noise contents. These results were confirmed by the simulation and experimental studies. The simulation study showed that the two SR implementations have an average contrast difference of 2.3%, while the point source study showed that their average differences in contrast and resolution were 0.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Comparisons between the SR and NR images for the point source study showed that the NR image exhibited averages of 30% and 8% lower contrast and resolution, respectively. The NEMA/IEC phantom study showed that the three images (two SR and NR) exhibited different noise structures. The SNR of the new SR implementation was, on average, 21.5% lower than the original implementation largely due to an

  7. Implementation of curriculum guidelines for pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics in FNP graduate programs: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Morris, N S; Possidente, C J; Muskus, C

    2001-01-01

    Model Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics Curriculum Guidelines were developed by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing and the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties and published in 1998. To date, no publication of evaluation of adoption or adherence to these guidelines is available. The purpose of this survey was to determine how family nurse practitioner programs incorporate the guidelines into their curriculum. A mailed self-report questionnaire to 193 schools yielded a 41% response rate. Eighty-five percent (n = 68) of the programs have not yet fully integrated the guidelines into their curriculum. Difficulties addressing the extensive content within a 3-credit course and the challenges of teaching students with varied clinical backgrounds and knowledge levels were frequently cited. Although further study of achievement of the guidelines is necessary, an increase in credit allocation, consideration of a conceptual approach to the topic, and use of varied teaching strategies may make achievement of the guidelines more realistic.

  8. Implementation of the national tuberculosis guidelines on culture and drug sensitivity testing in Guatemala, 2013.

    PubMed

    Samayoa-Peláez, Maritza; Ayala, Nancy; Yadon, Zaida E; Heldal, Einar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates. The proportions with culture (for new smear negative pulmonary cases) and culture combined with DST (for previously treated patients) were estimated and analyzed by department. Data were analyzed using EpiData Analysis version 2.2. Results There were 3 074 patients registered with TB (all forms), for a case notification rate of 20/100 000 population. Of these, 2 842 had new TB, of which 2 167 (76%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 385 (14%) were smear-negative PTB, and 290 (10%) were extrapulmonary TB. There were 232 (8%) previously treated cases. Case notification rates (all forms) varied by department from 2-68 per 100 000 population, with the highest rates seen in the southwest and northeast part of Guatemala. Of new TB patients, 136 had a culture performed and 55 had DST of which the results were 33 fully sensitive, 9 monoresistant, 3 polyresistant, and 10 multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Only 21 (5%) of new smear-negative PTB patients had cultures. Of 232 previously treated patients, 54 (23%) had a culture and 47 (20%) had DST, of which 29 were fully sensitive, 7 monoresistant, 2 polyresistant, and 9 MDR-TB. Of 22 departments (including the capital), culture and DST was performed in new smear-negative PTB in 7 departments (32%) and in previously treated TB in 13 departments (59%). Conclusions Despite national guidelines, only 5% of smear-negative PTB cases had a culture and only 20% of

  9. Optical Implementation of Matching Pursuit for Image Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, T.; Lau, B.; Miceli, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a technique for image analysis, representation, and decomposition. This technique was motivated by Stephane Mallat's matching-pursuit algorithm. We've altered and simplified the mechanics of his algorithm to enable an extremely fast implementation via optical processing. Initial computer simulations show that our algorithm is capable of decomposing and representing a 2-D image as a linear combination of basis images with both high speed and high fidelity.

  10. Developing Leadership in Managers to Facilitate the Implementation of National Guideline Recommendations: A Process Evaluation of Feasibility and Usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Tistad, Malin; Palmcrantz, Susanne; Wallin, Lars; Ehrenberg, Anna; Olsson, Christina B.; Tomson, Göran; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Gifford, Wendy; Eldh, Ann Catrine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research supports the claim that managers are vital players in the implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), yet little is known about interventions aiming to develop managers’ leadership in facilitating implementation. In this pilot study, process evaluation was employed to study the feasibility and usefulness of a leadership intervention by exploring the intervention’s potential to support managers in the implementation of national guideline recommendations for stroke care in outpatient rehabilitation. Methods: Eleven senior and frontline managers from five outpatient stroke rehabilitation centers participated in a four-month leadership intervention that included workshops, seminars, and teleconferences. The focus was on developing knowledge and skills to enhance the implementation of CPG recommendations, with a particular focus on leadership behaviors. Each dyad of managers was assigned to develop a leadership plan with specific goals and leadership behaviors for implementing three rehabilitation recommendations. Feasibility and usefulness were explored through observations and interviews with the managers and staff members prior to the intervention, and then one month and one year after the intervention. Results: Managers considered the intervention beneficial, particularly the participation of both senior and frontline managers and the focus on leadership knowledge and skills for implementing CPG recommendations. All the managers developed a leadership plan, but only two units identified goals specific to implementing the three stroke rehabilitation recommendations. Of these, only one identified leadership behaviors that support implementation. Conclusion: Managers found that the intervention was delivered in a feasible way and appreciated the focus on leadership to facilitate implementation. However, the intervention appeared to have limited impact on managers’ behaviors or clinical practice at the units. Future

  11. CEOS Land Surface Imaging Constellation Mid-Resolution Optical Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, Jennifer P.; Killough, B.

    2011-01-01

    The LSI community of users is large and varied. To reach all these users as well as potential instrument contributors this document has been organized by measurement parameters of interest such as Leaf Area Index and Land Surface Temperature. These measurement parameters and the data presented in this document are drawn from multiple sources, listed at the end of the document, although the two primary ones are "The Space-Based Global Observing System in 2010 (GOS-2010)" that was compiled for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) by Bizzarro Bizzarri, and the CEOS Missions, Instruments, and Measurements online database (CEOS MIM). For each measurement parameter the following topics will be discussed: (1) measurement description, (2) applications, (3) measurement spectral bands, and (4) example instruments and mission information. The description of each measurement parameter starts with a definition and includes a graphic displaying the relationships to four general land surface imaging user communities: vegetation, water, earth, and geo-hazards, since the LSI community of users is large and varied. The vegetation community uses LSI data to assess factors related to topics such as agriculture, forest management, crop type, chlorophyll, vegetation land cover, and leaf or canopy differences. The water community analyzes snow and lake cover, water properties such as clarity, and body of water delineation. The earth community focuses on minerals, soils, and sediments. The geo-hazards community is designed to address and aid in emergencies such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and large-scale damaging weather-related events.

  12. Novice Designers' Myths about Usability Sessions: Guidelines To Implementing User-Centered Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Details myths that illustrate novice instructional designers' perspectives on usability sessions and their users. Then offers suggestions for integrating creativity and developing enhanced perspective-taking. Two tables list the myths and guidelines, and potential effects of usability-session guidelines on novice designers' myths are charted. (AEF)

  13. Can An Academic Health Care System Overcome Barriers to Clinical Guideline Implementation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Cardiology/ American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) practice guidelines state that the utilization of beta- blockers in patients with known coronary disease or...surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines [American College of Cardiology

  14. Implementation of Multispectral Image Classification on a Remote Adaptive Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Gloster, Clay S.; Stephens, Mark; Graves, Corey A.; Nakkar, Mouna

    1999-01-01

    As the demand for higher performance computers for the processing of remote sensing science algorithms increases, the need to investigate new computing paradigms its justified. Field Programmable Gate Arrays enable the implementation of algorithms at the hardware gate level, leading to orders of m a,gnitude performance increase over microprocessor based systems. The automatic classification of spaceborne multispectral images is an example of a computation intensive application, that, can benefit from implementation on an FPGA - based custom computing machine (adaptive or reconfigurable computer). A probabilistic neural network is used here to classify pixels of of a multispectral LANDSAT-2 image. The implementation described utilizes Java client/server application programs to access the adaptive computer from a remote site. Results verify that a remote hardware version of the algorithm (implemented on an adaptive computer) is significantly faster than a local software version of the same algorithm implemented on a typical general - purpose computer).

  15. Early statin therapy in acute coronary syndromes: the successful cycle of evidence, guidelines, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Waters, David D; Ku, Ivy

    2009-10-06

    That statins should be prescribed for patients before hospital discharge after an episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a Level of Evidence: 1A recommendation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Task Force. This level of recommendation is based upon 2 clinical trials: the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Aggressive Cholesterol Lowering) and PROVE-IT (Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy) trials. In the MIRACL trial, 3,086 patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction were randomized within 4 days of the event to atorvastatin 80 mg/day or to placebo and followed for 16 weeks. The primary composite end point occurred in 14.8% of atorvastatin patients and 17.4% of placebo patients, a 16% relative risk reduction (p = 0.048). In the PROVE-IT trial, 4,162 patients hospitalized with an ACS within the preceding 10 days were randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/day or pravastatin 40 mg/day and were followed for a mean of 24 months. The primary event rate was 22.4% in the atorvastatin group and 26.3% in the pravastatin group, a 16% relative risk reduction (p = 0.005). A strong trend toward a reduction in total mortality was seen in the atorvastatin group (2.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.07). Using a composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for ACS, the difference between the treatment groups is already statistically significant at 30 days and remains so throughout the follow-up period. Comprehensive treatment programs in ACS patients that include initiation of statins before hospital discharge have been shown to improve outcomes such as recurrent myocardial infarction and total mortality at 1 year. Guidelines prove their utility when their implementation improves outcomes across a broad population at risk, such as in this instance.

  16. Holographic Radar Imaging Privacy Techniques Utilizing Dual-Frequency Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.

    2008-04-18

    Over the last 15 years, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has performed significant research and development activities to enhance the state of the art of holographic radar imaging systems to be used at security checkpoints for screening people for concealed threats hidden under their garments. These enhancement activities included improvements to privacy techniques to remove human features and providing automatic detection of body-worn concealed threats. The enhanced privacy and detection methods used both physical and software imaging techniques. The physical imaging techniques included polarization-diversity illumination and reception, dual-frequency implementation, and high-frequency imaging at 60 GHz. Software imaging techniques to enhance the privacy of the person under surveillance included extracting concealed threat artifacts from the imagery to automatically detect the threat. This paper will focus on physical privacy techniques using dual-frequency implementation.

  17. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Hiroyama, Natsuko; Hirose, Taiko; Okubo, Noriko; Okamitsu, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses' knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n = 193) and Japan (n = 440) were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses' knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment. PMID:28265469

  18. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kayoko; Paavilainen, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Flinck, Aune; Hiroyama, Natsuko; Hirose, Taiko; Okubo, Noriko; Okamitsu, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses' knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n = 193) and Japan (n = 440) were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses' knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  19. Medical Physics Practice Guideline 4.a: Development, implementation, use and maintenance of safety checklists.

    PubMed

    Fong de Los Santos, Luis E; Evans, Suzanne; Ford, Eric C; Gaiser, James E; Hayden, Sandra E; Huffman, Kristina E; Johnson, Jennifer L; Mechalakos, James G; Stern, Robin L; Terezakis, Stephanie; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Pronovost, Peter J; Fairobent, Lynne A

    2015-05-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States.The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner.Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized.The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines:Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline.Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

  20. The College of American Pathologists guidelines for whole slide imaging validation are feasible for pediatric pathology: a pediatric pathology practice experience.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michael A; Chenever, Emily; Baker, Peter B; Boué, Daniel R; Fung, Bonita; Hammond, Sue; Hendrickson, Brett W; Kahwash, Samir B; Pierson, Christopher R; Prasad, Vinay; Nicol, Kathleen K; Barr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) is rapidly transforming educational and diagnostic pathology services. Recently, the College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center (CAP-PLQC) published recommended guidelines for validating diagnostic WSI. We prospectively evaluated the guidelines to determine their utility in validating pediatric surgical pathology and cytopathology specimens. Our validation included varied pediatric specimen types, including complex or less common diagnoses, in accordance with the guidelines. We completed WSI review of 60 surgical pathology cases and attempted WSI review of 21 cytopathology cases. For surgical pathology cases, WSI diagnoses were highly concordant with glass slide diagnoses; a discordant diagnosis was observed in 1 of 60 cases (98.3% concordance). We found that nucleated red blood cells and eosinophilic granular bodies represented specific challenges to WSI review of pediatric specimens. Cytology specimens were more frequently discordant or failed for technical reasons, with overall concordance of 66.7%. Review of pediatric cytopathology specimens will likely require image capture in multiple focal planes. This study is the first to specifically evaluate WSI review for pediatric specimens and demonstrates that specimens representing the spectrum of pediatric surgical pathology practice can be reviewed using WSI. Our application of the proposed CAP-PLQC guidelines to pediatric surgical pathology specimens is, to our knowledge, the first prospective implementation of the CAP-PLQC guidelines.

  1. Computerization of workflows, guidelines, and care pathways: a review of implementation challenges for process-oriented health information systems

    PubMed Central

    Roudsari, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is a need to integrate the various theoretical frameworks and formalisms for modeling clinical guidelines, workflows, and pathways, in order to move beyond providing support for individual clinical decisions and toward the provision of process-oriented, patient-centered, health information systems (HIS). In this review, we analyze the challenges in developing process-oriented HIS that formally model guidelines, workflows, and care pathways. Methods A qualitative meta-synthesis was performed on studies published in English between 1995 and 2010 that addressed the modeling process and reported the exposition of a new methodology, model, system implementation, or system architecture. Thematic analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and data visualisation techniques were used to identify and cluster the underlying implementation ‘challenge’ themes. Results One hundred and eight relevant studies were selected for review. Twenty-five underlying ‘challenge’ themes were identified. These were clustered into 10 distinct groups, from which a conceptual model of the implementation process was developed. Discussion and conclusion We found that the development of systems supporting individual clinical decisions is evolving toward the implementation of adaptable care pathways on the semantic web, incorporating formal, clinical, and organizational ontologies, and the use of workflow management systems. These architectures now need to be implemented and evaluated on a wider scale within clinical settings. PMID:21724740

  2. Effectiveness of an implementation strategy for a breastfeeding guideline in Primary Care: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protection and promotion of breastfeeding is considered a priority in Europe where only 22% of infants less than 6 months old are exclusively breastfed. In Spain this percentage reaches 24.8% but in our city it falls to 18.26%. Various studies emphasise that the improvement of these results should be based upon the training of health professionals. Following the recommendations of a breastfeeding guide can modify the practice of health professionals and improve results with respect to exclusively or predominatly breastfed children at 6 months of age. Method/Design This study involves a community based cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in Leganés (Madrid, Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of an implementation strategy (including training session, information distribution, opinion leader) of a breastfeeding guideline in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required will be 240 (120 in each arm). It will be included all the mothers of infants born during the study period (6 months) who come to the health centre on the first visit of the child care programme and who give their consent to participate. The main outcome variable is the exclusive o predominant breastfeeding at 6 moths of age.. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the percentage of infants with exclusive or predominant breastfeeding at 6 months between the intervention group and the control group. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion Strategies need to be found which facilitate the giving of effective advice on breastfeeding by professionals and which provide support to women during the breastfeeding period. By applying the guide's recommendations, clinical

  3. Implementing KDOQI CKD definition and staging guidelines in Southern California Kaiser Permanente.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Mark; Mann, Wendy; Derose, Stephen; Selevan, David; Pascual, Noel; Diesto, Jean; Crooks, Peter

    2009-03-01

    We outline the experience of Southern California Kaiser Permanente, a large integrated health maintenance organization, in implementing the chronic kidney disease (CKD) definition and staging guidelines of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) from 2002 to 2008, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) implementation, algorithm for GFR range assignment and reassignment, and practical modifications of CKD staging for population management. We departed from the KDOQI CKD definition and staging as follows: for stages 1 to 2, we required "macroproteinuria" rather than "microalbuminuria" as the marker of kidney damage; for stage 3, we included individuals with macroproteinuria, diabetes mellitus based on diabetic registry, or eGFR + 1/2 age less than 85; and for stage 5, we included only individuals not receiving renal replacement therapy. In an adult population of 2.5 million members, we identified 2.9% (72,005) for CKD population management (0.1%, 0.2%, 1.7%, 0.15%, and 0.01% with stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). Outpatient visits with a nephrologist in the past 12 months for the prevalent CKD population increased modestly from 2003 to 2008 from 20% to 24%. Nephrologists see a higher risk subset, including 77% of patients with stages 4 to 5, 45% of prevalent patients with CKD stages 1 to 5 with the last urine protein level greater than approximately 1 g, and 21% of patients with stage 3 in the past 12 months, but only 4% of patients with eGFR of 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) not meeting our criteria for stage 3. Primary care providers see the majority of patients with stages 1 to 5 in the course of a year (85%) and are aware of kidney disease (79% coded for kidney disease). Other quality indicators during the 12-month window include the following: for patients with prevalent CKD stages 1 to 5, a total of 56% with last blood pressure greater than 129/79 mm Hg, 21% missing qualitative proteinuria, 16% missing angiotensin

  4. Unconventional methods of imaging: computational microscopy and compact implementations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-07-01

    In the past two decades or so, there has been a renaissance of optical microscopy research and development. Much work has been done in an effort to improve the resolution and sensitivity of microscopes, while at the same time to introduce new imaging modalities, and make existing imaging systems more efficient and more accessible. In this review, we look at two particular aspects of this renaissance: computational imaging techniques and compact imaging platforms. In many cases, these aspects go hand-in-hand because the use of computational techniques can simplify the demands placed on optical hardware in obtaining a desired imaging performance. In the first main section, we cover lens-based computational imaging, in particular, light-field microscopy, structured illumination, synthetic aperture, Fourier ptychography, and compressive imaging. In the second main section, we review lensfree holographic on-chip imaging, including how images are reconstructed, phase recovery techniques, and integration with smart substrates for more advanced imaging tasks. In the third main section we describe how these and other microscopy modalities have been implemented in compact and field-portable devices, often based around smartphones. Finally, we conclude with some comments about opportunities and demand for better results, and where we believe the field is heading.

  5. Guideline Implementation: Energy-Generating Devices, Part 2-Lasers.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Byron L

    2017-04-01

    Lasers have been used in the OR for many years and are essential tools in many different types of procedures. However, laser beams that come into contact with unintended targets directly or via reflection can cause injury to patients or personnel or pose other hazards, such as fires. The new AORN "Guideline for safe use of energy-generating devices" provides guidance on the use of all energy-generating devices in the OR. This article focuses on key points of the guideline that address the safe use of lasers. These include the components of the laser safety program, the responsibilities of the personnel in roles specific to use of a laser, laser safety measures, and documentation of laser use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  6. Implementation of GPU-accelerated back projection for EPR imaging.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhiwei; Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Qian, Yuhua; Halpern, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) Imaging (EPRI) is a robust method for measuring in vivo oxygen concentration (pO2). For 3D pulse EPRI, a commonly used reconstruction algorithm is the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm, in which the backprojection process is computationally intensive and may be time consuming when implemented on a CPU. A multistage implementation of the backprojection can be used for acceleration, however it is not flexible (requires equal linear angle projection distribution) and may still be time consuming. In this work, single-stage backprojection is implemented on a GPU (Graphics Processing Units) having 1152 cores to accelerate the process. The GPU implementation results in acceleration by over a factor of 200 overall and by over a factor of 3500 if only the computing time is considered. Some important experiences regarding the implementation of GPU-accelerated backprojection for EPRI are summarized. The resulting accelerated image reconstruction is useful for real-time image reconstruction monitoring and other time sensitive applications.

  7. The Effect of Education and Implementation of Evidence-Based Nursing Guidelines on Infants’ Weight Gaining in NICU

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Zahra; Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohammad; Ebadi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Educating evidence-based guidelines influences increased quality of nursing cares effectively. Infant’s weight gaining is one of the most important indicators for measuring quality of nursing care in NICU. The research is conducted with the aim of surveying the effect of education and implementation of educating evidence-based guidelines on infants’ weight gaining in NICU. Methods: This two-group clinical trial study was conducted in 2013 on one hundred infants in Baqiyatallah (AJ) hospital of Tehran. It was performed by using non-probable and convenient sampling. Data collection tools included; infants’ demographic questionnaire and a researcher-made checklist to record infants’ weight by using a weighing scale. Infants’ weight was recorded before intervention and two months after implementation of the guidelines, then data were analyzed by using SPSS19 statistical software. Findings: Mean weight of the infants in the control group on admission and on discharge was respectively; 1771(41.71) and 1712(42.68), and mean weight of the infants in intervention group on admission and on discharge was respectively; 1697(37.63) and 1793(40.71). After two months, infants’ weight gaining in intervention group was more than control group and it was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that implementation of evidence-based instruction an effective and economical method regarding infants’ weight gaining. Therefore it is recommended to the authorities and managers of the hospitals and educational centers of the healthcare services to put education and implementation of educating evidence-based instruction the priority of their work plans. PMID:25716388

  8. Recursive implementations of temporal filters for image motion computation.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C W; Langley, K

    2000-05-01

    Efficient algorithms for image motion computation are important for computer vision applications and the modelling of biological vision systems. Intensity-based image motion computation proceeds in two stages: the convolution of linear spatiotemporal filter kernels with the image sequence, followed by the non-linear combination of the filter outputs. If the spatiotemporal extent of the filter kernels is large, then the convolution stage can be very intensive computationally. One effective means of reducing the storage required and computation involved in implementing the temporal convolutions is the introduction of recursive filtering. Non-recursive methods require the number of frames of the image sequence stored at any given time to be equal to the temporal extent of the slowest temporal filter. In contrast, recursive methods encode recent stimulus history implicitly in the values of a small number of variables updated through a series of feedback equations. Recursive filtering reduces the number of values stored in memory during convolution and the number of mathematical operations involved in computing the filters' outputs. This paper extends previous recursive implementations of gradient- and correlation-based motion analysis algorithms [Fleet DJ, Langley K (1995) IEEE PAMI 17: 61-67; Clifford CWG, Ibbotson MR, Langley K (1997) Vis Neurosci 14: 741-749], describing a recursive implementation of causal band-pass temporal filters suitable for use in energy- and phase-based algorithms for image motion computation. It is shown that the filters' temporal frequency tuning curves fit psychophysical estimates of the temporal properties of human visual filters.

  9. An Implementation Strategy to Improve the Guideline Adherence of Insurance Physicians: A Process Evaluation Alongside an Experiment in a Controlled Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerver, Feico; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, Karin; Schellart, Antonius J. M.; Anema, Johannes R.; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We developed an implementation strategy for the insurance medicine guidelines for depression, which we implemented via a post-graduate course for insurance physicians (IPs). In this study we evaluate the physicians' experiences of the implementation strategy by measuring the following aspects: recruitment and reach, dose delivered and…

  10. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  11. The Pupil Nondiscrimination Guidelines for Athletics. Implementing Section 118.13 of the Wisconsin Statutes and PI 9 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association.

    This guide is designed to assist schools in fully implementing Wisconsin's pupil nondiscrimination guidelines which provide equal educational opportunity for all of its students. The guidelines focus on discrimination problems in interscholastic athletics and are based on sex equity. Following a foreword and acknowledgements, the document is…

  12. Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Pupils Who Are Orthopedically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Robert S.; Fusco, Carol B.

    Guidelines are provided for the development of programs in South Carolina for orthopedically handicapped (OH) pupils. Basic information is given concerning the definition of orthopedic handicap, the legal mandates on the education of OH pupils, funding sources, authorized programs (whether self-contained programs, resource rooms, or itinerant…

  13. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in an Autism Primary Care Practice: Which Guidelines to Implement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…

  14. Distributed Training for the Reserve Component: Course Conversion and Implementation Guidelines for Computer Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, H. A.; And Others

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background and guidelines for course designers and instructional developers who will be developing Reserve Component training for the United States military using asynchronous computer conferencing techniques. The recommendations in this report are based on an international review of the literature in…

  15. Healthcare Professionals’ and Policy Makers’ Views on Implementing a Clinical Practice Guideline of Hypertension Management: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ping Yein; Liew, Su May; Abdullah, Adina; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Chia, Yook Chin; Lai, Pauline S. M.; Wong, Stalia S. L.; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most studies have reported barriers to guideline usage mainly from doctors’ perspective; few have reported the perspective of other stakeholders. This study aimed to determine the views and barriers to adherence of a national clinical practice guideline (CPG) on management of hypertension from the perspectives of policymakers, doctors and allied healthcare professionals. Methods This study used a qualitative approach with purposive sampling. Seven in depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with 35 healthcare professionals (policy makers, doctors, pharmacists and nurses) at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between February and June 2013. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. Thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Results Two main themes and three sub-themes emerged from this study. The main themes were (1) variation in the use of CPG and (2) barriers to adherence to CPG. The three sub-themes for barriers were issues inherent to the CPG, systems and policy that is not supportive of CPG use, and attitudes and behaviour of stakeholders. The main users of the CPG were the primary care doctors. Pharmacists only partially use the guidelines, while nurses and policy makers were not using the CPG at all. Participants had suggested few strategies to improve usage and adherence to CPG. First, update the CPG regularly and keep its content simple with specific sections for allied health workers. Second, use technology to facilitate CPG accessibility and provide protected time for implementation of CPG recommendations. Third, incorporate local CPG in professional training, link CPG adherence to key performance indicators and provide incentives for its use. Conclusions Barriers to the use of CPG hypertension management span across all stakeholders. The development and implementation of CPG focused mainly on doctors with lack of involvement of other healthcare stakeholders. Guidelines

  16. U.S. Army Environmental Center Guidelines for Implementation of ER 1110-1-263 for USAEC Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    USAEC to be the best general approach for implementing the requirements of ER 1110-1-263. Modifications to the requirements in this document may be made...not Requiring Validation 5.4 Method Development 6.0 General Laboratory Procedures 6.1 SOPs Laboratory 6.2 Laboratory Personnel Guidelines 6.3 USAEC...of sample to be collected. The choice of solvents shall be specified in the QAPjP (in general , a 1:4 acetone/hexane mixture should be used to wipe for

  17. Implementation Guidelines for ANSI/AIAA S-081: Space Systems Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    COPV , forklift impacts, and crane-hook impacts. 4.2 Stress - Rupture Life 4.2.1 Standard Stress - Rupture Life Requirements 4.2.8 Stress - Rupture ...Materials New materials will require determination of stress rupture behavior. Although long-term pressure testing of COPVs would be preferable, strand...tests provide a conservative guideline for determination of stress - rupture behavior. A general approach for creating design curves from COPV data

  18. Decreased neonatal jaundice readmission rate after implementing hyperbilirubinemia guidelines and universal screening for bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, Arie L; Bresee, Catherine J; Simmons, Charles F

    2010-09-01

    Readmission rate for neonatal jaundice approximate 10 per 1000 live births. After applying hyperbilirubinemia guidelines and universal screening for bilirubin in term and near-term newborns, the readmission rate declined significantly from 24 to 3.7 per 1000 live births. Decreased readmission rate for neonatal jaundice may reduce kernicterus rate and health care costs. Further studies are necessary to explore these potential benefits.

  19. Implementation of a Landscape Lighting System to Display Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gi-Ju; Cho, Sung-Jae; Kim, Chang-Beom; Moon, Cheol-Hong

    The system implemented in this study consists of a PC, MASTER, SLAVEs and MODULEs. The PC sets the various landscape lighting displays, and the image files can be sent to the MASTER through a virtual serial port connected to the USB (Universal Serial Bus). The MASTER sends a sync signal to the SLAVE. The SLAVE uses the signal received from the MASTER and the landscape lighting display pattern. The video file is saved in the NAND Flash memory and the R, G, B signals are separated using the self-made display signal and sent to the MODULE so that it can display the image.

  20. (18)F-NaF PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, M; Mottaghy, F M; Payche, F; Behrendt, F F F; Van den Wyngaert, T; Fogelman, I; Strobel, K; Celli, M; Fanti, S; Giammarile, F; Krause, B; Langsteger, W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide minimum standards for the performance and interpretation of (18)F-NaF PET/CT scans. Standard acquisition and interpretation of nuclear imaging modalities will help to provide consistent data acquisition and numeric values between different platforms and institutes and to promote the use of PET/CT modality as an established diagnostic modality in routine clinical practice. This will also improve the value of scientific work and its contribution to evidence-based medicine.

  1. 32 CFR 2004.11 - Agency Implementing Regulations, Internal Rules, or Guidelines [102(b)(3)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Implementation and Oversight § 2004.11 Agency Implementing... should normally occur during routine oversight visits, when there is indication of a problem that...

  2. 32 CFR 2004.11 - Agency Implementing Regulations, Internal Rules, or Guidelines [102(b)(3)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Implementation and Oversight § 2004.11 Agency Implementing... should normally occur during routine oversight visits, when there is indication of a problem that...

  3. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, Christine

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  4. The implementation of venous leg ulcer guidelines: process analysis of the intervention used in a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J L; Mead, P; Jones, K; Kaba, E; Roberts, A P

    2001-11-01

    The production and implementation of clinical practice guidelines is currently a high political priority and a rapidly developing field within healthcare in the United Kingdom (UK). Their purpose is to provide clinicians with a synthesis of the best available external evidence and operationalize the implementation of evidence-based practice. Despite indications that clinical guidelines can make a difference to the quality of patient care, there is some evidence that practitioners struggle with their application. The aim of this paper is to report one element of a trial undertaken by three collaborating universities in the Northern and Yorkshire Region of the UK health service during 1997-1998. The objective was to understand what makes guidelines acceptable and usable, or otherwise, to health professionals. The findings reported in this paper describe the process of care in those general practices that elected to implement guidelines for the management of patients with venous leg ulcers. We conclude that planning for training, resource and quality improvement processes must be built into a team's guidelines implementation procedures. A preliminary needs analysis of the contextual 'hurdles and levers' within each primary healthcare team is also necessary to identify individual issues that must be addressed if the process is to succeed. These findings provide some lessons for successful implementation of clinical guidelines in general. Recommendations for nursing policy makers, managers, practitioners and researchers are included.

  5. Implementation of aeronautic image compression technology on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujing; Gao, Xueqiang; Wang, Mei

    2007-11-01

    According to the designed characteristics and demands of aeronautic image compression system, lifting scheme wavelet and SPIHT algorithm was selected as the key part of software implementation, which was introduced with details. In order to improve execution efficiency, border processing was simplified reasonably and SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) algorithm was also modified partly. The results showed that the selected scheme has a 0.4dB improvement in PSNR(peak-peak-ratio) compared with classical Shaprio's scheme. To improve the operating speed, the hardware system was then designed based on DSP and many optimization measures were then applied successfully. Practical test showed that the system can meet the real-time demand with good quality of reconstruct image, which has been used in an aeronautic image compression system practically.

  6. Implementation of Image-Guidance Techniques in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michael; Clark, Brenda; MacPherson, Miller; Montgomery, Lynn; Gerig, Lee

    2008-06-01

    For more than 100 years, physicists have been a vital part of the medical team required to deliver radiation therapy. Their role encompasses the verification of dose accuracy to the development and implementation of new techniques, the most recent of which is the incorporation of daily image guidance to account for inter- and intra-fraction target changes. For example, computed tomography (CT) integrated into radiotherapy treatment units allows the image-guided treatment of the prostate where the target location depends on the degree of rectal filling--a parameter that changes on timescales from minutes to weeks. Different technology is required for the adequate treatment of small lung tumours since respiration occurs on timescales of seconds. This presentation will review current image-guided techniques.

  7. 75 FR 61504 - Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Implementation of the Veterinary Medicinal Products... OIE's services and activities that are needed to carry out OIE's Veterinary International Conference... level. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Program Contact: Merton V. Smith, Center for Veterinary...

  8. Implementation of a new clinical practice guideline regarding pain management during childhood vaccine injections

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samson; Pielak, Karen; McIntyre, Cheryl; Deeter, Brittany; Taddio, Anna

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy for a new vaccination pain management guideline on public health immunizers’ attitudes, beliefs and use of pain-relieving strategies during childhood vaccination. METHOD: Using a randomized controlled pre-post study design, public health nurses (PHNs) at intervention sites received a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention about new pain management guidelines incorporated in the British Columbia Immunization Program Manual, including education, supplies and online support. Attitudes and beliefs of PHNs toward immunization pain and pain management, and use of pain-relieving strategies were compared for the intervention sites between the pre- and postimplementation phases. RESULTS: A total of 516 children were immunized by 31 PHNs pre- and postimplementation in the intervention sites. Postimplementation, satisfaction and confidence with ability to manage pain and willingness to use newly recommended strategies were significantly more positive (P<0.05) in the intervention sites, and overall use of at least one newly recommended strategy increased from 49.8% preintervention to 77.6% postimplementation (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The knowledge translation intervention improved PHN immunizers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding paediatric vaccination pain management. Reducing pain may result in a better immunization experience for children, caregivers and immunizers. PMID:24421712

  9. Challenges in implementing the new BASHH guidelines for the management of gonorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, S; Murgatroyd, M; Perez, K; Kingston, M; Lee, V

    2014-02-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae has progressively developed reduced sensitivity to different classes of antibiotics. The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea in 2011. New recommendations include an increased dose of ceftriaxone with adjuvant use of azithromycin, as well as test of cure (TOC) in all cases. We present an audit of adherence to new antibiotic prescribing guidelines as well as TOC uptake in an inner city genitourinary medicine clinic. Among the 271 (242 male, 29 female) patients included, 96% (n = 260) received the new first-line treatment. Test of cure uptake was found to be suboptimal at 55% (n = 149) with the majority (67%) of these taking place within 20 days of treatment. The new first-line treatment for gonorrhoea is feasible and generally accepted by patients. However the TOC uptake is low, emphasising the need for robust follow-up and recall policies. Further study is required into the optimal timing for TOC.

  10. Adopting and implementing nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities: Public and private sector roles. A multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recreational facilities are an important community resource for health promotion because they provide access to affordable physical activities. However, despite their health mandate, many have unhealthy food environments that may paradoxically increase the risk of childhood obesity. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are government-initiated, voluntary guidelines intended to facilitate children’s access to healthy food and beverage choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities, however few recreational facilities are using them. Methods We used mixed methods within an exploratory multiple case study to examine factors that influenced adoption and implementation of the ANGCY and the nature of the food environment within three cases: an adopter, a semi-adopter and a non-adopter of the ANGCY. Diffusion of Innovations theory provided the theoretical platform for the study. Qualitative data were generated through interviews, observations, and document reviews, and were analysed using directed content analysis. Set theoretic logic was used to identify factors that differentiated adopters from the non-adopter. Quantitative sales data were also collected, and the quality of the food environment was scored using four complementary tools. Results The keys to adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities related to the managers’ nutrition-related knowledge, beliefs and perceptions, as these shaped his decisions and actions. The manager, however, could not accomplish adoption and implementation alone. Intersectoral linkages with schools and formal, health promoting partnerships with industry were also important for adoption and implementation to occur. The food environment in facilities that had adopted the ANGCY did not appear to be superior to the food environment in facilities that had not adopted the ANGCY. Conclusions ANGCY uptake may continue to falter under the current voluntary

  11. Implementation of an Evidence-Based Guideline for the Referral of Adults Who Are Visually Impaired in the Netherlands: Potential Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruysberg, Juliette K.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a study on the implementation of an evidence-based guideline for the referral for rehabilitation of adults who are visually impaired in the Netherlands. The purpose of the study was to find out if there are potential barriers to the implementation of the Nederlands Oogheelkundig Gezelschap (NOG) (2004) evidence-based…

  12. Translating Infection Control Guidelines Into Practice: Implementation Process Within a Health Care Institution

    PubMed Central

    Raveis, Victoria H.; Conway, Laurie J.; Uchida, Mayuko; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Larson, Elaine L.; Stone, Patricia W.

    2014-01-01

    Health-care-associated infections (HAIs) remain a major patient safety problem even as policy and programmatic efforts designed to reduce HAIs have increased. Although information on implementing effective infection control (IC) efforts has steadily grown, knowledge gaps remain regarding the organizational elements that improve bedside practice and accommodate variations in clinical care settings. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews in 11 hospitals across the United States with a range of hospital personnel involved in IC (n = 116). We examined the collective nature of IC and the organizational elements that can enable disparate groups to work together to prevent HAIs. Our content analysis of participants’ narratives yielded a rich description of the organizational process of implementing adherence to IC. Findings document the dynamic, fluid, interactional, and reactive nature of this process. Three themes emerged: implementing adherence efforts institution-wide, promoting an institutional culture to sustain adherence, and contending with opposition to the IC mandate. PMID:24598775

  13. Guidelines for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging use during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Morie M; Coakley, Fergus V; Kaimal, Anjali; Laros, Russell K

    2008-08-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pregnancy and lactation. Among some physicians and patients, however, there are misperceptions regarding risks, safety, and appropriate use of these modalities in pregnancy. We have developed a set of evidence-based guidelines for the use of CT, MRI, and contrast media during pregnancy for selected indications including suspected acute appendicitis, pulmonary embolism, renal colic, trauma, and cephalopelvic disproportion. Ultrasonography is the initial modality of choice for suspected appendicitis, but if the ultrasound examination is negative, MRI or CT can be obtained. Computed tomography should be the initial diagnostic imaging modality for suspected pulmonary embolism. Ultrasonography should be the initial study of choice for suspected renal colic. Ultrasonography can be the initial imaging evaluation for trauma, but CT should be performed if serious injury is suspected. Pelvimetry now is used rarely for suspected cephalopelvic disproportion, but when required, low-dose CT pelvimetry can be performed with minimal risk. Although iodinated contrast seems safe to use in pregnancy, intravenous gadolinium is contraindicated and should be used only when absolutely essential. It seems to be safe to continue breast-feeding immediately after receiving iodinated contrast or gadolinium. Although teratogenesis is not a major concern after exposure to prenatal diagnostic radiation, carcinogenesis is a potential risk. When used appropriately, CT and MRI can be valuable tools in imaging pregnant and lactating women; risks and benefits always should be considered and discussed with patients.

  14. Implementation and Optimization of Image Processing Algorithms on Embedded GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Nitin; Yoo, Jin Woo; Choi, Ho Yeol; Park, In Kyu

    In this paper, we analyze the key factors underlying the implementation, evaluation, and optimization of image processing and computer vision algorithms on embedded GPU using OpenGL ES 2.0 shader model. First, we present the characteristics of the embedded GPU and its inherent advantage when compared to embedded CPU. Additionally, we propose techniques to achieve increased performance with optimized shader design. To show the effectiveness of the proposed techniques, we employ cartoon-style non-photorealistic rendering (NPR), speeded-up robust feature (SURF) detection, and stereo matching as our example algorithms. Performance is evaluated in terms of the execution time and speed-up achieved in comparison with the implementation on embedded CPU.

  15. DSP Implementation of the Multiscale Retinex Image Enhancement Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2004-01-01

    The Retinex is a general-purpose image enhancement algorithm that is used to produce good visual representations of scenes. It performs a non-linear spatial/ spectral transform that synthesizes strong local contrast enhancement and color constancy. A real-time, video frame rate implementation of the Retinex is required to meet the needs of various potential users. Retinex processing contains a relatively large number of complex computations, thus to achieve real-time performance using current technologies requires specialized hardware and software. In this paper we discuss the design and development of a digital signal processor (DSP) implementation of the Retinex. The target processor is a Texas Instruments TMS320C6711 floating point DSP. NTSC video is captured using a dedicated frame grabber card, Retinex processed, and displayed on a standard monitor. We discuss the optimizations used to achieve real-time performance of the Retinex and also describe our future plans on using alternative architectures.

  16. DSP Implementation of the Retinex Image Enhancement Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Jobson, Daniel; Woodell, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    The Retinex is a general-purpose image enhancement algorithm that is used to produce good visual representations of scenes. It performs a non-linear spatial/spectral transform that synthesizes strong local contrast enhancement and color constancy. A real-time, video frame rate implementation of the Retinex is required to meet the needs of various potential users. Retinex processing contains a relatively large number of complex computations, thus to achieve real-time performance using current technologies requires specialized hardware and software. In this paper we discuss the design and development of a digital signal processor (DSP) implementation of the Retinex. The target processor is a Texas Instruments TMS320C6711 floating point DSP. NTSC video is captured using a dedicated frame-grabber card, Retinex processed, and displayed on a standard monitor. We discuss the optimizations used to achieve real-time performance of the Retinex and also describe our future plans on using alternative architectures.

  17. Clinical practice guideline dissemination and a new approach using Haddon matrix as a conceptual framework of evidence-based implementation strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To err is human. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are often not followed and lead to adverse outcomes. The issue on implementation of CPG is complex. A review of CPG implementation is done to identify the barriers and enablers. For the first time, a fishbone diagram is used to delineate the root-causes. And Haddon matrix is applied to help understand the complexity of evidence-based implementation (EBI) strategies. PMID:25214934

  18. Short Space Implementation of Wiener Filtering for Image Restoration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-05

    hi l TANPA lllt , A .......... MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LINCOLN LABORATORY SHORT SPACE IMPLEMENTATION OF WIENER FILTERING FOR IMAGE...in equation (5), the discussions in section II can be applied to estimate f1i(n1,n2 ) from Yij(nln 2). Since the essence of short space processing is...11 01 7. AUTORI~j . CONTRACT Oil GRANT MUMBERal Jae~~ S.Li F19628-8j-C-0702 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION MAUIE AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT

  19. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  20. The Sharper Image: Implementing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to Enhance a Video-Captured Image.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    mathematical system to quantitatively analyze and compare complex wave forms. In 1307, Baron Jean - Baptiste - Joseph Fourier proved that any periodic wave can be...HOVEY ROAD, PENSACOLA, FL 32508-1046 NAMRL Special Report 94-1 THE SHARPER IMAGE: 16 IMPLEMENTING A FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (FFT) TO ENHANCE A VIDEO...most visually impaired persons fail to discern the higher spatial frequencies present in an image. Based on the Fourier analysis of vision, Peli et al

  1. Design and implementation of a real-time positron imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Pranab S.; Beling, Christopher D.; Fung, Stevenson

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we are going to present the first real-time S-parameter positron imager. This is a useful tool in solid state technology for mapping the lateral defect types and concentrations on a material sample. This technology has been developed for two major categories of researchers, the first being those that have a focused low energy positron beam and second those that do not. Here we describe the design and implementation of a real-time automated scanning system that rasters a sample surface with a 0.5mm diameter positron source (or beam focus) so as to give an S-parameter image of a sample. The source (or beam) rasters across a region of a semiconductor sample in rectilinear motion while gamma ray energies Eγ are processed using a standard HP Ge spectroscopy system and a 14 bit nuclear ADC. Two other ADCs are used to obtain the x, y coordinate data corresponding to each event by storing voltage pulses from the x & y stepper motor drives (or saddle coil currents) gated with the event pulses. Using these event data triplets (x, y, Eγ) the S-parameter is computed in real time for each pixel region and is used to refresh a color image display on the screen coordinates. Optimal use is made of processing time and the system resources. This user-friendly system is efficient for producing high resolution S-parameter images of the sample. (patent pending 2003)

  2. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  3. Policies, guideline implementation and practice change - how can the process be understood?

    PubMed

    Becker, T; Kilian, R; Kösters, M

    2017-04-01

    Politics and policy: It is important to understand why, in the translational continuum from pilot research and randomised controlled efficacy trials to roll-out programmes and routine effectiveness studies, some service innovations are taken up by health service purchasers and providers, while others are not. Why do some innovative interventions or models of care get to the stage of implementation, while others fail to be funded?

  4. Trajectory Reconstruction and Analysis Methodology. Mathematics and Guidelines for Program Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-29

    implementation are provided for a recursive filtering and smoothing realization of the optimum linear estimator. Considerable emphasis is placed on...collecting and processing only the encoder data is analyzed. It is shown that this results both in suboptimum smooth - ing and in the introduction of...tracking error, neither of which can be fully compensated in the estimator. Since an optimum estimator inherently performs smoothing of noise process

  5. Implementation of the Asthma Practice Guideline in the Army Medical Department: Evaluation of Process and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Summary xxv their knowledge and to train newly arrived providers who rotated in from previous MTF assignments. Patient Education . The provision of... patient education on self- care was one of the weaker components of the implementation activi- ties. Patient behaviors affect the MTFs’ ability to...and severity of asthma exacerbations. Inadequacies in MTF patient education activities were identified, including problems with program design, limited

  6. Implementation of the WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in Pakistan: balancing risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; van der Hoek, Wim

    2009-09-01

    The use of wastewater in agriculture is receiving renewed attention as a result of increasing global water scarcity. Wastewater use potentially poses a risk to public health if not properly managed. In Pakistan the use of wastewater in agriculture is already common, though in most cases its use is unregulated and wastewater untreated. In a four year study in Faisalabad, Pakistan, the risks and benefits of the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture were assessed. The study found an increased risk of intestinal disease in wastewater farmers but also found major financial and nutritional benefits for farmers and consumers in the city of Faisalabad. This paper presents a policy approach for the implementation of the WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture in Pakistan.

  7. Effectiveness of a clinical practice guideline implementation strategy for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care: cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental health problem seen in primary care. However, its management in clinical practice varies greatly. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have the potential to reduce variations and improve the care received by patients by promoting interventions of proven benefit. However, uptake and adherence to their recommendations can be low. Method/design This study involves a community based on cluster randomized trial in primary healthcare centres in the Madrid Region (Spain). The project aims to determine whether the use of implementation strategy (including training session, information, opinion leader, reminders, audit, and feed-back) of CPG for patients with anxiety disorders in primary care is more effective than usual diffusion. The number of patients required is 296 (148 in each arm), all older than 18 years and diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and panic attacks by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). They are chosen by consecutive sampling. The main outcome variable is the change in two or more points into Goldberg anxiety scale at six and twelve months. Secondary outcome variables include quality of life (EuroQol 5D), and degree of compliance with the CPG recommendations on treatment, information, and referrals to mental health services. Main effectiveness will be analyzed by comparing the patients percentage improvement on the Goldberg scale between the intervention group and the control group. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. Discussion There is a need to identify effective implementation strategies for CPG for the management of anxiety disorders present in primary care. Ensuring the appropriate uptake of guideline recommendations can reduce clinical variation and improve the care patients receive. Trial

  8. Design flow for implementing image processing in FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakalo, M.; Giles, G.

    2007-04-01

    A design flow for implementing a dynamic gamma algorithm in an FPGA is described. Real-time video processing makes enormous demands on processing resources. An FPGA solution offers some advantages over commercial video chip and DSP implementation alternatives. The traditional approach to FPGA development involves a system engineer designing, modeling and verifying an algorithm and writing a specification. A hardware engineer uses the specification as a basis for coding in VHDL and testing the algorithm in the FPGA with supporting electronics. This process is work intensive and the verification of the image processing algorithm executing on the FPGA does not occur until late in the program. The described design process allows the system engineer to design and verify a true VHDL version of the algorithm, executing in an FPGA. This process yields reduced risk and development time. The process is achieved by using Xilinx System Generator in conjunction with Simulink® from The MathWorks. System Generator is a tool that bridges the gap between the high level modeling environment and the digital world of the FPGA. System Generator is used to develop the dynamic gamma algorithm for the contrast enhancement of a candidate display product. The results of this effort are to increase the dynamic range of the displayed video, resulting in a more useful image for the user.

  9. Implementation of Out-of-Office Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Netherlands: From Clinical Guidelines to Patients' Adoption of Innovation.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Pricivel M; Lambooij, Mattijs S

    2015-10-01

    Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is promoted by various clinical guidelines toward properly diagnosing and effectively managing hypertension and engaging the patient in their care process. In the Netherlands, however, the Dutch cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) guidelines do not explicitly prescribe 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and home BP measurement (HBPM). The aim of this descriptive study was to develop an understanding of patients' and physicians' acceptance and use of out-of-office BP monitoring in the Netherlands given the CVRM recommendations.Three small focus group discussions (FGDs) with patients and 1 FGD with physicians were conducted to explore the mechanisms behind the acceptance and use of out-of-office BP monitoring and reveal real-world challenges that limit the implementation of out-of-office BP monitoring methods. To facilitate the FGDs, an analytical framework based on the technology acceptance model (TAM), the theory of planned behavior and the model of personal computing utilization was developed to guide the FGDs and analysis of the transcriptions of each FGD.ABPM was the out-of-office BP monitoring method prescribed by physicians and used by patients. HBPM was not offered to patients even with patients' feedback of poor tolerance of ABPM. Even as there was little awareness about HBPM among patients, there were a few patients who owned and used sphygmomanometers. Patients professed and seemed to exhibit self-efficacy, whereas physicians had reservations about (all of their) patients' self-efficacy in properly using ABPM. Since negative experience with ABPM impacted patients' acceptance of ABPM, the interaction of factors that determined acceptance and use was found to be dynamic among patients but not for physicians.In reference to the CVRM guidelines, physicians implemented out-of-office BP monitoring but showed a strong preference for ABPM even where there is poor tolerance of the method. We found that

  10. The Impact of Social Media on Dissemination and Implementation of Clinical Practice Guidelines: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gronseth, Gary; Dubinsky, Richard; Penfold-Murray, Rebecca; Cox, Julie; Bever Jr, Christopher; Martins, Yolanda; Rheaume, Carol; Shouse, Denise; Getchius, Thomas SD

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are statements that provide recommendations to optimize patient care for a specific clinical problem or question. Merely reading a guideline rarely leads to implementation of recommendations. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has a formal process of guideline development and dissemination. The last few years have seen a burgeoning of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, and newer methods of dissemination such as podcasts and webinars. The role of these media in guideline dissemination has not been studied. Systematic evaluation of dissemination methods and comparison of the effectiveness of newer methods with traditional methods is not available. It is also not known whether specific dissemination methods may be more effectively targeted to specific audiences. Objective Our aim was to (1) develop an innovative dissemination strategy by adding social media-based dissemination methods to traditional methods for the AAN clinical practice guidelines “Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis” (“CAM in MS”) and (2) evaluate whether the addition of social media outreach improves awareness of the CPG and knowledge of CPG recommendations, and affects implementation of those recommendations. Methods Outcomes were measured by four surveys in each of the two target populations: patients and physicians/clinicians (“physicians”). The primary outcome was the difference in participants’ intent to discuss use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with their physicians or patients, respectively, after novel dissemination, as compared with that after traditional dissemination. Secondary outcomes were changes in awareness of the CPG, knowledge of CPG content, and behavior regarding CAM use in multiple sclerosis (MS). Results Response rates were 25.08% (622/2480) for physicians and 43.5% (348/800) for patients. Awareness of the CPG increased after traditional

  11. GPU implementation issues for fast unmixing of hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Maxime; Capriotti, Luca; Schmidt, Frédéric; Moussaoui, Saïd; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Space missions usually use hyperspectral imaging techniques to analyse the composition of planetary surfaces. Missions such as ESA's Mars Express and Venus Express generate extensive datasets whose processing demands so far have exceeded the resources available to many researchers. To overcome this limitation, the challenge is to develop numerical methods allowing to exploit the potential of modern calculation tools. The processing of a hyperspectral image consists of the identification of the observed surface components and eventually the assessment of their fractional abundances inside each pixel area. In this latter case, the problem is referred to as spectral unmixing. This work focuses on a supervised unmixing approach where the relevant component spectra are supposed to be part of an available spectral library. Therefore, the question addressed here is reduced to the estimation of the fractional abundances, or abundance maps. It requires the solution of a large-scale optimization problem subject to linear constraints; positivity of the abundances and their partial/full additivity (sum less/equal to one). Conventional approaches to such a problem usually suffer from a high computational overhead. Recently, an interior-point optimization using a primal-dual approach has been proven an efficient method to solve this spectral unmixing problem at reduced computational cost. This is achieved with a parallel implementation based on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Several issues are discussed such as the data organization in memory and the strategy used to compute efficiently one global quantity from a large dataset in a parallel fashion. Every step of the algorithm is optimized to be GPU-efficient. Finally, the main steps of the global system for the processing of a large number of hyperspectral images are discussed. The advantage of using a GPU is demonstrated by unmixing a large dataset consisting of 1300 hyperspectral images from Mars Express' OMEGA instrument

  12. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  13. Design and implementation of non-linear image processing functions for CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Purnawarman; Sudiro, Sunny A.; Wibowo, Eri P.; Harmanto, Suryadi; Paindavoine, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Today, solid state image sensors are used in many applications like in mobile phones, video surveillance systems, embedded medical imaging and industrial vision systems. These image sensors require the integration in the focal plane (or near the focal plane) of complex image processing algorithms. Such devices must meet the constraints related to the quality of acquired images, speed and performance of embedded processing, as well as low power consumption. To achieve these objectives, low-level analog processing allows extracting the useful information in the scene directly. For example, edge detection step followed by a local maxima extraction will facilitate the high-level processing like objects pattern recognition in a visual scene. Our goal was to design an intelligent image sensor prototype achieving high-speed image acquisition and non-linear image processing (like local minima and maxima calculations). For this purpose, we present in this article the design and test of a 64×64 pixels image sensor built in a standard CMOS Technology 0.35 μm including non-linear image processing. The architecture of our sensor, named nLiRIC (non-Linear Rapid Image Capture), is based on the implementation of an analog Minima/Maxima Unit. This MMU calculates the minimum and maximum values (non-linear functions), in real time, in a 2×2 pixels neighbourhood. Each MMU needs 52 transistors and the pitch of one pixel is 40×40 mu m. The total area of the 64×64 pixels is 12.5mm2. Our tests have shown the validity of the main functions of our new image sensor like fast image acquisition (10K frames per second), minima/maxima calculations in less then one ms.

  14. ANSI/AIAA S-081A, Pressure Vessel Standards Implementation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Nathanael J.

    2009-01-01

    The stress rupture specification for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) is discussed. The composite shell of the COPV shall be designed to meet the design life considering the time it is under sustained load. A Mechcanical Damage Control Plan (MDCP) shall be created and implemented that assures the COPV will not fail due to mechanical damage due to manufacturing, testing, shipping, installation, or flight. Proven processes and procedures for fabrication and repair shall be used to preclude damage or material degradation during material processing, manufacturing operations, and refurbushment.Selected NDI techniques for the liner and/or boss(es) shall be performed before overwrapping with composite. When visual inspection reveals mechanical damage or defects exceeding manufacturing specification levels (and standard repair procedures), the damaged COPV shall be submitted to a material review board (MRB) for disposition. Every COPV shall be subjected to visual and other non-destructive inspection (NDI), per the inspection plan.

  15. Implementing and expanding HIV testing in immigrant populations in Europe: Comparing guideline's recommendations and expert's opinions.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Burns, Fiona; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Immigrant populations, especially those from endemic countries, living in the European Union (EU) suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV, delayed diagnosis and poorer access to antiretroviral treatment. While International Organisations are developing recommendations aimed at increasing the uptake of HIV testing, the feasibility and real outcomes of these measures remain unexplored. The aim of this review was, firstly to identify the recommendations of the main International Organisations (IO) on HIV testing in immigrants. Secondly, to describe the challenges for implementing and expanding HIV testing and counselling interventions targeting immigrants by interviewing key informants. The importance of HIV testing in immigrants is discussed, along with the appropriateness of universal HIV testing approaches vs most at risk targeted approaches. Also addressed is, pre- and post-HIV test counselling characteristics and community initiatives suitable to reach this population and, finally the legal issues regarding access to treatment for illegal immigrants.

  16. When rheumatologists report that they agree with a guideline, does this mean that they practise the guideline in clinical practice? Results of the International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Allaart, Cornelia F; van der Heijde, Désirée; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Smolen, Josef S; Huizinga, Tom W J; Landewé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the treat-to-target (T2T) principles have been developed in order to improve the treatment outcome of patients with RA, and have received broad attention. It is not clear, though, whether these recommendations are indeed followed up in clinical practice. Objective To investigate if rheumatologists that report to agree with existing guidelines indeed follow them up in clinical practice. Methods The International Recommendation Implementation Study (IRIS) included 132 participating rheumatologists from 14 countries. Participating rheumatologists received a questionnaire measuring their awareness/commitment with the EULAR/T2T recommendations and followed a dedicated educational programme. Subsequently, they were asked to enrol 5–10 patients with new-onset RA in the online IRIS database and monitor disease activity and treatment for a period of 1–2 years. Four recommendations (3 from the EULAR recommendations and one from the T2T recommendations) were selected on the basis of testability, and analysed with regard to compliance by participating rheumatologists. Results In total, 72 of the 132 participating rheumatologists contributed 378 patients to the database. Of these participants, 70 (98%) agreed upfront with the recommendation that disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy should be started as soon as possible after diagnosis in every patient; 69 (96%) of the rheumatologists agreed with the recommendation that methotrexate (MTX) should be part of the first treatment strategy. When measuring the actual performance, it was found that the recommendation on early DMARD start was met in 253 (67%) of the recorded patients, and the recommendation on MTX in 225 (60%) of the recorded patients. Of the participants, 60 (83%) agreed that composite measures should be recorded regularly, but only in 134(54%) of the patients were

  17. [Implementation of Guidelines on Conflict of Interest in Clinical Research of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology: actual status and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Mikuni, Masahiko; Kurihara, Chieko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In May 2011, the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology released their Guidelines on Conflict of Interest (COI) in Clinical Research and detailed regulations. These guidelines cover clinical research, although each committee of the society may have a policy to cover basic research as well as clinical research. The COI Committee implemented the guidelines, including a one-year trial period. According to the guidelines, members of the society have to disclose their COIs at the time of presentations, manuscript submissions, and publications; the board and committees members have to submit their COIs to the president of the society. During the trial period, the latter was limited to the four committees involved in the development of the guidelines: Conflict of Interest; Pharmaceutical Affairs; Research Ethics; and Editorial Committees. The COI Committee reviewed the COIs submitted by the board and committee members. The COI Committee found that, among the 382 board and committee members, 298 were without COI; 31 COIs were regarded by one committee member as not necessary to be circulated to all the attending members (total of these 2 categories: 329, 87%); 31 COIs (8%) were regarded as necessary to be circulated; and 18 cases (4.7%) were problematic: not submitted or explicit rejection of submission. Considering the seriousness of scientific misconduct by a researcher in another disease area who resigned his professorship and is now under investigation, we should further discuss the implementation of our COI guidelines.

  18. Method for Implementing Subsurface Solid Derived Concentration Guideline Levels (DCGL) - 12331

    SciTech Connect

    Lively, J.W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other federal agencies currently approve the Multi-Agency Radiation Site Survey and Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) as guidance for licensees who are conducting final radiological status surveys in support of decommissioning. MARSSIM provides a method to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulation by comparing residual radioactivity in surface soils with derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs), but specifically discounts its applicability to subsurface soils. Many sites and facilities undergoing decommissioning contain subsurface soils that are potentially impacted by radiological constituents. In the absence of specific guidance designed to address the derivation of subsurface soil DCGLs and compliance demonstration, decommissioning facilities have attempted to apply DCGLs and final status survey techniques designed specifically for surface soils to subsurface soils. The decision to apply surface soil limits and surface soil compliance metrics to subsurface soils typically results in significant over-excavation with associated cost escalation. MACTEC, Inc. has developed the overarching concepts and principles found in recent NRC decommissioning guidance in NUREG 1757 to establish a functional method to derive dose-based subsurface soil DCGLs. The subsurface soil method developed by MACTEC also establishes a rigorous set of criterion-based data evaluation metrics (with analogs to the MARSSIM methodology) that can be used to demonstrate compliance with the developed subsurface soil DCGLs. The method establishes a continuum of volume factors that relate the size and depth of a volume of subsurface soil having elevated concentrations of residual radioactivity with its ability to produce dose. The method integrates the subsurface soil sampling regime with the derivation of the subsurface soil DCGL such that a self-regulating optimization is naturally sought by both the responsible party and regulator

  19. Implementation of national guidelines for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a phenomenographic analysis of public health nurses’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrand, Aina; Fridlund, Bengt; Sollesnes, Ragnhild

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and describe how public health nurses (PHNs) perceive the implementation of national guidelines for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in well-baby clinics and school health services. Design, sample, and measurements An explorative descriptive design was carried out through individual interviews with 18 PHNs and analysed according to the phenomenographic tradition. Results Four implementation strategies were described and assigned a metaphor: the structured PHN, pragmatic PHN, critical PHN, and the resigned PHN. Competence, patient receptiveness, internal consensus, interdisciplinary collaboration, resources, and organizational embedding were the determinants identified that most frequently affect implementation, and these determinants were distributed at different levels of the organization. The extent of facilitation seemed to determine which implementation strategy would be used. Conclusions How PHNs implemented the guidelines for overweight and obesity were affected by determinants at different organizational levels. Contextual facilitation of implementation seemed better in larger organizations, but factors such as leadership, drive, and experience compensated in smaller municipalities. The implementation of guidelines was hindered when the barriers exceeded the benefits. PMID:27543411

  20. Guidelines for Hanford Site implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. Understanding and complying with NEPA is extremely important to successfully planning and implementing programs at the Hanford Site. This report is intended to help planners and decision makers understand NEPA by describing the NEPA process as it is outlined in NEPA, in regulations, and in guidance information. The requirements and guidance documents that set forth the NEPA process are discussed. Some of the major NEPA concepts and issues are also addressed. This report is intended to be used as a general road map through the maze of NEPA requirements and guidance to ensure that Hanford Site activities are conducted in compliance with NEPA. Enhanced knowledge of the NEPA process is expected to increase the ability of the Hanford Site to work with regulators, interested parties and the public to ensure that the potential environmental impacts of DOE activities are fully considered at the Hanford Site. In addition, an enhanced understanding of NEPA will help project and program managers to integrate NEPA compliance requirements with program planning. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children.

  2. Infrared Jitter Imaging Data Reduction: Algorithms and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillard, Nicolas

    Jitter imaging (also known as microscanning) is probably one of the most efficient ways to perform astronomical observations in the infrared. It requires very efficient filtering and recentering methods to produce the best possible output from raw data. This paper discusses issues attached to Poisson offset generation, efficient infrared sky filtering, offset recovery between planes through cross-correlation and/or point pattern recognition techniques, plane shifting with subpixel resolution through various kernel-based interpolation schemes, and 3D filtering for plane accumulation. Several algorithms are described for each step, having in mind an automatic data processing in pipeline mode (i.e., without user interaction) as intended for the Very Large Telescope. Implementation of these algorithms in optimized ANSI C (the eclipse library) is also described here.

  3. The Importance and Degree of Implementation of the European Standards and Guidelines for Internal Quality Assurance in Universities: The Views of Portuguese Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatos, Maria J.; Rosa, Maria J.; Sarrico, Cláudia S.

    2015-01-01

    This research seeks to explore academics' perceptions of the importance and degree of implementation of the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) for internal quality assurance. It uses empirical evidence from Portugal, gathered via a questionnaire given to all university academics. Results show…

  4. Development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention to enhance implementation of physical therapy guidelines for the management of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic planning could improve the generally moderate effectiveness of interventions to enhance adherence to clinical practice guidelines. The aim of our study was to demonstrate how the process of Intervention Mapping was used to develop an intervention to address the lack of adherence to the national CPG for low back pain by Dutch physical therapists. Methods We systematically developed a program to improve adherence to the Dutch physical therapy guidelines for low back pain. Based on multi-method formative research, we formulated program and change objectives. Selected theory-based methods of change and practical applications were combined into an intervention program. Implementation and evaluation plans were developed. Results Formative research revealed influential determinants for physical therapists and practice quality managers. Self-regulation was appropriate because both the physical therapists and the practice managers needed to monitor current practice and make and implement plans for change. The program stimulated interaction between practice levels by emphasizing collective goal setting. It combined practical applications, such as knowledge transfer and discussion-and-feedback, based on theory-based methods, such as consciousness raising and active learning. The implementation plan incorporated the wider environment. The evaluation plan included an effect and process evaluation. Conclusions Intervention Mapping is a useful framework for formative data in program planning in the field of clinical guideline implementation. However, a decision aid to select determinants of guideline adherence identified in the formative research to analyse the problem may increase the efficiency of the application of the Intervention Mapping process. PMID:24428945

  5. Dissemination Strategies to Improve Implementation of the PHS Smoking Cessation Guideline in MCH Public Health Clinics: Experimental Evaluation Results and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-01-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…

  6. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the diagnosis and management of heart failure: what can be learned from recent guidelines?

    PubMed

    Vervloet, Delphine M; DE Sutter, Johan

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this review is to provide the clinical cardiologist and nuclear medicine specialist a brief overview of the currently accepted clinical use of cardiac nuclear imaging for the diagnosis and management of patients with heart failure based on recent (2012-2015) European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. We used the most recent ESC guidelines on heart failure, management of stable coronary artery disease, cardiac pacing, myocardial revascularisation, non-cardiac surgery and ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Nowadays cardiac nuclear imaging is useful in almost every step in heart failure from diagnostics to treatment. In first diagnosis of heart failure radionuclide imaging can provide information on ventricular function and volumes and nuclear imaging techniques provide accurate and reproducible left ventricular function assessment. In work out of the aetiology of the heart failure CMR, SPECT and PET imaging can demonstrate presence of inducible ischemia and myocardial viability. For prognostic information MIBG might be promising in the future. In treatment planning cardiac nuclear imaging is important to evaluate new angina and to assess accurate left ventricular ejection fraction before cardiac resynchronization therapy. Imaging stress testing is useful in the preoperative evaluation for non-cardiac surgery of heart failure patients. There is until now no recommended place for cardiac nuclear imaging in the follow-up of heart failure patients or prior to the initiation of cardiac rehabilitation.

  7. The value of theory in programmes to implement clinical guidelines: Insights from a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation of a programme to increase adherence to national guidelines for chronic disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sheringham, Jessica; Solmi, Francesca; Ariti, Cono; Baim-Lance, Abigail; Morris, Steve; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Programmes have had limited success in improving guideline adherence for chronic disease. Use of theory is recommended but is often absent in programmes conducted in ‘real-world’ rather than research settings. Materials and methods This mixed-methods study tested a retrospective theory-based approach to evaluate a ‘real-world’ programme in primary care to improve adherence to national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative data, comprising analysis of documents generated throughout the programme (n>300), in-depth interviews with planners (clinicians, managers and improvement experts involved in devising, planning, and implementing the programme, n = 14) and providers (practice clinicians, n = 14) were used to construct programme theories, experiences of implementation and contextual factors influencing care. Quantitative analyses comprised controlled before-and-after analyses to test ‘early’ and evolved’ programme theories with comparators grounded in each theory. ‘Early’ theory predicted the programme would reduce emergency hospital admissions (EHA). It was tested using national analysis of standardized borough-level EHA rates between programme and comparator boroughs. ‘Evolved’ theory predicted practices with higher programme participation would increase guideline adherence and reduce EHA and costs. It was tested using a difference-in-differences analysis with linked primary and secondary care data to compare changes in diagnosis, management, EHA and costs, over time and by programme participation. Results Contrary to programme planners’ predictions in ‘early’ and ‘evolved’ programme theories, admissions did not change following the programme. However, consistent with ‘evolved’ theory, higher guideline adoption occurred in practices with greater programme participation. Conclusions Retrospectively constructing theories based on the ideas of programme planners can enable evaluators to

  8. Implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines within the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL).

    PubMed

    Todd, Christopher A; Sanchez, Ana M; Garcia, Ambrosia; Denny, Thomas N; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella

    2014-07-01

    The EQAPOL contract was awarded to Duke University to develop and manage global proficiency testing programs for flow cytometry-, ELISpot-, and Luminex bead-based assays (cytokine analytes), as well as create a genetically diverse panel of HIV-1 viral cultures to be made available to National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers. As a part of this contract, EQAPOL was required to operate under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) that are traditionally used for laboratories conducting endpoint assays for human clinical trials. EQAPOL adapted these guidelines to the management of proficiency testing programs while simultaneously incorporating aspects of ISO/IEC 17043 which are specifically designed for external proficiency management. Over the first two years of the contract, the EQAPOL Oversight Laboratories received training, developed standard operating procedures and quality management practices, implemented strict quality control procedures for equipment, reagents, and documentation, and received audits from the EQAPOL Central Quality Assurance Unit. GCLP programs, such as EQAPOL, strengthen a laboratory's ability to perform critical assays and provide quality assessments of future potential vaccines.

  9. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Schunemann, H J; Fonseca, J; Samolinski, B; Bachert, C; Canonica, G W; Casale, T; Cruz, A A; Demoly, P; Hellings, P; Valiulis, A; Wickman, M; Zuberbier, T; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Bedbrook, A; Bergmann, K C; Caimmi, D; Dahl, R; Fokkens, W J; Grisle, I; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Ryan, D; Valovirta, E; Yorgancioglu, A; Aberer, W; Agache, I; Adachi, M; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Baiardini, I; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Bel, E H; Ben Kheder, A; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bewick, M; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Boner, A L; Boulet, L P; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosse, I; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Calderon, M A; Camargos, P A M; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chavannes, N H; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Correia de Sousa, J; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Forastiere, F; Gamkrelidze, A; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grouse, L; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Heinrich, J; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O 'b; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Ivancevich, J C; Jares, E J; Johnston, S L; Joos, G; Jonquet, O; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Khaltaev, N; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Louis, R; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Merk, H; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Mösges, R; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Palmer, S; Panzner, P; Papi, A; Park, H S; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Postma, D; Potter, P; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Reitamo, S; Rodenas, F; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Strandberg, T; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Wagenmann, M; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Williams, D M; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2015-11-01

    Several unmet needs have been identified in allergic rhinitis: identification of the time of onset of the pollen season, optimal control of rhinitis and comorbidities, patient stratification, multidisciplinary team for integrated care pathways, innovation in clinical trials and, above all, patient empowerment. MASK-rhinitis (MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a simple system centred around the patient which was devised to fill many of these gaps using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools and a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on the most widely used guideline in allergic rhinitis and its asthma comorbidity (ARIA 2015 revision). It is one of the implementation systems of Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). Three tools are used for the electronic monitoring of allergic diseases: a cell phone-based daily visual analogue scale (VAS) assessment of disease control, CARAT (Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test) and e-Allergy screening (premedical system of early diagnosis of allergy and asthma based on online tools). These tools are combined with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) and are available in many languages. An e-CRF and an e-learning tool complete MASK. MASK is flexible and other tools can be added. It appears to be an advanced, global and integrated ICT answer for many unmet needs in allergic diseases which will improve policies and standards.

  10. Making MR Imaging Child's Play - Pediatric Neuroimaging Protocol, Guidelines and Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora M.; Lee, Michelle; Buechler, Roman; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Chang, Maria; Vakil, Monica; Stering, Patrice L.; Gaab, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    's compliance during MR imaging sessions 19,20. In the current video report, we present a pediatric neuroimaging protocol with guidelines and procedures that have proven to be successful to date in young children. PMID:19684560

  11. Evidence-based guideline recommendations on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: A Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Masoom A.; Yao, Xiaomei; Loblaw, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This clinical guideline focuses on: 1) the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in diagnosing clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) in patients with an elevated risk of CSPC and who are biopsy-naïve; and 2) the use of mpMRI in diagnosing CSPC in patients with a persistently elevated risk of having CSPC and who have a negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy. The methods of the Practice Guideline Development Cycle were used. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library (1997‒April 2014), main guideline websites, and relevant annual meeting abstracts (2011‒2014) were searched. Internal and external reviews were conducted. The two main recommendations are: Recommendation 1: In patients with an elevated risk of CSPC (according to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels and/or nomograms) who are biopsy-naïve: mpMRI followed by targeted biopsy (biopsy directed at cancer-suspicious foci detected with mpMRI) should not be considered the standard of care.Data from future research studies are essential and should receive high-impact trial funding to determine the value of mpMRI in this clinical context.Recommendation 2: In patients who had a prior negative TRUS-guided systematic biopsy and demonstrate an increasing risk of having CSPC since prior biopsy (e.g., continued rise in PSA and/or change in findings from digital rectal examination): mpMRI followed by targeted biopsy may be considered to help in detecting more CSPC patients compared with repeated TRUS-guided systematic biopsy. PMID:28163805

  12. The importance of evidence-based supportive care practice guidelines in childhood cancer-a plea for their development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Mulder, R L; Font-Gonzalez, A; Dupuis, L L; Sung, L; Robinson, P D; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E

    2017-04-01

    As cure rates in pediatric oncology have improved substantially over the last decades, supportive care has become increasingly important to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life in children with cancer. Currently, large variations exist in pediatric oncology supportive care practice, which might negatively influence care. This plea underlines the importance of development and implementation of trustworthy supportive care clinical practice guidelines, which we believe is the essential next step towards better supportive care practice, and thus a higher quality of care. To facilitate international development and endorsement, the International Pediatric Oncology Guidelines in Supportive Care Network has been established.

  13. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  14. Disparities in intimate partner violence prenatal counseling: setting a baseline for the implementation of the Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Ta Park, Van M; Hayes, Donald K; Humphreys, Janice

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal health care counseling is associated with positive health outcomes for mothers and infants. Moreover, pregnant women are considered a vulnerable population at risk of being victims of intimate partner violence. Pregnancy provides a unique opportunity to identify and refer women experiencing intimate partner violence to community resources; however, in prior research, most women reported that their prenatal care providers did not talk to them about intimate partner violence. Given the importance for providers to offer prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence, it is concerning that there is scant knowledge on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander mothers' experiences in this area. The study's objectives were (a) to determine the proportion of mothers who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence; and, (b) to examine racial differences of those who received prenatal health care counseling on intimate partner violence. Hawai'i's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data from 2004-08 were analyzed for 8,120 mothers with information on receipt of intimate partner violence prenatal health care counseling. Overall, 47.7% of mothers were counseled on intimate partner violence. Compared to Whites, Native Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, and Koreans were significantly less likely to report receiving prenatal health care counseling in intimate partner violence, but the opposite association was observed for Samoans. Intimate partner violence continues to be a significant problem for women, thus, this study's findings may be used as important baseline data to measure the progress made given the implementation of the new Guidelines for Women's Preventive Services in intimate partner violence screening and counseling.

  15. Effectiveness of clinical practice guideline implementation on lower third molar management in improving clinical decision-making: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Wil J M; Mettes, Dirk G; Plasschaert, Alphons J M; Grol, Richard P T M; Mulder, Jan; Verdonschot, Emiel H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was twofold, namely to evaluate the effectiveness of a dental clinical practice guideline on the management of asymptomatic impacted lower third molars (i) on referral rates and (ii) on dentists' change in knowledge. A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial, with pre- and post-test assessments, was conducted. A guideline was implemented by multifaceted interventions (i.e. feedback, reminders, and an interactive meeting). The effect was evaluated after 1 yr by repeating the baseline questionnaire and by monitoring the number of patients who were referred for removal of their asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars. Instruments were questionnaires for detecting changes in knowledge, patient records, and panoramic radiographs. The knowledge of dentists regarding asymptomatic mandibular third molar management was found to increase significantly in the intervention group as compared to the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in guideline-consistent patient referral rates at the post-test assessment. It was concluded that the methodology employed for dissemination and implementation of a clinical practice guideline on asymptomatic mandibular third molar management improves dentists' knowledge on this topic and is effective in improving decision-making in simulated cases; however, no clinical effect was demonstrated.

  16. Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines.

  17. The emergence of diagnostic imaging technologies in breast cancer: discovery, regulatory approval, reimbursement, and adoption in clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gold, Laura S; Klein, Gregory; Carr, Lauren; Kessler, Larry; Sullivan, Sean D

    2012-01-25

    In this article, we trace the chronology of developments in breast imaging technologies that are used for diagnosis and staging of breast cancer, including mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. We explore factors that affected clinical acceptance and utilization of these technologies from discovery to clinical use, including milestones in peer-reviewed publication, US Food and Drug Administration approval, reimbursement by payers, and adoption into clinical guidelines. The factors driving utilization of new imaging technologies are mainly driven by regulatory approval and reimbursement by payers rather than evidence that they provide benefits to patients. Comparative effectiveness research can serve as a useful tool to investigate whether these imaging modalities provide information that improves patient outcomes in real-world settings.

  18. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  19. [DESIGN AND VALIDATION OF AN IMAGE FOR DISSEMINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CHILEAN DIETARY GUIDELINES].

    PubMed

    Olivares Cortés, Sonia; Zacarías Hasbún, Isabel; González González, Carmen Gloria; Fonseca Morán, Lilian; Mediano Stoltze, Fernanda; Pinheiro Fernandes, Anna Christina; Rodríguez Osiac, Lorena

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos (GABA) generalmente van acompañadas de una imagen para su difusión e implementación. Objetivo: diseñar y validar una imagen que represente la variedad y proporcionalidad de las nuevas guías alimentarias para la población chilena, incluyendo los alimentos altos en nutrientes críticos que es necesario evitar y la actividad física. Método: un panel de expertos analizó siete propuestas gráficas y seleccionó tres que fueron validadas con 12 grupos focales de personas de 10-14 y 20-40 años, distinto sexo, nivel socioeconómico y sector urbano/rural. Se analizó la percepción de la variedad y proporcionalidad de los grupos de alimentos a comer diariamente y la motivación a la acción en alimentación y actividad física. Se trabajó con METAPLÁN, método ya utilizado en la validación de las GABA. Resultados y discusión: la imagen definitiva es un círculo que presenta la variedad y proporcionalidad de los grupos de alimentos a consumir durante el día (en fotografías), incluye la actividad física en una franja que rodea la mitad del círculo y un rectángulo inferior con ejemplos de alimentos altos en nutrientes críticos en blanco y negro. La imagen elegida fue modificada con las aportaciones de los participantes y validada con tres nuevos grupos focales, mejorando su comprensión y aceptación. Conclusión: la mayoría de los participantes comprendió que la imagen representaba la relación entre la alimentación saludable y la actividad física diaria, identificando los grupos de alimentos de los que se sugiere comer más y de los que se necesita reducir o evitar su consumo.

  20. Canadian Consensus Guidelines on Use of Amyloid Imaging in Canada: Update and Future Directions from the Specialized Task Force on Amyloid imaging in Canada.

    PubMed

    Laforce, Robert; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Rabinovici, Gil D; Dubois, Bruno; Gauthier, S

    2016-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid beta is now clinically available in several countries including the United States and the United Kingdom, but not Canada. It has become an established technique in the field of neuroimaging of aging and dementia, with data incorporated in the new consensus guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and predementia Alzheimer's disease-related conditions. At this point, there are three US Food and Drug Administration- and European Union-approved tracers. Guided by appropriate use criteria developed in 2013 by the Alzheimer's Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the utility of amyloid imaging in medical practice is now supported by a growing body of research. In this paper, we aimed to provide an update on the 2012 Canadian consensus guidelines to dementia care practitioners on proper use of amyloid imaging. We also wished to generate momentum for the industry to submit a new drug proposal to Health Canada. A group of local, national, and international dementia experts and imaging specialists met to discuss scenarios in which amyloid PET could be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed and published literature between January 2004 and May 2015 was searched. Technical and regulatory considerations pertaining to Canada were considered. The results of a survey of current practices in Canadian dementia centers were considered. A set of specific clinical and research guidelines was agreed on that defines the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used in Canada. Future research directions were also outlined, notably the importance of studies that would assess the pharmaco-economics of amyloid imaging.

  1. Implementing guidelines to routinely prevent chronic vascular disease in primary care: the Preventive Evidence into Practice cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sharon M; Litt, John; van Driel, Mieke; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Del Mar, Chris; Lloyd, Jane; Smith, Jane; Zwar, Nicholas; Taylor, Richard; Powell Davies, Gawaine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate an intervention to improve implementation of guidelines for the prevention of chronic vascular disease. Setting 32 urban general practices in 4 Australian states. Randomisation Stratified randomisation of practices. Participants 122 general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) were recruited at baseline and 97 continued to 12 months. 21 848 patient records were audited for those aged 40–69 years who attended the practice in the previous 12 months without heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cognitive impairment or severe mental illness. Intervention The practice level intervention over 6 months included small group training of practice staff, feedback on audited performance, practice facilitation visits and provision of patient education and referral information. Outcome measures Primary: 1. Change in proportion of patients aged 40–69 years with smoking status, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) recorded and for those aged 45–69 years with lipids, fasting blood glucose and cardiovascular risk in the medical record. 2. Change in the level of risk for each factor. Secondary change in self-reported frequency and confidence of GPs and PNs in assessment. Results Risk recording improved in the intervention but not the control group for WC (OR 2.52 (95% CI 1.30 to 4.91)), alcohol consumption (OR 2.19 (CI 1.04 to 4.64)), smoking status (OR 2.24 (1.17 to 4.29)) and cardiovascular risk (OR 1.50 (1.04 to 2.18)). There was no change in recording of BP, lipids, glucose or BMI and no significant change in the level of risk factors based on audit data. The confidence but not reported practices of GPs and PNs in the intervention group improved in the assessment of some risk factors. Conclusions This intervention was associated with improved recording of some risk factors but no change in the level of risk at the follow-up audit. Trial registration number

  2. FPGA Implementation of Discrete-Time Neuronal Network for Dynamic Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Ken'ichi; Musashi, Mio; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    We have developed a discrete-time dynamical system for dynamic image segmentation. It consists of a global inhibitor and modified chaotic neurons that can generate oscillatory responses. Dynamic image segmentation is performed using its oscillatory responses. This letter presents an implementation of our system in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and a successful result of dynamic image segmentation.

  3. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  4. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

  5. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469078

  6. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1997-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-hour, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) will be considered while the full range of network choices (Digital land lines, Cellular/Wireless, Satellite and Broadband) will be tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  7. Medical emergency aid through telematics: design, implementation guidelines and analysis of user requirements for the MERMAID project.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S; Pomportsis, A; Bountzioukas, S; Beltrame, F; Orsi, G

    1998-01-01

    MERMAID is an EU financed telemedicine project with global reach and 24-h, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model will not be limited to medical diagnostics but it will encompass all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications (audio and video conferencing, multimedia communications, flat file and image transfer with low, medium and high bandwidth data requirements) are considered while the full range of network choices (digital land lines, cellular/wireless, satellite and broadband) are being tested in terms of cost/performance tradeoffs that are inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in their in its life cycle. Finally, out that MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialist care that is best suited in the particular case.

  8. Implementation of Microfiche Image Transmission System (MITS): A multifaceted assessment of demonstration installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheposh, J. P.; Hulton, V. N.

    1983-06-01

    A multifaceted approach was employed to evaluate the introduction and implementation of a technological system--the microfiche image transmission system (MITS). Four different aspects of the demonstration installation were investigated: (1) operators' perception of MITS, (2) the requesters' acceptance of the services provided, (3) image quality, and (4) management's evaluation of the MITS implementation. The results revealed that the operators' perceptions of MITS were positive, the requesters regarded MITS as highly satisfactory, the image quality of the facsimile input fiche was judged superior to the MITS output, and the managers and developers regarded the MITS implementation as a success. Issues concerning widespread application of MITS were seen as premature at this time.

  9. Study and implementation of a novel ultrasound imaging technique combining digital beamforming with synthetical aperture.

    PubMed

    Shuguang, Zhao; Hailong, Zhao; Yanhong, Fang; Min, Tang

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at higher performances and lower cost of an ultrasonic imaging system, a novel digital imaging approach was proposed, which combines the dual beamforming technique to double frame rate with the synthetical aperture technique to halve receive channels. Besides theoretical analyses and simulations, its hardware implementation was discussed in detail, embodied and finally tested on a real ultrasonic imaging system. The experimental results show that with this approach, system cost can be remarkably reduced without lowering the frame rate and image quality.

  10. An Analog Implementation of Fixed-Wing Lateral/Directional Dynamics and Guidelines on Aircraft Simulations in the Engineering Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karayanakis, Nicholas M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a scheme for the mechanization of fixed-wing, lateral/directional dynamics as demonstrated on the EAI 580 analog/hybrid system. A review of the complete six degrees of freedom program is included, along with useful guidelines of aircraft simulation in the engineering laboratory. (Author/JN)

  11. 78 FR 11059 - Examination Guidelines for Implementing the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is publishing examination guidelines concerning the first inventor to file provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA). The AIA amends the patent laws pertaining to the conditions of patentability to convert the U.S. patent system from a ``first to invent'' system to a ``first inventor to file'' system, treats patents and......

  12. Handbook of Procedural Guidelines for Implementation of Special Education Curriculum: Critical Skills/Community-Based and Special Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverside County Office of Education, CA. Div. of Special Schools and Services.

    The special education procedural handbook and the special education curriculum guide provide guidelines for teachers and other school personnel. The procedural handbook covers the following areas: individual education program process (IEP) and program placement, individual education program team, administrative placements, parent interviews,…

  13. Emerging standards for still image compression: A software implementation and simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Arnold, S.

    1991-01-01

    The software implementation is described of an emerging standard for the lossy compression of continuous tone still images. This software program can be used to compress planetary images and other 2-D instrument data. It provides a high compression image coding capability that preserves image fidelity at compression rates competitive or superior to most known techniques. This software implementation confirms the usefulness of such data compression and allows its performance to be compared with other schemes used in deep space missions and for data based storage.

  14. Barriers, Facilitators and Priorities for Implementation of WHO Maternal and Perinatal Health Guidelines in Four Lower-Income Countries: A GREAT Network Research Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Joshua P.; Moore, Julia E.; Timmings, Caitlyn; Khan, Sobia; Khan, Dina N.; Defar, Atkure; Hadush, Azmach; Minwyelet Terefe, Marta; Teshome, Luwam; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Than, Kyu Kyu; Makuwani, Ahmad; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Mugerwa, Kidza Yvonne; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M.; Rashid, Shusmita; Straus, Sharon E.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health systems often fail to use evidence in clinical practice. In maternal and perinatal health, the majority of maternal, fetal and newborn mortality is preventable through implementing effective interventions. To meet this challenge, WHO’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research partnered with the Knowledge Translation Program at St. Michael’s Hospital (SMH), University of Toronto, Canada to establish a collaboration on knowledge translation (KT) in maternal and perinatal health, called the GREAT Network (Guideline-driven, Research priorities, Evidence synthesis, Application of evidence, and Transfer of knowledge). We applied a systematic approach incorporating evidence and theory to identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation of WHO maternal heath recommendations in four lower-income countries and to identifying implementation strategies to address these. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study in Myanmar, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia. In each country, stakeholder surveys, focus group discussions and prioritization exercises were used, involving multiple groups of health system stakeholders (including administrators, policymakers, NGOs, professional associations, frontline healthcare providers and researchers). Results Despite differences in guideline priorities and contexts, barriers identified across countries were often similar. Health system level factors, including health workforce shortages, and need for strengthened drug and equipment procurement, distribution and management systems, were consistently highlighted as limiting the capacity of providers to deliver high-quality care. Evidence-based health policies to support implementation, and improve the knowledge and skills of healthcare providers were also identified. Stakeholders identified a range of tailored strategies to address local barriers and leverage facilitators. Conclusion This approach to identifying barriers, facilitators and potential strategies for

  15. Compact Video Microscope Imaging System Implemented in Colloid Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Long description Photographs showing fiber-optic light source, microscope and charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera head connected to camera body, CCD camera body feeding data to image acquisition board in PC, and Cartesian robot controlled via PC board. The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system can scan, find areas of interest in, focus on, and acquire images automatically. Many multiple-cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is feasible only with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control. The software also has a user-friendly interface, which can be used independently of the hardware for further post-experiment analysis. CMIS has been successfully developed in the SML Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center and adapted for use for colloid studies and is available for telescience experiments. The main innovations this year are an improved interface, optimized algorithms, and the ability to control conventional full-sized microscopes in addition to compact microscopes. The CMIS software-hardware interface is being integrated into our SML Analysis package, which will be a robust general-purpose image-processing package that can handle over 100 space and industrial applications.

  16. Teaching High School Science Using Image Processing: A Case Study of Implementation of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard; Raphael, Jacqueline; Keller, Jill L.; Tobias, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    Outlines an in-depth case study of teachers' use of image processing in biology, earth science, and physics classes in one high school science department. Explores issues surrounding technology implementation. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  17. Development and implementation of software systems for imaging spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Mazer, A.S.; Biehl, L.L.; Kruse, F.A.; Torson, J.; Staenz, K.

    2006-01-01

    Specialized software systems have played a crucial role throughout the twenty-five year course of the development of the new technology of imaging spectroscopy, or hyperspectral remote sensing. By their very nature, hyperspectral data place unique and demanding requirements on the computer software used to visualize, analyze, process and interpret them. Often described as a marriage of the two technologies of reflectance spectroscopy and airborne/spaceborne remote sensing, imaging spectroscopy, in fact, produces data sets with unique qualities, unlike previous remote sensing or spectrometer data. Because of these unique spatial and spectral properties hyperspectral data are not readily processed or exploited with legacy software systems inherited from either of the two parent fields of study. This paper provides brief reviews of seven important software systems developed specifically for imaging spectroscopy.

  18. Fast Implementation of Matched Filter Based Automatic Alignment Image Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K; Taha, T

    2008-04-02

    Video images of laser beams imprinted with distinguishable features are used for alignment of 192 laser beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms designed to determine the position of these beams enable the control system to perform the task of alignment. Centroiding is a common approach used for determining the position of beams. However, real world beam images suffer from intensity fluctuation or other distortions which make such an approach susceptible to higher position measurement variability. Matched filtering used for identifying the beam position results in greater stability of position measurement compared to that obtained using the centroiding technique. However, this gain is achieved at the expense of extra processing time required for each beam image. In this work we explore the possibility of using a field programmable logic array (FPGA) to speed up these computations. The results indicate a performance improvement of 20 using the FPGA relative to a 3 GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  19. Digital implementation of a neural network for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Richard; McGlashan, Alex; Yatulis, Jay; Mascher, Peter; Bruce, Ian

    2012-10-01

    This paper outlines the design and testing of a digital imaging system that utilizes an artificial neural network with unsupervised and supervised learning to convert streaming input (real time) image space into parameter space. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of using a neural network to significantly reduce the information density of streaming images so that objects can be readily identified by a limited set of primary parameters and act as an enhanced human machine interface (HMI). Many applications are envisioned including use in biomedical imaging, anomaly detection and as an assistive device for the visually impaired. A digital circuit was designed and tested using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and an off the shelf digital camera. Our results indicate that the networks can be readily trained when subject to limited sets of objects such as the alphabet. We can also separate limited object sets with rotational and positional invariance. The results also show that limited visual fields form with only local connectivity.

  20. High responsivity CMOS imager pixel implemented in SOI technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, X.; Wrigley, C.; Yang, G.; Pain, B.

    2000-01-01

    Availability of mature sub-micron CMOS technology and the advent of the new low noise active pixel sensor (APS) concept have enabled the development of low power, miniature, single-chip, CMOS digital imagers in the decade of the 1990's.

  1. Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer: concept and phased implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Wizinowich, P.; Dekany, R.; Chun, M.; Hall, D.; Cetre, S.; Guyon, O.; Wallace, J. K.; Bowler, B.; Liu, M.; Ruane, G.; Serabyn, E.; Bartos, R.; Wang, J.; Vasisht, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Skemer, A.; Ireland, M.; Fucik, J.; Fortney, J.; Crossfield, I.; Hu, R.; Benneke, B.

    2016-07-01

    The Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer (KPIC) is a cost-effective upgrade path to the W.M. Keck observatory (WMKO) adaptive optics (AO) system, building on the lessons learned from first and second-generation extreme AO (ExAO) coronagraphs. KPIC will explore new scientific niches in exoplanet science, while maturing critical technologies and systems for future ground-based (TMT, EELT, GMT) and space-based planet imagers (HabEx, LUVOIR). The advent of fast low-noise IR cameras (IR-APD, MKIDS, electron injectors), the rapid maturing of efficient wavefront sensing (WFS) techniques (Pyramid, Zernike), small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraphs (e.g., vortex) and associated low-order wavefront sensors (LOWFS), as well as recent breakthroughs in high contrast high resolution spectroscopy, open new direct exoplanet exploration avenues that are complementary to planet imagers such as VLT-SPHERE and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). For instance, the search and detailed characterization of planetary systems on solar-system scales around late-type stars, mostly beyond SPHERE and GPI's reaches, can be initiated now at WMKO.

  2. Implementing the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines for head and neck cancer: developing a business plan with reorganisation of head and neck cancer services.

    PubMed

    Jeannon, J-P; Abbs, I; Calman, F; Gleeson, M; Lyons, A; Hussain, K; McGurk, M; O'Connell, M; Probert, D; Ng, R; Simo, R

    2008-04-01

    The implementation of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines (NICE-IOG) manual for head and neck cancer may have a huge potential cost implication. Head and neck cancer is a rare disease which utilises large quantities of resources which can only be provided in a tertiary centre. Head and neck cancer services should be centralised into a single site for each cancer network. A new higher tariff rate for complex head and neck cancer cases is needed which recognises the true cost of this work. Each network should set its own tariff to make head and neck cancer care financially viable.

  3. [Methodological guideline for the efficacy and safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals: implementation of EUnetHTA's recommendations].

    PubMed

    Ubago Pérez, Ruth; Castillo Muñoz, María Auxiliadora; Banqueri, Mercedes Galván; García Estepa, Raúl; Alfaro Lara, Eva Rocío; Vega Coca, María Dolores; Beltrán Calvo, Carmen; Molina López, Teresa

    2017-01-03

    The European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) is the network of public health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and entities from across the EU. In this context, the HTA Core Model(®), has been developed. The Andalusian Agency for Health Technology Assessment (AETSA) is a member of the Spanish HTA Network and EUnetHTA collaboration In addition, AETSA participates in the new EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 (JA, 2016-2019). Furthermore, AETSA works on pharmaceutical assessments. Part of this work involves drafting therapeutic positioning reports (TPRs) on drugs that have recently been granted marketing authorisation, which is overseen by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS). AETSA contributes by drafting "Evidence synthesis reports: pharmaceuticals" in which a rapid comparative efficacy and safety assessment is performed for drugs for which a TPR will be created. To create this type of report, AETSA follows its own methodological guideline based on EUnetHTA guidelines and the HTA Core Model(®). In this paper, the methodology that AETSA has developed to create the guideline for "Evidence synthesis reports: pharmaceuticals" is described. The structure of the report itself is also presented.

  4. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  5. Consistent image presentation implemented using DICOM grayscale standard display function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, Kenneth S.; Omernick, Jon; French, John

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we evaluate our ability to achieve consistent image presentation across a wide range of output devices, focusing on digital x-ray radiography for chest applications. In particular we focus on dry versus wet printers of hardcopy prints. In this evaluation, we review the expected theoretical variability using the DICOM grayscale standard display function (GSDF). The GSDF maps DICOM presentation values to luminance values that are perceived by a human. We present our methodology for calibrating devices as evaluated on sixteen printers. Seven devices were selected for a human observer study to determine if there are perceptible differences in the presentation of a given image, focusing on differences between wet and dry processes. It was found that wet printers were preferred, however, there may be other logistical and practical reasons whey dry printers may be used.

  6. Method for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers. An oxide layer buried between silicon wafer and device silicon is provided. The oxide layer forms a passivation layer in the imaging structure. A device layer and interlayer dielectric are formed, and the silicon wafer is removed to expose the oxide layer.

  7. Stereo Image Correspondence Methods for Efficient Hardware Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    high resolution images in real time. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 97 14. SUBJECT TERMS Stereo Correspondence, Ordinal Measures, 3D Reconstruction...three-dimensional ( 3D ) reconstruction of the scene in front of a stereo pair of cameras. Significant research has gone to make solving for the...and threshold illustrated in the car auto -pilot example. A disparity map of a real scene will predominantly consist of surfaces, seen as regions of

  8. Design and implementation of GRID-based PACS in a hospital with multiple imaging departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2008-03-01

    Usually, there were multiple clinical departments providing imaging-enabled healthcare services in enterprise healthcare environment, such as radiology, oncology, pathology, and cardiology, the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is now required to support not only radiology-based image display, workflow and data flow management, but also to have more specific expertise imaging processing and management tools for other departments providing imaging-guided diagnosis and therapy, and there were urgent demand to integrate the multiple PACSs together to provide patient-oriented imaging services for enterprise collaborative healthcare. In this paper, we give the design method and implementation strategy of developing grid-based PACS (Grid-PACS) for a hospital with multiple imaging departments or centers. The Grid-PACS functions as a middleware between the traditional PACS archiving servers and workstations or image viewing clients and provide DICOM image communication and WADO services to the end users. The images can be stored in distributed multiple archiving servers, but can be managed with central mode. The grid-based PACS has auto image backup and disaster recovery services and can provide best image retrieval path to the image requesters based on the optimal algorithms. The designed grid-based PACS has been implemented in Shanghai Huadong Hospital and been running for two years smoothly.

  9. A VLSI implementation for synthetic aperture radar image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premkumar, A.; Purviance, J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple physical model for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is presented. This model explains the one dimensional and two dimensional nature of the received SAR signal in the range and azimuth directions. A time domain correlator, its algorithm, and features are explained. The correlator is ideally suited for VLSI implementation. A real time SAR architecture using these correlators is proposed. In the proposed architecture, the received SAR data is processed using one dimensional correlators for determining the range while two dimensional correlators are used to determine the azimuth of a target. The architecture uses only three different types of custom VLSI chips and a small amount of memory.

  10. Using the Six Sigma Process to Implement the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Hand Hygiene in 4 Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Noel E; Woods, Susan S; Bonello, Robert S; Clutter, Kay; Ellingson, LeAnn; Harris, Mary Ann; Livingston, Barbara K; Bagian, James P; Danko, Linda H; Dunn, Edward J; Parlier, Renee L; Pederson, Cheryl; Reichling, Kim J; Roselle, Gary A; Wright, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings was issued in 2002. In 2003, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) established complying with the CDC Guideline as a National Patient Safety Goal for 2004. This goal has been maintained through 2006. The CDC's emphasis on the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) rather than soap and water was an opportunity to improve compliance, but the Guideline contained over 40 specific recommendations to implement. OBJECTIVE To use the Six Sigma process to examine hand hygiene practices and increase compliance with the CDC hand hygiene recommendations required by JCAHO. DESIGN Six Sigma Project with pre-post design. PARTICIPANTS Physicians, nurses, and other staff working in 4 intensive care units at 3 hospitals. MEASUREMENTS Observed compliance with 10 required hand hygiene practices, mass of ABHR used per month per 100 patient-days, and staff attitudes and perceptions regarding hand hygiene reported by questionnaire. RESULTS Observed compliance increased from 47% to 80%, based on over 4,000 total observations. The mass of ABHR used per 100 patient-days in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) increased by 97%, 94%, and 70%; increases were sustained for 9 months. Self-reported compliance using the questionnaire did not change. Staff reported increased use of ABHR and increased satisfaction with hand hygiene practices and products. CONCLUSIONS The Six Sigma process was effective for organizing the knowledge, opinions, and actions of a group of professionals to implement the CDC's evidence-based hand hygiene practices in 4 ICUs. Several tools were developed for widespread use. PMID:16637959

  11. Dissemination strategies to improve implementation of the PHS smoking cessation guideline in MCH public health clinics: experimental evaluation results and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-04-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve clinics in Illinois were randomized to three dissemination strategies: (i) core dissemination (provision of the 2000 Public Health System Clinical Practice Guideline and a tested smoking cessation program, including program supplies and training), (ii) core dissemination and access to telephone counseling and (iii) core dissemination, telephone counseling access and outreach visits to clinics. Implementation outcomes were post-dissemination improvements over baseline in the percent of smokers reporting receipt/exposure to (i) provider advice, (ii) self-help booklet, (iii) videos, (iv) posters and (v) an adjunct intervention. Results showed significant increases in the percent of smokers receiving a booklet (overall) and an adjunct intervention (Groups 2 and 3). There were no increases in smoker-reported provider advice or videos and poster exposure. Examination of individual clinic findings showed that seven clinics accounted for all the experimental effectiveness. Smoker-reported provider advice to quit also increased in these clinics. Type of clinic and the absence of disruptive events distinguished clinics with and without effective dissemination outcomes.

  12. Implementing a pediatric obesity care guideline in a freestanding children's hospital to improve child safety and hospital preparedness.

    PubMed

    Porter, Renee M; Thrasher, Jodi; Krebs, Nancy F

    2012-12-01

    Medical and surgical care of children with severe obesity is complicated and requires recognition of the problem, appropriate equipment, and safe management. There is little literature describing patient, provider, and institutional needs for the severely obese pediatric patient. Nonetheless, the limited data suggest 3 broad categories of needs unique to this population: (a) airway management, (b) drug dosing and pharmacology, and (c) equipment and infrastructure. We describe an opportunity at the Children's Hospital Colorado to better prepare and optimize care for this patient population by creation of a Pediatric Obesity Care Guideline that focused on key areas of quality and safety.

  13. Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. Results A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of ‘Beliefs about consequences’); discomfort in using validated tools (‘Emotion’), possibly due to limited training and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment (‘Knowledge’; ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment (‘Knowledge’); possessing

  14. Implementation of a clinical practice guideline for identification of microalbuminuria in the pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen A; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Baluarte, H Jorge; Murphy, Kathryn M; Willi, Steven; Lipman, Terri H

    2013-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is a shift in the health care culture from basing decisions on consensus opinion, past practice, and precedent toward the use of rigorous analysis of scientific evidence using outcomes research and clinical evidence to guide clinical decision making. The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) is critical to guide the assessment and management of children with diabetes. This article provides an overview of the infrastructure and processes that are crucial to providing evidence-based care in a large urban pediatric diabetes center. Development of a CPG to identify microalbuminuria in children with type 1 diabetes is discussed.

  15. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  16. SU-E-I-68: Practical Considerations On Implementation of the Image Gently Pediatric CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Adams, C; Lumby, C; Dillon, J; Woods, E; Richer, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One limitation associated with the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols is practical implementation of the recommended manual techniques. Inconsistency as a result of different practice is a possibility among technologist. An additional concern is the added risk of data error that would result in over or underexposure. The Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) features automatically reduce radiation for children. However, they do not work efficiently for the patients of very small size and relative large size. This study aims to implement the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols in the practical setting while maintaining the use of AEC features for pediatric patients of varying size. Methods: Anthropomorphological abdomen phantoms were scanned in a CT scanner using the Image Gently pediatric protocols, the AEC technique with a fixed adult baseline, and automatic protocols with various baselines. The baselines were adjusted corresponding to patient age, weight and posterioranterior thickness to match the Image Gently pediatric CT manual techniques. CTDIvol was recorded for each examination. Image noise was measured and recorded for image quality comparison. Clinical images were evaluated by pediatric radiologists. Results: By adjusting vendor default baselines used in the automatic techniques, radiation dose and image quality can match those of the Image Gently manual techniques. In practice, this can be achieved by dividing pediatric patients into three major groups for technologist reference: infant, small child, and large child. Further division can be done but will increase the number of CT protocols. For each group, AEC can efficiently adjust acquisition techniques for children. This implementation significantly overcomes the limitation of the Image Gently manual techniques. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness in clinical practice, Image Gently Pediatric CT protocols can be implemented in accordance with AEC techniques, with adjusted baselines, to

  17. Design and FPGA implementation of real-time automatic image enhancement algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, GuoWei; Hou, ZuoXun; Tang, Qi; Pan, Zheng; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve image processing quality and boost processing rate, this paper proposes an real-time automatic image enhancement algorithm. It is based on the histogram equalization algorithm and the piecewise linear enhancement algorithm, and it calculate the relationship of the histogram and the piecewise linear function by analyzing the histogram distribution for adaptive image enhancement. Furthermore, the corresponding FPGA processing modules are designed to implement the methods. Especially, the high-performance parallel pipelined technology and inner potential parallel processing ability of the modules are paid more attention to ensure the real-time processing ability of the complete system. The simulations and the experimentations show that the algorithm is based on the design and implementation of FPGA hardware circuit less cost on hardware, high real-time performance, the good processing performance in different sceneries. The algorithm can effectively improve the image quality, and would have wide prospect on imaging processing field.

  18. Efficient Hardware Implementation For Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Anisotropic Gaussian Filter.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Bailey, Donald G; Khan, Mohammad A U; Kong, Yinan

    2017-05-01

    A real-time image filtering technique is proposed which could result in faster implementation for fingerprint image enhancement. One major hurdle associated with fingerprint filtering techniques is the expensive nature of their hardware implementations. To circumvent this, a modified anisotropic Gaussian filter is efficiently adopted in hardware by decomposing the filter into two orthogonal Gaussians and an oriented line Gaussian. An architecture is developed for dynamically controlling the orientation of the line Gaussian filter. To further improve the performance of the filter, the input image is homogenized by a local image normalization. In the proposed structure, for a middle-range reconfigurable FPGA, both parallel compute-intensive and real-time demands were achieved. We manage to efficiently speed up the image-processing time and improve the resource utilization of the FPGA. Test results show an improved speed for its hardware architecture while maintaining reasonable enhancement benchmarks.

  19. The Astro-WISE optical image pipeline. Development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John P.; Verdoes-Kleijn, Gijs; Sikkema, Gert; Helmich, Ewout M.; Boxhoorn, Danny R.; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a novel way to process wide-field astronomical data within a distributed environment of hardware resources and humanpower. The system is characterized by integration of archiving, calibration, and post-calibration analysis of data from raw, through intermediate, to final data products. It is a true integration thanks to complete linking of data lineage from the final catalogs back to the raw data. This paper describes the pipeline processing of optical wide-field astronomical data from the WFI (http://www.eso.org/lasilla/instruments/wfi/) and OmegaCAM (http://www.astro-wise.org/~omegacam/) instruments using the Astro-WISE information system (the Astro-WISE Environment or simply AWE). This information system is an environment of hardware resources and humanpower distributed over Europe. AWE is characterized by integration of archiving, data calibration, post-calibration analysis, and archiving of raw, intermediate, and final data products. The true integration enables a complete data processing cycle from the raw data up to the publication of science-ready catalogs. The advantages of this system for very large datasets are in the areas of: survey operations management, quality control, calibration analyses, and massive processing.

  20. Design, implementation and operation of a multimodality research imaging informatics repository

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomedical imaging research increasingly involves acquiring, managing and processing large amounts of distributed imaging data. Integrated systems that combine data, meta-data and workflows are crucial for realising the opportunities presented by advances in imaging facilities. Methods This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of a multi-modality research imaging data management system that manages imaging data obtained from biomedical imaging scanners operated at Monash Biomedical Imaging (MBI), Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images, raw data and non-DICOM biomedical data can be archived and distributed by the system. Imaging data are annotated with meta-data according to a study-centric data model and, therefore, scientific users can find, download and process data easily. Results The research imaging data management system ensures long-term usability, integrity inter-operability and integration of large imaging data. Research users can securely browse and download stored images and data, and upload processed data via subject-oriented informatics frameworks including the Distributed and Reflective Informatics System (DaRIS), and the Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT). PMID:25870760

  1. Implementation of total focusing method for phased array ultrasonic imaging on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, JianQiang; Li, Xi; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Zeyong; Zhao, Quanke

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a multi-FPGA imaging system dedicated for the real-time imaging using the Total Focusing Method (TFM) and Full Matrix Capture (FMC). The system was entirely described using Verilog HDL language and implemented on Altera Stratix IV GX FPGA development board. The whole algorithm process is to: establish a coordinate system of image and divide it into grids; calculate the complete acoustic distance of array element between transmitting array element and receiving array element, and transform it into index value; then index the sound pressure values from ROM and superimpose sound pressure values to get pixel value of one focus point; and calculate the pixel values of all focus points to get the final imaging. The imaging result shows that this algorithm has high SNR of defect imaging. And FPGA with parallel processing capability can provide high speed performance, so this system can provide the imaging interface, with complete function and good performance.

  2. Neuro-inspired smart image sensor: analog Hmax implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paindavoine, Michel; Dubois, Jérôme; Musa, Purnawarman

    2015-03-01

    Neuro-Inspired Vision approach, based on models from biology, allows to reduce the computational complexity. One of these models - The Hmax model - shows that the recognition of an object in the visual cortex mobilizes V1, V2 and V4 areas. From the computational point of view, V1 corresponds to the area of the directional filters (for example Sobel filters, Gabor filters or wavelet filters). This information is then processed in the area V2 in order to obtain local maxima. This new information is then sent to an artificial neural network. This neural processing module corresponds to area V4 of the visual cortex and is intended to categorize objects present in the scene. In order to realize autonomous vision systems (consumption of a few milliwatts) with such treatments inside, we studied and realized in 0.35μm CMOS technology prototypes of two image sensors in order to achieve the V1 and V2 processing of Hmax model.

  3. [Breast imaging of mass, architectural distortion and asymmetry: Clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Chopier, J; Roedlich, M N; Mathelin, C

    2015-12-01

    The development of the mammary imaging (mammography, ultrasound, MRI) enables the discovery of more and more lesions. The BI-RADS lexicon is the reference book for their descriptive analysis. Four elementary images must be individualized: masses and architectural distortion described in 3 imaging techniques, asymmetries and microcalcifications described in mammography. The aim of this work was to review three of these images: mass, architectural distortion and asymmetry, allowing the various actors involved in senology to propose an up-to-date diagnostic and interventional strategy, based on their positive predictive values (PPV) or negative predictive values of cancer and allowing the classification BI-RADS of the lesion. The masses are the most often encountered lesions as well in screening as in diagnosis. Their PPV is superior in diagnosis than in screening and it increases with the age. Their irregular forms, their spiculated outlines and their evolutionary character are the most relevant elements of suspicion. The architectural distortion is the rarest image and always classified suspect BI-RADS 4, except in case of a known scar. The asymmetry is less common; its PPV is low and rises only in case of evolutionary asymmetry.

  4. Partnering With Your Health System to Select and Implement Clinical Decision Support for Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeff D; Durand, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Recent legislation mandates the documentation of appropriateness criteria consultation when ordering advanced imaging for Medicare patients to remain eligible for reimbursement. Implementation of imaging clinical decision support (CDS) is a solution adopted by many systems to automate compliance with the new requirements. This article is intended to help radiologists who are employed by, contracted with, or otherwise affiliated with systems planning to implement CDS in the near future and ensure that they are able to understand and contribute to the process wherever possible. It includes an in-depth discussion of the legislation, evidence for and against the efficacy of imaging CDS, considerations for selecting a CDS vendor, tips for configuring CDS in a fashion consistent with departmental goals, and pointers for implementation and change management.

  5. Language Placement and Beyond: Guidelines for the Design and Implementation of a Computerized Spanish Heritage Language Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.; Ducar, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the design, implementation, and analysis of a computerized Spanish heritage language (SHL) placement exam. The exam created by the authors exemplifies how to design a simple yet effective placement exam with limited resources. It is suggested that an SHL placement exam should be developed in-house due not only to the diversity…

  6. The Archival Appraisal of Moving Images: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Sam

    Produced as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP), this publication provides government and non-government archivists and records managers with a comparative study of past and present policies and practices for selecting moving images for…

  7. Hardware Implementation of a Lossless Image Compression Algorithm Using a Field Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimesh, M.; Stanton, V.; Watola, D.

    2000-10-01

    We describe a hardware implementation of a state-of-the-art lossless image compression algorithm. The algorithm is based on the LOCO-I (low complexity lossless compression for images) algorithm developed by Weinberger, Seroussi, and Sapiro, with modifications to lower the implementation complexity. In this setup, the compression itself is performed entirely in hardware using a field programmable gate array and a small amount of random access memory. The compression speed achieved is 1.33 Mpixels/second. Our algorithm yields about 15 percent better compression than the Rice algorithm.

  8. Methodology for Developing Evidence-Based Clinical Imaging Guidelines: Joint Recommendations by Korean Society of Radiology and National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A; Kim, Min-Jeong; Lee, Min; Jung, Seung Eun; Do, Kyung Hyun; Yong, Hwan Seok; Sheen, Seungsoo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure. PMID:28096730

  9. Public informations guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  10. Implementation workshop of WHO guidelines on evaluation of malaria vaccines: Current regulatory concepts and issues related to vaccine quality, Pretoria, South Africa 07 Nov 2014.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mei Mei; Baca-Estrada, Maria; Conrad, Christoph; Karikari-Boateng, Eric; Kang, Hye-Na

    2015-08-26

    The current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the quality, safety and efficacy of recombinant malaria vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum were adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012 to provide guidance on the quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects of recombinant malaria vaccines. A WHO workshop was organised to facilitate implementation into African (national/regional) regulatory practices, of the regulatory evaluation principles outlined in the guidelines regarding quality aspects. The workshop was used also to share knowledge and experience on regulatory topics of chemistry, manufacturing and control with a focus on vaccines through presentations and an interactive discussion using a case study approach. The basic principles and concepts of vaccine quality including consistency of production, quality control and manufacturing process were presented and discussed in the meeting. By reviewing and practicing a case study, better understanding on the relationship between consistency of production and batch release tests of an adjuvanted pre-erythrocytic recombinant malaria vaccine was reached. The case study exercise was considered very useful to understand regulatory evaluation principles of vaccines and a suggestion was made to WHO to provide such practices also through its Global Learning Opportunities for Vaccine Quality programme.

  11. Prevalence and risk of pressure ulcers in acute care following implementation of practice guidelines: annual pressure ulcer prevalence census 1994-2008.

    PubMed

    VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Friedberg, Elaine; Harrison, Margaret B

    2011-09-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in the United States were estimated to cost US$2.2 to US$3.6 billion per year in 1999. In the early 1990s clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers were introduced. The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology of pressure ulcers in acute care in Canada. The current study is based on 12,787 individuals who were inpatients during a 1-day annual census conducted in an acute care facility in Ontario between 1994 and 2008. The prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcer decreased slightly over time while the risk of pressure ulcer increased. The coccyx sacrum (~27%), heel (13%), ankle (~12%), and ischial tubersosity (~10%) were the most common ulcer sites. The implementation of clinical practice guidelines appears to have improved the quality of patient care, as demonstrated by increasing pressure ulcer risk while the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers has remained somewhat constant. From a policy perspective the importance of monitoring and tracking the risk and occurrence of this adverse event provides a general indicator of care, considering the many organizational aspects that may ameliorate risk.

  12. Implementation of a Particle Image Velocimetry System for Wind Tunnel Flowfield Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    conducted to implement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) as a flow measurement technique in the 8’ x 10’ Subsonic Wind Tunnel at Naval Surface Warfare...discussed and summarized. PIV and SPIV were successfully demonstrated in the wind tunnel , and are now available as powerful flowfield measurement tools...for future test programs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV, SPIV, wind tunnel , airwake, SFS2, flow seeding, flow survey 16

  13. Structure for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A structure for implementation of back-illuminated CMOS or CCD imagers. An epitaxial silicon layer is connected with a passivation layer, acting as a junction anode. The epitaxial silicon layer converts light passing through the passivation layer and collected by the imaging structure to photoelectrons. A semiconductor well is also provided, located opposite the passivation layer with respect to the epitaxial silicon layer, acting as a junction cathode. Prior to detection, light does not pass through a dielectric separating interconnection metal layers.

  14. Implementation of High Dimensional Feature Map for Segmentation of MR Images

    PubMed Central

    He, Renjie; Sajja, Balasrinivasa Rao; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2005-01-01

    A method that considerably reduces the computational and memory complexities associated with the generation of high dimensional (≥3) feature maps for image segmentation is described. The method is based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classification and consists of two parts: preprocessing of feature space and fast KNN. This technique is implemented on a PC and applied for generating three-and four-dimensional feature maps for segmenting MR brain images of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:16240091

  15. Implementation of (omega)-k synthetic aperture radar imaging algorithm on a massively parallel supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerkes, Christopher R.; Webster, Eric D.

    1994-06-01

    Advanced algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging have in the past required computing capabilities only available from high performance special purpose hardware. Such architectures have tended to have short life cycles with respect to development expense. Current generation Massively Parallel Processors (MPP) are offering high performance capabilities necessary for such applications with both a scalable architecture and a longer projected life cycle. In this paper we explore issues associated with implementation of a SAR imaging algorithm on a mesh configured MPP architecture.

  16. Imaging tissue-mimic with light sheet microscopy: A comparative guideline

    PubMed Central

    Andilla, Jordi; Jorand, Raphael; Olarte, Omar E.; Dufour, Alexandre C.; Cazales, Martine; Montagner, Yoann L. E.; Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Tissue mimics (TMs) on the scale of several hundred microns provide a beneficial cell culture configuration for in vitro engineered tissue and are currently under the spotlight in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Due to the cell density and size, TMs are fairly inaccessible to optical observation and imaging within these samples remains challenging. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)- an emerging and attractive technique for 3D optical sectioning of large samples- appears to be a particularly well-suited approach to deal with them. In this work, we compared the effectiveness of different light sheet illumination modalities reported in the literature to improve resolution and/or light exposure for complex 3D samples. In order to provide an acute and fair comparative assessment, we also developed a systematic, computerized benchmarking method. The outcomes of our experiment provide meaningful information for valid comparisons and arises the main differences between the modalities when imaging different types of TMs. PMID:28322312

  17. Imaging tissue-mimic with light sheet microscopy: A comparative guideline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andilla, Jordi; Jorand, Raphael; Olarte, Omar E.; Dufour, Alexandre C.; Cazales, Martine; Montagner, Yoann L. E.; Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Lorenzo, Corinne

    2017-03-01

    Tissue mimics (TMs) on the scale of several hundred microns provide a beneficial cell culture configuration for in vitro engineered tissue and are currently under the spotlight in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Due to the cell density and size, TMs are fairly inaccessible to optical observation and imaging within these samples remains challenging. Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM)- an emerging and attractive technique for 3D optical sectioning of large samples- appears to be a particularly well-suited approach to deal with them. In this work, we compared the effectiveness of different light sheet illumination modalities reported in the literature to improve resolution and/or light exposure for complex 3D samples. In order to provide an acute and fair comparative assessment, we also developed a systematic, computerized benchmarking method. The outcomes of our experiment provide meaningful information for valid comparisons and arises the main differences between the modalities when imaging different types of TMs.

  18. Guidelines for Implementation of an Advanced Outage Control Center to Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution, and Outage Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    St. Germain, Shawn W.; Farris, Ronald K.; Whaley, April M.; Medema, Heather D.; Gertman, David I.

    2014-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The purpose of this research is to improve management of nuclear power plant (NPP) outages through the development of an advanced outage control center (AOCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This technical report for industry implementation outlines methods and considerations for the establishment of an AOCC. This report provides a process for implementation of a change management plan, evaluation of current outage processes, the selection of technology, and guidance for the implementation of the selected technology. Methods are presented for both adoption of technologies within an existing OCC and for a complete OCC replacement, including human factors considerations for OCC design and setup.

  19. Impact of value based breast cancer care pathway implementation on pre-operative breast magnetic resonance imaging utilization

    PubMed Central

    McCray, Devina K. S.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used in the diagnostic workup of breast cancer (BC) to assess extent of disease and identify occult foci of disease. However, evidence for routine use of pre-operative MRI is lacking. Breast MRI is costly and can lead to unnecessary tests and treatment delays. Clinical care pathways (care paths) are value-based guidelines, which define management recommendations derived by expert consensus and available evidence based data. At Cleveland Clinic, care paths created for newly diagnosed BC patients recommend selective use of pre-operative MRI. We evaluated the number of pre-operative MRIs ordered before and after implementing an institution wide BC care paths in April 2014. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of BC cases during the years 2012, 2014, and part of 2015. Patient, tumor and treatment characteristics were collected. Pre-operative MRI utilization was compared before and after care path implementation. Results We identified 1,515 BC patients during the study period. Patients were more likely to undergo pre-operative MRI in 2012 than 2014 (OR: 2.77; P<0.001; 95% CI: 1.94–3.94) or 2015 (OR: 4.14; P<0.001; 95% CI: 2.51–6.83). There was a significant decrease in pre-operative MRI utilization between 2012 and 2014 (P<0.001) after adjustment for pre-operative MRIs ordered for care path indications. Conclusions Implementation of online BC care paths at our institution was associated with a decreased use of pre-operative MRI overall and in patients without a BC care path indication, driving value based care through the reduction of pre-operative breast MRIs. PMID:28210553

  20. Design and Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Inform Anisotropic Hyperelastic Finite Element Models using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Design and Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Inform Anisotropic Hyperelastic Finite Element Models using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging by...Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Inform Anisotropic Hyperelastic Finite Element Models using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Reuben H. Kraft and Amy M. Dagro...Implementation of a Numerical Technique to Inform Anisotropic Hyperelastic Finite Element Models using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging AH80Reuben H. Kraft and

  1. Design and implementation of confocal imaging systems with a generalized theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gao-Wei; Liao, Chia-Cheng; Yeh, Zong-Mu

    2007-02-01

    Confocal imaging is primarily based on the use of apertures in the detection path to provide the acquired three-dimensional images with satisfactory contrast and resolution. For many years, it has become an important mode of imaging in microscopy. In biotechnology and related industries, this technique has powerful abilities of biomedical inspection and material detection with high spatial resolution, and furthermore it can combine with fluorescence microscopy to get more useful information. The objective of this paper is first to present a generalized theoretical framework for confocal imaging systems, and then efficiently to design and implement such systems with satisfactory imaging resolutions. In our approach, a theoretical review for confocal imaging is given to investigate this technique from theory to practice. Also, computer simulations are performed to analyze the imaging performance with varying optomechanical conditions. For instance, the effects of stray light on the microscopic systems are examined using the simulations. In this paper, a modified optomechanical structure for the imaging process is proposed to reduce the undesired effects. From the simulation results, it appears that the modified structure highly improves the system signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the imaging resolution is improved through the investigation on the tolerance of fabrication and assembly of the optical components. In the experiments, it is found that the imaging resolution of the proposed system is less sensitive than that of common microscopes, to the position deviations arising from installations of the optical components, such as those from the pinhole and the objective lens.

  2. Image processing method and implementation for a laser automatic tracking extensometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Du, Xiao; Liu, Yanna; Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong

    2012-01-01

    A laser automatic tracking extensometer for material deformation measurement based on CCD is proposed. The image processing methods of the laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are studied for the extensometer. First, geometrical mean filter (GMF), harmonic mean filter (HMF) and inverse harmonic mean filter (IHMF) using for the image processing are compared in order to select a suitable mean filter for removing noises from the specimen images, and then the GMF is adopted for the de-noising of the images. Second, Sobel operator is introduced to detect the edges of the specimen images. At last, the specimen images are reduced to eliminate unwanted background information by pruning. Hough transformation of pretreated specimen images is also studied and linking images algorithm is proposed based on the image gray distribution and the connectivity principle. The laser mark localization and the automatic tracking of the mark line on the specimen are then implemented. The experimental results show that the linking image algorithm is prior to Hough transformation on both recognition effect and recognition efficiency.

  3. Implementing an Accurate and Rapid Sparse Sampling Approach for Low-Dose Atomic Resolution STEM Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Stevens, Andrew J.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-10-17

    Aberration correction for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) has dramatically increased spatial image resolution for beam-stable materials, but it is the sample stability rather than the microscope that often limits the practical resolution of STEM images. To extract physical information from images of beam sensitive materials it is becoming clear that there is a critical dose/dose-rate below which the images can be interpreted as representative of the pristine material, while above it the observation is dominated by beam effects. Here we describe an experimental approach for sparse sampling in the STEM and in-painting image reconstruction in order to reduce the electron dose/dose-rate to the sample during imaging. By characterizing the induction limited rise-time and hysteresis in scan coils, we show that sparse line-hopping approach to scan randomization can be implemented that optimizes both the speed of the scan and the amount of the sample that needs to be illuminated by the beam. The dose and acquisition time for the sparse sampling is shown to be effectively decreased by factor of 5x relative to conventional acquisition, permitting imaging of beam sensitive materials to be obtained without changing the microscope operating parameters. The use of sparse line-hopping scan to acquire STEM images is demonstrated with atomic resolution aberration corrected Z-contrast images of CaCO3, a material that is traditionally difficult to image by TEM/STEM because of dose issues.

  4. Contrast Media Extravasation of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Management Guidelines for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Shaqdan, Khalid Wael; Aran, Shima; Prabhakar, Anand M; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous contrast administration has been of great importance in diagnostic radiology, but it is not without risks either due to the local, systemic allergic reactions or due to subcutaneous extravasation of contrast media. Subcutaneous contrast medium extravasationis an infrequent, yet a well-recognized complication. However, most incidents are minor and can be managed conservatively, but there are a few cases that require immediate surgical intervention. This article discusses the risks factors, clinical manifestations, and conservative and surgical approaches of subcutaneous contrast media extravasation for both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Retrofit implementation of Zernike phase plate imaging for cryo-TEM

    PubMed Central

    Marko, Michael; Leith, ArDean; Hsieh, Chyongere; Danev, Radostin

    2011-01-01

    In-focus phase-plate imaging is particularly beneficial for cryo-TEM because it offers a substantial overall increase in image contrast, without an electron dose penalty, and it simplifies image interpretation. We show how phase-plate cryo-TEM can be implemented with an appropriate existing TEM, and provide a basic practical introduction to use of thin-film (carbon) phase plates. We point out potential pitfalls of phase-plate operation, and discuss solutions. We provide information on evaluating a particular TEM for its suitability. PMID:21272647

  6. CUDA implementation of histogram stretching function for improving X-ray image.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong H; Kim, Kwan W; Kim, Soon S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the contrast of digital X-ray image using CUDA program on a GPU. The histogram is commonly used to get the statistical distribution of the contrast in image processing. To increase the visibility of the image in real time, we use the histogram stretching function. It is difficult to implement the function on a GPU because the CUDA program is due to handle the complex process to transfer the source data and the processed results between the memory of GPU and the host system. As a result, we show to operate the histogram stretching function quickly on GPU by the CUDA program.

  7. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidelines for the implementation of LCE concepts, information, and techniques in engineering products, systems, processes, and facilities. To make this document as practical and useable as possible, a unifying LCE framework is presented. Subsequent topics ...

  8. Cellular pulse-coupled neural network with adaptive weights for image segmentation and its VLSI implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiter, Juerg; Ramacher, Ulrich; Heittmann, Arne; Matolin, Daniel; Schuffny, Rene

    2004-05-01

    We present a cellular pulse coupled neural network with adaptive weights and its analog VLSI implementation. The neural network operates on a scalar image feature, such as grey scale or the output of a spatial filter. It detects segments and marks them with synchronous pulses of the corresponding neurons. The network consists of integrate-and-fire neurons, which are coupled to their nearest neighbors via adaptive synaptic weights. Adaptation follows either one of two empirical rules. Both rules lead to spike grouping in wave like patterns. This synchronous activity binds groups of neurons and labels the corresponding image segments. Applications of the network also include feature preserving noise removal, image smoothing, and detection of bright and dark spots. The adaptation rules are insensitive for parameter deviations, mismatch and non-ideal approximation of the implied functions. That makes an analog VLSI implementation feasible. Simulations showed no significant differences in the synchronization properties between networks using the ideal adaptation rules and networks resembling implementation properties such as randomly distributed parameters and roughly implemented adaptation functions. A prototype is currently being designed and fabricated using an Infineon 130nm technology. It comprises a 128 × 128 neuron array, analog image memory, and an address event representation pulse output.

  9. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  10. Implementation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes elements for the set of activities to ensure that control strategies are put into effect and that air quality goals and standards are fulfilled, permitting programs, and additional resources related to implementation under the Clean Air Act.

  11. Implementation of Image-Guided Cochlear Implant Programming at a Distant Site.

    PubMed

    McRackan, Theodore R; Noble, Jack H; Wilkinson, Eric P; Mills, Dawna; Dietrich, Mary S; Dawant, Benoit M; Gifford, Rene H; Labadie, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to prospectively evaluate implementation of a new cochlear implant (CI) mapping technique, image-guided cochlear implant programming (IGCIP), at a site distant to the site of development. IGCIP consists of identifying the geometric relationship between CI electrodes and the modiolus and deactivating electrodes that interfere with neighboring electrodes. IGCIP maps for 17 ears of 15 adult CI patients were developed at a central image-processing center, Vanderbilt, and implemented at a distant tertiary care center, House Ear Institute. Before IGCIP and again 4 weeks after, qualitative and quantitative measures were made. While there were no statistically significant groupwise differences detected between baseline and IGCIP qualitative or quantitative measures, 11 of the 17 (64.7%) elected to keep the IGCIP map. Computed tomography (CT) image quality appears to be crucial for successful IGCIP, with 100% of those with high-resolution CT scans keeping their maps compared to 53.8% without.

  12. Patient-directed Internet-based Medical Image Exchange: Experience from an Initial Multicenter Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Giampaolo; Patel, Anand S.; Lewis, Sara C.; Shi, Wei; Rasul, Rehana; Torosyan, Mary; Erickson, Bradley J.; Hiremath, Atheeth; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Tellis, Wyatt M.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Mendelson, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Inefficient transfer of personal health records among providers negatively impacts quality of health care and increases cost. This multicenter study evaluates the implementation of the first Internet-based image-sharing system that gives patients ownership and control of their imaging exams, including assessment of patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods Patients receiving any medical imaging exams in four academic centers were eligible to have images uploaded into an online, Internet-based personal health record. Satisfaction surveys were provided during recruitment with questions on ease of use, privacy and security, and timeliness of access to images. Responses were rated on a five-point scale and compared using logistic regression and McNemar's test. Results A total of 2562 patients enrolled from July 2012 to August 2013. The median number of imaging exams uploaded per patient was 5. Most commonly, exams were plain X-rays (34.7%), computed tomography (25.7%), and magnetic resonance imaging (16.1%). Of 502 (19.6%) patient surveys returned, 448 indicated the method of image sharing (Internet, compact discs [CDs], both, other). Nearly all patients (96.5%) responded favorably to having direct access to images, and 78% reported viewing their medical images independently. There was no difference between Internet and CD users in satisfaction with privacy and security and timeliness of access to medical images. A greater percentage of Internet users compared to CD users reported access without difficulty (88.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion A patient-directed, interoperable, Internet-based image-sharing system is feasible and surpasses the use of CDs with respect to accessibility of imaging exams while generating similar satisfaction with respect to privacy. PMID:26625706

  13. Mapping ASTI patient's therapeutic-data model to virtual Medical Record: can VMR represent therapeutic data elements used by ASTI in clinical guideline implementations?

    PubMed

    Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Yasini, Mobin; Lamy, Jean Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Lack of interoperability between health information systems is a major obstacle in implementing Clinical decision supports systems (CDSS) and their widespread disseminations. Virtual Medical Record (vMR) proposed by HL7 is a common data model for representing clinical information Inputs and outputs that can be used by CDSS and local clinical systems. A CDSS called ASTI used a similar model to represent clinical data and therapeutic history of patient. In order to evaluate the compatibility of ASTI with vMR, we started to map the ASTI model of representing patient's therapeutic data to vMR. We compared the data elements and associated terminologies used in ASTI and vMR and we evaluated the semantic fidelity between the models. Only one data element the qualitative description of drug dosage, did not match the vMR model. However, it can be calculated in the execution engine. The semantic fidelity was satisfactorily preserved in 12 of 17 elements mapped between the models. This model of ASTI seems compatible to vMR. Further work is necessary to evaluate the compatibility of clinical data model of ASTI to vMR and the use of vMR in implementing practice guidelines.

  14. Facies dimensions within carbonate reservoirs - guidelines from satellite images of modern analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.M.; Kowalik, W.S.

    1995-08-01

    Modern analogs illustrate the distribution of carbonate facies within an overall depositional setting and can be an integral part of a subsurface geologic model in indicating the dimensions, trend, and interrelationships of facies that might be related to reservoir and non-reservoir distribution. Satellite images from several modern carbonate areas depict the geologic characteristics that can be expected in ancient shallow-water settings. Isolated carbonate platforms- the Bahamas, Caicos Platform in the British West Indies, Chinchorro Bank offshore of Yucatan, and portions of the Belize area; Ramp-style shelf-to-basin transitions - Abu Dhabi and northern Yucatan; Rimmed shelf margins - South Florida, portions of Belize, and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia; Broad, deep shelf lagoons - the Great Barrier Reef and Belize; Reef variability - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, and Abu Dhabi; Shallow lagoon/tidal flat settings - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, Shark Bay in Western Australia, Abu Dhabi; Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic depostion - South Florida, Belize, the Great Barrier Reef, Shark Bay and Abu Dhabi. The geologic framework as illustrated by these areas is important at the development scale where lateral variation of porosity and permeability, i.e. reservoir quality, is commonly tied to facies changes and facies dimensions are required as input to reservoir models. The geologic framework is essential at the exploration scale for reservoir facies prediction and stratigraphic play concepts which are related directly to depositional facies patterns.

  15. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief

  16. The parallel implementation of a backpropagation neural network and its applicability to SPECT image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, J.P.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in particular a backpropagation ANN, to improve the speed and quality of the reconstruction of three-dimensional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) images. In addition, since the processing elements (PE)s in each layer of an ANN are independent of each other, the speed and efficiency of the neural network architecture could be better optimized by implementing the ANN on a massively parallel computer. The specific goals of this research were: to implement a fully interconnected backpropagation neural network on a serial computer and a SIMD parallel computer, to identify any reduction in the time required to train these networks on the parallel machine versus the serial machine, to determine if these neural networks can learn to recognize SPECT data by training them on a section of an actual SPECT image, and to determine from the knowledge obtained in this research if full SPECT image reconstruction by an ANN implemented on a parallel computer is feasible both in time required to train the network, and in quality of the images reconstructed.

  17. The parallel implementation of a backpropagation neural network and its applicability to SPECT image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in particular a backpropagation ANN, to improve the speed and quality of the reconstruction of three-dimensional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) images. In addition, since the processing elements (PE)s in each layer of an ANN are independent of each other, the speed and efficiency of the neural network architecture could be better optimized by implementing the ANN on a massively parallel computer. The specific goals of this research were: to implement a fully interconnected backpropagation neural network on a serial computer and a SIMD parallel computer, to identify any reduction in the time required to train these networks on the parallel machine versus the serial machine, to determine if these neural networks can learn to recognize SPECT data by training them on a section of an actual SPECT image, and to determine from the knowledge obtained in this research if full SPECT image reconstruction by an ANN implemented on a parallel computer is feasible both in time required to train the network, and in quality of the images reconstructed.

  18. The parallel implementation of a backpropagation neural network and its applicability to SPECT image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in particular a backpropagation ANN, to improve the speed and quality of the reconstruction of three-dimensional SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) images. In addition, since the processing elements (PE)s in each layer of an ANN are independent of each other, the speed and efficiency of the neural network architecture could be better optimized by implementing the ANN on a massively parallel computer. The specific goals of this research were: to implement a fully interconnected backpropagation neural network on a serial computer and a SIMD parallel computer, to identify any reduction in the time required to train these networks on the parallel machine versus the serial machine, to determine if these neural networks can learn to recognize SPECT data by training them on a section of an actual SPECT image, and to determine from the knowledge obtained in this research if full SPECT image reconstruction by an ANN implemented on a parallel computer is feasible both in time required to train the network, and in quality of the images reconstructed.

  19. High concordance between HercepTest immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in situ hybridization before and after implementation of American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathology 2007 guidelines.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Moatamed, Neda A; Hong, Elizabeth; Apple, Sophia K

    2012-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2) is an important critical predictive marker in patients with invasive breast cancer. It is thus imperative to ensure accuracy and precision in HER2 and ERBB2 testing. In 2007, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) proposed new guidelines for immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization scoring in an effort to improve accuracy and utility of these companion diagnostic tests. The goal of the 2007 guidelines was to improve concordance rates between the diagnostic tests and decrease the number of inconclusive cases. This study examines the impact in concordance rates and number of inconclusive cases based on the recent change in guidelines in a large study cohort. HER2 immunohistochemistry and ERBB2 fluorescence in-situ hybridization were performed on all specimens from our facility from years 2003 through 2010 (n=1437). Cases from 2003-2007 (n=1016) were scored using Food and Drug Administration guidelines, with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >10% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.0. The 2007 guidelines were implemented and scored accordingly for cases from 2008-2010 (n=421), with immunohistochemical 3+ cases staining >30% of tumor cells and fluorescence in-situ hybridization amplification cutoff value of 2.2. We compared concordance rates before and after 2007 guidelines. For the 2003-2007 study population, the concordance rate between the assays was 97.6% with a corresponding kappa coefficient (k) of 0.90. For the 2008-2010 study population, concordance rate was 97.6% with a corresponding k of 0.89. There was no significant difference in number of inconclusive rates before and after 2007 guidelines. In our study, implementation of the new ASCO/CAP 2007 HER2 guidelines did not show a significant difference in concordance rates and did not decrease the number of inconclusive cases.

  20. Image-guided therapies for myocardial repair: concepts and practical implementation.

    PubMed

    Bengel, Frank M; George, Richard T; Schuleri, Karl H; Lardo, Albert C; Wollert, Kai C

    2013-08-01

    Cell- and molecule-based therapeutic strategies to support wound healing and regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) are under development. These emerging therapies aim at sustained preservation of ventricular function by enhancing tissue repair after myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. Such therapies will benefit from guidance with regard to timing, regional targeting, suitable candidate selection, and effectiveness monitoring. Such guidance is effectively obtained by non-invasive tomographic imaging. Infarct size, tissue characteristics, muscle mass, and chamber geometry can be determined by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Radionuclide imaging can be used for the tracking of therapeutic agents and for the interrogation of molecular mechanisms such as inflammation, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix activation. This review article portrays the hypothesis that an integrated approach with an early implementation of structural and molecular tomographic imaging in the development of novel therapies will provide a framework for achieving the goal of improved tissue repair after MI.

  1. Pediatric guidelines for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical guidelines are developed to assist clinicians in complex clinical decision making. Modern guideline development includes a systematic review and grading of relevant literature and then using the evidence review to construct recommendations for clinical care which are also graded regarding the level of evidence supporting them. Pediatric guidelines for dyslipidemia were first published in 1992. There was then a gap during which no formal guidelines were developed. In 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Children were published. This included an evidence review and clinical recommendations regarding dyslipidemia. This review process began in 2006. The evidence review ended in 2008, and they were published in 2011 because of an extensive and prolonged review process. These guidelines recommend universal screening for dyslipidemia at age 9 to 11 y with a focus on identifying young individuals with genetic dyslipidemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia. The guidelines also include lifestyle recommendations and recommendations for pharmacologic treatment for children with markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The guideline process should include review of the implementation of guidelines in practice and should also include ongoing review of the guidelines with respect to a growing evidence base with new research findings.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging research in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and satellite-based networking implementation.

    PubMed

    Latourette, Matthew T; Siebert, James E; Barto, Robert J; Marable, Kenneth L; Muyepa, Anthony; Hammond, Colleen A; Potchen, Michael J; Kampondeni, Samuel D; Taylor, Terrie E

    2011-08-01

    As part of an NIH-funded study of malaria pathogenesis, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging research facility was established in Blantyre, Malaŵi to enhance the clinical characterization of pediatric patients with cerebral malaria through application of neurological MR methods. The research program requires daily transmission of MR studies to Michigan State University (MSU) for clinical research interpretation and quantitative post-processing. An intercontinental satellite-based network was implemented for transmission of MR image data in Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format, research data collection, project communications, and remote systems administration. Satellite Internet service costs limited the bandwidth to symmetrical 384 kbit/s. DICOM routers deployed at both the Malaŵi MRI facility and MSU manage the end-to-end encrypted compressed data transmission. Network performance between DICOM routers was measured while transmitting both mixed clinical MR studies and synthetic studies. Effective network latency averaged 715 ms. Within a mix of clinical MR studies, the average transmission time for a 256 × 256 image was ~2.25 and ~6.25 s for a 512 × 512 image. Using synthetic studies of 1,000 duplicate images, the interquartile range for 256 × 256 images was [2.30, 2.36] s and [5.94, 6.05] s for 512 × 512 images. Transmission of clinical MRI studies between the DICOM routers averaged 9.35 images per minute, representing an effective channel utilization of ~137% of the 384-kbit/s satellite service as computed using uncompressed image file sizes (including the effects of image compression, protocol overhead, channel latency, etc.). Power unreliability was the primary cause of interrupted operations in the first year, including an outage exceeding 10 days.

  3. Hardware Implementation of Lossless Adaptive Compression of Data From a Hyperspectral Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keymeulen, Didlier; Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Klimesh, Matthew A.; Bakhshi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Efficient onboard data compression can reduce the data volume from hyperspectral imagers on NASA and DoD spacecraft in order to return as much imagery as possible through constrained downlink channels. Lossless compression is important for signature extraction, object recognition, and feature classification capabilities. To provide onboard data compression, a hardware implementation of a lossless hyperspectral compression algorithm was developed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The underlying algorithm is the Fast Lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral- Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), p. 26 with the modification reported in Lossless, Multi-Spectral Data Comressor for Improved Compression for Pushbroom-Type Instruments (NPO-45473), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008) p. 63, which provides improved compression performance for data from pushbroom-type imagers. An FPGA implementation of the unmodified FL algorithm was previously developed and reported in Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System (NPO-46867), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 36, No. 5 (May 2012) p. 42. The essence of the FL algorithm is adaptive linear predictive compression using the sign algorithm for filter adaption. The FL compressor achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of stateof- the-art techniques currently in use. The modification changes the predictor structure to tolerate differences in sensitivity of different detector elements, as occurs in pushbroom-type imagers, which are suitable for spacecraft use. The FPGA implementation offers a low-cost, flexible solution compared to traditional ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and can be integrated as an intellectual property (IP) for part of, e.g., a design that manages the instrument interface. The FPGA implementation was benchmarked on the Xilinx

  4. Parallel implementation of a hyperspectral image linear SVM classifier using RVC-CAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madroñal, D.; Fabelo, H.; Lazcano, R.; Callicó, G. M.; Juárez, E.; Sanz, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imaging (HI) collects high resolution spectral information consisting of hundreds of bands across the electromagnetic spectrum -from the ultraviolet to the infrared range-. Thanks to this huge amount of information, an identification of the different elements that compound the hyperspectral image is feasible. Initially, HI was developed for remote sensing applications and, nowadays, its use has been spread to research fields such as security and medicine. In all of them, new applications that demand the specific requirement of real-time processing have appear. In order to fulfill this requirement, the intrinsic parallelism of the algorithms needs to be explicitly exploited. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with a linear kernel has been implemented using a dataflow language called RVC-CAL. Specifically, RVC-CAL allows the scheduling of functional actors onto the target platform cores. Once the parallelism of the classifier has been extracted, a comparison of the SVM classifier implementation using LibSVM -a specific library for SVM applications- and RVC-CAL has been performed. The speedup results obtained for the image classifier depends on the number of blocks in which the image is divided; concretely, when 3 image blocks are processed in parallel, an average speed up above 2.50, with regard to the RVC-CAL sequential version, is achieved.

  5. Gaining insight into the Clinical Practice Guideline development processes: qualitative study in a workshop to implement the GRADE proposal in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Carlos; Rotaeche, Rafael; Etxebarria, Arritxu; Marzo, Mercé; Rico, Rosa; Barandiaran, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Background The GRADE method represents a new approach to grading the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations in the preparation of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). In the context of a pilot study to assess the implementability of the system in Spain, we considered it relevant to gain an insight into the significance of the perceptions and attitudes expressed by the actual experts participating in the system try-out. Methods Qualitative research with an ethnographic approach, through non-participant observation and focus groups within the context of a consensus workshop in which 19 CPG experts participated to evaluate the GRADE proposal using 12 evidence tables taken from hypertension, asthma and arthritis CPGs. The interventions were recorded, under a guarantee of confidentiality. The transcriptions and field notes were analyzed, based on a sociological discourse analysis model, and the provisional findings were re-sent to participants in order to improve their validity. Results 1) Certain problems over procedure and terminology hindered the acceptance of this new method as a common reference system for the preparation of CPGs. 2). A greater closeness to clinical practice was accompanied by concerns over value judgments and subjectivity, with a demand for greater explicitness in the consensus process. 3). The type of "evidence" on which the guidelines are based, how and by whom the evidence is prepared, and what the role of the different actors should be, all constitute unresolved concerns in the CPG preparation and implementation processes. 4). The grading process is not neutral: professional background, prior experience and the degree of leadership all condition the participants' input and interactions. Conclusion The findings obtained allow the quantitative evaluation to be better interpreted and, in turn, go beyond the particularities of the GRADE method. Adaptation to the complexities of clinical practice, the need for carefully designed multi

  6. Numerical implementation of the multiple image optical compression and encryption technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerhani, Y.; Aldossari, M.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we propose a numerical implementation (using a GPU) of an optimized multiple image compression and encryption technique. We first introduce the double optimization procedure for spectrally multiplexing multiple images. This technique is adapted, for a numerical implementation, from a recently proposed optical setup implementing the Fourier transform (FT)1. The new analysis technique is a combination of a spectral fusion based on the properties of FT, a specific spectral filtering, and a quantization of the remaining encoded frequencies using an optimal number of bits. The spectral plane (containing the information to send and/or to store) is decomposed in several independent areas which are assigned according a specific way. In addition, each spectrum is shifted in order to minimize their overlap. The dual purpose of these operations is to optimize the spectral plane allowing us to keep the low- and high-frequency information (compression) and to introduce an additional noise for reconstructing the images (encryption). Our results show that not only can the control of the spectral plane enhance the number of spectra to be merged, but also that a compromise between the compression rate and the quality of the reconstructed images can be tuned. Spectrally multiplexing multiple images defines a first level of encryption. A second level of encryption based on a real key image is used to reinforce encryption. Additionally, we are concerned with optimizing the compression rate by adapting the size of the spectral block to each target image and decreasing the number of bits required to encode each block. This size adaptation is realized by means of the root-mean-square (RMS) time-frequency criterion2. We have found that this size adaptation provides a good trade-off between bandwidth of spectral plane and number of reconstructed output images3. Secondly, the encryption rate is improved by using a real biometric key and randomly changing the rotation angle of

  7. On the design and implementation of a parallel, object-oriented, image processing toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Baldwin, C; Fodor, I; Tang, N A

    2000-06-22

    Advanced in technology have enabled us to collect data from observations, experiments, and simulations at an ever increasing pace. As these data sets approach the terabyte and petabyte range, scientists are increasingly using semi-automated techniques from data mining and pattern recognition to find useful information in the data. In order for data mining to be successful, the raw data must first be processed into a form suitable for the detection of patterns. When the data is in the form of images, this can involve a substantial amount of processing on very large data sets. To help make this task more efficient, they are designing and implementing an object-oriented image processing toolkit that specifically targets massively-parallel, distributed-memory architectures. They first show that it is possible to use object-oriented technology to effectively address the diverse needs of image applications. Next, they describe how we abstract out the similarities in image processing algorithms to enable re-use in the software. They will also discuss the difficulties encountered in parallelizing image algorithms on massively parallel machines as well as the bottlenecks to high performance. They will demonstrate the work using images from an astronomical data set, and illustrate how techniques such as filters and denoising through the thresholding of wavelet coefficients can be applied when a large image is distributed across several processors.

  8. Physical and organizational provision for installation, regulatory requirements and implementation of a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR-imaging system in an integrated research and clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Bernhard; Jochimsen, Thies; Barthel, Henryk; Sommerfeld, Kerstin; Stumpp, Patrick; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Gutberlet, Matthias; Villringer, Arno; Kahn, Thomas; Sabri, Osama

    2013-02-01

    The implementation of hybrid imaging systems requires thorough and anticipatory planning at local and regional levels. For installation of combined positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging systems (PET/MRI), a number of physical and constructional provisions concerning shielding of electromagnetic fields (RF- and high-field) as well as handling of radionuclides have to be met, the latter of which includes shielding for the emitted 511 keV gamma rays. Based on our experiences with a SIEMENS Biograph mMR system, a step-by-step approach is required to allow a trouble-free installation. In this article, we present a proposal for a standardized step-by-step plan to accomplish the installation of a combined PET/MRI system. Moreover, guidelines for the smooth operation of combined PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting will be proposed. Overall, the most important preconditions for the successful implementation of PET/MRI in an integrated research and clinical setting is the interdisciplinary target-oriented cooperation between nuclear medicine, radiology, and all referring and collaborating institutions at all levels of interaction (personnel, imaging protocols, reporting, selection of the data transfer and communication methods).

  9. [Spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) and tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI)--combined clinical implementation in 3D/4D fetal echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Markov, D

    2010-01-01

    Two new forms of volume data image processing by three (3D) and four (4D) dimensional ultrasound named Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the combined clinical implementation of both modalities in fetal echocardiography are discussed.

  10. Optimization and implementation of the integer wavelet transform for image coding.

    PubMed

    Grangetto, Marco; Magli, Enrico; Martina, Maurizio; Olmo, Gabriella

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and implementation of an image transform coding algorithm based on the integer wavelet transform (IWT). First of all, criteria are proposed for the selection of optimal factorizations of the wavelet filter polyphase matrix to be employed within the lifting scheme. The obtained results lead to the IWT implementations with very satisfactory lossless and lossy compression performance. Then, the effects of finite precision representation of the lifting coefficients on the compression performance are analyzed, showing that, in most cases, a very small number of bits can be employed for the mantissa keeping the performance degradation very limited. Stemming from these results, a VLSI architecture is proposed for the IWT implementation, capable of achieving very high frame rates with moderate gate complexity.

  11. Labview Implementation of Image Processing and Phasing Control for the SIBOA Segmented Mirror Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, James D.

    2002-01-01

    'NASA is preparing to launch the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). This telescope will be larger than the Hubble Space Telescope, be launched on an Atlas missile rather than the Space Shuttle, have a segmented primary mirror, and be placed in a higher orbit. All these differences pose significant challenges.' This effort addresses the challenge of implementing an algorithm for aligning the segments of the primary mirror during the initial deployment that was designed by Philip Olivier and members of SOMTC (Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center). The implementation was to be performed on the SIBOA (Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment) test bed. Unfortunately, hardware/software aspect concerning SIBOA and an extended time period for algorithm development prevented testing before the end of the study period. Properties of the digital camera were studied and understood, resulting in the current ability of selecting optimal settings regarding saturation. The study was successful in manually capturing several images of two stacked segments with various relative phases. These images can be used to calibrate the algorithm for future implementation. Currently the system is ready for testing.

  12. Medical image denoising via optimal implementation of non-local means on hybrid parallel architecture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan-Anh; Nakib, Amir; Nguyen, Huy-Nam

    2016-06-01

    The Non-local means denoising filter has been established as gold standard for image denoising problem in general and particularly in medical imaging due to its efficiency. However, its computation time limited its applications in real world application, especially in medical imaging. In this paper, a distributed version on parallel hybrid architecture is proposed to solve the computation time problem and a new method to compute the filters' coefficients is also proposed, where we focused on the implementation and the enhancement of filters' parameters via taking the neighborhood of the current voxel more accurately into account. In terms of implementation, our key contribution consists in reducing the number of shared memory accesses. The different tests of the proposed method were performed on the brain-web database for different levels of noise. Performances and the sensitivity were quantified in terms of speedup, peak signal to noise ratio, execution time, the number of floating point operations. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Moreover, the implementation is compared to that of other techniques, recently published in the literature.

  13. Implementation of a Synchronized Oscillator Circuit for Fast Sensing and Labeling of Image Objects

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Jacek; Strzelecki, Michal; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2011-01-01

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) CMOS chip that implements a synchronized oscillator cellular neural network with a matrix size of 32 × 32 for object sensing and labeling in binary images. Networks of synchronized oscillators are a recently developed tool for image segmentation and analysis. Its parallel network operation is based on a “temporary correlation” theory that attempts to describe scene recognition as if performed by the human brain. The synchronized oscillations of neuron groups attract a person’s attention if he or she is focused on a coherent stimulus (image object). For more than one perceived stimulus, these synchronized patterns switch in time between different neuron groups, thus forming temporal maps that code several features of the analyzed scene. In this paper, a new oscillator circuit based on a mathematical model is proposed, and the network architecture and chip functional blocks are presented and discussed. The proposed chip is implemented in AMIS 0.35 μm C035M-D 5M/1P technology. An application of the proposed network chip for the segmentation of insulin-producing pancreatic islets in magnetic resonance liver images is presented. PMID:22163803

  14. Implementation of a synchronized oscillator circuit for fast sensing and labeling of image objects.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Jacek; Strzelecki, Michal; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2011-01-01

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) CMOS chip that implements a synchronized oscillator cellular neural network with a matrix size of 32 × 32 for object sensing and labeling in binary images. Networks of synchronized oscillators are a recently developed tool for image segmentation and analysis. Its parallel network operation is based on a "temporary correlation" theory that attempts to describe scene recognition as if performed by the human brain. The synchronized oscillations of neuron groups attract a person's attention if he or she is focused on a coherent stimulus (image object). For more than one perceived stimulus, these synchronized patterns switch in time between different neuron groups, thus forming temporal maps that code several features of the analyzed scene. In this paper, a new oscillator circuit based on a mathematical model is proposed, and the network architecture and chip functional blocks are presented and discussed. The proposed chip is implemented in AMIS 0.35 μm C035M-D 5M/1P technology. An application of the proposed network chip for the segmentation of insulin-producing pancreatic islets in magnetic resonance liver images is presented.

  15. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  16. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2 ms-3 kW-2.45 GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  17. Commercial Implementation of Ultrasonic Velocity Imaging Methods via Cooperative Agreement Between NASA Lewis Research Center and Sonix, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Whalen, Mike F.; Bodis, James R.; Martin, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the commercial implementation of ultrasonic velocity imaging methods developed and refined at NASA Lewis Research Center on the Sonix c-scan inspection system. Two velocity imaging methods were implemented: thickness-based and non-thickness-based reflector plate methods. The article demonstrates capabilities of the commercial implementation and gives the detailed operating procedures required for Sonix customers to achieve optimum velocity imaging results. This commercial implementation of velocity imaging provides a 100x speed increase in scanning and processing over the lab-based methods developed at LeRC. The significance of this cooperative effort is that the aerospace and other materials development-intensive industries which use extensive ultrasonic inspection for process control and failure analysis will now have an alternative, highly accurate imaging method commercially available.

  18. Sequential Principal Component Analysis -An Optimal and Hardware-Implementable Transform for Image Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Vu A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the JPL-developed Sequential Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) algorithm for feature extraction / image compression, based on "dominant-term selection" unsupervised learning technique that requires an order-of-magnitude lesser computation and has simpler architecture compared to the state of the art gradient-descent techniques. This algorithm is inherently amenable to a compact, low power and high speed VLSI hardware embodiment. The paper compares the lossless image compression performance of the JPL's SPCA algorithm with the state of the art JPEG2000, widely used due to its simplified hardware implementability. JPEG2000 is not an optimal data compression technique because of its fixed transform characteristics, regardless of its data structure. On the other hand, conventional Principal Component Analysis based transform (PCA-transform) is a data-dependent-structure transform. However, it is not easy to implement the PCA in compact VLSI hardware, due to its highly computational and architectural complexity. In contrast, the JPL's "dominant-term selection" SPCA algorithm allows, for the first time, a compact, low-power hardware implementation of the powerful PCA algorithm. This paper presents a direct comparison of the JPL's SPCA versus JPEG2000, incorporating the Huffman and arithmetic coding for completeness of the data compression operation. The simulation results show that JPL's SPCA algorithm is superior as an optimal data-dependent-transform over the state of the art JPEG2000. When implemented in hardware, this technique is projected to be ideally suited to future NASA missions for autonomous on-board image data processing to improve the bandwidth of communication.

  19. Efficient lossy compression implementations of hyperspectral images: tools, hardware platforms, and comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Aday; Santos, Lucana; López, Sebastián.; Callicó, Gustavo M.; Lopez, Jose F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Efficient onboard satellite hyperspectral image compression represents a necessity and a challenge for current and future space missions. Therefore, it is mandatory to provide hardware implementations for this type of algorithms in order to achieve the constraints required for onboard compression. In this work, we implement the Lossy Compression for Exomars (LCE) algorithm on an FPGA by means of high-level synthesis (HSL) in order to shorten the design cycle. Specifically, we use CatapultC HLS tool to obtain a VHDL description of the LCE algorithm from C-language specifications. Two different approaches are followed for HLS: on one hand, introducing the whole C-language description in CatapultC and on the other hand, splitting the C-language description in functional modules to be implemented independently with CatapultC, connecting and controlling them by an RTL description code without HLS. In both cases the goal is to obtain an FPGA implementation. We explain the several changes applied to the original Clanguage source code in order to optimize the results obtained by CatapultC for both approaches. Experimental results show low area occupancy of less than 15% for a SRAM-based Virtex-5 FPGA and a maximum frequency above 80 MHz. Additionally, the LCE compressor was implemented into an RTAX2000S antifuse-based FPGA, showing an area occupancy of 75% and a frequency around 53 MHz. All these serve to demonstrate that the LCE algorithm can be efficiently executed on an FPGA onboard a satellite. A comparison between both implementation approaches is also provided. The performance of the algorithm is finally compared with implementations on other technologies, specifically a graphics processing unit (GPU) and a single-threaded CPU.

  20. Design and implementation of Dilation X-ray Imager for NIF "DIXI"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, M. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Felker, B.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Piston, K.; Parker, J.; Lamb, Z.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Chung, T.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2013-09-01

    Gated X-Ray imagers have been used on many ICF experiments around the world for time resolved imaging of the target implosions. DIXI (Dilation X-ray Imager) is a new fixed base diagnostic that has been developed for use in the National Ignition Facility. The DIXI diagnostic utilizes pulse-dilation technology [1,2,3,4] and uses a high magnification pinhole imaging system to project images onto the instrument. DIXI is located outside the NIF target chamber approximately 6.5m from target chamber center (TCC). The pinholes are located 10cm from TCC and are aligned to the DIXI optical axis using a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) on an adjacent port. By use of an extensive lead and poly shielded drawer enclosure DIXI is capable of collecting data at DT neutron yields up to Yn~ 1016 on CCD readout and up to Yn~ 1017 on film. Compared to existing pinhole x-ray framing cameras DIXI also provides a significant improvement in temporal resolution, <10ps, and the ability to capture a higher density of images due to the fact the pinhole array does not require collimators. The successful deployment of DIXI on the NIF required careful attention to the following subsystems, pinhole imaging, debris shielding, filtering and image plate (FIP), EMI protection, large format CsI photocathode design, detector head, detector head electronics, control electronics, CCD, film recording and neutron shielding. Here we discuss the initial design, improvements implemented after rigorous testing, infrastructure and commissioning of DIXI on the NIF.

  1. Implementation of 3D prostrate ring-scanning mechanism for NIR diffuse optical imaging phantom validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Pan, Min-Chun

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) providing functional information of tissues has drawn great attention for the last two decades. Near infrared (NIR) DOI systems composed of scanning bench, opt-electrical measurement module, system control, and data processing and image reconstruction schemes are developed for the screening and diagnosis of breast tumors. Mostly, the scanning bench belonging to fixed source-and-detector configuration limits computed image resolution to an extent. To cope with the issue, we propose, design and implement a 3D prostrate ring-scanning equipment for NIR DOI with flexible combinations of illumination and detection, and with the function of radial, circular and vertical movement without hard compression of breast tissue like the imaging system using or incorporating with X-ray mammographic bench. Especially, a rotation-sliding-and-moving mechanism was designed for the guidance of source- and detection-channel movement. Following the previous justification for synthesized image reconstruction, in the paper the validation using varied phantoms is further conducted and 3D image reconstruction for their absorption and scattering coefficients is illustrated through the computation of our in-house coded schemes. The source and detection NIR data are acquired to reconstruct the 3D images through the operation of scanning bench in the movement of vertical, radial and circular directions. Rather than the fixed configuration, the addressed screening/diagnosing equipment has the flexibility for optical-channel expansion with a compromise among construction cost, operation time, and spatial resolution of reconstructed μa and μs' images.

  2. Imaging patterns of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: an illustrated discussion of the International Consensus Guidelines for the Management of IPMN.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Naomi M; Katz, Seth S; Escalon, Joanna G; Do, Richard K

    2015-03-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, necessitating an algorithm to help stratify patients into low- and high-risk groups, for follow-up versus more invasive evaluation. New evidence concerning their natural history and overall risk of malignancy has emerged since the 2006 International Association of Pancreatology consensus guidelines, prompting an update in 2012, that distinguishes radiologic 'worrisome features' from 'high-risk stigmata'. The aim of this article is to illustrate, with case examples, the variable imaging patterns of IPMN and how their radiologic features, such as cyst size and mural nodules, are interpreted in the context of the new 2012 guidelines. The 2012 and 2006 guidelines will be compared and discussed with reference to additional studies that have since been published. Despite these guidelines, lingering uncertainty remains about the natural history of IPMN, a source of unease to both radiologists and referring clinicians alike, mandating further refinement of clinical and radiologic parameters predictive of malignancy. Emerging data regarding the risk of extrapancreatic malignancy, as well as synchronous or metachronous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remote in location from a branch duct IPMN are also reviewed. With the expanding research and evolving understanding of this clinicopathologic entity across the globe, radiologists will continue to play an important role in the management of patients with IPMN.

  3. Design and implementation of a PC-based image-guided surgical system.

    PubMed

    Stefansic, James D; Bass, W Andrew; Hartmann, Steven L; Beasley, Ryan A; Sinha, Tuhin K; Cash, David M; Herline, Alan J; Galloway, Robert L

    2002-11-01

    In interactive, image-guided surgery, current physical space position in the operating room is displayed on various sets of medical images used for surgical navigation. We have developed a PC-based surgical guidance system (ORION) which synchronously displays surgical position on up to four image sets and updates them in real time. There are three essential components which must be developed for this system: (1) accurately tracked instruments; (2) accurate registration techniques to map physical space to image space; and (3) methods to display and update the image sets on a computer monitor. For each of these components, we have developed a set of dynamic link libraries in MS Visual C++ 6.0 supporting various hardware tools and software techniques. Surgical instruments are tracked in physical space using an active optical tracking system. Several of the different registration algorithms were developed with a library of robust math kernel functions, and the accuracy of all registration techniques was thoroughly investigated. Our display was developed using the Win32 API for windows management and tomographic visualization, a frame grabber for live video capture, and OpenGL for visualization of surface renderings. We have begun to use this current implementation of our system for several surgical procedures, including open and minimally invasive liver surgery.

  4. Implementation of a direct-imaging and FX correlator for the BEST-2 array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G.; Hickish, J.; Magro, A.; Price, D.; Zarb Adami, K.

    2014-04-01

    A new digital backend has been developed for the Basic Element for SKA Training II (BEST-2) array at Radiotelescopi di Medicina, INAF-IRA, Italy, which allows concurrent operation of an FX correlator, and a direct-imaging correlator and beamformer. This backend serves as a platform for testing some of the spatial Fourier transform concepts which have been proposed for use in computing correlations on regularly gridded arrays. While spatial Fourier transform-based beamformers have been implemented previously, this is, to our knowledge, the first time a direct-imaging correlator has been deployed on a radio astronomy array. Concurrent observations with the FX and direct-imaging correlator allow for direct comparison between the two architectures. Additionally, we show the potential of the direct-imaging correlator for time-domain astronomy, by passing a subset of beams though a pulsar and transient detection pipeline. These results provide a timely verification for spatial Fourier transform-based instruments that are currently in commissioning. These instruments aim to detect highly redshifted hydrogen from the epoch of reionization and/or to perform wide-field surveys for time-domain studies of the radio sky. We experimentally show the direct-imaging correlator architecture to be a viable solution for correlation and beamforming.

  5. A new architecture for hyperspectral image processing and analysis system: design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianlin; Hu, Xingtang; Zhang, Bing; Ning, Shunian

    2003-09-01

    A new architecture for HIPAS (Hyperspectral Image Processing and Analysis System V2.0) was introduced in this paper which was modified and improved based on the first version of HIPAS V1.0. The comprehensive hyperspectral image analyzing system has been developed under VC++6.0 integrated development environment (IDE) and obtained perfect runtime efficiency and stability. The base architecture was specially designed and implemented to meet the requirements for the rapid preprocessing of imaging spectrometer data and easy prototyping of algorithms. Based on the modularized and object oriented software engineering construction, the architecture is compatible for other UNIX platforms with little modification. The most important components of HIPAS were presented in this paper including tools for input/output, preprocessing, data visualization, information extraction, conventional image analysis, advanced tools, and integrated interface to connect with general spectral databases. Some new methodologies for data analysis and processing were realized and applied to reach some valuable results based on the architecture including mineral identification, agriculture investigation, urban mapping etc. With an open storage architecture, HIPAS is entirely compatible with some advanced special commercial software such as ENVI and ERDAS and even the common image processing system Photoshop. At last, a strict and careful software test was carried out and the results were also analyzed and discussed.

  6. Pre-Hardware Optimization of Spacecraft Image Processing Software Algorithms and Hardware Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hestnes, Phyllis; Jentoft-Nilsen, Marit; Petrick, David J.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft telemetry rates have steadily increased over the last decade presenting a problem for real-time processing by ground facilities. This paper proposes a solution to a related problem for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Spacecraft (GOES-8) image processing application. Although large super-computer facilities are the obvious heritage solution, they are very costly, making it imperative to seek a feasible alternative engineering solution at a fraction of the cost. The solution is based on a Personal Computer (PC) platform and synergy of optimized software algorithms and re-configurable computing hardware technologies, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP). It has been shown in [1] and [2] that this configuration can provide superior inexpensive performance for a chosen application on the ground station or on-board a spacecraft. However, since this technology is still maturing, intensive pre-hardware steps are necessary to achieve the benefits of hardware implementation. This paper describes these steps for the GOES-8 application, a software project developed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) (Trademark of Research Systems, Inc.) on a Workstation/UNIX platform. The solution involves converting the application to a PC/Windows/RC platform, selected mainly by the availability of low cost, adaptable high-speed RC hardware. In order for the hybrid system to run, the IDL software was modified to account for platform differences. It was interesting to examine the gains and losses in performance on the new platform, as well as unexpected observations before implementing hardware. After substantial pre-hardware optimization steps, the necessity of hardware implementation for bottleneck code in the PC environment became evident and solvable beginning with the methodology described in [1], [2], and implementing a novel methodology for this specific application [6]. The PC-RC interface bandwidth problem for the

  7. A taxonomy for education and training in professional psychology health service specialties: evolution and implementation of new guidelines for a common language.

    PubMed

    Rozensky, Ronald H; Grus, Catherine L; Nutt, Roberta L; Carlson, Cindy I; Eisman, Elena J; Nelson, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The Education and Training Guidelines: A Taxonomy for Education and Training in Professional Psychology Health Service Specialties was endorsed as a policy of the American Psychological Association in 2012. These Guidelines have the potential for broad impact on the field by providing both a structure and recommendations for the consistent usage of language--definitions and terminology--to reduce current descriptive inconsistencies across education and training programs in professional psychology. The Guidelines are not designed to define specifics of the training or practice of individual psychologists; they are to be used only to describe programmatic structure in a consistent manner. This article details the developmental history of these Guidelines and highlights the strong alliance between the leaders of the various recognized specialties in professional psychology and the education and training community in health service psychology. The content, application, future dissemination and impact of the Guidelines are presented.

  8. Implementation methods of medical image sharing for collaborative health care based on IHE XDS-I profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jianyong; Ling, Tonghui; Wang, Mingqing; Bak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. IHE XDS-I profile proposes an architecture model for cross-enterprise medical image sharing, but there are only a few clinical implementations reported. Here, we investigate three pilot studies based on the IHE XDS-I profile to see whether we can use this architecture as a foundation for image sharing solutions in a variety of health-care settings. The first pilot study was image sharing for cross-enterprise health care with federated integration, which was implemented in Huadong Hospital and Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital within the Shanghai Shen-Kang Hospital Management Center; the second pilot study was XDS-I–based patient-controlled image sharing solution, which was implemented by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) team in the USA; and the third pilot study was collaborative imaging diagnosis with electronic health-care record integration in regional health care, which was implemented in two districts in Shanghai. In order to support these pilot studies, we designed and developed new image access methods, components, and data models such as RAD-69/WADO hybrid image retrieval, RSNA clearinghouse, and extension of metadata definitions in both the submission set and the cross-enterprise document sharing (XDS) registry. We identified several key issues that impact the implementation of XDS-I in practical applications, and conclude that the IHE XDS-I profile is a theoretically good architecture and a useful foundation for medical image sharing solutions across multiple regional health-care providers. PMID:26835497

  9. Performance Sensitivity Studies on the PIAA Implementation of the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Lou, John Z.; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of the High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph system performance on the rigid-body perturbations of various optics. The structural design of the optical system as well as the parameters of various optical elements used in the analysis are drawn from those of the PIAA/HCIT system that have been and will be implemented, and the simulation takes into account the surface errors of various optics. In this paper, we report our findings when the input light is a narrowband beam.

  10. Implementation of ILLIAC 4 algorithms for multispectral image interpretation. [earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. M.; Thomas, J. D.; Donovan, W. E.; Swain, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Research has focused on the design and partial implementation of a comprehensive ILLIAC software system for computer-assisted interpretation of multispectral earth resources data such as that now collected by the Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Research suggests generally that the ILLIAC 4 should be as much as two orders of magnitude more cost effective than serial processing computers for digital interpretation of ERTS imagery via multivariate statistical classification techniques. The potential of the ARPA Network as a mechanism for interfacing geographically-dispersed users to an ILLIAC 4 image processing facility is discussed.

  11. Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 2: experimental implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ninni, Paola Di; Zaccanti, Giovanni; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Macdonald, Rainer; Sassaroli, Angelo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    We present the experimental implementation and validation of a phantom for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects for which, in the previous paper [J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066014, (2013)], we have provided the basic theory. Totally absorbing objects have been manufactured as black polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders and the phantom is a water dilution of intralipid-20% as the diffusive medium and India ink as the absorber, filled into a black scattering cell made of PVC. By means of time-domain measurements and of Monte Carlo simulations, we have shown the reliability, the accuracy, and the robustness of such a phantom in mimicking typical absorbing perturbations of diffuse optical imaging. In particular, we show that such a phantom can be used to generate any absorption perturbation by changing the volume and position of the totally absorbing inclusion.

  12. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand–maximize–compress algorithm for single-particle imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N. Duane

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand–maximize–compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA. PMID:27504078

  13. Dragonfly: an implementation of the expand-maximize-compress algorithm for single-particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Ayyer, Kartik; Lan, Ti-Yen; Elser, Veit; Loh, N Duane

    2016-08-01

    Single-particle imaging (SPI) with X-ray free-electron lasers has the potential to change fundamentally how biomacromolecules are imaged. The structure would be derived from millions of diffraction patterns, each from a different copy of the macromolecule before it is torn apart by radiation damage. The challenges posed by the resultant data stream are staggering: millions of incomplete, noisy and un-oriented patterns have to be computationally assembled into a three-dimensional intensity map and then phase reconstructed. In this paper, the Dragonfly software package is described, based on a parallel implementation of the expand-maximize-compress reconstruction algorithm that is well suited for this task. Auxiliary modules to simulate SPI data streams are also included to assess the feasibility of proposed SPI experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Stanford, California, USA.

  14. Color voltage contrast: A new method of implementing fault contrast with color imaging software

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.

    1995-12-31

    Although voltage contrast and fault contrast methods are well established, the current methods of implementation are frequently tedious. A new method of mapping voltage contrast (VC) images in a qualitative (stroboscopic) color mode allows multiple logic states to be simultaneously viewed and updated in color. A shortcoming of image subtraction is that only one direction of logic change is represented unless the frames are exclusive OR`ed together. Although this gives fault information it does not include the VC of neighboring unchanged nodes. When tracking failures such as a saturated transistor resulting from a logic short somewhere else, all logic states; both static and transitional need to be understood and viewed simultaneously if an expedient analysis is desired.

  15. Review and Implementation of the Emerging CCSDS Recommended Standard for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Lossless Image Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Auge, Estanislau; Santalo, Josep; Blanes, Ian; Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Kiely, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A new standard for image coding is being developed by the MHDC working group of the CCSDS, targeting onboard compression of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery captured by aircraft and satellites. The proposed standard is based on the "Fast Lossless" adaptive linear predictive compressor, and is adapted to better overcome issues of onboard scenarios. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art in this field, and provide an experimental comparison of the coding performance of the emerging standard in relation to other state-of-the-art coding techniques. Our own independent implementation of the MHDC Recommended Standard, as well as of some of the other techniques, has been used to provide extensive results over the vast corpus of test images from the CCSDS-MHDC.

  16. Implementation of a high-resolution workstation for primary diagnosis of projection radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Walter F.; Herron, John M.; Maitz, Glenn S.; Gur, David; Miller, Stephen L.; Straub, William H.; Fuhrman, Carl R.

    1990-08-01

    We designed and implemented a high-resolution video workstation as the central hardware component in a comprehensive multi-project program comparing the use of digital and film modalities. The workstation utilizes a 1.8 GByte real-time disk (RCI) capable of storing 400 full-resolution images and two Tektronix (GMA251) display controllers with 19" monitors (GMA2O2). The display is configured in a portrait format with a resolution of 1536 x 2048 x 8 bit, and operates at 75 Hz in a noninterlaced mode. Transmission of data through a 12 to 8 bit lookup table into the display controllers occurs at 20 MBytes/second (.35 seconds per image). The workstation allows easy use of brightness (level) and contrast (window) to be manipulated with a trackball, and various processing options can be selected using push buttons. Display of any of the 400 images is also performed at 20MBytes/sec (.35 sec/image). A separate text display provides for the automatic display of patient history data and for a scoring form through which readers can interact with the system by means of a computer mouse. In addition, the workstation provides for the randomization of cases and for the immediate entry of diagnostic responses into a master database. Over the past year this workstation has been used for over 10,000 readings in diagnostic studies related to 1) image resolution; 2) film vs. soft display; 3) incorporation of patient history data into the reading process; and 4) usefulness of image processing.

  17. In vivo visualization of robotically implemented synthetic tracked aperture ultrasound (STRATUS) imaging system using curvilinear array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haichong K.; Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic aperture for ultrasound is a technique utilizing a wide aperture in both transmit and receive to enhance the ultrasound image quality. The limitation of synthetic aperture is the maximum available aperture size limit determined by the physical size of ultrasound probe. We propose Synthetic-Tracked Aperture Ultrasound (STRATUS) imaging system to overcome the limitation by extending the beamforming aperture size through ultrasound probe tracking. With a setup involving a robotic arm, the ultrasound probe is moved using the robotic arm, while the positions on a scanning trajectory are tracked in real-time. Data from each pose are synthesized to construct a high resolution image. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the feasibility through phantom experiments. However, various additional factors such as real-time data collection or motion artifacts should be taken into account when the in vivo target becomes the subject. In this work, we build a robot-based STRATUS imaging system with continuous data collection capability considering the practical implementation. A curvilinear array is used instead of a linear array to benefit from its wider capture angle. We scanned human forearms under two scenarios: one submerged the arm in the water tank under 10 cm depth, and the other directly scanned the arm from the surface. The image contrast improved 5.51 dB, and 9.96 dB for the underwater scan and the direct scan, respectively. The result indicates the practical feasibility of STRATUS imaging system, and the technique can be potentially applied to the wide range of human body.

  18. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, N.; Faber, T. L.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Votaw, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  19. New open-source ictal SPECT analysis method implemented in BioImage Suite.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Distasio, Marcello; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Papademetris, Xenophon; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-04-01

    Ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a powerful tool for noninvasive seizure localization, but it has been underutilized because of practical challenges, including difficulty in implementing ictal-interictal SPECT difference analysis. We previously validated a freely available utility for this purpose, ictal-interictal subtraction analysis by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) (ISAS). To further simplify and improve the difference imaging technique, we now compare a new algorithm, ISAS BioImage Suite (see http://spect.yale.edu and http://bioimagesuite.org), to the original ISAS method in 13 patients with known seizure localization. We found that ISAS BioImage Suite was in agreement with the original algorithm in all cases for which ISAS correctly identified a single unambiguous region of seizure onset. We also tested for possible effects of scan-order bias in the control group used for the analysis and found no significant effect on the results. These findings establish a simple, validated and objective method for analyzing ictal-interictal SPECT difference images for use in the care of patients with epilepsy.

  20. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  1. Fluorescence laminar optical tomography for brain imaging: system implementation and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Sheikhzadeh, Mahya; Baumgartner, Ryan; Cullen, Patrick K.; Helmstetter, Fred J.; Chang, Woo-Jin; Pashaie, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    We present our effort in implementing a fluorescence laminar optical tomography scanner which is specifically designed for noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of fluorescence proteins in the brains of small rodents. A laser beam, after passing through a cylindrical lens, scans the brain tissue from the surface while the emission signal is captured by the epi-fluorescence optics and is recorded using an electron multiplication CCD sensor. Image reconstruction algorithms are developed based on Monte Carlo simulation to model light-tissue interaction and generate the sensitivity matrices. To solve the inverse problem, we used the iterative simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by imaging microfabricated silicon microchannels embedded inside a substrate with optical properties close to the brain as a tissue phantom and ultimately by scanning brain tissue in vivo. Details of the hardware design and reconstruction algorithms are discussed and several experimental results are presented. The developed system can specifically facilitate neuroscience experiments where fluorescence imaging and molecular genetic methods are used to study the dynamics of the brain circuitries.

  2. Echo planar correlated spectroscopic imaging: implementation and pilot evaluation in human calf in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lipnick, Scott; Verma, Gaurav; Ramadan, Saadallah; Furuyama, Jon; Thomas, M Albert

    2010-10-01

    Exploiting the speed benefits of echo-planar imaging (EPI), the echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence facilitates recording of one spectral and two to three spatial dimensions faster than the conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). A novel four dimensional (4D) echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) was implemented on a whole body 3 T MRI scanner combining two spectral with two spatial encodings. Similar to EPSI, the EP-COSI sequence used a bipolar spatial read-out train facilitating simultaneous spatial and spectral encoding, and the conventional phase and spectral encodings for the other spatial and indirect spectral dimensions, respectively. Multiple 2D correlated spectroscopy (COSY) spectra were recorded over the spatially resolved volume of interest (VOI) localized by a train of three slice-selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses (90°-180°-90°). After the initial optimization using phantom solutions, the EP-COSI data were recorded from the lower leg of eight healthy volunteers including one endurance trained volunteer. Pilot results showed acceptable spatial and spectral quality achievable using the EP-COSI sequence. There was a detectable separation of cross peaks arising from the skeletal muscle intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) saturated and unsaturated pools. Residual dipolar interaction between the N-methylene and N-methyl protons of creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr) was also observed in the tibialis anterior region.

  3. TH-A-16A-01: Image Quality for the Radiation Oncology Physicist: Review of the Fundamentals and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J; Imbergamo, P

    2014-06-15

    The expansion and integration of diagnostic imaging technologies such as On Board Imaging (OBI) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) into radiation oncology has required radiation oncology physicists to be responsible for and become familiar with assessing image quality. Unfortunately many radiation oncology physicists have had little or no training or experience in measuring and assessing image quality. Many physicists have turned to automated QA analysis software without having a fundamental understanding of image quality measures. This session will review the basic image quality measures of imaging technologies used in the radiation oncology clinic, such as low contrast resolution, high contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, and contrast scale, and how to measure and assess them in a meaningful way. Additionally a discussion of the implementation of an image quality assurance program in compliance with Task Group recommendations will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of automated analysis methods. Learning Objectives: Review and understanding of the fundamentals of image quality. Review and understanding of the basic image quality measures of imaging modalities used in the radiation oncology clinic. Understand how to implement an image quality assurance program and to assess basic image quality measures in a meaningful way.

  4. Implementation of an embedded image-based tracker in a distributed architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schacht, Julie R.; Stephan, Larisa

    2002-07-01

    A major purpose of targeting systems is to ease operator workload by keeping the line of sight (LOS) pointed on a designated target. Our airborne electro-optic targeting system uses the latest technology to accomplish this end. If the latitude, longitude and altitude (geo-position) of a stationary ground target are known in advance, this system can use the aircraft's GPS-aided inertial navigation system to keep the LOS pointed at the target. If the operator wants to point at a target whose geo-position is unknown, this system can compute latitude, longitude and altitude using LOS attitude and range. The role of the image-based tracker in this system is to track airborne or moving ground targets and to compensate for drift and other limitations of geo-point for stationary ground targets. The algorithms implemented in our targeting system are not only processing intensive, but also diverse, incorporating a variety of information from numerous sources in order to provide the operator with the best LOS control solution for a given scenario. This, balanced against the low latency requirements of a real-time control system, has resulted in a software design that spans four separate processor boards. We present the implementation of a successful real-time embedded image-based tracker on a distributed architecture.

  5. PCIPS 2.0: Powerful multiprofile image processing implemented on PCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the years, the processing power of personal computers has steadily increased. Now, 386- and 486-based PC's are fast enough for many image processing applications, and inexpensive enough even for amateur astronomers. PCIPS is an image processing system based on these platforms that was designed to satisfy a broad range of data analysis needs, while requiring minimum hardware and providing maximum expandability. It will run (albeit at a slow pace) even on a 80286 with 640K memory, but will take full advantage of bigger memory and faster CPU's. Because the actual image processing is performed by external modules, the system can be easily upgraded by the user for all sorts of scientific data analysis. PCIPS supports large format lD and 2D images in any numeric type from 8-bit integer to 64-bit floating point. The images can be displayed, overlaid, printed and any part of the data examined via an intuitive graphical user interface that employs buttons, pop-up menus, and a mouse. PCIPS automatically converts images between different types and sizes to satisfy the requirements of various applications. PCIPS features an API that lets users develop custom applications in C or FORTRAN. While doing so, a programmer can concentrate on the actual data processing, because PCIPS assumes responsibility for accessing images and interacting with the user. This also ensures that all applications, even custom ones, have a consistent and user-friendly interface. The API is compatible with factory programming, a metaphor for constructing image processing procedures that will be implemented in future versions of the system. Several application packages were created under PCIPS. The basic package includes elementary arithmetics and statistics, geometric transformations and import/export in various formats (FITS, binary, ASCII, and GIF). The CCD processing package and the spectral analysis package were successfully used to reduce spectra from the Nordic Telescope at La Palma. A

  6. Implementation of Fiducial-Based Image Registration in the Cyberknife Robotic System

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, Cheng B. Chen Hungcheng; Wagner, Henry

    2008-07-01

    Fiducial-based image registration methodology as implemented in the Cyberknife system is explored. The Cyberknife is a radiosurgery system that uses image guidance technology and computer-controlled robotics to determine target positions and adjust beam directions accordingly during the dose delivery. The image guidance system consists of 2 x-ray sources mounted on the ceiling and a detection system mounted on both sides of the treatment couch. Two orthogonal live radiographs are taken prior to and during patient treatment. Fiducial markers are identified on these radiographs and compared to a library of digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) using the fiducial extraction software. The fiducial extraction software initially sets an intensity threshold on the live radiographs to generate white areas on black images referred to as 'blobs.' Different threshold values are being used and blobs at the same location are assumed to originate from the same object. The number of blobs is then reduced by examining each blob against a predefined set of properties such as shape and exposure levels. The remaining blobs are further reduced by examining the location of the blobs in the inferior-superior patient axis. Those blobs that have the corresponding positions are assumed to originate from the same object. The remaining blobs are used to create fiducial configurations and are compared to the reference configuration from the computed tomography (CT) image dataset for treatment planning. The best-fit configuration is considered to have the appropriate fiducial markers. The patient position is determined based on these fiducial markers. During the treatment, the radiation beam is turned off when the Cyberknife changes nodes. This allows a time window to acquire live radiographs for the determination of the patient target position and to update the robotic manipulator to change beam orientations accordingly.

  7. A new morphological anomaly detection algorithm for hyperspectral images and its GPU implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Abel; Plaza, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Anomaly detection is considered a very important task for hyperspectral data exploitation. It is now routinely applied in many application domains, including defence and intelligence, public safety, precision agriculture, geology, or forestry. Many of these applications require timely responses for swift decisions which depend upon high computing performance of algorithm analysis. However, with the recent explosion in the amount and dimensionality of hyperspectral imagery, this problem calls for the incorporation of parallel computing techniques. In the past, clusters of computers have offered an attractive solution for fast anomaly detection in hyperspectral data sets already transmitted to Earth. However, these systems are expensive and difficult to adapt to on-board data processing scenarios, in which low-weight and low-power integrated components are essential to reduce mission payload and obtain analysis results in (near) real-time, i.e., at the same time as the data is collected by the sensor. An exciting new development in the field of commodity computing is the emergence of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), which can now bridge the gap towards on-board processing of remotely sensed hyperspectral data. In this paper, we develop a new morphological algorithm for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images along with an efficient GPU implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented on latest-generation GPU architectures, and evaluated with regards to other anomaly detection algorithms using hyperspectral data collected by NASA's Airborne Visible Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York, five days after the terrorist attacks that collapsed the two main towers in the WTC complex. The proposed GPU implementation achieves real-time performance in the considered case study.

  8. SPAN security policies and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisson, Patricia L.; Green, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A guide is provided to system security with emphasis on requirements and guidelines that are necessary to maintain an acceptable level of security on the network. To have security for the network, each node on the network must be secure. Therefore, each system manager, must strictly adhere to the requirements and must consider implementing the guidelines discussed. There are areas of vulnerability within the operating system that may not be addressed. However, when a requirement or guideline is discussed, implementation techniques are included. Information related to computer and data security is discussed to provide information on implementation options. The information is presented as it relates to a VAX computer environment.

  9. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-03

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  10. Progress implementing a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for ultrasound imaging of thick concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almansouri, Hani; Johnson, Christi; Clayton, Dwight; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charles; Santos-Villalobos, Hector

    2017-02-01

    All commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States contain concrete structures. These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and the degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Concrete structures in NPPs are often inaccessible and contain large volumes of massively thick concrete. While acoustic imaging using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) works adequately well for thin specimens of concrete such as concrete transportation structures, enhancements are needed for heavily reinforced, thick concrete. We argue that image reconstruction quality for acoustic imaging in thick concrete could be improved with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. MBIR works by designing a probabilistic model for the measurements (forward model) and a probabilistic model for the object (prior model). Both models are used to formulate an objective function (cost function). The final step in MBIR is to optimize the cost function. Previously, we have demonstrated a first implementation of MBIR for an ultrasonic transducer array system. The original forward model has been upgraded to account for direct arrival signal. Updates to the forward model will be documented and the new algorithm will be assessed with synthetic and empirical samples.

  11. Progress Implementing a Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm for Ultrasound Imaging of Thick Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Almansouri, Hani; Johnson, Christi R; Clayton, Dwight A; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charlie; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2017-01-01

    All commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States contain concrete structures. These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and the degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Concrete structures in NPPs are often inaccessible and contain large volumes of massively thick concrete. While acoustic imaging using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) works adequately well for thin specimens of concrete such as concrete transportation structures, enhancements are needed for heavily reinforced, thick concrete. We argue that image reconstruction quality for acoustic imaging in thick concrete could be improved with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. MBIR works by designing a probabilistic model for the measurements (forward model) and a probabilistic model for the object (prior model). Both models are used to formulate an objective function (cost function). The final step in MBIR is to optimize the cost function. Previously, we have demonstrated a first implementation of MBIR for an ultrasonic transducer array system. The original forward model has been upgraded to account for direct arrival signal. Updates to the forward model will be documented and the new algorithm will be assessed with synthetic and empirical samples.

  12. Ruby-Helix: an implementation of helical image processing based on object-oriented scripting language.

    PubMed

    Metlagel, Zoltan; Kikkawa, Yayoi S; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    Helical image analysis in combination with electron microscopy has been used to study three-dimensional structures of various biological filaments or tubes, such as microtubules, actin filaments, and bacterial flagella. A number of packages have been developed to carry out helical image analysis. Some biological specimens, however, have a symmetry break (seam) in their three-dimensional structure, even though their subunits are mostly arranged in a helical manner. We refer to these objects as "asymmetric helices". All the existing packages are designed for helically symmetric specimens, and do not allow analysis of asymmetric helical objects, such as microtubules with seams. Here, we describe Ruby-Helix, a new set of programs for the analysis of "helical" objects with or without a seam. Ruby-Helix is built on top of the Ruby programming language and is the first implementation of asymmetric helical reconstruction for practical image analysis. It also allows easier and semi-automated analysis, performing iterative unbending and accurate determination of the repeat length. As a result, Ruby-Helix enables us to analyze motor-microtubule complexes with higher throughput to higher resolution.

  13. A hospital-site controlled intervention using audit and feedback to implement guidelines concerning inappropriate treatment of catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. However, many cases treated as hospital-acquired CAUTI are actually asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Evidence-based guidelines recommend that providers neither screen for nor treat ABU in most catheterized patients, but there is a significant gap between these guidelines and clinical practice. Our objectives are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention for increasing guideline-concordant care concerning catheter-associated ABU and (2) to measure improvements in healthcare providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward the practice guidelines associated with the intervention. Methods/Design The study uses a controlled pre/post design to test an intervention using audit and feedback of healthcare providers to improve their compliance with ABU guidelines. The intervention and the control sites are two VA hospitals. For objective 1 we will review medical records to measure the clinical outcomes of inappropriate screening for and treatment of catheter-associated ABU. For objective 2 we will survey providers' knowledge and attitudes. Three phases of our protocol are proposed: the first 12-month phase will involve observation of the baseline incidence of inappropriate screening for and treatment of ABU at both sites. This surveillance for clinical outcomes will continue at both sites throughout the study. Phase 2 consists of 12 months of individualized audit and feedback at the intervention site and guidelines distribution at both sites. The third phase, also over 12 months, will provide unit-level feedback at the intervention site to assess sustainability. Healthcare providers at the intervention site during phase 2 and at both sites during phase 3 will complete pre/post surveys of awareness and familiarity (knowledge), as well as of acceptance and outcome expectancy (attitudes) regarding the relevant practice guidelines

  14. Consumer Economics Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Muriel; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist school districts in the development and implementation of new programs or in strengthening existing programs in consumer economics education at all levels. A variety of resources are included. The need for consumer economics education is discussed and a definition is provided. Goals are listed. Objectives,…

  15. [Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vleugels, A M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete

  16. Implementation of wireless 3D stereo image capture system and synthesizing the depth of region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Song, Chulgyu; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Badarch, Luubaatar

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce the mobile embedded system implemented for capturing stereo image based on two CMOS camera module. We use WinCE as an operating system and capture the stereo image by using device driver for CMOS camera interface and Direct Draw API functions. We send the raw captured image data to the host computer by using WiFi wireless communication and then use GPU hardware and CUDA programming for implementation of real time three-dimensional stereo image by synthesizing the depth of ROI(region of interest). We also try to find and declare the mechanism of deblurring of CMOS camera module based on the Kirchhoff diffraction formula and propose a deblurring model. Synthesized stereo image is real time monitored on the shutter glass type three-dimensional LCD monitor and disparity values of each segment are analyzed to prove the validness of emphasizing effect of ROI.

  17. Images of Doctors and their Implements: A Visual Dialogue between the Patient and the Doctor.

    PubMed

    Baker, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Images of physicians, patients, and medical instruments were placed on Graeco-Roman funerary monuments, altars and fresco paintings. These representations are examined here to determine whether there existed a standard convention by which physicians were depicted in order that the lay and possibly illiterate viewers could identify what the scene represented. Greek physicians were frequently shown with cupping vessels, midwives were seen with birthing stools, while Roman physicians were often shown with various surgical implements. It is argued that the correlation between the types of objects depicted with the medical practitioner was deliberately made by the artist to signify the nature of medicine the individual practiced, so that the viewer could identify the role the practitioner had in their society.

  18. TH-A-207B-01: Basics and Current Implementations of Ultrasound Imaging of Shear Wave Speed and Elasticity.

    PubMed

    Chen, S

    2016-06-01

    Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging. This session will target these two goals with two presentations. A. Basics and Current Implementations of Ultrasound Imaging of Shear Wave Speed and Elasticity - Shigao Chen, Ph.D. Learning objectives-To understand: 1.

  19. Image coding using parallel implementations of the embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creusere, Charles D.

    1996-03-01

    We explore here the implementation of Shapiro's embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) image coding algorithms on an array of parallel processors. To this end, we first consider the problem of parallelizing the basic wavelet transform, discussing past work in this area and the compatibility of that work with the zerotree coding process. From this discussion, we present a parallel partitioning of the transform which is computationally efficient and which allows the wavelet coefficients to be coded with little or no additional inter-processor communication. The key to achieving low data dependence between the processors is to ensure that each processor contains only entire zerotrees of wavelet coefficients after the decomposition is complete. We next quantify the rate-distortion tradeoffs associated with different levels of parallelization for a few variations of the basic coding algorithm. Studying these results, we conclude that the quality of the coder decreases as the number of parallel processors used to implement it increases. Noting that the performance of the parallel algorithm might be unacceptably poor for large processor arrays, we also develop an alternate algorithm which always achieves the same rate-distortion performance as the original sequential EZW algorithm at the cost of higher complexity and reduced scalability.

  20. A travel report of the implementation of virtual whole slide images in routine surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nap, Marius; Teunissen, Rob; Pieters, Math

    2012-04-01

    Virtual microscopy is the terminology used to indicate the use of digitized images of whole slides for inspection of cells and tissue sections on computer screens as an add-on or replacement for conventional microscopy using bright field or other types of illumination in combination with a wide variety of microscope brands. Although technically there is no longer a limit in the size and colour composition of the images, the logistics of embedding virtual microscopy in daily routine of a diagnostic process are still a relatively open area where new pitfalls and opportunities can be found. In this article, we described various aspects in the process. None of them had been planned in advance, but mostly originated from observations done during the different steps towards implementation of virtual microscopy in daily routine, for example, the choice between the different scanner types and their (dis)advantages, issues on storing and retrieval and at last, the effect of digitalization on the diagnostic process. This approach resulted in a manuscript that in a way has more the appearance of a story than of a scientific study with strict protocols, with a clear cut question in advance, a research plan and expected outcome. Depending on the purpose of the virtual slides in a given situation, different solutions must be found locally.

  1. Thermal imaging as a smartphone application: exploring and implementing a new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Today's world is going mobile. Smartphone devices have become an important part of everyday life for billions of people around the globe. Thermal imaging cameras have been around for half a century and are now making their way into our daily lives. Originally built for military applications, thermal cameras are starting to be considered for personal use, enabling enhanced vision and temperature mapping for different groups of professional individuals. Through a revolutionary concept that turns smartphones into fully functional thermal cameras, we have explored how these two worlds can converge by utilizing the best of each technology. We will present the thought process, design considerations and outcome of our development process, resulting in a low-power, high resolution, lightweight USB thermal imaging device that turns Android smartphones into thermal cameras. We will discuss the technological challenges that we faced during the development of the product, and what are the system design decisions taken during the implementation. We will provide some insights we came across during this development process. Finally, we will discuss the opportunities that this innovative technology brings to the market.

  2. Neutron imaging with coded sources: new challenges and the implementation of a simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R; Gregor, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The limitations in neutron flux and resolution (L/D) of current neutron imaging systems can be addressed with a Coded Source Imaging system with magnification (xCSI). More precisely, the multiple sources in an xCSI system can exceed the flux of a single pinhole system for several orders of magnitude, while maintaining a higher L/D with the small sources. Moreover, designing for an xCSI system reduces noise from neutron scattering, because the object is placed away from the detector to achieve magnification. However, xCSI systems are adversely affected by correlated noise such as non-uniform illumination of the neutron source, incorrect sampling of the coded radiograph, misalignment of the coded masks, mask transparency, and the imperfection of the system Point Spread Function (PSF). We argue that a model-based reconstruction algorithm can overcome these problems and describe the implementation of a Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique algorithm for coded sources. Design pitfalls that preclude a satisfactory reconstruction are documented.

  3. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  4. From image edges to geons to viewpoint-invariant object models: a neural net implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, Irving; Hummel, John E.; Gerhardstein, Peter C.; Cooper, Eric E.

    1992-03-01

    Three striking and fundamental characteristics of human shape recognition are its invariance with viewpoint in depth (including scale), its tolerance of unfamiliarity, and its robustness with the actual contours present in an image (as long as the same convex parts [geons] can be activated). These characteristics are expressed in an implemented neural network model (Hummel & Biederman, 1992) that takes a line drawing of an object as input and generates a structural description of geons and their relations which is then used for object classification. The model's capacity for structural description derives from its solution to the dynamic binding problem of neural networks: independent units representing an object's parts (in terms of their shape attributes and interrelations) are bound temporarily when those attributes occur in conjunction in the system's input. Temporary conjunctions of attributes are represented by synchronized activity among the units representing those attributes. Specifically, the model induces temporal correlation in the firing of activated units to: (1) parse images into their constituent parts; (2) bind together the attributes of a part; and (3) determine the relations among the parts and bind them to the parts to which they apply. Because it conjoins independent units temporarily, dynamic binding allows tremendous economy of representation, and permits the representation to reflect an object's attribute structure. The model's recognition performance conforms well to recent results from shape priming experiments. Moreover, the manner in which the model's performance degrades due to accidental synchrony produced by an excess of phase sets suggests a basis for a theory of visual attention.

  5. Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of a Logistic Resource. Annex to the Five Year Defense Program. Volume 1. The DoD LRA System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    1 A. Background and Content of the Study . . . . 1 B. Assumptions and Guidelines . . . . . . . . . 3 C . Approach and Scope of...Defense PPBS . . . . . . . 11 B. Data Systems........... . . . . . 16 C . Resource Allocations: Judgment or Statistical Methods...39 B. Operating Resources . . . ......... 3 C . Summary . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 IV. LRA MANPOWER DATA ............... .47

  6. Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Competitive Beverage and Food Guidelines: Do Elementary School Administrators Know about Them and Do They Report Implementing Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The availability of competitive foods in schools is a modifiable factor in efforts to prevent childhood obesity. The Alliance for a Healthier Generation launched the Healthy Schools Program in 2006 to encourage schools to create healthier food environments, including the adoption of nutritional guidelines for competitive beverages and…

  7. Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube in Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Focus Group Study on Guideline Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, Elke; Van Tongelen, Inge; Wijnants, Karen; Mehuys, Els; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean Paul; Grypdonck, Maria; Van Winckel, Myriam; Boussery, Koen

    2016-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities often receive medication through enteral feeding tube (EFT). In a previous study, we found that current guidelines concerning medication preparation and administration through EFT are often not followed in residential care facilities (RCFs) for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present…

  8. Dentists United to Extinguish Tobacco (DUET): a study protocol for a cluster randomized, controlled trial for enhancing implementation of clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in dental care settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although dental care settings provide an exceptional opportunity to reach smokers and provide brief cessation advice and treatment to reduce oral and other tobacco-related health conditions, dental care providers demonstrate limited adherence to evidence-based guidelines for treatment of tobacco use and dependence. Methods/Design Guided by a multi-level, conceptual framework that emphasizes changes in provider beliefs and organizational characteristics as drivers of improvement in tobacco treatment delivery, the current protocol will use a cluster, randomized design and multiple data sources (patient exit interviews, provider surveys, site observations, chart audits, and semi-structured provider interviews) to study the process of implementing clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in 18 public dental care clinics in New York City. The specific aims of this comparative-effectiveness research trial are to: compare the effectiveness of three promising strategies for implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines—staff training and current best practices (CBP), CBP + provider performance feedback (PF), and CBP + PF + provider reimbursement for delivery of tobacco cessation treatment (pay-for-performance, or P4P); examine potential theory-driven mechanisms hypothesized to explain the comparative effectiveness of three strategies for implementation; and identify baseline organizational factors that influence the implementation of evidence-based tobacco use treatment practices in dental clinics. The primary outcome is change in providers’ tobacco treatment practices and the secondary outcomes are cost per quit, use of tobacco cessation treatments, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence. Discussion We hypothesize that the value of these promising implementation strategies is additive and that incorporating all three strategies (CBP, PF, and P4P) will be superior to CBP alone and CBP + PF in improving delivery of

  9. Imaging photonic crystals using Fourier plane imaging and Fourier ptychographic microscopy techniques implemented with a computer controlled hemispherical digital condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sanchari; Desai, Darshan B.; Alsubaie, Meznh H.; Zhelyeznyakov, Maksym V.; Molina, L.; Sarraf, Hamed Sari; Bernussi, Ayrton A.; Peralta, Luis Grave de

    2017-01-01

    Fourier plane imaging (FPIM) and Fourier ptychographic (FPM) microscopy techniques were used to image photonic crystals. A computer-controlled hemispherical digital condenser provided required sample illumination with variable inclination. Notable improvement in image resolution was obtained with both methods. However, it was determined that the FPM technique cannot surpass the Rayleigh resolution limit when imaging photonic crystals.

  10. Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  11. Interconnection Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  12. Assessment of analysis-of-variance-based methods to quantify the random variations of observers in medical imaging measurements: guidelines to the investigator.

    PubMed

    Zeggelink, William F A Klein; Hart, Augustinus A M; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2004-07-01

    The random variations of observers in medical imaging measurements negatively affect the outcome of cancer treatment, and should be taken into account during treatment by the application of safety margins that are derived from estimates of the random variations. Analysis-of-variance- (ANOVA-) based methods are the most preferable techniques to assess the true individual random variations of observers, but the number of observers and the number of cases must be taken into account to achieve meaningful results. Our aim in this study is twofold. First, to evaluate three representative ANOVA-based methods for typical numbers of observers and typical numbers of cases. Second, to establish guidelines to the investigator to determine which method, how many observers, and which number of cases are required to obtain the a priori chosen performance. The ANOVA-based methods evaluated in this study are an established technique (pairwise differences method: PWD), a new approach providing additional statistics (residuals method: RES), and a generic technique that uses restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the performance of the ANOVA-based methods, which is expressed by their accuracy (closeness of the estimates to the truth), their precision (standard error of the estimates), and the reliability of their statistical test for the significance of a difference in the random variation of an observer between two groups of cases. The highest accuracy is achieved using REML estimation, but for datasets of at least 50 cases or arrangements with 6 or more observers, the differences between the methods are negligible, with deviations from the truth well below +/-3%. For datasets up to 100 cases, it is most beneficial to increase the number of cases to improve the precision of the estimated random variations, whereas for datasets over 100 cases, an improvement in precision is most efficiently achieved by increasing the number of

  13. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-B: Task 2. Evaluation and refinement of implementation guidelines for the selected STS payload operator concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The functions of Payload Operations Control Centers (POCC) at JSC, GSFC, JPL, and non-NASA locations are analyzed to establish guidelines for standardization, and facilitate the development of a fully integrated NASA-wide system of ground facilities for all classes of payloads. Operational interfaces between the space transportation system operator and the payload operator elements are defined. The advantages and disadvantages of standardization are discussed.

  14. Diagnostic imaging of cervical spine injuries following blunt trauma: a review of the literature and practical guideline.

    PubMed

    Saltzherr, T P; Fung Kon Jin, P H P; Beenen, L F M; Vandertop, W P; Goslings, J C

    2009-08-01

    Patients with a (potential) cervical spine injury can be subdivided into low-risk and high-risk patients. With a detailed history and physical examination the cervical spine of patients in the "low-risk" group can be "cleared" without further radiographic examinations. X-ray imaging (3-view series) is currently the primary choice of imaging for patients in the "low-risk" group with a suspected cervical spine injury after blunt trauma. For patients in the "high-risk"group because of its higher sensitivity a computed tomography scan is primarily advised or, alternatively, the cervical spine is immobilised until the patient can be reliably questioned and examined again. For the imaging of traumatic soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging is the technique of choice.

  15. Guidelines for Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arieh, David

    2001-01-01

    Project management is an important part of the professional activities at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Project management is the means by which many of the operations at KSC take shape. Moreover, projects at KSC are implemented in a variety of ways in different organizations. The official guidelines for project management are provided by NASA headquarters and are quite general. The project reported herein deals with developing practical and detailed project management guidelines in support of the project managers. This report summarizes the current project management effort in the Process Management Division and presents a new modeling approach of project management developed by the author. The report also presents the Project Management Guidelines developed during the summer.

  16. Radiology Preparedness in Ebola Virus Disease: Guidelines and Challenges for Disinfection of Medical Imaging Equipment for the Protection of Staff and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmore, Tara N.; Folio, Les R.; Bluemke, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:25654616

  17. Radiology preparedness in ebola virus disease: guidelines and challenges for disinfection of medical imaging equipment for the protection of staff and patients.

    PubMed

    Mollura, Daniel J; Palmore, Tara N; Folio, Les R; Bluemke, David A

    2015-05-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology.

  18. A Hardware-Implementation-Friendly Pulse-Coupled Neural Network Algorithm for Analog Image-Feature-Generation Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Shibata, Tadashi

    2007-04-01

    Pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs) are biologically inspired algorithms that have been shown to be highly effective for image feature generation. However, conventional PCNNs are software-oriented algorithms that are too complicated to implement as very-large-scale integration (VLSI) hardware. To employ PCNNs in image-feature-generation VLSIs, a hardware-implementation-friendly PCNN is proposed here. By introducing the concepts of exponentially decaying output and a one-branch dendritic tree, the new PCNN eliminates the large number of convolution operators and floating-point multipliers in conventional PCNNs without compromising its performance at image feature generation. As an analog VLSI implementation of the new PCNN, an image-feature-generation circuit is proposed. By employing floating-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology, the circuit achieves a full voltage-mode implementation of the PCNN in a compact structure. Inheriting the merits of the PCNN, the circuit is capable of generating rotation-independent and translation-independent features for input patterns, which has been verified by SPICE simulation.

  19. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation.

  20. Fast l₁-SPIRiT compressed sensing parallel imaging MRI: scalable parallel implementation and clinically feasible runtime.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mark; Alley, Marcus; Demmel, James; Keutzer, Kurt; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Lustig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We present l₁-SPIRiT, a simple algorithm for auto calibrating parallel imaging (acPI) and compressed sensing (CS) that permits an efficient implementation with clinically-feasible runtimes. We propose a CS objective function that minimizes cross-channel joint sparsity in the wavelet domain. Our reconstruction minimizes this objective via iterative soft-thresholding, and integrates naturally with iterative self-consistent parallel imaging (SPIRiT). Like many iterative magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions, l₁-SPIRiT's image quality comes at a high computational cost. Excessively long runtimes are a barrier to the clinical use of any reconstruction approach, and thus we discuss our approach to efficiently parallelizing l₁-SPIRiT and to achieving clinically-feasible runtimes. We present parallelizations of l₁-SPIRiT for both multi-GPU systems and multi-core CPUs, and discuss the software optimization and parallelization decisions made in our implementation. The performance of these alternatives depends on the processor architecture, the size of the image matrix, and the number of parallel imaging channels. Fundamentally, achieving fast runtime requires the correct trade-off between cache usage and parallelization overheads. We demonstrate image quality via a case from our clinical experimentation, using a custom 3DFT spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence with up to 8× acceleration via Poisson-disc undersampling in the two phase-encoded directions.

  1. Ultrasound Imaging System Implementation and Ignition Protocol for the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Anthenien, Ralph A.; Roslon, Mark; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal earth gravity. Experiments have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in the Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN), an apparatus requiring completely remote operation. Future GAS-CAN experiments will utilize an ultrasound imaging system (UIS) which has been incorporated into the MSC experimental apparatus. Thermocouples are currently used to measure temperature and reaction front velocities. A less intrusive method is desirable, however, as smolder is a very weak reaction and it has been found that heat transfer along the thermocouple is sufficient to affect the smolder reaction. It is expected that the UIS system will eventually replace the existing array of thermocouples as a non-intrusive technique without compromising data acquisition. The UIS measures line of sight permeability, providing information about the reaction front position and extent. Additionally, the ignition sequence of the MSC experiments has been optimized from previous experiments to provide longer periods of self-supported smolder. An ignition protocol of a fixed power to the igniter for a fixed time is now implemented. This, rather than a controlled temperature profile ignition protocol at the igniter surface, along with the UIS system, will allow for better study of the effect of gravity on a smolder reaction.

  2. Implementation of a three-dimensional stereo image capture system based on the multi-segment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Woonchul; Park, Jaebyung; Tumenjargal, Enkhbaatar; Badarch, Luubaatar; Kwon, Hyeokjae

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a new model of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera using combinations of several pin hole camera models, and its validity is verified by using synthesized stereo images based on OpenGL software. Our embedded three-dimensional (3-D) image capturing hardware system consists of five motor controllers and two CMOS camera modules based on an S3C6410 processor. An optimal alignment for capturing nine segment images that have their own convergence planes is implemented using a pi controller based on the measures of alignment and sharpness. A new synthesizing fusion with the optimized nine segmentation images is proposed for the best 3-D depth perception. Based on the experimental results of the disparity values in each of the nine segments, the multi-segment method proposed in this paper is a good method to improve the perception of 3-D depth in stereo images.

  3. Implementing a Pediatric Obesity Care Guideline in a Freestanding Children’s Hospital to Improve Child Safety and Hospital Preparedness1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Renee M.; Thrasher, Jodi; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2013-01-01

    Medical and surgical care of children with severe obesity is complicated and requires recognition of the problem, appropriate equipment, and safe management. There is little literature describing patient, provider, and institutional needs for the severely obese pediatric patient. Nonetheless, the limited data suggest 3 broad categories of needs unique to this population: (a) airway management, (b) drug dosing and pharmacology, and (c) equipment and infrastructure. We describe an opportunity at the Children’s Hospital Colorado to better prepare and optimize care for this patient population by creation of a Pediatric Obesity Care Guideline that focused on key areas of quality and safety. PMID:22178030

  4. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O'Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  5. Four patients with a history of acute exacerbations of COPD: implementing the CHEST/Canadian Thoracic Society guidelines for preventing exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Goodridge, Donna; Marciniuk, Darcy; Hull, Sally; Bourbeau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Chest Physicians and Canadian Thoracic Society have jointly produced evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This educational article gives four perspectives on how these guidelines apply to the practical management of people with COPD. A current smoker with frequent exacerbations will benefit from support to quit, and from optimisation of his inhaled treatment. For a man with very severe COPD and multiple co-morbidities living in a remote community, tele-health care may enable provision of multidisciplinary care. A woman who is admitted for the third time in a year needs a structured assessment of her care with a view to stepping up pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment as required. The overlap between asthma and COPD challenges both diagnostic and management strategies for a lady smoker with a history of asthma since childhood. Common threads in all these cases are the importance of advising on smoking cessation, offering (and encouraging people to attend) pulmonary rehabilitation, and the importance of self-management, including an action plan supported by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:25950092

  6. Design and implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A scatter imaging technique for the differentiation of cancerous and healthy breast tissue in a heterogeneous sample is introduced in this work. Such a technique has potential utility in intraoperative margin assessment during lumpectomy procedures. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the imaging method for tumor classification using Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments. The coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique was used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) images of breast tissue samples acquired through a single-position snapshot acquisition, without rotation as is required in coherent scatter computed tomography. We perform a quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the cancerous voxel classification using Monte Carlo simulations of the imaging system; describe our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging; show the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples; and present segmentations of the 3-D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue in the samples. From the Monte Carlo simulations, we find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside them with a cancerous voxel identification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. From the experimental results, we find that the technique is able to identify cancerous and healthy tissue samples and reconstruct differential coherent scatter cross sections that are highly correlated with those measured by other groups using x-ray diffraction. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside samples within a time on the order of a minute per slice. PMID:26962543

  7. Design and implementation of a calibrated hyperspectral small-animal imager: Practical and theoretical aspects of system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, Silas Josiah

    Pre-clinical imaging has been an important development within the bioscience and pharmacology fields. A rapidly growing area within these fields is small animal fluorescence imaging, in which molecularly targeted fluorescent probes are used to non-invasively image internal events on a gross anatomical scale. Small-animal fluorescence imaging has transitioned from a research technique to pre-clinical technology very quickly, due to its molecular specificity, low cost, and relative ease of use. In addition, its potential uses in gene therapy and as a translational technology are becoming evident. This thesis outlines the development of an alternative modality for small animal/tissue imaging, using hyperspectral techniques to enable the collection of fluorescence images at different excitation and emission wavelengths. In specific, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTFs) were used to construct emission-wavelength-scanning and excitation-wavelength-scanning small animal fluorescence imagers. Statistical, classification, and unmixing algorithms have been employed to extract specific fluorescent-dye information from hyperspectral image sets. In this work, we have designed and implemented hyperspectral imaging and analysis techniques to remove background autofluorescence from the desired fluorescence signal, resulting in highly specific and localized fluorescence. Therefore, in practice, it is possible to more accurately pin-point the location and size of diagnostic anatomical markers (e.g. tumors) labeled with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, multiple probes can be individually distinguished. In addition to imaging hardware and acquisition and analysis software, we have designed an optical tissue phantom for quality control and inter-system comparison. The phantom has been modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The culmination of this work results in an understanding of the advantages and complexities in applying hyperspectral techniques to small animal fluorescence

  8. Design and implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Manu N; Greenberg, Joel A; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J

    2016-01-01

    A scatter imaging technique for the differentiation of cancerous and healthy breast tissue in a heterogeneous sample is introduced in this work. Such a technique has potential utility in intraoperative margin assessment during lumpectomy procedures. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the imaging method for tumor classification using Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments. The coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique was used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) images of breast tissue samples acquired through a single-position snapshot acquisition, without rotation as is required in coherent scatter computed tomography. We perform a quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the cancerous voxel classification using Monte Carlo simulations of the imaging system; describe our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging; show the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples; and present segmentations of the 3-D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue in the samples. From the Monte Carlo simulations, we find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside them with a cancerous voxel identification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. From the experimental results, we find that the technique is able to identify cancerous and healthy tissue samples and reconstruct differential coherent scatter cross sections that are highly correlated with those measured by other groups using x-ray diffraction. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside samples within a time on the order of a minute per slice.

  9. Guidelines for reproducing geometrical aspects of intra-oral radiographs images on cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Curi, Janaina Paiva; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; Chilvarquer, Israel; Crosato, Edgard Michel

    2017-02-01

    Human identification requires comparison of individual traits of a person, depending on the availability and reproduction of antemortem (AM) records. If there is no presumed identity or AM exams are not available for comparison, the production of postmortem (PM) records is impaired. The purpose of this research is to describe and test standards to enable the comparison of antemortem periapical radiographs to images extracted from the manipulation of postmortem CBCT exams in multiple identification simulations in a randomized blind study. In a simulation, 20 CBCT images from dry skulls were used as PM records and 3 periapical radiographs (total of 60) that were randomized and blinded from the first examiner. In each case, an intentional incidence error of 10° was added in four different directions. Three points were selected in the AM radiograph, and the angle, linear measurements and proportion between these distances were collected. The AM data were used to mathematically find similar image geometry on a CBCT maximum intensity projection. Possible identification by superimposition was achieved in all cases, and statistical analysis proved the success in the reproduction of angular and length proportion using CBCT incidence manipulation. Significant reproducibility was also observed on intra- and inter-observer tests. In conclusion, the images extracted from CBCT could be compared to any periapical radiographs by superimposition, providing acceptable evidence to establish human identification. The application of this protocol is suitable for forensic practices with the high level of reproducibility and could be used as PM record when no AM records are available at the time of the exam.

  10. Architecture, development and implementation of a SWIR to visible integrated up-conversion imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarusi, Gabby; Templeman, Tzvi; Hechster, Elad; Nissim, Nimrod; Vitenberg, Vladimir; Maman, Nitzan; Tal, Amir; Solodar, Assi; Makov, Guy; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Golan, Yuval

    2016-04-01

    A new concept of short wavelength infrared (SWIR) to visible upconversion integrated imaging device is proposed, modeled and some initial measured results are presented. The device is a hybrid inorganic-organic device that comprises six nano-metric scale sub-layers grown on n-type GaAs substrates. The first layer is a ~300nm thick PbSe nano-columnar absorber layer grown in (111) orientation to the substrate plan (100), with a diameter of 8- 10nm and therefore exhibit quantum confinement effects parallel to the substrate and bulk properties perpendicular to it. The advantage of this structure is the high oscillator strength and hence absorption to incoming SWIR photons while maintaining the high bulk mobility of photo-excited charges along the columns. The top of the PbSe absorber layer is coated with 20nm thick metal layer that serves as a dual sided mirror, as well as a potentially surface plasmon enhanced absorption in the PbSe nano-columns layer. The photo-excited charges (holes and electrons in opposite directions) are drifted under an external applied field to the OLED section (that is composed of a hole transport layer, an emission layer and an electron transport layer) where they recombine with injected electron from the transparent cathode and emit visible light through this cathode. Due to the high absorption and enhanced transport properties this architecture has the potential of high quantum efficiency, low cost and easy implementation in any optical system. As a bench-mark, alternative concept where InGaAs/InP heterojunction couple to liquid crystal optical spatial light modulator (OSLM) structure was built that shows a full upconversion to visible of 1550nm laser light.

  11. Parallel implementation of linear and nonlinear spectral unmixing of remotely sensed hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Plaza, Javier

    2011-11-01

    Hyperspectral unmixing is a very important task for remotely sensed hyperspectral data exploitation. It addresses the (possibly) mixed nature of pixels collected by instruments for Earth observation, which are due to several phenomena including limited spatial resolution, presence of mixing effects at different scales, etc. Spectral unmixing involves the separation of a mixed pixel spectrum into its pure component spectra (called endmembers) and the estimation of the proportion (abundance) of endmember in the pixel. Two models have been widely used in the literature in order to address the mixture problem in hyperspectral data. The linear model assumes that the endmember substances are sitting side-by-side within the field of view of the imaging instrument. On the other hand, the nonlinear mixture model assumes nonlinear interactions between endmember substances. Both techniques can be computationally expensive, in particular, for high-dimensional hyperspectral data sets. In this paper, we develop and compare parallel implementations of linear and nonlinear unmixing techniques for remotely sensed hyperspectral data. For the linear model, we adopt a parallel unsupervised processing chain made up of two steps: i) identification of pure spectral materials or endmembers, and ii) estimation of the abundance of each endmember in each pixel of the scene. For the nonlinear model, we adopt a supervised procedure based on the training of a parallel multi-layer perceptron neural network using intelligently selected training samples also derived in parallel fashion. The compared techniques are experimentally validated using hyperspectral data collected at different altitudes over a so-called Dehesa (semi-arid environment) in Extremadura, Spain, and evaluated in terms of computational performance using high performance computing systems such as commodity Beowulf clusters.

  12. On the numerical implementation of time-reversal mirrors for tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Yder; Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    A general approach for constructing numerical equivalents of time-reversal mirrors is introduced. These numerical mirrors can be used to regenerate an original wavefield locally within a confined volume of arbitrary shape. Though time-reversal mirrors were originally designed to reproduce a time-reversed version of an original wavefield, the proposed method is independent of the time direction and can be used to regenerate a wavefield going either forward in time or backward in time. Applications to computational seismology and tomographic imaging of such local wavefield reconstructions are discussed. The key idea of the method is to directly express the source terms constituting the time-reversal mirror by introducing a spatial window function into the wave equation. The method is usable with any numerical method based on the discrete form of the wave equation, for example, with finite difference (FD) methods and with finite/spectral elements methods. The obtained mirrors are perfect in the sense that no additional error is introduced into the reconstructed wavefields apart from rounding errors that are inherent in floating-point computations. They are fully transparent as they do not interact with waves that are not part of the original wavefield and are permeable to these. We establish a link between some hybrid methods introduced in seismology, such as wave-injection, and the proposed time-reversal mirrors. Numerical examples based on FD and spectral elements methods in the acoustic, the elastic and the visco-elastic cases are presented. They demonstrate the accuracy of the method and illustrate some possible applications. An alternative implementation of the time-reversal mirrors based on the discretization of the surface integrals in the representation theorem is also introduced. Though it is out of the scope of the paper, the proposed method also apply to numerical schemes for modelling of other types of waves such as electro-magnetic waves.

  13. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  14. Copyright Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Office of Education has prepared Guidelines on authorizing copyright protection for materials developed under project grants or contracts as effective June 8, 1970. A supplement is available as LI 002 915. This booklet supersedes OE-11018 entitled "Limited Copyright Protection for Materials Developed Under Project Grants and…

  15. SCCT guidelines for the performance and acquisition of coronary computed tomographic angiography: A report of the society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee: Endorsed by the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI).

    PubMed

    Abbara, Suhny; Blanke, Philipp; Maroules, Christopher D; Cheezum, Michael; Choi, Andrew D; Han, B Kelly; Marwan, Mohamed; Naoum, Chris; Norgaard, Bjarne L; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Schoenhagen, Paul; Villines, Todd; Leipsic, Jonathon

    In response to recent technological advancements in acquisition techniques as well as a growing body of evidence regarding the optimal performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee has produced this update to its previously established 2009 "Guidelines for the Performance of Coronary CTA" (1). The purpose of this document is to provide standards meant to ensure reliable practice methods and quality outcomes based on the best available data in order to improve the diagnostic care of patients. Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines for the Interpretation is published separately (2). The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee ensures compliance with all existing standards for the declaration of conflict of interest by all authors and reviewers for the purpose ofclarity and transparency.

  16. A case control study of the implementation of change model versus passive dissemination of practice guidelines for compliance in monitoring for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Castillo, Desiree; Lopez, Linda; Manaugh, Bren; Davis, Charlotte; Rodriguez, Juanita; Milam, A Camis; Dassori, Albana; Miller, Alexander L

    2013-04-01

    We developed an intervention to improve compliance with guidelines for monitoring metabolic syndrome and compared compliance prior to intervention and three times post-intervention at three community mental health clinics in Texas. One test clinic received intervention and two other clinics served as controls. Fifty random charts were reviewed from each clinic for three specific, 1-2 weeks periods over the course of 18 months. There were significant improvements in the ordering of labs, the presence of lab results in the chart, and documentation of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference in the intervention clinic over time in comparison to the control clinics. Documented evidence of physician action with respect to out of range values remained low. Metabolic monitoring is a multi-step process. Removing barriers, creating specific procedures, and dedicating staff resources can improve compliance with monitoring.

  17. Agent-based computational model of the prevalence of gonococcal infections after the implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Erik; Durgham, Ryan; Dammann, Olaf; Stopka, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the first comprehensive guidelines were published for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection in populations with substantial risk of infection. Guidelines include a daily regimen of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF/FTC) as well as condom usage during sexual activity. The relationship between the TDF/FTC intake regimen and condom usage is not yet fully understood. If men who have sex with men (MSM,) engage in high-risk sexual activities without using condoms when prescribed TDF/FTC they might be at an increased risk for other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our study focuses on the possible occurrence of behavioral changes among MSM in the United States over time with regard to condom usage. In particular, we were interested in creating a model of how increased uptake of TDF/FTC might cause a decline in condom usage, causing significant increases in non-HIV STD incidence, using gonococcal infection incidence as a biological endpoint. We used the agent-based modeling software NetLogo, building upon an existing model of HIV infection. We found no significant evidence for increased gonorrhea prevalence due to increased PrEP usage at any level of sample-wide usage, with a range of 0-90% PrEP usage. However, we did find significant evidence for decreased prevalence of HIV, with a maximal effect being reached when 5% to 10% of the MSM population used PrEP. Our findings appear to indicate that attitudes of aversion, within the medical community, toward the promotion of PrEP due to the potential risk of increased STD transmission are unfounded. PMID:26834937

  18. Design, implementation and investigation of an image guide-based optical flip-flop array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the design for an image guide-based optical flip-flop array created using a Hughes liquid crystal light valve and a flexible image guide in a feedback loop. This design is used to investigate the application of image guides as a communication mechanism in numerical optical computers. It is shown that image guides can be used successfully in this manner but mismatch match between the input and output fiber arrays is extremely limiting.

  19. Time-resolved hyperspectral single-pixel camera implementation for compressive wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pian, Qi; Yao, Ruoyang; Intes, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Single-pixel imaging based on compressive sensing theory has been a highlighted technique in the biomedical imaging field for many years. This interest has been driven by the possibility of performing microscopic or macroscopic imaging based on low-cost detector arrays, increased SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) in the acquired data sets and the ability to perform high quality image reconstruction with compressed data sets by exploiting signal sparsity. In this work, we present our recent work in implementing this technique to perform time domain fluorescence-labeled investigations in preclinical settings. More precisely, we report on our time-resolved hyperspectral single-pixel camera for fast, wide-field mapping of molecular labels and lifetime-based quantification. The hyperspectral single-pixel camera implements a DMD (Digital micro-mirror device) to generate optical masks for modulating the illumination field before it is delivered onto the sample and focuses the emission light signals into a multi-anode hyperspectral time-resolved PMT (Photomultiplier tube) to acquire spatial, temporal and spectral information enriched 4-D data sets. Fluorescence dyes with lifetime and spectral contrast are embedded in well plates and thin tissues. L-1 norm based regularization or the least square method, is applied to solve the underdetermined inverse problem during image reconstruction. These experimental results prove the possibility of fast, wide-field mapping of fluorescent labels with lifetime and spectral contrast in thin media.

  20. Laboratory implementation of edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging with energy-resolved detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Vittoria, F. A.; Hagen, C. K.; Kallon, G.; Basta, D.; Marenzana, M.; Delogu, P.; Vincenzi, A.; De Ruvo, L.; Spandre, G.; Brez, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Olivo, A.

    2015-03-01

    Edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) has potential for applications in different fields of research, including materials science, non-destructive industrial testing, small-animal imaging, and medical imaging. One of its main advantages is the compatibility with laboratory equipment, in particular with conventional non-microfocal sources, which makes its exploitation in normal research laboratories possible. In this work, we demonstrate that the signal in laboratory implementations of EI can be correctly described with the use of the simplified geometrical optics. Besides enabling the derivation of simple expressions for the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a given EI setup, this model also highlights the EI's achromaticity. With the aim of improving image quality, as well as to take advantage of the fact that all energies in the spectrum contribute to the image contrast, we carried out EI acquisitions using a photon-counting energy-resolved detector. The obtained results demonstrate that this approach has great potential for future laboratory implementations of EI.

  1. Equivalence of Gyn GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image guided cervical brachytherapy with EUD-based dose prescription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) -based prescription method for Image Guided Brachytherapy (IGBT) that reproduces the Gyn GEC-ESTRO WG (GGE) prescription for cervix carcinoma patients on CT images with limited soft tissue resolution. Methods The equivalence of two IGBT planning approaches was investigated in 20 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and 5 concomitant high dose rate IGBT treatments. The GGE planning strategy based on dose to the most exposed 2 cm3 (D2cc) was used to derive criteria for the gEUD-based planning of the bladder and rectum. The safety of gEUD constraints in terms of GGE criteria was tested by maximizing dose to the gEUD constraints for individual fractions. Results The gEUD constraints of 3.55 Gy for the rectum and 5.19 Gy for the bladder were derived. Rectum and bladder gEUD-maximized plans resulted in D2cc averages very similar to the initial GGE criteria. Average D2ccs and EUDs from the full treatment course were comparable for the two techniques within both sets of normal tissue constraints. The same was found for the tumor doses. Conclusions The derived gEUD criteria for normal organs result in GGE-equivalent IGBT treatment plans. The gEUD-based planning considers the entire dose distribution of organs in contrast to a single dose-volume-histogram point. PMID:24225184

  2. Design and implementation of multispectral Image processing system based on VC++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li; Wang, Zhihui; Ge, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Multi-wavelet, extended from single wavelet theory, is able to provide a more accurate image processing analysis method than wavelet. After studying the features of multi-wavelet transform, we realize the core algorithms of an image processing system with GHM multi-wavelet system, by which we can fuse two multi-spectra images by the matching degree-based fusion method. In the phase of image de-noising, we get rid of the noise in the fused image based on the integrated threshold de-noising method. In the stage of image compression, the de-noised image will be compressed and decompressed in adopting the method of Shannon, Fano, Huff-man, and SPIHT (Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Tree) respectively in three different proportional. At last, the results of various stages will be shown in the integrated processing system. This paper uses the MFC mode of VC+ + 6.0 to build a visualization interface (UI) model, to make the interface of our multi-wavelet image processing system concise which occupies less resource and easy to operate. That is, the system consists of three sub-systems, namely: image fusion, image de-noising and image compression. The realization of the sub-system's functions is independent of each other which enhance portability and stability of the whole system.

  3. Orthogonal wavelets for image transmission and compression schemes: implementation and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Bharath, Anil A.

    1996-10-01

    Diagnostic quality medical images consume vast amounts of network time, system bandwidth and disk storage in current computer architectures. There are many ways in which the use of system and network resources may be optimize without compromising diagnostic image quality. One of these is in the choice of image representation, both for storage and transfer. In this paper, we show how a particularly flexible method of image representation, based on Mallat's algorithm, leads to efficient methods of both lossy image compression and progressive image transmission. We illustrate the application of a progressive transmission scheme to medical images, and provide some examples of image refinement in a multiscale fashion. We show how thumbnail images created by a multiscale orthogonal decomposition can be optimally interpolated, in a minimum square error sense, based on a generalized Moore-Penrose inverse operator. In the final part of this paper, we show that the representation can provide a framework for lossy image compression, with signal/noise ratios far superior to those provided by a standard JPEG algorithm. The approach can also accommodate precision based progressive coding. We show the results of increasing the priority of encoding a selected region of interest in a bit-stream describing a multiresolution image representation.

  4. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for pre-treatment local staging of prostate cancer: A Cancer Care Ontario clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Jennifer; Finelli, Antonio; Morash, Chris; Morgan, Scott C.; Power, Nicholas; Schieda, Nichola; Haider, Masoom A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The utility of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the local staging of prostate cancer is controversial. Due to the success of multiparametric MRI in cancer localization, there is renewed interested in MRI (± functional sequences) for local staging. Guidance on pre-treatment local staging of prostate cancer by MRI was developed using systematic review methodology and expert consultation. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and other databases were searched to identify studies comparing: (1) MRI staging vs. radical prostatectomy staging on diagnostic accuracy outcomes; and (2) MRI staging vs. routine clinical staging on clinical and patient outcomes. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were synthesized by outcome and sensitivity/specificity analysis by tumour location was performed. Evidence quality of included studies was assessed and considered in recommendation formulation. Results: The literature search identified 2510 citations; 62 studies were included. Analysis of MRI ≥1.5 T plus endorectal coil (ER) (± functional sequences) in the detection of extraprostatic extension or seminal vesicle invasion showed modest sensitivities (≥50%) and excellent specificities (>85%) among patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy. MRI upstaging was shown in 20/21 studies, with large variation in correctness (11–85%). Scarcity of clinical and patient outcomes among studies limited synthesis and evaluation. Quality assessment found non-trivial biases. Conclusions: Modest imaging performance was shown for MRI (1.5 T + ER and 3 T ± ER) ± functional sequences in regards to sensitivity. Limitations in study design, reporting of clinical and patient outcomes, and the heterogeneous use of MRI tempered the strength of the recommendations. PMID:27800062

  5. Feasibility and implementation of a literature information management system for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers with imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain.

  6. Feasibility and Implementation of a Literature Information Management System for Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancers with Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dee H; Matthiesen, Chance L; Alleman, Anthony M; Fournier, Aaron L; Gunter, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the feasibility and implementation of information service-orientated architecture (ISOA) on an emergent literature domain of human papillomavirus, head and neck cancer, and imaging. From this work, we examine the impact of cancer informatics and generate a full set of summarizing clinical pearls. Additionally, we describe how such an ISOA creates potential benefits in informatics education, enhancing utility for creating enduring digital content in this clinical domain. PMID:25392683

  7. Guidelines 2.0: systematic development of a comprehensive checklist for a successful guideline enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Schünemann, Holger J.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Etxeandia, Itziar; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem; Ventresca, Matthew; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Kowalski, Sérgio; Baldeh, Tejan; Zhang, Yuan; Raid, Ulla; Neumann, Ignacio; Norris, Susan L.; Thornton, Judith; Harbour, Robin; Treweek, Shaun; Guyatt, Gordon; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Reinap, Marge; Brožek, Jan; Oxman, Andrew; Akl, Elie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although several tools to evaluate the credibility of health care guidelines exist, guidance on practical steps for developing guidelines is lacking. We systematically compiled a comprehensive checklist of items linked to relevant resources and tools that guideline developers could consider, without the expectation that every guideline would address each item. Methods: We searched data sources, including manuals of international guideline developers, literature on guidelines for guidelines (with a focus on methodology reports from international and national agencies, and professional societies) and recent articles providing systematic guidance. We reviewed these sources in duplicate, extracted items for the checklist using a sensitive approach and developed overarching topics relevant to guidelines. In an iterative process, we reviewed items for duplication and omissions and involved experts in guideline development for revisions and suggestions for items to be added. Results: We developed a checklist with 18 topics and 146 items and a webpage to facilitate its use by guideline developers. The topics and included items cover all stages of the guideline enterprise, from the planning and formulation of guidelines, to their implementation and evaluation. The final checklist includes links to training materials as well as resources with suggested methodology for applying the items. Interpretation: The checklist will serve as a resource for guideline developers. Consideration of items on the checklist will support the development, implementation and evaluation of guidelines. We will use crowdsourcing to revise the checklist and keep it up to date. PMID:24344144

  8. Osteoporosis guidelines.

    PubMed

    Barlow, D H

    2007-10-01

    The Position Statement from the International Menopause Society (IMS) in 2004 recommends the use of hormone therapy for the 'avoidance of bone-wasting and fractures'. It also states that 'prevention, not treatment, is the most feasible goal'. In updating the Statement, this paper considers the relevance of Osteoporosis Guidelines. Relevant documents will be of two broad types. These may be consensus statements/position statements that summarize the 'state of the art' for practitioners, based on the work of expert groups, or they may be formal Guidelines generated through formal 'evidence-based' methodology. The former approach is generally used by Societies and can be generated through relatively efficient consensus processes. The latter approach will normally involve extensive work and cost, necessarily becomes very detailed, involving systematic review and technology appraisal and can lead to highly specific recommendations on intervention thresholds. For the revision of the general IMS Position Statement, the specific IMS Paper on Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (2005) must be a key reference document. This provides a description of the international consensus on the management of osteoporosis up to late 2004 and which remains relevant today. Additionally, other consensus statements and systematic guidelines need to be considered. Across these documents providing guidance, the substantial influence of the International Osteoporosis Foundation/National Osteoporosis Foundation Position Paper, defining a 'New approach to the development of assessment guidelines for osteoporosis', can be seen. This flagged the importance of a shift from guidance, tying the diagnostic threshold to the intervention threshold, and instead advised linking the intervention threshold to estimated fracture risk probability. This moves the intervention decision away from a simple bone density threshold to a more complex, but more realistic, threshold estimate, taking into account a range of

  9. CSF-gated MR imaging of the spine: theory and clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J B; Enzmann, D R; Wright, A

    1987-06-01

    A spine phantom and cervical spines of seven volunteers were studied with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-gated magnetic resonance imaging to optimize acquisition factors reducing CSF flow artifacts. Peripheral gating was performed with either an infrared reflectance photoplethysmograph or peripheral arterial Doppler signal. The effects of effective repetition time, echo train, trigger delay, number of sections, and imaging plane on image quality were evaluated. Gated imaging of oscillatory CSF motion simulated constant-velocity flow and reduced CSF flow artifacts caused by cardiac-dependent temporal phase-shift effects. Velocity compensation on sagittal even-echo images with a symmetric short-echo time echo train reduced the remaining CSF flow artifacts caused by spatial phase-shift effects. Overall gated imaging time was not increased compared with nongated imaging and was reduced when improved image quality permitted the use of fewer excitations. These results suggest that the combination of CSF gating and flow compensation is clinically useful and efficient because it improves image quality without prolonging imaging time.

  10. Image-guided macular laser therapy: design considerations and progress toward implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Jeffrey W.; Shin, David S.

    1999-06-01

    Laser therapy is currently the only treatment of proven benefit for exudative age related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. To guide treatment for macular diseases, investigations were initiated to permit overlay of previously-stored angiographic images and image sequences superimposed onto the real-time biomicroscopic fundus image. Prior to treatment, a set of partially overlapping fundus images is acquired and montaged in order to provide a map for subsequent tracking operations. A binocular slit-lamp biomicroscope interfaced to a CCD camera, framegrabber board, and PC permits acquisition and rendering of retinal images. Computer-vision algorithms facilitate robust tracking, registration, and near-video-rate image overlay of previously-stored retinal photographic and angiographic images onto the real-time fundus image. Laser treatment is guided in this augmented reality environment where the borders of the treatment target--for example, the boundaries of a choroidal neovascularization complex--are easily identified through overlay of angiographic information superimposed on, and registered with, the real-time fundus image. During periods of misregistration as judged by the amplitude of the tracking similarity metric, laser function is disabled, affording additional safety. Image-guided macular laser therapy should facilitate accurate targeting of treatable lesions and less unintentional retinal injury when compared with standard techniques.

  11. Implementation and evaluation of ILLIAC 4 algorithms for multispectral image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Data concerning a multidisciplinary and multi-organizational effort to implement multispectral data analysis algorithms on a revolutionary computer, the Illiac 4, are reported. The effectiveness and efficiency of implementing the digital multispectral data analysis techniques for producing useful land use classifications from satellite collected data were demonstrated.

  12. Design and Implementation of a Self-Directed Stereochemistry Lesson Using Embedded Virtual Three-Dimensional Images in a Portable Document Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jeremy A.; Craig, Paul A.; Loudermilk, Adam D.; Yacci, Paul M.; Frisco, Sarah L.; Milillo, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel stereochemistry lesson was prepared that incorporated both handheld molecular models and embedded virtual three-dimensional (3D) images. The images are fully interactive and eye-catching for the students; methods for preparing 3D molecular images in Adobe Acrobat are included. The lesson was designed and implemented to showcase the 3D…

  13. The design and implementation of a remote sensing image processing system based on grid middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liang; Ma, Hongchao; Xu, Honggen; Ding, Yi

    2009-10-01

    In this article, a remote sensing image processing system is established to carry out the significant scientific problem that processing and distributing the mass earth-observed data quantitatively and intelligently with high efficiency under the Condor Environment. This system includes the submitting of the long-distantly task, the Grid middleware in the mass image processing and the quick distribution of the remote-sensing images, etc. A conclusion can be gained from the application of this system based on Grid environment. It proves to be an effective way to solve the present problem of fast processing, quick distribution and sharing of the mass remote-sensing images.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Compact Low-Dose Diffraction Enhanced Medical Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Parham, C.; Zhong, Z; Connor, D; Chapman, D; Pisano, E

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and performance of a new DEI system using a commercially available tungsten anode x-ray tube and includes the first high-quality low-dose diffraction-enhanced images of full-thickness human tissue specimens. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray imaging modality that differs from conventional radiography in its use of three physical mechanisms to generate contrast. DEI is able to generate contrast from x-ray absorption, refraction, and ultra-small-angle scatter rejection (extinction) to produce high-contrast images with a much lower radiation dose compared to conventional radiography.

  15. 3-D Image-guided diffuse optical tomography using boundary element method and MPI implementation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Subhadra; Ghadyani, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Boundary elements provide an attractive method for image-guided multi-modality near infrared spectroscopy in three dimensions using only surface discretization. This method operates under the assumption that the underlying tissue contains piece-wise constant domains whose boundaries are known a priori from an alternative imaging modality such as MRI or microCT. This significantly simplifies the meshing process providing both speed-up and accuracy in the forward solution. Challenges with this method are in solving dense matrices, and working with complex heterogeneous domains. Solutions to these problems are presented here, with applications in breast cancer imaging and small - animal molecular imaging.

  16. Real-time imaging with radial GRAPPA: Implementation on a Heterogeneous Architecture for Low-Latency Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Saybasili, Haris; Herzka, Daniel A.; Seiberlich, Nicole; A.Griswold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Combination of non-Cartesian trajectories with parallel MRI permits to attain unmatched acceleration rates when compared to traditional Cartesian MRI during real-time imaging.However, computationally demanding reconstructions of such imaging techniques, such as k-space domain radial generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisitions (radial GRAPPA) and image domain conjugate gradient sensitivity encoding (CG-SENSE), lead to longer reconstruction times and unacceptable latency for online real-time MRI on conventional computational hardware. Though CG-SENSE has been shown to work with low-latency using a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPU), to the best of our knowledge, no such effort has been made for radial GRAPPA. radial GRAPPA reconstruction, which is robust even with highly undersampled acquisitions, is not iterative, requiring only significant computation during initial calibration while achieving good image quality for low-latency imaging applications. In this work, we present a very fast, low-latency, reconstruction framework based on a heterogeneous system using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate an implementation of radial GRAPPA that permits reconstruction times on par with or faster than acquisition of highly accelerated datasets in both cardiac and dynamic musculoskeletal imaging scenarios. Acquisition and reconstructions times are reported. PMID:24690453

  17. Design and implementation of control system for range-gated underwater laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wei-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Han, Hong-Wei; Hua, Liang-Hong

    2011-11-01

    There is currently considerable in developing underwater target detection, the underwater imaging system can be divided into active imaging system and passive system. The main feature of the active imaging system is that they use light sources to illuminate the targets and collect the reflection from targets. The advantages of active imaging system over passive imaging systems are high contrast and without the affection of environment sources. In this article, a range-gated underwater laser imaging system is built, which consists of laser illumination system, photoelectric imaging system and control system. The laser illumination system includes a light-pumped solid state doubled ND-YAG laser(532nm) which laser power and frequency can be adjusted and an optics expanding system of variable ratio. The photoelectric imaging system includes a gated Intensified CCD(ICCD) cameras which ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain can be adjusted and a optics received system of variable ratio. In order to acquire effectual target image using range-gated underwater laser imaging system, appropriate control parameters that include laser power and frequency, ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain, optics expanding system ratio and optics received system ratio must be given accurately. A control system which used C8051F320 and C8051F040 (MCU) as the core is designed, the control system can effectively control seven parameters that given above. The construction of software and hardware of the control system is introduced. And target image of underwater distance 25 m and 40m is given, Experimental results showed that the control system has high control precision, safe and stable operation and good speed adjusting performance can be achieved. It can be satisfied to apply to underwater target detection.

  18. Design and implementation of control system for range-gated underwater laser imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wei-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Han, Hong-wei; Hua, Liang-hong

    2012-01-01

    There is currently considerable in developing underwater target detection, the underwater imaging system can be divided into active imaging system and passive system. The main feature of the active imaging system is that they use light sources to illuminate the targets and collect the reflection from targets. The advantages of active imaging system over passive imaging systems are high contrast and without the affection of environment sources. In this article, a range-gated underwater laser imaging system is built, which consists of laser illumination system, photoelectric imaging system and control system. The laser illumination system includes a light-pumped solid state doubled ND-YAG laser(532nm) which laser power and frequency can be adjusted and an optics expanding system of variable ratio. The photoelectric imaging system includes a gated Intensified CCD(ICCD) cameras which ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain can be adjusted and a optics received system of variable ratio. In order to acquire effectual target image using range-gated underwater laser imaging system, appropriate control parameters that include laser power and frequency, ICCD scheduling, gate width, delay time and gain, optics expanding system ratio and optics received system ratio must be given accurately. A control system which used C8051F320 and C8051F040 (MCU) as the core is designed, the control system can effectively control seven parameters that given above. The construction of software and hardware of the control system is introduced. And target image of underwater distance 25 m and 40m is given, Experimental results showed that the control system has high control precision, safe and stable operation and good speed adjusting performance can be achieved. It can be satisfied to apply to underwater target detection.

  19. Study on algorithm and real-time implementation of infrared image processing based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yulin; Ding, Ruijun; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    With the fast development of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) detectors, high quality real-time image processing becomes more important in infrared imaging system. Facing the demand of better visual effect and good performance, we find FPGA is an ideal choice of hardware to realize image processing algorithm that fully taking advantage of its high speed, high reliability and processing a great amount of data in parallel. In this paper, a new idea of dynamic linear extension algorithm is introduced, which has the function of automatically finding the proper extension range. This image enhancement algorithm is designed in Verilog HDL and realized on FPGA. It works on higher speed than serial processing device like CPU and DSP. Experiment shows that this hardware unit of dynamic linear extension algorithm enhances the visual effect of infrared image effectively.

  20. ASCI 2010 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Cardiac Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guideline Working Group.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Chen; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chan, Carmen; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Yong, Hwan Seok; Yu, Wei

    2010-02-01

    In Asia, the healthcare system, populations and patterns of disease differ from Western countries. The current reports on the criteria for cardiac CT scans, provided by Western professional societies, are not appropriate for Asian cultures. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and invited 23 Technical Panel members representing a variety of Asian countries to rate the 51 indications for cardiac CT in clinical practice in Asia. The indications were rated as 'appropriate' (7-9), 'uncertain' (4-6), or 'inappropriate' (1-3) on a scale of 1-9. The median score was used for the final result if there was no disagreement. The final ratings for indications were 33 appropriate, 14 uncertain and 4 inappropriate. And 20 of them are highly agreed (19 appropriate and 1 inappropriate). Specifically, the Asian representatives considered cardiac CT as an appropriate modality for Kawasaki disease and congenital heart diseases in follow up and in symptomatic patients. In addition, except for some specified conditions, cardiac CT was considered to be an appropriate modality for one-stop shop ischemic heart disease evaluation due to its general appropriateness in coronary, structure and function evaluation. This report is expected to have a significant impact on the clinical practice, research and reimbursement policy in Asia.

  1. Practical implementation of the image domain joint transform correlator for holographic security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Michael V.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Bondarev, Leonid A.; Kurakin, Sergey V.

    2003-05-01

    We describe the experimental setup of the image domain joint transform correlator intended for holographic security application. The security verification routine demands two channels. The first one corresponds to the reference hologram stored in the security device. The other is a security holographic mark with several test sub-holograms, applied to a carrier: ID-card, paper seal etc. Each of the holograms stores a part of entire image, stored in the reference hologram. Image domain JTC is used to match the images retrieved from the holograms. The images are recorded by a light addressed spatial light modulator (LASLM). Being recorded and retrieved, the images provides correlation peaks with special positions, with a strict dependence on the tested and reference holograms mutual shifts. We prove experimentally that the image domain recognizing provides as more effective usage of the LASLM work pupil and resolution as a less device size. The system also has a good tolerance to shift and rotation of the security holographic mark. Few correlation peaks respected to test holograms enhances the device recognizing probability. We provide computer simulations based on the mathematical analysis of the optical signal transforming. The real-time experimental results corresponded with computer simulations are presented.

  2. Woods Hole Image Processing System Software implementation; using NetCDF as a software interface for image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.

    1992-01-01

    The Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology has been involved in the collection, processing and digital mosaicking of high, medium and low-resolution side-scan sonar data during the past 6 years. In the past, processing and digital mosaicking has been accomplished with a dedicated, shore-based computer system. With the need to process sidescan data in the field with increased power and reduced cost of major workstations, a need to have an image processing package on a UNIX based computer system which could be utilized in the field as well as be more generally available to Branch personnel was identified. This report describes the initial development of that package referred to as the Woods Hole Image Processing System (WHIPS). The software was developed using the Unidata NetCDF software interface to allow data to be more readily portable between different computer operating systems.

  3. 41 CFR 101-27.102-2 - Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102-2 Guidelines. Guidelines for implementing the EOQ principle of stock...

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.102-2 - Guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102-2 Guidelines. Guidelines for implementing the EOQ principle of stock...

  5. Implementation of 1-bit Image Correlator on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Jiang, Ai-Min

    2007-06-01

    2-D image correlation tracking is a key factor for the Main Optical Telescope on the Space Solar Telescope to reach its 0.1" spatial resolution. In order to realize fast image correlation, 1-bit correlation arithmetic is proposed, and the hardware design of 1-bit correlator based on DSP and FPGA is given. Only 0.33 ms is needed to realize a 32 × 32 image correlation algorithm on XCV800 FPGA chip with 20 MHz clock. The FPGA resource consumption is only 1/9 that of FFT - based (12-bit data) correlator.

  6. Implementation of a Gaussian Beam Laser and Aspheric Optics for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Haase, Andreas; Holle, Armin; Caprioli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a Gaussian beam laser for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry to provide a precisely defined laser spot of 5 µm diameter on target using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument originally designed to produce a 20 µm diameter laser beam spot at its smallest setting. A Gaussian beam laser was installed in the instrument in combination with an aspheric focusing lens. This ion source produced sharp ion images at 5 µm spatial resolution with signals of high intensity as shown for images from thin tissue sections of mouse brain. PMID:24692046

  7. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules.

  8. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: theoretical foundations and design considerations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations.

  9. Design and implementation of knowledge-based framework for ground objects recognition in remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaobin; Ding, Mingyue; Cai, Chao; Fu, Xiaowei; Sun, Yue; Chen, Duo

    2009-10-01

    The advance of image processing makes knowledge-based automatic image interpretation much more realistic than ever. In the domain of remote sensing image processing, the introduction of knowledge enhances the confidence of recognition of typical ground objects. There are mainly two approaches to employ knowledge: the first one is scattering knowledge in concrete program and relevant knowledge of ground objects are fixed by programming; the second is systematically storing knowledge in knowledge base to offer a unified instruction for each object recognition procedure. In this paper, a knowledge-based framework for ground objects recognition in remote sensing image is proposed. This framework takes the second means for using knowledge with a hierarchical architecture. The recognition of typical airport demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed framework.

  10. Software and Information Life Cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization. Analysis and implementation phase adaptations of the Sandia software guidelines: Issue A, April 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated information Services (IIS) Center. This issue A describes the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the analysis set deliverables. Subsequent issues will describe the other life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The analysis phase as described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  11. Image processing algorithm design and implementation for real-time autonomous inspection of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.; Shaaban, K.M.; Carver, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The ARIES {number_sign}1 (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform autonomous visual inspection leading to a classification as `acceptable` or `suspect`. Specific topics described include vision system design methodology, algorithmic structure,hardware processing structure, and image acquisition hardware. Most of these capabilities were demonstrated at the ARIES Phase II Demo held on Nov. 30, 1995. Finally, Phase III efforts are briefly addressed.

  12. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  13. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Act. The revised Principles and Guidelines consist of three key components: (1) The Principles and... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation...

  14. Designing and implementing a miniature CMOS imaging system with USB interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenyun; Wang, Liqiang; Yuan, Bo; Xu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Although CMOS cameras with USB interface are popular, their sizes are not small enough and working lengths are not that long enough when used as industrial endoscope. Here we present a small-sized image acquisition system for high-definition industrial electronic endoscope based on USB2.0 high-speed controller, which is composed of a 1/6 inch CMOS image sensor with resolution of 1 Megapixels. Signals from the CMOS image sensor are put into computer through the USB interface using the slave FIFO mode for processing, storage and display. LVDS technology is used for image data stream transmission between the sensor and USB controller to realize a long working distance, high signal integrity and low noise system. The maximum pixel clock runs at 48MHz to support for 30 fps for QSXGA mode or15 fps for SXGA mode and the data transmission rate can reach 36 megabytes per second. The imaging system is simple in structure, low-power, low-cost and easy to control. Based on multi-thread technology, the software system which realizes the function of automatic exposure, automatic gain, and AVI video recording is also designed.

  15. Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation of image processing algorithms to improve system performance of the control acquisition, processing, and image display system (CAPIDS) of the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A. H.; Cartwright, A. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present the image processing upgrades implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) for the custom Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector. Most of the image processing currently implemented in the CAPIDS system is pixel independent; that is, the operation on each pixel is the same and the operation on one does not depend upon the result from the operation on the other, allowing the entire image to be processed in parallel. GPU hardware was developed for this kind of massive parallel processing implementation. Thus for an algorithm which has a high amount of parallelism, a GPU implementation is much faster than a CPU implementation. The image processing algorithm upgrades implemented on the CAPIDS system include flat field correction, temporal filtering, image subtraction, roadmap mask generation and display window and leveling. A comparison between the previous and the upgraded version of CAPIDS has been presented, to demonstrate how the improvement is achieved. By performing the image processing on a GPU, significant improvements (with respect to timing or frame rate) have been achieved, including stable operation of the system at 30 fps during a fluoroscopy run, a DSA run, a roadmap procedure and automatic image windowing and leveling during each frame.

  16. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of image processing algorithms to improve system performance of the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) of the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF).

    PubMed

    Vasan, S N Swetadri; Ionita, Ciprian N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-02-23

    We present the image processing upgrades implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) for the custom Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector. Most of the image processing currently implemented in the CAPIDS system is pixel independent; that is, the operation on each pixel is the same and the operation on one does not depend upon the result from the operation on the other, allowing the entire image to be processed in parallel. GPU hardware was developed for this kind of massive parallel processing implementation. Thus for an algorithm which has a high amount of parallelism, a GPU implementation is much faster than a CPU implementation. The image processing algorithm upgrades implemented on the CAPIDS system include flat field correction, temporal filtering, image subtraction, roadmap mask generation and display window and leveling. A comparison between the previous and the upgraded version of CAPIDS has been presented, to demonstrate how the improvement is achieved. By performing the image processing on a GPU, significant improvements (with respect to timing or frame rate) have been achieved, including stable operation of the system at 30 fps during a fluoroscopy run, a DSA run, a roadmap procedure and automatic image windowing and leveling during each frame.

  17. Designing and Implementation of Retina Image Drawing System and Automatic Report Generation from Retina Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Safdari, Reza; Mokhtaran, Mehrshad; Tahmasebian, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic medical records as one of major parts of electronic health records is an important application of Medical Informatics. EMR includes different types of data, Graphical items being one of these data types. To this end, a standard structure for storing and recovering and finally exchanging this data type is required. In order to standardize information items in this research, UMLS standard is used. In this research, graphical information from fondues designing in retina surgery forms is used for the task of implementation. Implementation: Three-layer software architecture is used for implementation of this system, which includes user interface, data base access and business logic. XML database is used for storing and exchanging of data. User interface is designed by the means of Adobe Flash. Also in the user interface for eye examinations, appropriate icons compatible with current pathologies in retina examinations are considered and UMLS codes are used for standardizations purposes. Results: As this project is independently implemented in Adobe Flash, it can be run in most of electronic patient records software. For evaluation purposes of this research, an EMR system for eye clinics is used. Tree structure is used for data entry and finally a text report based on the entered data will be generated. By storing graphical items in this software editing and searching in medical concepts and also comparing features will be available. Conclusion: One of the data items that we encounter in various medical records is graphical data. In order to cover the patient’s complete electronic medical records, the Electronic Implementation of this information is important. For this purpose, graphical items in retina surgery forms were used and finally a software application for drawing retina picture was developed. Also, XML files were used for the purpose of storing valuable medical data from the pictures, and also UMLS were applied for the standardization

  18. A new algorithm for determining 3D biplane imaging geometry: theory and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vikas; Xu, Jinhui; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Xu, Guang; Chen, Zhenming; Gopal, Anant

    2005-04-01

    Biplane imaging is a primary method for visual and quantitative assessment of the vasculature. A key problem called Imaging Geometry Determination problem (IGD for short) in this method is to determine the rotation-matrix R and the translation-vector t which relate the two coordinate systems. In this paper, we propose a new approach, called IG-Sieving, to calculate R and t using corresponding points in the two images. Our technique first generates an initial estimate of R and t from the gantry angles of the imaging system, and then optimizes them by solving an optimal-cell-search problem in a 6-D parametric space (three variables defining R plus the three variables of t). To efficiently find the optimal imaging geometry (IG) in 6-D, our approach divides the high dimensional search domain into a set of lower-dimensional regions, thereby reducing the optimal-cell-search problem to a set of optimization problems in 3D sub-spaces. For each such sub-space, our approach first applies efficient computational geometry techniques to identify "possibly-feasible"" IG"s, and then uses a criterion we call fall-in-number to sieve out good IGs. We show that in a bounded number of optimization steps, a (possibly infinite) set of near-optimal IGs can be determined. Simulation results indicate that our method can reconstruct 3D points with average 3D center-of-mass errors of about 0.8cm for input image-data errors as high as 0.1cm. More importantly, our algorithm provides a novel insight into the geometric structure of the solution-space, which could be exploited to significantly improve the accuracy of other biplane algorithms.

  19. Ship detection in panchromatic images: a new method and its DSP implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng; Wang, Mengfei; Meng, Gang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new ship detection method is proposed after analyzing the characteristics of panchromatic remote sensing images and ship targets. Firstly, AdaBoost(Adaptive Boosting) classifiers trained by Haar features are utilized to make coarse detection of ship targets. Then LSD (Line Segment Detector) is adopted to extract the line features in target slices to make fine detection. Experimental results on a dataset of panchromatic remote sensing images with a spatial resolution of 2m show that the proposed algorithm can achieve high detection rate and low false alarm rate. Meanwhile, the algorithm can meet the needs of practical applications on DSP (Digital Signal Processor).

  20. Implementing Protocols to Improve Patient Safety in the Medical Imaging Department.

    PubMed

    Carrizales, Gwen; Clark, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a focal point in healthcare because of recent changes issued by CMS. Hospital reimbursement rates have fallen, and these reimbursement rates are governed by CMS mandates regarding patient safety procedures. Reimbursement changes are reflected in the National Patient Safety Goals (NPSGs) administered annually by The Joint Commission. Medical imaging departments have multiple areas of patient safety concerns including effective handoff communication, proper patient identification, and safe medication/contrast administration. This literature review examines those areas of patient safety within the medical imaging department and reveals the need for continued protocol and policy changes to keep patients safe.

  1. Facility Guidelines for Learning Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Dept. of Education and the Arts, Hobart (Australia).

    This document provides detailed guidelines for implementing the Tasmanian government's policy on computers in schools and identifies the building planning issues to help schools develop realistic budget estimates when creating their Learning Technologies Plan. The document's scope covers computer placement and building modifications; furniture…

  2. Library Automation: Guidelines to Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Geoffrey

    As with all new programs, the costs associated with library automation must be carefully considered before implementation. This document suggests guidelines to be followed and areas to be considered in the costing of library procedures. An existing system model has been suggested as a standard (Appendix A) and a classification of library tasks…

  3. Utilization of clinical practice guidelines: barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Keiffer, Melanie R

    2015-06-01

    Clinical practice guidelines augment clinician decision making. Researchers cite a lack of knowledge of guideline existence, complexity of guidelines, staff attitude, lack of training, time and resource constraints as reasons for nonadherence. This project sought to understand factors that promote or prevent guideline implementation at the point of care. Respondents' viewed clinical practice guidelines as valid tools necessary to standardize patient care and exhibited proficiency in synthesis and integration of guidelines into clinical decisions and treatment plans. Efficient and effective guidelines impact patient safety and quality by increasing the consistency of behavior and replacing idiosyncratic behaviors with best practices.

  4. Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for Pennsylvania Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert S., Jr.

    This report provides information and practical guidance on how to prevent indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools, and it describes how to implement a practical plan of action using a minimal amount of resources. It includes general guidelines to prevent or help resolve IAQ problems, guidelines on specific indoor contaminants, recommendations…

  5. Guidelines for Juvenile Information Sharing. OJJDP Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankey, Jennifer; Baca, Patricia; Rondenell, Stephanie; Webb, Marilyn; McHugh, Denise

    2006-01-01

    The juvenile information sharing (JIS) guidelines were prepared by the Center for Network Development (CND) for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The guidelines suggest a course of action for key agency and organization stakeholders involved in a state or local effort to implement and sustain juvenile information…

  6. Optimization of a hardware implementation for pulse coupled neural networks for image applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno Sarciada, Jesús; Lamela Rivera, Horacio; Warde, Cardinal

    2010-04-01

    Pulse Coupled Neural Networks are a very useful tool for image processing and visual applications, since it has the advantages of being invariant to image changes as rotation, scale, or certain distortion. Among other characteristics, the PCNN changes a given image input into a temporal representation which can be easily later analyzed for pattern recognition. The structure of a PCNN though, makes it necessary to determine all of its parameters very carefully in order to function optimally, so that the responses to the kind of inputs it will be subjected are clearly discriminated allowing for an easy and fast post-processing yielding useful results. This tweaking of the system is a taxing process. In this paper we analyze and compare two methods for modeling PCNNs. A purely mathematical model is programmed and a similar circuital model is also designed. Both are then used to determine the optimal values of the several parameters of a PCNN: gain, threshold, time constants for feed-in and threshold and linking leading to an optimal design for image recognition. The results are compared for usefulness, accuracy and speed, as well as the performance and time requirements for fast and easy design, thus providing a tool for future ease of management of a PCNN for different tasks.

  7. Implementation of a neural network for multispectral luminescence imaging of lake pigment paints.

    PubMed

    Chane, Camille Simon; Thoury, Mathieu; Tournié, Aurélie; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Luminescence multispectral imaging is a developing and promising technique in the fields of conservation science and cultural heritage studies. In this article, we present a new methodology for recording the spatially resolved luminescence properties of objects. This methodology relies on the development of a lab-made multispectral camera setup optimized to collect low-yield luminescence images. In addition to a classic data preprocessing procedure to reduce noise on the data, we present an innovative method, based on a neural network algorithm, that allows us to obtain radiometrically calibrated luminescence spectra with increased spectral resolution from the low-spectral resolution acquisitions. After preliminary corrections, a neural network is trained using the 15-band multispectral luminescence acquisitions and corresponding spot spectroscopy luminescence data. This neural network is then used to retrieve a megapixel multispectral cube between 460 and 710 nm with a 5 nm resolution from a low-spectral-resolution multispectral acquisition. The resulting data are independent from the detection chain of the imaging system (filter transmittance, spectral sensitivity of the lens and optics, etc.). As a result, the image cube provides radiometrically calibrated emission spectra with increased spectral resolution. For each pixel, we can thus retrieve a spectrum comparable to those obtained with conventional luminescence spectroscopy. We apply this method to a panel of lake pigment paints and discuss the pertinence and perspectives of this new approach.

  8. Measurement of object structure from size-encoded images generated by optically-implemented Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Rabin, Bryan; Boustany, Nada N

    2012-12-17

    We use optical Fourier processing based on two dimensional (2D) Gabor filters to obtain size-encoded images which depict with 20nm sensitivity to size while preserving a 0.36μm spatial resolution, the spatial distribution of structural features within transparent objects. The size of the object feature measured at each pixel in the encoded image is determined by the optimal Gabor filter period, S(max), that maximizes the scattering signal from that location in the object. We show that S(max) (in μm) depends linearly on feature size (also in μm) over a size range from 0.11μm to 2μm. This linear response remains largely unchanged when the refractive index ratio is varied and can be predicted from numerical simulations of Gabor-filtered light scattering. Pixel histograms of the size-encoded images of isolated spheres and diatoms were used to generate highly resolved size distributions ("size spectra") exhibiting sharp peaks characterizing the known major structural features within the studied objects. Dynamic signal associated with changes in selected feature sizes within living cells is also demonstrated. Taken together, our data suggest that a label-free, direct and objective measurement of sample structure is enabled by the size-encoded images and associated pixel histograms generated from a calibrated optical processing microscope based on Gabor filtering.

  9. Dosimetry of an In-Line Kilovoltage Imaging System and Implementation in Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Alaei, Parham; Licht, Norbert; Rübe, Christian

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To present the beam properties of the Siemens 70-kV and 121-kV linear accelerator-mounted imaging modalities and commissioning of the 121-kV beam in the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS); measurements in an Alderson phantom were performed for verification of the model and to estimate the cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging dose in the head and neck, thorax, and pelvis. Methods and Materials: The beam profiles and depth–dose curve were measured in an acrylic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a soft x-ray ionization chamber. Measurements were imported into the TPS, modeled, and verified by phantom measurements. Results: Modeling of the profiles and the depth–dose curve can be achieved with good quality. Comparison with the measurements in the Alderson phantom is generally good; only very close to bony structures is the dose underestimated by the TPS. For a 200° arc CBCT of the head and neck, a maximum dose of 7 mGy is measured; the thorax and pelvis 360° CBCTs give doses of 4-10 mGy and 7-15 mGy, respectively. Conclusions: Dosimetric characteristics of the Siemens kVision imaging modalities are presented and modeled in the Pinnacle TPS. Thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in the Alderson phantom agree well with the calculated TPS dose, validating the model and providing an estimate of the imaging dose for different protocols.

  10. Guidelines for Jail Library Service in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Library Association, Salem.

    Guidelines for public libraries establishing library services to residents of local correctional facilities outline recommended services, policy, materials, and staffing. Suggestions for implementation of services, readings, a sample policy statement, and a sample periodical list are included. (MBR)

  11. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  12. Implementation of image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for patients with uterine cervix cancer: a tumor volume kinetics approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Lucas Castro; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Guimarães, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues; Ramos, Clarissa Cerchi Angotti; de Paula, Lucas Assad; de Sales, Camila Pessoa; Chen, André Tsin Chih; Blasbalg, Roberto; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate tumor shrinking kinetics in order to implement image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for the treatment of patients with cervix cancer. Material and methods This study has prospectively evaluated tumor shrinking kinetics of thirteen patients with uterine cervix cancer treated with combined chemoradiation. Four high dose rate brachytherapy fractions were delivered during the course of pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams were acquired at diagnosis (D), first (B1), and third (B3) brachytherapy fractions. Target volumes (GTV and HR-CTV) were calculated by both the ellipsoid formula (VE) and MRI contouring (VC), which were defined by a consensus between at least two radiation oncologists and a pelvic expert radiologist. Results Most enrolled patients had squamous cell carcinoma and FIGO stage IIB disease, and initiated brachytherapy after the third week of pelvic external beam radiation. Gross tumor volume volume reduction from diagnostic MRI to B1 represented 61.9% and 75.2% of the initial volume, when measured by VE and VC, respectively. Only a modest volume reduction (15-20%) was observed from B1 to B3. Conclusions The most expressive tumor shrinking occurred in the first three weeks of oncological treatment and was in accordance with gynecological examination. These findings may help in IGBT implementation. PMID:27648083

  13. Radiographic selection criteria: new guidelines, old challenges.

    PubMed

    Horner, K

    2013-02-01

    Radiographic selection criteria are a legal requirement for any establishment using ionising radiation for medical purposes, including dental practices. The Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) pioneered the development of radiographic selection criteria for dentistry in the UK in 1998 and followed this with a second edition in 2004. This year will see a third edition, updated by new research evidence and developments in X-ray imaging for dentistry, including cone beam computed tomography (CT). Radiographic selection criteria are not rules but are one form of clinical guideline designed to help in clinical decision making. There are many influences on the use of radiography in dental practice including non-clinical factors. Evidence-based radiographic selection criteria can help to reinforce good practice, but require a multi-faceted implementation strategy including incorporation into clinical audit, easy availability to users and education.

  14. Design and implementation of magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Jun; Ye, Bo; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Liu, Sheng

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a novel magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation. This direction reference was employed by utilizing a specific magnet configuration between a pair of external permanent magnets and a magnetic shell coated on the external capsule endoscope surface. A pair of customized Cartesian robots, each with only 4 degrees of freedom, was built to hold the external permanent magnets as their end-effectors. These robots, together with their external permanent magnets, were placed on two opposite sides of a "patient bed." Because of the optimized configuration based on magnetic analysis between the external permanent magnets and the magnetic shell, a simplified control strategy was proposed, and only two parameters, yaw step angle and moving step, were necessary for the employed robotic system. Step-by-step experiments demonstrated that the proposed system is capable of magnetically maneuvering the capsule endoscope while providing direction reference for image navigation.

  15. Design and implementation of in vivo imaging of neural injury responses in the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanshan; Soares, Lorena; Bonini, Nancy M

    2013-04-01

    Live-imaging technology has markedly advanced in the field of neural injury and axon degeneration; however, studies are still predominantly performed in in vitro settings such as cultured neuronal cells or in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans in which axons lack glial wrappings. We recently developed a new in vivo model for adult-stage neural injury in Drosophila melanogaster, using the highly accessible wing of the animal. Because the Drosophila wing is translucent and dispensable for survival, it allows clear and direct visualization of injury-induced progressive responses of axons and glia highlighted by fluorescent protein (FP) markers in live animals over time. Moreover, unlike previous Drosophila models of neural injury, this procedure does not require dissection of the CNS. Thus, the key preparation steps for in vivo imaging of the neural injury response described in this protocol can be completed within 30 min.

  16. Stereoscopic imaging in a window on a computer monitor: a new implementation of an old idea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Michael A.

    1994-04-01

    The depth of an object in stereo is determined by the horizontal separation (i.e., disparity) of the object between the left and right images. For digitized images the disparity is in increments of pixels. Since all points in a given depth plane have the same disparity, the `cut- plane' procedure can theoretically eliminate a given depth plane by simply subtracting the stereo image pairs from each other after horizontally shifting them a specific number of pixels. Mathematical analysis and simulations with abstract objects have determined that both the length and disparity of objects with widths greater than one pixel may be modified by the `cut- plane' procedure; even when the object is not in the depth plane being eliminated. To what extent an object is modified depends on the original disparity and width of the object. The application of this procedure to chest x rays is presented with a demonstration of how certain pitfalls of the `cut-plane' procedure can be surmounted.

  17. Implementation and validation of atmospheric compensation algorithms for Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) pipeline processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Lee K.; Hirsch, Karen L.; McLachlan, Peter M.; Borel, Christoph C.; Clodius, William B.; Villeneuve, Pierre V.

    2000-11-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) is a satellite system developed by the DoE. It has 10 spectral bands in the reflectance domain and 5 in the thermal IR. It is pointable and, at nadir, provides 5m IFOV in four visible and short near IR bands and 20m IFOV at longer wavelengths. Several of the bands in the reflectance domain were designed to enable quantitative compensation for aerosol effects and water vapor (daytime). These include 3 bands in and adjacent to the 940nm water vapor feature, a band at 1380nm for cirrus cloud detection and a SWIR band with small atmospheric effects. The concepts and development of these techniques have been described in detail at previous SPIE conferences and in journals. This paper describes the adaptation of these algorithms to the MTI automated processing pipeline (standardized level 2 products) for retrieval of aerosol optical depth (and subsequent compensation of reflectance bands for calibration to reflectance) and the atmospheric water vapor content (thermal IR compensation). Input data sources and flow are described. Validation results are presented. Pre-launch validation was performed using images from the NASA AVIRIS hyperspectral imaging sensor flown in the stratosphere on NASA ER-2 aircraft compared to ground based sun photometer and radiosonde measurements from different sources. These data sets span a range of environmental conditions.

  18. Commodity cluster and hardware-based massively parallel implementations of hyperspectral imaging algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Chang, Chein-I.; Plaza, Javier; Valencia, David

    2006-05-01

    The incorporation of hyperspectral sensors aboard airborne/satellite platforms is currently producing a nearly continual stream of multidimensional image data, and this high data volume has soon introduced new processing challenges. The price paid for the wealth spatial and spectral information available from hyperspectral sensors is the enormous amounts of data that they generate. Several applications exist, however, where having the desired information calculated quickly enough for practical use is highly desirable. High computing performance of algorithm analysis is particularly important in homeland defense and security applications, in which swift decisions often involve detection of (sub-pixel) military targets (including hostile weaponry, camouflage, concealment, and decoys) or chemical/biological agents. In order to speed-up computational performance of hyperspectral imaging algorithms, this paper develops several fast parallel data processing techniques. Techniques include four classes of algorithms: (1) unsupervised classification, (2) spectral unmixing, and (3) automatic target recognition, and (4) onboard data compression. A massively parallel Beowulf cluster (Thunderhead) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland is used to measure parallel performance of the proposed algorithms. In order to explore the viability of developing onboard, real-time hyperspectral data compression algorithms, a Xilinx Virtex-II field programmable gate array (FPGA) is also used in experiments. Our quantitative and comparative assessment of parallel techniques and strategies may help image analysts in selection of parallel hyperspectral algorithms for specific applications.

  19. Review of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Practice guidelines for management of heart failure in children.

    PubMed

    Colan, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    imaging, and strain and strain rate were either novel or non-existent and have now moved into the main stream. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had very limited availability, and since that time imaging and assessment of myocardial iron content, delayed gadolinium enhancement, and extracellular volume have moved into the mainstream. The only devices discussed in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines were extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, pacemakers, and defibrillators. Since that time, ventricular assist devices have become mainstream. Despite the relative lack of randomised controlled trials in paediatric heart failure, advances continue to occur. These advances warrant implementation of an update and review process, something that is best done under the auspices of the national and international cardiology societies. A joint activity that includes the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC), European Society of Cardiology, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, and others will have more credibility than independent efforts by any of these organisations.

  20. Image 100 procedures manual development: Applications system library definition and Image 100 software definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guseman, L. F., Jr.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An outline for an Image 100 procedures manual for Earth Resources Program image analysis was developed which sets forth guidelines that provide a basis for the preparation and updating of an Image 100 Procedures Manual. The scope of the outline was limited to definition of general features of a procedures manual together with special features of an interactive system. Computer programs were identified which should be implemented as part of an applications oriented library for the system.