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Sample records for imaging principles limitations

  1. [Imaging evaluation of renal function: principles and limitations].

    PubMed

    Vivier, P-H; Dolores, M; Le Cloirec, J; Beurdeley, M; Liard, A; Elbaz, F; Roset, J-B; Dacher, J-N

    2011-04-01

    The kidney performs multiple functions. Glomerular filtration is the most studied of these functions. In clinical practice, the surgical indication for patients with unilateral uropathy is frequently based on the split renal function as demonstrated by scintigraphy. MRI is not yet validated as a technique but nonetheless offers an interesting non-radiating alternative to achieve both morphological and functional renal evaluation. Recent pulse sequences such as diffusion, arterial spin labeling, and blood oxygenation dependent imaging may also provide additional information. CT and US remain of limited value for the evaluation of renal function.

  2. [Computer-based image analysis for experimental and clinical morphology--principles, utilization and marginal limits].

    PubMed

    Seufert, R; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R; Lellé, R

    1999-01-01

    The new computer based image analysis techniques are powerful tools for mophometrical and quantitative image analysis in case of clinical and experimental morphology. Digital image analysis requires a distinction between two phases 1. generation of fundamental data (x,y coordinates and grey values of the pixel) and 2. calculation of parameters from these data. Stereological procedures are very powerful in quantifying morphological phenomenons, but computer based image analysing techniques allow multiple analysis of morphological objects and analysis of statistical distributions. There is great scientific benefit using modern computer based image analysing techniques.

  3. Principles of digital imaging.

    PubMed

    van der Stelt, P F

    2000-04-01

    Electronic sensors in diagnostic radiology are gradually replacing radiographic film. The advantages of this new technology include a lower radiation dose to the patient, an almost instantaneous availability of images without the need for chemical film processing, and the possibility of image enhancement and computer-aided feature extraction. Digital radiography is a promising technology, opening the door to new diagnostic procedures not available with traditional film-based imaging.

  4. Spectral imaging: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Garini, Yuval; Young, Ian T; McNamara, George

    2006-08-01

    Spectral imaging extends the capabilities of biological and clinical studies to simultaneously study multiple features such as organelles and proteins qualitatively and quantitatively. Spectral imaging combines two well-known scientific methodologies, namely spectroscopy and imaging, to provide a new advantageous tool. The need to measure the spectrum at each point of the image requires combining dispersive optics with the more common imaging equipment, and introduces constrains as well. The principles of spectral imaging and a few representative applications are described. Spectral imaging analysis is necessary because the complex data structure cannot be analyzed visually. A few of the algorithms are discussed with emphasis on the usage for different experimental modes (fluorescence and bright field). Finally, spectral imaging, like any method, should be evaluated in light of its advantages to specific applications, a selection of which is described. Spectral imaging is a relatively new technique and its full potential is yet to be exploited. Nevertheless, several applications have already shown its potential. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  5. Serious limitations of the strong equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang

    2017-05-01

    It is well known that an accelerated charged particle radiates away energy. However, whether an accelerated neutral composite particle radiates away energy is unclear. We study decoherent Larmor radiation from an accelerated neutral composite object. We find that the neutral object’s long wavelength radiation is highly suppressed because radiation from different charges is canceled out. However, the neutral object radiates high energy or short wavelength radiation without any suppression. In that case, radiation from each particle can be treated independently, and it is called the decoherent radiation. We compare a hydrogen atom’s decoherent Larmor radiation with its gravitational radiation while the atom is in a circular orbit around a star. Gravitational radiation is stronger than the electromagnetic radiation if the orbital radius is larger than some critical radius. Since the decoherent radiation is related to the object’s structure, this implies that the strong equivalence principle which states that gravitational motion does not depend on an object’s constitution has severe limitations.

  6. Principles and clinical applications of strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Govind, Satish C; Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Gopal, Aasha S; Brodin, Lars Ake; Ramesh; Saha, Samir K

    2011-01-01

    M-Mode echocardiography, 2-D grey scale imaging and standard Doppler that constitute conventional echocardiography has been used for over many decades now. Although these modalities form the backbone in routine clinical echocardiography, its inability to objectively quantify left ventricular function at regional and global levels as well as its loading and heart rate dependency make conventional echocardiography an incomplete tool in clinical situations. Tissue Doppler imaging (which includes myocardial velocity, displacement and strain) has been successfully used in a variety of clinical situations, from investigations of diastolic function to implantation of bi-ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy and even in preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Strain imaging has been found to be superior to velocity in a variety of clinical conditions and enables us to quantify deformation as a measurable number in terms of regional myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate have to be assessed together since they provide complementary information somewhat analogous to ejection fraction and contraction. This article has tried to simplify its principles, understand its limitations and know its utility to ensure having a better knowledge of this promising tool before one starts to actively use it. In this review, focus has been made on the physical, technical and also clinical aspects of strain imaging. In the new world of multi-modality imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and nuclear perfusion scintigraphy (NPS) are the competitors of echocardiography, but it would be of interest to note that even these modalities are also adapting concepts of strain imaging (in CMR) and left ventricular synchronicity (in NPS). This only emphasizes the role of advanced echocardiography as a more economical and stand-alone modality visa vis the other two related technologies. The sooner we adapt to these advanced

  7. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Joseph C

    2008-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become the dominant clinical imaging modality with widespread, primarily noninvasive, applicability throughout the body and across many disease processes. The flexibility of MR imaging enables the development of purpose-built optimized applications. Concurrent developments in digital image processing, microprocessor power, storage, and computer-aided design have spurred and enabled further growth in capability. Although MR imaging may be viewed as "mature" in some respects, the field is rich with new proposals and applications that hold great promise for future research health care uses. This article delineates the basic principles of MR imaging and illuminates specific applications.

  8. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  9. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, M. K.; Truong, T. T.; Morvidone, M.; Zaidi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields. PMID:21747823

  10. On a Limit Theorem and Invariance Principle for Symmetric Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    A177 292 ON A LIMIT THEOREM AND INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE FOR / SYMMETRIC STATISTICS .(U) NORTH CAROLINA UNIV AT CHAPEL HILL CENTER FOR STOCHASTIC PROC...TI TLE (Include SeCUPntY Claaftceaon, .12F20 "On a limit theorem and invariance princinle ior symmetricls- j 12. PERSONAL AUTHI4O( M.andrekar, V. 13...University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina ON A LIMIT THEOREM AND INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE FOR SYMMIETRIC STATISTICS Approved for public release

  11. Exercise Prescription: Principles and Current Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions must be both safe and effective, while maximizing patient compliance. Safety can be threatened by physical injury, cardiac emergencies and environmental hazards. Risk can be reduced by individualizing the prescription, although the stress ECG contributes little to the prevention of the exercise catastrophe. Effectiveness of a prescription must be gauged by development of aerobic power and muscular strength, reduction of obesity, improvement of flexibility and control of coronary risk factors. The variability of patient response limits the potential for accurate laboratory prescription of exercise; fine tuning must depend upon the patient's immediate reactions. PMID:21283273

  12. Principles of superconductor imaging surface gradiometry

    SciTech Connect

    van Hulsteyn, D.B.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Flynn, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic sources in the vicinity of superconducting surfaces produce images in such a way that a single pick-up coil parallel to the surface acts as a first order gradiometer. The principles will be described, together with specific discussions of the imaging by planar and spherical surfaces. The fact that these surfaces also deflect noise due to remote sources make this concept particularly appealing as a method for detecting extremely weak sources in a hostile environment. Possible applications to neuromagnetometry, corrosion detection and non-destructive evaluation will be discussed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guozhu

    2008-05-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tremendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles and Techniques: Lessons for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Vijay P.B.; Tognarelli, Joshua M.; Crossey, Mary M.E.; Cox, I. Jane; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; McPhail, Mark J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for use in medical investigation has provided a huge forward leap in the field of diagnosis, particularly with avoidance of exposure to potentially dangerous ionizing radiation. With decreasing costs and better availability, the use of MRI is becoming ever more pervasive throughout clinical practice. Understanding the principles underlying this imaging modality and its multiple applications can be used to appreciate the benefits and limitations of its use, further informing clinical decision-making. In this article, the principles of MRI are reviewed, with further discussion of specific clinical applications such as parallel, diffusion-weighted, and magnetization transfer imaging. MR spectroscopy is also considered, with an overview of key metabolites and how they may be interpreted. Finally, a brief view on how the use of MRI will change over the coming years is presented. PMID:26628842

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles and Techniques: Lessons for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Grover, Vijay P B; Tognarelli, Joshua M; Crossey, Mary M E; Cox, I Jane; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; McPhail, Mark J W

    2015-09-01

    The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for use in medical investigation has provided a huge forward leap in the field of diagnosis, particularly with avoidance of exposure to potentially dangerous ionizing radiation. With decreasing costs and better availability, the use of MRI is becoming ever more pervasive throughout clinical practice. Understanding the principles underlying this imaging modality and its multiple applications can be used to appreciate the benefits and limitations of its use, further informing clinical decision-making. In this article, the principles of MRI are reviewed, with further discussion of specific clinical applications such as parallel, diffusion-weighted, and magnetization transfer imaging. MR spectroscopy is also considered, with an overview of key metabolites and how they may be interpreted. Finally, a brief view on how the use of MRI will change over the coming years is presented.

  16. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  17. Multi-imager compatible actuation principles in surgical robotics

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, D

    2011-01-01

    Today’s most successful surgical robots are perhaps surgeon-driven systems, such as the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., USA, www.intuitivesurgical.com). These have already enabled surgery that was unattainable with classic instrumentation; however, at their present level of development, they have limited utility. The drawback of these systems is that they are independent self-contained units, and as such, they do not directly take advantage of patient data. The potential of these new surgical tools lies much further ahead. Integration with medical imaging and information are needed for these devices to achieve their true potential. Surgical robots and especially their subclass of image-guided systems require special design, construction and control compared to industrial types, due to the special requirements of the medical and imaging environments. Imager compatibility raises significant engineering challenges for the development of robotic manipulators with respect to imager access, safety, ergonomics, and above all the non-interference with the functionality of the imager. These apply to all known medical imaging types, but are especially challenging for achieving compatibility with the class of MRI systems. Even though a large majority of robotic components may be redesigned to be constructed of MRI compatible materials, for other components such as the motors used in actuation, prescribing MRI compatible materials alone is not sufficient. The electromagnetic motors most commonly used in robotic actuation, for example, are incompatible by principle. As such, alternate actuation principles using “intervention friendly” energy should be adopted and/or devised for these special surgical and radiological interventions. This paper defines the new concept of Multi-imager Compatibility of surgical manipulators and describes its requirements. Subsequently, the paper gives several recommendations and proposes new actuation principles for this concept. Several

  18. Multi-imager compatible actuation principles in surgical robotics.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, D

    2005-01-01

    Today's most successful surgical robots are perhaps surgeon-driven systems, such as the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical Inc., USA, www.intuitivesurgical.com). These have already enabled surgery that was unattainable with classic instrumentation; however, at their present level of development, they have limited utility. The drawback of these systems is that they are independent self-contained units, and as such, they do not directly take advantage of patient data. The potential of these new surgical tools lies much further ahead. Integration with medical imaging and information are needed for these devices to achieve their true potential. Surgical robots and especially their subclass of image-guided systems require special design, construction and control compared to industrial types, due to the special requirements of the medical and imaging environments. Imager compatibility raises significant engineering challenges for the development of robotic manipulators with respect to imager access, safety, ergonomics, and above all the non-interference with the functionality of the imager. These apply to all known medical imaging types, but are especially challenging for achieving compatibility with the class of MRI systems. Even though a large majority of robotic components may be redesigned to be constructed of MRI compatible materials, for other components such as the motors used in actuation, prescribing MRI compatible materials alone is not sufficient. The electromagnetic motors most commonly used in robotic actuation, for example, are incompatible by principle. As such, alternate actuation principles using "intervention friendly" energy should be adopted and/or devised for these special surgical and radiological interventions. This paper defines the new concept of Multi-Imager Compatibility of surgical manipulators and describes its requirements. Subsequently, the paper gives several recommendations and proposes new actuation principles for this concept. Several

  19. Computed tomography imaging and angiography - principles.

    PubMed

    Kamalian, Shervin; Lev, Michael H; Gupta, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with diverse neurologic disorders was forever changed in the summer of 1973, when the first commercial computed tomography (CT) scanners were introduced. Until then, the detection and characterization of intracranial or spinal lesions could only be inferred by limited spatial resolution radioisotope scans, or by the patterns of tissue and vascular displacement on invasive pneumoencaphalography and direct carotid puncture catheter arteriography. Even the earliest-generation CT scanners - which required tens of minutes for the acquisition and reconstruction of low-resolution images (128×128 matrix) - could, based on density, noninvasively distinguish infarct, hemorrhage, and other mass lesions with unprecedented accuracy. Iodinated, intravenous contrast added further sensitivity and specificity in regions of blood-brain barrier breakdown. The advent of rapid multidetector row CT scanning in the early 1990s created renewed enthusiasm for CT, with CT angiography largely replacing direct catheter angiography. More recently, iterative reconstruction postprocessing techniques have made possible high spatial resolution, reduced noise, very low radiation dose CT scanning. The speed, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and low radiation dose capability of present-day scanners have also facilitated dual-energy imaging which, like magnetic resonance imaging, for the first time, has allowed tissue-specific CT imaging characterization of intracranial pathology.

  20. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  2. Physicochemical characterization techniques for solid lipid nanoparticles: principles and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kathe, Niranjan; Henriksen, Brian; Chauhan, Harsh

    2014-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are gaining importance due to numerous advantages they offer as a drug delivery system. SLN incorporate poorly soluble drugs, proteins, biologicals, etc. SLN are prepared by techniques like high-pressure homogenization, sonication and employs a wide range of lipids and surfactants. Physicochemical characterization techniques include particle size analysis, zeta potential and determination of crystallinity/polymorphism. Furthermore, drug loading and drug entrapment efficiency are common parameters used to test the efficiency of SLN. Most importantly, the functionality assay of SLN is essential to predict the activity and performance in vivo. The review presented discusses the importance of SLN in drug delivery with emphasis on principles and limitations associated with their physicochemical characterization.

  3. Principles and Limitations of Ultra-Wideband FM Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, John F. M.; Kouwenhoven, Michiel H. L.; van der Meer, Paul R.; Farserotu, John R.; Long, John R.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel UWB communications system using double FM: a low-modulation index digital FSK followed by a high-modulation index analog FM to create a constant-envelope UWB signal. FDMA techniques at the subcarrier level are exploited to accommodate multiple users. The system is intended for low (1-10 kbps) and medium (100-1000 kbps) bit rate, and short-range WPAN systems. A wideband delay-line FM demodulator that is not preceded by any limiting amplifier constitutes the key component of the UWBFM receiver. This unusual approach permits multiple users to share the same RF bandwidth. Multipath, however, may limit the useful subcarrier bandwidth to one octave. This paper addresses the performance with AWGN and multipath, the resistance to narrowband interference, as well as the simultaneous detection of multiple FM signals at the same carrier frequency. SPICE and Matlab simulation results illustrate the principles and limitations of this new technology. A hardware demonstrator has been realized and has allowed the confirmation of theory with practical results.

  4. Fundamental limits on transparency: first-principles calculations of absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a technologically important class of materials with applications ranging from solar cells, displays, smart windows, and touch screens to light-emitting diodes. TCOs combine high conductivity, provided by a high concentration of electrons in the conduction band, with transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. The requirement of transparency is usually tied to the band gap being sufficiently large to prevent absorption of visible photons. This is a necessary but not sufficient condition: indeed, the high concentration of free carriers can also lead to optical absorption by excitation of electrons to higher conduction-band states. A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in TCOs is essential for further progress in materials and applications. The Drude theory is widely used, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. First-principles calculations have been performed, but were limited to direct transitions; as we show in the present work, indirect transitions assisted by phonons or defects actually dominate. Our calculations are the first to address indirect free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We present results for SnO2, but the methodology is general and is also being applied to ZnO and In2O3. The calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes in different wavelength regimes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. For SnO2, we find that absorption is modest in the visible, and much stronger in the ultraviolet and infrared. Work performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle, and supported by DOE, NSF, and BAEF.

  5. Fundamental limits of classical and quantum imaging.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Pearce, Mark E; Kok, Pieter

    2012-09-21

    Quantum imaging promises increased imaging performance over classical protocols. However, there are a number of aspects of quantum imaging that are not well understood. In particular, it has been unknown so far how to compare classical and quantum imaging procedures. Here, we consider classical and quantum imaging in a single theoretical framework and present general fundamental limits on the resolution and the deposition rate for classical and quantum imaging. The resolution can be estimated from the image itself. We present a utility function that allows us to compare imaging protocols in a wide range of applications.

  6. Digital imaging and video: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Andrew L; Hausman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Digital imaging has provided orthopaedic surgeons with new, powerful tools that offer a multitude of applications. Already integral to several common medical devices, digital images can be used for case documentation and presentation as well as for diagnostic and surgical patient care information. Educational presentation has been transformed by the use of computers and digital projectors. Understanding the basic foundations of digital imaging technology is important for effectively creating digital images, videos, and presentations.

  7. Principles and clinical applications of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kisner, H J

    1988-12-01

    Image processing has traveled to the lunar surface and back, finding its way into the clinical laboratory. Advances in digital computers have improved the technology of image analysis, resulting in a wide variety of medical applications. Offering improvements in turnaround time, standardized systems, increased precision, and walkaway automation, digital image analysis has likely found a permanent home as a diagnostic aid in the interpretation of microscopic as well as macroscopic laboratory images.

  8. Digital holographic adaptive optics for ocular imaging: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K

    2011-07-15

    An adaptive optics (AO) ocular imaging system is proposed that is based on the principles of digital holography and dispenses with the wavefront sensor and wavefront modulator of conventional AO systems, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost while increasing speed and resolution. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gibby, Wendell A

    2005-01-01

    We have come full circle from spinning quarks to 3D medical images. The bulk of MRI is now performed using slice-selective gradients, during which RF energy is applied to excite the hydrogen nuclei. By stepping a phase-encoding gradient during each TR and using a frequency-encoding gradient as the data are sampled, the 3D human object can be reduced to many individual points or voxels. By acquiring multiple slices at once, the time efficiency of imaging can be vastly improved. Many newer strategies use variations of this technique to acquire multiple lines of data during a single echo, enshrining spin warp imaging as the most important method of signal acquisition for MRI.

  10. Principles of nuclear medicine imaging: planar, SPECT, PET, multi-modality, and autoradiography systems.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2012-04-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear medicine imaging involve the use of unsealed sources of radioactivity in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The ionizing radiations that accompany the decay of the administered radioactivity can be quantitatively detected, measured, and imaged in vivo with instruments such as gamma cameras. This paper reviews the design and operating principles, as well as the capabilities and limitations, of instruments used clinically and preclinically for in vivo radionuclide imaging. These include gamma cameras, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners, and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The technical basis of autoradiography is reviewed as well.

  11. Limitations to testing the equivalence principle with satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, A. M.; Comandi, G. L.; Bramanti, D.; Doravari, Suresh; Lucchesi, D. M.; Maccarrone, F.

    2008-07-01

    We consider the possibility of testing the equivalence principle (EP) in the gravitational field of the Earth from the orbits of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II satellites, which are very accurately tracked from ground by laser ranging. The orbital elements that are affected by an EP violation and can be used to measure the corresponding dimensionless parameter η are semimajor axis and argument of pericenter. We show that the best result is obtained from the semimajor axis, and it is limited—with all available ranging data to LAGEOS and LAGEOS II—to η ≃ 2 × 10-9, more than 3 orders of magnitude worse than experimental results provided by torsion balances. The experiment is limited because of the non uniformity of the gravitational field of the Earth and the error in the measurement of semimajor axis, precisely in the same way as they limit the measurement of the product GM of the Earth. A better use of the pericenter of LAGEOS II can be made if the data are analyzed searching for a new Yukawa-like interaction with a distance scale of one Earth radius. It is found that the pericenter of LAGEOS II is 3 orders of magnitude more sensitive to a composition dependent new interaction with this particular scale than it is to a composition dependent effect expressed by the η parameter only. Nevertheless, the result is still a factor 500 worse than EP tests with torsion balances in the gravitational field of the Earth (i.e. at comparable distance), though a detailed data analysis has yet to be performed. While EP tests with satellite laser ranging are not competitive, laser ranging to the Moon has been able to provide a test of the EP almost 1 order of magnitude better than torsion balances. We show that this is due to the much greater distance of the test masses (the Earth and the Moon) from the primary body (the Sun) and the correspondingly smaller gradients of its gravity field. We therefore consider a similar new experiment involving the orbit of LAGEOS: testing LAGEOS

  12. Principles of PET/MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Disselhorst, Jonathan A; Bezrukov, Ilja; Kolb, Armin; Parl, Christoph; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid PET/MR systems have rapidly progressed from the prototype stage to systems that are increasingly being used in the clinics. This review provides an overview of developments in hybrid PET/MR systems and summarizes the current state of the art in PET/MR instrumentation, correction techniques, and data analysis. The strong magnetic field requires considerable changes in the manner by which PET images are acquired and has led, among others, to the development of new PET detectors, such as silicon photomultipliers. During more than a decade of active PET/MR development, several system designs have been described. The technical background of combined PET/MR systems is explained and related challenges are discussed. The necessity for PET attenuation correction required new methods based on MR data. Therefore, an overview of recent developments in this field is provided. Furthermore, MR-based motion correction techniques for PET are discussed, as integrated PET/MR systems provide a platform for measuring motion with high temporal resolution without additional instrumentation. The MR component in PET/MR systems can provide functional information about disease processes or brain function alongside anatomic images. Against this background, we point out new opportunities for data analysis in this new field of multimodal molecular imaging. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. [Bioethical principles in public health: limitations and proposals].

    PubMed

    Schramm, F R; Kottow, M

    2001-01-01

    We propose to analyze the specificity of ethical problems in public health issues and to elucidate the applicability of principlism as a problem-solving strategy in this realm. Although well-established in clinical ethics, principlism is not an adequate model to be used in public health, since it is basically intended to serve as a moral guide in the physician-patient encounter. We discuss the possible adequacy of principles like "solidarity", "ontic responsibility" (as proposed by Jonas), and "caring or diaconal responsibility" as presented by Lévinas. Solidarity appears to be insufficiently specified, whereas the other two perspectives may be adapted to public health issues by bringing together Jonas' ontological and Lévinas' transcendental concerns to form a principle of protection that might better serve the purposes of such an ethics. This principle would help to identify more clearly the goals and agents involved in the implementation of public policies that are expected to be both morally correct and pragmatically effective.

  14. Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Pierre; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Menzel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffractive imaging technique, holds promise for imaging with dose-limited resolution and sensitivity. If the foreseen increase of coherent flux by orders of magnitude can be matched by additional technological and analytical advances, ptychography may approach imaging speeds familiar from full-field methods while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. Beyond promises of high throughput, spectroscopic applications in three dimensions become feasible, as do measurements of sample dynamics through time-resolved imaging or careful characterization of decoherence effects. PMID:25177990

  15. Principle component analysis based hyperspectral image fusion in imaging spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wenyi; Wu, Dan; Jiang, Jiangang; Yang, Guoan; Zhang, Chunmin

    2017-02-01

    Image fusion is of great importance in object detection. A PCA based image fusion method was proposed. A pixel-level average method and a wavelet-based methods have been implemented for a comparison study. Different performance metrics without reference image are implemented to evaluate the performance of image fusion algorithms. It has been concluded that image fusion using PCA based method showed better performance.

  16. Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2008-10-15

    The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z < or approx. 0.25 the scale is found to coincide with the empirical acceleration scale of modified Newtonian dynamics. At larger redshifts the scale varies in a manner which is likely to be important for understanding dynamics of galaxy clusters, and structure formation. Although the relative deceleration, typically of order 10{sup -10} ms{sup -2}, is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.

  17. Resolution-limited statistical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaum, Marek; Syrkin, Mark

    1993-09-01

    We have examined the performance of a one-layer Perceptron for the detection and classification of small (resolution-limited) targets from their images, which are stochastic realizations of random processes. The processes are governed by non-Gaussian, non-white distributions. Our results show the potential of the Perceptron classifier as an Ideal Observer and suggest image detection and classification problems for which neural networks may be more reliable than human observers.

  18. Physical limits and design principles for plant and fungal movements.

    PubMed

    Skotheim, Jan M; Mahadevan, L

    2005-05-27

    The typical scales for plant and fungal movements vary over many orders of magnitude in time and length, but they are ultimately based on hydraulics and mechanics. We show that quantification of the length and time scales involved in plant and fungal motions leads to a natural classification, whose physical basis can be understood through an analysis of the mechanics of water transport through an elastic tissue. Our study also suggests a design principle for nonmuscular hydraulically actuated structures: Rapid actuation requires either small size or the enhancement of motion on large scales via elastic instabilities.

  19. Uncertainty Principle--Limited Experiments: Fact or Academic Pipe-Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albergotti, J. Clifton

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether modern experiments are limited by the uncertainty principle or by the instruments used to perform the experiments is discussed. Several key experiments show that the instruments limit our knowledge and the principle remains of strictly academic concern. (DF)

  20. Uncertainty Principle--Limited Experiments: Fact or Academic Pipe-Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albergotti, J. Clifton

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether modern experiments are limited by the uncertainty principle or by the instruments used to perform the experiments is discussed. Several key experiments show that the instruments limit our knowledge and the principle remains of strictly academic concern. (DF)

  1. Magnetic particle imaging: from proof of principle to preclinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, T.; Gdaniec, N.; Möddel, M.

    2017-07-01

    Tomographic imaging has become a mandatory tool for the diagnosis of a majority of diseases in clinical routine. Since each method has its pros and cons, a variety of them is regularly used in clinics to satisfy all application needs. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a relatively new tomographic imaging technique that images magnetic nanoparticles with a high spatiotemporal resolution in a quantitative way, and in turn is highly suited for vascular and targeted imaging. MPI was introduced in 2005 and now enters the preclinical research phase, where medical researchers get access to this new technology and exploit its potential under physiological conditions. Within this paper, we review the development of MPI since its introduction in 2005. Besides an in-depth description of the basic principles, we provide detailed discussions on imaging sequences, reconstruction algorithms, scanner instrumentation and potential medical applications.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance: principles of blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Sheldon, P.; Norman, D.; Bank, W.; Newton, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with spin-echo techniques defines vascular structures with superb anatomic detail. Contrast agents are not necessary as there is intrinsic contrast between flowing blood and the vascular wall. The signal intensity from blood within the vessel lumen varies with the sequence of gradient and radiofrequency pulses used to generate the image as well as with the velocity of blood flow. Appropriate imaging techniques can optimize anatomic detail, distinguish slow from rapidly flowing blood, and serve to identify marked impairment or complete obstruction of flow in an artery or vein. Some examples of these principles in the intracranial circulation are illustrated.

  3. Beyond the lateral resolution limit by phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Cotte, Yann; Toy, M Fatih; Depeursinge, Christian

    2011-10-01

    We present a theory to extend the classical Abbe resolution limit by introducing a spatially varying phase into the illumination beam of a phase imaging system. It allows measuring lateral and axial distance differences between point sources to a higher accuracy than intensity imaging alone. Various proposals for experimental realization are debated. Concretely, the phase of point scatterers' interference is experimentally visualized by high numerical aperture (NA = 0.93) digital holographic microscopy combined with angular scanning. Proof-of-principle measurements are presented by using sub-wavelength nanometric holes on an opaque metallic film. In this manner, Rayleighs classical two-point resolution condition can be rebuilt. With different illumination phases, enhanced bandpass information content is demonstrated, and its spatial resolution is theoretically shown to be potentially signal-to-noise ratio limited.

  4. Beyond the lateral resolution limit by phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Yann; Toy, M. Fatih; Depeursinge, Christian

    2011-10-01

    We present a theory to extend the classical Abbe resolution limit by introducing a spatially varying phase into the illumination beam of a phase imaging system. It allows measuring lateral and axial distance differences between point sources to a higher accuracy than intensity imaging alone. Various proposals for experimental realization are debated. Concretely, the phase of point scatterers' interference is experimentally visualized by high numerical aperture (NA = 0.93) digital holographic microscopy combined with angular scanning. Proof-of-principle measurements are presented by using sub-wavelength nanometric holes on an opaque metallic film. In this manner, Rayleighs classical two-point resolution condition can be rebuilt. With different illumination phases, enhanced bandpass information content is demonstrated, and its spatial resolution is theoretically shown to be potentially signal-to-noise ratio limited.

  5. Principles of image processing in digital chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Mathias; Neitzel, Ulrich; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2003-07-01

    Image processing has a major impact on image quality and diagnostic performance of digital chest radiographs. Goals of processing are to reduce the dynamic range of the image data to capture the full range of attenuation differences between lungs and mediastinum, to improve the modulation transfer function to optimize spatial resolution, to enhance structural contrast, and to suppress image noise. Image processing comprises look-up table operations and spatial filtering. Look-up table operations allow for automated signal normalization and arbitrary choice of image gradation. The most simple and still widely applied spatial filtering algorithms are based on unsharp masking. Various modifications were introduced for dynamic range reduction and MTF restoration. More elaborate and more effective are multi-scale frequency processing algorithms. They are based on the subdivision of an image in multiple frequency bands according to its structural composition. This allows for a wide range of image manipulations including a size-independent enhancement of low-contrast structures. Principles of the various algorithms will be explained and their impact on image appearance will be illustrated by clinical examples. Optimum and sub-optimum parameter settings are discussed and pitfalls will be explained.

  6. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  7. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  8. Fundamental uncertainty limit of optical flow velocimetry according to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Optical flow velocity measurements are important for understanding the complex behavior of flows. Although a huge variety of methods exist, they are either based on a Doppler or a time-of-flight measurement principle. Doppler velocimetry evaluates the velocity-dependent frequency shift of light scattered at a moving particle, whereas time-of-flight velocimetry evaluates the traveled distance of a scattering particle per time interval. Regarding the aim of achieving a minimal measurement uncertainty, it is unclear if one principle allows to achieve lower uncertainties or if both principles can achieve equal uncertainties. For this reason, the natural, fundamental uncertainty limit according to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is derived for Doppler and time-of-flight measurement principles, respectively. The obtained limits of the velocity uncertainty are qualitatively identical showing, e.g., a direct proportionality for the absolute value of the velocity to the power of 32 and an indirect proportionality to the square root of the scattered light power. Hence, both measurement principles have identical potentials regarding the fundamental uncertainty limit due to the quantum mechanical behavior of photons. This fundamental limit can be attained (at least asymptotically) in reality either with Doppler or time-of-flight methods, because the respective Cramér-Rao bounds for dominating photon shot noise, which is modeled as white Poissonian noise, are identical with the conclusions from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

  9. Detection limits with spectral differential imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Maire, A.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Direct imaging of exoplanets is polluted by speckle noise that severely limits the achievable contrast. Angular and spectral differential imaging have been proposed to make use of the temporal and chromatic properties of the speckles. Both modes, associated with extreme adaptive-optics and coronagraphy, are at the core of the new generation of planet imagers SPHERE and GPI. Aims: We aim to illustrate and characterize the impact of the SDI and SDI+ADI (ASDI) data reduction on the detection of giant planets. We also propose an unbiased method to derive the detection limits from SDI/ASDI data. Methods: Observations of AB Dor B and β Pictoris made with VLT/NaCo were used to simulate and quantify the effects of SDI and ASDI. The novel method is compared to the traditional injection of artificial point sources. Results: The SDI reduction process creates a typical radial positive-negative pattern of any point-source. Its characteristics and its self-subtraction depend on the separation, but also on the spectral properties of the object. This work demonstrates that the self-subtraction cannot be reduced to a simple geometric effect. As a consequence, the detection performances of SDI observations cannot be expressed as a contrast in magnitude with the central star without the knowledge of the spectral properties of detectable companions. In addition, the residual noise cannot be converted into contrast and physical characteristics (mass, temperature) by standard calibration of flux losses. The proposed method takes the SDI bias into account to derive detection limits without the cost of massively injecting artificial sources into the data. Finally, the sensitivity of ASDI observations can be measured only with a control parameter on the algorithms that controls the minimum rotation that is necessary to build the reference image. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, ESO : 60.A

  10. Principles of CT: radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lee W

    2007-12-01

    This article discusses CT radiation dose, the measurement of CT dose, and CT image quality. The most commonly used dose descriptor is CT dose index, which represents the dose to a location (e.g., depth) in a scanned volume from a complete series of slices. A weighted average of the CT dose index measured at the center and periphery of dose phantoms provides a convenient single-number estimate of patient dose for a procedure, and this value (or a related indicator that includes the scanned length) is often displayed on the operator's console. CT image quality, as in most imaging, is described in terms of contrast, spatial resolution, image noise, and artifacts. A strength of CT is its ability to visualize structures of low contrast in a subject, a task that is limited primarily by noise and is therefore closely associated with radiation dose: The higher the dose contributing to the image, the less apparent is image noise and the easier it is to perceive low-contrast structures. Spatial resolution is ultimately limited by sampling, but both image noise and resolution are strongly affected by the reconstruction filter. As a result, diagnostically acceptable image quality at acceptable doses of radiation requires appropriately designed clinical protocols, including appropriate kilovolt peaks, amperages, slice thicknesses, and reconstruction filters.

  11. Live three-dimensional echocardiography: imaging principles and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Fang; Deng, You-Bin; Nanda, Navin C; Deng, Jing; Miller, Andrew P; Xie, Ming-Xing

    2003-10-01

    Live three-dimensional echocardiography (L3DE) is an important breakthrough in the field of medical ultrasound. It will provide a great potential tool for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this article, the authors first review the bottlenecks in 3D cardiac imaging and the technical principles of L3DE that have been used to overcome some of these problems. We then discuss the scanning methods, clinical usefulness, and the future of L3DE, drawing on our experiences in examining 124 human patients and in conducting animal verification studies with a live 3D ultrasound system.

  12. Limitations of Sulforhodamine 101 for Brain Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hülsmann, Swen; Hagos, Liya; Heuer, Heike; Schnell, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the red fluorescent dye Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been boosting the functional analysis of astrocytes in a functional environment in an unprecedented way. However, two major limitations have been challenging the usefulness of this tool for cellular imaging: (i) SR101 is not as specific for astrocytes as previously reported; and (ii) discoveries of severe excitatory side effects of SR101 are bearing the risk of unwanted alteration of the system of interest. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge about SR101-labeling protocols and discuss the problems that arise from varying of the staining protocols. Furthermore, we provide a testable hypothesis for the observed hyper-excitability that can be observed when using SR101.

  13. Limitations of Sulforhodamine 101 for Brain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hülsmann, Swen; Hagos, Liya; Heuer, Heike; Schnell, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the red fluorescent dye Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) has been boosting the functional analysis of astrocytes in a functional environment in an unprecedented way. However, two major limitations have been challenging the usefulness of this tool for cellular imaging: (i) SR101 is not as specific for astrocytes as previously reported; and (ii) discoveries of severe excitatory side effects of SR101 are bearing the risk of unwanted alteration of the system of interest. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge about SR101-labeling protocols and discuss the problems that arise from varying of the staining protocols. Furthermore, we provide a testable hypothesis for the observed hyper-excitability that can be observed when using SR101. PMID:28293173

  14. Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing: Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    medical imaging , e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since the early 1980s, MRI has granted doctors the ability to distinguish between healthy tissue ...Recent Advances in Compressed Sensing: Discrete Uncertainty Principles and Fast Hyperspectral Imaging THESIS MARCH 2015 Megan E. Lewis, Second...IN COMPRESSED SENSING: DISCRETE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLES AND FAST HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Mathematics and

  15. Two-Dimensional Strain Imaging: Basic principles and Technical Consideration.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ibrahim Halil; Aksakal, Enbiya

    2014-06-01

    Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and TDI-derived strain provide considerably accurate information in the non-invasive assessment of local myocardial functions. Given its high temporal and spatial resolution, TDI allows assessment of local myocardial functions in each phase of cardiac cycle. However, the most important limitation of this method is its angle dependence. New techniques to measure myocardial deformation, such as speckle tracking echocardiography, overcome the angle-dependence limitation of TDI-derived strain. Moreover, these techniques provide more unique information about myocardial fiber orientation. This review examines the architectural structure and function of the myocardium and includes technical revisions of this information that will provide a basis for STE.

  16. EXTRACTING PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS FOR DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF FMRI IMAGES.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyu; Xu, Lai; Caprihan, Arvind; Calhoun, Vince D

    2008-05-12

    This paper presents an approach for selecting optimal components for discriminant analysis. Such an approach is useful when further detailed analyses for discrimination or characterization requires dimensionality reduction. Our approach can accommodate a categorical variable such as diagnosis (e.g. schizophrenic patient or healthy control), or a continuous variable like severity of the disorder. This information is utilized as a reference for measuring a component's discriminant power after principle component decomposition. After sorting each component according to its discriminant power, we extract the best components for discriminant analysis. An application of our reference selection approach is shown using a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set in which the sample size is much less than the dimensionality. The results show that the reference selection approach provides an improved discriminant component set as compared to other approaches. Our approach is general and provides a solid foundation for further discrimination and classification studies.

  17. An Improved Limit on Pauli-Exclusion-Principle Forbidden Atomic Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, S. R.; LaRoque, B. H.; Gehman, V. M.; Kidd, M. F.; Chen, M.

    2012-08-01

    We have examined the atomic theory behind recent constraints on the violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle derived from experiments that look for X-rays emitted from conductors while a large current is present. We also re-examine the assumptions underlying such experiments. We use the results of these studies to assess pilot measurements to develop an improved test of the Principle. We present an improved limit of 1/2β2 < 2.6×10^{-39} on the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This limit is the best to date for interactions between a system of fermions and a fermion that has not previously interacted with that given system. That is, for systems that do not obviously violate the Messiah-Greenberg symmetrization-postulate selection rule.

  18. Digital micromirror devices: principles and applications in imaging.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vivek; Saggau, Peter

    2013-05-01

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is an array of individually switchable mirrors that can be used in many advanced optical systems as a rapid spatial light modulator. With a DMD, several implementations of confocal microscopy, hyperspectral imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging can be realized. The DMD can also be used as a real-time optical processor for applications such as the programmable array microscope and compressive sensing. Advantages and disadvantages of the DMD for these applications as well as methods to overcome some of the limitations will be discussed in this article. Practical considerations when designing with the DMD and sample optical layouts of a completely DMD-based imaging system and one in which acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) are used in the illumination pathway are also provided.

  19. The Global Landscape of Occupational Exposure Limits--Implementation of Harmonization Principles to Guide Limit Selection.

    PubMed

    Deveau, M; Chen, C-P; Johanson, G; Krewski, D; Maier, A; Niven, K J; Ripple, S; Schulte, P A; Silk, J; Urbanus, J H; Zalk, D M; Niemeier, R W

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) serve as health-based benchmarks against which measured or estimated workplace exposures can be compared. In the years since the introduction of OELs to public health practice, both developed and developing countries have established processes for deriving, setting, and using OELs to protect workers exposed to hazardous chemicals. These processes vary widely, however, and have thus resulted in a confusing international landscape for identifying and applying such limits in workplaces. The occupational hygienist will encounter significant overlap in coverage among organizations for many chemicals, while other important chemicals have OELs developed by few, if any, organizations. Where multiple organizations have published an OEL, the derived value often varies considerably-reflecting differences in both risk policy and risk assessment methodology as well as access to available pertinent data. This article explores the underlying reasons for variability in OELs, and recommends the harmonization of risk-based methods used by OEL-deriving organizations. A framework is also proposed for the identification and systematic evaluation of OEL resources, which occupational hygienists can use to support risk characterization and risk management decisions in situations where multiple potentially relevant OELs exist.

  20. [The European Convention of Bioethics. Objectives, guiding principles and possible limitations].

    PubMed

    Nys, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present work a detailed study is given of the European Convention on Bioethics, with discussion of its guiding principles--protection of human beings, their dignity and identity-, its objectives and the limits imposed by the Convention on the exercise of rights and freedoms in the case of the application of biology and medicine.

  1. [Responsibility: Towards a fifth principle in blood transfusion's ethics. Applicability and limits of Hans Jonas's responsibility principle].

    PubMed

    Nélaton, C

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in France, anonymity, gratuity, volunteering, non-profit are recognized as ethical principles in blood transfusion. Can we add responsibility to this list? Can a logo named "Responsiblood" efficiently encourage blood donation? This article explores Hans Jonas's reform of the responsibility concept in order to measure its applicabilities and limits in the field of blood transfusion. Indeed, this concept - rethought by Jonas - seems to be a good encouragement which avoids the pitfalls of the concept of duty and of the idea of payment for blood donation. But can't we also see in this reform a threat to blood transfusion because of technophobia and the heuristics of fear that it involves?

  2. Extending the fundamental imaging-depth limit of multi-photon microscopy by imaging with photo-activatable fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhixing; Wei, Lu; Zhu, Xinxin; Min, Wei

    2012-08-13

    It is highly desirable to be able to optically probe biological activities deep inside live organisms. By employing a spatially confined excitation via a nonlinear transition, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy has become indispensable for imaging scattering samples. However, as the incident laser power drops exponentially with imaging depth due to scattering loss, the out-of-focus fluorescence eventually overwhelms the in-focal signal. The resulting loss of imaging contrast defines a fundamental imaging-depth limit, which cannot be overcome by increasing excitation intensity. Herein we propose to significantly extend this depth limit by multiphoton activation and imaging (MPAI) of photo-activatable fluorophores. The imaging contrast is drastically improved due to the created disparity of bright-dark quantum states in space. We demonstrate this new principle by both analytical theory and experiments on tissue phantoms labeled with synthetic caged fluorescein dye or genetically encodable photoactivatable GFP.

  3. Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

  4. Quantitative MR imaging: physical principles and sequence design in abdominal imaging.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavya; Anderson, Stephan W; Scalera, Jonathan; Jara, Hernan; Soto, Jorge A

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging seeks to quantify fundamental biologic and MR-inducible tissue properties, in contrast to the routine application of MR imaging in the clinic, in which differences in MR parameters are used to generate contrast for subsequent subjective image analysis. Fundamental parameters that are commonly quantified by using MR imaging include proton density, diffusion, T1 relaxation, T2 and T2* relaxation, and magnetization transfer. Applications of these MR imaging-quantifiable parameters to abdominal imaging include oncologic imaging, evaluation of diffuse liver disease, and assessment of splenic, renal, and pancreatic disease. An understanding of the inherent physical principles underlying the basic quantitative parameters as well as the commonly used pulse sequences requisite to their derivation is critical, as this field is rapidly growing and its use will likely continue to expand in the clinic. The full potential of quantitative MR imaging applied to abdominal imaging has yet to be realized, but the myriad applications reported to date will undoubtedly continue to grow. Copyright © RSNA, 2011.

  5. New experimental limit on the Pauli exclusion principle violation by electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vip Collaboration; Bartalucci, S.; Bertolucci, S.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Catitti, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; di Matteo, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2006-09-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) is one of the basic principles of modern physics and, even if there are no compelling reasons to doubt its validity, it is still debated today because an intuitive, elementary explanation is still missing, and because of its unique stand among the basic symmetries of physics. The present Letter reports a new limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons, in a search for an anomalous K line in copper: the presence of this line in the soft X-ray copper fluorescence would signal a transition to a ground state already occupied by 2 electrons. The obtained value, 12β⩽4.5×10, improves the existing limit by almost two orders of magnitude.

  6. Industrial positron-based imaging: Principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. J.; Hawkesworth, M. R.; Broadbent, C. J.; Fowles, P.; Fryer, T. D.; McNeil, P. A.

    1994-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has great potential as a non-invasive flow imaging technique in engineering, since 511 keV gamma-rays can penetrate a considerable thickness of (e.g.) steel. The RAL/Birmingham multiwire positron camera was constructed in 1984, with the initial goal of observing the lubricant distribution in operating aero-engines, automotive engines and gearboxes, and has since been used in a variety of industrial fields. The major limitation of the camera for conventional tomographic PET studies is its restricted logging rate, which limits the frequency with which images can be acquired. Tracking a single small positron-emitting tracer particle provides a more powerful means of observing high speed motion using such a camera. Following a brief review of the use of conventional PET in engineering, and the capabilities of the Birmingham camera, this paper describes recent developments in the Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) technique, and compares the results obtainable by PET and PEPT using, as an example, a study of axial diffusion of particles in a rolling cylinder.

  7. The Uncertainty Threshold Principle: Some Fundamental Limitations of Optimal Decision Making Under Dynamic Uncertainity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    This note shows that the optimal control of dynamic systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exist if the parameter uncertainty exceeds a certain quantifiable threshold; we call this the uncertainty threshold principle. The philosophical and design implications of this result are discussed.

  8. The uncertainty threshold principle - Some fundamental limitations of optimal decision making under dynamic uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    This note shows that the optimal control of dynamic systems with uncertain parameters has certain limitations. In particular, by means of a simple scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example, it is shown that the infinite horizon solution does not exist if the parameter uncertainty exceeds a certain quantifiable threshold; we call this the uncertainty threshold principle. The philosophical and design implications of this result are discussed.

  9. Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-12-31

    Synthetic Aperture Radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often requires trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focussed image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependence on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focussed image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that performs favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub-subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing larger focussed image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compares focussed patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture (TSA) image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non-mosaicked focussed image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

  10. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  11. Limiting Factors in Underwater Imaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-14

    Underwater vision and diver visibility is one of the key research nd application topics dating back at least 150 years, when the Secchi disk was believed...1972, pp. 49-55. 16. Goodman J. W., Introduction to Fourier Optics: Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005. 17. Hou W.t et al., "Why does the Secchi ... disk disappear? An imaging perspective." Opt. Express, vol. 15, p. 2791-2802, March 19 2007. 18. Hou W. and Weidemann A., "Diver visibility: why

  12. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  13. Probing the limits of the majority-rules principle in a dynamic supramolecular polymer.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Maarten M J; Stals, Patrick J M; Mes, Tristan; Paffen, Tim F E; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2010-01-20

    By systematic variation of the chemical structure of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives, the effect of chemical structure on the amplification of chirality was studied and quantified. In combination with temperature-dependent amplification experiments, the limits of the majority-rules principle were also investigated. For all BTA derivatives a high, constant helix reversal penalty was determined, which is related to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds that are present in all studied derivatives. For asymmetrically substituted BTA derivatives an odd-even effect was found in the degree of chiral amplification when changing the position of the stereogenic center with respect to the amide functionality. It was found that the mismatch penalty could be directly related to the number of stereocenters present in the molecules. Increasing this number from one to three resulted in an increase in this energy penalty while leaving the helix reversal penalty unaffected. For the majority-rules principle this implies that a single stereocenter present in the molecule contains sufficient chiral information at the molecular level to result in a chirally amplified state at the supramolecular level. Further evidence that the mismatch penalty is directly related to the number of stereocenters was obtained from mixed majority-rules experiments where two BTA derivatives with different numbers of stereocenters with opposite stereoconfiguration were studied in a majority-rules experiment. Finally, the ultimate limits of chiral amplification for the majority-rules principle were investigated, revealing that, given a certain helix reversal penalty, there is an optimum to which the mismatch penalty can be reduced while also enhancing the degree of chiral amplification. Temperature-dependent majority-rules experiments could indeed confirm these simulations. These findings show the relevance of both energy penalties when trying to enhance the degree of chiral amplification for the

  14. Photon-limited depth and reflectivity imaging with sparsity regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kang; Lifei, Li; Xuejie, Duan; Tongyi, Zhang; Dongjian, Li; Wei, Zhao

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a depth and reflectivity imaging system at low light level based on sparsity regularization method. Depth and reflectivity imaging from the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement in limit of few photon counts are reconstructed through exploiting transform-domain sparsity. Two different sparsity-based penalty function: total variation (TV) penalty and l1 norm penalty measuring sparsity in the discrete cosine transform(DCT) basis, are applied to the experimental data. The results show that compared with traditional image denoising method, sparsity regularization approach achieves better accuracy with fewer photon measurements. Further more, the performance of TV regularization is proved better than l1-DCT regularization method for photon-limited imaging at first time, especially in the case of depth imaging. Our system is a photon-limited imaging device for a variety of applications, such as target detection, space surveillance, and distance measurement.

  15. [Principles of establishing occupational exposure limits for carcinogens in Poland and in other EU countries].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Czerczak, Slawomir

    2013-01-01

    The principles of determining exposure limits for carcinogens adopted in Poland, the European Union and in other selected countries of the EC are discussed in this article. Carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct health risk to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be kept at the lowest possible level. To assess health risk for carcinogens it is necessary to determine the probability of developing a disease or of death from cancer as a result of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances.

  16. The uncertainty threshold principle - Fundamental limitations of optimal decision making under dynamic uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Ku, R.; Gershwin, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental limitations of the optimal control of dynamic systems with random parameters are analyzed by studying a scalar linear-quadratic optimal control example. It is demonstrated that optimum long-range decision making is possible only if the dynamic uncertainty (quantified by the means and covariances of the random parameters) is below a certain threshold. If this threshold is exceeded, there do not exist optimum decision rules. This phenomenon is called the 'uncertainty threshold principle'. The implications of this phenomenon to the field of modelling, identification, and adaptive control are discussed.

  17. Limits on Einstein’s Equivalence Principle from the First Localized Fast Radio Burst FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) have recently been used to place limits on Einstein's Equivalence Principle via observations of time delays between photons of different radio frequencies by Wei et al. These limits on differential post-Newtonian parameters ({{Δ }}γ \\lt 2.52× {10}-8) are the best yet achieved, but they still rely on uncertain assumptions, namely the relative contributions of dispersion and gravitational delays to the observed time delays and the distances to FRBs. Also, very recently, the first FRB host galaxy has likely been identified, providing the first redshift-based distance estimate to FRB 150418. Moreover, consistency between the {{{Ω }}}{{IGM}} estimate from FRB 150418 and {{{Ω }}}{{IGM}}, expected from ΛCDM models and WMAP observations, leads one to conclude that the observed time delay for FRB 150418 is highly dominated by dispersion, with any gravitational delays being small contributors. This points to even tighter limits on Δγ. In this paper, the technique of Wei et al. is applied to FRB 150418 to produce a limit of Δγ < 1-2 × 10-9, approximately an order of magnitude better than previous limits and in line with expectations by Wei et al. for what could be achieved if the dispersive delay is separated from other effects. Future substantial improvements in such limits will depend on accurately determining the contribution of individual ionized components to the total observed time delays for FRBs.

  18. Nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory in inertial and noninertial frames and the principle of equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Padmanabhan, T.

    2011-10-15

    We discuss the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory in an inertial frame, in the Rindler frame and in the presence of a weak gravitational field, and attempt to highlight and clarify several subtleties. In particular, we study the following issues: (a) While the action for a relativistic free particle is invariant under the Lorentz transformation, the corresponding action for a nonrelativistic free particle is not invariant under the Galilean transformation, but picks up extra contributions at the end points. This leads to an extra phase in the nonrelativistic wave function under a Galilean transformation, which can be related to the rest energy of the particle even in the nonrelativistic limit. We show that this is closely related to the peculiar fact that the relativistic action for a free particle remains invariant even if we restrict ourselves to O(1/c{sup 2}) in implementing the Lorentz transformation. (b) We provide a brief critique of the principle of equivalence in the quantum mechanical context. In particular, we show how solutions to the generally covariant Klein-Gordon equation in a noninertial frame, which has a time-dependent acceleration, reduce to the nonrelativistic wave function in the presence of an appropriate (time-dependent) gravitational field in the c{yields}{infinity} limit, and relate this fact to the validity of the principle of equivalence in a quantum mechanical context. We also show that the extra phase acquired by the nonrelativistic wave function in an accelerated frame, actually arises from the gravitational time dilation and survives in the nonrelativistic limit. (c) While the solution of the Schroedinger equation can be given an interpretation as being the probability amplitude for a single particle, such an interpretation fails in quantum field theory. We show how, in spite of this, one can explicitly evaluate the path integral using the (nonquadratic) action for a relativistic particle (involving a square root) and

  19. Signal-to-noise ratio limitations for intensity correlation imaging.

    PubMed

    Fried, David L; Riker, Jim; Agrawal, Brij

    2014-07-01

    Intensity correlation imaging (ICI) is a concept which has been considered for the task of providing images of satellites in geosynchronous orbit using ground-based equipment. This concept is based on the intensity interferometer principle first developed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss. It is the objective of this paper to establish that a sun-lit geosynchronous satellite is too faint a target object to allow intensity interferometry to be used in developing image information about it-at least not in a reasonable time and with a reasonable amount of equipment. An analytic treatment of the basic phenomena is presented. This is an analysis of one aspect of the statistics of the very high frequency random variations of a very narrow portion of the optical spectra of the incoherent (black-body like-actually reflected sunlight) radiation from the satellite, an analysis showing that the covariance of this radiation as measured by a pair of ground-based telescopes is directly proportional to the square of the magnitude of one component of the Fourier transform of the image of the satellite-the component being the one for a spatial frequency whose value is determined by the separation of the two telescopes. This analysis establishes the magnitude of the covariance. A second portion of the analysis considers shot-noise effects. It is shown that even with much less than one photodetection event (pde) per signal integration time an unbiased estimate of the covariance of the optical field's random variations can be developed. Also, a result is developed for the standard deviation to be associated with the estimated value of the covariance. From these results an expression is developed for what may be called the signal-to-noise ratio to be associated with an estimate of the covariance. This signal-to-noise ratio, it turns out, does not depend on the measurement's integration time, Δt (in seconds), or on the optical spectral bandwidth, Δν (in Hertz), utilized-so long as

  20. Review of hydrodynamic principles for the cardiologist: applications to the study of blood flow and jets by imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, A P; Cape, E G; Sung, H W; Williams, F P; Jimoh, A

    1988-11-01

    An understanding of the basic concepts of the physics of blood flow is of vital importance to the cardiologist as he or she attempts to utilize new blood flow imaging modalities, such as Doppler ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Concepts such as the Bernoulli equation and its limitations, the continuity equation and volume flow calculations and the theory of free and confined jets have applications in cardiac blood flow-related problems. For example, mitral regurgitant flow may be treated with the free jet theory. Aortic stenosis results in confined jet flow. It is important that the cardiologist understand the basic principles behind these hydrodynamic concepts so that he or she can use them in appropriate applications. The limitations of the simplification of complex hydrodynamic relations that are used clinically need to be clearly understood so that these simplified principles are not used improperly or used to draw oversimplified conclusions.

  1. Displaying Photographic Images On Computer Monitors With Limited Colour Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, John D.; Mitchell, Joan L.; Pennebaker, William B.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we address the problem of displaying continuous tone photographic colour images on CRT monitors on which only a limited number of colours can be displayed simultaneously. An algorithm is presented which generates a palette of a limited number of colours, and a method is given for the actual display of a full colour image using such a palette and its associated tables.

  2. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Imaging in Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Esmail, Abdulredha A H; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    Several different techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging modalities are commonly used in nuclear medicine for studies of endocrine organs. Nuclear medicine is used in the management of benign and malignant thyroid, parathyroid, and neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, it is essential to acknowledge pitfalls and the limitations of nuclear medicine imaging for accurate diagnosis and patient management.

  3. On a classical limit for electronic degrees of freedom that satisfies the Pauli exclusion principle.

    PubMed

    Levine, R D

    2000-02-29

    Fermions need to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle: no two can be in the same state. This restriction is most compactly expressed in a second quantization formalism by the requirement that the creation and annihilation operators of the electrons satisfy anticommutation relations. The usual classical limit of quantum mechanics corresponds to creation and annihilation operators that satisfy commutation relations, as for a harmonic oscillator. We discuss a simple classical limit for Fermions. This limit is shown to correspond to an anharmonic oscillator, with just one bound excited state. The vibrational quantum number of this anharmonic oscillator, which is therefore limited to the range 0 to 1, is the classical analog of the quantum mechanical occupancy. This interpretation is also true for Bosons, except that they correspond to a harmonic oscillator so that the occupancy is from 0 up. The formalism is intended to be useful for simulating the behavior of highly correlated Fermionic systems, so the extension to many electron states is also discussed.

  4. Statistical Characterization of Radiological Images: Basic Principles and Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys our current understanding of the statistical properties of radiological images and their effect on image quality. Attention is given to statistical descriptions needed to compute the performance of ideal or ideal-linear observers on detection and estimation tasks. The effects of measurement noise, random objects and random imaging system are analyzed by nested conditional averaging, leading to a three-term expansion of the data covariance matrix. Characteristic functionals are introduced to account for the object statistics, and it is shown how they can be used to compute the image statistics. PMID:20948984

  5. Digital subtraction angiography: principles and pitfalls of image improvement techniques.

    PubMed

    Levin, D C; Schapiro, R M; Boxt, L M; Dunham, L; Harrington, D P; Ergun, D L

    1984-09-01

    The technology of imaging methods in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is discussed in detail. Areas covered include function of the video camera in both interlaced and sequential scan modes, digitization by the analog-to-digital converter, logarithmic signal processing, dose rates, and acquisition of images using frame integration and pulsed-sequential techniques. Also discussed are various methods of improving image content and quality by both hardware and software modifications. These include the development of larger image intensifiers, larger matrices, video camera improvements, reregistration, hybrid subtraction, matched filtering, recursive filtering, DSA tomography, and edge enhancement.

  6. A Primer on the Physical Principles of Tissue Harmonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Arash; Forsberg, Flemming; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) is a routinely used component of diagnostic ultrasonography (US). In this method, higher-frequency harmonic waves produced by nonlinear fundamental US wave propagation are used to generate images that contain fewer artifacts than those seen on conventional fundamental wave US tissue imaging. Harmonic frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The majority of current clinical US systems use second harmonic echoes for THI image formation. Image processing techniques (ie, bandwidth receive filtering, pulse inversion, side-by-side phase cancellation, and pulse-coded harmonics) are used to eliminate the fundamental frequency echoes, and the remaining harmonic frequency data are used to generate the diagnostic image. Advantages of THI include improved signal-to-noise ratio and reduced artifacts produced by side lobes, grating lobes, and reverberation. THI has been accepted in US practice, and variations of the technology are available on most US systems typically used for diagnostic imaging in radiologic practice. Differential THI is a further improvement that combines the advantages of THI, including superior tissue definition and reduced speckle artifact, with the greater penetration of lower frequency US, which permits high-quality harmonic imaging at greater depth than could previously be performed with conventional THI. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  7. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    PubMed

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  8. Principle of least commitment in the analysis of chromosome images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, James M.; Gader, Paul D.; Caldwell, Charles W.

    1995-06-01

    The automation of chromosome identification and visualization for a complete cell (karyotyping) has been the subject of considerable research. While rather high classification rates are possible on individual chromosomes, the cell level classification rates are still quite low. We describe a system which uses partial confidence values generated by neural and fuzzy classifiers with optimization to increase the cell level recognition rates. This is consistent with Marr's Principle of Least Commitment for the design of intelligent computer vision algorithms.

  9. Real-time portal imaging devices operating on high-pressure gaseous electronic principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakos, George C.; Richardson, Donna B.; Ghotra, P.; Pillai, Bindu; Seetharaman, Lakshmi; Passalaqua, Anthony M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Endorf, Robert J.; Devidas, Sreenivas

    1995-05-01

    A novel real-time portal imaging scanning detector, based on high-pressure gaseous electronics principles and operating up to 60 atmospheres, is presented and the predicted performance of this detector is analyzed. The idea is to utilize high pressure gaseous electronics imaging detectors operating in the saturation regime, aimed at improving image performance characteristics in real time portal imaging. As a result, beam localization errors are controlled, identified and corrected accurately and the patient radiotherapy treatment becomes more effective.

  10. Establishing the limits of efficiency of perovskite solar cells from first principles modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grånäs, Oscar; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-01

    The recent surge in research on metal-halide-perovskite solar cells has led to a seven-fold increase of efficiency, from ~3% in early devices to over 22% in research prototypes. Oft-cited reasons for this increase are: (i) a carrier diffusion length reaching hundreds of microns; (ii) a low exciton binding energy; and (iii) a high optical absorption coefficient. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials span a large chemical space with the perovskite structure. Here, using first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modelling, we establish that, given the range of band-gaps of the metal-halide-perovskites, the theoretical maximum efficiency limit is in the range of ~25-27%. Our conclusions are based on the effect of level alignment between the perovskite absorber layer and carrier-transporting materials on the performance of the solar cell as a whole. Our results provide a useful framework for experimental searches toward more efficient devices.

  11. Establishing the limits of efficiency of perovskite solar cells from first principles modeling.

    PubMed

    Grånäs, Oscar; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-08

    The recent surge in research on metal-halide-perovskite solar cells has led to a seven-fold increase of efficiency, from ~3% in early devices to over 22% in research prototypes. Oft-cited reasons for this increase are: (i) a carrier diffusion length reaching hundreds of microns; (ii) a low exciton binding energy; and (iii) a high optical absorption coefficient. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials span a large chemical space with the perovskite structure. Here, using first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modelling, we establish that, given the range of band-gaps of the metal-halide-perovskites, the theoretical maximum efficiency limit is in the range of ~25-27%. Our conclusions are based on the effect of level alignment between the perovskite absorber layer and carrier-transporting materials on the performance of the solar cell as a whole. Our results provide a useful framework for experimental searches toward more efficient devices.

  12. Limits on gravitational Einstein equivalence principle violation from monitoring atomic clock frequencies during a year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The Sun's gravitational potential at Earth varies during a year due to varying Earth-Sun distance. Comparing the results of very accurate measurements of atomic clock transitions performed at different times in the year allows us to study the dependence of the atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential. We examine the measurement data for the ratio of the frequencies in Hg+ and Al+ clock transitions and absolute frequency measurements (with respect to the caesium frequency standard) for Dy, Sr, H, hyperfine transitions in Rb and H and obtain significantly improved limits on the values of the gravity-related parameter of the Einstein equivalence principle violating term in the electron sector of the Standard Model extension Hamiltonian c00=(-3.0 ±5.7 )×10-7 and the parameter for the gravity-related variation of the fine structure constant κα=(-5.3 ±10 )×10-8.

  13. Establishing the limits of efficiency of perovskite solar cells from first principles modeling

    PubMed Central

    Grånäs, Oscar; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    The recent surge in research on metal-halide-perovskite solar cells has led to a seven-fold increase of efficiency, from ~3% in early devices to over 22% in research prototypes. Oft-cited reasons for this increase are: (i) a carrier diffusion length reaching hundreds of microns; (ii) a low exciton binding energy; and (iii) a high optical absorption coefficient. These hybrid organic-inorganic materials span a large chemical space with the perovskite structure. Here, using first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modelling, we establish that, given the range of band-gaps of the metal-halide-perovskites, the theoretical maximum efficiency limit is in the range of ~25–27%. Our conclusions are based on the effect of level alignment between the perovskite absorber layer and carrier-transporting materials on the performance of the solar cell as a whole. Our results provide a useful framework for experimental searches toward more efficient devices. PMID:27824030

  14. Expanded solar-system limits on violations of the equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, James; Mitcham, Jack; Warecki, Zoey

    2014-01-01

    Most attempts to unify general relativity with the standard model of particle physics predict violations of the equivalence principle associated in some way with the composition of the test masses. We test this idea by using observational uncertainties in the positions and motions of solar-system bodies to set upper limits on the relative difference Δ between gravitational and inertial mass for each body. For suitable pairs of objects, it is possible to constrain three different linear combinations of Δ using Kepler’s third law, the migration of stable Lagrange points, and orbital polarization (the Nordtvedt effect). Limits of order 10-10-10-6 on Δ for individual bodies can then be derived from planetary and lunar ephemerides, Cassini observations of the Saturn system, and observations of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids as well as recently discovered Trojan companions around the Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Saturnian moons. These results can be combined with models for elemental abundances in each body to test for composition-dependent violations of the universality of free fall in the solar system. The resulting limits are weaker than those from laboratory experiments, but span a larger volume in composition space.

  15. Learning to rank image tags with limited training examples.

    PubMed

    Songhe Feng; Zheyun Feng; Rong Jin

    2015-04-01

    With an increasing number of images that are available in social media, image annotation has emerged as an important research topic due to its application in image matching and retrieval. Most studies cast image annotation into a multilabel classification problem. The main shortcoming of this approach is that it requires a large number of training images with clean and complete annotations in order to learn a reliable model for tag prediction. We address this limitation by developing a novel approach that combines the strength of tag ranking with the power of matrix recovery. Instead of having to make a binary decision for each tag, our approach ranks tags in the descending order of their relevance to the given image, significantly simplifying the problem. In addition, the proposed method aggregates the prediction models for different tags into a matrix, and casts tag ranking into a matrix recovery problem. It introduces the matrix trace norm to explicitly control the model complexity, so that a reliable prediction model can be learned for tag ranking even when the tag space is large and the number of training images is limited. Experiments on multiple well-known image data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework for tag ranking compared with the state-of-the-art approaches for image annotation and tag ranking.

  16. The Basic Principles of FDG-PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Hess, Søren; Nielsen Braad, Poul-Erik; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Inglev, Signe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) forms the basis of molecular imaging. FDG-PET imaging is a multidisciplinary undertaking that requires close interdisciplinary collaboration in a broad team comprising physicians, technologists, secretaries, radio-chemists, hospital physicists, molecular biologists, engineers, and cyclotron technicians. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of important basic issues and considerations pivotal to successful patient examinations, including basic physics, instrumentation, radiochemistry, molecular and cell biology, patient preparation, normal distribution of tracer, and potential interpretive pitfalls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass spectrometry imaging of plant metabolites--principles and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Li, Bin; D'Alvise, Janina; Janfelt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Covering: up to the end of 2013 New mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques are gaining importance in the analysis of plant metabolite distributions, and significant technological improvements have been introduced in the past decade. This review provides an introduction to the different MSI techniques and their applications in plant science. The most common methods for sample preparation are described, and the review also features a comprehensive table of published studies in MSI of plant material. A number of significant works are highlighted for their contributions to advance the understanding of plant biology through applications of plant metabolite imaging. Particular attention is given to the possibility for imaging of surface metabolites since this is highly dependent on the methods and techniques which are applied in imaging studies.

  18. [Adrenal tumors: principles of imaging and differential diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Degenhart, C

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal masses are very common and are usually detected incidentally. Less frequently, imaging is performed for the localization of the underlying lesion in the case of endocrine disease. The differentiation between adenomas and non-adenomas is fundamental. Adenomas show a low density on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and a rapid washout of contrast agents. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) adenomas are characterized by a low signal in opposed phase imaging as compared to in phase imaging. According to the literature a density of less than 10 HU in an adrenal mass has a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 71% for the presence of an adenoma and MRI is slightly more sensitive. Some adrenal lesions, e.g. cysts or myelolipomas can be diagnosed with high accuracy due to pathognomonic findings. In the majority of cases the synopsis of imaging along with clinical and laboratory findings is necessary for a reliable diagnosis. For the evaluation of an adrenal mass the CT examination should begin with an unenhanced scan, if necessary followed by a washout examination. In the case of MRI in phase and opposed phase imaging are essential components of the examination.

  19. Fundamental limits of target detection performance in passive polarization imaging.

    PubMed

    Goudail, François; Boffety, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    We quantitatively determine the target detection performance of different passive polarization imaging architectures perturbed by signal-independent detection noise or signal-dependent Poisson shot noise. We compare the fully adaptive polarimetric imager and the best channel of a static polarimetric imager, and in each case, we compare the use of a polarizer and a polarizing beam splitter as the polarization analyzing device. For all these configurations, we derive a closed-form expression of the target/background separability and quantify the performance gain brought by polarization imaging compared to standard intensity imaging. We show in particular that all the considered polarimetric imaging configurations but one require a minimum value of the polarimetric contrast in order to outperform intensity imaging. The only configuration that always performs better than intensity imaging uses a polarizing beam splitter in the presence of background shot noise. These results are useful in evaluating the fundamental limits of the gain brought by polarization imaging and determining, in practice, which type of imaging architecture is preferable for a given application.

  20. Correlation and image compression for limited-bandwidth CCD.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Douglas G.

    2005-07-01

    As radars move to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with limited-bandwidth data downlinks, the amount of data stored and transmitted with each image becomes more significant. This document gives the results of a study to determine the effect of lossy compression in the image magnitude and phase on Coherent Change Detection (CCD). We examine 44 lossy compression types, plus lossless zlib compression, and test each compression method with over 600 CCD image pairs. We also derive theoretical predictions for the correlation for most of these compression schemes, which compare favorably with the experimental results. We recommend image transmission formats for limited-bandwidth programs having various requirements for CCD, including programs which cannot allow performance degradation and those which have stricter bandwidth requirements at the expense of CCD performance.

  1. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

  2. Quantum imaging beyond the diffraction limit by optical centroid measurements.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Mankei

    2009-06-26

    I propose a quantum imaging method that can beat the Rayleigh-Abbe diffraction limit and achieve de Broglie resolution without requiring a multiphoton absorber or coincidence detection. Using the same nonclassical states of light as those for quantum lithography, the proposed method requires only optical intensity measurements, followed by image postprocessing, to produce the same complex quantum interference patterns as those in quantum lithography. The method is expected to be experimentally realizable using current technology.

  3. Searching for the limit of image quality in film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Vaessen, B.; Perdieus, P.; Florens, R.

    1993-12-31

    Radiographic film image quality in general was, and in most cases still is, considered as a very subjective and rather vague parameter. Yet it is of vital importance to the NDT and related quality control and quality assurance industry. Therefore, lately Agfa has put a major effort into quantifying image quality in an objective, measurable way. It was in the framework of this optimization project, that the authors, based on these new insights in imaging of industrial film systems, strived to search for the limit of the highest achievable image quality. In this paper they report these results. They not only report these results in an academic way, meaning how this highest image quality can be achieved under lab conditions, but also how these same results can be obtained under practical e.g. field-conditions.

  4. Principle and experimental results of ultra-wideband noise radar imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Asmuth, Mark A.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Rangaswamy, Muralidhar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the principle, simulation, and experiment results of tomographic imaging of a cylindrical conducting object using random noise waveforms are presented. Theoretical analysis of scattering and the image reconstruction technique are developed based on physical optics approximation and Fourier diffraction tomography, respectively. The bistatic radar system is designed to transmit band-limited ultra-wideband (UWB) random noise waveforms at a fixed position, and a linear scanner allows a single receiving antenna to move along a horizontal axis for backward scattering measurement in the frequency range from 3-5 GHz. The reconstructed tomographic image of the rotating cylindrical conducting object based on experimental results are seen to be in good agreement with the simulation results, which demonstrates the capability of UWB noise radar for complete two-dimensional tomographic image reconstruction of a cylindrical conducting object.

  5. Blind deconvolution of astronomical images with band limitation determined by optical system parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Fan, M.; Shen, M. Z.

    2007-07-01

    Atmospheric turbulence greatly limits the spatial resolution of astronomical images acquired by the large ground-based telescope. The record image obtained from telescope was thought as a convolution result of the object function and the point spread function. The statistic relationship of the images measured data, the estimated object and point spread function was in accord with the Bayes conditional probability distribution, and the maximum-likelihood formulation was found. A blind deconvolution approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation technique with real optical band limitation constraint is presented for removing the effect of atmospheric turbulence on this class images through the minimization of the convolution error function by use of the conjugation gradient optimization algorithm. As a result, the object function and the point spread function could be estimated from a few record images at the same time by the blind deconvolution algorithm. According to the principle of Fourier optics, the relationship between the telescope optical system parameters and the image band constraint in the frequency domain was formulated during the image processing transformation between the spatial domain and the frequency domain. The convergence of the algorithm was increased by use of having the estimated function variable (also is the object function and the point spread function) nonnegative and the point-spread function band limited. Avoiding Fourier transform frequency components beyond the cut off frequency lost during the image processing transformation when the size of the sampled image data, image spatial domain and frequency domain were the same respectively, the detector element (e.g. a pixels in the CCD) should be less than the quarter of the diffraction speckle diameter of the telescope for acquiring the images on the focal plane. The proposed method can easily be applied to the case of wide field-view turbulent-degraded images restoration because of

  6. Characterizing the Limits of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Near Metallic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew R.; Artz, Nathan S.; Wiens, Curtis; Hernando, Diego; Reeder, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the fundamental limits of MRI near metallic implants on RF excitation, frequency encoding, and chemical shift-encoding water-fat separation. Methods Multicomponent 3D digital models of a total hip and a total knee replacement were used to construct material specific susceptibility maps. The fundamental limits and spatial relationship of imaging near metallic prostheses were investigated as a function of distance from the prosthetic surface by calculating 3D field-map perturbations using a well-validated k-space based dipole kernel. Results Regions limited by the bandwidth of RF excitation overlap substantially with those fundamentally limited by frequency encoding. Rapid breakdown of water-fat separation occurs once the intra-voxel off-resonance exceeds ~6 ppm over a full range of fat-fractions (0 to 100%) and SNR (5-100). Conclusion Current 3D multispectral imaging methods would not benefit greatly from exciting spins beyond ±12 kHz despite the presence of signal that lies outside of this range from tissue directly adjacent to the metallic implants. Methods such as phase encoding in all three spatial dimensions are necessary to spatially resolve spins beyond an excitation bandwidth of ±12 kHz. The approach described in this work provides a benchmark for the capabilities of current imaging techniques to guide development of new MRI methods for imaging near metal. PMID:25483410

  7. On some limitations on temporal resolution in imaging subpicosecond photoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Shchelev, M Ya; Andreev, S V; Degtyareva, V P; Kopaev, I A; Monastyrskiy, M A; Greenfield, D E

    2015-05-31

    Numerical modelling is used to analyse some effects restricting the enhancement of temporal resolution into the area better than 100 fs in streak image tubes and photoelectron guns. A particular attention is paid to broadening of an electron bunch as a result of Coulomb interaction. Possible ways to overcome the limitations under consideration are discussed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  8. Appraisal of broadband acoustic impedances from first principles and band-limited seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic derived acoustic impedance is an essential output for the quantitative interpretation of seismic data. However, the band limitation of seismic data leads to a nonunique estimate of the acoustic impedance profile. The prevalent methods counter the nonuniqueness either by stabilizing the answer with respect to an initial model or by resorting to an assumption of certain criterion such as sparsity of the reflection coefficients. Making a nominal assumption of a homogeneous layered earth model, we formulate a set of linear equations where the reflection coefficients are the unknowns and the recursively integrated seismic trace constitutes the data. The approach makes a frontal assault on the problem of reconstructing reflection coefficients from band-limited data and stems from first principles, i.e., Zöppritz's equation in this case. Nonuniqueness is countered in part by the layercake assumption, and in part by the adoption of the singular value decomposition (SVD) method of finding an optimal solution to the set of linear equations, provided the objective is to reconstruct a smoothed version of the impedance profile that includes only its coarser structures. The efficacy of the method has been tested with synthetic data added with significant noise and generated from rudimentary earth models as well as from measured logs of acoustic impedance. Emergence of consistent estimates of impedance from synthetic data generated for several frequency bands increases the confidence in the method. The study also proves the successfulness of the method for (a) an accurate estimate of the impedance mean, (b) an accurate reconstruction of the direct-current (dc) frequency of the reflectivity, and (c) an acceptable reconstruction of the broad trend of the original impedance profile. All these outputs can serve as significant constraints for either more refined inversions or geological interpretations. (Keywords: Reflection data, Acoustic impedance, Broadband, Linear

  9. Reflection-contrast limit of fiber-optic image guides

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Pierre M.; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-optic image guides in confocal reflectance endomicroscopes introduce background backscatter that limits the achievable contrast in these devices. We show the dominant source of backscatter from the image guide is due to Rayleigh scattering at short wavelengths and terminal reflections of the fibers at long wavelengths. The effective Rayleigh scattering coefficient and the wavelength-independent reflectivity due terminal reflections are measured experimentally in a commercial image guide. The Rayleigh scattering component of backscatter can be accurately predicted using the fractional refractive-index difference and length of the fibers in the image guide. We also presented a simple model that can be used to predict signal-to-background ratio in a fiber-optic confocal reflectance endomicroscope for biologically relevant tissues and contrast agents that cover a wide range of reflectivity. PMID:20059266

  10. Quantifying Deep-Imaging Limits of the VLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeshiba, Julia; Mayeshiba, J.; Rau, U.; Owen, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    The confusion limit is important to understand when conducting surveys of faint radio sources. The source count distributions derived from these surveys are indicative of the large-scale structure and evolution of the universe. The VLA’s confusion limit is not well-defined and astronomers have frequently observed below its current estimated confusion limit. Our study seeks to refine and understand these estimated values and their differences. In our study, we used sources from the center one square degree of the S3-SEX simulated sky made by Wilman et al. As a first step, we verified that our simulation matched observed trends of the confusion limit. During this process we studied the dependence of the achieved confusion limit on cleaning depth and PSF shape. We also reproduced the different limits seen by Frazer Owen in 2008 and NVSS. With this check completed, we then roughly estimated the confusion limits for the VLA’s four configurations. Our preliminary results showed that at an observing frequency of 1.4GHz , there is a confusion limit of 10µJy for the D Configuration and 5µJy for the C Configuration. These estimates are a factor of two lower than the lowest confusion limits reached by observers. While it is encouraging that our estimated confusion limits follow observed trends, more analysis of our process is needed. We could not accurately estimate confusion limits for the A and B configurations due to an artifact dominated image in the A Configuration and an estimated confusion limit that was too close to the noise level in the B Configuration. For the second part of our study we tested CASA’s source-finding algorithm. We found that as currently implemented, it has significant difficulty finding fainter sources.

  11. Sub-diffraction-limit imaging using mode multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Miyazaki, Jun; He, Jinping; Seto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-05-01

    Pixel-by-pixel processed fluorescence difference microscopy is experimentally demonstrated by multiplexing excitation laser beams with Gaussian and donut spot shapes and then demultiplexing the fluorescent signals using lock-in amplifiers. With this scheme, a fixed sample of fluorescent spheres and a slice of mouse brain tissue are imaged with resolutions that exceed the diffraction limit. Compared to previously reported subtraction imaging techniques, this pixel-by-pixel scan can be applied to improve the resolution of a moving sample without introducing subtraction errors. The synchronized signal detection feature makes this method extendible to various applications.

  12. Resolution limits for imaging through multi-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Mahalati, Reza Nasiri; Gu, Ruo Yu; Kahn, Joseph M

    2013-01-28

    We experimentally demonstrate endoscopic imaging through a multi-mode fiber (MMF) in which the number of resolvable image features approaches four times the number of spatial modes per polarization propagating in the fiber. In our method, a sequence of random field patterns is input to the fiber, generating a sequence of random intensity patterns at the output, which are used to sample an object. Reflected power values are returned through the fiber and linear optimization is used to reconstruct an image. The factor-of-four resolution enhancement is due to mixing of modes by the squaring inherent in field-to-intensity conversion. The incoherent point-spread function (PSF) at the center of the fiber output plane is an Airy disk equivalent to the coherent PSF of a conventional diffraction-limited imaging system having a numerical aperture twice that of the fiber. All previous methods for imaging through MMF can only resolve a number of features equal to the number of modes. Most of these methods use localized intensity patterns for sampling the object and use local image reconstruction.

  13. First-Principles Atomic Force Microscopy Image Simulations with Density Embedding Theory.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuki; Lee, Alex J; Chelikowsky, James R

    2016-05-11

    We present an efficient first-principles method for simulating noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) images using a "frozen density" embedding theory. Frozen density embedding theory enables one to efficiently compute the tip-sample interaction by considering a sample as a frozen external field. This method reduces the extensive computational load of first-principles AFM simulations by avoiding consideration of the entire tip-sample system and focusing on the tip alone. We demonstrate that our simulation with frozen density embedding theory accurately reproduces full density functional theory simulations of freestanding hydrocarbon molecules while the computational time is significantly reduced. Our method also captures the electronic effect of a Cu(111) substrate on the AFM image of pentacene and reproduces the experimental AFM image of Cu2N on a Cu(100) surface. This approach is applicable for theoretical imaging applications on large molecules, two-dimensional materials, and materials surfaces.

  14. [Digital radiography using light-emitting detectors. Operative principles and characteristics of images].

    PubMed

    Salvini, E

    1988-12-01

    This paper briefly describes the technical features of a digital radiographic system based on the principle of scanning laser stimulated luminescence. Such aspects as the physics of the stimulable phosphor detector are dealt with, and image acquisition, processing, and hard-copy output. Automatic analysis of pixel histograms is described, in a qualitative way, together with contrast modifications and spatial filtering. Physical image characteristics are reported. The overall performance of digital radiography is examined, together with the current requirements and its eventual developments.

  15. Extending the range performance of diffraction limited imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard; Driggers, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    Even the best thermal imagers available today achieve only a fraction of the range performance that is theoretically possible with a given objective lens. Diffraction from the finite aperture of a thermal camera reduces the contrast of high spatial frequencies as well as limiting the maximum spatial frequency in the image. Reclaiming the high frequency contrast can substantially extend range over what is normally thought of as diffraction limited performance. As explained in this paper, the requirements for achieving extended range are 1) small pitch large format focal planes, 2) deep charge well capacities, and 3) intensive deconvolution processing. We will call this combination PWP for pitch, well capacity, and processing which can theoretically increase range performance by a factor of 1.7 for an increase of 70%. In this paper, we also estimate the improved range performance that results from increasing the electron well capacity of long wave infrared cameras. The three technologies needed for a significant advance in thermal imaging are all available today: these include small pixel high density focal planes, deep wells or digital read outs, and digital processors. We hope this paper excites interest in combining those technologies to provide a significant advance in thermal imager performance.

  16. Beyond the lateral resolution limit by phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotte, Y.; Toy, M. Fatih; Depeursinge, C.

    2011-03-01

    We present a theory stating how to overcome the classical Rayleigh-resolution limit. It is based upon a new resolution criterion in phase of coherent imaging process and its spatial resolution is thought to be only SNR limited. Recently, the experimental observation of systematically occurring phase singularities in coherent imaging of sub-Rayleigh distanced objects has been reported.1 The phase resolution criterion relies on the unique occurrence of phase singularities. A priori, coherent imaging system's resolution can be extended to Abbe's limit.2 However, by introducing a known phase difference, the lateral as well as the longitudinal resolution can be tremendously enlarged. The experimental setup is based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), an interferometric method providing access to the complex wave front. In off-axis transmission configuration, sub-wavelength nano-metric holes on a metallic film acts as the customized high-resolution test target. The nano-metric apertures are drilled with focused ion beam (FIB) and controlled by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this manner, Rayleighs classical two-point resolution condition can be rebuilt by interfering complex fields emanated from multiple single circular apertures on an opaque metallic film. By introducing different offset phases, enhanced resolution is demonstrated. Furthermore, the measurements can be exploited analytically or within the post processing of sampling a synthetic complex transfer function (CTF).

  17. Tomographic image reconstruction from limited projections using iterative revisions in image and transform spaces.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Norton, S J; Linzer, M; Ikeda, O; Hirama, M

    1981-02-01

    An iterative technique is proposed for improving the quality of reconstructions from projections when the number of projections is small or the angular range of projections is limited. The technique consists of transforming repeatedly between image and transform spaces and applying a priori object information at each iteration. The approach is a generalization of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, a technique for extrapolating in the Fourier domain by imposing a space-limiting constraint on the object in the spatial domain. A priori object data that may be applied, in addition to truncating the image beyond the known boundaries of the object, include limiting the maximum range of variation of the physical parameter being imaged. The results of computer simulations show clearly how the process of forcing the image to conform to a priori object data reduces artifacts arising from limited data available in the Fourier domain.

  18. New limits on violations of the equivalence principle from solar system observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitcham, Jack; Overduin, James

    2012-02-01

    The equivalence principle is the foundation of general relativity theory, but violations of this principle are generically predicted by theories that attempt to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions of nature. Violations of equivalence could lead to measurable deviations of solar system bodies from their expected positions near stable or semi-stable Lagrange points. We extend earlier constraints using new observational data on Trojan and artificial satellites near Jupiter, Neptune, Mars and Earth.

  19. Systematic, spatial imaging of large multimolecular assemblies and the emerging principles of supramolecular order in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described-a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40 nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20 years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs.

  20. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  1. Multiscale Analysis of Photon-Limited Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, R.

    2007-11-01

    Many astronomical studies rely upon the accurate reconstruction of spatially distributed phenomena from photon-limited data. These measurements are inherently ``noisy'' due to low photon counts. In addition, the behavior of the underlying photon intensity functions can be very rich and complex, and consequently difficult to model a priori. Nonparametric multiscale reconstruction methods overcome these challenges and facilitate characterization of fundamental performance limits. In this paper, we review several multiscale approaches to photon-limited image reconstruction, including wavelets combined with variance stabilizing transforms, corrected Haar wavelet transforms, multiplicative multiscale innovations, platelets, and the à trous wavelet transform. We discuss the performance of these methods in simulation studies, and describe statistical analyses of their performances.

  2. [Principles and applications of hyperspectral imaging technique in quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hua; Li, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Zhang, Chi; Wang Qing-Yan; Xiao, Guang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    The quality and safety of fruits and vegetables are the most concerns of consumers. Chemical analytical methods are traditional inspection methods which are time-consuming and labor intensive destructive inspection techniques. With the rapid development of imaging technique and spectral technique, hyperspectral imaging technique has been widely used in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables. Hyperspectral imaging integrates the advantages of traditional imaging and spectroscopy. It can obtain both spatial and spectral information of inspected objects. Therefore, it can be used in either external quality inspection as traditional imaging system, or internal quality or safety inspection as spectroscopy. In recent years, many research papers about the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables by using hyperspectral imaging have been published, and in order to introduce the principles of nondestructive inspection and track the latest research development of hyperspectral imaging in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables, this paper reviews the principles, developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging in the external quality, internal quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables. Additionally, the basic components, analytical methods, future trends and challenges are also reported or discussed in this paper.

  3. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  4. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  5. Biopsy needle localization using magnetic induction imaging principles: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yusupov, B; Zlochiver, S

    2012-08-01

    The accurate navigation and location of a biopsy needle is of main clinical interest in cases of image-guided biopsies for patients with suspected cancerous lesions. Magnetic induction (MI) imaging is a relatively new simple and low-cost noninvasive imaging modality that can be used for measuring the changes of electrical conductivity distribution inside a biological tissue. The feasibility of using MI principles for measuring and imaging the location of a biopsy needle in a tissue with suspected lesion was studied in simulations and with an experimental system. A contactless excitation/sensing unit was designed, and raster scan was performed on a thin tissue slab with an inserted standard 22 gauge stainless steel biopsy needle. A 30-mA, 50-kHz excitation field was employed, and the secondary-induced electromotive force (emf(s)) was measured and plotted on a 2-D plane in order to yield an image of the needle location. The simulations demonstrated the significance of utilizing a ferrimagnetic core for the excitation coil in order to increase induced currents magnitude and scanning resolution. The experimental reconstructed images of the emf(s) spatial distribution revealed the needle position and orientation, with an accuracy of 0.1 mm and a signal-to-background ratio of ~30 dB. High correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between the experimental and simulation results was observed. We conclude that MI principles exhibit a potential alternative to existing imaging modalities for needle biopsy procedures.

  6. Iterative Image Reconstruction for Limited-Angle CT Using Optimized Initial Image

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingyu; Qi, Hongliang; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Zijia; Li, Shulong; Zhou, Linghong

    2016-01-01

    Limited-angle computed tomography (CT) has great impact in some clinical applications. Existing iterative reconstruction algorithms could not reconstruct high-quality images, leading to severe artifacts nearby edges. Optimal selection of initial image would influence the iterative reconstruction performance but has not been studied deeply yet. In this work, we proposed to generate optimized initial image followed by total variation (TV) based iterative reconstruction considering the feature of image symmetry. The simulated data and real data reconstruction results indicate that the proposed method effectively removes the artifacts nearby edges. PMID:27066107

  7. Diffraction-limited step-zoom telescope by image restoration.

    PubMed

    Araiza-Durán, José A; Luna, Esteban; Cornejo-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Sohn, Erika

    2015-11-10

    The design of a step-zoom telescope and its ability to achieve a diffraction-limited performance is explored. The basic idea is to include digital postprocessing to compensate for changes in the modulation transfer function of the system, assuming the knowledge of the range to the object. The instrument is conformed of a two-mirror telescope, two lenses, and a detector. High-quality images and a zoom telescope that ranges from 22 to 61 f-number is achieved by moving the primary mirror and two lenses. The preliminary calculations for the design process and a simulation that shows the performance of the step-zoom telescope are described.

  8. Resolution limits for imaging through turbid media with diffuse light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J. A.; Mahon, R.; Duncan, M. D.; Reintjes, J.

    1993-10-01

    For the achievable resolution for imaging through a turbid medium with multiply scattered light in the diffusion limit, the authors present analytic expressions. The spatial resolution R (the half-width of the point-spread function) scales with thickness d of the sample as R = (0.2 +/- 0.04)d over 10 order of magnitude in input intensity and transport length are found for detectable levels of light. The experiments with a time-gated stimulated Raman amplifier are in good agreement with the calculations.

  9. High frame rate imaging system for limited diffraction array beam imaging with square-wave aperture weightings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Jiqi; Wang, Jing

    2006-10-01

    A general-purpose high frame rate (HFR) medical imaging system has been developed. This system has 128 independent linear transmitters, each of which is capable of producing an arbitrary broadband (about 0.05-10 MHz) waveform of up to +/- 144 V peak voltage on a 75-ohm resistive load using a 12-bit/40-MHz digital-to-analog converter. The system also has 128 independent, broadband (about 0.25-10 MHz), and time-variable-gain receiver channels, each of which has a 12-bit/40-MHz analog-to-digital converter and up to 512 MB of memory. The system is controlled by a personal computer (PC), and radio frequency echo data of each channel are transferred to the same PC via a standard USB 2.0 port for image reconstructions. Using the HFR imaging system, we have developed a new limited-diffraction array beam imaging method with square-wave aperture voltage weightings. With this method, in principle, only one or two transmitters are required to excite a fully populated two-dimensional (2-D) array transducer to achieve an equivalent dynamic focusing in both transmission and reception to reconstruct a high-quality three-dimensional image without the need of the time delays of traditional beam focusing and steering, potentially simplifying the transmitter subsystem of an imager. To validate the method, for simplicity, 2-D imaging experiments were performed using the system. In the in vitro experiment, a custom-made, 128-element, 0.32-mm pitch, 3.5-MHz center frequency linear array transducer with about 50% fractional bandwidth was used to reconstruct images of an ATS 539 tissue-mimicking phantom at an axial distance of 130 mm with a field of view of more than 90 degrees. In the in vivo experiment of a human heart, images with a field of view of more than 90 degrees at 120-mm axial distance were obtained with a 128-element, 2.5-MHz center frequency, 0.15-mm pitch Acuson V2 phased array. To ensure that the system was operated under the limits set by the U.S. Food and Drug

  10. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Doyon, René

    2008-01-01

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground- and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follow a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil, this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fixed separation from the point-spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and noncoronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level (CL). In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding CL as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckle noise, a detection threshold up to 3 times higher is required to obtain a CL equivalent to that at 5 σ for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested on data acquired by simultaneous spectral differential imaging with TRIDENT and by angular differential imaging with NIRI. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. Finally, a power law is derived to predict the 1 - 3 × 10-7 CL detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of

  11. High resolution transmission electron microscope Imaging and first-principles simulations of atomic-scale features in graphene membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-thin membranes such as graphene[1] are of great importance for basic science and technology applications. Graphene sets the ultimate limit of thinness, demonstrating that a free-standing single atomic layer not only exists but can be extremely stable and strong [2--4]. However, both theory [5, 6] and experiments [3, 7] suggest that the existence of graphene relies on intrinsic ripples that suppress the long-wavelength thermal fluctuations which otherwise spontaneously destroy long range order in a two dimensional system. Here we show direct imaging of the atomic features in graphene including the ripples resolved using monochromatic aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the images observed in TEM with simulated images based on an accurate first-principles total potential. We show that these atomic scale features can be mapped through accurate first-principles simulations into high resolution TEM contrast. [1] Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191, (2007). [2] Novoselov, K. S.et al. Science 306, 666-669, (2004). [3] Meyer, J. C. et al. Nature 446, 60-63, (2007). [4] Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Science 321, 385-388, (2008). [5] Nelson, D. R. & Peliti, L. J Phys-Paris 48, 1085-1092, (1987). [6] Fasolino, A., Los, J. H. & Katsnelson, M. I. Nat. Mater. 6, 858-861, (2007). [7] Meyer, J. C. et al. Solid State Commun. 143, 101-109, (2007).

  12. Enhancement of positron emission tomography-computed tomography image quality using the principle of stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Punit; Singh, Harmandeep; Patel, Chetan; Sarkar, Kaushik; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-10-01

    Acquisition of higher counts improves visual perception of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) image. Larger radiopharmaceutical doses (implies more radiation dose) are administered to acquire this count in a short time period. However, diagnostic information does not increase after a certain threshold of counts. This study was conducted to develop a post processing method based on principle of "stochastic resonance" to improve visual perception of the PET-CT image having a required threshold counts. PET-CT images (JPEG file format) with low, medium, and high counts in the image were included in this study. The image was corrupted with the addition of Poisson noise. The amplitude of the Poisson noise was adjusted by dividing each pixel by a constant 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32. The best amplitude of the noise that gave best images quality was selected based on high value of entropy of the output image, high value of structural similarity index and feature similarity index. Visual perception of the image was evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians. The variation in structural and feature similarity of the image was not appreciable visually, but statistically images deteriorated as the noise amplitude increases although maintaining structural (above 70%) and feature (above 80%) similarity of input images in all cases. We obtained the best image quality at noise amplitude "4" in which 88% structural and 95% feature similarity of the input images was retained. This method of stochastic resonance can be used to improve the visual perception of the PET-CT image. This can indirectly lead to reduction of radiation dose.

  13. Radiological images on personal computers: introduction and fundamental principles of digital images.

    PubMed

    Gillespy, T; Rowberg, A H

    1993-05-01

    This series of articles will explore the issue related to displaying, manipulating, and analyzing radiological images on personal computers (PC). This first article discusses the digital image data file, standard PC graphic file formats, and various methods for importing radiological images into the PC.

  14. First principles thermal elasticity of crystals: quasiharmonic theory in the limit of isotropic thermal pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    First-principles quasi-harmonic calculations play a fundamental role in mineral physics because they can predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of materials at pressure and temperature conditions that are still challenging for experiments. They also enable calculations of thermal elastic properties by providing the second derivatives of the free energies with respect to strains. However, these are demanding computations requiring hundreds of medium size jobs running on ~10^2 cores each. Here we introduce an approach that requires only calculations of static elastic constants and phonon density of states for strain-free configurations. This approach decreases the number of calculations by more than one order of magnitude. We show results for several minerals that are in very good agreement with some previous first-principles results and experimental data. Research supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (VLab) and EAR-1019853. The computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  15. Quantitative Phase Imaging Techniques for the Study of Cell Pathophysiology: From Principles to Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeoReh; Kim, Kyoohyun; Jung, Jaehwang; Heo, JiHan; Cho, Sangyeon; Lee, Sangyun; Chang, Gyuyoung; Jo, YoungJu; Park, Hyunjoo; Park, YongKeun

    2013-01-01

    A cellular-level study of the pathophysiology is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind human diseases. Recent advances in quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques show promises for the cellular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases. To provide important insight on how the QPI techniques potentially improve the study of cell pathophysiology, here we present the principles of QPI and highlight some of the recent applications of QPI ranging from cell homeostasis to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:23539026

  16. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound imaging: basic principles, glossary of terms, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Cogbill, Thomas H; Ziegelbein, Kurt J

    2011-02-01

    The basic principles underlying computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound are reviewed to promote better understanding of the properties and appropriate applications of these 3 common imaging modalities. A glossary of frequently used terms for each technique is appended for convenience. Risks to patient safety including contrast-induced nephropathy, radiation-induced malignancy, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observer detection limits for a dedicated SPECT breast imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, S J; Perez, K L; Barnhart, H X; Tornai, M P

    2012-01-01

    An observer-based contrast-detail study is performed in an effort to evaluate the limits of object detectability using a dedicated CZT-based breast SPECT imaging system under various imaging conditions. A custom geometric contrast-resolution phantom was developed that can be used for both positive (‘hot’) and negative contrasts (‘cold’). The 3 cm long fillable tubes are arranged in six sectors having equal inner diameters ranging from 1 mm to 6 mm with plastic wall thicknesses of <0.25 mm, on a pitch of twice their inner diameters. Scans of the activity filled tubes using simple circular trajectories are obtained in a 215 mL uniform water filled cylinder, varying the rod:background concentration ratios from 10:1 to 1:10 simulating a large range of biological uptake ratios. The rod phantom is then placed inside a non-uniformly shaped 500 mL breast phantom and scans are again acquired using both simple and complex 3D trajectories for similarly varying contrasts. Summed slice and contiguous multi-slice images are evaluated by five independent readers, identifying the smallest distinguishable rod for each concentration and experimental setup. Linear and quadratic regression is used to compare the resulting contrast-detail curves. Results indicate that in a moderately low-noise 500 mL background, using the SPECT camera having 2.5 mm intrinsic pixels, the mean detectable rod was ~3.4 mm at a 10:1 ratio, degrading to ~5.2 mm with the 2.5:1 concentration ratio. The smallest object detail was observed using a 45° tilted trajectory acquisition. The complex 3D projected sine wave acquisition, however, had the most consistent combined intra- and inter-observer results, making it potentially the best imaging approach for consistent results. PMID:20224159

  18. Phase retrieval and diffractive imaging based on Babinet's principle and complementary random sampling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen-Jia; Wang, Ben-Yi; Xie, Yi-Yan; Lu, Yu-Jie; Yue, Qing-Yang; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2015-11-02

    We proposed an iterative method for phase retrieval and diffractive imaging based on Babinet's principle and complementary random sampling (CRS). We demonstrated that the whole complex amplitude (not sieved) of an object wave can be accurately retrieved from the diffraction intensities of the object wave sampled by a group of binary CRS masks and the diffractive imaging for the object can be realized through a single digital inverse diffraction. Some experimental results are given for the demonstration. Our experimental results reveal that, using CRS, the influence of a binary random sampling mask on the retrieved field can be well eliminated, and the accuracy and efficiency of the phase retrieval can be greatly improved.

  19. Pseudo color image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linfei; Liu, Jingyu; Wen, Jisen; Mao, Haidan; Ge, Fan; Zhao, Daomu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for optical image encryption based on three-beams interference principle and common vector composition is proposed. An original gray image is divided into three parts of amplitude information and three parts of phase information by a common vector composition. We can put the three parts of amplitude information together to form a color image which is regarded as a ciphertext. And the keys of the encryption system are the three phase information. In the decryption process, three beams of coherent light illuminate at the three parts of the ciphertext, pass through the corresponding phase only masks respectively, and finally the decrypted gray image would be obtained at the output plane after Fourier transform and three-beams interference. Computer simulations are presented to verify the possibility of the proposed method.

  20. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Planar and Hybrid Bone Imaging.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Marafi, Fahad; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Van der Wall, Hans; Fogelman, Ignac

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclide (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine studies and helps in the diagnosis of different pathologies relating to the musculoskeletal system. With its increasing utility in clinical practice, it becomes more important to be aware of various limitations of this imaging modality to avoid false interpretation. It is necessary to be able to recognize various technical, radiopharmaceutical, and patient-related artifacts that can occur while carrying out a bone scan. Furthermore, several normal variations of tracer uptake may mimic pathology and should be interpreted cautiously. There is an important limitation of a bone scan in metastatic disease evaluation as the inherent mechanism of tracer uptake is not specific for tumor but primarily relies on an osteoblastic response. Thus, it is crucial to keep in mind uptake in benign lesions, which can resemble malignant pathologies. The utility of a planar bone scan in benign orthopedic diseases, especially at sites with complex anatomy, is limited owing to lack of precise anatomical information. SPECT/CT has been significantly helpful in these cases. With wider use of PET/CT and reintroduction of the (18)F-fluoride bone scan, increasing knowledge of potential pitfalls on an (18)F-fluoride bone scan and (18)F-FDG-PET/CT will help in improving the accuracy of clinical reports.

  1. Recovery of microfields in fiber-reinforced composite materials: Principles and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Andrew J.

    A detailed investigation of the limitations and errors induced by modeling a composite layer composed of straight carbon fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix as an homogenous layer with Cauchy effective moduli is performed. Specifically, the material system studied has IM7 carbon fibers arranged in a square array and bonded together with 8552 epoxy resin (IM7/8552). The finite element method is used to study the effect of free surfaces on the local elastic fields in 0°, 45° and 90° laminae, in which as many as 256 individual fibers are modeled. Through these analyses, it is shown that a micro-boundary layer, analogous to the macro-boundary layer observed in composite laminates, is developed at the microlevel. Additionally, [0/90]s and [90/0]s laminates are studied to investigate the joint action of the macro- and micro-boundary layers. Unless otherwise noted, fiber volume fractions of Vƒ=0.20 and Vƒ=0.65 are selected and the domains are subjected to uniform axial extension. Although this study is done for a highly idealized geometry (i.e. with a single material system and under a simple loading condition) the principles of periodicity, symmetry and antisymmetry used to efficiently perform a direct numerical simulation with a large number of fiber inclusions is general, and can be applied to more complicated geometries and boundary conditions. The purpose of the current work is to be the first step in a building block approach to understanding the interaction of multiple scales in fiber-reinforced composites through direct numerical simulations. The main part of the current manuscript focuses on the characterization of a micro-boundary layer that develops in fiber reinforced composite layers. This phenomena results from the changing constraints on the constituent phases as a result of discontinuities, such as free surfaces or ply interfaces. The effect is most pronounced in laminae that have a fiber termination intersecting a free surface, and appears to be

  2. Principles and Applications of Imaging Radar, Manual of Remote Sensing, 3rd Edition, Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, M. Susan

    Aerial photographs and digital images from orbiting optical scanners are a daily source of information for the general public through newspapers, television, magazines, and posters. Such images are just as prevalent in scientific journal literature. In the last 6 months, more than half of the weekly issues of Eos published an image acquired by a remote digital sensor. As a result, most geoscientists are familiar with the characteristics and even the acronyms of the current satellites and their optical sensors, common detector filters, and image presentation. In many cases, this familiarity has bred contempt. This is so because the limitations of optical sensors (imaging in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum) can be quite formidable. Images of the surface cannot be acquired through clouds, and image quality is impaired with low-light conditions (such as at polar regions), atmospheric scattering and absorption, and variations in sun/sensor/surface geometry.

  3. Thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology: Potentialities and limits

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Gallese, Vittorio; Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered an upcoming, promising methodology in the emotional arena. Driven by sympathetic nerves, observations of affective nature derive from muscular activity subcutaneous blood flow as well as perspiration patterns in specific body parts. A review of 23 experimental procedures that employed fITI for investigations of affective nature is provided, along with the adopted experimental protocol and the thermal changes that took place on selected regions of interest in human and nonhuman subjects. Discussion is provided regarding the selection of an appropriate baseline, the autonomic nature of the thermal print, the experimental setup, methodological issues, limitations, and considerations, as well as future directions. PMID:24961292

  4. How to COAAD Images. II. A Coaddition Image that is Optimal for Any Purpose in the Background-dominated Noise Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackay, Barak; Ofek, Eran O.

    2017-02-01

    Image coaddition is one of the most basic operations that astronomers perform. In Paper I, we presented the optimal ways to coadd images in order to detect faint sources and to perform flux measurements under the assumption that the noise is approximately Gaussian. Here, we build on these results and derive from first principles a coaddition technique that is optimal for any hypothesis testing and measurement (e.g., source detection, flux or shape measurements, and star/galaxy separation), in the background-noise-dominated case. This method has several important properties. The pixels of the resulting coadded image are uncorrelated. This image preserves all the information (from the original individual images) on all spatial frequencies. Any hypothesis testing or measurement that can be done on all the individual images simultaneously, can be done on the coadded image without any loss of information. The PSF of this image is typically as narrow, or narrower than the PSF of the best image in the ensemble. Moreover, this image is practically indistinguishable from a regular single image, meaning that any code that measures any property on a regular astronomical image can be applied to it unchanged. In particular, the optimal source detection statistic derived in Paper I is reproduced by matched filtering this image with its own PSF. This coaddition process, which we call proper coaddition, can be understood as the maximum signal-to-noise ratio measurement of the Fourier transform of the image, weighted in such a way that the noise in the entire Fourier domain is of equal variance. This method has important implications for multi-epoch seeing-limited deep surveys, weak lensing galaxy shape measurements, and diffraction-limited imaging via speckle observations. The last topic will be covered in depth in future papers. We provide an implementation of this algorithm in MATLAB.

  5. Computed ultrasound tomography in echo mode for imaging speed of sound using pulse-echo sonography: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Michael; Held, Gerrit; Peeters, Sara; Preisser, Stefan; Grünig, Michael; Frenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The limitations of diagnostic echo ultrasound have motivated research into novel modalities that complement ultrasound in a multimodal device. One promising candidate is speed of sound imaging, which has been found to reveal structural changes in diseased tissue. Transmission ultrasound tomography shows speed of sound spatially resolved, but is limited to the acoustically transparent breast. We present a novel method by which speed-of-sound imaging is possible using classic pulse-echo equipment, facilitating new clinical applications and the combination with state-of-the art diagnostic ultrasound. Pulse-echo images are reconstructed while scanning the tissue under various angles using transmit beam steering. Differences in average sound speed along different transmit directions are reflected in the local echo phase, which allows a 2-D reconstruction of the sound speed. In the present proof-of-principle study, we describe a contrast resolution of 0.6% of average sound speed and a spatial resolution of 1 mm (laterally) × 3 mm (axially), suitable for diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Principles and applications of hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of agro-food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Gamal; Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of reliability, expeditiousness, accuracy, consistency, and simplicity for quality assessment of food products encouraged the development of non-destructive technologies to meet the demands of consumers to obtain superior food qualities. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the most promising techniques currently investigated for quality evaluation purposes in numerous sorts of applications. The main advantage of the hyperspectral imaging system is its aptitude to incorporate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques not only to make a direct assessment of different components simultaneously but also to locate the spatial distribution of such components in the tested products. Associated with multivariate analysis protocols, hyperspectral imaging shows a convinced attitude to be dominated in food authentication and analysis in future. The marvellous potential of the hyperspectral imaging technique as a non-destructive tool has driven the development of more sophisticated hyperspectral imaging systems in food applications. The aim of this review is to give detailed outlines about the theory and principles of hyperspectral imaging and to focus primarily on its applications in the field of quality evaluation of agro-food products as well as its future applicability in modern food industries and research.

  7. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-12-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging's basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs.

  8. Systematic, spatial imaging of large multimolecular assemblies and the emerging principles of supramolecular order in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding biological systems at the level of their relational (emergent) molecular properties in functional protein networks relies on imaging methods, able to spatially resolve a tissue or a cell as a giant, non-random, topologically defined collection of interacting supermolecules executing myriads of subcellular mechanisms. Here, the development and findings of parameter-unlimited functional super-resolution microscopy are described—a technology based on the fluorescence imaging cycler (IC) principle capable of co-mapping thousands of distinct biomolecular assemblies at high spatial resolution and differentiation (<40 nm distances). It is shown that the subcellular and transcellular features of such supermolecules can be described at the compositional and constitutional levels; that the spatial connection, relational stoichiometry, and topology of supermolecules generate hitherto unrecognized functional self-segmentation of biological tissues; that hierarchical features, common to thousands of simultaneously imaged supermolecules, can be identified; and how the resulting supramolecular order relates to spatial coding of cellular functionalities in biological systems. A large body of observations with IC molecular systems microscopy collected over 20 years have disclosed principles governed by a law of supramolecular segregation of cellular functionalities. This pervades phenomena, such as exceptional orderliness, functional selectivity, combinatorial and spatial periodicity, and hierarchical organization of large molecular systems, across all species investigated so far. This insight is based on the high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity of molecular recognition processes for fluorescence imaging beyond the spectral resolution limit, using probe libraries controlled by ICs. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Molecular Recognition published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24375580

  9. Design Principles of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Liang; Gu, Xinbin; Wang, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that introduces molecular agents into traditional imaging techniques, enabling visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The promise of molecular imaging lies in its potential for selective potency by targeting biomarkers or molecular targets and the imaging agents serve as reporters for the selectivity of targeting. Development of an efficient molecular imaging agent depends on well-controlled high-quality experiment design involving target selection, agent synthesis, in vitro characterization, and in vivo animal characterization before it is applied in humans. According to the analysis from the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD, ), more than 6000 molecular imaging agents with sufficient preclinical evaluation have been reported to date in the literature and this number increases by 250-300 novel agents each year. The majority of these agents are radionuclides, which are developed for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) account for only a small part. This is largely due to the fact that MRI is currently not a fully quantitative imaging technique and is less sensitive than PET and SPECT. However, because of the superior ability to simultaneously extract molecular and anatomic information, molecular MRI is attracting significant interest and various targeted nanoparticle contrast agents have been synthesized for MRI. The first and one of the most critical steps in developing a targeted nanoparticle contrast agent is target selection, which plays the central role and forms the basis for success of molecular imaging. This chapter discusses the design principles of targeted contrast agents in the emerging frontiers of molecular MRI.

  10. Dynamic dual-isotope molecular imaging elucidates principles for optimizing intrathecal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel A.; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Orcutt, Kelly D.; Silva, Matthew D.; Lobo, Merryl; Wellman, Tyler; Hoppin, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The intrathecal (IT) dosing route offers a seemingly obvious solution for delivering drugs directly to the central nervous system. However, gaps in understanding drug molecule behavior within the anatomically and kinetically unique environment of the mammalian IT space have impeded the establishment of pharmacokinetic principles for optimizing regional drug exposure along the neuraxis. Here, we have utilized high-resolution single-photon emission tomography with X-ray computed tomography to study the behavior of multiple molecular imaging tracers following an IT bolus injection, with supporting histology, autoradiography, block-face tomography, and MRI. Using simultaneous dual-isotope imaging, we demonstrate that the regional CNS tissue exposure of molecules with varying chemical properties is affected by IT space anatomy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, CSF clearance routes, and the location and volume of the injected bolus. These imaging approaches can be used across species to optimize the safety and efficacy of IT drug therapy for neurological disorders. PMID:27699254

  11. UCXp camera imaging principle and key technologies of data post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Liu, Jianmin; Wu, Liang; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Haitao

    2014-03-01

    The large format digital aerial camera product UCXp was introduced into the Chinese market in 2008, the image consists of 17310 columns and 11310 rows with a pixel size of 6 mm. The UCXp camera has many advantages compared with the same generation camera, with multiple lenses exposed almost at the same time and no oblique lens. The camera has a complex imaging process whose principle will be detailed in this paper. On the other hand, the UCXp image post-processing method, including data pre-processing and orthophoto production, will be emphasized in this article. Based on the data of new Beichuan County, this paper will describe the data processing and effects.

  12. Fully phase multiple-image encryption based on superposition principle and the digital holographic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2012-10-01

    We propose an optoelectronic image encryption and decryption technique based on coherent superposition principle and digital holography. With the help of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) that is generated by using logistic map, a real-valued primary image is encoded into a phase-only version and then recorded as an encoded hologram. As for multiple-image encryption, only one digital hologram is to be transmitted as the encrypted result by using the multiplexing technique changing the reference wave angle. The bifurcation parameters, the initial values for the logistic maps, the number of the removed elements and the reference wave parameters are kept and transmitted as private keys. Both the encryption and decryption processes can be implemented in opto-digital manner or fully digital manner. Simulation results are given for testing the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  13. Basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR-compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences, and 3-T field strength magnets allow high-quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion, and volumetric MR imaging. These techniques provide quantitative assessment and novel insight of both brain development and brain injury in the immature brain. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in quantitative MR values is also essential to interpret pathologic cases.

  14. Understanding the principles in management of Wilms' tumour: can imaging assist in patient selection?

    PubMed

    Kembhavi, S A; Qureshi, S; Vora, T; Chinnaswamy, G; Laskar, S; Ramadwar, M; Arora, B

    2013-07-01

    The management of Wilms' tumour has evolved through thorough systematic research, predominantly lead by two groups: the Wilms' Tumour Study Committee of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) and National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) of North America. These two groups differ in their approach: SIOP advocates initial chemotherapy of 4-6 weeks followed by surgery, whereas the NWTSG advocates upfront surgery, with certain exceptions. This review briefly discusses the principles, and pros and cons of each approach. Both the treatment approaches have equivalent outcomes (in the form of event-free survival and overall survival), when compared stage-wise. With this knowledge, modern imaging can be used for individualizing treatment in anticipation of minimizing complications. The review identifies critical imaging features and discusses the reliability of imaging based on current reports in the literature.

  15. Direct method of three-dimensional imaging using the multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging principle.

    PubMed

    Matwyschuk, Alexis

    2016-05-10

    The tomography executed with mono-wavelength active imaging systems uses the recording of several images to restore a three-dimensional (3D) scene. Thus, in order to show the depth in the scene, a different color is attributed to each recorded image. Therefore, the 3D restoration depends on the video frame rate of the camera. By using a multiple-wavelength range-gated active imaging system, it is possible to restore the 3D scene directly in a single image at the moment of recording with a video camera. Each emitted light pulse with a different wavelength corresponds to a visualized zone at a different distance in the scene. The camera shutter opens just once during the emission of light pulses with the different wavelengths. Thus, the restoration can be executed in real time with regard to the video frame rate of the camera. From an analytical model and from a graphical approach, we demonstrated the feasibility of this new method of 3D restoration. The non-overlapping conditions between two consecutive visualized zones are analyzed. The experimental test results confirm these different conditions and validate the theoretical principle to directly restore the 3D scene in a color image with a multiple-wavelength laser source, an RGB filter, and a triggerable intensified camera.

  16. High-speed holographic metrology: principle, limitations, and application to vibroacoustics of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poittevin, Julien; Gautier, François; Pézerat, Charles; Picart, Pascal

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the basics of high-speed holographic metrology, its limitations, and its application to the investigation of traveling acoustic waves propagating in mechanical structures. Limits are related to a few parameters that must be carefully adjusted for the recording. A full numerical simulation of the recording-reconstruction holographic process is presented and used to investigate the decorrelation phase noise induced by spatial resolution, active surface of pixels, and short exposure time. Applications to vibroacoustics of structures consider the case of waves propagating after a shock by impact hammer and wave interaction in one-dimensional and two-dimensional acoustic black hole extremities.

  17. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have long been used in photovoltaic applications but restricted to approaching the fundamental efficiency limits of the planar devices with less material. However, recent researches on standing NWs have started to reveal their potential of surpassing these limits when their unique optical property is utilized in novel manners. Here, we present a theoretical guideline for maximizing the conversion efficiency of a single standing NW cell based on a detailed study of its optical absorption mechanism. Under normal incidence, a standing NW behaves as a dielectric resonator antenna, and its optical cross-section shows its maximum when the lowest hybrid mode (HE11δ) is excited along with the presence of a back-reflector. The promotion of the cell efficiency beyond the planar limits is attributed to two effects: the built-in concentration caused by the enlarged optical cross-section, and the shifting of the absorption front resulted from the excited mode profile. By choosing an optimal NW radius to support the HE11δ mode within the main absorption spectrum, we demonstrate a relative conversion-efficiency enhancement of 33% above the planar cell limit on the exemplary a-Si solar cells. This work has provided a new basis for designing and analyzing standing NW based solar cells. PMID:24810591

  18. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have long been used in photovoltaic applications but restricted to approaching the fundamental efficiency limits of the planar devices with less material. However, recent researches on standing NWs have started to reveal their potential of surpassing these limits when their unique optical property is utilized in novel manners. Here, we present a theoretical guideline for maximizing the conversion efficiency of a single standing NW cell based on a detailed study of its optical absorption mechanism. Under normal incidence, a standing NW behaves as a dielectric resonator antenna, and its optical cross-section shows its maximum when the lowest hybrid mode (HE11δ) is excited along with the presence of a back-reflector. The promotion of the cell efficiency beyond the planar limits is attributed to two effects: the built-in concentration caused by the enlarged optical cross-section, and the shifting of the absorption front resulted from the excited mode profile. By choosing an optimal NW radius to support the HE11δ mode within the main absorption spectrum, we demonstrate a relative conversion-efficiency enhancement of 33% above the planar cell limit on the exemplary a-Si solar cells. This work has provided a new basis for designing and analyzing standing NW based solar cells.

  19. T1ρ magnetic resonance: basic physics principles and applications in knee and intervertebral disc imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinwei; Li, Xiaojuan; Chen, Weitian; Ahuja, Anil; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    T1ρ relaxation time provides a new contrast mechanism that differs from T1- and T2-weighted contrast, and is useful to study low-frequency motional processes and chemical exchange in biological tissues. T1ρ imaging can be performed in the forms of T1ρ-weighted image, T1ρ mapping and T1ρ dispersion. T1ρ imaging, particularly at low spin-lock frequency, is sensitive to B0 and B1 inhomogeneity. Various composite spin-lock pulses have been proposed to alleviate the influence of field inhomogeneity so as to reduce the banding-like spin-lock artifacts. T1ρ imaging could be specific absorption rate (SAR) intensive and time consuming. Efforts to address these issues and speed-up data acquisition are being explored to facilitate wider clinical applications. This paper reviews the T1ρ imaging’s basic physic principles, as well as its application for cartilage imaging and intervertebral disc imaging. Compared to more established T2 relaxation time, it has been shown that T1ρ provides more sensitive detection of proteoglycan (PG) loss at early stages of cartilage degeneration. T1ρ has also been shown to provide more sensitive evaluation of annulus fibrosis (AF) degeneration of the discs. PMID:26807369

  20. Minimum current principle and variational method in theory of space charge limited flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, A.

    2015-10-21

    In spirit of the principle of least action, which means that when a perturbation is applied to a physical system, its reaction is such that it modifies its state to “agree” with the perturbation by “minimal” change of its initial state. In particular, the electron field emission should produce the minimum current consistent with boundary conditions. It can be found theoretically by solving corresponding equations using different techniques. We apply here the variational method for the current calculation, which can be quite effective even when involving a short set of trial functions. The approach to a better result can be monitored by the total current that should decrease when we on the right track. Here, we present only an illustration for simple geometries of devices with the electron flow. The development of these methods can be useful when the emitter and/or anode shapes make difficult the use of standard approaches. Though direct numerical calculations including particle-in-cell technique are very effective, but theoretical calculations can provide an important insight for understanding general features of flow formation and even sometimes be realized by simpler routines.

  1. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  2. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  3. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, we present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of Majorana Demonstrator commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. We set our most stringent DM constraints for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting g A e < 4.5 × 10 -13 for pseudoscalars and ( α ' / α ) < 9.7 × 10-28 for vectors. We also report a 14.4 keV solar axion coupling limit of gmore » $$eff\\atop{AN}$$ × g A e < 3.8 × 10-17 , a 1/2 β 2 < 8.5 × 10 - 48 limit on the strength of PEPV electron transitions, and a lower limit on the electron lifetime of τ e > 1.2 × 1 0 24 yr for e - → invisible.« less

  4. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator.

    PubMed

    Abgrall, N; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P-H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Haufe, C R S; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Reine, A L; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C-H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I; Zhu, B X

    2017-04-21

    We present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of Majorana Demonstrator commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. Our most stringent DM constraints are set for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting g_{Ae}<4.5×10^{-13} for pseudoscalars and (α^{'}/α)<9.7×10^{-28} for vectors. We also report a 14.4 keV solar axion coupling limit of g_{AN}^{eff}×g_{Ae}<3.8×10^{-17}, a 1/2β^{2}<8.5×10^{-48} limit on the strength of PEPV electron transitions, and a lower limit on the electron lifetime of τ_{e}>1.2×10^{24}  yr for e^{-}→ invisible.

  5. Photoacoustic imaging beyond the acoustic diffraction-limit with dynamic speckle illumination and sparse joint support recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojman, Eliel; Chaigne, Thomas; Solomon, Oren; Gigan, Sylvain; Bossy, Emmanuel; Eldar, Yonina C.; Katz, Ori

    2017-03-01

    In deep tissue photoacoustic imaging the spatial resolution is inherently limited by the acoustic wavelength. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is possible to surpass the acoustic diffraction limit by analyzing fluctuations in a set of photoacoustic images obtained under unknown speckle illumination patterns. Here, we purpose an approach to boost reconstruction fidelity and resolution, while reducing the number of acquired images by utilizing a compressed sensing computational reconstruction framework. The approach takes into account prior knowledge of the system response and sparsity of the target structure. We provide proof of principle experiments of the approach and demonstrate that improved performance is obtained when both speckle fluctuations and object priors are used. We numerically study the expected performance as a function of the measurements signal to noise ratio and sample spatial-sparsity. The presented reconstruction framework can be applied to analyze existing photoacoustic experimental datasets containing dynamic fluctuations.

  6. Lubrication with sputtered MoS2 films: Principles, operation, limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1991-01-01

    The present practices, limitations, and understanding of thin sputtered MoS2 films are reviewed. Sputtered MoS2 films can exhibit remarkable tribological properties such as ultralow friction coefficients (0.01) and enhanced wear lives (millions of cycles) when used in vacuum or dry air. To achieve these favorable tribological characteristics, the sputtering conditions during deposition must be optimized for adequate film adherence and appropriate structure (morphology) and composition.

  7. Surface imaging beyond the diffraction limit with optically trapped spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Lars; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Optical traps play an increasing role in the bionanosciences because of their ability to apply forces flexibly on tiny structures in fluid environments. Combined with particle-tracking techniques, they allow the sensing of miniscule forces exerted on these structures. Similar to atomic force microscopy (AFM), but much more sensitive, an optically trapped probe can be scanned across a structured surface to measure the height profile from the displacements of the probe. Here we demonstrate that, by the combination of a time-shared twin-optical trap and nanometre-precise three-dimensional interferometric particle tracking, both reliable height profiling and surface imaging are possible with a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The technique exploits the high-energy thermal position fluctuations of the trapped probe, and leads to a sampling of the surface 5,000 times softer than in AFM. The measured height and force profiles from test structures and Helicobacter cells illustrate the potential to uncover specific properties of hard and soft surfaces.

  8. Imaging fast calcium currents beyond the limitations of electrode techniques.

    PubMed

    Jaafari, Nadia; De Waard, Michel; Canepari, Marco

    2014-09-16

    The current understanding of Ca(2+) channel function is derived from the use of the patch-clamp technique. In particular, the measurement of fast cellular Ca(2+) currents is routinely achieved using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings. However, this experimental approach is not applicable to the study of local native Ca(2+) channels during physiological changes of membrane potential in complex cells, since the voltage-clamp configuration constrains the membrane potential to a given value. Here, we report for the first time to our knowledge that Ca(2+) currents from individual cells can be quantitatively measured beyond the limitations of the voltage-clamp approach using fast Ca(2+) imaging with low-affinity indicators. The optical measurement of the Ca(2+) current was correlated with the membrane potential, simultaneously measured with a voltage-sensitive dye to investigate the activation of Ca(2+) channels along the apical dendrite of the CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neuron during the back-propagation of an action potential. To validate the method, we analyzed the voltage dependence of high- and low-voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In particular, we measured the Ca(2+) current component mediated by T-type channels, and we investigated the mechanisms of recovery from inactivation of these channels. This method is expected to become a reference approach to investigate Ca(2+) channels in their native physiological environment.

  9. Update: Cardiac Imaging (II). Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Advantages and Limitations of Different Cardiac Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an established therapy for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and contraindications or high risk for surgery. Advances in prostheses and delivery system designs and continuous advances in multimodality imaging, particularly the 3-dimensional techniques, have led to improved outcomes with significant reductions in the incidence of frequent complications such as paravalvular aortic regurgitation. In addition, data on prosthesis durability are accumulating. Multimodality imaging plays a central role in the selection of patients who are candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, procedure planning and guidance, and follow-up of prosthesis function. The strengths and limitations of each imaging technique for transcatheter aortic valve replacement will be discussed in this update article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic nanoparticle heating and heat transfer on a microscale: Basic principles, realities and physical limitations of hyperthermia for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Dutz, Silvio; Hergt, Rudolf

    2013-12-01

    In this review article we present basic principles of magnetically induced heat generation of magnetic nanoparticles for application in magnetic particle hyperthermia. After explanation of heating mechanisms, the role of particle-particle as well as particle-tissue interactions is discussed with respect to achievable heating power of the particles inside the tumour. On the basis of heat transfer theory at the micro-scale, the balance between generated and dissipated heat inside the tumour and the resulting damaging effects for biological tissue is examined. The heating behaviour as a function of tumour size is examined in combination with feasible field strength and frequency. Numerical calculations and experimental investigations are used to show the lower tumour size limit for tumour heating to therapeutically suitable temperatures. In summary, this article illuminates practical aspects, limitations, and the state of the art for the application of magnetic heating in magnetic particle hyperthermia as thermal treatment of small tumours.

  11. Limits on violations of Lorentz symmetry and the Einstein equivalence principle using radio-frequency spectroscopy of atomic dysprosium.

    PubMed

    Hohensee, M A; Leefer, N; Budker, D; Harabati, C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2013-08-02

    We report a joint test of local Lorentz invariance and the Einstein equivalence principle for electrons, using long-term measurements of the transition frequency between two nearly degenerate states of atomic dysprosium. We present many-body calculations which demonstrate that the energy splitting of these states is particularly sensitive to violations of both special and general relativity. We limit Lorentz violation for electrons at the level of 10(-17), matching or improving the best laboratory and astrophysical limits by up to a factor of 10, and improve bounds on gravitational redshift anomalies for electrons by 2 orders of magnitude, to 10(-8). With some enhancements, our experiment may be sensitive to Lorentz violation at the level of 9 × 10(-20).

  12. The Global Landscape of Occupational Exposure Limits—Implementation of Harmonization Principles to Guide Limit Selection

    PubMed Central

    Deveau, M.; Chen, C-P; Johanson, G.; Krewski, D.; Maier, A.; Niven, K. J.; Ripple, S.; Schulte, P. A.; Silk, J.; Urbanus, J. H.; Zalk, D. M.; Niemeier, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) serve as health-based benchmarks against which measured or estimated workplace exposures can be compared. In the years since the introduction of OELs to public health practice, both developed and developing countries have established processes for deriving, setting, and using OELs to protect workers exposed to hazardous chemicals. These processes vary widely, however, and have thus resulted in a confusing international landscape for identifying and applying such limits in workplaces. The occupational hygienist will encounter significant overlap in coverage among organizations for many chemicals, while other important chemicals have OELs developed by few, if any, organizations. Where multiple organizations have published an OEL, the derived value often varies considerably—reflecting differences in both risk policy and risk assessment methodology as well as access to available pertinent data. This article explores the underlying reasons for variability in OELs, and recommends the harmonization of risk-based methods used by OEL-deriving organizations. A framework is also proposed for the identification and systematic evaluation of OEL resources, which occupational hygienists can use to support risk characterization and risk management decisions in situations where multiple potentially relevant OELs exist. PMID:26099071

  13. Principles and applications of imaging radar. Manual of remote sensing: Third edition, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, F.M.; Lewis, A.J.

    1998-12-31

    This second volume in the Third Edition of the Manual of Remote Sensing offers a current and comprehensive survey of the theory, methods, and applications of imaging radar for geoscientists, engineers and application scientists interested in the advantages of radar remote sensing. Produced under the auspices of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, it brings together contributions from experts around the world to discuss the basic principles of imaging radars and trace the research activity--past, present, and future--across the many sciences where radar remote sensing may be applied. This book offers an invaluable snapshot of radar remote sensing technology, including radargrammetry, radar polarimetry and interferometry and its uses. It combines technical and procedural coverage of systems, data interpretation, and other fundamentals with generous coverage of practical applications in agriculture; forestry; soil moisture monitoring; geology; geomorphology and hydrology; oceanography; land use, land cover mapping and archeology.

  14. Principles of T2 *-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI technique in brain tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Shiroishi, Mark S; Castellazzi, Gloria; Boxerman, Jerrold L; D'Amore, Francesco; Essig, Marco; Nguyen, Thanh B; Provenzale, James M; Enterline, David S; Anzalone, Nicoletta; Dörfler, Arnd; Rovira, Àlex; Wintermark, Max; Law, Meng

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) is used to track the first pass of an exogenous, paramagnetic, nondiffusible contrast agent through brain tissue, and has emerged as a powerful tool in the characterization of brain tumor hemodynamics. DSC-MRI parameters can be helpful in many aspects, including tumor grading, prediction of treatment response, likelihood of malignant transformation, discrimination between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis, and differentiation between true early progression and pseudoprogression. This review aims to provide a conceptual overview of the underlying principles of DSC-MRI of the brain for clinical neuroradiologists, scientists, or students wishing to improve their understanding of the technical aspects, pitfalls, and controversies of DSC perfusion MRI of the brain. Future consensus on image acquisition parameters and postprocessing of DSC-MRI will most likely allow this technique to be evaluated and used in high-quality multicenter studies and ultimately help guide clinical care. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Methods to Assess Bioavailability of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants: Principles, Operations, and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xinyi; Mayer, Philipp; Gan, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Many important environmental contaminants are hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), which include PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs, DDT and other chlorinated insecticides, among others. Owing to their strong hydrophobicity, HOCs have their final destination in soil or sediment, where their ecotoxicological effects are closely regulated by sorption and thus bioavailability. The last two decades has seen a dramatic increase in research efforts in developing and applying partitioning based methods and biomimetic extractions for measuring HOC bioavailability. However, the many variations of both analytical methods and associated measurement endpoints are often a source of confusion for users. In this review, we distinguish the most commonly used analytical approaches based on their measurement objectives, and illustrate their practical operational steps, strengths and limitations using simple flowcharts. This review may serve as guidance for new users on the selection and use of established methods, and a reference for experienced investigators to identify potential topics for further research. PMID:23064200

  16. Mutual interferences and design principles for mechatronic devices in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ningbo; Gassert, Roger; Riener, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Robotic and mechatronic devices that work compatibly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied in diagnostic MRI, image-guided surgery, neurorehabilitation and neuroscience. MRI-compatible mechatronic systems must address the challenges imposed by the scanner's electromagnetic fields. We have developed objective quantitative evaluation criteria for device characteristics needed to formulate design guidelines that ensure MRI-compatibility based on safety, device functionality and image quality. The mutual interferences between an MRI system and mechatronic devices working in its vicinity are modeled and tested. For each interference, the involved components are listed, and a numerical measure for "MRI-compatibility" is proposed. These interferences are categorized into an MRI-compatibility matrix, with each element representing possible interactions between one part of the mechatronic system and one component of the electromagnetic fields. Based on this formulation, design principles for MRI-compatible mechatronic systems are proposed. Furthermore, test methods are developed to examine whether a mechatronic device indeed works without interferences within an MRI system. Finally, the proposed MRI-compatibility criteria and design guidelines have been applied to an actual design process that has been validated by the test procedures. Objective and quantitative MRI-compatibility measures for mechatronic and robotic devices have been established. Applying the proposed design principles, potential problems in safety, device functionality and image quality can be considered in the design phase to ensure that the mechatronic system will fulfill the MRI-compatibility criteria. New guidelines and test procedures for MRI instrument compatibility provide a rational basis for design and evaluation of mechatronic devices in various MRI applications. Designers can apply these criteria and use the tests, so that MRI-compatibility results can accrue to build an experiential

  17. Methods, advantages, and limitations of compositing photographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Basic procedures used in compositing photographic images to increase their information content are briefly discussed. A new method for calculating exposure time for each image is presented. A portion of the density coordinate of the characteristic curve of the film on which the exposures are to be made is divided into as many divisions as there are images to be superimposed. Lines are drawn from the intersections of these density increments with the characteristic curve to the log exposure for each image. A study of the ability of workers to superimpose plant images with a projected scale of one arcsec per millimeter has shown that image smearing due to alignment errors in a composite will not exceed about 0.15 arcseconds if images are composited by an adept operator.

  18. Imaging of CNS Tumors in Children: Advances and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Vézina, Louis-Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    MR technology is constantly improving. Functional imaging techniques such as MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, diffusion imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are increasingly utilized in the pediatric patient with a brain tumor. However estimate of tumor size remains the primary imaging endpoint in the evaluation of response to treatment; validation across institutions and vendor platforms of MRI functional parameters is necessary given the relative uncommon occurrence of brain tumors in children. Pediatric neuroimaging can be challenging, and the optimal way to image children with CNS tumors is not uniformly applied across all centers. Application of proper scanning techniques and validation of functional imaging techniques should lead to improved care of children with CNS tumors PMID:18952579

  19. Therapy Imaging: Limitations Of Imaging With High Energy X-Ray Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, P.; Rawlinson, J. A.; Fenster, A.

    1987-01-01

    One of the major problems in radiation therapy is ensuring that the correct region of the patient receives the prescribed x-ray treatment and that the surrounding tissues are spared. One way to identify patient positioning errors is to make an image using the radiotherapy treatment beam. We have examined two of the factors that can influence the quality of images made with high energy x-ray beams: (i) the size of the x-ray source, and; (ii) the signal-to-noise characteristics of the detectors used to form images with high energy x-ray beams. We have developed a novel method of measuring the source distributions for 60Co machines and linear accelerators and from the measurements have been able to obtain the modulation transfer functions of their x-ray sources. We have also measured the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and the noise power spectra (NPS) of the x-ray detectors. Based on these measurements, we conclude that images made with high energy x-ray beams are limited by film granularity and that improved images can be obtained by alternative detector systems.

  20. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    PubMed

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information.

  2. Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Limandjaja, Grace C; Niessen, Frank B; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will form adverse scars even after relatively minor injury. Currently, many different models exist to study scar formation, ranging from simple monolayer cell culture to 3D tissue-engineered models even to humanized mouse models. Currently, these high-/medium-throughput test models avoid the main questions referring to why an adverse scar forms instead of a normotrophic scar and what causes a hypertrophic scar to form rather than a keloid scar and also, how is the genetic predisposition of the individual and the immune system involved. This information is essential if we are to identify new drug targets and develop optimal strategies in the future to prevent adverse scar formation. This viewpoint review summarizes the progress on in vitro and animal scar models, stresses the limitations in the current models and identifies the future challenges if scar-free healing is to be achieved in the future. PMID:24750541

  3. Design principles and limitations of wave-front guided contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Thibos, Larry N; Cheng, Xu; Bradley, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the wave-front guided design of contact lenses is presented from three vantage points: ray optics, wave front aberrations, and optical path-length errors. We argue that the goal of contact lenses is to make all of the optical paths from a distant object to the retina equal in length, regardless of where the path intersects the plane of the eye's pupil. The aberration map of an eye is a prescription for such a lens. Unfortunately, variability of measured aberration maps is a fundamental limit to our knowledge of the true aberration structure of an eye. Variability arises because the eye is a biologic system that changes over time for normal, physiologic reasons. Furthermore, uncertainty in our measurement of the aberration map because of such variable factors, such as alignment of the aberrometer to the eye by the clinician or small fixation errors committed by the patient, will make it difficult to achieve a full measure of success with aberration-correcting contact lenses. The clinical implication of these findings is that multiple measurements of the aberration map should be collected using a protocol that includes realignment of the instrument and then averaging the aberration maps to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with any single measurement.

  4. Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Limandjaja, Grace C; Niessen, Frank B; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-06-01

    Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and understand why some individuals will form adverse scars even after relatively minor injury. Currently, many different models exist to study scar formation, ranging from simple monolayer cell culture to 3D tissue-engineered models even to humanized mouse models. Currently, these high-/medium-throughput test models avoid the main questions referring to why an adverse scar forms instead of a normotrophic scar and what causes a hypertrophic scar to form rather than a keloid scar and also, how is the genetic predisposition of the individual and the immune system involved. This information is essential if we are to identify new drug targets and develop optimal strategies in the future to prevent adverse scar formation. This viewpoint review summarizes the progress on in vitro and animal scar models, stresses the limitations in the current models and identifies the future challenges if scar-free healing is to be achieved in the future. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Al-Air Batteries: Fundamental Thermodynamic Limitations from First Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leanne D.; Noerskov, Jens K.; Luntz, Alan C.

    2015-03-01

    The Al-air battery possesses high theoretical specific energy (4140 Wh/kg) and is therefore an attractive candidate for vehicle propulsion applications. However, the experimentally observed open-circuit potential is much lower than what thermodynamics predicts, and this potential loss is widely believed to be an effect of corrosion. We present a detailed study of the Al-air battery using density functional theory. The results suggest that the difference between bulk thermodynamic and surface potentials is due to both the effects of asymmetry in multi-electron transfer reactions that define the anodic dissolution of Al and, more importantly, a large chemical step inherent to the formation of bulk Al(OH)3 from surface intermediates. The former results in an energy loss of 3%, while the latter accounts for 14 -29% of the total thermodynamic energy depending on the surface site where dissolution occurs. Therefore, the maximum open-circuit potential of the Al anode is only -1.87 V vs. SHE in the absence of thermal excitations, contrary to -2.34 V predicted by bulk thermodynamics at pH 14.6. This is a fundamental limitation of the system and governs the maximum output potential, which cannot be improved even if corrosion effects were completely suppressed. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the ReLiable Project (#11-116792) funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research.

  6. Assessing toxicological data quality: basic principles, existing schemes and current limitations.

    PubMed

    Przybylak, K R; Madden, J C; Cronin, M T D; Hewitt, M

    2012-07-01

    Existing toxicological data may be used for a variety of purposes such as hazard and risk assessment or toxicity prediction. The potential use of such data is, in part, dependent upon their quality. Consideration of data quality is of key importance with respect to the application of chemicals legislation such as REACH. Whether data are being used to make regulatory decisions or build computational models, the quality of the output is reflected by the quality of the data employed. Therefore, the need to assess data quality is an important requirement for making a decision or prediction with an appropriate level of confidence. This study considers the biological and chemical factors that may impact upon toxicological data quality and discusses the assessment of data quality. Four general quality criteria are introduced and existing data quality assessment schemes are discussed. Two case study datasets of skin sensitization data are assessed for quality providing a comparison of existing assessment methods. This study also discusses the limitations and difficulties encountered during quality assessment, including the use of differing quality schemes and the global versus chemical-specific assessments of quality. Finally, a number of recommendations are made to aid future data quality assessments.

  7. Optical image hiding with silhouette removal based on the optical interference principle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2012-02-20

    The earlier proposed interference-based encryption method with two phase-only masks (POMs), which actually is a special case of our method, is quite simple and does not need iterative encoding. However, it has been found recently that the encryption method has security problems and cannot be directly applied to image encryption due to the inherent silhouette problem. Several methods based on chaotic encryption algorithms have been proposed to remove the problem by postprocessing of the POMs, which increased the computation time or led to digital inverse computation in decryption. Here we propose a new method for image encryption based on optical interference and analytical algorithm that can be directly used for image encryption. The information of the target image is hidden into three POMs, and the silhouette problem that exists in the method with two POMs can be resolved during the generation procedure of POMs based on the interference principle. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  8. Coronary Artery PET/MR Imaging: Feasibility, Limitations, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Robson, Philip M; Dweck, Marc R; Trivieri, Maria Giovanna; Abgral, Ronan; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Contreras, Johanna; Gidwani, Umesh; Narula, Jagat P; Fuster, Valentin; Kovacic, Jason C; Fayad, Zahi A

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the authors' initial experience with combined coronary artery positron emission tomographic (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) radiotracers, describe common problems and their solutions, and demonstrate the feasibility of coronary PET/MR imaging in appropriate patients. Recently, PET imaging has been applied to the aortic valve and regions of atherosclerosis. (18)F-FDG PET imaging has become established for imaging inflammation in atherosclerosis in the aorta and carotid arteries. Moreover, (18)F-NaF has emerged as a novel tracer of active microcalcification in the aortic valve and coronary arteries. Coronary PET imaging remains challenging because of the small caliber of the vessels and their complex motion. Currently, most coronary imaging uses combined PET and computed tomographic imaging, but there is increasing enthusiasm for PET/MR imaging because of its reduced radiation, potential to correct for motion, and the complementary information available from cardiac MR in a single scan. Twenty-three patients with diagnosed or documented risk factors for coronary artery disease underwent either (18)F-FDG or (18)F-NaF PET/MR imaging. Standard breath-held MR-based attenuation correction was compared with a novel free-breathing approach. The impact on PET image artifacts and the interpretation of vascular uptake were evaluated semiquantitatively by expert readers. Moreover, PET reconstructions with more algorithm iterations were compared visually and by target-to-background ratio. Image quality was significantly improved by novel free-breathing attenuation correction. Moreover, conspicuity of coronary uptake was improved by increasing the number of algorithm iterations from 3 to 6. Elevated radiotracer uptake could be localized to individual coronary lesions using both (18)F-FDG (n = 1, maximal target-to-background ratio = 1.61) and (18

  9. Principles of image processing in machine vision systems for the color analysis of minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhova, Daria B.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2014-09-01

    At the moment color sorting method is one of promising methods of mineral raw materials enrichment. This method is based on registration of color differences between images of analyzed objects. As is generally known the problem with delimitation of close color tints when sorting low-contrast minerals is one of the main disadvantages of color sorting method. It is can be related with wrong choice of a color model and incomplete image processing in machine vision system for realizing color sorting algorithm. Another problem is a necessity of image processing features reconfiguration when changing the type of analyzed minerals. This is due to the fact that optical properties of mineral samples vary from one mineral deposit to another. Therefore searching for values of image processing features is non-trivial task. And this task doesn't always have an acceptable solution. In addition there are no uniform guidelines for determining criteria of mineral samples separation. It is assumed that the process of image processing features reconfiguration had to be made by machine learning. But in practice it's carried out by adjusting the operating parameters which are satisfactory for one specific enrichment task. This approach usually leads to the fact that machine vision system unable to estimate rapidly the concentration rate of analyzed mineral ore by using color sorting method. This paper presents the results of research aimed at addressing mentioned shortcomings in image processing organization for machine vision systems which are used to color sorting of mineral samples. The principles of color analysis for low-contrast minerals by using machine vision systems are also studied. In addition, a special processing algorithm for color images of mineral samples is developed. Mentioned algorithm allows you to determine automatically the criteria of mineral samples separation based on an analysis of representative mineral samples. Experimental studies of the proposed algorithm

  10. Multiple-image encryption based on interference principle and phase-only mask multiplexing in Fresnel transform domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Lei, Liang; Zhou, Jinyun

    2013-10-01

    In this article, a multiple-image encryption method based on the optical interference principle and phase-only mask (POM) multiplexing is proposed. During the encryption process, each secret image is encoded into two analytically obtained POMs and one computer-generated random POM, in which no iterative computation is required. The analytically obtained POMs taken from different secret images are then synthesized by POM multiplexing and further encoded into two complex ciphertext images. The silhouette problem that exists in the earlier interference principle-based encryption approaches is totally resolved by the proposal. Both digital and optical means can be used for decryption. The crosstalk effect between the secret images will not appear in the decrypted results by using the proposed system. Numerical simulations have been given to verify the performance and feasibility of the proposal. We also discuss briefly the influence of information compression on the quality of decrypted images.

  11. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Jamieson, B.

    2014-03-01

    Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism plays an import role in avalanche formation. When gradients based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, faceting close to a crust can be observed. Recent studies that visualised small-scale (< 10 cm) thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR) camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large-scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within these studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or shovel produced small concavities (holes) even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which was only observed at times during a strong cooling/warming of the exposed pit wall. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed more slowly compared with convex areas (bumps) when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative and/or turbulent energy transfer at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of using a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly during windy conditions, clear skies and large temperature differences between air and snow. At crusts or other

  12. Students' Images and Their Understanding of Definitions of the Limit of a Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Kyeong Hah

    2008-01-01

    There are many studies on the role of images in understanding the concept of limit. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on how students' understanding of the rigorous definition of limit is influenced by the images of limit that the students have constructed through their previous learning. This study explored how calculus…

  13. Autonomy, consent and responsability. Part 1: limitations of the principle of autonomy as a foundation of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M

    2016-01-01

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Reverse engineering and verification of gene networks: principles, assumptions, and limitations of present methods and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Balling, Rudi; Zeng, An-Ping

    2009-11-01

    Reverse engineering of gene networks aims at revealing the structure of the gene regulation network in a biological system by reasoning backward directly from experimental data. Many methods have recently been proposed for reverse engineering of gene networks by using gene transcript expression data measured by microarray. Whereas the potentials of the methods have been well demonstrated, the assumptions and limitations behind them are often not clearly stated or not well understood. In this review, we first briefly explain the principles of the major methods, identify the assumptions behind them and pinpoint the limitations and possible pitfalls in applying them to real biological questions. With regard to applications, we then discuss challenges in the experimental verification of gene networks generated from reverse engineering methods. We further propose an optimal experimental design for allocating sampling schedule and possible strategies for reducing the limitations of some of the current reverse engineering methods. Finally, we examine the perspectives for the development of reverse engineering and urge the need to move from revealing network structure to the dynamics of biological systems.

  15. Necrotizing fasciitis: contribution and limitations of diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Omoumi, Patrick; Maldague, Baudouin E; Vande Berg, Bruno C

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, rapidly spreading, deep-seated infection causing thrombosis of the blood vessels located in the fascia. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency. The diagnosis typically relies on clinical findings of severe sepsis and intense pain, although subacute forms may be difficult to recognize. Imaging studies can help to differentiate necrotizing fasciitis from infections located more superficially (dermohypodermitis). The presence of gas within the necrotized fasciae is characteristic but may be lacking. The main finding is thickening of the deep fasciae due to fluid accumulation and reactive hyperemia, which can be visualized using computed tomography and, above all, magnetic resonance imaging (high signal on contrast-enhanced T1 images and T2 images, best seen with fat saturation). These findings lack specificity, as they can be seen in non-necrotizing fasciitis and even in non-inflammatory conditions. Signs that support a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis include extensive involvement of the deep intermuscular fascias (high sensitivity but low specificity), thickening to more than 3mm, and partial or complete absence on post-gadolinium images of signal enhancement of the thickened fasciae (fairly high sensitivity and specificity). Ultrasonography is not recommended in adults, as the infiltration of the hypodermis blocks ultrasound transmission. Thus, imaging studies in patients with necrotizing fasciitis may be challenging to interpret. Although imaging may help to confirm deep tissue involvement and to evaluate lesion spread, it should never delay emergency surgical treatment in patients with established necrotizing fasciitis.

  16. 3D nanostructure reconstruction based on the SEM imaging principle, and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fu-Yun; Wang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2014-05-09

    This paper addresses a novel 3D reconstruction method for nanostructures based on the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging principle. In this method, the shape from shading (SFS) technique is employed, to analyze the gray-scale information of a single top-view SEM image which contains all the visible surface information, and finally to reconstruct the 3D surface morphology. It offers not only unobstructed observation from various angles but also the exact physical dimensions of nanostructures. A convenient and commercially available tool (NanoViewer) is developed based on this method for nanostructure analysis and characterization of properties. The reconstruction result coincides well with the SEM nanostructure image and is verified in different ways. With the extracted structure information, subsequent research of the nanostructure can be carried out, such as roughness analysis, optimizing properties by structure improvement and performance simulation with a reconstruction model. Efficient, practical and non-destructive, the method will become a powerful tool for nanostructure surface observation and characterization.

  17. Security enhancement of color image cryptosystem by optical interference principle and spiral phase encoding.

    PubMed

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2013-03-10

    A color information cryptosystem based on optical interference principle and spiral phase encoding is proposed. A spiral phase mask (SPM) is used instead of a conventional random phase mask because it contains multiple storing keys in a single phase mask. The color image is decomposed into RGB channels. The decomposed three RGB channels can avoid the interference of crosstalks efficiently. Each channel is encoded into an SPM and analytically generates two spiral phase-only masks (SPOMs). The two SPOMs are then phase-truncated to get two encrypted images and amplitude-truncated to produce two asymmetric phase keys. The two SPOMs and the two asymmetric phase keys can be allocated to four different authorized users. The order, the wavelength, the focal length, and the radius are construction parameters of the SPM (or third SPOM) that can also be assigned to the four other different authorized users. The proposed technique can be used for a highly secure verification system, so an unauthorized user cannot retrieve the original image if only one key out of eight keys is missing. The proposed method does not require iterative encoding or postprocessing of SPOMs to overcome inherent silhouette problems, and its optical setup alleviates stringent alignment of SOPMs. The validity and feasibility of the proposed method are supported by numerical simulation results.

  18. First-principles AFM image simulation with frozen density embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yuki; Lee, Alex J.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    We present efficient first-principles method of non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM). Ordinary nc-AFM simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) require exhaustive computational cost because it involves thousands of total energy calculations. Regarding the sample as a fixed external potential can reduce the computational cost, and we adopt frozen density embedding theory (FDET) for this purpose. Simulated nc-AFM images with FDET using a carbon monoxide tip well reproduces the full DFT images of benzene, pentacene, and graphene, although optimized tip-sample distances and interaction energies in FDET are underestimated and overestimated, respectively. The FDET-based simulation method is promising for AFM image simulation of surfaces and two-dimensional materials. This work was supported by U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46286 and Award No. DE-SC0008877, and by Welch Foundation under Grant F-1837. Computational resources are provided by NERSC and TACC.

  19. Cloud Engineering Principles and Technology Enablers for Medical Image Processing-as-a-Service

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shunxing; Plassard, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traditional in-house, laboratory-based medical imaging studies use hierarchical data structures (e.g., NFS file stores) or databases (e.g., COINS, XNAT) for storage and retrieval. The resulting performance from these approaches is, however, impeded by standard network switches since they can saturate network bandwidth during transfer from storage to processing nodes for even moderate-sized studies. To that end, a cloud-based “medical image processing-as-a-service” offers promise in utilizing the ecosystem of Apache Hadoop, which is a flexible framework providing distributed, scalable, fault tolerant storage and parallel computational modules, and HBase, which is a NoSQL database built atop Hadoop’s distributed file system. Despite this promise, HBase’s load distribution strategy of region split and merge is detrimental to the hierarchical organization of imaging data (e.g., project, subject, session, scan, slice). This paper makes two contributions to address these concerns by describing key cloud engineering principles and technology enhancements we made to the Apache Hadoop ecosystem for medical imaging applications. First, we propose a row-key design for HBase, which is a necessary step that is driven by the hierarchical organization of imaging data. Second, we propose a novel data allocation policy within HBase to strongly enforce collocation of hierarchically related imaging data. The proposed enhancements accelerate data processing by minimizing network usage and localizing processing to machines where the data already exist. Moreover, our approach is amenable to the traditional scan, subject, and project-level analysis procedures, and is compatible with standard command line/scriptable image processing software. Experimental results for an illustrative sample of imaging data reveals that our new HBase policy results in a three-fold time improvement in conversion of classic DICOM to NiFTI file formats when compared with the default HBase region split

  20. Cloud Engineering Principles and Technology Enablers for Medical Image Processing-as-a-Service.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shunxing; Plassard, Andrew J; Landman, Bennett A; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2017-04-01

    Traditional in-house, laboratory-based medical imaging studies use hierarchical data structures (e.g., NFS file stores) or databases (e.g., COINS, XNAT) for storage and retrieval. The resulting performance from these approaches is, however, impeded by standard network switches since they can saturate network bandwidth during transfer from storage to processing nodes for even moderate-sized studies. To that end, a cloud-based "medical image processing-as-a-service" offers promise in utilizing the ecosystem of Apache Hadoop, which is a flexible framework providing distributed, scalable, fault tolerant storage and parallel computational modules, and HBase, which is a NoSQL database built atop Hadoop's distributed file system. Despite this promise, HBase's load distribution strategy of region split and merge is detrimental to the hierarchical organization of imaging data (e.g., project, subject, session, scan, slice). This paper makes two contributions to address these concerns by describing key cloud engineering principles and technology enhancements we made to the Apache Hadoop ecosystem for medical imaging applications. First, we propose a row-key design for HBase, which is a necessary step that is driven by the hierarchical organization of imaging data. Second, we propose a novel data allocation policy within HBase to strongly enforce collocation of hierarchically related imaging data. The proposed enhancements accelerate data processing by minimizing network usage and localizing processing to machines where the data already exist. Moreover, our approach is amenable to the traditional scan, subject, and project-level analysis procedures, and is compatible with standard command line/scriptable image processing software. Experimental results for an illustrative sample of imaging data reveals that our new HBase policy results in a three-fold time improvement in conversion of classic DICOM to NiFTI file formats when compared with the default HBase region split policy

  1. A Review of Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Imaging: Principles, Concepts and Applications in Plant Tissue Analysis.

    PubMed

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Huck, Christian W

    2017-01-20

    Plant cells, tissues and organs are composed of various biomolecules arranged as structurally diverse units, which represent heterogeneity at microscopic levels. Molecular knowledge about those constituents with their localization in such complexity is very crucial for both basic and applied plant sciences. In this context, infrared imaging techniques have advantages over conventional methods to investigate heterogeneous plant structures in providing quantitative and qualitative analyses with spatial distribution of the components. Thus, particularly, with the use of proper analytical approaches and sampling methods, these technologies offer significant information for the studies on plant classification, physiology, ecology, genetics, pathology and other related disciplines. This review aims to present a general perspective about near-infrared and mid-infrared imaging/microspectroscopy in plant research. It is addressed to compare potentialities of these methodologies with their advantages and limitations. With regard to the organization of the document, the first section will introduce the respective underlying principles followed by instrumentation, sampling techniques, sample preparations, measurement, and an overview of spectral pre-processing and multivariate analysis. The last section will review selected applications in the literature.

  2. Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles.

    PubMed

    Huber, R; Wojtkowski, M; Taira, K; Fujimoto, J; Hsu, K

    2005-05-02

    We demonstrate a high-speed, frequency swept, 1300 nm laser source for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT with Fourier domain/swept-source detection. The laser uses a fiber coupled, semiconductor amplifier and a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filter. We present scaling principles which predict the maximum frequency sweep speed and trade offs in output power, noise and instantaneous linewidth performance. The use of an amplification stage for increasing output power and for spectral shaping is discussed in detail. The laser generates ~45 mW instantaneous peak power at 20 kHz sweep rates with a tuning range of ~120 nm full width. In frequency domain reflectometry and OCT applications the frequency swept laser achieves 108 dB sensitivity and ~10 mum axial resolution in tissue. We also present a fast algorithm for real time calibration of the fringe signal to equally spaced sampling in frequency for high speed OCT image preview.

  3. The first formulation of image-based stereotactic principles: the forgotten work of Gaston Contremoulins.

    PubMed

    Giller, Cole A; Mornet, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-François

    2017-02-17

    Although image-based human stereotaxis began with Spiegel and Wycis in 1947, the major principles of radiographic stereotaxis were formulated 50 years earlier by the French scientific photographer Gaston Contremoulins. In 1897, frustrated by the high morbidity of bullet extraction from the brain, the Parisian surgeon Charles Rémy asked Contremoulins to devise a method for bullet localization using the then new technology of x-rays. In doing so, Contremoulins conceived of many of the modern principles of stereotaxis, including the use of a reference frame, radiopaque fiducials for registration, images to locate the target in relation to the frame, phantom devices to locate the target in relation to the fiducial marks, and the use of an adjustable pointer to guide the surgical approach. Contremoulins' ideas did not emerge from science or medicine, but instead were inspired by his training in the fine arts. Had he been a physician instead of an artist, he might have never discovered his extraordinary methods. Contremoulins' "compass" and its variants enjoyed great success during World War I, but were abandoned by 1920 for simpler methods. Although Contremoulins was one of the most eminent radiographers in France, he was not a physician, and his personality was uncompromising. By 1940, both he and his methods were forgotten. It was not until 1988 that he was rediscovered by Moreau while reviewing the history of French radiology, and chronicled by Mornet in his extensive biography. The authors examine Contremoulins' stereotactic methods in historical context, describe the details of his devices, relate his discoveries to his training in the fine arts, and discuss how his prescient formulation of stereotaxis was forgotten for more than half a century.

  4. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered. PMID:28663890

  5. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited].

    PubMed

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered.

  6. Sub-diffraction-limit imaging using mode multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; He, Jinping; Miyazaki, Jun; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous two-color subtraction microscopy using mode multiplexing is realized experimentally. The samples are irradiated with single laser diode at wavelength of 445 nm. Then the beam split laser spots generate separate solid and donut spatial modes and are multiplexed with modulators for simultaneous excitation. The produced fluorescence signals are back collected and further divided into two color bands with dichroic mirrors. Then they are detected with two photomultipliers and demultiplexed in four lock-in amplifiers. Four fluorescence images are recorded in every scan and resolution enhanced images are obtained in two color channels after applying the subtraction strategy. With this method, imaging results of microspheres stained with organic dyes and mesenteric lymph nodes of a mouse labeled with quantum dots (Q525/650) are realized. Improvement of 20% ~ 30% in resolving power of the two color channels compared with confocal microscopy is achieved in with corresponding subtraction factor of about 0.3.

  7. Multiple fluorescence microscopy and optoelectronic imaging: possibilities and limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Heinz

    1997-12-01

    The last 20 years have seen an unexpected great renaissance and a partial revolution in light microscopy. This recent progress is due to new design in optics and instrumentation as well as improvement of optical contrast enhancement techniques. Recent progress in fluorescence microscopy is achieved by multiparameter fluorescence techniques, by improvement of conventional photomicrography as well as by optoelectronic imaging, confocal laser scanning microscopy, image processing and analysis. Due to the increase in number of fluorescence dyes, double and triple bandpass filter sets permit a rapid changeover between different fluorochromes simultaneously.

  8. Imaging meiotic spindles by polarization light microscopy: principles and applications to IVF.

    PubMed

    Keefe, David; Liu, Lin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Celso

    2003-01-01

    Meiotic spindles tether the chromosomes of oocytes and have been found to be structurally abnormal in older women. Conventional methods to image the meiotic spindle, such as immunostaining or transmission electron microscopy, require prior fixation, so they cannot be used clinically, and their utility in developmental studies is limited. Spindles can also be imaged non-invasively based on their birefringence, an inherent optical property of highly ordered molecules, such as microtubules, as they are illuminated with polarized light. Polarized light microscopy has been gainfully applied to embryology for decades, but recently a digital, orientation-independent polarized light microscope, the polscope, has demonstrated the exquisite sensitivity needed to image the low levels of birefringence exhibited by mammalian spindles. Its use of nearly circularly polarized light also produces orientation-independent measures of spindle birefringence, thus providing a method to quantify spindle architecture in living oocytes. The safety and utility of polscope imaging has been demonstrated in mammalian oocytes, including those from women undergoing ICSI. Spindle imaging with the polscope provides structural information closely related to the more invasive immunostaining method, and also enables study of the dynamic architecture of spindles. Profound effects of cooling on meiotic spindles have also been shown, and polscope imaging has been used to optimize thermodynamic stability of oocytes during ICSI. It has been shown that embryos derived from oocytes with normal, intact meiotic spindles exhibit superior development after fertilization and in-vitro culture. The mechanisms underlying age-related disruption of meiotic spindles in women remain unclear, but may relate to factors residing within the chromosomes themselves, since mice engineered to shorten their telomeres exhibit structurally abnormal spindles in their oocytes, and their embryos undergo cell cycle arrest and

  9. Limitations of synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging.

    PubMed

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Lacot, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we study the origin and the effect of amplitude and phase noise on laser optical feedback imaging associated with a synthetic aperture (SA) imaging system. Amplitude noise corresponds to photon noise and acts as an additive noise; it can be reduced by increasing the global measurement time. Phase noise can be divided in three families: random, sinusoidal, and drift phase noise; we show that it acts as a multiplicative noise. We explain how we can reduce phase noise by making oversampling or multiple measurements depending on its type. This work can easily be extended to all SA systems (radar, laser, or terahertz), especially when raw holograms are acquired point by point.

  10. Limiting liability via high-resolution image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwade, L. E.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as 'evidence ready,' even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  11. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The article presents common pitfalls encountered in pediatric radionuclide renography, illustrated with clinical cases. It is important to recognize normal variants. A good acquisition technique is essential. Correlation with other imaging techniques, with the clinical background and symptoms, is critical. A clear clinical question is essential: based on the question and knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each test, the test which can best answer the question can be selected. Awareness of the pitfalls of radionuclide renography helps avoid errors of interpretation and allows the selection of the most helpful test for clinical management.

  12. Two Principles of High-Level Human Visual Processing Potentially Useful for Image and Video Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Shin'ya

    Objective assessment of image and video quality should be based on a correct understanding of subjective assessment by human observers. Previous models have incorporated the mechanisms of early visual processing in image quality metrics, enabling us to evaluate the visibility of errors from the original images. However, to understand how human observers perceive image quality, one should also consider higher stages of visual processing where perception is established. In higher stages, the visual system presumably represents a visual scene as a collection of meaningful components such as objects and events. Our recent psychophysical studies suggest two principles related to this level of processing. First, the human visual system integrates shape and color signals along perceived motion trajectories in order to improve visibility of the shape and color of moving objects. Second, the human visual system estimates surface reflectance properties like glossiness using simple image statistics rather than by inverse computation of image formation optics. Although the underlying neural mechanisms are still under investigation, these computational principles are potentially useful for the development of effective image processing technologies and for quality assessment. Ideally, if a model can specify how a given image is transformed into high-level scene representations in the human brain, it would predict many aspects of subjective image quality, including fidelity and naturalness.

  13. Cosolute effects on amyloid aggregation in a nondiffusion limited regime: intrinsic osmolyte properties and the volume exclusion principle.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brian; Rosenthal, Joseph; Zheng, Zhongli; Isaacson, David; Zhu, Yingxi; Belfort, Georges

    2015-04-14

    The effects of cosolutes on amyloid aggregation kinetics in vivo are critical and not fully understood. To explore the effects of cosolute additives, the in vitro behavior of destabilizing and stabilizing osmolytes with polymer cosolutes on the aggregation of a model amyloid, human insulin, is probed using experiments coupled with an amyloid aggregation reaction model. The destabilizing osmolyte, guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl), induces biphasic behavior on the amyloid aggregation rate exhibited by an enhancement of the aggregation kinetics at low concentrations of GuHCl (<0.6 M) and a reduction in kinetics at higher GuHCl concentrations. Stabilizing osmolytes, glycerol, sorbitol and trimethylamine N-oxide, slow the rate of aggregation by reducing the rate of monomer unfolding. Polymer cosolutes, polyvinylpyrrolidone 3.5 kDa and 40 kDa, delay amyloid aggregation mainly through a decrease in the nucleation reaction. These results are in good agreement with the volume exclusion principle for polymer crowding and supports the need to include conformational rearrangement of monomers prior to nucleation. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that amyloid aggregation is nondiffusion limited, except during fibril accumulation in the presence of high concentrations of long chain polymers. Lastly, the neutral surface area of osmolytes correlates well with the time to initiate fibril formation, tlag, which implicates an intrinsic osmolyte property underlying preferential interactions.

  14. Band-Limited Masks and Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Band-limited masks have become the baseline design for what is now called "classical TPF" and also the N|RCamcomnagraphonJW8 .This technology remains one of the most promising paths for direct detection ofmxop|anedm and disks. I'll describe some of the latest progress in the implementation of this technique and what we have learned about where it can and can not be effectively applied.

  15. Band-Limited Masks and Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Band-limited masks have become the baseline design for what is now called "classical TPF" and also the N|RCamcomnagraphonJW8 .This technology remains one of the most promising paths for direct detection ofmxop|anedm and disks. I'll describe some of the latest progress in the implementation of this technique and what we have learned about where it can and can not be effectively applied.

  16. Exact feature extraction using finite rate of innovation principles with an application to image super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Baboulaz, Loïc; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2009-02-01

    The accurate registration of multiview images is of central importance in many advanced image processing applications. Image super-resolution, for example, is a typical application where the quality of the super-resolved image is degrading as registration errors increase. Popular registration methods are often based on features extracted from the acquired images. The accuracy of the registration is in this case directly related to the number of extracted features and to the precision at which the features are located: images are best registered when many features are found with a good precision. However, in low-resolution images, only a few features can be extracted and often with a poor precision. By taking a sampling perspective, we propose in this paper new methods for extracting features in low-resolution images in order to develop efficient registration techniques. We consider, in particular, the sampling theory of signals with finite rate of innovation and show that some features of interest for registration can be retrieved perfectly in this framework, thus allowing an exact registration. We also demonstrate through simulations that the sampling model which enables the use of finite rate of innovation principles is well suited for modeling the acquisition of images by a camera. Simulations of image registration and image super-resolution of artificially sampled images are first presented, analyzed and compared to traditional techniques. We finally present favorable experimental results of super-resolution of real images acquired by a digital camera available on the market.

  17. Imaging atoms from resonance fluorescence spectrum beyond the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, Mohammad; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a linear chain of two-level atoms driven by a gradient coherent laser field. The result shows that we can determine the positions of atoms from the spectrum even when the atoms locate within subwavelength range and the dipole-dipole interaction is significant. This far-field resonance fluorescence localization microscopy method does not require point-by-point scanning and it may be more time-efficient. We also give a possible scheme to extract the position information in an extended region without requiring more peak power of laser. We also briefly discuss how to do a 2D imaging based on our scheme. This work is supported by grants from the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) under the NPRP project.

  18. Imaging principles and techniques in space-borne gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönfelder, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the photon energy band from several 100keV up to say 10GeV can only be performed from space. Tremendous progress has been made in this young research field during the last 40 years. All-Sky maps exist now in continuum and line emission and short gamma-ray bursts-lasting only seconds-can be located to better than 1arcmin. The imaging principles used in gamma-ray astronomy are different at low energies (<30MeV) and at high energies (>30MeV). Low-energy telescopes are based on the photo- or Compton-effect, whereas high-energy telescopes use the pair-production effect. The angular resolutions achieved by modern telescopes are in the range of 0.1 to 1°. A review of previous, current, and future telescopes is given for gamma-ray astronomy in general, and for burst astronomy in particular.

  19. Rock images classification using principle component analysis and spatial frequency measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachanubal, Tossaporn; Udomhunsakul, Somkait

    2008-03-01

    Since the natural rocks have quite different textures even they are in the same class, it is very difficult and challenging task to classify each type of natural rocks. In this paper, we present a method to classify each type of rocks using the modified version of Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). In our approach, each type of color rock images are firstly transformed into two dimensional intensity features, obtained from the highest and lowest eigenvalues of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The highest and lowest eigenvalues are corresponded to the most and least significant feature components. Next, the textural contents of each component are measured using the modified version of SFM, which measures all overall activity level of each component in two directions including vertical, horizontal directions by shifting one by one pixel for two-neighborhood pixels in both direction. Before applying modified version of SFM, the edge detection operator, Sobel operator, is applied to the most significant component only. After applying the modified version of SFM to both components, two textural features are used to define each type of rock. In our experiments, we test our approach to classify on 14 different classes of rock textures, each class has 30 samples. From the results, we found that the scatter plots of each type of rock features are obviously grouped and stuck together in the same class while the different classes are clearly separated.

  20. Principles, Practical Problems, and the Performance of MEM Imaging for the YOHKOH Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Takeo; Sato, Jun; Sakao, Taro; Masuda, Satoshi

    1997-05-01

    The Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) on-board Yohkoh is a Fourier-synthesis telescope with 64 modulation collimators. Solar flare images have been synthesized using the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) or some other imaging techniques from sets of the 64 photon counts. This paper reports our recent success in improving the MEM imaging for HXT. The key factors that led us to this success are as follows. First, modulation patterns for the 64 individual collimators were precisely re-calibrated in orbit using solar flares themselves as calibration sources. Note that the patterns we had used before were based on the pre-launch calibrations using artificial sources. Also the formulae that represent the patterns are renewed. Second, we re-formulated the MEM principle; now the total flux is a free parameter to be determined by the MEM principle. This new formulation was successfully incorporated into an iterative code. Third, the observation error terms were estimated and incorporated properly in the MEM imaging. With these improvements, we have confirmed (i) that the so-called over-resolution problem, sometimes misunderstood as resulting from the MEM principle itself, disappears so that the stability of images improves drastically, (ii) that the image quality improves proportionally with increasing photon counts as naturally expected, (iii) that the number of events for which MEM imaging fails decreases (with a small number of exceptions, maybe due to large intrinsic source size), and (iv) that the similarity between HXT L-band images and SXT images becomes much clearer than before.

  1. Methods and limits of digital image compression of retinal images for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, R H; Yogesan, K; Barry, C J; Constable, I J; Tay-Kearney, M L; Jitskaia, L; House, P H

    2000-06-01

    To investigate image compression of digital retinal images and the effect of various levels of compression on the quality of the images. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) and Wavelet image compression techniques were applied in five different levels to 11 eyes with subtle retinal abnormalities and to 4 normal eyes. Image quality was assessed by four different methods: calculation of the root mean square (RMS) error between the original and compressed image, determining the level of arteriole branching, identification of retinal abnormalities by experienced observers, and a subjective assessment of overall image quality. To verify the techniques used and findings, a second set of retinal images was assessed by calculation of RMS error and overall image quality. Plots and tabulations of the data as a function of the final image size showed that when the original image size of 1.5 MB was reduced to 29 KB using JPEG compression, there was no serious degradation in quality. The smallest Wavelet compressed images in this study (15 KB) were generally still of acceptable quality. For situations where digital image transmission time and costs should be minimized, Wavelet image compression to 15 KB is recommended, although there is a slight cost of computational time. Where computational time should be minimized, and to remain compatible with other imaging systems, the use of JPEG compression to 29 KB is an excellent alternative.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-03-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past 25 years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium.

  3. Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2009-03-21

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past 25 years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved-given that their diameter is on the order of microns-nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium.

  4. Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2010-01-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past twenty-five years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium. PMID:19229096

  5. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  6. Iterative image reconstruction for limited-angle inverse helical cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Helical trajectory satisfying the condition of exact reconstruction, has been widely utilized in the commercial computed tomography (CT). While limited by the scanning environment in some practical applications, the conventional helical cone-beam CT imaging is hard to complete, thus, developing an imaging system suited for long-object may be valuable. Three-dimensional C-arm CT is an innovative imaging technique which has been greatly concerned. Since there is a high degree of freedom of C-arm, more flexible image acquisition trajectories for 3D imaging can be achieved. In this work, a fast iterative reconstruction algorithm based on total variation minimization is developed for a trajectory of limited-angle inverse helical cone-beam CT, which can be applied to detect long-object without slip-ring technology. The experimental results show that the developed algorithm can yield reconstructed images of low noise level and high image quality.

  7. Limiting Factors on Image Quality in Imaging through Turbid Media under Single-photon and Two-photon Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilders, S. P.; Gu, M.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of multiple scattering in a turbid medium on single-photon and two-photon fluorescence microscopy is experimentally investigated for different scattering characteristics including scattering anisotrophy and optical thickness of a turbid medium. It is demonstrated that two-photon excitation can provide significant improvement in penetration depth through turbid media, due to reduced scattering experienced by the excitation beam. It is also shown that the limiting factor in obtaining high-quality images under singlephoton excitation is the fast degradation of image resolution caused by multiple scattering, while for twophoton excitation it is limited by the degradation of image contrast due to the reduction in fluorescence strength.

  8. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  9. Optoelectronic Workshops (8th). Quantum-Limited Imaging and Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-12

    inputs, yet at the sane time be insensitive to image distortions that an no important for the recognition tak. It is convenient to groi ~p Image... pain of image classes are successively compared. On each pairwise decision, one class is eliminatd. Thus, if K classes are to considered, then (K-I

  10. Imaging beyond the ballistic limit in coherence imaging using multiply scattered light

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Michael G.; Wax, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We present an imaging system based on low coherence interferometric detection of multiply scattered light for extended depth imaging into highly scattering media. By incorporating angle-resolved detection, coherence imaging with multiply scattered photons is shown to be both feasible and potentially superior to existing techniques for performing time-resolved measurements of scattered light. Imaging is demonstrated through nearly 100 mean free paths of scattering phantom in a single-ended geometry. The resolution and imaging contrast are compared to those obtained with conventional OCT systems which chiefly detect singly scattered light. PMID:21369257

  11. Target-oriented retrieval of subsurface wave fields - Pushing the resolution limits in seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Ivan; Ozmen, Neslihan; van der Neut, Joost; Cui, Tianci

    2017-04-01

    Travelling wide-bandwidth seismic waves have long been used as a primary tool in exploration seismology because they can probe the subsurface over large distances, while retaining relatively high spatial resolution. The well-known Born resolution limit often seems to be the lower bound on spatial imaging resolution in real life examples. In practice, data acquisition cost, time constraints and other factors can worsen the resolution achieved by wavefield imaging. Could we obtain images whose resolution beats the Born limits? Would it be practical to achieve it, and what are we missing today to achieve this? In this talk, we will cover aspects of linear and nonlinear seismic imaging to understand elements that play a role in obtaining "super-resolved" seismic images. New redatuming techniques, such as the Marchenko method, enable the retrieval of subsurface fields that include multiple scattering interactions, while requiring relatively little knowledge of model parameters. Together with new concepts in imaging, such as Target-Enclosing Extended Images, these new redatuming methods enable new targeted imaging frameworks. We will make a case as to why target-oriented approaches to reconstructing subsurface-domain wavefields from surface data may help in increasing the resolving power of seismic imaging, and in pushing the limits on parameter estimation. We will illustrate this using a field data example. Finally, we will draw connections between seismic and other imaging modalities, and discuss how this framework could be put to use in other applications

  12. Limited-view light sheet fluorescence microscopy for three dimensional volume imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmi, C. K.; Mohan, Kavya; Madhangi, M.; Rajan, K.; Nongthomba, U.; Mondal, Partha P.

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a limited-view light sheet microscopy (LV-LSM) for three dimensional (3D) volume imaging. Realizing that longer and frequent image acquisition results in significant photobleaching, we have taken limited angular views (18 views) of the macroscopic specimen and integrated with maximum likelihood (ML) technique for reconstructing high quality 3D volume images. Existing variants of light-sheet microscopy require both rotation and translation with a total of approximately 10-fold more views to render a 3D volume image. Comparatively, LV-LSM technique reduces data acquisition time and consequently minimizes light-exposure by many-folds. Since ML is a post-processing technique and highly parallelizable, this does not cost precious imaging time. Results show noise-free and high contrast volume images when compared to the state-of-the-art selective plane illumination microscopy.

  13. Wavefront curvature limitations and compensation to polar format processing for synthetic aperture radar images.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-01-01

    Limitations on focused scene size for the Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation are derived. A post processing filtering technique for compensating the spatially variant blurring in the image is examined. Modifications to this technique to enhance its robustness are proposed.

  14. ℓ0 Gradient Minimization Based Image Reconstruction for Limited-Angle Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Zeng, Li

    2015-01-01

    In medical and industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) imaging, limited by the scanning environment and the risk of excessive X-ray radiation exposure imposed to the patients, reconstructing high quality CT images from limited projection data has become a hot topic. X-ray imaging in limited scanning angular range is an effective imaging modality to reduce the radiation dose to the patients. As the projection data available in this modality are incomplete, limited-angle CT image reconstruction is actually an ill-posed inverse problem. To solve the problem, image reconstructed by conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm frequently results in conspicuous streak artifacts and gradual changed artifacts nearby edges. Image reconstruction based on total variation minimization (TVM) can significantly reduce streak artifacts in few-view CT, but it suffers from the gradual changed artifacts nearby edges in limited-angle CT. To suppress this kind of artifacts, we develop an image reconstruction algorithm based on ℓ0 gradient minimization for limited-angle CT in this paper. The ℓ0-norm of the image gradient is taken as the regularization function in the framework of developed reconstruction model. We transformed the optimization problem into a few optimization sub-problems and then, solved these sub-problems in the manner of alternating iteration. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the efficiency and the feasibility of the developed algorithm. From the statistical analysis results of the performance evaluations peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized root mean square distance (NRMSD), it shows that there are significant statistical differences between different algorithms from different scanning angular ranges (p<0.0001). From the experimental results, it also indicates that the developed algorithm outperforms classical reconstruction algorithms in suppressing the streak artifacts and the gradual changed artifacts nearby edges

  15. Volumetric image reconstruction in a dental panoramic imaging system with a limited-angle zigzag scan geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Daeki; Cho, Hyosung; Lee, Seonhwa; Oh, Jieun; Lee, Minsik; Kim, Hyojeong; Je, Uikyu; Park, Yeonok; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo; Cho, Heemoon

    2013-01-01

    As a continuation of our dental imaging R&D, we have proposed a novel idea that is capable of implementing cost-effective, low-dose, volumetric image reconstruction directly onto a dental panoramic imaging system. In the proposed geometry, a linear-type panoramic detector is rotated 90° from the orientation for panoramic imaging and scanned along a limited-angle zigzag trajectory in the axial direction to cover the whole imaging volume thickness. We used an effective reconstruction algorithm based on the total-variation (TV) minimization approach for the proposed geometry and performed systematic simulation work to demonstrate the viability of our proposed approach and its effectiveness for three-dimensional (3D) dental X-ray imaging. We have successfully reconstructed images of substantially high image accuracy from the proposed geometry and evaluated the reconstruction quality by using an image similarity metric, the universal-quality index (UQI). We expect the proposed method to be applicable to developing a cost-effective, low-dose, all-in-one dental X-ray imaging system.

  16. Coherent total internal reflection dark-field microscopy: label-free imaging beyond the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    von Olshausen, Philipp; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    Coherent imaging is barely applicable in life-science microscopy due to multiple interference artifacts. Here, we show how these interferences can be used to improve image resolution and contrast. We present a dark-field microscopy technique with evanescent illumination via total internal reflection that delivers high-contrast images of coherently scattering samples. By incoherent averaging of multiple coherent images illuminated from different directions we can resolve image structures that remain unresolved by conventional (incoherent) fluorescence microscopy. We provide images of 190 nm beads revealing resolution beyond the diffraction limit and slightly increased object distances. An analytical model is introduced that accounts for the observed effects and which is confirmed by numerical simulations. Our approach may be a route to fast, label-free, super-resolution imaging in live-cell microscopy.

  17. Milestones and basic principles of grating-based x-ray and neutron phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    This is a review of the most important milestones in the last ten years of development in the field of grating-based x-ray and neutron imaging. It provides a description of the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with x-rays and neutrons. Furthermore, it reviews the theory of grating-based quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

  18. Analysis of STM images with pure and CO-functionalized tips: A first-principles and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Alexander; Okabayashi, Norio; Peronio, Angelo; Giessibl, Franz J.; Paulsson, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    We describe a first-principles method to calculate scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, and compare the results to well-characterized experiments combining STM with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The theory is based on density functional theory with a localized basis set, where the wave functions in the vacuum gap are computed by propagating the localized-basis wave functions into the gap using a real-space grid. Constant-height STM images are computed using Bardeen's approximation method, including averaging over the reciprocal space. We consider copper adatoms and single CO molecules adsorbed on Cu(111), scanned with a single-atom copper tip with and without CO functionalization. The calculated images agree with state-of-the-art experiments, where the atomic structure of the tip apex is determined by AFM. The comparison further allows for detailed interpretation of the STM images.

  19. Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting, and its limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yasuhiko; Tamaki, Tokuhiko; Motomura, Hideto; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A high-magnification image of a biological sample can generally be obtained by an optical microscope with an objective lens, moving the image sensor with a sub-pixel shift and the subsequent image processing for super-resolution. However, to obtain a high-resolution image, a large number of images will be required for the super-resolution, and thus it is difficult to achieve real-time operation, and the field-of-view (FOV) is not sufficiently wide. The currently proposed digital holography technique places a sample on the image sensor and captures the interference fringe (hologram) to reconstruct a 3D high-resolution image in a computer. This technique ensures the features of a wide FOV, whereas the high resolution obtained by image processing cannot ensure real-time operation, because it requires recursive calculations of light propagation and adequate computer resources. To realize wide FOV and the real-time operation at the same time, we have developed a new technique: Lensfree on-chip high-resolution imaging using two-way lighting. High-resolution image is immediately obtained by image processing of the low-resolution images of the samples. This makes it possible to ensure a wide FOV, a deep depth of focus without the need for focus adjustment, and a continuously expanding operation. We also discuss the limitations of the high resolution.

  20. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, C. Carl

    1982-01-01

    Describes principle imaging techniques, their applications, and their limitations in terms of diagnostic capability and possible adverse biological effects. Techniques include film radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and digital radiography. PET has…

  1. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, C. Carl

    1982-01-01

    Describes principle imaging techniques, their applications, and their limitations in terms of diagnostic capability and possible adverse biological effects. Techniques include film radiography, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and digital radiography. PET has…

  2. Iterative deconvolution technique for measurements of diffraction-limited images on optical microscopes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenlong; Chang, Ming; Chen, Po-Cheng; Luo, Wun-Mao

    2014-12-12

    Diffraction limit is usually a thorny problem in an optical inspection system. In this investigation, a model-based deconvolution technique was developed to recover diffraction-limited images, where images with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit could be recognized. Experiments were carried out with a traditional microscope at 200× magnification coupled with a halogen light source for a series of line width samples. The point spread function of the imaging optics was first obtained from an estimated model and then combined with a nonlinear deconvolution algorithm to calculate the full width at half maximum and reconstruct the line widths. Experimental results indicate that a measurement error below one pixel size of the measurement system is achievable. Accordingly, the target of nanoscale line width inspection based on a low cost and real-time image processing technique can be fulfilled, which greatly increases the ability of nanoscaling on optical microscopes.

  3. Cost-appropriateness of whole body vs limited bone imaging for suspected focal sports injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.

    1986-07-01

    Bone imaging has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence of focal musculoskeletal injury when radiographs are normal. A retrospective review of bone images in a small number of amateur athletes indicates that secondary injuries were commonly detected at sites different from the site of musculoskeletal pain being evaluated for injury. While a larger study will be necessary to confirm the data, this review suggests that it is medically justified and cost-appropriate to perform imaging of the entire skeleton as opposed to imaging limited to the anatomic site of pain and suspected injury.

  4. Limiting Rights and Freedoms in the Context of Ebola and Other Public Health Emergencies: How the Principle of Reciprocity Can Enrich the Application of the Siracusa Principles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J

    2015-06-11

    One of the key components of CESCR General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (GC 14) is the recognition that human rights are necessarily interdependent and that the social determinants of health are important to the promotion of health itself; as stated in paragraph 3 "…other [human] rights and freedoms [e.g., food, housing] address integral components of the right to health." GC 14, paragraph 16 maintains that a right to health also includes the right to control the spread of infectious diseases via a variety of control measures, some of which are restrictive. The use of restrictive measures during infectious disease outbreaks, including measures like quarantine, isolation, and travel prohibitions, restrict or limit basic human rights prescribed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, such as freedom of movement (Article 13) and the right to peaceful assembly (Article 20), for the sake of protecting and promoting the health of individuals and communities.

  5. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness.

    PubMed

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-07

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  6. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  7. Three-dimensional breast image reconstruction from a limited number of views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Thomas G.; Stewart, Alexander X.; Stanton, Martin J.; Wu, Tao; Phillips, Walter C.

    2000-04-01

    Typically in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging, hundreds or thousands of x-ray projection images are recorded. The image-collection time and patient dose required rule out conventional CT as a tool for screening mammography. We have developed a CT method that overcomes these limitations by using (1) a novel image collection geometry, (2) new digital electronic x-ray detector technology, and (3) modern image reconstruction procedures. The method, which we call Computed Planar Mammography (CPM), is made possible by the full-field, low-noise, high-resolution CCD-based detector design that we have previously developed. With this method, we need to record only a limited number (10 - 50) of low-dose x- ray images of the breast. The resulting 3D full breast image has a resolution in two orientations equal to the full detector resolution (47 microns), and a lower, variable resolution (0.5 - 10 mm) in the third orientation. This 3D reconstructed image can then be viewed as a series of cross- sectional layers, or planes, each at the full detector resolution. Features due to overlapping tissue, which could not be differentiated in a conventional mammogram, are separated into layers at different depths. We demonstrate the features and capabilities of this method by presenting reconstructed images of phantoms and mastectomy specimens. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues related to the further development of this procedure, as well as considerations for its clinical implementation.

  8. Microlens performance limits in sub-2mum pixel CMOS image sensors.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yijie; Fesenmaier, Christian C; Catrysse, Peter B

    2010-03-15

    CMOS image sensors with smaller pixels are expected to enable digital imaging systems with better resolution. When pixel size scales below 2 mum, however, diffraction affects the optical performance of the pixel and its microlens, in particular. We present a first-principles electromagnetic analysis of microlens behavior during the lateral scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels. We establish for a three-metal-layer pixel that diffraction prevents the microlens from acting as a focusing element when pixels become smaller than 1.4 microm. This severely degrades performance for on and off-axis pixels in red, green and blue color channels. We predict that one-metal-layer or backside-illuminated pixels are required to extend the functionality of microlenses beyond the 1.4 microm pixel node.

  9. The Wellcome Foundation lecture, 1981. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine: physical principles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, E R

    1985-10-22

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) has become a means of providing excellent images of the interior of the human body which are proving useful in medical practice. The development of n.m.r. imaging, much of which was pioneered in Britain, is outlined. Proton image resolution of human anatomy is comparable with X-ray computed tomography images, but without the hazard of ionizing radiation. There is improved soft tissue discrimination and pathological contrast through the basic imaging parameters of the proton density and the relaxation times T1 and T2, whose differences from one tissue to another are exploited by use of appropriate radiofrequency pulse sequences. Images may be obtained directly of transverse, coronal and sagittal sections of the head and body. Single slices or multiple slices may be imaged and imaging may be done in three dimensions. The lecture describes the more important imaging techniques and gives illustrative examples of images obtained. The efficient use of time in n.m.r. imaging is discussed, particularly mentioning the multiecho-multislice procedure and the development of real-time n.m.r. imaging. Magnetic field strengths in current use for proton n.m.r. imaging range from 0.02 to 2 T. At the lower end of the range resistive magnets are used, while for higher fields superconducting magnets are needed. A considerable improvement in image quality is obtained by use of special receiver coils.

  10. Evaluation of noise limits to improve image processing in soft X-ray projection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jamsranjav, Erdenetogtokh; Kuge, Kenichi; Ito, Atsushi; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-03-03

    Soft X-ray microscopy has been developed for high resolution imaging of hydrated biological specimens due to the availability of water window region. In particular, a projection type microscopy has advantages in wide viewing area, easy zooming function and easy extensibility to computed tomography (CT). The blur of projection image due to the Fresnel diffraction of X-rays, which eventually reduces spatial resolution, could be corrected by an iteration procedure, i.e., repetition of Fresnel and inverse Fresnel transformations. However, it was found that the correction is not enough to be effective for all images, especially for images with low contrast. In order to improve the effectiveness of image correction by computer processing, we in this study evaluated the influence of background noise in the iteration procedure through a simulation study. In the study, images of model specimen with known morphology were used as a substitute for the chromosome images, one of the targets of our microscope. Under the condition that artificial noise was distributed on the images randomly, we introduced two different parameters to evaluate noise effects according to each situation where the iteration procedure was not successful, and proposed an upper limit of the noise within which the effective iteration procedure for the chromosome images was possible. The study indicated that applying the new simulation and noise evaluation method was useful for image processing where background noises cannot be ignored compared with specimen images.

  11. Enhancement of image resolution beyond the diffraction limit by double dark resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Onkar N.; Dey, Tarak N.

    2014-03-01

    We show how quantum coherence effects can be used to improve the resolution and the contrast of diffraction-limited images imprinted onto a probe field. The narrow and sharp spectral features generated by double dark resonances (DDR) are exploited to control absorption, dispersion, and diffraction properties of the medium. The spatially modulated control field can produce inhomogeneous susceptibility of the medium that encodes the spatial feature of the control image to probe field in the presence of DDR. The transmission of a cloned image can be enhanced by the use of an incoherent pump field. We find that the feature size of the cloned image is four times smaller than the initial characteristic size of the control image even though the control image is completely distorted after propagation through a 3-cm-long Rb vapor cell. We further discuss how spatial optical switching is possible by using induced transparency and absorption of the medium.

  12. Numerical prediction of minimum sub-diffraction-limit image generated by silver surface plasmon lenses.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masafumi; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg

    2008-12-08

    Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) induced in thin metal film lenses has been analyzed numerically. The SPP images are deteriorated by interference of plasmon fields in layered metal-dielectric structures. To obtain a clear imaging capability, the reflection and the transmission property of evanescent waves in the layered structures has been investigated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For verification, a full 3-dimensional analysis of large-scale layered structures demonstrated sub-wavelength images similar to those obtained in the recently reported experiments. The analysis has been extended further to a lithography of nano-scale images to predict the minimum possible size of the images resolved by the silver thin film lenses.

  13. Adapting range migration techniques for imaging with metasurface antennas: analysis and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Mancera, Laura; Fromenteze, Thomas; Sleasman, Timothy; Boyarsky, Michael; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic metasurface antennas are planar structures that exhibit remarkable capabilities in controlling electromagnetic wave-fronts, advantages which are particularly attractive for microwave imaging. These antennas exhibit strong frequency dispersion and produce diverse radiation patterns. Such behavior presents unique challenges for integration with conventional imaging algorithms. We analyze an adapted version of the range migration algorithm (RMA) for use with dynamic metasurfaces in image reconstruction. Focusing on the the proposed pre-processing step, that ultimately allows a fast processing of the backscattered signal in the spatial frequency domain from which the fast Fourier transform can efficiently reconstruct the scene. Numerical studies illustrate imaging performance using both conventional methods and the adapted RMA, demonstrating that the RMA can reconstruct images with comparable quality in a fraction of the time. In this paper, we demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm as a fast reconstruction tool, and we analyze the limitations of the presented technique in terms of image quality.

  14. SAVI: Synthetic apertures for long-range, subdiffraction-limited visible imaging using Fourier ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Jason; Wu, Yicheng; Sharma, Manoj K.; Cossairt, Oliver; Veeraraghavan, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar is a well-known technique for improving resolution in radio imaging. Extending these synthetic aperture techniques to the visible light domain is not straightforward because optical receivers cannot measure phase information. We propose to use macroscopic Fourier ptychography (FP) as a practical means of creating a synthetic aperture for visible imaging to achieve subdiffraction-limited resolution. We demonstrate the first working prototype for macroscopic FP in a reflection imaging geometry that is capable of imaging optically rough objects. In addition, a novel image space denoising regularization is introduced during phase retrieval to reduce the effects of speckle and improve perceptual quality of the recovered high-resolution image. Our approach is validated experimentally where the resolution of various diffuse objects is improved sixfold. PMID:28439550

  15. Multiple-image encryption using polarized light encoding and the optical interference principle in the Fresnel-transform domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qu; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Jinyun

    2013-12-20

    We propose a multiple-image encryption scheme, based on polarized light encoding and the interference principle of phase-only masks (POMs), in the Fresnel-transform (FrT) domain. In this scheme, each secret image is converted into an intensity image by polarized light encoding, where a random key image and a pixilated polarizer with random angles are employed as keys. The intensity encrypted images produced by different secret images are convolved together and then inverse Fresnel-transformed. Phase and amplitude truncations are used to generate the asymmetric decryption keys. The phase-truncated inverse FrT spectrum is sent into an interference-based encryption (IBE) system to analytically obtain two POMs. To reduce the transmission and storage load on the keys, the chaotic mapping method is employed to generate random distributions of keys for encryption and decryption. One can recover all secret images successfully only if the corresponding decryption keys, the mechanism of FrTs, and correct chaotic conditions are known. The inherent silhouette problem can be thoroughly resolved by polarized light encoding in this proposal, without using any time-consuming iterative methods. The entire encryption and decryption process can be realized digitally, or in combination with optical means. Numerical simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed scheme.

  16. Hard-x-ray region tomographic reconstruction of the refractive-index gradient vector field: imaging principles and comparisons with diffraction-enhanced-imaging-based computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Tetsuya; Maksimenko, Anton; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Akatsuka, Takao; Ando, Masami

    2006-06-15

    The unique tomographic imaging method based on refractive effects that was recently developed by Maksimenko et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124105 (2005)] exhibits an excellent imaging property in the hard-x-ray region for phase objects such as soft materials and biological samples. However, there seems to have been little consideration of the physical aspects of the underlying imaging principles. Also, as the method is similar to diffraction-enhanced-imaging (DEI)-based computed tomography (CT), the difference between these two methodologies has not been made clear. We theoretically consider the imaging principles starting from the measurement process to the reconstruction procedures from the viewpoint of geometrical optics and then clarify their difference in relationship to the physical quantities to be depicted. The major feature of this novel method is the in-plane two-dimensional vector-field reconstruction of the refractive-index gradient in an object, while DEI CT obtains the out-of-plane scalar-field gradient component. In other words, the novel method and DEI CT present the transverse and the longitudinal components, respectively, of the three-dimensional vector fields of the gradient refractive index. Therefore they can be considered complementary to each other.

  17. Optical imaging in cancer research: basic principles, tumor detection, and therapeutic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Metasebya; Liu, Yang; Berezin, Mikhail Y; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and rapid detection of diseases is of great importance for assessing the molecular basis of pathogenesis, preventing the onset of complications, and implementing a tailored therapeutic regimen. The ability of optical imaging to transcend wide spatial imaging scales ranging from cells to organ systems has rejuvenated interest in using this technology for medical imaging. Moreover, optical imaging has at its disposal diverse contrast mechanisms for distinguishing normal from pathologic processes and tissues. To accommodate these signaling strategies, an array of imaging techniques has been developed. Importantly, light absorption, and emission methods, as well as hybrid optical imaging approaches are amenable to both small animal and human studies. Typically, complex methods are needed to extract quantitative data from deep tissues. This review focuses on the development of optical imaging platforms, image processing techniques, and molecular probes, as well as their applications in cancer diagnosis, staging, and monitoring therapeutic response. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of nighttime imaging limits of visible near-infrared Earth observation platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartley, M.; Gerace, A.

    2012-06-01

    A subset of the existing NASA and NOAA families of Earth observation imaging platforms currently on orbit (Landsat 7, Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Line Scanner) have a primary mission of imaging the Earth's landforms during the daylight hours. All three systems are capable of nighttime imaging operations, however this capability of Landsat and ALI is not frequently utilized due to lack of utility in the resulting data products. Many researchers have published science results on focused problems such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and urban settlement mapping. In this work we present a first-principles based radiometric framework for quantifying the capability of such imaging platforms for detecting the presence of boats in open waters taking into consideration the interaction between the boat and water surfaces. The low-level radiometric modeling is performed using both the DIRSIG software tool and MODTRAN, in conjunction with freely available boat geometric models, incandescent lamp spectra, and a randomly rough sea surface geometry. The resulting performance metric represents the minimum wattage of one or more incandescent illuminants that might be detected above the system noise floor for a variety of imaging geometries.

  19. Evaluation of deformable image registration and a motion model in CT images with limited features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kincaid, R.; Goodman, K. A.; Mageras, G. S.

    2012-05-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is increasingly used in radiotherapy applications and provides the basis for a previously described model of patient-specific respiratory motion. We examine the accuracy of a DIR algorithm and a motion model with respiration-correlated CT (RCCT) images of software phantom with known displacement fields, physical deformable abdominal phantom with implanted fiducials in the liver and small liver structures in patient images. The motion model is derived from a principal component analysis that relates volumetric deformations with the motion of the diaphragm or fiducials in the RCCT. Patient data analysis compares DIR with rigid registration as ground truth: the mean ± standard deviation 3D discrepancy of liver structure centroid positions is 2.0 ± 2.2 mm. DIR discrepancy in the software phantom is 3.8 ± 2.0 mm in lung and 3.7 ± 1.8 mm in abdomen; discrepancies near the chest wall are larger than indicated by image feature matching. Marker's 3D discrepancy in the physical phantom is 3.6 ± 2.8 mm. The results indicate that visible features in the images are important for guiding the DIR algorithm. Motion model accuracy is comparable to DIR, indicating that two principal components are sufficient to describe DIR-derived deformation in these datasets.

  20. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M.; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy (“Pre-RT-MRI examination”) and at the time of BT (“BT MRI examination”) with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  1. Recommendations from Gynaecological (GYN) GEC-ESTRO Working Group (IV): Basic principles and parameters for MR imaging within the frame of image based adaptive cervix cancer brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, Johannes C A; Petrow, Peter; Tanderup, Kari; Petric, Primoz; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Pedersen, Erik M; van Limbergen, Erik; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The GYN GEC-ESTRO working group issued three parts of recommendations and highlighted the pivotal role of MRI for the successful implementation of 3D image-based cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The main advantage of MRI as an imaging modality is its superior soft tissue depiction quality. To exploit the full potential of MRI for the better ability of the radiation oncologist to make the appropriate choice for the BT application technique and to accurately define the target volumes and the organs at risk, certain MR imaging criteria have to be fulfilled. Technical requirements, patient preparation, as well as image acquisition protocols have to be tailored to the needs of 3D image-based BT. The present recommendation is focused on the general principles of MR imaging for 3D image-based BT. Methods and parameters have been developed and progressively validated from clinical experience from different institutions (IGR, Universities of Vienna, Leuven, Aarhus and Ljubljana) and successfully applied during expert meetings, contouring workshops, as well as within clinical and interobserver studies. It is useful to perform pelvic MRI scanning prior to radiotherapy ("Pre-RT-MRI examination") and at the time of BT ("BT MRI examination") with one MR imager. Both low and high-field imagers, as well as both open and close magnet configurations conform to the requirements of 3D image-based cervical cancer BT. Multiplanar (transversal, sagittal, coronal and oblique image orientation) T2-weighted images obtained with pelvic surface coils are considered as the golden standard for visualisation of the tumour and the critical organs. The use of complementary MRI sequences (e.g. contrast-enhanced T1-weighted or 3D isotropic MRI sequences) is optional. Patient preparation has to be adapted to the needs of BT intervention and MR imaging. It is recommended to visualise and interpret the MR images on dedicated DICOM-viewer workstations, which should also assist the contouring

  2. Bayesian inference on multiscale models for poisson intensity estimation: applications to photon-limited image denoising.

    PubMed

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Maragos, Petros; Papandreou, George

    2009-08-01

    We present an improved statistical model for analyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are modeled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust regularized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation of the rate-ratio density parameters directly from the noisy observed Poisson data (counts); 2) extension of the method to work under a multiscale hidden Markov tree model (HMT) which couples the mixture label assignments in consecutive scales, thus modeling interscale coefficient dependencies in the vicinity of image edges; 3) exploration of a 2-D recursive quad-tree image representation, involving Dirichlet-mixture rate-ratio densities, instead of the conventional separable binary-tree image representation involving beta-mixture rate-ratio densities; and 4) a novel multiscale image representation, which we term Poisson-Haar decomposition, that better models the image edge structure, thus yielding improved performance. Experimental results on standard images with artificially simulated Poisson noise and on real photon-limited images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  3. Optimizing technology development and adoption in medical imaging using the principles of innovation diffusion, part II: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adoption of new technology development can be accentuated by learning and applying the scientific principles of innovation diffusion. This is of particular importance to areas within the medical imaging practice which have lagged in innovation; perhaps, the most notable of which is reporting which has remained relatively stagnant for over a century. While the theoretical advantages of structured reporting have been well documented throughout the medical imaging community, adoption to date has been tepid and largely relegated to the academic and breast imaging communities. Widespread adoption will likely require an alternative approach to innovation, which addresses the heterogeneity and diversity of the practicing radiologist community along with the ever-changing expectations in service delivery. The challenges and strategies for reporting innovation and adoption are discussed, with the goal of adapting and customizing new technology to the preferences and needs of individual end-users.

  4. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-03-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (-7.7 dB), THD (-74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100 MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22% and 140%, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications.

  5. Bipolar-power-transistor-based limiter for high frequency ultrasound imaging systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Yang, Hao-Chung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    High performance limiters are described in this paper for applications in high frequency ultrasound imaging systems. Limiters protect the ultrasound receiver from the high voltage (HV) spikes produced by the transmitter. We present a new bipolar power transistor (BPT) configuration and compare its design and performance to a diode limiter used in traditional ultrasound research and one commercially available limiter. Limiter performance depends greatly on the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and response time (RT), each of which will be evaluated in all the limiters. The results indicated that, compared with commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter had less IL (–7.7 dB), THD (–74.6 dB) and lower RT (43 ns) at 100MHz. To evaluate the capability of these limiters, they were connected to a 100 MHz single element transducer and a two-way pulse-echo test was performed. It was found that the -6 dB bandwidth and sensitivity of the transducer using BPT-based limiter were better than those of the commercial limiter by 22 % and 140 %, respectively. Compared to the commercial limiter, BPT-based limiter is shown to be capable of minimizing signal attenuation, RT and THD at high frequencies and is thus suited for high frequency ultrasound applications. PMID:24199954

  6. Diffraction-limited depth-from-defocus imaging with a pixel-limited camera using pupil phase modulation and compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihara, Takahiro; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Kiyono, Mitsuhiro; Yanai, Kenichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The axial resolution of depth-from-defocus (DFD) imaging is generally restricted by the imaging device pixel pitch. Here, we propose a method of improving the axial resolution of DFD-based imaging with a pixel-limited camera to the minimum value determined by the diffraction limit, using pupil phase modulation and compressive sensing. Phase modulation at the pupil plane is employed to enhance the image defocus change and to reduce the correlation between varyingly defocused pixel-limited images. A compressive-sensing-based sparsity constraint is applied to object reconstruction. We experimentally verify the method with sparsely distributed objects and demonstrate diffraction-limited axial resolution with a pixel-limited camera.

  7. A Combined Reconstruction Algorithm for Limited-View Multi-Element Photoacoustic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Di-Wu; Xing, Da; Zhao, Xue-Hui; Pan, Chang-Ning; Fang, Jian-Shu

    2010-05-01

    We present a photoacoustic imaging system with a linear transducer array scanning in limited-view fields and develop a combined reconstruction algorithm, which is a combination of the limited-field filtered back projection (LFBP) algorithm and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) algorithm, to reconstruct the optical absorption distribution. In this algorithm, the LFBP algorithm is exploited to reconstruct the original photoacoustic image, and then the SIRT algorithm is used to improve the quality of the final reconstructed photoacoustic image. Numerical simulations with calculated incomplete data validate the reliability of this algorithm and the reconstructed experimental results further demonstrate that the combined reconstruction algorithm effectively reduces the artifacts and blurs and yields better quality of reconstruction image than that with the LFBP algorithm.

  8. Quality limiting factors of imaging endoscopes based on optical fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays, imaging endoscopes have a key role in medicine, for diagnostic, treatment and surgical applications. Coherent optical fiber bundles used for medical imaging show flexibility and a high active area, but they entail two main quality-limiting factors: leaky modes and crosstalk or interference between the optical fibers of the bundle. The former provokes a worsening of lateral resolution, while the latter causes a decrease in the contrast of the final image. In this work, both factors are studied in detail. We analyse the main characteristics of these effects, showing the limitations they impose to the endoscopic system. Finally, some solutions are proposed, and a method for determining optical fibers with the appropriate opto-geometrical parameters is presented in order to achieve an optimum design and improve the image quality of the endoscope.

  9. Direct imaging with highly diluted apertures - I. Field-of-view limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardière, O.; Martinache, F.; Patru, F.

    2007-03-01

    Future optical interferometric instrumentations mainly rely on the availability of an efficient cophasing system: once available, what has so far postponed the relevance of direct imaging to an interferometer will vanish. This paper focuses on the actual limits of snapshot imaging, inherent to the use of a sparse aperture: the number of telescopes and the geometry of the array impose the maximum extent of the field of view (FOV) and the complexity of the sources. A second limitation may arise from the beam combination scheme. Comparing already available solutions, we show that the so-called hypertelescope mode (or densified pupil) is ideal. By adjusting the direct imaging FOV to the useful FOV offered by the array, the hypertelescope makes an optimal use of the collected photons. It optimizes signal-to-noise ratio, drastically improves the luminosity of images and makes the interferometer compatible with coronagraphy, without inducing any loss of useful FOV.

  10. Toward a miniature endomicroscope: pixelation-free and diffraction-limited imaging through a fiber bundle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyu; Moon, Jungho; Kim, Moonseok; Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Kim, Jaisoon; Chung, Euiheon; Choi, Wonshik

    2014-04-01

    A fiber bundle is widely used for endoscopic imaging due to its direct image delivery capability. However, there exists an inevitable pixelation artifact, which limits spatial resolution to the diameter of individual fibers. In this Letter, we present a method that can eliminate this artifact and achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution. We exploited the binary control of a digital micromirror device to measure a transmission matrix of a fiber bundle and to subsequently control mode mixing among individual fibers. In doing so, we achieved a 22 kHz scanning rate of a diffraction-limited focused spot and obtained fluorescence endoscope imaging (58 μm × 58 μm) with near video-rate (10.3 Hz) acquisition. Our study lays a foundation for developing an ultrathin and high-resolution microendoscope.

  11. Image contrast of diffraction-limited telescopes for circular incoherent sources of uniform radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackleford, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A simple approximate formula is derived for the background intensity beyond the edge of the image of uniform incoherent circular light source relative to the irradiance near the center of the image. The analysis applies to diffraction-limited telescopes with or without central beam obscuration due to a secondary mirror. Scattering off optical surfaces is neglected. The analysis is expected to be most applicable to spaceborne IR telescopes, for which diffraction can be the major source of off-axis response.

  12. Limited Angle Reconstruction Method for Reconstructing Terrestrial Plasmaspheric Densities from EUV Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Timothy; Santhanam, Naveen; Zhang, Huijuan; Gallagher, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A new method for reconstructing the global 3D distribution of plasma densities in the plasmasphere from a limited number of 2D views is presented. The method is aimed at using data from the Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) sensor on NASA s Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite. Physical properties of the plasmasphere are exploited by the method to reduce the level of inaccuracy imposed by the limited number of views. The utility of the method is demonstrated on synthetic data.

  13. Absorption contrast imaging beyond the diffraction limit with electron-beam excitation assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Wataru; Fukuta, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated that the high spatial resolution absorption contrast imaging of the crystal of vitamin B9 having absorption at UV wavelengths. The absorption wavelength matches with the wavelength of the emission of the fluorescent thin film of an electron-beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope. The fine crystal structure was imaged beyond the optical diffraction limit. The image contrast corresponded with the thickness of the crystal. The illumination light is absorbed with the vitamin B9 crystal and the intensity of the transmitted light depends on the thickness of the vitamin B9 crystal. The EXA optical microscope is useful for analysis of growth of a crystal, bioimaging, and so on.

  14. Resolution Limits of Migration and Linearized Waveform Inversion Images in a Lossy Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Dutta, Gaurav; Li, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The vertical- and horizontal-resolution limits Δxlossy and Δzlossy of poststack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Δx∝λz/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Δxlossy∝z2/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, λ is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulas is accounted for by replacing λ with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Δzlossy only worsens linearly in depth compared to Δz∝λ for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  15. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle, part 1: biomechanics of bone and principles of imaging and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Jacob C; Khurana, Bharti; Smith, Stacy E

    2017-08-01

    A stress fracture is a focal failure of bone induced by the summation of repetitive forces, which overwhelms the normal bone remodeling cycle. This review, the first of two parts, discusses the general principles of stress fractures of the foot and ankle. This includes bone structure, biomechanics of stress applied to bone, bone remodeling, risk factors for stress fracture, and general principles of imaging and treatment of stress fractures. Cortical bone and trabecular bone have a contrasting macrostructure, which leads to differing resistances to externally applied forces. The variable and often confusing imaging appearance of stress fractures of the foot and ankle can largely be attributed to the different imaging appearance of bony remodeling of trabecular and cortical bone. Risk factors for stress fracture can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Stress fractures subject to compressive forces are considered low-risk and are treated with activity modification and correction of any modifiable risk factors. Stress fractures subject to tensile forces and/or located in regions of decreased vascularity are considered high risk, with additional treatment options including restricted weight-bearing or surgery.

  16. Advantages and limitations of imaging the musculoskeletal system by conventional radiological, radionuclide, and hybrid modalities.

    PubMed

    Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Butt, Sajid; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Groves, Ashley M

    2009-11-01

    The endpoint of an efficient and accurate diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathology can take many different routes. Currently, conventional radiological techniques, such as plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used in the assessment of patients with benign and malignant bone disease. An understanding of the advantages and limitations of the modalities available will help expedite diagnosis, and hence treatment. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the modalities available in investigating benign and malignant musculoskeletal pathology.

  17. Cerenkov luminescence imaging: physics principles and potential applications in biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Ciarrocchi, Esther; Belcari, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel imaging modality to study charged particles with optical methods by detecting the Cerenkov luminescence produced in tissue. This paper first describes the physical processes that govern the production and transport in tissue of Cerenkov luminescence. The detectors used for CLI and their most relevant specifications to optimize the acquisition of the Cerenkov signal are then presented, and CLI is compared with the other optical imaging modalities sharing the same data acquisition and processing methods. Finally, the scientific work related to CLI and the applications for which CLI has been proposed are reviewed. The paper ends with some considerations about further perspectives for this novel imaging modality.

  18. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  19. Mapping Atomic Orbitals with the Transmission Electron Microscope: Images of Defective Graphene Predicted from First-Principles Theory.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lorenzo; Löffler, Stefan; Biddau, Giulio; Hambach, Ralf; Kaiser, Ute; Draxl, Claudia; Schattschneider, Peter

    2016-07-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has been a promising candidate for mapping atomic orbitals for a long time. Here, we explore its capabilities by a first-principles approach. For the example of defected graphene, exhibiting either an isolated vacancy or a substitutional nitrogen atom, we show that three different kinds of images are to be expected, depending on the orbital character. To judge the feasibility of visualizing orbitals in a real microscope, the effect of the optics' aberrations is simulated. We demonstrate that, by making use of energy filtering, it should indeed be possible to map atomic orbitals in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope.

  20. Multispectral photon counting integral imaging system for color visualization of photon limited 3D scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu

    2014-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of a colorful photon-counting integral imaging system using Bayer elemental images for 3D visualization of photon limited scenes. The color image sensor with a format of Bayer color filter array, i.e., a red, a green, or a blue filter in a repeating pattern, captures elemental image set of a photon limited three-dimensional (3D) scene. It is assumed that the observed photon count in each channel (red, green or blue) follows Poisson statistics. The reconstruction of 3D scene with a format of Bayer is obtained by applying computational geometrical ray back propagation algorithm and parametric maximum likelihood estimator to the photon-limited Bayer elemental images. Finally, several standard demosaicing algorithms are applied in order to convert the 3D reconstruction with a Bayer format into a RGB per pixel format. Experimental results demonstrate that the gradient corrected linear interpolation technique achieves better performance in regard with acceptable PSNR and less computational complexity.

  1. MULTICOLOR IMAGING OF INNER RETINAL ALTERATIONS AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Feng, Henry L; Sharma, Sumit; Asrani, Sanjay; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the appearance of inner retinal alterations after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling using multicolor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO). Retrospective review of two eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and postoperative multicolor cSLO with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Infrared, green, blue, standard multicolor, and blue-green enhanced multicolor reflectance images were evaluated alongside spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for inner retinal alterations. Two eyes of 2 patients, aged 70 and 65 years, were identified. Preoperative diagnoses were epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole for Case 1 and full-thickness macular hole for Case 2. Time from surgery to initial multicolor cSLO imaging was 9 years in Case 1 and 3 weeks in Case 2. Inner retinal alterations were best visualized on blue reflectance, moderately visualized on green and blue-green enhanced multicolor, and less evident on infrared and standard multicolor. In Case 2, serial multicolor cSLO imaging demonstrated the emergence of inner retinal alterations between 3 weeks and 5 weeks postoperatively. Multicolor cSLO is a novel imaging modality capable of detecting inner retinal alterations in patients with a history of internal limiting membrane peeling, and may be clinically useful for monitoring anatomical changes associated with internal limiting membrane peeling.

  2. Image reconstruction for view-limited x-ray CT in baggage scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandava, Sagar; Coccarelli, David; Greenberg, Joel A.; Gehm, Michael E.; Ashok, Amit; Bilgin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    X-ray CT based baggage scanners are widely used in security applications. Recently, there has been increased interest in view-limited systems which can improve the scanning throughput while maintaining the threat detection performance. However as very few view angles are acquired in these systems, the image reconstruction problem is challenging. Standard reconstruction algorithms such as the filtered backprojection create strong artifacts when working with view-limited data. In this work, we study the performance of a variety of reconstruction algorithms for both single and multi-energy view-limited systems.

  3. First-principles study of crystalline silicon hyperdoped with cobalt at a concentration exceeding the Mott limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Wang, Yongyong; Song, Xiaohui; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xueping

    2016-07-01

    We systematically studied the properties of Co-hyperdoped silicon using first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory. A series of more complex configurations, such as quasi-substitutional and paired-Co-doped structures, are considered in our study. Our calculational results indicate that the quasi-substitutional and paired-Co-doped structures can introduce several intermediate bands (IBs) in the band gap and lead to the sub-band gap absorption. The quasi-substitutional and paired-Co-doped structures exhibit red-shift in their sub-band gap absorption spectra when compared to the substitutional structure. The formation energy calculations imply that the material would exhibit thermal stability of absorption in the infrared wavelength.

  4. Two different device physics principles for operating MoS2 transistor biosensors with femtomolar-level detection limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hongsuk; Oh, Bo-Ram; Chen, Pengyu; Yoon, Jeong Seop; Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Liang, Xiaogan

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally identify two different physics principles for operating MoS2 transistor biosensors, which depend on antibody functionalization locations. If antibodies are functionalized on an insulating layer coated on a MoS2 transistor, antibody-antigen binding events mainly modify the transistor threshold voltage, which can be explained by the conventional capacitor model. If antibodies are directly grafted on the MoS2 transistor channel, the binding events mainly modulate the ON-state transconductance of the transistor, which is attributed to the antigen-induced disordered potential in the MoS2 channel. This work advances the device physics for simplifying the transistor biosensor structures targeting for femtomolar-level quantification of biomolecules.

  5. Local fields in conductor surface electromigration: A first-principles study in the low-bias ballistic limit

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, Kirk H; Zhu, Wenguang; Stocks, George Malcolm; Guo, Hong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing first-principles quantum transport calculations, we investigate the role of local fields in conductor surface electromigration. A nanometer-thick Ag(100) thin film is adopted as our prototypical conductor, where we demonstrate the existence of intense local electric fields at atomic surface defects under an external bias. It is shown that such local fields can play an important role in driving surface electromigration and electrical breakdown. The intense fields originate from the relatively short (atomic-scale) screening lengths common to most elemental metals. This general short-range screening trend is established self-consistently within an intuitive picture of linear response electrostatics. The findings shed new light on the underlying physical origins of surface electromigration and point to the possibility of harnessing local fields to engineer electromigration at the nanoscale.

  6. Do general relativistic effects limit experiments to test the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.

    2016-12-01

    The universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle, which are at the basis of general relativity, have been confirmed to 1 part in 1 013. Space experiments with macroscopic test masses of different composition orbiting Earth inside a low altitude satellite aim to improve this precision by 2 orders of magnitude (with the Microscope satellite launched on April 25, 2016) and up to 4 orders of magnitude (with the Galileo Galilei satellite). At such a high precision, many tiny effects must be taken into account in order to be ruled out as the source of a spurious violation signal. In this work, we investigate the general relativistic effects, including those which involve the rotation of both Earth and the test masses, and show that they are by far too small to be considered even in the most challenging experiment.

  7. Pushing the limits of first-principles electron-phonon calculations: from photoemission kinks to band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-02-01

    The electron-phonon interaction is key to some of the most intriguing and technologically important phenomena in condensed matter physics, ranging from superconductivity to charge density waves, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectricity. Starting from the late nineties first-principles calculations of electron-phonon interactions in metals have become increasingly popular, mainly in connection with the study of conventional superconductors and with the interpretation of angle-resolved photoemission experiments. In contrast, progress on first-principles calculations of electron-phonon interactions in insulators has been comparatively slower. This delay is arguably due to the conventional wisdom that the signatures of electron-phonon interactions in semiconductor band structures are so small that they fall within the error bar of the most accurate electronic structure calculations. In order to fill this gap we developed, within the context of state-of-the-art density-functional techniques, a theory proposed by Allen and Heine for calculating the temperature dependence of band gaps in semiconductors [P. B. Allen, V. Heine, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 69, 2305 (1976)]. This methodology allows us to calculate both the temperature dependence of the quasiparticle energies and the renormalization due to zero-point quantum fluctuations. In order to demonstrate this technique an application to the intriguing case of diamond will be discussed [F. Giustino, S. G. Louie, M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 265501 (2010)]. In this case the calculated temperature dependence of the direct band gap agrees well with spectroscopic ellipsometry data, and the renormalization due to the electron-phonon interaction is found to be spectacularly large (>0.6 eV). This unexpected finding might be only the tip of the iceberg in a research area which remains largely unexplored and which, from a first glimpse, appears rich of surprises.

  8. 3D surface imaging in medicine: a review of working principles and implications for imaging the unsedated child.

    PubMed

    Riphagen, Joost M; van Neck, Johan W; van Adrichem, Leon N A

    2008-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the methods used for optical surface imaging during the last 30 years, with the primary focus on the imaging of the unsedated child. The goal is to provide the reader with an overview of the working methods behind the published articles. This will enable the reader to better interpret current data and decide if a certain approach is suitable for their particular research question.

  9. [Measuring the contrast resolution limits of human vision based on the modern digital image processing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifang; Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Ying; Li, Hong; Li, Zhangyong; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Xie, Zhengxiang

    2008-10-01

    In the literatures on the human vision physiology and physics, there were reports about space resolution limit of 1' visual angle, frequency resolution limit of 5 nm and time resolution limit of 0.1" of human vision. However, there has been no report about the contrast resolution limit of human vision,especially the report of measuring method and result about the contrast resolution limit of human vision based on the modern digital image processing. Here we report a modern method for measuring the contrast resolution limit of human vision based on computer digital image processing technology, and we present the measured results and their mathematical models. The function relationships of contrast resolution limit varying with background gray in a photopic or a scotopic sights were illuminated respectively. It can be expected that such investigations with regard to human vision will establish the physiological foundation of the theories and techniques in hiding bodies and hiding figures (stealth), in anti-hiding bodies and anti-hiding figures, in the night vision system independent of infrared, as well as in their relative industries.

  10. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-15

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  11. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  12. Reaching the Diffraction Limit - Differential Speckle and Wide-Field Imaging for the WIYN Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Nic J.; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Speckle imaging allows telescopes to achieve diffraction limited imaging performance. The technique requires cameras capable of reading out frames at a very fast rate, effectively 'freezing out' atmospheric seeing. The resulting speckles can be correlated and images reconstructed that are at the diffraction limit of the telescope. These new instruments are based on the successful performance and design of the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI).The instruments are being built for the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes and will be made available to the community via the peer review proposal process. We envision their primary use to be validation and characterization of exoplanet targets from the NASA, K2 and TESS missions and RV discovered exoplanets. Such targets will provide excellent follow-up candidates for both the WIYN and Gemini telescopes. We expect similar data quality in speckle imaging mode with the new instruments. Additionally, both cameras will have a wide-field mode and standard SDSS filters. They will be highly versatile instruments and it is that likely many other science programs will request time on the cameras. The limiting magnitude for speckle observations will remain around 13-14th at WIYN and 16-17th at Gemini, while wide-field, normal CCD imaging operation should be able to go to much fainter, providing usual CCD imaging and photometric capabilities. The instruments will also have high utility as scoring cameras for telescope engineering purposes, or other applications where high time resolution is needed. Instrument support will be provided, including a software pipeline that takes raw speckle data to fully reconstructed images.

  13. Applicability, usability, and limitations of murine embryonic imaging with optical coherence tomography and optical projection tomography.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manmohan; Raghunathan, Raksha; Piazza, Victor; Davis-Loiacono, Anjul M; Cable, Alex; Vedakkan, Tegy J; Janecek, Trevor; Frazier, Michael V; Nair, Achuth; Wu, Chen; Larina, Irina V; Dickinson, Mary E; Larin, Kirill V

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of imaging murine embryos at various embryonic developmental stages (embryonic day 9.5, 11.5, and 13.5) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical projection tomography (OPT). We demonstrate that while OCT was capable of rapid high-resolution live 3D imaging, its limited penetration depth prevented visualization of deeper structures, particularly in later stage embryos. In contrast, OPT was able to image the whole embryos, but could not be used in vivo because the embryos must be fixed and cleared. Moreover, the fixation process significantly altered the embryo morphology, which was quantified by the volume of the eye-globes before and after fixation. All of these factors should be weighed when determining which imaging modality one should use to achieve particular goals of a study.

  14. Applicability, usability, and limitations of murine embryonic imaging with optical coherence tomography and optical projection tomography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmohan; Raghunathan, Raksha; Piazza, Victor; Davis-Loiacono, Anjul M.; Cable, Alex; Vedakkan, Tegy J.; Janecek, Trevor; Frazier, Michael V.; Nair, Achuth; Wu, Chen; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of imaging murine embryos at various embryonic developmental stages (embryonic day 9.5, 11.5, and 13.5) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical projection tomography (OPT). We demonstrate that while OCT was capable of rapid high-resolution live 3D imaging, its limited penetration depth prevented visualization of deeper structures, particularly in later stage embryos. In contrast, OPT was able to image the whole embryos, but could not be used in vivo because the embryos must be fixed and cleared. Moreover, the fixation process significantly altered the embryo morphology, which was quantified by the volume of the eye-globes before and after fixation. All of these factors should be weighed when determining which imaging modality one should use to achieve particular goals of a study. PMID:27375945

  15. Proof of principle for helmet-mounted display image quality tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Beasley, Howard H.; Martin, John S.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality-testing tool for HMDs. There is currently no such tool. A framework for development of an image quality tester for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used in the U.S. Army's AH-64 was proposed in Hsieh et al. This paper presents the prototype development, summarizes the bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs), and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The prototype consists of hardware (two cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different apertures were mounted in parallel on a rack facing the HDU holder. A handle was designed to allow users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern was then captured. Sensors are used to detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU was angled correctly in relation to the camera. Two sets of unified algorithms were designed to detect features presented by the two cameras. These features include focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of gray-shades. Images of test pattern were captured and analyzed, and used to develop a specification for each inspection feature. Experiments were conducted to verify the robustness of the algorithms. A worst-case scenario for factors such as clock-wise and counterclockwise tilt, degree of focus, magnitude of brightness and contrast, and shifted images were set up and evaluated. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicate that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future work includes development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature

  16. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has limited additional yield in cryptogenic stroke evaluation after transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Ava L; Kalani, Rizwan E; Aw-Zoretic, Jessie; Sondag, Matthew; Daruwalla, Vistasp J; Mitter, Sumeet S; Bernstein, Richard; Collins, Jeremy D; Prabhakaran, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is increasing, but its role in the diagnostic work-up following ischemic stroke has received limited study. We aimed to explore the added yield of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to identify cardio-aortic sources not detected by transesophageal echocardiography among patients with cryptogenic stroke. Methods A retrospective single-center cohort study was performed from 01 January 2009 to 01 March 2013. Consecutive patients who had both a stroke protocol cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and a transesophageal echocardiography preformed during a single hospitalization were included. All cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies underwent independent, blinded review by two investigators. We applied the causative classification system for ischemic stroke to all patients, first blinded to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results; we then reapplied the causative classification system using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Standard statistical tests to evaluate stroke subtype reclassification rates were used. Results Ninety-three patients were included in the final analysis; 68.8% were classified as cryptogenic stroke after initial diagnostic evaluation. Among patients with cryptogenic stroke, five (7.8%) were reclassified due to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings: one was reclassified as "cardio-aortic embolism evident" due to the presence of a patent foramen ovale and focal cardiac infarct and four were reclassified as "cardio-aortic embolism possible" due to mitral valve thickening (n = 1) or hypertensive cardiomyopathy (n = 3). Overall, findings on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging reduced the percentage of patients with cryptogenic stroke by slightly more than 1%. Conclusion Our stroke subtype reclassification rate after the addition of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results to a diagnostic work-up which includes transesophageal echocardiography was very low. Prospective studies

  17. Limited-memory scaled gradient projection methods for real-time image deconvolution in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, F.; Zanella, R.; Zanghirati, G.; Zanni, L.

    2015-04-01

    Gradient projection methods have given rise to effective tools for image deconvolution in several relevant areas, such as microscopy, medical imaging and astronomy. Due to the large scale of the optimization problems arising in nowadays imaging applications and to the growing request of real-time reconstructions, an interesting challenge to be faced consists in designing new acceleration techniques for the gradient schemes, able to preserve their simplicity and low computational cost of each iteration. In this work we propose an acceleration strategy for a state-of-the-art scaled gradient projection method for image deconvolution in microscopy. The acceleration idea is derived by adapting a step-length selection rule, recently introduced for limited-memory steepest descent methods in unconstrained optimization, to the special constrained optimization framework arising in image reconstruction. We describe how important issues related to the generalization of the step-length rule to the imaging optimization problem have been faced and we evaluate the improvements due to the acceleration strategy by numerical experiments on large-scale image deconvolution problems.

  18. Applying Innovative Educational Principles when Classes Grow and Resources Are Limited: Biochemistry Experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Tache, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under…

  19. Limitations and Extensions of the Lock-and-Key Principle: Differences between Gas State, Solution and Solid State Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The lock-and-key concept is discussed with respect to necessary extensions. Formation of supramolecular complexes depends not only, and often not even primarily on an optimal geometric fit between host and guest. Induced fit and allosteric interactions have long been known as important modifications. Different binding mechanisms, the medium used and pH effects can exert a major influence on the affinity. Stereoelectronic effects due to lone pair orientation can lead to variation of binding constants by orders of magnitude. Hydrophobic interactions due to high-energy water inside cavities modify the mechanical lock-and-key picture. That optimal affinities are observed if the cavity is only partially filled by the ligand can be in conflict with the lock-and-key principle. In crystals other forces than those between host and guest often dominate, leading to differences between solid state and solution structures. This is exemplified in particular with calixarene complexes, which by X-ray analysis more often than other hosts show guest molecules outside their cavity. In view of this the particular problems with the identification of weak interactions in crystals is discussed. PMID:25815592

  20. Paget-Schroetter syndrome: diagnostic limitations of imaging upper extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Victor; Goldenberg, William D; Matteucci, Michael; Auten, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome is a rare but potentially debilitating condition affecting young, otherwise healthy individuals. This condition, also known as effort thrombosis, is an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis classically caused by anatomical abnormalities compressing the neurovascular structures of the thoracic outlet. The diagnosis is important to emergency medicine providers due to its secondary morbidity and mortality. Common complications affecting these active adults are pulmonary embolism and postthrombotic syndrome. Most patients report a precedent history of vigorous exercise or activity involving the upper extremities. We present a case of a 23-year-old man with redness and swelling of his dominant arm after weightlifting. Previous literature describes Paget-Schroetter syndrome from repetitive activities. The report highlights the limitations of imaging studies in proximal upper extremity deep vein thromboses. The initial selected imaging study, Doppler ultrasound, was negative in our case and was followed by a nondiagnostic computed tomographic venogram. Although ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic imaging modality, it is limited when thrombosis is present in the noncompressible region of the clavicle. Magnetic resonance venogram or computed tomographic venogram is recommended if index of suspicion is high and the ultrasound shows normal results, but these studies are highly dependent on technique, flow, and timing. The eventual diagnosis of axillosubclavian thrombosis was obtained only after specialty consultation and formal venography. This case discusses the limitations of each imaging modality and the importance of a comprehensive clinical approach to this rare diagnosis.

  1. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as difficulties identifying and expressing emotions with others, correlate with higher levels of psychopathology. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of body image disturbance and diagnosable BDD to the contemporary behavioral variables of experiential avoidance and interpersonal expression of affect. A large sample of participants including those who are diagnosable with BDD were examined. Results indicate that both intrapersonal and interpersonal variables are significant predictors of both body image disturbance in a large population and of BDD as a subsample and that these variables may be important targets for treatment. This principle-based conceptualization has parsimony and potential utility for clinical interventions of these problems. Implications are discussed for the use of contemporary behavioral treatments such as Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to address both body image disturbance and BDD. PMID:23997716

  2. Visualizing the limits of low vision in detecting natural image features.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, Maarten A; van Damme, Wim J M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a tool to visualize the limitations posed by visual impairments in detecting small and low-contrast elements in natural images. This visualization tool incorporates existing models of several aspects of visual perception, such as the band-limited contrast model of Peli (J Opt Soc Am A 1996;13:1131-8). The models underlying the visualization tool were elaborated and tested in experiments with human subjects with various visual impairments such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and subjects with normal vision but under various degraded viewing conditions (including reduced contrast, eccentric viewing). The experiments were designed to determine in three successive steps the contrast sensitivity function that produces a degraded image that can just be discriminated from its original. In the first step, the just detectable blur was determined, while in the next two steps contrast threshold levels were determined for removing high and medium spatial frequencies from the image. Threshold parameters were determined for three image-types (face, stairs, forest) and the relationship with acuity and contrast thresholds (of Landolt-C symbols) was examined. The blur threshold is inversely related to acuity, and this relationship is largely independent of the cause of reduced acuity (visual impairment, contrast reduction or eccentric viewing). We developed a validated visualization tool based on these results that provides a reliable impression of detectability of image features by visual impaired people.

  3. Generative adversarial networks recover features in astrophysical images of galaxies beyond the deconvolution limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Zhang, Hantian; Fowler, Lucas; Santhanam, Gokula Krishnan

    2017-05-01

    Observations of astrophysical objects such as galaxies are limited by various sources of random and systematic noise from the sky background, the optical system of the telescope and the detector used to record the data. Conventional deconvolution techniques are limited in their ability to recover features in imaging data by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. Here, we train a generative adversarial network (GAN) on a sample of 4550 images of nearby galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.02 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and conduct 10× cross-validation to evaluate the results. We present a method using a GAN trained on galaxy images that can recover features from artificially degraded images with worse seeing and higher noise than the original with a performance that far exceeds simple deconvolution. The ability to better recover detailed features such as galaxy morphology from low signal to noise and low angular resolution imaging data significantly increases our ability to study existing data sets of astrophysical objects as well as future observations with observatories such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and the Hubble and James Webb space telescopes.

  4. Whole slide imaging: uses and limitations for surgical pathology and teaching.

    PubMed

    Boyce, B F

    2015-07-01

    Advances in computer and software technology and in the quality of images produced by digital cameras together with development of robotic devices that can take glass histology slides from a cassette holding many slides and place them in a conventional microscope for electronic scanning have facilitated the development of whole slide imaging (WSI) systems during the past decade. Anatomic pathologists now have opportunities to test the utility of WSI systems for diagnostic, teaching and research purposes and to determine their limitations. Uses include rendering primary diagnoses from scanned hematoxylin and eosin stained tissues on slides, reviewing frozen section or routine slides from remote locations for interpretation or consultation. Also, WSI can replace physical storage of glass slides with digital images, storing images of slides from outside institutions, presenting slides at clinical or research conferences, teaching residents and medical students, and storing fluorescence images without fading or quenching of the fluorescence signal. Limitations include the high costs of the scanners, maintenance contracts and IT support, storage of digital files and pathologists' lack of familiarity with the technology. Costs are falling as more devices and systems are sold and cloud storage costs drop. Pathologist familiarity with the technology will grow as more institutions purchase WSI systems. The technology holds great promise for the future of anatomic pathology.

  5. Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Comprehensive Update on Principles and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ka-Loh; Ostergaard, Leif; Calamante, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Perfusion is a fundamental biological function that refers to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue by means of blood flow. Perfusion MRI is sensitive to microvasculature and has been applied in a wide variety of clinical applications, including the classification of tumors, identification of stroke regions, and characterization of other diseases. Perfusion MRI techniques are classified with or without using an exogenous contrast agent. Bolus methods, with injections of a contrast agent, provide better sensitivity with higher spatial resolution, and are therefore more widely used in clinical applications. However, arterial spin-labeling methods provide a unique opportunity to measure cerebral blood flow without requiring an exogenous contrast agent and have better accuracy for quantification. Importantly, MRI-based perfusion measurements are minimally invasive overall, and do not use any radiation and radioisotopes. In this review, we describe the principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. This review summarizes comprehensive updated knowledge on the physical principles and techniques of perfusion MRI. PMID:25246817

  6. Unbiased estimation of the calcaneus volume using the Cavalieri principle on computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Acer, N; Bayar, B; Basaloglu, H; Oner, E; Bayar, K; Sankur, S

    2008-11-20

    The size and shape of tarsal bones are especially relevant when considering some orthopedic diseases such as clubfoot. For this reason, the measurements of the tarsal bones have been the subject of many studies, none of which has used stereological methods to estimate the volume. In the present stereological study, we estimated the volume of calcaneal bone of normal feet and dry bones. We used a combination of the Cavalieri principle and computer tomographic scans taken from eight males and nine dry calcanei to estimate the volumes of calcaneal bones. The mean volume of dry calcaneal bones was estimated, producing mean results using the point-counting method and Archimedes principle being 49.11+/-10.7 or 48.22+/-11.92 cm(3), respectively. A positive correlation was found between anthropometric measurements and the volume of calcaneal bones. The findings of the present study using the stereological methods could provide data for the evaluation of normal and pathological volumes of calcaneal bones.

  7. Optimal medical outcomes with limited liability: risk management principles for medical practices at the intersection of medicine, law, and business.

    PubMed

    Paterick, Timothy J; Paterick, Timothy E; Waterhouse, Blake E

    2007-01-01

    Physicians practice at the intersection of medicine, law, and business. Each discipline creates its own challenges for the practicing physician: to practice efficient, effective medicine; to limit potential liability; and to create a positive financial outcome. Those challenges increase with escalating costs and reduced reimbursements. In this paper, the common clinical presentation of chest pain has been used to create a paradigm to educate physicians to understand efficient and effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and how effective communication with patients and meticulous documentation of all medical encounters can limit the potential for liability. Ultimately, given today's reimbursement formulas, physicians must also understand the cost of testing, in relation to its benefits, in an attempt to yield a positive financial outcome.

  8. Applying innovative educational principles when classes grow and resources are limited: Biochemistry experiences at Muhimbili University of Allied Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Omer, Selma; Hickson, Gilles; Taché, Stephanie; Blind, Raymond; Masters, Susan; Loeser, Helen; Souza, Kevin; Mkony, Charles; Debas, Haile; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2008-11-01

    Teaching to large classes is often challenging particularly when the faculty and teaching resources are limited. Innovative, less staff intensive ways need to be explored to enhance teaching and to engage students. We describe our experience teaching biochemistry to 350 students at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) under severe resource limitations and highlight our efforts to enhance the teaching effectiveness. We focus on peer assisted learning and present three pilot initiatives that we developed to supplement teaching and facilitate student interaction within the classroom. These included; instructor-facilitated small group activities within large group settings, peer-led tutorials to provide supplemental teaching and peer-assisted instruction in IT skills to enable access to online biochemistry learning resources. All our efforts were practical, low cost and well received by our learners. They may be applied in many different settings where faculties face similar challenges.

  9. Exploring the limits of ultrafast polymerase chain reaction using liquid for thermal heat exchange: A proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Maltezos, George; Johnston, Matthew; Taganov, Konstantin; Srichantaratsamee, Chutatip; Gorman, John; Baltimore, David; Chantratita, Wasun; Scherer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Thermal ramp rate is a major limiting factor in using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine diagnostics. We explored the limits of speed by using liquid for thermal exchange rather than metal as in traditional devices, and by testing different polymerases. In a clinical setting, our system equaled or surpassed state-of-the-art devices for accuracy in amplifying DNA∕RNA of avian influenza, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Using Thermococcus kodakaraensis polymerase and optimizing both electrical and chemical systems, we obtained an accurate, 35 cycle amplification of an 85-base pair fragment of E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin gene in as little as 94.1 s, a significant improvement over a typical 1 h PCR amplification. PMID:21267083

  10. Temperature-Dependent Hole Mobility and Its Limit in Crystal-Phase P3HT Calculated from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Lücke, Andreas; Ortmann, Frank; Panhans, Michel; Sanna, Simone; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2016-06-23

    We study temperature-dependent hole transport in ideal crystal-phase poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with ab initio calculations, with the aim of estimating the maximum mobility in the limit of perfect order. To this end, the molecular transfer integrals, phonon frequencies, and electron-phonon coupling constants are obtained from density functional theory (DFT). This allows the determination of transport properties without fit parameters. The strong coupling between charge carriers and vibrations leads to strong scattering and polaronic effects that impact carrier transport. By providing an intrinsic mobility limit to ideal P3HT crystals, this work allows identification of the impact of disorder on the temperature-dependent transport in real samples. A detailed analysis of the transport-relevant phonon modes is provided that gives microscopic insight into the polaron effects and hints toward mobility optimization strategies.

  11. Exploring the limits of ultrafast polymerase chain reaction using liquid for thermal heat exchange: A proof of principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltezos, George; Johnston, Matthew; Taganov, Konstantin; Srichantaratsamee, Chutatip; Gorman, John; Baltimore, David; Chantratita, Wasun; Scherer, Axel

    2010-12-01

    Thermal ramp rate is a major limiting factor in using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine diagnostics. We explored the limits of speed by using liquid for thermal exchange rather than metal as in traditional devices, and by testing different polymerases. In a clinical setting, our system equaled or surpassed state-of-the-art devices for accuracy in amplifying DNA/RNA of avian influenza, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Using Thermococcus kodakaraensis polymerase and optimizing both electrical and chemical systems, we obtained an accurate, 35 cycle amplification of an 85-base pair fragment of E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin gene in as little as 94.1 s, a significant improvement over a typical 1 h PCR amplification.

  12. Computational-optical microscopy for 3D biological imaging beyond the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Ginni

    In recent years, super-resolution imaging has become an important fluorescent microscopy tool. It has enabled imaging of structures smaller than the optical diffraction limit with resolution less than 50 nm. Extension to high-resolution volume imaging has been achieved by integration with various optical techniques. In this thesis, development of a fluorescent microscope to enable high resolution, extended depth, three dimensional (3D) imaging is discussed; which is achieved by integration of computational methods with optical systems. In the first part of the thesis, point spread function (PSF) engineering for volume imaging is discussed. A class of PSFs, referred to as double-helix (DH) PSFs, is generated. The PSFs exhibit two focused spots in the image plane which rotate about the optical axis, encoding depth in rotation of the image. These PSFs extend the depth-of-field up to a factor of ˜5. Precision performance of the DH-PSFs, based on an information theoretical analysis, is compared with other 3D methods with conclusion that the DH-PSFs provide the best precision and the longest depth-of-field. Out of various possible DH-PSFs, a suitable PSF is obtained for super-resolution microscopy. The DH-PSFs are implemented in imaging systems, such as a microscope, with a special phase modulation at the pupil plane. Surface-relief elements which are polarization-insensitive and ˜90% light efficient are developed for phase modulation. The photon-efficient DH-PSF microscopes thus developed are used, along with optimal position estimation algorithms, for tracking and super-resolution imaging in 3D. Imaging at depths-of-field of up to 2.5 microm is achieved without focus scanning. Microtubules were imaged with 3D resolution of (6, 9, 39) nm, which is in close agreement with the theoretical limit. A quantitative study of co-localization of two proteins in volume was conducted in live bacteria. In the last part of the thesis practical aspects of the DH-PSF microscope are

  13. Limited-angle tomography for analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Keivan; Wernick, Miles N.; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-image radiography (MIR) is an analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging method, which is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. MIR simultaneously generates three planar parametric images containing information about scattering, refraction and attenuation properties of the object. The MIR planar images are linear tomographic projections of the corresponding object properties, which allows reconstruction of volumetric images using computed tomography (CT) methods. However, when acquiring a full range of linear projections around the tissue of interest is not feasible or the scanning time is limited, limited-angle tomography techniques can be used to reconstruct these volumetric images near the central plane, which is the plane that contains the pivot point of the tomographic movement. In this work, we use computer simulations to explore the applicability of limited-angle tomography to MIR. We also investigate the accuracy of reconstructions as a function of number of tomographic angles for a fixed total radiation exposure. We use this function to find an optimal range of angles over which data should be acquired for limited-angle tomography MIR (LAT-MIR). Next, we apply the LAT-MIR technique to experimentally acquired MIR projections obtained in a cadaveric human thumb study. We compare the reconstructed slices near the central plane to the same slices reconstructed by CT-MIR using the full angular view around the object. Finally, we perform a task-based evaluation of LAT-MIR performance for different numbers of angular views, and use template matching to detect cartilage in the refraction image near the central plane. We use the signal-to-noise ratio of this test as the detectability metric to investigate an optimum range of tomographic angles for detecting soft tissues in LAT-MIR. Both results show that there is an optimum range of angular view for data acquisition where LAT-MIR yields the best performance, comparable to CT

  14. FRIDA: diffraction-limited imaging and integral-field spectroscopy for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Alan M.; Acosta-Pulido, José A.; Álvarez-Núñez, Luis C.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Cardiel, Nicolás.; Cardona, Salvador; Chapa, Oscar; Díaz García, José Javier; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Espejo, Carlos; Flores-Meza, Rubén. A.; Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Gallego, Jesús; Garcés Medina, José Leonardo; Garzón López, Francisco; Hammersley, Peter; Keiman, Carolina; Lara, Gerardo; López, José Alberto; López, Pablo L.; Lucero, Diana; Moreno Arce, Heidy; Pascual Ramirez, Sergio; Patrón Recio, Jesús; Prieto, Almudena; Rodríguez, Alberto José; Marco de la Rosa, José; Sánchez, Beatriz; Uribe, Jorge A.; Váldez Berriozabal, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    FRIDA is a diffraction-limited imager and integral-field spectrometer that is being built for the adaptive-optics focus of the Gran Telescopio Canarias. In imaging mode FRIDA will provide scales of 0.010, 0.020 and 0.040 arcsec/pixel and in IFS mode spectral resolutions of 1500, 4000 and 30,000. FRIDA is starting systems integration and is scheduled to complete fully integrated system tests at the laboratory by the end of 2017 and to be delivered to GTC shortly thereafter. In this contribution we present a summary of its design, fabrication, current status and potential scientific applications.

  15. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: basic principles, present situation and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-11-14

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS.

  16. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound imaging: Basic principles, present situation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María-Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the development of stabilised microbubble contrast agents and improvements in available ultrasonic equipment, such as harmonic imaging, have enabled us to display microbubble enhancements on a greyscale with optimal contrast and spatial resolution. Recent technological advances made contrast harmonic technology available for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for the first time in 2008. Thus, the evaluation of microcirculation is now feasible with EUS, prompting the evolution of contrast-enhanced EUS from vascular imaging to images of the perfused tissue. Although the relevant experience is still preliminary, several reports have highlighted contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) as a promising noninvasive method to visualise and characterise lesions and to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions. Even if histology remains the gold standard, the combination of CH-EUS and EUS fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can not only render EUS more accurate but may also assist physicians in making decisions when EUS-FNA is inconclusive, increasing the yield of EUS-FNA by guiding the puncture with simultaneous imaging of the vascularity. The development of CH-EUS has also opened up exciting possibilities in other research areas, including monitoring responses to anticancer chemotherapy or to ethanol-induced pancreatic tissue ablation, anticancer therapies based on ultrasound-triggered drug and gene delivery, and therapeutic adjuvants by contrast ultrasound-induced apoptosis. Contrast harmonic imaging is gaining popularity because of its efficacy, simplicity and non-invasive nature, and many expectations are currently resting on this technique. If its potential is confirmed in the near future, contrast harmonic imaging will become a standard practice in EUS. PMID:25400439

  17. Methods for improving limited field-of-view radiotherapy reconstructions using imperfect a priori images.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Kenneth J; Olivera, Gustavo H; Kapatoes, Jeffrey M; Reckwerdt, Paul J; Mackie, Thomas R

    2002-11-01

    There are many benefits to having an online CT imaging system for radiotherapy, as it helps identify changes in the patient's position and anatomy between the time of planning and treatment. However, many current online CT systems suffer from a limited field-of-view (LFOV) in that collected data do not encompass the patient's complete cross section. Reconstruction of these data sets can quantitatively distort the image values and introduce artifacts. This work explores the use of planning CT data as a priori information for improving these reconstructions. Methods are presented to incorporate this data by aligning the LFOV with the planning images and then merging the data sets in sinogram space. One alignment option is explicit fusion, producing fusion-aligned reprojection (FAR) images. For cases where explicit fusion is not viable, FAR can be implemented using the implicit fusion of normal setup error, referred to as normal-error-aligned reprojection (NEAR). These methods are evaluated for multiday patient images showing both internal and skin-surface anatomical variation. The iterative use of NEAR and FAR is also investigated, as are applications of NEAR and FAR to dose calculations and the compensation of LFOV online MVCT images with kVCT planning images. Results indicate that NEAR and FAR can utilize planning CT data as imperfect a priori information to reduce artifacts and quantitatively improve images. These benefits can also increase the accuracy of dose calculations and be used for augmenting CT images (e.g., MVCT) acquired at different energies than the planning CT.

  18. A Bayesian Approach to Distinguishing Interdigitated Tongue Muscles from Limited Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.

    2015-01-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve inter-digitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  19. A Bayesian approach to distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuyang; Murano, Emi; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    2015-10-01

    The tongue is a critical organ for a variety of functions, including swallowing, respiration, and speech. It contains intrinsic and extrinsic muscles that play an important role in changing its shape and position. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to reconstruct tongue muscle fiber tracts. However, previous studies have been unable to reconstruct the crossing fibers that occur where the tongue muscles interdigitate, which is a large percentage of the tongue volume. To resolve crossing fibers, multi-tensor models on DTI and more advanced imaging modalities, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), have been proposed. However, because of the involuntary nature of swallowing, there is insufficient time to acquire a sufficient number of diffusion gradient directions to resolve crossing fibers while the in vivo tongue is in a fixed position. In this work, we address the challenge of distinguishing interdigitated tongue muscles from limited diffusion magnetic resonance imaging by using a multi-tensor model with a fixed tensor basis and incorporating prior directional knowledge. The prior directional knowledge provides information on likely fiber directions at each voxel, and is computed with anatomical knowledge of tongue muscles. The fiber directions are estimated within a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework, and the resulting objective function is solved using a noise-aware weighted ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm. Experiments were performed on a digital crossing phantom and in vivo tongue diffusion data including three control subjects and four patients with glossectomies. On the digital phantom, effects of parameters, noise, and prior direction accuracy were studied, and parameter settings for real data were determined. The results on the in vivo data demonstrate that the proposed method is able to resolve interdigitated tongue muscles with limited gradient directions. The distributions of the

  20. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S.; Wisner, Erik R.; Johnson, Lynelle R.; Stern, Joshua A.; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t

  1. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S; Wisner, Erik R; Johnson, Lynelle R; Stern, Joshua A; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t-test. The mean TRE

  2. [The imaging principles and the structure of the low-dose digital radiographic device].

    PubMed

    Kang, Q Z; Yu, H L; Zhang, H; Zhang, D S; Cao, H D

    2001-03-01

    This article introduced A new type of X-ray radiographic device, which uses MWPC as the low-dose detector with the machinery and computer to reconstruct the X-ray digital images. In this paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of the device are analysed, thus much improvement has been made to make it better and more efficient.

  3. [Frontiers in Live Bone Imaging Researches. Two-Photon Excitation Microscopy, principles and technologies].

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Yoshiro

    2015-06-01

    The "two photon absorption" phenomenon had been predicted by the American Physicist, Maria Ghöppert-Mayer in 1931. Denk and Webb group had proved it in 1990 and the first product had been launched in the market in 1996. But ever since the product became available, the number of users are not increased. Moreover, the system had been too difficult to use and the system sometimes stay not working in labs. But recently, the new easier-to-use products are released and the ultra short pulse IR laser became stable. And its applications are extending from neuro-science to oncology or immunology fields. Due to these reasons, the shipment of multi-photon microscope in Japan in 2013 is approximately 40 units which is 3 times bigger than in 2010. In this paper, I would like to discuss the principles of two-photon microscopy and some of the new technologies for the higher signal capture efficiency.

  4. Regularising limited view tomography using anatomical reference images and information theoretic similarity metrics.

    PubMed

    Van de Sompel, Dominique; Brady, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper is concerned with limited view tomography. Inspired by the application of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which is but one of an increasing number of applications of limited view tomography, we concentrate primarily on cases where the angular range is restricted to a narrow wedge of approximately ±30°, and the number of views is restricted to 10-30. The main challenge posed by these conditions is undersampling, also known as the null space problem. As a consequence of the Fourier Slice Theorem, a limited angular range leaves large swathes of the object's Fourier space unsampled, leaving a large space of possible solutions, reconstructed volumes, for a given set of inputs. We explore the feasibility of using same- or different-modality images as anatomical priors to constrain the null space, hence the solution. To allow for different-modality priors, we choose information theoretic measures to quantify the similarity between reconstructions and their priors. We demonstrate the limitations of two popular choices, namely mutual information and joint entropy, and propose robust alternatives that overcome their limitations. One of these alternatives is essentially a joint mixture model of the image and its prior. Promising mitigation of the data insufficiency problem is demonstrated using 2D synthetic as well as clinical phantoms. This work initially assumes a priori registered priors, and is then extended to allow for the registration to be performed simultaneously with the reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing and Interpreting Limiting Dilution Assays: General Principles and Applications to the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I. S.; Elliott, Oliver; Hill, Alison L.; Henrich, Timothy J.; Siliciano, Janet M.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Limiting dilution assays are widely used in infectious disease research. These assays are crucial for current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 cure research in particular. In this study, we offer new tools to help investigators design and analyze dilution assays based on their specific research needs. Limiting dilution assays are commonly used to measure the extent of infection, and in the context of HIV they represent an essential tool for studying latency and potential curative strategies. Yet standard assay designs may not discern whether an intervention reduces an already miniscule latent infection. This review addresses challenges arising in this setting and in the general use of dilution assays. We illustrate the major statistical method for estimating frequency of infectious units from assay results, and we offer an online tool for computing this estimate. We recommend a procedure for customizing assay design to achieve desired sensitivity and precision goals, subject to experimental constraints. We consider experiments in which no viral outgrowth is observed and explain how using alternatives to viral outgrowth may make measurement of HIV latency more efficient. Finally, we discuss how biological complications, such as probabilistic growth of small infections, alter interpretations of experimental results. PMID:26478893

  6. Denoising for 3-d photon-limited imaging data using nonseparable filterbanks.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Bildea, Teodor Stefan; Tan, Shan; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frame-based denoising algorithm for photon-limited 3-D images. We first construct a new 3-D nonseparable filterbank by adding elements to an existing frame in a structurally stable way. In contrast with the traditional 3-D separable wavelet system, the new filterbank is capable of using edge information in multiple directions. We then propose a data-adaptive hysteresis thresholding algorithm based on this new 3-D nonseparable filterbank. In addition, we develop a new validation strategy for denoising of photon-limited images containing sparse structures, such as neurons (the structure of interest is less than 5% of total volume). The validation method, based on tubular neighborhoods around the structure, is used to determine the optimal threshold of the proposed denoising algorithm. We compare our method with other state-of-the-art methods and report very encouraging results on applications utilizing both synthetic and real data.

  7. Overcoming the resolution limit in retinal imaging using the scattering properties of the sclera (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentras, Dino; Laforest, Timothé; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    In-vivo imaging of the eye's fundus is widely used to study eye's health. State of the art Adaptive Optics devices can resolve features up to a lateral resolution of 1.5 um. This resolution is still above what is needed to observe sub-cellular structures such as cone cells (1-1.25 um diameter). This limit in resolution is due to the small numerical aperture of the eye when the pupil is fully dilated (max 0.24). In our work, we overcome this limit using a non-standard illumination scheme. A laser beam is shined on the lateral choroid layer, whose scattered light is illuminating the eye's fundus. Thanks to a Spatial Light Modulator the scattered light from the choroid layer can be manipulated to produce a scanning focus spot on the fundus. The intensity of the reflected light from the fundus is collected from the pupil and used for reconstructing the image.

  8. Planoconcave optical microresonator sensors for photoacoustic imaging: pushing the limits of sensitivity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    Most photoacoustic scanners use piezoelectric detectors but these have two key limitations. Firstly, they are optically opaque, inhibiting backward mode operation. Secondly, it is difficult to achieve adequate detection sensitivity with the small element sizes needed to provide near-omnidirectional response as required for tomographic imaging. Planar Fabry-Perot (FP) ultrasound sensing etalons can overcome both of these limitations and have proved extremely effective for superficial (<1cm) imaging applications. To achieve small element sizes (<100μm), the etalon is illuminated with a focused laser beam. However, this has the disadvantage that beam walk-off due to the divergence of the beam fundamentally limits the etalon finesse and thus sensitivity - in essence, the problem is one of insufficient optical confinement. To overcome this, novel planoconcave micro-resonator sensors have been fabricated using precision ink-jet printed polymer domes with curvatures matching that of the laser wavefront. By providing near-perfect beam confinement, we show that it is possible to approach the maximum theoretical limit for finesse (f) imposed by the etalon mirror reflectivities (e.g. f=400 for R=99.2% in contrast to a typical planar sensor value of f<50). This yields an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over a planar FP sensor with the same acoustic bandwidth. Furthermore by eliminating beam walk-off, viable sensors can be made with significantly greater thickness than planar FP sensors. This provides an additional sensitivity gain for deep tissue imaging applications such as breast imaging where detection bandwidths in the low MHz can be tolerated. For example, for a 250 μm thick planoconcave sensor with a -3dB bandwidth of 5MHz, the measured NEP was 4 Pa. This NEP is comparable to that provided by mm scale piezoelectric detectors used for breast imaging applications but with more uniform frequency response characteristics and an order-of-magnitude smaller element

  9. Indications, advantages and limitations of perinatal postmortem imaging in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Owen J; Taylor, Andrew M; Sebire, Neil J

    2015-04-01

    Just as there is a range of paediatric imaging techniques available during life, a similar repertoire is available as part of the foetal and perinatal postmortem examination. In this article, we review the literature regarding the diagnostic utility of postmortem radiography, US, CT and MRI in this clinical setting. There is limited direct evidence on the diagnostic utility of any of these techniques, apart from postmortem MRI, which when combined with other noninvasive investigations, has been shown to be highly sensitive and specific for many foetal postmortem diagnoses. The main disadvantages of postmortem MRI include the longer duration of imaging, the need for appropriate training in the interpretation of normal postmortem changes, and possible non-diagnostic imaging examinations in early gestation foetuses. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly available, the true utility of these techniques will evolve, and clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield can be developed.

  10. Pushing the physical limits of spectroscopic imaging for new biology and better medicine (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-02-01

    In vivo molecular spectroscopic imaging is not a simple addition of a spectrometer to a microscope. Innovations are needed to break the physical limits in sensitivity, depth, speed and resolution perspectives. I will present our most recent advances in modality development, biological application, and clinical translation. My talk will focus on the development of mid-infrared photothermal microscope for depth-resolved vibrational imaging of living cells (Science Advances, in press), the discovery of a metabolic signature in cancer stem cells by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging (Cell Stem Cell, in press), and the development of an intravascular vibrational photoacoustic catheter for label-free sensing of lipid laden plaques (Scientific Report 2016, 6:25236).

  11. Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Chen, Wei Ting; Devlin, Robert C; Oh, Jaewon; Zhu, Alexander Y; Capasso, Federico

    2016-06-03

    Subwavelength resolution imaging requires high numerical aperture (NA) lenses, which are bulky and expensive. Metasurfaces allow the miniaturization of conventional refractive optics into planar structures. We show that high-aspect-ratio titanium dioxide metasurfaces can be fabricated and designed as metalenses with NA = 0.8. Diffraction-limited focusing is demonstrated at wavelengths of 405, 532, and 660 nm with corresponding efficiencies of 86, 73, and 66%. The metalenses can resolve nanoscale features separated by subwavelength distances and provide magnification as high as 170×, with image qualities comparable to a state-of-the-art commercial objective. Our results firmly establish that metalenses can have widespread applications in laser-based microscopy, imaging, and spectroscopy.

  12. Quantum statistical imaging of particles without restriction of the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ming; Sun, Fang-Wen; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Gong, Zhao-Jun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-04-12

    A quantum measurement method based on the quantum nature of antibunching photon emission has been developed to detect single particles without the restriction of the diffraction limit. By simultaneously counting the single-photon and two-photon signals with fluorescence microscopy, the images of nearby nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond at a distance of 8.5±2.4  nm have been successfully reconstructed. Also their axes information was optically obtained. This quantum statistical imaging technique, with a simple experimental setup, can also be easily generalized in the measuring and distinguishing of other physical properties with any overlapping, which shows high potential in future image and study of coupled quantum systems for quantum information techniques.

  13. Accumulating advantages, reducing limitations: multimodal nonlinear imaging in biomedical sciences - the synergy of multiple contrast mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Schmitt, Michael; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Multimodal nonlinear microscopy has matured during the past decades to one of the key imaging modalities in life science and biomedicine due to its unique capabilities of label-free visualization of tissue structure and chemical composition, high depth penetration, intrinsic 3D sectioning, diffraction limited resolution and low phototoxicity. This review briefly summarizes first recent advances in the field regarding the methodology, e.g., contrast mechanisms and signal characteristics used for contrast generation as well as novel image processing approaches. The second part deals with technologic developments emphasizing improvements in penetration depth, imaging speed, spatial resolution and nonlinear labeling strategies. The third part focuses on recent applications in life science fundamental research and biomedical diagnostics as well as future clinical applications.

  14. Compressed ultrafast photography (CUP): redefining the limit of passive ultrafast imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang S.

    2016-03-01

    Video recording of ultrafast phenomena using a detector array based on the CCD or CMOS technologies is fundamentally limited by the sensor's on-chip storage and data transfer speed. To get around this problem, the most practical approach is to utilize a streak camera. However, the resultant image is normally one dimensional—only a line of the scene can be seen at a time. Acquiring a two-dimensional image thus requires mechanical scanning across the entire field of view. This requirement poses severe restrictions on the applicable scenes because the event itself must be repetitive. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new computational ultrafast imaging method, referred to as compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which can capture two-dimensional dynamic scenes at up to 100 billion frames per second. Based on the concept of compressed sensing, CUP works by encoding the input scene with a random binary pattern in the spatial domain, followed by shearing the resultant image in a streak camera with a fully-opened entrance slit. The image reconstruction is the solution of the inverse problem of above processes. Given sparsity in the spatiotemporal domain, the original event datacube can be reasonably estimated by employing a two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. To demonstrate CUP, we imaged light reflection, refraction, and racing in two different media (air and resin). Our technique, for the first time, enables video recording of photon propagation at a temporal resolution down to tens of picoseconds. Moreover, to further expand CUP's functionality, we added a color separation unit to the system, thereby allowing simultaneous acquisition of a four-dimensional datacube (x,y,t,λ), where λ is wavelength, within a single camera snapshot.

  15. Principles and simulations of high-resolution STM imaging with a flexible tip apex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejčí, Ondrej; Hapala, Prokop; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    We present a robust but still efficient simulation approach for high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with a flexible tip apex showing sharp submolecular features. The approach takes into account the electronic structure of the sample and tip as well as relaxation of the tip apex. We validate our model by achieving good agreement with various experimental images which allows us to explain the origin of several observed features. Namely, we have found that the high-resolution STM mechanism consists of standard STM imaging, convolving electronic states of the sample and the tip apex orbital structure, with the contrast heavily distorted by the relaxation of the flexible apex caused by interaction with the substrate.

  16. An image reconstruction algorithm for electrical capacitance tomography based on robust principle component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jing; Liu, Shi; Wang, Xueyao; Liu, Qibin

    2013-02-05

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) attempts to reconstruct the permittivity distribution of the cross-section of measurement objects from the capacitance measurement data, in which reconstruction algorithms play a crucial role in real applications. Based on the robust principal component analysis (RPCA) method, a dynamic reconstruction model that utilizes the multiple measurement vectors is presented in this paper, in which the evolution process of a dynamic object is considered as a sequence of images with different temporal sparse deviations from a common background. An objective functional that simultaneously considers the temporal constraint and the spatial constraint is proposed, where the images are reconstructed by a batching pattern. An iteration scheme that integrates the advantages of the alternating direction iteration optimization (ADIO) method and the forward-backward splitting (FBS) technique is developed for solving the proposed objective functional. Numerical simulations are implemented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Absorption Band Shapes of a Push-Pull Dye Approaching the Cyanine Limit: A Challenging Case for First Principle Calculations.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Amedeo; Borrelli, Raffaele; Landi, Alessandro; Velardo, Amalia; Peluso, Andrea

    2016-07-21

    The absorption band shapes of a solvent tunable donor-acceptor dye have been theoretically investigated by using Kubo's generating function approach, with minimum energy geometries and normal coordinates computed at the DFT level of theory. The adopted computational procedure allows us to include in the computation of Franck-Condon factors the whole set of normal modes, without any limitation on excitation quanta, allowing for an almost quantitative reproduction of the absorption band shape when the equilibrium geometries of the ground and the excited states are well predicted by electronic computations. Noteworthy, the functionals that yield more accurate band shapes also provide good prediction of the moment variations upon excitation; because the latter quantities are rarely available, theoretical simulation of band shapes could be a powerful tool for choosing the most appropriate computational method for predictive purposes.

  18. Imaging of the Field of 4C41.17 Below the Lyman Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Mark; Rawlings, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Imaging of zeta greater than or equal to 3.4 radio galaxy fields below the Lyman continuum wavelength allows companion galaxies to be identified on the basis of red colors across the wavelength of redshifted Ly(alpha) and very red colors across the redshifted Lyman continuum. These arise due to a combination of absorption by intervening Ly(alpha) forest and Lyman-limit systems, and intrinsic Lyman-limit breaks in the galaxy spectral energy distribution caused by an Hi screen or breaks in stellar spectra. As a pilot study, we have imaged the field of the zeta = 3.8 radio galaxy 4C41.17 in U, V and R with the Auxiliary Port of the WHT. We find a number of potential companion galaxies, which require confirmation via spectroscopy or narrow-band imaging. The Lyman-limit in the spectrum of the radio galaxy itself and its implications for the origin of the UV flux is also discussed.

  19. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Its Application to Traumatic Brain Injury: Basic Principles and Recent Advances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    c) image, and unfolding arti- facts (d). (e), (f), (g). Susceptibility artifacts with geometric distortion before (e), (f) and after (g) correction...either using an electrostatic repul- sion scheme [45] or through various geometric polyhe- dral schemes [59]. 2.1.2.3. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) The...inhomogeneity (∆B), causes signal loss due to a shift of the maximal signal away from the theoretical echo time, leading to geometric distortion due to suscep

  20. Simultaneous nonlinear encryption of grayscale and color images based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhao, Daomu

    2013-09-01

    A nonlinear color and grayscale images cryptosystem based on phase-truncated fractional Fourier transform and optical superposition principle is proposed. In order to realize simultaneous encryption of color and grayscale images, each grayscale image is first converted into two phase masks by using an optical coherent superposition, one of which is treated as a part of input information that will be fractional Fourier transformed while the other in the form of a chaotic random phase mask (CRPM) is used as a decryption key. For the purpose of optical performance, all the processes are performed through three channels, i.e., red, green, and blue. Different from most asymmetric encryption methods, the decryption process is designed to be linear for the sake of effective decryption. The encryption level of a double random phase encryption based on phase-truncated Fourier transform is enhanced by extending it into fractional Fourier domain and the load of the keys management and transmission is lightened by using CRPMs. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is discussed and computer simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Electromagnetic image-guided orbital decompression: technique, principles, and preliminary experience with 6 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Servat, Juan J; Elia, Maxwell Dominic; Gong, Dan; Manes, R Peter; Black, Evan H; Levin, Flora

    2014-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of routine use of electromagnetic image guidance systems in orbital decompression. Six consecutive patients underwent stereotactic-guided three wall orbital decompression using the novel Fusion ENT Navigation System (Medtronic), a portable and expandable electromagnetic guidance system with multi-instrument tracking capabilities. The system consists of the Medtronic LandmarX System software-enabled computer station, signal generator, field-generating magnet, head-mounted marker coil, and surgical tracking instruments. In preparation for use of the LandmarX/Fusion protocol, all patients underwent preoperative non-contrast CT scan from the superior aspect of the frontal sinuses to the inferior aspect of the maxillary sinuses that includes the nasal tip. The Fusion ENT Navigation System (Medtronic™) was used in 6 patients undergoing maximal 3-wall orbital decompression for Graves' orbitopthy after a minimum of six months of disease inactivity. Preoperative Hertel exophthalmometry measured more than 27 mm in all patients. The navigation system proved to be no more difficult technically than the traditional orbital decompression approach. Electromagnetic image guidance is a stereotactic surgical navigation system that provides additional intraoperative flexibility in orbital surgery. Electromagnetic image-guidance offers the ability to perform more aggressive orbital decompressions with reduced risk.

  2. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy imaging using a multi-element detector (IRMSI-MED) for diffraction-limited chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasse, Michael J.; Reininger, Ruben; Kubala, Tim; Janowski, Sebastian; Hirschmugl, Carol

    2007-11-01

    University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee is designing and installing a mid-infrared beamline, IRMSI-MED, that will extract 320(h)×25(v) mrad 2 from a bending magnet (BM) at the Synchrotron Radiation Center. The BM radiation, collected with 12 toroidal mirrors and collimated with paraboloidal mirrors, illuminates a spot of 60×40 μm 2 at the sample plane of a commercial IR microscope. The microscope is equipped with a multi-element detector (MED) that will provide the opportunity to obtain chemical images with diffraction-limited resolution of the illuminated area in under a minute.

  3. Image-based Modeling of PSF Deformation with Application to Limited Angle PET Data.

    PubMed

    Matej, Samuel; Li, Yusheng; Panetta, Joseph; Karp, Joel S; Surti, Suleman

    2016-10-01

    The point-spread-functions (PSFs) of reconstructed images can be deformed due to detector effects such as resolution blurring and parallax error, data acquisition geometry such as insufficient sampling or limited angular coverage in dual-panel PET systems, or reconstruction imperfections/simplifications. PSF deformation decreases quantitative accuracy and its spatial variation lowers consistency of lesion uptake measurement across the imaging field-of-view (FOV). This can be a significant problem with dual panel PET systems even when using TOF data and image reconstruction models of the detector and data acquisition process. To correct for the spatially variant reconstructed PSF distortions we propose to use an image-based resolution model (IRM) that includes such image PSF deformation effects. Originally the IRM was mostly used for approximating data resolution effects of standard PET systems with full angular coverage in a computationally efficient way, but recently it was also used to mitigate effects of simplified geometric projectors. Our work goes beyond this by including into the IRM reconstruction imperfections caused by combination of the limited angle, parallax errors, and any other (residual) deformation effects and testing it for challenging dual panel data with strongly asymmetric and variable PSF deformations. We applied and tested these concepts using simulated data based on our design for a dedicated breast imaging geometry (B-PET) consisting of dual-panel, time-of-flight (TOF) detectors. We compared two image-based resolution models; i) a simple spatially invariant approximation to PSF deformation, which captures only the general PSF shape through an elongated 3D Gaussian function, and ii) a spatially variant model using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to more accurately capture the asymmetric PSF shape in images reconstructed from data acquired with the B-PET scanner geometry. Results demonstrate that while both IRMs decrease the overall uptake

  4. Probing the limits of paper and parchment laser cleaning by multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautek, Wolfgang; Pentzien, Simone; Mueller-Hess, Doris; Troschke, Karin; Teule, Rianne

    2001-10-01

    Paper and parchment cleaning with lasers provides the advantage to be a contact-less and dry process. The absence of chemical agents, its spectroscopic selectivity, micro-precision, computer-aided handling, and the combination with on-line diagnostic techniques makes it attractive for restoration applications. This technique, however, is not only limited by the evaporation of such delicate protein or cellulose fibre structures (i.e. the ablation threshold) or by discolorations, which can be easily detected by the naked eye or by microscopic inspection. Even when the aesthetic appearance is not altered, invisible irreversible chemical modifications may affect the long-term aging behavior negatively. In such cases, only diagnostic tools sensitive for chemical changes can probe the limits of laser cleaning. Deviations of chemical conversion threshold fluences from the well-established ablation threshold fluence values were investigated by multi-spectral imaging techniques at parchment or paper model systems and historical originals. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared reflection, but also visible fluorescence were employed using an imaging system, which operates in a spectral range from 320 nm to 1550 nm. Visible imaging allowed an accurate documentation of the color appearance of the artwork before and after the laser treatment. In-depth information of chemical modifications could be gained by the infrared imaging mode. Surface chemical identification was performed by both diffuse-reflection imaging in the ultraviolet range between 320 and 400 nm, and by visible fluorescence imaging using a 365 nm light source. The results for excimer laser treatment at 308 nm show that not only the laser fluence but also the age of the artefact strongly affects the chemical conversion threshold. Most substrates older than at least several decades exhibited much higher chemical stability than new model systems. This is a strong indication that the aging status of both parchment and

  5. A non-contact method for imaging the posterior chest using magnetic induction principles that allows to monitor pulmonary oedema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giirsoy, D.; Scharfetter, H.

    2010-04-01

    Real time monitoring of lung function is of particular importance for the patients who are in the intensive care unit, and thus spend long durations of time in a supine position. This kind of recumbent positioning of the patients gives rise to a markedly increased fluid accumulation in the posterior lung regions associated with the gravity dependency. In order to monitor the temporal behavior of the accumulation, we proposed a non-contact semi-tomography method which uses magnetic induction principles. In the proposed method, an eddy current density is induced within the dorsal tissues including the posterior lungs via the transmitter coils which are embedded into the patient bed, and the magnetic field strength is measured similarly using an array of sensor coils in a non-contact manner. For the assessment of the method, we used a patient specific, MRI-guided realistic chest model and presented the reconstructed time-differential images.

  6. Pitfalls and Limitations in the Interpretation of Geophysical Images for Hydrologic Properties and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical imaging (e.g., electrical, radar, seismic) can provide valuable information for the characterization of hydrologic properties and monitoring of hydrologic processes, as evidenced in the rapid growth of literature on the subject. Geophysical imaging has been used for monitoring tracer migration and infiltration, mapping zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange, and verifying emplacement of amendments for bioremediation. Despite the enormous potential for extraction of hydrologic information from geophysical images, there also is potential for misinterpretation and over-interpretation. These concerns are particularly relevant when geophysical results are used within quantitative frameworks, e.g., conversion to hydrologic properties through petrophysical relations, geostatistical estimation and simulation conditioned to geophysical inversions, and joint inversion. We review pitfalls to interpretation associated with limited image resolution, spatially variable image resolution, incorrect data weighting, errors in the timing of measurements, temporal smearing resulting from changes during data acquisition, support-volume/scale effects, and incorrect assumptions or approximations involved in modeling geophysical or other jointly inverted data. A series of numerical and field-based examples illustrate these potential problems. Our goal in this talk is to raise awareness of common pitfalls and present strategies for recognizing and avoiding them.

  7. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Dutta, Gaurav; Li, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The vertical- and horizontal-resolution limits Δxlossy and Δzlossy of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Δx ∝ λz/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Δxlossy ∝ z2/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, λ is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing λ with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Δzlossy only worsens linearly in depth compared to Δz ∝ λ for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  8. Kinetic energy discrimination in collision/reaction cell ICP-MS: Theoretical review of principles and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    Kinetic energy discrimination (KED) is one of the means to control cell-formed interferences in collision/reaction cell ICP-MS, and also a technique to reduce polyatomic ion interferences derived from the plasma or vacuum interface in collision cell ICP-MS. The operation of KED is accurately described to explain how spectral interferences from polyatomic ions are reduced by this technique. The cell is operated under non-thermal conditions to implement KED, where the hard sphere collision model is aptly employed to portray the transmission of ions colliding with the cell gas that they don't chemically react with. It is theoretically explained that the analyte atomic ions surmount the energy barrier placed downstream of the cell and the interfering polyatomic ions do not due to their lower kinetic energy than the atomic ions, resulting in polyatomic interference reduction. The intrinsic limitations of this technique are shown to lie in the statistical nature of collision processes, which causes the broadening of ion kinetic energy distribution that hinders efficient KED. The reaction cell operation with KED, where plasma-derived interferences are reduced by the reactive cell gas while cell-formed interferences are suppressed by the energy barrier, is also described in a quantitative manner. This review paper provides an in-depth understanding of KED in cell-based ICP-MS for analysts to make better use of it.

  9. Detection limits of multi-spectral optical imaging under the skin surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzoni, T.; Vogel, A.; Gandjbakhche, A. H.; Marchesini, R.

    2008-02-01

    The present work shows that the optical/biological information contained in a typical spectral image mainly reflects the properties of a small (conic like) volume of tissue situated vertically under each individual pixel. The objects appearing on a spectral image reasonably reproduce the correct geometrical shape and size (like a non-deformed shadow) of underlying inclusions of pathological tissue. The information contained in a spectral image comes from a depth that does not exceed ~2-3 mm. The number of photons that visit a given tissue voxel situated at a depth larger than ~2 mm represents less than the 1% of the total number of photons reaching the corresponding detection pixel (forming the image). A pathological inclusion (e.g. a pool of blood or vascular tumor) situated at a depth of ~0.5 mm with a thickness of 0.5 mm produces an image intensity contrast of ~5% (for images taken at wavelengths in the 600-1000 nm range) when compared to the normal skin background. The same inclusion at a depth of 20 µm provides a contrast decreasing from 55 to 20% with respect to an increase in wavelength. The dermis/hypodermis interface behaves as a partial barrier for the photons, limiting their access to deeper skin regions. The image contrast depends on the depth and the type of chromophore contained in the inclusion. An increase in the concentration of a given molecule may produce different contrast, independently of the depth, depending on the characteristics of the skin layer where this change occurs.

  10. Feature Visibility Limits in the Non-Linear Enhancement of Turbid Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    The advancement of non-linear processing methods for generic automatic clarification of turbid imagery has led us from extensions of entirely passive multiscale Retinex processing to a new framework of active measurement and control of the enhancement process called the Visual Servo. In the process of testing this new non-linear computational scheme, we have identified that feature visibility limits in the post-enhancement image now simplify to a single signal-to-noise figure of merit: a feature is visible if the feature-background signal difference is greater than the RMS noise level. In other words, a signal-to-noise limit of approximately unity constitutes a lower limit on feature visibility.

  11. A redshift limit for the faint blue galaxy population from deep U band imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Guhathakurta, P.; Tyson, J.A.; Majewski, S.R. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI )

    1990-07-01

    A definitive upper limit for the redshift of the population of faint blue galaxies found in deep imaging surveys is obtained. The U-B(j), and particularly the B(j)-R, colors of these objects show a blueing trend toward fainter magnitudes. A typical galaxy at R = 26 has colors that are only slightly redder than a flat spectrum. For any reasonable Lyman limit break, this constrains 93 percent or more of the galaxies to under z about 3, beyond which the break gets redshifted through the U band. The galaxies appear to be undergoing relatively recent evolution with rest frame spectra that are approximately flat down to the Lyman limit. 23 refs.

  12. Direct Imaging and First Principles Studies of Si3N4/SiO2 Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkosz, Weronika; Klie, Robert; Ogut, Serdar; Mikijelj, Bilijana; Pennycook, Stephen; Idrobo, Juan C.

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that the composition of the integranular films (IGFs) in sintered polycrystalline silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics controls many of their physical and mechanical properties. A considerable effort has been made to characterize these films on the atomic scale using both experimental and theoretical methods. In this talk, we present results from a combined atomic-resolution Z-contrast and annular bright field imaging, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, as well as ab initio studies of the interface between β-Si3N4 (10-10) and SiO2 intergranular film. Our results show that O replaces N at the interface between the two materials in agreement with our theoretical calculations and that N is present in the SiO2 IGF. Moreover, they indicate the presence of atomic columns completing Si3N4 open rings, which have not been observed experimentally at the recently imaged Si3N4/rare-earth oxides interfaces, but have been predicted theoretically on bare Si3N4 surfaces. The structural and electronic variations at the Si3N4/SiO2 interface will be discussed in detail, focusing in particular on bonding characteristics.

  13. First results from IRENI - Rapid diffraction-limited high resolution imaging across the mid-infrared bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Nasse, Michael J.; Mattson, Eric; Hirschmugl, Carol

    2010-02-03

    First results from IRENI, a new beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, demonstrate that synchrotron chemical imaging, which combines the characteristics of bright, stable, broadband synchrotron source with a multi-element detector, produces diffraction-limited images at all wavelengths simultaneously. A single cell of Micrasterias maintained in a flow cell has been measured, and results show high quality spectra and images demonstrating diffraction limited, and therefore wavelength-dependent, spatial resolution.

  14. Fundamental limitations of high contrast imaging set by small sample statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mawet, D.; Milli, J.; Wahhaj, Z.; Pelat, D.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Boccaletti, A.; Kasper, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Marois, C.; Mennesson, B.; Pueyo, L.

    2014-09-10

    In this paper, we review the impact of small sample statistics on detection thresholds and corresponding confidence levels (CLs) in high-contrast imaging at small angles. When looking close to the star, the number of resolution elements decreases rapidly toward small angles. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom dramatically affects CLs and false alarm probabilities. Naively using the same ideal hypothesis and methods as for larger separations, which are well understood and commonly assume Gaussian noise, can yield up to one order of magnitude error in contrast estimations at fixed CL. The statistical penalty exponentially increases toward very small inner working angles. Even at 5-10 resolution elements from the star, false alarm probabilities can be significantly higher than expected. Here we present a rigorous statistical analysis that ensures robustness of the CL, but also imposes a substantial limitation on corresponding achievable detection limits (thus contrast) at small angles. This unavoidable fundamental statistical effect has a significant impact on current coronagraphic and future high-contrast imagers. Finally, the paper concludes with practical recommendations to account for small number statistics when computing the sensitivity to companions at small angles and when exploiting the results of direct imaging planet surveys.

  15. Super-aperture metrology: overcoming a fundamental limit in imaging smooth highly curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, C; Tan, J; Yang, B; Wilson, T

    2016-03-01

    The imaging of smooth, highly curved or tilted surfaces is widely recognized as one of the most challenging and unsolved problems in optical imaging and metrology today. The reason is that even when such surfaces are imaged using high aperture microscope objectives the steepness of the features causes the light to be reflected in such a way that it is not captured by the lens. This is true even in the limiting case of unity numerical aperture since the illuminating light may also be reflected in the forward direction. In order to overcome this fundamental problem we have developed a method whereby such specimens are covered with a readily removable organic fluorescent film thereby creating an isotropic scattering surface. We show that we are readily able to detect slopes with angles close 90° using a 0.75 NA objective--an 82% improvement over the theoretical aperture limit. Issues of variation in film thickness deposition are shown to be readily accommodated. This approach may be used with other fluorophore materials, organic or inorganic, since there is no need for biocompatibility in this application.

  16. Limits to parathyroid imaging with thallium-201 confirmed by tissue uptake and phantom studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gimlette, T.M.; Brownless, S.M.; Taylor, W.H.; Shields, R.; Simkin, E.P.

    1986-08-01

    Correct location by /sup 201/TI imaging of 48 parathyroids in 35 patients was related to size; 25 out of 26 parathyroids of mass greater than 1.0 g were correctly located, none of ten parathyroids less than 0.3 g was correctly located. In seven patients previously imaged, 108 microCi (4.0 MBq) of /sup 201/TI was injected when the thyroid was first exposed surgically. Subsequently weighed and histologically confirmed samples of parathyroid, thyroid, and skeletal muscle were counted against a standard in a well counter. Thallium-201 uptake, as %/g, did not differ between hyperplastic and adenomatous parathyroids. Mean parathyroid uptake was 0.018%/g, thyroid 0.01%/g, muscle 0.0026%/g of administered dose. Lower limits for correct location lay between 0.006-0.0149% of administered dose and between 0.25-0.8 g. Studies using a /sup 201/TI phantom containing small aliquots of 201TI at higher concentrations suggested approximately 0.0075% of the usual patient imaging dose as a lower limit for correct location.

  17. Fundamental Limitations of High Contrast Imaging Set by Small Sample Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Milli, J.; Wahhaj, Z.; Pelat, D.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Boccaletti, A.; Kasper, M.; Kenworthy, M.; Marois, C.; Mennesson, B.; Pueyo, L.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we review the impact of small sample statistics on detection thresholds and corresponding confidence levels (CLs) in high-contrast imaging at small angles. When looking close to the star, the number of resolution elements decreases rapidly toward small angles. This reduction of the number of degrees of freedom dramatically affects CLs and false alarm probabilities. Naively using the same ideal hypothesis and methods as for larger separations, which are well understood and commonly assume Gaussian noise, can yield up to one order of magnitude error in contrast estimations at fixed CL. The statistical penalty exponentially increases toward very small inner working angles. Even at 5-10 resolution elements from the star, false alarm probabilities can be significantly higher than expected. Here we present a rigorous statistical analysis that ensures robustness of the CL, but also imposes a substantial limitation on corresponding achievable detection limits (thus contrast) at small angles. This unavoidable fundamental statistical effect has a significant impact on current coronagraphic and future high-contrast imagers. Finally, the paper concludes with practical recommendations to account for small number statistics when computing the sensitivity to companions at small angles and when exploiting the results of direct imaging planet surveys.

  18. Imaging Microbial Biofilms in Opaque Three-dimensional Porous Media: Opportunities and Limitations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildenschild, D.; Iltis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial biofilms are observed in both natural and engineered subsurface environments and can dramatically alter the physical properties of porous media. Current understanding of biofilm formation and the associated impacts to structural and hydrodynamic properties of porous media are limited by our ability to observe changes to pore morphology non-destructively. Imaging biofilm within opaque porous media has historically presented a significant challenge. X-ray computed microtomography has traditionally been used for non-destructive imaging of a variety of processes and phenomena in porous media, yet, the conventional contrast agents used in tomography research tend to diffuse quite readily into both the aqueous phase as well as the porous media-associated biofilm, thereby preventing delineation of the two phases. A couple of new methods for imaging biofilm within opaque porous media using x-ray microtomography have been developed in recent years, and this presentation will discuss advantages and limitations to using polychromatic vs. monochromatic (synchrotron) radiation, as well as different types, and various concentrations of, contrast agents.

  19. EOS(®) biplanar X-ray imaging: concept, developments, benefits, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Elias; Assi, Ayman; El Rachkidi, Rami; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-02-01

    In 1992, Georges Charpak invented a new type of X-ray detector, which in turn led to the development of the EOS(®) 2D/3D imaging system. This system takes simultaneous anteroposterior and lateral 2D images of the whole body and can be utilized to perform 3D reconstruction based on statistical models. The purpose of this review is to present the state of the art for this EOS(®) imaging technique, to report recent developments and advances in the technique, and to stress its benefits while also noting its limitations. The review was based on a thorough literature search on the subject as well as personal experience gained from many years of using the EOS(®) system. While EOS(®) imaging could be proposed for many applications, it is most useful in relation to scoliosis and sagittal balance, due to its ability to take simultaneous orthogonal images while the patient is standing, to perform 3D reconstruction, and to determine various relationships among adjacent segments (cervical spine, pelvis, and lower limbs). The technique has also been validated for the study of pelvic and lower-limb deformity and pathology in adult and pediatric populations; in such a study it has the advantage of allowing the measurement of torsional deformity, which classically requires a CT scan. The major advantages of EOS(®) are the relatively low dose of radiation (50-80 % less than conventional X-rays) that the patient receives and the possibility of obtaining a 3D reconstruction of the bones. However, this 3D reconstruction is not created automatically; a well-trained operator is required to generate it. The EOS(®) imaging technique has proven itself to be a very useful research and diagnostic tool.

  20. Dipyridamole combined with symptom-limited exercise for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: image characteristics and clinical role.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, G A; Powe, J E; Driedger, A A; Finnie, K J; Laurin, N R; MacDonald, A C

    1990-01-01

    Although dipyridamole can be used with myocardial scintigraphy to demonstrate reversible perfusion defects, combining exercise with the pharmacologic tool could improve image quality and information yield. The incidence of perfusion defects and the quality of thallium 201 images were reviewed in a series of 820 patients who had been assigned to a specific stress-test mode. Supine bicycle exercise alone was used (group I) where no pharmacologic or physical factors (e.g., beta-blockers, arthritis) limited performance; otherwise, intravenous dipyridamole was followed by symptom-limited exercise (group II). Angiographic correlation was available in 57 patients in group I, and in 158 in group II; of these, 109 performed significant exercise (greater than or equal to 3 min at increasing workloads) following dipyridamole (group IIA), whereas in 49 (group IIB) the exercise phase following dipyridamole was truncated. All test-mode groups were similar with respect to the incidence of ST segment depression during testing, patient throughput, and the sensitivity of perfusion defects. Chest pain and reversible defects were induced more frequently in group II than in group I. In group IIA, splanchnic background activity was lower (P less than 0.001) than in group IIB, and the false-positive rate tended to be lower. Thus, combining exercise with dipyridamole in patients with non-cardiac limitations to exercise enabled the achievement of optimal results for perfusion scintigraphy.

  1. A new regularization technique for limited-view sound-speed imaging.

    PubMed

    Huthwaite, Peter; Zwiebel, Alicia A; Simonetti, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Reconstructing sound-speed maps from the limited view offered by a linear array of ultrasonic sensors has been a long-standing challenge in medical diagnostics and nondestructive evaluation. Because of the limited range of angles that can be used to interrogate the volume beneath the array, the inverse problem of retrieving sound-speed maps from scattering measurements is highly ill-posed. The missing angles cause significant artifacts that degrade the image by altering the values of sound speed and producing ghost features. This paper introduces the virtual image space component iterative technique (VISCIT), which addresses the limited-view problem by introducing a new regularization technique which iteratively compensates for the missing components by applying an adaptive threshold to the reconstruction. The effectiveness of the method in yielding high-accuracy sound-speed maps is demonstrated using a complex numerical phantom and validated experimentally with an agar phantom. It is shown that sound-speed contrast as low as 1.3% is readily detectable, thus paving the way for more sensitive and selective detection of damage precursors and early stage diseases.

  2. High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Imaging: A Case Series Illustrating Potential and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Puzyeyeva, Olena; Lam, Wai Ching; Flanagan, John G.; Brent, Michael H.; Devenyi, Robert G.; Mandelcorn, Mark S.; Wong, Tien; Hudson, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To present a series of retinal disease cases that were imaged by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in order to illustrate the potential and limitations of this new imaging modality. Methods. The series comprised four selected cases (one case each) of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Patients were imaged using the Heidelberg Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany) in SD-OCT mode. Patients also underwent digital fundus photography and clinical assessment. Results. SD-OCT imaging of a case of age-related macular degeneration revealed a subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane with detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neurosensory retina. Using SD-OCT, the cases of DR and BRVO both exhibited macular edema with cystoid spaces visible in the outer retina. Conclusions. The ability of SD-OCT to clearly and objectively elucidate subtle morphological changes within the retinal layers provides information that can be used to formulate diagnoses with greater confidence. PMID:21969910

  3. Stability limits and defect dynamics in Ag nanoparticles probed by Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Lopes, P. P.; Cha, W.; ...

    2017-02-10

    Dissolution is critical to nanomaterial stability, especially for partially dealloyed nanoparticle catalysts. Unfortunately, highly active catalysts are often not stable in their reactive environments, preventing widespread application. Thus, focusing on the structure–stability relationship at the nanoscale is crucial and will likely play an important role in meeting grand challenges. Recent advances in imaging capability have come from electron, X-ray, and other techniques but tend to be limited to specific sample environments and/or two-dimensional images. Here, we report investigations into the defect-stability relationship of silver nanoparticles to voltage-induced electrochemical dissolution imaged in situ in three dimensional detail by Bragg coherent diffractivemore » imaging. We first determine the average dissolution kinetics by stationary probe rotating disk electrode in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which allows in situ measurement of Ag+ ion formation. We then observe the dissolution and redeposition processes in single nanocrystals, providing unique insight about the role of surface strain, defects, and their coupling to the dissolution chemistry. Finally, the methods developed and the knowledge gained go well beyond a “simple” silver electrochemistry and are applicable to all electrocatalytic reactions where functional links between activity and stability are controlled by structure and defect dynamics.« less

  4. Near-field limitations of Fresnel-regime coherent diffraction imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Pound, Benjamin A.; Barber, John L.; Nguyen, Kimberly; ...

    2017-08-04

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a rapidly developing form of imaging that offers the potential of wavelength-limited resolution without image-forming lenses. In CDI, the intensity of the diffraction pattern is measured directly by the detector, and various iterative phase retrieval algorithms are used to “invert” the diffraction pattern and reconstruct a high-resolution image of the sample. But, there are certain requirements in CDI that must be met to reconstruct the object. Although most experiments are conducted in the “far-field”—or Fraunhofer—regime where the requirements are not as stringent, some experiments must be conducted in the “near field” where Fresnel diffraction mustmore » be considered. According to the derivation of Fresnel diffraction, successful reconstructions can only be obtained when the small-angle number, a derived quantity, is much less than one. We show, however, that it is not actually necessary to fulfill the small-angle condition. The Fresnel kernel well approximates the exact kernel in regions where the phase oscillates slowly, and in regions of fast oscillations, indicated by large A n , the error between kernels should be negligible due to stationary-phase arguments. Finally we verify, by experiment, this conclusion with a helium neon laser setup and show that it should hold at x-ray wavelengths as well.« less

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular impairment in obese patients: Limitations and troubleshooting of available imaging tools.

    PubMed

    Gaudieri, V; Nappi, C; Acampa, W; Assante, R; Zampella, E; Magliulo, M; Petretta, M; Cuocolo, A

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased over recent decades, reaching worldwide epidemics. Obesity is associated to coronary artery disease and other risk factors, including hypertension, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, which are all increased in the setting of obesity. Several noninvasive cardiac imaging modalities, such as echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, magnetic resonance and cardiac gated single-photon emission computed tomography, are available in assessing coronary artery disease and myocardial dysfunction. Yet, in patients with excess adiposity the diagnostic accuracy of these techniques may be limited due to some issues. In this review, we analyze challenges and possibilities to find the optimal cardiac imaging approach to obese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Limitations of indium leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of spine infections

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, J.L.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr. )

    1991-02-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy in the detection of spine sepsis was studied in 22 patients who had open or percutaneous biopsies for microbiologic diagnosis. The indium images in 18 patients with vertebral infection were falsely negative in 15 (83%) and truly positive in 3 (17%). All four patients with negative cultures and histology had true-negative scans. The indium-111 WBC imaging results yielded a sensitivity of 17%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy rate of 31%. Prior antibiotic therapy was correlated with a high incidence of false-negative scans and photon-deficient indium-111 WBC uptake. The usefulness of indium-111 WBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of vertebral infection may be limited to those patients who have not been treated with antibiotics previously.

  7. Noninvasive Imaging of 3D Dynamics in Thickly Fluorescent Specimens Beyond the Diffraction Limit

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liang; Shao, Lin; Higgins, Christopher D.; Poulton, John S.; Peifer, Mark; Davidson, Michael W.; Wu, Xufeng; Goldstein, Bob; Betzig, Eric

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Optical imaging of the dynamics of living specimens involves tradeoffs between spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and phototoxicity, made more difficult in three-dimensions. Here, however, we report that rapid 3D dynamics can be studied beyond the diffraction limit in thick or densely fluorescent living specimens over many time points by combining ultra-thin planar illumination produced by scanned Bessel beams with superresolution structured illumination microscopy. We demonstrate in vivo karyotyping of chromosomes during mitosis and identify different dynamics for the actin cytoskeleton at the dorsal and ventral surfaces of fibroblasts. Compared to spinning disk confocal microscopy, we demonstrate substantially reduced photodamage when imaging rapid morphological changes in D. discoideum cells, as well as improved contrast and resolution at depth within developing C. elegans embryos. Bessel beam structured plane illumination thus promises new insights into complex biological phenomena that require 4D subcellular spatiotemporal detail in either a single or multicellular context. PMID:23217717

  8. Quantitative nanoscopy: Tackling sampling limitations in (S)TEM imaging of polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Snel, Roderick; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Sampling limitations in electron microscopy questions whether the analysis of a bulk material is representative, especially while analyzing hierarchical morphologies that extend over multiple length scales. We tackled this problem by automatically acquiring a large series of partially overlapping (S)TEM images with sufficient resolution, subsequently stitched together to generate a large-area map using an in-house developed acquisition toolbox (TU/e Acquisition ToolBox) and stitching module (TU/e Stitcher). In addition, we show that quantitative image analysis of the large scale maps provides representative information that can be related to the synthesis and process conditions of hierarchical materials, which moves electron microscopy analysis towards becoming a bulk characterization tool. We demonstrate the power of such an analysis by examining two different multi-phase materials that are structured over multiple length scales.

  9. Interferometric backward third harmonic generation microscopy for axial imaging with accuracy beyond the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Sandkuijl, Daaf; Kontenis, Lukas; Coelho, Nuno M; McCulloch, Christopher; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-01-01

    A new nonlinear microscopy technique based on interference of backward-reflected third harmonic generation (I-THG) from multiple interfaces is presented. The technique is used to measure height variations or changes of a layer thickness with an accuracy of up to 5 nm. Height variations of a patterned glass surface and thickness variations of fibroblasts are visualized with the interferometric epi-THG microscope with an accuracy at least two orders of magnitude better than diffraction limit. The microscopy technique can be broadly applied for measuring distance variations between membranes or multilayer structures inside biological tissue and for surface height variation imaging.

  10. Identification of lifetime limiting defects by temperature- and injection-dependent photoluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Jonas; Youssef, Amanda; Park, Sungeun; Mundt, Laura E.; Niewelt, Tim; Mack, Sebastian; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Murai, Ryota; Jensen, Mallory A.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Schubert, Martin C.

    2016-09-01

    Identification of the lifetime limiting defects in silicon plays a key role in systematically optimizing the efficiency potential of material for solar cells. We present a technique based on temperature and injection dependent photoluminescence imaging to determine the energy levels and capture cross section ratios of Shockley-Read-Hall defects. This allows us to identify homogeneously and inhomogeneously distributed defects limiting the charge carrier lifetime in any silicon wafer. The technique is demonstrated on an n-type wafer grown with the non-contact crucible (NOC) method and an industrial Czochralski (Cz) wafer prone to defect formation during high temperature processing. We find that the energy levels for the circular distributed defects in the Cz wafer are in good agreement with literature data for homogeneously grown oxide precipitates. In contrast, the circular distributed defects found in NOC Si have significantly deeper trap levels, despite their similar appearance.

  11. Effects of image noise, respiratory motion, and motion compensation on 3D activity quantification in count-limited PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, W.; Mawlawi, O. R.; Mikell, J. K.; Mourtada, F.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of noise, motion blur, and motion compensation using quiescent-period gating (QPG) on the activity concentration (AC) distribution—quantified using the cumulative AC volume histogram (ACVH)—in count-limited studies such as 90Y-PET/CT. An International Electrotechnical Commission phantom filled with low 18F activity was used to simulate clinical 90Y-PET images. PET data were acquired using a GE-D690 when the phantom was static and subject to 1-4 cm periodic 1D motion. The static data were down-sampled into shorter durations to determine the effect of noise on ACVH. Motion-degraded PET data were sorted into multiple gates to assess the effect of motion and QPG on ACVH. Errors in ACVH at AC90 (minimum AC that covers 90% of the volume of interest (VOI)), AC80, and ACmean (average AC in the VOI) were characterized as a function of noise and amplitude before and after QPG. Scan-time reduction increased the apparent non-uniformity of sphere doses and the dispersion of ACVH. These effects were more pronounced in smaller spheres. Noise-related errors in ACVH at AC20 to AC70 were smaller (<15%) compared to the errors between AC80 to AC90 (>15%). The accuracy of ACmean was largely independent of the total count. Motion decreased the observed AC and skewed the ACVH toward lower values; the severity of this effect depended on motion amplitude and tumor diameter. The errors in AC20 to AC80 for the 17 mm sphere were  -25% and  -55% for motion amplitudes of 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. With QPG, the errors in AC20 to AC80 of the 17 mm sphere were reduced to  -15% for motion amplitudes  <4 cm. For spheres with motion amplitude to diameter ratio  >0.5, QPG was effective at reducing errors in ACVH despite increases in image non-uniformity due to increased noise. ACVH is believed to be more relevant than mean or maximum AC to calculate tumor control and normal tissue complication probability

  12. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists.

  13. Limits on the neutrino velocity, Lorentz invariance, and the weak equivalence principle with TeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Gao, He; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Five TeV neutrino events weakly correlated with five gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were detected recently by IceCube. This work is an attempt to show that if the GRB identifications are verified, the observed time delays between the TeV neutrinos and gamma-ray photons from GRBs provide attractive candidates for testing fundamental physics with high accuracy. Based on the assumed associations between the TeV neutrinos and GRBs, we find that the limiting velocity of the neutrinos is equal to that of photons to an accuracy of ~ 1.9 × 10-15 - 2.5 × 10-18, which is about 104 - 107 times better than the constraint obtained with the neutrino possibly from a blazar flare. In addition, we set the most stringent limits up to date on the energy scale of quantum gravity for both the linear and quadratic violations of Lorentz invariance, namely EQG, 1 > 6.3 × 1018 - 1.5 × 1021 GeV and EQG, 2 > 2.0 × 1011 - 4.2 × 1012 GeV, which are essentially as good as or are an improvement of one order of magnitude over the results previously obtained by the GeV photons of GRB 090510 and the PeV neutrino from a blazar flare. Assuming that the Shapiro time delay is caused by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, we also place the tightest limits to date on Einstein's weak equivalence principle through the relative differential variations of the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ values for two different species of particles (i.e., neutrinos and photons), yielding Δγ ~ 10-11 - 10-13. However, it should be emphasized again that these limits here obtained are at best forecast of what could be achieved if the GRB/neutrino correlations would be finally confirmed.

  14. Limiting Magnitude, τ, teff, and Image Quality in DES Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    H. Neilsen, Jr.; Bernstein, Gary; Gruendl, Robert; Kent, Stephen

    2016-03-03

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an astronomical imaging survey being completed with the DECam imager on the Blanco telescope at CTIO. After each night of observing, the DES data management (DM) group performs an initial processing of that night's data, and uses the results to determine which exposures are of acceptable quality, and which need to be repeated. The primary measure by which we declare an image of acceptable quality is $\\tau$, a scaling of the exposure time. This is the scale factor that needs to be applied to the open shutter time to reach the same photometric signal to noise ratio for faint point sources under a set of canonical good conditions. These conditions are defined to be seeing resulting in a PSF full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.9" and a pre-defined sky brightness which approximates the zenith sky brightness under fully dark conditions. Point source limiting magnitude and signal to noise should therefore vary with t in the same way they vary with exposure time. Measurements of point sources and $\\tau$ in the first year of DES data confirm that they do. In the context of DES, the symbol $t_{eff}$ and the expression "effective exposure time" usually refer to the scaling factor, $\\tau$, rather than the actual effective exposure time; the "effective exposure time" in this case refers to the effective duration of one second, rather than the effective duration of an exposure.

  15. Behavior of imperfect band-limited coronagraphic masks in a high-contrast imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sidick, Erkin; Wilson, Daniel W

    2007-03-20

    We investigate the behavior of imperfect band-limited occulting masks in a high-contrast imaging system through modeling and simulations. Grayscale masks having 1D Sinc(2) (linear-Sinc(2)) amplitude transmission coefficient (Sinc(4) intensity transmittance) profiles as well as optical density and wavelength-dependent parasitic phases are considered occulters. We compare the behaviors of several, slightly different occulter transmittance profiles by evaluating the contrast performance of the high-contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). These occulters include a measured occulter, a standard Sinc(2) occulter, and several of its variations. We show that when an occulting mask has a parasitic phase, a modified Sinc(2) transmittance profile works much better than the standard Sinc(2) mask. We examine the impact of some fabrication errors of the occulter on the HCIT's contrast performance. We find through modeling and simulations that starlight suppression by a factor of more than 10(10) is achievable at least monochromatically on the HCIT with the occulting mask and the optics currently being used on the testbed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that we investigate the behavior of a real (or fabricated) focal plane occulting mask in a high-contrast imaging system. We also briefly describe the approach used at JPL in fabricating a grayscale occulting mask and characterizing its transmittance and phase profiles.

  16. Problems and Limitations of Satellite Image Orientation for Determination of Height Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2017-05-01

    The usual satellite image orientation is based on bias corrected rational polynomial coefficients (RPC). The RPC are describing the direct sensor orientation of the satellite images. The locations of the projection centres today are without problems, but an accuracy limit is caused by the attitudes. Very high resolution satellites today are very agile, able to change the pointed area over 200km within 10 to 11 seconds. The corresponding fast attitude acceleration of the satellite may cause a jitter which cannot be expressed by the third order RPC, even if it is recorded by the gyros. Only a correction of the image geometry may help, but usually this will not be done. The first indication of jitter problems is shown by systematic errors of the y-parallaxes (py) for the intersection of corresponding points during the computation of ground coordinates. These y-parallaxes have a limited influence to the ground coordinates, but similar problems can be expected for the x-parallaxes, determining directly the object height. Systematic y-parallaxes are shown for Ziyuan-3 (ZY3), WorldView-2 (WV2), Pleiades, Cartosat-1, IKONOS and GeoEye. Some of them have clear jitter effects. In addition linear trends of py can be seen. Linear trends in py and tilts in of computed height models may be caused by limited accuracy of the attitude registration, but also by bias correction with affinity transformation. The bias correction is based on ground control points (GCPs). The accuracy of the GCPs usually does not cause some limitations but the identification of the GCPs in the images may be difficult. With 2-dimensional bias corrected RPC-orientation by affinity transformation tilts of the generated height models may be caused, but due to large affine image deformations some satellites, as Cartosat-1, have to be handled with bias correction by affinity transformation. Instead of a 2-dimensional RPC-orientation also a 3-dimensional orientation is possible, respecting the object height

  17. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Dunn, J. P.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (˜1-4.5 MW/m2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO's can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  18. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A. Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  19. First-principles analysis of the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency of photovoltaic absorber layers for CuAu-like chalcogenides and silicon.

    PubMed

    Bercx, Marnik; Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-07-27

    Chalcopyrite semiconductors are of considerable interest for application as absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaic cells. When growing films of these compounds, however, they are often found to contain CuAu-like domains, a metastable phase of chalcopyrite. It has been reported that for CuInS2, the presence of the CuAu-like phase improves the short circuit current of the chalcopyrite-based photovoltaic cell. We investigate the thermodynamic stability of both phases for a selected list of I-III-VI2 materials using a first-principles density functional theory approach. For the CuIn-VI2 compounds, the difference in formation energy between the chalcopyrite and CuAu-like phase is found to be close to 2 meV per atom, indicating a high likelihood of the presence of CuAu-like domains. Next, we calculate the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency (SLME) of the CuAu-like phase and compare the results with those of the corresponding chalcopyrite phase. We identify several candidates with a high efficiency, such as CuAu-like CuInS2, for which we obtain an SLME of 29% at a thickness of 500 nm. We observe that the SLME can have values above the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit, and show that this can occur because the SQ limit assumes the absorptivity to be a step function, thus overestimating the radiative recombination in the detailed balance approach. This means that it is possible to find higher theoretical efficiencies within this framework simply by calculating the J-V characteristic with an absorption spectrum. Finally, we expand our SLME analysis to indirect band gap absorbers by studying silicon, and find that the SLME quickly overestimates the reverse saturation current of indirect band gap materials, drastically lowering their calculated efficiency.

  20. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling & paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche. PMID:26134619

  1. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  2. Geomorphic classification of Icelandic and Martian volcanoes: Limitations of comparative planetology research from LANDSAT and Viking orbiter images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Some limitations in using orbital images of planetary surfaces for comparative landform analyses are discussed. The principal orbital images used were LANDSAT MSS images of Earth and nominal Viking Orbiter images of Mars. Both are roughly comparable in having a pixel size which corresponds to about 100 m on the planetary surface. A volcanic landform on either planet must have a horizontal dimension of at least 200 m to be discernible on orbital images. A twofold bias is directly introduced into any comparative analysis of volcanic landforms on Mars versus those in Iceland because of this scale limitation. First, the 200-m cutoff of landforms may delete more types of volcanic landforms on Earth than on Mars or vice versa. Second, volcanic landforms in Iceland, too small to be resolved or orbital images, may be represented by larger counterparts on Mars or vice versa.

  3. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trades offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin Arthur; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper we discussed a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach, named Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) relies on two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum. In particular we showed that broadband high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies for a variety of telescope pupil geometries. In this paper we first focus on the fundamental limits and practical trade-offs associated with ACAD. In a first part we will study the fundamental limits and practical tradeoffs associated with ACAD, regardless of the downstream coronagraphic architecture. The mathematical techniques to finding ACAD DM shapes require to solve a complex differential equation. We will first discuss the scaling laws underlying this non-linear solution and their impact of DM placement and geometry wishing the optical design of an instrument. We will then consider the sensitivity to low order aberrations: in principle an ACAD solution that comprises large strokes will be more sensitive to these aberrations than one with smaller strokes. As a consequence, we will quantify this sensitive both using analytical models and numerical simulations. We will present diffractive end to end simulations and quantify the ultimate contrast and bandwidth achievable with ACAD, which can be reached by superposing using a classical linear wavefront control algorithms on top of the Monge Ampere solution. Finally, recent work has shown that coronagraph designs can also accommodate for secondary support structures and/or segments gaps, at a

  4. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (< 0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  5. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2008-07-15

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The ''x-ray interaction'' modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (<0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  6. Mass spectrometry imaging for clinical research - latest developments, applications, and current limitations.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, Pierre-Maxence; Heeren, Ron M A; Porta, Tiffany; Balluff, Benjamin

    2017-07-24

    Mass spectrometry is being used in many clinical research areas ranging from toxicology to personalized medicine. Of all the mass spectrometry techniques, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), in particular, has continuously grown towards clinical acceptance. Significant technological and methodological improvements have contributed to enhance the performance of MSI recently, pushing the limits of throughput, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. This has stimulated the spread of MSI usage across various biomedical research areas such as oncology, neurological disorders, cardiology, and rheumatology, just to name a few. After highlighting the latest major developments and applications touching all aspects of translational research (i.e. from early pre-clinical to clinical research), we will discuss the present challenges in translational research performed with MSI: data management and analysis, molecular coverage and identification capabilities, and finally, reproducibility across multiple research centers, which is the largest remaining obstacle in moving MSI towards clinical routine.

  7. Optical Imaging of Nonuniform Ferroelectricity and Strain at the Diffraction Limit

    PubMed Central

    Vlasin, Ondrej; Casals, Blai; Dix, Nico; Gutiérrez, Diego; Sánchez, Florencio; Herranz, Gervasi

    2015-01-01

    We have imaged optically the spatial distributions of ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity at the diffraction limit. Contributions to the birefringence from electro-optics –linked to ferroelectricity– as well as strain –arising from converse piezoelectric effects– have been recorded simultaneously in a BaTiO3 thin film. The concurrent recording of electro-optic and piezo-optic mappings revealed that, far from the ideal uniformity, the ferroelectric and piezoelectric responses were strikingly inhomogeneous, exhibiting significant fluctuations over the scale of the micrometer. The optical methods here described are appropriate to study the variations of these properties simultaneously, which are of great relevance when ferroelectrics are downscaled to small sizes for applications in data storage and processing. PMID:26522345

  8. Image recovery techniques for x-ray computed tomography in limited data environments

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M B; Goodman, D M; Jackson, J A; Johansson, E M

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing requirement throughout LLNL for nondestructive evaluation using X-ray computed tomography (CT). In many cases, restrictions on data acquisition time, imaging geometry, and budgets make it unfeasible to acquire projection data over enough views to achieve desired spatial resolution using conventional CT methods. In particular, conventional CT methods are non-iterative algorithms that have the advantage of low computational effort, but they are not sufficiently adaptable to incorporate prior information or non-Gaussian statistics. Most currently existing iterative tomography algorithms are based on methods that are time consuming because they converge very flowingly, if at all. The goal of the work was to develop a set of limited data CT reconstruction tools and then demonstrate their usefulness by applying them to a variety of problems of interest to LLNL. In this project they continued their development of reconstruction tools and they have demonstrated their effectiveness on several important problems.

  9. The positive impact of simultaneous implementation of the BD FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles on the operation of gynecologic cytology.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebecca; Levi, Angelique W; Harigopal, Malini; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C

    2012-02-01

    Our cytology laboratory, like many others, is under pressure to improve quality and provide test results faster while decreasing costs. We sought to address these issues by introducing new technology and lean principles. To determine the combined impact of the FocalPoint Guided Screener (GS) Imaging System (BD Diagnostics-TriPath, Burlington, North Carolina) and lean manufacturing principles on the turnaround time (TAT) and productivity of the gynecologic cytology operation. We established a baseline measure of the TAT for Papanicolaou tests. We then compared that to the performance after implementing the FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles. The latter included value-stream mapping, workflow modification, and a first in-first out policy. The mean (SD) TAT for Papanicolaou tests before and after the implementation of FocalPoint GS Imaging System and lean principles was 4.38 (1.28) days and 3.20 (1.32) days, respectively. This represented a 27% improvement in the average TAT, which was statistically significant (P < .001). In addition, the productivity of staff improved 17%, as evidenced by the increase in slides screened from 8.85/h to 10.38/h. The false-negative fraction decreased from 1.4% to 0.9%, representing a 36% improvement. In our laboratory, the implementation of FocalPoint GS Imaging System in conjunction with lean principles resulted in a significant decrease in the average TAT for Papanicolaou tests and a substantial increase in the productivity of cytotechnologists while maintaining the diagnostic quality of gynecologic cytology.

  10. Probe-Specific Procedure to Estimate Sensitivity and Detection Limits for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alexander J.; Granwehr, Josef; Lesbats, Clémentine; Krupa, James L.; Six, Joseph S.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Thomas, Neil R.; Auer, Dorothee P.; Meersmann, Thomas; Faas, Henryk M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration. An experimental “calibration factor” to account for variations in coil configuration and hardware set-up is specified. Once it has been determined in a calibration experiment, the sensitivity of an experiment or, alternatively, the minimum number of required spins or the minimum marker concentration can be estimated without the need for a pilot experiment. The definition of this calibration factor is derived based on standard equations for the sensitivity in magnetic resonance, yet the method is not restricted by the limited validity of these equations, since additional instrument-dependent factors are implicitly included during calibration. The method is demonstrated using MR spectroscopy and imaging experiments with different 19F samples, both paramagnetically and susceptibility broadened, to approximate a range of realistic environments. PMID:27727294

  11. Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.R.

    1997-11-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.

  12. High-speed 3D digital image correlation vibration measurement: Recent advancements and noted limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beberniss, Timothy J.; Ehrhardt, David A.

    2017-03-01

    A review of the extensive studies on the feasibility and practicality of utilizing high-speed 3 dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for various random vibration measurement applications is presented. Demonstrated capabilities include finite element model updating utilizing full-field 3D-DIC static displacements, modal survey natural frequencies, damping, and mode shape results from 3D-DIC are baselined against laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), a comparison between foil strain gage and 3D-DIC strain, and finally the unique application to a high-speed wind tunnel fluid-structure interaction study. Results show good agreement between 3D-DIC and more traditional vibration measurement techniques. Unfortunately, 3D-DIC vibration measurement is not without its limitations, which are also identified and explored in this study. The out-of-plane sensitivity required for vibration measurement for 3D-DIC is orders of magnitude less than LDV making higher frequency displacements difficult to sense. Furthermore, the digital cameras used to capture the DIC images have no filter to eliminate temporal aliasing of the digitized signal. Ultimately DIC is demonstrated as a valid alternative means to measure structural vibrations while one unique application achieves success where more traditional methods would fail.

  13. Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Heung-Rae

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.

  14. Redefining the lower statistical limit in x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, M.; Birnbacher, L.; Willner, M.; Chabior, M.; Fehringer, A.; Herzen, J.; Noël, P. B.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-03-01

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCCT) is currently investigated and developed as a potentially very interesting extension of conventional CT, because it promises to provide high soft-tissue contrast for weakly absorbing samples. For data acquisition several images at different grating positions are combined to obtain a phase-contrast projection. For short exposure times, which are necessary for lower radiation dose, the photon counts in a single stepping position are very low. In this case, the currently used phase-retrieval does not provide reliable results for some pixels. This uncertainty results in statistical phase wrapping, which leads to a higher standard deviation in the phase-contrast projections than theoretically expected. For even lower statistics, the phase retrieval breaks down completely and the phase information is lost. New measurement procedures rely on a linear approximation of the sinusoidal phase stepping curve around the zero crossings. In this case only two images are acquired to obtain the phase-contrast projection. The approximation is only valid for small phase values. However, typically nearly all pixels are within this regime due to the differential nature of the signal. We examine the statistical properties of a linear approximation method and illustrate by simulation and experiment that the lower statistical limit can be redefined using this method. That means that the phase signal can be retrieved even with very low photon counts and statistical phase wrapping can be avoided. This is an important step towards enhanced image quality in PCCT with very low photon counts.

  15. Potential and limitations of high resolution multitemporal sar images in river morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitidieri, Francesco; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Amitrano, Donato; Ruello, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In this study we test the capability of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to enrich the monitoring of river geomorphological processes. A case study on the Italian River Orco is presented; a set of 100 COSMO-SkyMed stripmap images (from October 2008 to December 2016) from Italian Space Agency was employed. All the data, acquired with medium look angle (almost 30°) and HH polarization for increasing the land-water contrast, were processed in order to calibrate, register and reduce the speckle effect. Moreover, the optimal weighting multi-temporal De Grandi filter was adopted to allow an effective extraction of the water surfaces contour. This method was applied to extract water contours over the entire historical series of SAR datasets available. Thanks to the generated information we were able to monitor the lateral dynamic of the water channels and infer on the relations between low or peak flow and river morphology. Multi-temporal SAR images were compared to orthophotos and in situ measurements (performed at the same time of a SAR acquisition) in terms of river features extraction (e.g. active channel, vegetated islands) and measurements of morphometric parameters (e.g. reach length, channel width, curvature and sinuosity). Results of this comparison highlighted the potential offered by the use of SAR technology, with some limitations. In particular, good performances were reached by the extraction of the active channel and vegetated island compared to the ones obtained using the orthophotos. On the other hand, some issues were encountered in extracting water surfaces where riffles exhibit surface waves having heights greater than the wavelength of the electromagnetic signal of SAR, which causes a low land-water contrast. Hence, given the high spatial (3 m) and temporal resolution (15 days) of SAR images and the all-weather all-time acquisition conditions, a significant enhancement in the river management capabilities is possible, in particular

  16. Patient specific respiratory motion modeling using a limited number of 3D lung CT images.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xueli; Gao, Xin; Xia, Wei; Liu, Yangchuan; Liang, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    To build a patient specific respiratory motion model with a low dose, a novel method was proposed that uses a limited number of 3D lung CT volumes with an external respiratory signal. 4D lung CT volumes were acquired for patients with in vitro labeling on the upper abdominal surface. Meanwhile, 3D coordinates of in vitro labeling were measured as external respiratory signals. A sequential correspondence between the 4D lung CT and the external respiratory signal was built using the distance correlation method, and a 3D displacement for every registration control point in the CT volumes with respect to time can be obtained by the 4D lung CT deformable registration. A temporal fitting was performed for every registration control point displacements and an external respiratory signal in the anterior-posterior direction respectively to draw their fitting curves. Finally, a linear regression was used to fit the corresponding samples of the control point displacement fitting curves and the external respiratory signal fitting curve to finish the pulmonary respiration modeling. Compared to a B-spline-based method using the respiratory signal phase, the proposed method is highly advantageous as it offers comparable modeling accuracy and target modeling error (TME); while at the same time, the proposed method requires 70% less 3D lung CTs. When using a similar amount of 3D lung CT data, the mean of the proposed method's TME is smaller than the mean of the PCA (principle component analysis)-based methods' TMEs. The results indicate that the proposed method is successful in striking a balance between modeling accuracy and number of 3D lung CT volumes.

  17. Insights into the Performance Limits of the Li7P3S11 Superionic Conductor: A Combined First-Principles and Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Nguyen, Han; Hy, Sunny; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Wang, Zhenbin; Xu, Zihan; Deng, Zhi; Meng, Ying Shirley; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-01

    The Li7P3S11 glass-ceramic is a promising superionic conductor electrolyte (SCE) with an extremely high Li(+) conductivity that exceeds that of even traditional organic electrolytes. In this work, we present a combined computational and experimental investigation of the material performance limitations in terms of its phase and electrochemical stability, and Li(+) conductivity. We find that Li7P3S11 is metastable at 0 K but becomes stable at above 630 K (∼360 °C) when vibrational entropy contributions are accounted for, in agreement with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Both scanning electron microscopy and the calculated Wulff shape show that Li7P3S11 tends to form relatively isotropic crystals. In terms of electrochemical stability, first-principles calculations predict that, unlike the LiCoO2 cathode, the olivine LiFePO4 and spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes are likely to form stable passivation interfaces with the Li7P3S11 SCE. This finding underscores the importance of considering multicomponent integration in developing an all-solid-state architecture. To probe the fundamental limit of its bulk Li(+) conductivity, a comparison of conventional cold-press sintered versus spark-plasma sintering (SPS) Li7P3S11 was done in conjunction with ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Though the measured diffusion activation barriers are in excellent agreement, the AIMD-predicted room-temperature Li(+) conductivity of 57 mS cm(-1) is much higher than the experimental values. The optimized SPS sample exhibits a room-temperature Li(+) conductivity of 11.6 mS cm(-1), significantly higher than that of the cold-pressed sample (1.3 mS cm(-1)) due to the reduction of grain boundary resistance by densification. We conclude that grain boundary conductivity is limiting the overall Li(+) conductivity in Li7P3S11, and further optimization of overall conductivities should be possible. Finally, we show that Li(+) motions in this material are highly collective, and

  18. Fundamental limits of image registration performance: Effects of image noise and resolution in CT-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Ketcha, M D; de Silva, T; Han, R; Uneri, A; Goerres, J; Jacobson, M; Vogt, S; Kleinszig, G; Siewerdsen, J H

    2017-02-11

    In image-guided procedures, image acquisition is often performed primarily for the task of geometrically registering information from another image dataset, rather than detection / visualization of a particular feature. While the ability to detect a particular feature in an image has been studied extensively with respect to image quality characteristics (noise, resolution) and is an ongoing, active area of research, comparatively little has been accomplished to relate such image quality characteristics to registration performance. To establish such a framework, we derived Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB) for registration accuracy, revealing the underlying dependencies on image variance and gradient strength. The CRLB was analyzed as a function of image quality factors (in particular, dose) for various similarity metrics and compared to registration accuracy using CT images of an anthropomorphic head phantom at various simulated dose levels. Performance was evaluated in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) of the registration parameters. Analysis of the CRLB shows two primary dependencies: 1) noise variance (related to dose); and 2) sum of squared image gradients (related to spatial resolution and image content). Comparison of the measured RMSE to the CRLB showed that the best registration method, RMSE achieved the CRLB to within an efficiency factor of 0.21, and optimal estimators followed the predicted inverse proportionality between registration performance and radiation dose. Analysis of the CRLB for image registration is an important step toward understanding and evaluating an intraoperative imaging system with respect to a registration task. While the CRLB is optimistic in absolute performance, it reveals a basis for relating the performance of registration estimators as a function of noise content and may be used to guide acquisition parameter selection (e.g., dose) for purposes of intraoperative registration.

  19. Fundamental limits of image registration performance: effects of image noise and resolution in CT-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcha, M. D.; de Silva, T.; Han, R.; Uneri, A.; Goerres, J.; Jacobson, M.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: In image-guided procedures, image acquisition is often performed primarily for the task of geometrically registering information from another image dataset, rather than detection / visualization of a particular feature. While the ability to detect a particular feature in an image has been studied extensively with respect to image quality characteristics (noise, resolution) and is an ongoing, active area of research, comparatively little has been accomplished to relate such image quality characteristics to registration performance. Methods: To establish such a framework, we derived Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLB) for registration accuracy, revealing the underlying dependencies on image variance and gradient strength. The CRLB was analyzed as a function of image quality factors (in particular, dose) for various similarity metrics and compared to registration accuracy using CT images of an anthropomorphic head phantom at various simulated dose levels. Performance was evaluated in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) of the registration parameters. Results: Analysis of the CRLB shows two primary dependencies: 1) noise variance (related to dose); and 2) sum of squared image gradients (related to spatial resolution and image content). Comparison of the measured RMSE to the CRLB showed that the best registration method, RMSE achieved the CRLB to within an efficiency factor of 0.21, and optimal estimators followed the predicted inverse proportionality between registration performance and radiation dose. Conclusions: Analysis of the CRLB for image registration is an important step toward understanding and evaluating an intraoperative imaging system with respect to a registration task. While the CRLB is optimistic in absolute performance, it reveals a basis for relating the performance of registration estimators as a function of noise content and may be used to guide acquisition parameter selection (e.g., dose) for purposes of intraoperative registration.

  20. The image quality and resolution limits of phase-shifting digital holography based on the self-imaging effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemion, Agnieszka; Ducin, Izabela; Kakarenko, Karol; Makowski, Michał; Siemion, Andrzej; Suszek, Jarosław; Sypek, Maciej; Wojnowski, Dariusz; Kołodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    A method of a digital holography based on the use of a self-imaging of the phase element is presented and assessed in terms of image quality and resolution. The experimental results of digital hologram acquisition and reconstructions are given for a standard USAF test pattern. The self imaging effect is used in the reference beam of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer in order to project a structured phase modulated beam directly onto the photosensitive matrix of a digital camera. The main advantage of this method is a simple optical setup and the possibility of performing phase-shifting with a single camera exposure. The numerical reconstruction takes advantage of the Talbot effect and does not involve any approximation or interpolation techniques. In order to evaluate the applicative potential of the method, in this work the image quality is checked for various parameters of the optical setup, especially the period of the self-imaging structure and imaging distances.

  1. Image-based surface reconstruction in geomorphometry - merits, limits and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltner, Anette; Kaiser, Andreas; Castillo, Carlos; Rock, Gilles; Neugirg, Fabian; Abellán, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Photogrammetry and geosciences have been closely linked since the late 19th century due to the acquisition of high-quality 3-D data sets of the environment, but it has so far been restricted to a limited range of remote sensing specialists because of the considerable cost of metric systems for the acquisition and treatment of airborne imagery. Today, a wide range of commercial and open-source software tools enable the generation of 3-D and 4-D models of complex geomorphological features by geoscientists and other non-experts users. In addition, very recent rapid developments in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology allow for the flexible generation of high-quality aerial surveying and ortho-photography at a relatively low cost.The increasing computing capabilities during the last decade, together with the development of high-performance digital sensors and the important software innovations developed by computer-based vision and visual perception research fields, have extended the rigorous processing of stereoscopic image data to a 3-D point cloud generation from a series of non-calibrated images. Structure-from-motion (SfM) workflows are based upon algorithms for efficient and automatic orientation of large image sets without further data acquisition information, examples including robust feature detectors like the scale-invariant feature transform for 2-D imagery. Nevertheless, the importance of carrying out well-established fieldwork strategies, using proper camera settings, ground control points and ground truth for understanding the different sources of errors, still needs to be adapted in the common scientific practice.This review intends not only to summarise the current state of the art on using SfM workflows in geomorphometry but also to give an overview of terms and fields of application. Furthermore, this article aims to quantify already achieved accuracies and used scales, using different strategies in order to evaluate possible stagnations of

  2. On Limits of Embedding in 3D Images Based on 2D Watson's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehvash, Zahra; Ghaemmaghami, Shahrokh

    We extend the Watson image quality metric to 3D images through the concept of integral imaging. In the Watson's model, perceptual thresholds for changes to the DCT coefficients of a 2D image are given for information hiding. These thresholds are estimated in a way that the resulting distortion in the 2D image remains undetectable by the human eyes. In this paper, the same perceptual thresholds are estimated for a 3D scene in the integral imaging method. These thresholds are obtained based on the Watson's model using the relation between 2D elemental images and resulting 3D image. The proposed model is evaluated through subjective tests in a typical image steganography scheme.

  3. Using Doppler shift induced by Galvanometric mirror scanning to reach shot noise limit with laser optical feedback imaging setup.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, O; Lacot, E; Hugon, O; Guillet de Chatelus, H

    2015-03-10

    This paper proposes what we believe is a new method to remove the contribution of parasitic reflections in the images of the laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique. This simple method allows us to extend the LOFI technique to long-distance applications, as imaging through a fog or a smoke. The LOFI technique is an ultrasensitive imaging technique that is interesting for imaging objects through a scattering medium. However, the LOFI sensitivity can be dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In previous papers [Appl. Opt.48, 64 (2009)10.1364/AO.48.000064APOPAI1559-128X, Opt. Lett.37, 2514 (2012)10.1364/OL.37.002514OPLEDP0146-9592], we already have proposed methods to filter a parasitic optical feedback, but they are not well suited to metric working distances. This new method uses a Doppler frequency shift induced by the moving mirror used to scan the object to be imaged. Using this Doppler frequency shift, we can distinguish the photons reflected by the target and the parasitic photons reflected by the optical components in the experimental setup. In this paper, we demonstrated theoretically and experimentally the possibility to filter the parasitic reflection in LOFI images using the Doppler frequency shift. This method significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor 15 and we can obtain a shot noise limited image through a scattering medium of an object at 3 m from the detector.

  4. Photoacoustic FT-IR depth imaging of polymeric surfaces: overcoming IR diffraction limits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Urban, Marek W

    2004-11-23

    It is well established that the photoacoustic effect based on absorption of electromagnetic radiation into thermal waves allows surface depth profiling. However, limited knowledge exists concerning its spatial resolution. The spiral-stepwise (SSW) approach combined with phase rotational analysis is utilized to determine surface depth profiling of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous multilayered polymeric surfaces in a step-scan photoacoustic FT-IR experiment. In this approach, the thermal wave propagating to the surface is represented as the integral of all heat wave vectors propagating across the sampling depth xn, and the spiral function K'beta(lambda)e(-beta)(lambda)xne(-x)n/mu(th)e(i)(omegat-(xn/mu(th))) represents the amplitude and phase of the heat wave vector propagating to the surface. The SSW approach can be applied to heterogeneous surfaces by representing thermal waves propagating to the surface as the sum of the thermal waves propagating through homogeneous layers that are integrals of all heat vectors from a given sampling depth. The proposed model is tested on multilayered polymeric surfaces and shows that the SSW approach allows semiquantitative surface imaging with the spatial resolution ranging from micrometer to 500 nm levels, and the spatial resolution is a function of the penetration depth.

  5. Near-infrared InGaAs detectors for background-limited imaging and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Originally designed for night-vision equipment, InGaAs detectors are beginning to achieve background-limited performance in broadband imaging from the ground. The lower cost of these detectors can enable multi-band instruments, arrays of small telescopes, and large focal planes that would be uneconomical with high-performance HgCdTe detectors. We developed a camera to operate the FLIR AP1121 sensor using deep thermoelectric cooling and up-the-ramp sampling to minimize noise. We measured a dark current of 163 e- s-1 pix-1, a read noise of 87 e- up-the-ramp, and a well depth of 80k e-. Laboratory photometric testing achieved a stability of 230 ppm hr-1/2, which would be required for detecting exoplanet transits. InGaAs detectors are also applicable to other branches of near-infrared time-domain astronomy, ranging from brown dwarf weather to gravitational wave follow-up.

  6. Uses, misuses, new uses and fundamental limitations of magnetic resonance imaging in cognitive science

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was discovered in the early 1990s, it provoked an explosion of interest in exploring human cognition, using brain mapping techniques based on MRI. Standards for data acquisition and analysis were rapidly put in place, in order to assist comparison of results across laboratories. Recently, MRI data acquisition capabilities have improved dramatically, inviting a rethink of strategies for relating functional brain activity at the systems level with its neuronal substrates and functional connections. This paper reviews the established capabilities of BOLD contrast fMRI, the perceived weaknesses of major methods of analysis, and current results that may provide insights into improved brain modelling. These results have inspired the use of in vivo myeloarchitecture for localizing brain activity, individual subject analysis without spatial smoothing and mapping of changes in cerebral blood volume instead of BOLD activation changes. The apparent fundamental limitations of all methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance are also discussed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574303

  7. Uses, misuses, new uses and fundamental limitations of magnetic resonance imaging in cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert

    2016-10-05

    When blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was discovered in the early 1990s, it provoked an explosion of interest in exploring human cognition, using brain mapping techniques based on MRI. Standards for data acquisition and analysis were rapidly put in place, in order to assist comparison of results across laboratories. Recently, MRI data acquisition capabilities have improved dramatically, inviting a rethink of strategies for relating functional brain activity at the systems level with its neuronal substrates and functional connections. This paper reviews the established capabilities of BOLD contrast fMRI, the perceived weaknesses of major methods of analysis, and current results that may provide insights into improved brain modelling. These results have inspired the use of in vivo myeloarchitecture for localizing brain activity, individual subject analysis without spatial smoothing and mapping of changes in cerebral blood volume instead of BOLD activation changes. The apparent fundamental limitations of all methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance are also discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  8. Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging of Mitochondrial Nucleoids Reveals Their Spatial Range, Limits, and Membrane Interaction ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy A.; Tkachuk, Ariana N.; Shtengel, Gleb; Kopek, Benjamin G.; Bogenhagen, Daniel F.; Hess, Harald F.; Clayton, David A.

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental objective in molecular biology is to understand how DNA is organized in concert with various proteins, RNA, and biological membranes. Mitochondria maintain and express their own DNA (mtDNA), which is arranged within structures called nucleoids. Their functions, dimensions, composition, and precise locations relative to other mitochondrial structures are poorly defined. Superresolution fluorescence microscopy techniques that exceed the previous limits of imaging within the small and highly compartmentalized mitochondria have been recently developed. We have improved and employed both two- and three-dimensional applications of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM and iPALM, respectively) to visualize the core dimensions and relative locations of mitochondrial nucleoids at an unprecedented resolution. PALM reveals that nucleoids differ greatly in size and shape. Three-dimensional volumetric analysis indicates that, on average, the mtDNA within ellipsoidal nucleoids is extraordinarily condensed. Two-color PALM shows that the freely diffusible mitochondrial matrix protein is largely excluded from the nucleoid. In contrast, nucleoids are closely associated with the inner membrane and often appear to be wrapped around cristae or crista-like inner membrane invaginations. Determinations revealing high packing density, separation from the matrix, and tight association with the inner membrane underscore the role of mechanisms that regulate access to mtDNA and that remain largely unknown. PMID:22006021

  9. Ultrahigh-resolution Cerenkov-light imaging system for positron radionuclides: potential applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Cerenkov-light imaging provides inherently high resolution because the light is emitted near the positron radionuclide. However, the magnitude for the high spatial resolution of Cerenkov-light imaging is unclear. Its potential molecular imaging applications also remain unclear. We developed an ultrahigh-resolution Cerenkov-light imaging system, measured its spatial resolution, and explored its applications to molecular imaging research. Our Cerenkov-light imaging system consists of a high-sensitivity charged-coupled device camera (Hamamatsu Photonics ORCA2-ER) and a bright lens (Xenon 0.95/25). An extension ring was inserted between them to magnify the subject. A ~100-μm-diameter (22)Na point source was made and imaged by the system. For applications of Cerenkov-light imaging, we conducted (18)F-FDG administered in vivo, ex vivo whole brain, and sliced brain imaging of rats. We obtained spatial resolution of ~220 μm for a (22)Na point source with our developed imaging system. The (18)F-FDG rat head images showed high light intensity in the eyes for the Cerenkov-light images, although there was no accumulation in these parts in the PET images. The sliced rat brain showed much higher spatial resolution for the Cerenkov-light images compared with CdWO4 scintillator-based autoradiography, although some contrast decrease was observed for them. Even though the Cerenkov-light images showed ultrahigh resolution of ~220 μm, their distribution and contrast were sometimes different from the actual positron accumulation in the subjects. Care must be taken when evaluating positron distribution from Cerenkov-light images. However, the ultrahigh resolution of Cerenkov-light imaging will be useful for transparent subjects including phantom studies.

  10. Influence of limited random-phase of objects on the image quality of 3D holographic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, He; Liu, Juan; Yang, Minqiang; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-02-01

    Limited-random-phase time average method is proposed to suppress the speckle noise of three dimensional (3D) holographic display. The initial phase and the range of the random phase are studied, as well as their influence on the optical quality of the reconstructed images, and the appropriate initial phase ranges on object surfaces are obtained. Numerical simulations and optical experiments with 2D and 3D reconstructed images are performed, where the objects with limited phase range can suppress the speckle noise in reconstructed images effectively. It is expected to achieve high-quality reconstructed images in 2D or 3D display in the future because of its effectiveness and simplicity.

  11. The application of the principle of conserved myocardium volume in guiding automated chamber estimation in mouse cardiac imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garson, Christopher D.; Li, Bing; Hossack, John A.

    2007-03-01

    Active contours have been used in a wide variety of image processing applications due to their ability to effectively distinguish image boundaries with limited user input. In this paper, we consider 3D gradient vector field (GVF) active surfaces and their application in the determination of the volume of the mouse heart left ventricle. The accuracy and efficacy of a 3D active surface is strongly dependent upon the selection of several parameters, corresponding to the tension and rigidity of the active surface and the weight of the GVF. However, selection of these parameters is often subjective and iterative. We observe that the volume of the cardiac muscle is, to a good approximation, conserved through the cardiac cycle. Therefore, we propose using the degree of conservation of heart muscle volume as a metric for assessing optimality of a particular set of active surface parameters. A synthetic dataset consisting of nested ellipsoids of known volume was constructed. The outer ellipsoid contracted over time to imitate a heart cycle, and the inner ellipsoid compensated to maintain constant volume. The segmentation algorithm was also investigated in vivo using B-mode data sets obtained by scanning the hearts of three separate mice. Active surfaces were initialized using a broad range of values for each of the parameters under consideration. Conservation of volume was a useful predictor of the efficacy of the model for the range of values tested for the GVF weighting parameter, though it was less effective at predicting the efficacy of the active surface tension and rigidity parameters.

  12. Features and limitations of mobile tablet devices for viewing radiological images.

    PubMed

    Grunert, J H

    2015-03-01

    Mobile radiological image display systems are becoming increasingly common, necessitating a comparison of the features of these systems, specifically the operating system employed, connection to stationary PACS, data security and rang of image display and image analysis functions. In the fall of 2013, a total of 17 PACS suppliers were surveyed regarding the technical features of 18 mobile radiological image display systems using a standardized questionnaire. The study also examined to what extent the technical specifications of the mobile image display systems satisfy the provisions of the Germany Medical Devices Act as well as the provisions of the German X-ray ordinance (RöV). There are clear differences in terms of how the mobile systems connected to the stationary PACS. Web-based solutions allow the mobile image display systems to function independently of their operating systems. The examined systems differed very little in terms of image display and image analysis functions. Mobile image display systems complement stationary PACS and can be used to view images. The impacts of the new quality assurance guidelines (QS-RL) as well as the upcoming new standard DIN 6868 - 157 on the acceptance testing of mobile image display units for the purpose of image evaluation are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Detecting Anatomical Landmarks From Limited Medical Imaging Data Using Two-Stage Task-Oriented Deep Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Mingxia; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-10-01

    One of the major challenges in anatomical landmark detection, based on deep neural networks, is the limited availability of medical imaging data for network learning. To address this problem, we present a two-stage task-oriented deep learning method to detect large-scale anatomical landmarks simultaneously in real time, using limited training data. Specifically, our method consists of two deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), with each focusing on one specific task. Specifically, to alleviate the problem of limited training data, in the first stage, we propose a CNN based regression model using millions of image patches as input, aiming to learn inherent associations between local image patches and target anatomical landmarks. To further model the correlations among image patches, in the second stage, we develop another CNN model, which includes a) a fully convolutional network that shares the same architecture and network weights as the CNN used in the first stage and also b) several extra layers to jointly predict coordinates of multiple anatomical landmarks. Importantly, our method can jointly detect large-scale (e.g., thousands of) landmarks in real time. We have conducted various experiments for detecting 1200 brain landmarks from the 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 700 subjects, and also 7 prostate landmarks from the 3D computed tomography images of 73 subjects. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method regarding both accuracy and efficiency in the anatomical landmark detection.

  14. Improved detection limits using a hand-held optical imager with coregistration capabilities.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Gonzalez, Jean; Caldera, Lizeth; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-07-15

    Optical imaging is emerging as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method for breast cancer diagnosis. A hand-held optical imager has been developed with coregistration facilities towards flexible imaging of different tissue volumes and curvatures in near real-time. Herein, fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging experiments are performed to demonstrate deeper target detection under perfect and imperfect (100:1) uptake conditions in (liquid) tissue phantoms and in vitro. Upon summation of multiple scans (fluorescence intensity images), fluorescent targets are detected at greater depths than from single scan alone.

  15. Limited-view photoacoustic imaging based on linear-array detection and filtered mean-backprojection-iterative reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Songbo; Yang, Sihua; Guo, Hua

    2009-12-01

    Most existing photoacoustic tomography techniques require collecting complete projection data that are acquired on a defined circle surrounding the object. However, in clinical application, the object can only be approached from a limited angle mostly. Furthermore, with the incomplete projection data acquired in limited view, the general filtered backprojection algorithm will streak image artifacts nearby the reconstructed location of absorbers. In this paper, we present a limited-view-scanning photoacoustic imaging system with a linear transducer array and develop a filtered mean-backprojection-iteration (FMBPI) algorithm to reconstruct the absorbed optical deposit distribution. The FMBPI algorithm combines the terseness of the filtered backprojection algorithm with the accuracy of the iterative reconstruction algorithm. Numerical simulation and experimental results validate that the algorithm can effectively reconstruct high-quality image with limited-view data. It is also demonstrated that with the FMBPI algorithm, the limited-view-scanning multielement photoacoustic imaging system has a great potential to be applied in fast noninvasive clinic diagnosis of breast cancer at the early stage.

  16. Diffraction-limited real-time terahertz imaging by optical frequency up-conversion in a DAST crystal.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Takida, Yuma; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2015-03-23

    Real-time terahertz (THz) wave imaging has wide applications in areas such as security, industry, biology, medicine, pharmacy, and the arts. This report describes real-time room-temperature THz imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in an organic 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystal, with high resolution reaching the diffraction limit. THz-wave images were converted to the near infrared region and then captured using an InGaAs camera in a tandem imaging system. The resolution of the imaging system was analyzed. Diffraction and interference of THz wave were observed in the experiments. Videos are supplied to show the interference pattern variation that occurs with sample moving and tilting.

  17. Bayesian multi-scale smoothing of photon-limited images with applications to astronomy and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John

    Multi-scale models for smoothing Poisson signals or images have gained much attention over the past decade. A new Bayesian model is developed using the concept of the Chinese restaurant process to find structures in two-dimensional images when performing image reconstruction or smoothing. This new model performs very well when compared to other leading methodologies for the same problem. It is developed and evaluated theoretically and empirically throughout Chapter 2. The newly developed Bayesian model is extended to three-dimensional images in Chapter 3. The third dimension has numerous different applications, such as different energy spectra, another spatial index, or possibly a temporal dimension. Empirically, this method shows promise in reducing error with the use of simulation studies. A further development removes background noise in the image. This removal can further reduce the error and is done using a modeling adjustment and post-processing techniques. These details are given in Chapter 4. Applications to real world problems are given throughout. Photon-based images are common in astronomical imaging due to the collection of different types of energy such as X-Rays. Applications to real astronomical images are given, and these consist of X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray observatory satellite. Diagnostic medicine uses many types of imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography that can also benefit from smoothing techniques such as the one developed here. Reducing the amount of radiation a patient takes will make images more noisy, but this can be mitigated through the use of image smoothing techniques. Both types of images represent the potential real world use for these methods.

  18. Music algorithm for imaging of a sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Kwang

    2017-07-01

    MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for a non-iterative imaging of sound-hard arc in limited-view inverse scattering problem is considered. In order to discover mathematical structure of MUSIC, we derive a relationship between MUSIC and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order. This structure enables us to examine some properties of MUSIC in limited-view problem. Numerical simulations are performed to support the identified structure of MUSIC.

  19. Osteosarcoma Microenvironment: Whole-Slide Imaging and Optimized Antigen Detection Overcome Major Limitations in Immunohistochemical Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Pierre; Fellenberg, Jörg; Moskovszky, Linda; Sápi, Zoltan; Krenacs, Tibor; Poeschl, Johannes; Lehner, Burkhard; Szendrõi, Miklos; Ewerbeck, Volker; Kinscherf, Ralf; Fritzsching, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    applicable in decalcified formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples for major parameters of the immunovascular microenvironment in osteosarcoma. Whole-slide imaging and optimized antigen retrieval overcome these limitations. PMID:24594971

  20. A new VLA/e-MERLIN limit on central images in the gravitational lens system CLASS B1030+074

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Jonathan; Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal; Biggs, Andrew; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chapman, Scott; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKean, John; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    We present the new Very Large Array 22 GHz and extended Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network 5 GHz observations of CLASS B1030+074, a two-image strong gravitational lens system whose background source is a compact flat-spectrum radio quasar. In such systems we expect a third image of the background source to form close to the centre of the lensing galaxy. The existence and brightness of such images is important for investigation of the central mass distributions of lensing galaxies, but only one secure detection has been made so far in a galaxy-scale lens system. The noise levels achieved in our new B1030+074 images reach 3 μJy beam-1 and represent an improvement in central image constraints of nearly an order of magnitude over previous work, with correspondingly better resulting limits on the shape of the central mass profile of the lensing galaxy. Simple models with an isothermal outer power-law slope now require either the influence of a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), or an inner power-law slope very close to isothermal, in order to suppress the central image below our detection limit. Using the central mass profiles inferred from light distributions in Virgo galaxies, moved to z = 0.5, and matching to the observed Einstein radius, we now find that 45 per cent of such mass profiles should give observable central images, 10 per cent should give central images with a flux density still below our limit, and the remaining systems have extreme demagnification produced by the central SMBH. Further observations of similar objects will therefore allow proper statistical constraints to be placed on the central properties of elliptical galaxies at high redshift.

  1. Clinical application of 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA in pediatric CT imaging: "How many children can be protected from unnecessary radiation?".

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S; Krishna, Satheesh; Saxena, Akshay K; Sinha, Anindita; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-09-01

    Practice of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in the developed world is currently well established. However, there is striking lack of published data regarding such experience in the developing countries. Therefore, the goal of this study is to prospectively evaluate CT request forms to assess how many children could be protected from harmful radiation exposure if 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principles of ALARA are applied before obtaining CT imaging in a developing country. This can save children from potential radiation risks including development of brain cancer and leukemia. Consecutive CT request forms over a six month study period (May 16, 2013 to November 15, 2013) in a tertiary pediatric children's hospital in India were prospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists before obtaining CT imaging. First, 'Justification' of CT was evaluated and then 'Optimization' was applied for evaluation of appropriateness of the requested CT studies. The number (and percentage) of CT studies avoided by applying 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA were calculated. The difference in number of declined and optimized CT requests between CT requests from inpatient and outpatient departments was compared using Chi-Square test. A total of 1302 consecutive CT request forms were received during the study period. Some of the request forms (n=86; 6.61%) had requests for more than one (multiple) anatomical regions, hence, a total of 1392 different anatomical CT requests were received. Based on evaluation of the CT request forms for 'Justification' and 'Optimization' principle of ALARA by pediatric radiology reviewers, 111 individual anatomic part CT requests from 105 pediatric patients were avoided. Therefore, 8.06% (105 out of 1302 pediatric patients) were protected from unnecessary or additional radiation exposure.The rates of declined or optimized CT requests from inpatient department was significantly higher than that from outpatient

  2. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  3. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  4. Patch-based models and algorithms for image processing: a review of the basic principles and methods, and their application in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Davood; Ward, Rabab K

    2016-10-01

    Image models are central to all image processing tasks. The great advancements in digital image processing would not have been made possible without powerful models which, themselves, have evolved over time. In the past decade, "patch-based" models have emerged as one of the most effective models for natural images. Patch-based methods have outperformed other competing methods in many image processing tasks. These developments have come at a time when greater availability of powerful computational resources and growing concerns over the health risks of the ionizing radiation encourage research on image processing algorithms for computed tomography (CT). The goal of this paper is to explain the principles of patch-based methods and to review some of their recent applications in CT. We first review the central concepts in patch-based image processing and explain some of the state-of-the-art algorithms, with a focus on aspects that are more relevant to CT. Then, we review some of the recent application of patch-based methods in CT. Patch-based methods have already transformed the field of image processing, leading to state-of-the-art results in many applications. More recently, several studies have proposed patch-based algorithms for various image processing tasks in CT, from denoising and restoration to iterative reconstruction. Although these studies have reported good results, the true potential of patch-based methods for CT has not been yet appreciated. Patch-based methods can play a central role in image reconstruction and processing for CT. They have the potential to lead to substantial improvements in the current state of the art.

  5. Fundamental limitations of reciprocal path imaging through the atmosphere with dilute subaperture arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, J.E.; Kotha, A.; Phillips, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    When synthesizing a large aperture with an array of smaller subapertures for high resolution imaging applications, it is important not only to arrange the subapertures to achieve minimal spatial frequency redundancy, but also to choose the size of the subapertures necessary to achieve the best possible image quality. Spurious or ``ghost`` images often occur even for non-redundant dilute subaperture arrays. In this paper the authors show that array configurations producing a uniform modulation transfer function will not exhibit these undesirable ghost images. A method is then presented for constructing both one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations of dilute subaperture arrays that result in uniform spatial frequency response with arbitrarily high spatial resolution for reciprocal path imaging applications (i.e., imaging laser radar applications).

  6. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  7. Perceptual limit to display resolution of images as per visual acuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Niida, Takahiro; Murakami, Miya; Suzuki, Kenji; Sugawara, Masayuki; Nojiri, Yuji

    2008-02-01

    Achieving ultimate visual realness of natural images on a display requires high resolution, so that artifacts due to finite image resolution are undetectable. An image resolution of 30 cycles/degree (cpd) or one pixel/arc-minute is often used as the criterion for viewing conditions when assessing displayed image quality. It is reasoned that if the pixel size is smaller than the separable angle of normal vision (20/20), the pixel structure is invisible and doesn't negatively affect image quality. However, it is not clear whether 30 cpd resolution is adequate to prevent seeing artifacts, especially for observers with better than 20/20 vision. We conducted experiments to find the threshold resolution of natural images and its dependence on visual acuity. Three objects were used; each object was presented 60 times at 5 resolutions (19.5, 26, 39, 52, or 78 cpd) next to the same image at a resolution of 156 cpd. Forty-five observers with visual acuity of 20/20 or better were asked to make a forced-choice distinction between the image pair in regard to resolution. Each observer indicated which image of the pair appeared at a higher resolution. The results show that the mean resolution for 75% correct responses for each of the visual acuity groups increased from more than 30 cpd as visual acuity increased and reached a plateau at 40-50 cpd at -0.3 logMAR.

  8. Some methods for determining the limit of potential image quality of optical systems of various complexities using the database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezdidko, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the article some methods for processing the information contained in a database are offered with the purpose of extraction of the knowledge, the experience and the intuition of the designers, coded in the database. It gives much attention to the methods for determinating limit potential image quality of optical systems of various complexities.

  9. Image Maps in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    A study of nine different image maps from World Wide Web home pages was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in information display and access, relative to visual, navigational, and practical characteristics. Nine independent viewers completed 20-question surveys on the image maps, in which they evaluated the characteristics of the maps on a…

  10. Reaching the Diffraction Limit - Differential Speckle and Wide-Field Imaging for the Gemini-N Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Nic J.; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Speckle imaging allows telescopes to achieve di raction limited imaging performance. The technique requires cameras capable of reading out frames at a very fast rate, e ectively `freezing out' atmospheric seeing. The resulting speckles can be correlated and images reconstructed that are at the di raction limit of the telescope. These new instruments are based on the successful performance and design of the Di erential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) [2, 1]. The instruments are being built for the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes and will be made available to the community via the peer review proposal process. We envision their primary use to be validation and characterization of exoplanet targets from the NASA K2 and TESS missions and RV discovered exoplanets. Such targets will provide excellent follow-up candidates for both the WIYN and Gemini telescopes [3]. Examples of DSSI data are shown in the gures below. We expect similar data quality in speckle imaging mode with the new instruments. Additionally, both cameras will have a wide- eld mode and standard SDSS lters. They will be highly versatile instruments and it is that likely many other science programs will request time on the cameras. The limiting magnitude for speckle observations, will remain around 13-14th at WIYN and 16-17th at Gemini, while wide- eld, normal CCD imaging operation should be able to go to much fainter, providing usual CCD imaging and photometric capabilities. The instruments will also have high utility as scoring cameras for telescope engineering purposes, or other applications where high time resolution is needed. Instrument support will be provided, including a software pipeline that takes raw speckle data to fully reconstructed images.

  11. A consensus protocol: Image-improved therapeutic guidelines for limited adult Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Busetto, Mario; Sotti, Guido; Zorat, Pierluigi; Salvagno, Luigi; Dal Fior, Sandro; Gaion, Fernando; Soraru, Mariella

    2004-01-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) has greatly benefited from new technologies in terms of less invasive and more accurate staging as well as improved overall and relapse-free survival. However, the likelihood of late adverse effects of treatment, including second tumors, has increased due to the longer survival of patients with HD. Today's trend is to aim at minimal therapeutic exposure while guaranteeing lower therapy-related morbidity. This encourages new research efforts but also leads to less uniformity in treatments, as observed in the Veneto Region in Italy. The Gruppo Veneto Linfomi, composed of representatives of Radiotherapy and Oncology Departments of the Veneto Region, has been analyzing this problem and proposing therapy guidelines since 1995. A set of 10 prognostic factors has been developed to identify three prognostic groups: highly favorable (HF) are patients up to 40 years of age presenting with stage I disease involving only one site of disease with a maximum tumor diameter (TD) of 5 cm and no adverse factors. In this group only mantle field irradiation is recommended if the disease is located in the neck or above, inverted-Y irradiation is recommended for distal subdiaphragmatic lesions, and subtotal nodal irradiation in all other cases. HF cases may also be treated like favorable cases with limited chemoradiation. Favorable (F) cases are patients in stage I with a TD greater than 5 cm and smaller than 10 cm or stage II, up to three sites of disease and negative prognostic factors for systemic disease. All other patients are included in the "not favorable" (NF) group at Ann Arbor stage I or II with any adverse prognostic factor. For the latter two groups, chemotherapy with the ABVD or Stanford V regimen precedes involved-field radiotherapy to sites with a TD of at least 5 cm. The total irradiation dose is determined by local disease extent and level of response to chemotherapy. Images on which the radiation fields are drawn serve as an important reference

  12. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, Andrew B; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J A; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M

    2016-09-09

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  13. Non-rigid registration and non-local principle component analysis to improve electron microscopy spectrum images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.; Zhang, Chenyu; Oh, Albert; Slater, Thomas J. A.; Azough, Feridoon; Freer, Robert; Haigh, Sarah J.; Willett, Rebecca; Voyles, Paul M.

    2016-09-01

    Image registration and non-local Poisson principal component analysis (PCA) denoising improve the quality of characteristic x-ray (EDS) spectrum imaging of Ca-stabilized Nd2/3TiO3 acquired at atomic resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Image registration based on the simultaneously acquired high angle annular dark field image significantly outperforms acquisition with a long pixel dwell time or drift correction using a reference image. Non-local Poisson PCA denoising reduces noise more strongly than conventional weighted PCA while preserving atomic structure more faithfully. The reliability of and optimal internal parameters for non-local Poisson PCA denoising of EDS spectrum images is assessed using tests on phantom data.

  14. Collagen Content Limits Optical Coherence Tomography Image Depth in Porcine Vocal Fold Tissue.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jordan A; Benboujja, Fouzi; Beaudette, Kathy; Rogers, Derek; Maurer, Rie; Boudoux, Caroline; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Vocal fold scarring, a condition defined by increased collagen content, is challenging to treat without a method of noninvasively assessing vocal fold structure in vivo. The goal of this study was to observe the effects of vocal fold collagen content on optical coherence tomography imaging to develop a quantifiable marker of disease. Excised specimen study. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Porcine vocal folds were injected with collagenase to remove collagen from the lamina propria. Optical coherence tomography imaging was performed preinjection and at 0, 45, 90, and 180 minutes postinjection. Mean pixel intensity (or image brightness) was extracted from images of collagenase- and control-treated hemilarynges. Texture analysis of the lamina propria at each injection site was performed to extract image contrast. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance and t tests were used to determine statistical significance. Picrosirius red staining was performed to confirm collagenase activity. Mean pixel intensity was higher at injection sites of collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P < .0001). Fold change in image contrast was significantly increased in collagenase-treated vocal folds than control vocal folds (P = .002). Picrosirius red staining in control specimens revealed collagen fibrils most prominent in the subepithelium and above the thyroarytenoid muscle. Specimens treated with collagenase exhibited a loss of these structures. Collagen removal from vocal fold tissue increases image brightness of underlying structures. This inverse relationship may be useful in treating vocal fold scarring in patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. TU-CD-BRA-08: Single-Energy Computed Tomography-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Imaging: Proof-Of-Principle in a Canine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T; Boone, J; Kent, M; Wisner, E; Fujita, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary perfusion imaging has provided significant insights into pulmonary diseases, and can be useful in radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to prospectively establish proof-of-principle in a canine model for single-energy CT-based perfusion imaging, which has the potential for widespread clinical implementation. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on: (1) acquisition of inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast medium, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) of the two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the pre-contrast image from post-contrast image, yielding a map of Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement. These subtraction image data sets hypothetically represent perfused blood volume, a surrogate for perfusion. In an IACUC-approved clinical trial, we acquired pre- and post-contrast CT scans in the prone posture for six anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated dogs. The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The registration accuracy was quantified using the target registration errors (TREs) for 50 pulmonary landmarks in each dog. The gradient of HU enhancement between gravity-dependent (ventral) and non-dependent (dorsal) regions was evaluated to quantify the known effect of gravity, i.e., greater perfusion in ventral regions. Results: The lung volume difference between the two scans was 4.3±3.5% on average (range 0.3%–10.1%). DIR demonstrated an average TRE of 0.7±1.0 mm. HU enhancement in lung parenchyma was 34±10 HU on average and varied considerably between individual dogs, indicating the need for improvement of the contrast injection protocol. HU enhancement in ventral (gravity-dependent) regions was found to be greater than in dorsal regions. A population average ventral-to-dorsal gradient of HU enhancement was strong (R{sup 2}=0.94) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: This canine study demonstrated relatively accurate DIR and a strong ventral

  16. Limited utility of routine surveillance imaging for classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Sai Ravi; Jewell, Sarah W; Havlat, Luiza; Bast, Martin A; Thompson, Jonathan R; Eastwood, Daniel C; Bartlett, Nancy L; Armitage, James O; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Vose, Julie M; Fenske, Timothy S

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy and then underwent either clinical surveillance or routine surveillance imaging. In total, 241 patients who were newly diagnosed with cHL between January 2000 and December 2010 at 3 participating tertiary care centers and achieved complete remission after first-line therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, there were 174 patients in the routine surveillance imaging group and 67 patients in the clinical surveillance group, based on the intended mode of surveillance. In the routine surveillance imaging group, the intended plan of surveillance included computed tomography and/or positron emission tomography scans; whereas, in the clinical surveillance group, the intended plan of surveillance was clinical examination and laboratory studies, and scans were obtained only to evaluate concerning signs or symptoms. Baseline patient characteristics, prognostic features, treatment records, and outcomes were collected. The primary objective was to compare overall survival for patients in both groups. For secondary objectives, we compared the success of second-line therapy and estimated the costs of imaging for each group. After 5 years of follow-up, the overall survival rate was 97% (95% confidence interval, 92%-99%) in the routine surveillance imaging group and 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%) in the clinical surveillance group (P = .41). There were few relapses in each group, and all patients who relapsed in both groups achieved complete remission with second-line therapy. The charges associated with routine surveillance imaging were significantly higher than those for the clinical surveillance strategy, with no apparent clinical benefit. Clinical surveillance was not inferior to routine surveillance imaging in patients with cHL who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy. Routine

  17. Distortion-free magnetic resonance imaging in the zero-field limit

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Nathan; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Bouchard, Louis-S.; Demas, Vasiliki; Muck, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2009-07-09

    MRI is a powerful technique for clinical diagnosis and materials characterization. Images are acquired in a homogeneous static magnetic field much higher than the fields generated across the field of view by the spatially encoding field gradients. Without such a high field, the concomitant components of the field gradient dictated by Maxwell's equations lead to severe distortions that make imaging impossible with conventional MRI encoding. In this paper, we present a distortion-free image of a phantom acquired with a fundamentally different methodology in which the applied static field approaches zero. Our technique involves encoding with pulses of uniform and gradient field, and acquiring the magnetic field signals with a SQUID. The method can be extended to weak ambient fields, potentially enabling imaging in the Earth's field without cancellation coils or shielding. Other potential applications include quantum information processing and fundamental studies of long-range ferromagnetic interactions.

  18. Detection and Imaging of Moving Targets with LiMIT SAR Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    movers by applying a set of possible motion corrections to the image, and use a novel matched filter to detect the movers in this space . We can then image...include space time adaptive processing (STAP) or displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) [4]–[7]. Page et al. combined constant acceleration target...motion focusing with space -time adaptive processing (STAP), and included the refocusing parameters in the STAP steering vector. Due to inhomogenous

  19. Imaging with depth extension: where are the limits in fixed- focus cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakin, Dmitry; Keelan, Brian

    2008-08-01

    The integration of novel optics designs, miniature CMOS sensors, and powerful digital processing into a single imaging module package is driving progress in handset camera systems in terms of performance, size (thinness) and cost. The miniature cameras incorporating high resolution sensors and fixed-focus Extended Depth of Field (EDOF) optics allow close-range reading of printed material (barcode patterns, business cards), while providing high quality imaging in more traditional applications. These cameras incorporate modified optics and digital processing to recover the soft-focus images and restore sharpness over a wide range of object distances. The effects a variety of parameters of the imaging module on the EDOF range were analyzed for a family of high resolution CMOS modules. The parameters include various optical properties of the imaging lens, and the characteristics of the sensor. The extension factors for the EDOF imaging module were defined in terms of an improved absolute resolution in object space while maintaining focus at infinity. This definition was applied for the purpose of identifying the minimally resolvable object details in mobile cameras with bar-code reading feature.

  20. K{sub α} x-ray imaging of laser-irradiated, limited-mass zirconium foils

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, M.; Orban, C.; Jiang, S.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Eichman, B.; Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Dyer, G.; Ditmire, T.; Stephens, R.

    2014-07-15

    X-ray fluorescence measurements to determine the effect of target heating on imaging efficiency, at a photon energy of 15.7 keV corresponding to the K{sub α} line of zirconium, have been carried out using limited-mass foils irradiated by the Texas Petawatt Laser. Zirconium foils that ranged in volume from 3000 × 3000 × 21 μm{sup 3} to 150 × 150 × 6 μm{sup 3} were irradiated with 100 J, 8 ps-long pulses and a mean intensity of 4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The K{sub α} emission was measured simultaneously using a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometer and a curved quartz imaging crystal. The measured ratio of the integrated image signal to the integrated spectral signal was, within the experimental error, constant, indicating that the imaging efficiency's dependence on temperature is weak throughout the probed range. Based on our experience of target heating under similar conditions, we estimate a temperature of ∼200 eV for the smallest targets. The successful imaging of K{sub α} emission for temperatures this high represents an important proof of concept for Zr K{sub α} imaging. At these temperatures, the imaging of K{sub α} emission from lower-Z materials (such as Cu) is limited by temperature-dependent shifts in the K{sub α} emission energy.

  1. Accounting for Variance in Hyperspectral Data Coming from Limitations of the Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurygin, B.; Shestakova, M.; Nikolenko, A.; Badasen, E.; Strakhov, P.

    2016-06-01

    Over the course of the past few years, a number of methods was developed to incorporate hyperspectral imaging specifics into generic data mining techniques, traditionally used for hyperspectral data processing. Projection pursuit methods embody the largest class of methods empoyed for hyperspectral image data reduction, however, they all have certain drawbacks making them either hard to use or inefficient. It has been shown that hyperspectral image (HSI) statistics tend to display "heavy tails" (Manolakis2003)(Theiler2005), rendering most of the projection pursuit methods hard to use. Taking into consideration the magnitude of described deviations of observed data PDFs from normal distribution, it is apparent that a priori knowledge of variance in data caused by the imaging system is to be employed in order to efficiently classify objects on HSIs (Kerr, 2015), especially in cases of wildly varying SNR. A number of attempts to describe this variance and compensating techniques has been made (Aiazzi2006), however, new data quality standards are not yet set and accounting for the detector response is made under large set of assumptions. Current paper addresses the issue of hyperspectral image classification in the context of different variance sources based on the knowledge of calibration curves (both spectral and radiometric) obtained for each pixel of imaging camera. A camera produced by ZAO NPO Lepton (Russia) was calibrated and used to obtain a test image. A priori known values of SNR and spectral channel cross-correlation were incorporated into calculating test statistics used in dimensionality reduction and feature extraction. Expectation-Maximization classification algorithm modification for non-Gaussian model as described by (Veracini2010) was further employed. The impact of calibration data coarsening by ignoring non-uniformities on false alarm rate was studied. Case study shows both regions of scene-dominated variance and sensor-dominated variance, leading

  2. [Mandibular collum fracture in the ultrasound image--indications and limits from the viewpoint of 3 years imaging experiences].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, R; Friedrich, R; Vesper, M; Gehrke, G

    1996-01-01

    The Ultrasound technique as an image producing procedure for fractures of the mandibular collum is outlined with physical theory and clinical examples. Advantages and disadvantages are compared and it is stated that a part of all patients with fractures might have a benefit from this method. Mentally handicapped patients, pregnant women and all sorts of fidgety patients will profit by the ultrasound investigation as the only way to ascertain the bone-fracture. There is necessity to relate the sonogram to a conventional X-ray picture whenever it is possible, for the procedure is suited to prove the fracture, not to exclude it.

  3. Limits of active laser triangulation as an instrument for high precision plant imaging.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-02-05

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing 3D data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for 3D imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser triangulation scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress.

  4. The Capabilities and Limitations of Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Kidney Stones: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Mellena D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the performance of currently available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting kidney stones, compared to computed tomography (CT) results, and to determine the characteristics of successfully detected stones. Patients who had undergone both abdominal/pelvic CT and MRI exams within 30 days were studied. The images were reviewed by two expert radiologists blinded to the patients' respective radiological diagnoses. The study consisted of four steps: (1) reviewing the MRI images and determining whether any kidney stone(s) are identified; (2) reviewing the corresponding CT images and confirming whether kidney stones are identified; (3) reviewing the MRI images a second time, armed with the information from the corresponding CT, noting whether any kidney stones are positively identified that were previously missed; (4) for all stones MRI-confirmed on previous steps, the radiologist experts being asked to answer whether in retrospect, with knowledge of size and location on corresponding CT, these stones would be affirmed as confidently identified on MRI or not. In this best-case scenario involving knowledge of stones and their locations on concurrent CT, radiologist experts detected 19% of kidney stones on MRI, with stone size being a major factor for stone identification. PMID:27980535

  5. Limits of Active Laser Triangulation as an Instrument for High Precision Plant Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Stefan; Eichert, Thomas; Goldbach, Heiner E.; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for collecting and parameterizing 3D data of well reflecting objects. These systems have been used for 3D imaging of plant growth and structure analysis. A prerequisite is that the recorded signals originate from the true plant surface. In this paper we studied the effects of species, leaf chlorophyll content and sensor settings on the suitability and accuracy of a commercial 660 nm active laser triangulation scanning device. We found that surface images of Ficus benjamina leaves were inaccurate at low chlorophyll concentrations and a long sensor exposure time. Imaging of the rough waxy leaf surface of leek (Allium porrum) was possible using very low exposure times, whereas at higher exposure times penetration and multiple refraction prevented the correct imaging of the surface. A comparison of scans with varying exposure time enabled the target-oriented analysis to identify chlorotic, necrotic and healthy leaf areas or mildew infestations. We found plant properties and sensor settings to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. These interactions have to be further elucidated before laser imaging of plants is possible with the high accuracy required for e.g., the observation of plant growth or reactions to water stress. PMID:24504106

  6. Dental CT imaging as a screening tool for dental profiling: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Markwalder, Thomas; Jackowski, Christian; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The use of dental processing software for computed tomography (CT) data (Dentascan) is described on postmortem (pm) CT data for the purpose of pm identification. The software allows reconstructing reformatted images comparable to conventional panoramic dental radiographs by defining a curved reconstruction line along the teeth on oblique images. Three corpses that have been scanned within the virtopsy project were used to test the software for the purpose of dental identification. In every case, dental panoramic images could be reconstructed and compared to antemortem radiographs. The images showed the basic component of teeth (enamel, dentin, and pulp), the anatomic structure of the alveolar bone, missing or unerupted teeth as well as restorations of the teeth that could be used for identification. When streak artifacts due to metal-containing dental work reduced image quality, it was still necessary to perform pm conventional radiographs for comparison of the detailed shape of the restoration. Dental identification or a dental profiling seems to become possible in a noninvasive manner using the Dentascan software.

  7. Fifty Years of Technological Innovation: Potential and Limitations of Current Technologies in Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Morelli, John; Budjan, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Sourbron, Steven; Bock, Michael; Riffel, Philipp; Hernando, Diego; Ong, Melissa M; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important modality for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology. Hardware and pulse sequence developments have made it possible to derive not only morphologic but also functional information related to organ perfusion (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI), oxygen saturation (blood oxygen level dependent), tissue cellularity (diffusion-weighted imaging), and tissue composition (spectroscopy). These techniques enable a more specific assessment of pathologic lesions and organ functionality. Magnetic resonance imaging has thus transitioned from a purely morphologic examination to a modality from which image-based disease biomarkers can be derived. This fits well with several emerging trends in radiology, such as the need to accurately assess response to costly treatment strategies and the need to improve lesion characterization to potentially avoid biopsy. Meanwhile, the cost-effectiveness, availability, and robustness of computed tomography (CT) ensure its place as the current workhorse for clinical imaging. Although the lower soft tissue contrast of CT relative to MRI is a long-standing limitation, other disadvantages such as ionizing radiation exposure have become a matter of public concern. Nevertheless, recent technical developments such as dual-energy CT or dynamic volume perfusion CT also provide more functional imaging beyond morphology.The aim of this article was to review and discuss the most important recent technical developments in abdominal MRI and state-of-the-art CT, with an eye toward the future, providing examples of their clinical utility for the evaluation of hepatic and renal pathologies.

  8. Smart cloud system with image processing server in diagnosing brain diseases dedicated for hospitals with limited resources.

    PubMed

    Fahmi, Fahmi; Nasution, Tigor H

    2017-01-19

    The use of medical imaging in diagnosing brain disease is growing. The challenges are related to the big size of data and complexity of the image processing. High standard of hardware and software are demanded, which can only be provided in big hospitals. Our purpose was to provide a smart cloud system to help diagnosing brain diseases for hospital with limited infrastructure. The expertise of neurologists was first implanted in cloud server to conduct an automatic diagnosis in real time using image processing technique developed based on ITK library and web service. Users upload images through website and the result, in this case the size of tumor was sent back immediately. A specific image compression technique was developed for this purpose. The smart cloud system was able to measure the area and location of tumors, with average size of 19.91 ± 2.38 cm2 and an average response time 7.0 ± 0.3 s. The capability of the server decreased when multiple clients accessed the system simultaneously: 14 ± 0 s (5 parallel clients) and 27 ± 0.2 s (10 parallel clients). The cloud system was successfully developed to process and analyze medical images for diagnosing brain diseases in this case for tumor.

  9. Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins for diffraction-limited and super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Patterson, George H

    2009-11-01

    Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PA-FPs) are molecules that switch to a new fluorescent state in response to activation to generate a high level of contrast. Over the past eight years, several types of PA-FPs have been developed. The PA-FPs fluoresce green or red, or convert from green to red in response to activating light. Others reversibly switch between 'off' and 'on' in response to light. The optical "highlighting" capability of PA-FPs has led to the rise of novel imaging techniques providing important new biological insights. These range from in cellulo pulse-chase labeling for tracking subpopulations of cells, organelles or proteins under physiological settings, to super-resolution imaging of single molecules for determining intracellular protein distributions at nanometer precision. This review surveys the expanding array of PA-FPs, including their advantages and disadvantages, and highlights their use in novel imaging methodologies.

  10. AOLI: near-diffraction limited imaging in the visible on large ground-based telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Craig; Rebolo, Rafael; King, David L.; Labadie, Lucas; Puga, Marta; Pérez Garrido, Antonio; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Lopez, Roberto L.; Muthusubramanian, Balaji; Oscoz, Alejandro; Rodríguez Ramos, J.; Rodrigo-Ramos, Luis F.; Fernandez-Valdivia, J. J.; Velasco, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    The combination of Lucky Imaging with a low order adaptive optics system was demonstrated very successfully on the Palomar 5m telescope nearly 10 years ago. It is still the only system to give such high-resolution images in the visible or near infrared on ground-based telescope of faint astronomical targets. The development of AOLI for deployment initially on the WHT 4.2 m telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, will be described in this paper. In particular, we will look at the design and status of our low order curvature wavefront sensor which has been somewhat simplified to make it more efficient, ensuring coverage over much of the sky with natural guide stars as reference object. AOLI uses optically butted electron multiplying CCDs to give an imaging array of 2000 x 2000 pixels.

  11. Computed Tomography Image Compressibility and Limitations of Compression Ratio-Based Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pambrun, Jean-François; Noumeir, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Finding optimal compression levels for diagnostic imaging is not an easy task. Significant compressibility variations exist between modalities, but little is known about compressibility variations within modalities. Moreover, compressibility is affected by acquisition parameters. In this study, we evaluate the compressibility of thousands of computed tomography (CT) slices acquired with different slice thicknesses, exposures, reconstruction filters, slice collimations, and pitches. We demonstrate that exposure, slice thickness, and reconstruction filters have a significant impact on image compressibility due to an increased high frequency content and a lower acquisition signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that compression ratio is not a good fidelity measure. Therefore, guidelines based on compression ratio should ideally be replaced with other compression measures better correlated with image fidelity. Value-of-interest (VOI) transformations also affect the perception of quality. We have studied the effect of value-of-interest transformation and found significant masking of artifacts when window is widened.

  12. Potentials and limitations of SAR image simulators - A comparative study of three simulation approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Timo; Hammer, Horst; Auer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Various applications, like for instance algorithm design, mission planning, geo-referencing, change detection, Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) or SAR data analysis, rely on simulated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. However, there are different SAR simulation techniques with different advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the needs of a certain application, a suitable SAR simulation technique has to be used. This paper compares three SAR image simulation approaches, RaySAR, CohRaS®, and SARViz, showing their similarities and differences. RaySAR and CohRaS® are two ray tracing based SAR image simulators. RaySAR is based on the open-source software POV-Ray, while CohRaS® is developed as SAR simulator from scratch. The third simulator, SARViz, is a real-time SAR simulator based on the rasterization approach. The geometrical features of the three simulators are compared and the differences and different applications are analyzed.

  13. Apparent limitations of head-up-displays and thermal imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    A simulated helicopter flight through a slalom course was presented on a Silicon Graphics IRIS 3130. The display represented the major visual characteristics of thermal images. Subjects were asked to maintain a designated altitude, while flying a slalom course between regularly spaced pylons. The presence of some of the high frequency details in the image improved subjects' ability to reach and maintain the correct altitude. A head-up-display helped in maintaining altitude, but impaired maneuvering around the poles. The results are interpreted in terms of the competition for visual resources between the HUD and the world view.

  14. Rapid super-resolution imaging of sub-surface nanostructures beyond diffraction limit by high refractive index microsphere optical nanoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoungjun; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-surface nanostructures cannot be observed by scanning electronic microscopy or standard scanning probe microscopy. They are also outside the resolution limit of standard optical microscopes. In this paper, we demonstrate super-resolution imaging of sub-surface nanostructures beyond the optical diffraction limit. Sub-surface Blu-ray recorded data structures (100-200 nm) have been observed directly with submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy (SMON) using TiO2-BaO-ZnO glass microspheres (refractive index=2.2) of 60 μm diameter immersed in water coupled with a standard optical microscope. Theoretical analysis of the imaging phenomena was carried out by the characteristics of electrical field Poynting vectors and photonic nanojets.

  15. Relativistic iron lines in accretion disks: the contribution of higher order images in the strong deflection limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldi, Giulio Francesco; Bozza, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    The shapes of relativistic iron lines observed in spectra of candidate black holes carry the signatures of the strong gravitational fields in which the accretion disks lie. These lines result from the sum of the contributions of all images of the disk created by gravitational lensing, with the direct and first-order images largely dominating the overall shapes. Higher order images created by photons tightly winding around the black holes are often neglected in the modeling of these lines, since they require a substantially higher computational effort. With the help of the strong deflection limit, we present the most accurate semi-analytical calculation of these higher order contributions to the iron lines for Schwarzschild black holes. We show that two regimes exist depending on the inclination of the disk with respect to the line of sight. Many useful analytical formulae can be also derived in this framework.

  16. Benefits and Limitations of Low-kV Macromolecular Imaging of Frozen-Hydrated Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Majorovits, Endre; Angert, Isabel; Kaiser, Ute; Schröder, Rasmus R.

    2016-01-01

    Object contrast is one of the most important parameters of macromolecular imaging. Low-voltage transmission electron microscopy has shown an increased atom contrast for carbon materials, indicating that amplitude contrast contributions increase at a higher rate than phase contrast and inelastic scattering. Here, we studied image contrast using ice-embedded tobacco mosaic virus particles as test samples at 20–80 keV electron energy. The particles showed the expected increase in contrast for lower energies, but at the same time the 2.3-nm-resolution measure decayed more rapidly. We found a pronounced signal loss below 60 keV, and therefore we conclude that increased inelastic scattering counteracts increased amplitude contrast. This model also implies that as long as the amplitude contrast does not increase with resolution, beam damage and multiple scattering will always win over increased contrast at the lowest energies. Therefore, we cannot expect that low-energy imaging of conventionally prepared samples would provide better data than state-of-the-art 200–300 keV imaging. PMID:26910420

  17. Visual Links in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations of Image Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    As information delivery systems on the Internet increasingly evolve into World Wide Web browsers, understanding key graphical elements of the browser interface is critical to the design of effective information display and access tools. Image maps are one such element, and this document describes a pilot study that collected, reviewed, and…

  18. Some Remarks on Imaging of the Inner Ear: Options and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Giesemann, A; Hofmann, E

    2015-10-01

    The temporal bone has a highly complex anatomical structure, in which the sensory organs of the cochlea and the vestibular system are contained within a small space together with the sound-conducting system of the middle ear. Detailed imaging is thus required in this anatomical area. There are a great many clinical aims for which the highest-possible spatial resolution is required. These include the localization of cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, the detection of malformations of the middle and inner ear and the vestibulocochlear nerve, an aberrant course of the facial nerve and anomalies of the arterial and venous structures, the confirmation of dehiscence of the semicircular canals and finally, the verification of endolymphatic hydrops in cases of Ménière's disease. However, the term 'high resolution' is very time dependent. Two milestones in this respect have been (in 1991) the 3D visualization of the inner ear by means of maximum-intensity projection (MIP) of a T2-weighted constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence of a 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Tanioka et al., Radiology 178:141-144, 1991) and (in 1997) imaging of the vestibulocochlear nerve for the diagnosis of hypoplasia inside the internal auditory canal using the same sequence (Casselman et al., Radiology 202:773-781, 1997).The objective of this article is to highlight the options for, and the challenges of, contemporary imaging with regard to some clinical issues relating to the inner ear.

  19. Pre-processing SAR image stream to facilitate compression for transport on bandwidth-limited-link

    DOEpatents

    Rush, Bobby G.; Riley, Robert

    2015-09-29

    Pre-processing is applied to a raw VideoSAR (or similar near-video rate) product to transform the image frame sequence into a product that resembles more closely the type of product for which conventional video codecs are designed, while sufficiently maintaining utility and visual quality of the product delivered by the codec.

  20. Transverse Coherence Limited Coherent Diffraction Imaging using a Molybdenum Soft X-ray Laser Pumped at Moderate Pump Energies.

    PubMed

    Zürch, M; Jung, R; Späth, C; Tümmler, J; Guggenmos, A; Attwood, D; Kleineberg, U; Stiel, H; Spielmann, C

    2017-07-13

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) in the extreme ultraviolet has become an important tool for nanoscale investigations. Laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG) sources allow for lab scale applications such as cancer cell classification and phase-resolved surface studies. HHG sources exhibit excellent coherence but limited photon flux due poor conversion efficiency. In contrast, table-top soft X-ray lasers (SXRL) feature excellent temporal coherence and extraordinary high flux at limited transverse coherence. Here, the performance of a SXRL pumped at moderate pump energies is evaluated for CDI and compared to a HHG source. For CDI, a lower bound for the required mutual coherence factor of |μ 12| ≥ 0.75 is found by comparing a reconstruction with fixed support to a conventional characterization using double slits. A comparison of the captured diffraction signals suggests that SXRLs have the potential for imaging micron scale objects with sub-20 nm resolution in orders of magnitude shorter integration time compared to a conventional HHG source. Here, the low transverse coherence diameter limits the resolution to approximately 180 nm. The extraordinary high photon flux per laser shot, scalability towards higher repetition rate and capability of seeding with a high harmonic source opens a route for higher performance nanoscale imaging systems based on SXRLs.

  1. Heads-up intraoperative endoscopic imaging: a prospective evaluation of techniques and limitations.

    PubMed

    Levy, M L; Day, J D; Albuquerque, F; Schumaker, G; Giannotta, S L; McComb, J G

    1997-03-01

    Endoscopes have been used adjunctively for spinal and cranial microsurgical procedures and directly for ventricular exploration, fenestration, and catheterization. Technological advances now allow for multi-imaging technologies, including a so-called "heads-up display," allowing the surgeon to view the operative field and the endoscopic image simultaneously. A high-resolution, active matrix liquid crystal display is built into the frame of the eyewear, with a display density of 182,000 pixels (280 x 650 pixels) and a resolution of 200 lines. The display occupies approximately 20% of the visual field. The headgear weighs 4 oz, with dimensions of 9 x 18 x 17 cm. The modular interface weighs 7 oz. Two different visualization systems can be used. The first uses a single integrated interface (IM 300), whereas the second (remote 900) is a 900-MHz frequency modulation wireless system that provides for a line-of-sight link between the NTSC source and the modular interface (range = 100 ft). Heads-up adjunctive endoscopy was used in 60 patients during 18 months. The procedures included 16 craniotomies, 1 intradural lumbar biopsy, and 42 ventriculoperitoneal shunt placements. Follow-up was obtained at a minimum of 1 year. Patient age ranged from 1 month to 58 years. The only complication was a transient loss of auditory evoked potentials after contact of the eighth nerve by the endoscope. We describe a portable, light-weight heads-up display imaging system, which we have used in 60 operative procedures. Benefits of the heads-up system include portability and a high-resolution digital monocular image, which reduces eye strain and vertigo. The ideal headgear will likely be an extremely high-resolution liquid crystal display-based or cathode ray tube-based semi-immersive system, with all of the benefits currently described for two-dimensional heads-up systems (i.e., light weight, portability, image quality, and the avoidance of complications associated with immersive systems).

  2. Enhancement of low quality reconstructed digital hologram images based on frequency extrapolation of large objects under the diffraction limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning; Chen, Xiaohong; Yang, Chao

    2016-11-01

    During the reconstruction of a digital hologram, the reconstructed image is usually degraded by speckle noise, which makes it hard to observe the original object pattern. In this paper, a new reconstructed image enhancement method is proposed, which first reduces the speckle noise using an adaptive Gaussian filter, then calculates the high frequencies that belong to the object pattern based on a frequency extrapolation strategy. The proposed frequency extrapolation first calculates the frequency spectrum of the Fourier-filtered image, which is originally reconstructed from the +1 order of the hologram, and then gives the initial parameters for an iterative solution. The analytic iteration is implemented by continuous gradient threshold convergence to estimate the image level and vertical gradient information. The predicted spectrum is acquired through the analytical iteration of the original spectrum and gradient spectrum analysis. Finally, the reconstructed spectrum of the restoration image is acquired from the synthetic correction of the original spectrum using the predicted gradient spectrum. We conducted our experiment very close to the diffraction limit and used low quality equipment to prove the feasibility of our method. Detailed analysis and figure demonstrations are presented in the paper.

  3. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  4. Application limit of Landsat ETM images to detect Saxaul plant community in desert ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehry, Adel; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2004-02-01

    Application of satellite remote sensing imageries in studying desert ecosystems is crucial normally due to desert extend, its harsh environment and difficult access which make studying and monitoring of desert ecosystems a cumbersome task. Black Saxaul (Haloxylon Aphyllum), as a resistant plant, is widely planted in Iran"s central deserts to prevent sand dune movement and protect arable lands, roads and buildings from sand debris. An attempt was made to study the effect of Saxaul plantation in Kavir-e-Omrani, in reducing wind erosion and stabilizing sand dunes after 30 years of its plantation in an area of 31627 hectares. Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery acquired on March, 2002 was used to study Saxaul community extent and its canopy cover percentage classes to be related to the field measurements of soil sedimentation depth along prevailing wind direction and through canopy cover percentage gradient of Saxaul community. It was therefore necessary to have canopy cover percentage classes of the community obtained via classification of the ETM images, and their derivative bands. All ETM bands were registered to 1:50000 topographic maps of the area and 10 GCPs obtained by filed measurements using GPS. Correction was made on digitized maps using linear transformation and nearest neighbor method for resampling with RMS error of less than 8 meters. 53 sampling units of 90m by 90m were field checked and canopy cover percentage, density (number of Saxaul per unit area) and ground canopy cover of accompanying plants were measured. Soil samples of ground surface were obtained within each sampling units for lab analysis of soil texture, EC (electric conductivity) and ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage). Coordinates of the corners of sample units were recorded using GPS so that positional discrepancies of sample units were minimized. 16 different vegetation indices, including RVI, NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI and other indices were created. Mean DN values of all ETM bands (except panchromatic

  5. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals.

    PubMed

    Collins, L; Tselev, A; Jesse, S; Okatan, M B; Proksch, R; Mathews, J P; Mitchell, G D; Rodriguez, B J; Kalinin, S V; Ivanov, I N

    2014-10-31

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp(2) aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes.

  6. Multimode C-arm fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT for image-guided interventions: from proof of principle to patient protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewerdsen, J. H.; Daly, M. J.; Bachar, G.; Moseley, D. J.; Bootsma, G.; Brock, K. K.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, G. A.; Chhabra, S.; Jaffray, D. A.; Irish, J. C.

    2007-03-01

    High-performance intraoperative imaging is essential to an ever-expanding scope of therapeutic procedures ranging from tumor surgery to interventional radiology. The need for precise visualization of bony and soft-tissue structures with minimal obstruction to the therapy setup presents challenges and opportunities in the development of novel imaging technologies specifically for image-guided procedures. Over the past ~5 years, a mobile C-arm has been modified in collaboration with Siemens Medical Solutions for 3D imaging. Based upon a Siemens PowerMobil, the device includes: a flat-panel detector (Varian PaxScan 4030CB); a motorized orbit; a system for geometric calibration; integration with real-time tracking and navigation (NDI Polaris); and a computer control system for multi-mode fluoroscopy, tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT. Investigation of 3D imaging performance (noise-equivalent quanta), image quality (human observer studies), and image artifacts (scatter, truncation, and cone-beam artifacts) has driven the development of imaging techniques appropriate to a host of image-guided interventions. Multi-mode functionality presents a valuable spectrum of acquisition techniques: i.) fluoroscopy for real-time 2D guidance; ii.) limited-angle tomosynthesis for fast 3D imaging (e.g., ~10 sec acquisition of coronal slices containing the surgical target); and iii.) fully 3D cone-beam CT (e.g., ~30-60 sec acquisition providing bony and soft-tissue visualization across the field of view). Phantom and cadaver studies clearly indicate the potential for improved surgical performance - up to a factor of 2 increase in challenging surgical target excisions. The C-arm system is currently being deployed in patient protocols ranging from brachytherapy to chest, breast, spine, and head and neck surgery.

  7. Fundamental limitations of noninvasive temperature imaging by means of ultrasound echo strain estimation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Naomi R; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Meaney, Paul M

    2002-10-01

    Ultrasonic estimation of temperature-induced echo strain has been suggested as a means of predicting the location of thermal lesions formed by focused ultrasound (US) surgery before treatment. Preliminary investigations of this technique have produced optimistic results because they were carried out with rubber phantoms and used room temperature, rather than body temperature, as the baseline. The objective of the present study was to determine, through modelling, the likely feasibility of using ultrasonic temperature imaging to detect and localise the focal region of the heating beam for a medium with a realistic temperature-dependence of sound speed subjected to a realistic temperature rise. We determined the minimum ultrasonic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required to visualise the heated region for liver of varying fat content. Due to the small (0.5%) change in sound speed at the focus, the threshold SNR for normal liver (low fat content) was found to be at least 20 dB. This implies that temperature imaging in this tissue type will only be feasible if the effects of electronic noise can be minimised and if other sources of noise, such as cardiac-induced motion, do not substantially reduce the visibility of the focal region. For liver of intermediate fat content, the heated region could not be visualised even when the echo data were noise-free. Tissues with a very high fat content are likely to represent the most favourable conditions for ultrasonic temperature imaging.

  8. Experimental study of limit lean methane/air flame in a standard flammability tube using particle image velocimetry method

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Yuriy; Gorecki, Grzegorz; Jarosinski, Jozef; Fodemski, Tadeusz

    2010-05-15

    Lean limit methane/air flame propagating upward in a standard 50 mm diameter and 1.8 m length tube was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry method. Local stretch rate along the flame front was determined by measured gas velocity distributions. It was found that local stretch rate is maximum at the flame leading point, which is in agreement with earlier theoretical results. Similar to earlier observations, extinction of upward propagating limit flame was observed to start from the flame top. It is stated that the observed behavior of the extinction of the lean limit methane/air flame can not be explained in terms of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion. To qualitatively explain the observed extinction behavior, it is suggested that the positive strain-induced flame stretch increases local radiation heat losses from the flame front. An experimental methodology for PIV measurements in a round tube is described. (author)

  9. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles Found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as…

  10. College Students' Concept Images of Asymptotes, Limits, and Continuity of Rational Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Girija Sarada

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate student conceptions of the topic of asymptotes of rational functions and to understand the connections that students developed between the closely related notions of asymptotes, continuity, and limits. The participants of the study were university students taking Calculus 2 and were mostly freshmen. …

  11. Geometrical configurations of unphased diffraction-limited antennas in passive millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    This paper analyzes simple imaging configurations to scan a human body, suitable as passive or active millimetre-wave imaging systems for concealed weapon detection (CWD). The first cylindrical configuration allows a 360 degrees scan: N unphased diffraction-limited antennas each of size L are placed on a circular support surrounding the subject (allowing scanning in the horizontal plane with N non-overlapping independent beams), and this circle is mechanically displaced over the whole body height. An analytical formula gives the maximum obtainable spatial resolution for different dimensions of the circular scanning device and operating frequencies, and the number of receivers achieving this optimal resolution. Constraints to be taken into account are diffraction, the usable total length of the circle, and the full coverage by the N beams over the subject, which is modelled as a cylinder with variable radius, coaxial with the scanning circle. Numerical calculations of system resolution are shown for different operating microwave (MW) and millimetre-wave (MMW) frequencies; in order to study off-axis performances, situations where the subject is not coaxial with the scanning device are also considered. For the case of a parallelepiped to be imaged instead of a cylinder, a linear array configuration is analyzed similarly to the circular one. A theoretical study is carried out to design other curved arrays, filled with unphased diffraction-limited antennas, for the imaging of linear subjects with finer resolution. Finally, the application of such configurations is considered for the design of active imaging systems, and different system architectures are discussed.

  12. Ultrasonic imaging algorithms with limited transmission cycles for rapid nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Ludovic; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Wilcox, Paul D

    2009-09-01

    Imaging algorithms recently developed in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) have shown good potential for defect characterization. Many of them are based on the concept of collecting the full matrix of data, obtained by firing each element of an ultrasonic phased array independently, while collecting the data with all elements. Because of the finite sound velocity in the test structure, 2 consecutive firings must be separated by a minimum time interval. Depending on the number of elements in a given array, this may become problematic if data must be collected within a short time, as it is often the case, for example, in an industrial context. An obvious way to decrease the duration of data capture is to use a sparse transmit aperture, in which only a restricted number of elements are used to transmit ultrasonic waves. This paper compares 2 approaches aimed at producing an image on the basis of restricted data: the common source method and the effective aperture technique. The effective aperture technique is based on the far-field approximation, and no similar approach exists for the near-field. This paper investigates the performance of this technique in near-field conditions, where most NDT applications are made. First, these methods are described and their point spread functions are compared with that of the Total Focusing Method (TFM), which consists of focusing the array at every point in the image. Then, a map of efficiency is given for the different algorithms in the near-field. The map can be used to select the most appropriate algorithm. Finally, this map is validated by testing the different algorithms on experimental data.

  13. Limitations of anti-scatter grids when used with high resolution image detectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2014-03-19

    Anti-scatter grids are used in fluoroscopic systems to improve image quality by absorbing scattered radiation. A stationary Smit Rontgen X-ray grid (line density: 70 lines/cm, grid ratio: 13:1) was used with a flat panel detector (FPD) of pixel size 194 micron and a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 with pixel size of 75 microns. To investigate the effectiveness of the grid, a simulated artery block was placed in a modified uniform frontal head phantom and imaged with both the FPD and the Dexela for an approximately 15 × 15 cm field of view (FOV). The contrast improved for both detectors with the grid. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) does not increase as much in the case of the Dexela as it improves in the case of the FPD. Since the total noise in a single frame increases substantially for the Dexela compared to the FPD when the grid is used, the CNR is degraded. The increase in the quantum noise per frame would be similar for both detectors when the grid is used due to the attenuation of radiation, but the fixed pattern noise caused by the grid was substantially higher for the Dexela compared to the FPD and hence caused a severe reduction of CNR. Without further corrective methods this grid should not be used with high-resolution fluoroscopic detectors because the CNR does not improve significantly and the visibility of low contrast details may be reduced. Either an anti-scatter grid of different design or an additional image processing step when using a similar grid would be required to deal with the problem of scatter for high resolution detectors and the structured noise of the grid pattern.

  14. Detection of coxarthrosis in femoral head radiographic images seems limited mainly to vertically oriented pattern features.

    PubMed

    Rapan, Sasa; Jovanović, Savo; Gulan, Gordan; Kurbel, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Out of 120 conventional hip joint X-rays, two indepenendent examiners have chosen 27 healthy and 62 coxarthrotic joints. Central parts of femoral head images were digitalized (300 points/inch) and pixel density values analysed. Two methods were applied separately to horizontal rows and to vertical columns: variance coefficient calculation and power coefficients of Fourier harmonics. The arithmetic mean and median of variance coefficient for 256 pixel columns were both significantly higher in data of osteoarthrotic femurs (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.0046 and p = 0.0011, respectively), while no difference was found for horizontal rows. The arithmetic mean and median of variance coefficient for 128 pixels long columns were significantly lower in data of osteoarthrotic femurs (p < 0.001) with wider standard deviation (p = 0.0274), while standard deviation was significantly lower in rows of coxarthrotic heads (p < 0.001). Fourier analysis of 128 pixel vertical columns showed significantly higher values in coxarthrotic femoral heads (from 1st harmonic, wave length of 10.8 mm to 33rd harmonic, wave length of 0.328 mm, p < 0.05). Fourier analysis of 128 pixel horizontal rows did not differ much between coxarthrotic and normal femoral heads. Only valuds for the 60th and 61st harmonic (wavelength near 0.2 mm) showed significantly lower power in coxarthrotic images than in controls (p < 0.01). Results suggest that in the analyzed set of digitalized x-ray femoral head images, information regarding osteoarthrotic changes in the central part of femoral head is detectable mainly through mathematic postprocessing of vertically oriented patterns.

  15. Limitations of anti-scatter grids when used with high resolution image detectors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Anti-scatter grids are used in fluoroscopic systems to improve image quality by absorbing scattered radiation. A stationary Smit Rontgen X-ray grid (line density: 70 lines/cm, grid ratio: 13:1) was used with a flat panel detector (FPD) of pixel size 194 micron and a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 with pixel size of 75 microns. To investigate the effectiveness of the grid, a simulated artery block was placed in a modified uniform frontal head phantom and imaged with both the FPD and the Dexela for an approximately 15 × 15 cm field of view (FOV). The contrast improved for both detectors with the grid. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) does not increase as much in the case of the Dexela as it improves in the case of the FPD. Since the total noise in a single frame increases substantially for the Dexela compared to the FPD when the grid is used, the CNR is degraded. The increase in the quantum noise per frame would be similar for both detectors when the grid is used due to the attenuation of radiation, but the fixed pattern noise caused by the grid was substantially higher for the Dexela compared to the FPD and hence caused a severe reduction of CNR. Without further corrective methods this grid should not be used with high-resolution fluoroscopic detectors because the CNR does not improve significantly and the visibility of low contrast details may be reduced. Either an anti-scatter grid of different design or an additional image processing step when using a similar grid would be required to deal with the problem of scatter for high resolution detectors and the structured noise of the grid pattern. PMID:25309101

  16. Limitations of anti-scatter grids when used with high resolution image detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2014-03-01

    Anti-scatter grids are used in fluoroscopic systems to improve image quality by absorbing scattered radiation. A stationary Smit Rontgen X-ray grid (line density: 70 lines/cm, grid ratio: 13:1) was used with a flat panel detector (FPD) of pixel size 194 micron and a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 with pixel size of 75 microns. To investigate the effectiveness of the grid, a simulated artery block was placed in a modified uniform frontal head phantom and imaged with both the FPD and the Dexela for an approximately 15 x 15 cm field of view (FOV). The contrast improved for both detectors with the grid. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) does not increase as much in the case of the Dexela as it improves in the case of the FPD. Since the total noise in a single frame increases substantially for the Dexela compared to the FPD when the grid is used, the CNR is degraded. The increase in the quantum noise per frame would be similar for both detectors when the grid is used due to the attenuation of radiation, but the fixed pattern noise caused by the grid was substantially higher for the Dexela compared to the FPD and hence caused a severe reduction of CNR. Without further corrective methods this grid should not be used with high-resolution fluoroscopic detectors because the CNR does not improve significantly and the visibility of low contrast details may be reduced. Either an anti-scatter grid of different design or an additional image processing step when using a similar grid would be required to deal with the problem of scatter for high resolution detectors and the structured noise of the grid pattern.

  17. Analysis of the Advantages and Limitations of Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beecken, Brian P.; Kleinman, Randall R.

    2004-01-01

    New developments in infrared sensor technology have potentially made possible a new space-based system which can measure far-infrared radiation at lower costs (mass, power and expense). The Stationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SIFTS) proposed by NASA Langley Research Center, makes use of new detector array technology. A mathematical model which simulates resolution and spectral range relationships has been developed for analyzing the utility of such a radically new approach to spectroscopy. Calculations with this forward model emulate the effects of a detector array on the ability to retrieve accurate spectral features. Initial computations indicate significant attenuation at high wavenumbers.

  18. Enhanced radar imaging of object with extrapolation of Fourier transform of space-limited reflectivity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi-Gong; Corsini, G.; Dalle Mese, E.

    The method of extrapolation of frequency data based on the finite size property of the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm is used to address the problem of radar image enhancement. The rate of convergence of the algorithm and the behavior of noise-affected data are discussed. Simulation results show that the convergence rate can be very slow, depending on the ratio of the amount of extrapolated data to that of observed data. This behavior is due to the eigenvalues of the system matrix close to 1.

  19. Limits of Spatial Resolution for Thermography and Other Non-destructive Imaging Methods Based on Diffusion Waves.

    PubMed

    Burgholzer, Peter; Hendorfer, Günther

    2013-01-01

    In this work the measured variable, such as temperature, is a random variable showing fluctuations. The loss of information caused by diffusion waves in non-destructive testing can be described by stochastic processes. In non-destructive imaging, the information about the spatial pattern of a samples interior has to be transferred to the sample surface by certain waves, e.g., thermal waves. At the sample surface these waves can be detected and the interior structure is reconstructed from the measured signals. The amount of information about the interior of the sample, which can be gained from the detected waves on the sample surface, is essentially influenced by the propagation from its excitation to the surface. Diffusion causes entropy production and information loss for the propagating waves. Mandelis has developed a unifying framework for treating diverse diffusion-related periodic phenomena under the global mathematical label of diffusion-wave fields, such as thermal waves. Thermography uses the time-dependent diffusion of heat (either pulsed or modulated periodically) which goes along with entropy production and a loss of information. Several attempts have been made to compensate for this diffusive effect to get a higher resolution for the reconstructed images of the samples interior. In this work it is shown that fluctuations limit this compensation. Therefore, the spatial resolution for non-destructive imaging at a certain depth is also limited by theory.

  20. Benefits of retinal image motion at the limits of spatial vision

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Domdei, Niklas; Harmening, Wolf M.; Roorda, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Even during fixation, our eyes are constantly in motion, creating an ever-changing signal in each photoreceptor. Neuronal processes can exploit such transient signals to serve spatial vision, but it is not known how our finest visual acuity—one that we use for deciphering small letters or identifying distant faces and objects—is maintained when confronted with such change. We used an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope to precisely control the spatiotemporal input on a photoreceptor scale in human observers during a visual discrimination task under conditions with habitual, cancelled or otherwise manipulated retinal image motion. We found that when stimuli moved, acuities were about 25% better than when no motion occurred, regardless of whether that motion was self-induced, a playback of similar motion, or an external simulation. We argue that in our particular experimental condition, the visual system is able to synthesize a higher resolution percept from multiple views of a poorly resolved image, a hypothesis that might extend the current understanding of how fixational eye motion serves high acuity vision. PMID:28129414

  1. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor.

  2. Benefits of retinal image motion at the limits of spatial vision.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, Kavitha; Domdei, Niklas; Harmening, Wolf M; Roorda, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Even during fixation, our eyes are constantly in motion, creating an ever-changing signal in each photoreceptor. Neuronal processes can exploit such transient signals to serve spatial vision, but it is not known how our finest visual acuity-one that we use for deciphering small letters or identifying distant faces and objects-is maintained when confronted with such change. We used an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope to precisely control the spatiotemporal input on a photoreceptor scale in human observers during a visual discrimination task under conditions with habitual, cancelled or otherwise manipulated retinal image motion. We found that when stimuli moved, acuities were about 25% better than when no motion occurred, regardless of whether that motion was self-induced, a playback of similar motion, or an external simulation. We argue that in our particular experimental condition, the visual system is able to synthesize a higher resolution percept from multiple views of a poorly resolved image, a hypothesis that might extend the current understanding of how fixational eye motion serves high acuity vision.

  3. Image-Based Modeling Techniques for Architectural Heritage 3d Digitalization: Limits and Potentialities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagati, C.; Inzerillo, L.; Di Paola, F.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction from images has undergone a revolution in the last few years. Computer vision techniques use photographs from data set collection to rapidly build detailed 3D models. The simultaneous applications of different algorithms (MVS), the different techniques of image matching, feature extracting and mesh optimization are inside an active field of research in computer vision. The results are promising: the obtained models are beginning to challenge the precision of laser-based reconstructions. Among all the possibilities we can mainly distinguish desktop and web-based packages. Those last ones offer the opportunity to exploit the power of cloud computing in order to carry out a semi-automatic data processing, thus allowing the user to fulfill other tasks on its computer; whereas desktop systems employ too much processing time and hard heavy approaches. Computer vision researchers have explored many applications to verify the visual accuracy of 3D model but the approaches to verify metric accuracy are few and no one is on Autodesk 123D Catch applied on Architectural Heritage Documentation. Our approach to this challenging problem is to compare the 3Dmodels by Autodesk 123D Catch and 3D models by terrestrial LIDAR considering different object size, from the detail (capitals, moldings, bases) to large scale buildings for practitioner purpose.

  4. Binary Image Classification: A Genetic Programming Approach to the Problem of Limited Training Instances.

    PubMed

    Al-Sahaf, Harith; Zhang, Mengjie; Johnston, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the computer vision and pattern recognition fields, image classification represents an important yet difficult task. It is a challenge to build effective computer models to replicate the remarkable ability of the human visual system, which relies on only one or a few instances to learn a completely new class or an object of a class. Recently we proposed two genetic programming (GP) methods, one-shot GP and compound-GP, that aim to evolve a program for the task of binary classification in images. The two methods are designed to use only one or a few instances per class to evolve the model. In this study, we investigate these two methods in terms of performance, robustness, and complexity of the evolved programs. We use ten data sets that vary in difficulty to evaluate these two methods. We also compare them with two other GP and six non-GP methods. The results show that one-shot GP and compound-GP outperform or achieve results comparable to competitor methods. Moreover, the features extracted by these two methods improve the performance of other classifiers with handcrafted features and those extracted by a recently developed GP-based method in most cases.

  5. Performance limitations of temperature-emissivity separation techniques in long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Michael; Manolakis, Dimitris; Truslow, Eric; Cooley, Thomas; Brueggeman, Michael; Jacobson, John; Weisner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation or retrieval of surface emissivity from long-wave infrared or thermal infrared (TIR) hyperspectral imaging data acquired by airborne or spaceborne sensors is necessary for many scientific and defense applications. This process consists of two interwoven steps: atmospheric compensation and temperature-emissivity separation (TES). The most widely used TES algorithms for hyperspectral imaging data assume that the emissivity spectra for solids are smooth compared to the atmospheric transmission function. We develop a model to explain and evaluate the performance of TES algorithms using a smoothing approach. Based on this model, we identify three sources of error: the smoothing error of the emissivity spectrum, the emissivity error from using the incorrect temperature, and the errors caused by sensor noise. For each TES smoothing technique, we analyze the bias and variability of the temperature errors, which translate to emissivity errors. The performance model explains how the errors interact to generate temperature errors. Since we assume exact knowledge of the atmosphere, the presented results provide an upper bound on the performance of TES algorithms based on the smoothness assumption.

  6. Nonparametric feature extraction for classification of hyperspectral images with limited training samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kianisarkaleh, Azadeh; Ghassemian, Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Feature extraction plays a crucial role in improvement of hyperspectral images classification. Nonparametric feature extraction methods show better performance compared to parametric ones when distribution of classes is non normal-like. Moreover, they can extract more features than parametric methods do. In this paper, a new nonparametric linear feature extraction method is introduced for classification of hyperspectral images. The proposed method has no free parameter and its novelty can be discussed in two parts. First, neighbor samples are specified by using Parzen window idea for determining local mean. Second, two new weighting functions are used. Samples close to class boundaries will have more weight in the between-class scatter matrix formation and samples close to class mean will have more weight in the within-class scatter matrix formation. The experimental results on three real hyperspectral data sets, Indian Pines, Salinas and Pavia University, demonstrate that the proposed method has better performance in comparison with some other nonparametric and parametric feature extraction methods.

  7. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  8. Principles of the formation of laser radar image being observed through a sea surface and water thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, Alexandr G.

    1994-09-01

    A great number of articles, special reference books and monographs are dedicated to the problem of underwater objects visibility. However many important problems remain unsolved. It concerns the underwater objects visibility through rough surface mainly. The present article is dedicated to the main aspects of this problem, exactly to the underwater objects observation with the aid of certain devices using artificial (laser) illumination. The notion of the image signal/noise ratio is introduced which takes into account both shot noises and signal fluctuations caused by a random air/water interface. Various methods of image formation for optic observation systems are considered. It is shown that the best results are obtained with the aid of the system, which has the maximum space and time averaging of fluctuations during the signal formation. Most important is the conclusion that the equivalence of two most popular methods of image formation (known in the theory visibility in turbid media) is violated, when observation is performed through a rough sea surface. In the considered case the best parameters has a system, which uses a pulsed laser beam of illumination with a wide aperture and a multi-unit receiver with time gating. The examples of calculation of the main characteristics of such systems are given.

  9. Principles of the formation of laser radar image being observed through a sea surface and water thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, Alexandr G.

    1994-11-01

    A great number of articles, special reference books and monographs are dedicated to the problem of underwater objects visibility. However many important problems remain unsolved. It concerns the underwater objects visibility through rough surface mainly. The present article is dedicated to the main aspects of this problem, exactly to the underwater objects observation with the aid of certain devices using artificial (laser) illumination. The notion of the image signal/noise ratio is introduced which takes into account both shot noises and signal fluctuations caused by a random air/water interface. Various methods of image formation for optic observation systems are considered. It is shown that the best results are obtained with the aid of the system, which has the maximum space and time averaging of fluctuations during the signal formation. Most important is the conclusion that the equivalence of two most popular methods of image formation (known in the theory visibility in turbid media) is violated, when observation is performed through a rough sea surface. In the considered case the best parameters has a system, which uses a pulsed laser beam of illumination with a wide aperture and a multi-unit receiver with time gating. The examples of calculation of the main characteristics of such systems are given.

  10. Task-based comparative study of iterative image reconstruction methods for limited-angle x-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Rongping; Myers, Kyle J.

    2011-03-01

    For tomography that has available only projection views from a limited angular span, such as is the case in an x-ray tomosynthesis system, the image reconstruction problem is ill-posed. Reconstruction methods play an important role in optimizing the image quality for human interpretation. In this work we compare three popular iterative image reconstruction methods that have been applied to digital tomosynthesis systems: the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART), the maximum-likelihood (ML) and the total-variation regularized least-square reconstruction method (TVLS). Quality of the images reconstructed from these three methods is assessed through task-based performance. Two tasks are considered in this work: lesion detection and shape discrimination. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) is used as the figure-of-merit. Our simulation results indicate that TVLS and SART perform very similarly and better than the ML in terms of lesion detectability, while the ML performs better than the other two in terms of shape discrimination ability.

  11. Imaging of Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Current Limitations and Future Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. S.; Marsh, A.-M.; McAdam, J.; McCann, G. P.; Burton, J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is driven by a different set of processes than in the general population. These processes lead to pathological changes in cardiac structure and function that include the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dilatation and the development of myocardial fibrosis. Reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy has been the established goal of many interventional trials in patients with chronic kidney disease, but a recent systematic review has questioned whether reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy improves cardiovascular mortality as previously thought. The development of novel imaging biomarkers that link to cardiovascular outcomes and that are specific to the disease processes in ESRD is therefore required. Postmortem studies of patients with ESRD on hemodialysis have shown that the extent of myocardial fibrosis is strongly linked to cardiovascular death and accurate imaging of myocardial fibrosis would be an attractive target as an imaging biomarker. In this article we will discuss the current imaging methods available to measure myocardial fibrosis in patients with ESRD, the reliability of the techniques, specific challenges and important limitations in patients with ESRD, and how to further develop the techniques we have so they are sufficiently robust for use in future clinical trials. PMID:28349062

  12. Multiwavelength Diffraction-limited Imaging of the Evolved Carbon Star IRC +10216. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, P. G.; Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.

    2005-05-01

    High angular resolution images of IRC +10216 taken at various bandpasses within the near-infrared H, K, and L bands are presented. The maps have the highest angular resolution yet recovered and were reconstructed from interferometric measurements obtained at the Keck I telescope in 1997 December and 1998 April, forming a subset of a seven-epoch monitoring program presented earlier by Tuthill and coworkers in Paper I. Systematic changes with observing wavelength are found and discussed in the context of present geometrical models for the circumstellar envelope. With these new high-resolution, multiwavelength data and contemporaneous photometry, we also revisit the hypothesis that the bright compact core of the nebula (component ``A'') marks the location of the central carbon star. We find that directly measured properties of the core (angular size, flux density, color temperature) are consistent with a reddened carbon star photosphere (line-of-sight τ2.2=5.3).

  13. Diffraction Limited Imaging Spectroscopy of a Sgr A* Flare with OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A.; Iserlohe, C.; Larkin, J. E.; Barczys, M.; McElwain, M.; Weiss, J.; Wright, S. A.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2006-12-01

    We present diffraction limited K-band integral field spectroscopy of a flare associated with Sgr A*. Prom the spectrum we determined the K-band spectral index of the pure flare emission to be (F(ν) propto να) of α = -2.6 ± 0.9. If we do not subtract the quiet state emission of SgrA*, then our spectral index is consistent with earlier observations of Ghez et al. (2005, ApJ, 635, in print). We compare our observations with other data already published and discuss the implications.

  14. First-principles theory of Si(110)-(16 × 2) surface reconstruction for unveiling origin of pentagonal scanning tunneling microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Takahiro; Kato, Koichi; Uda, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohno, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    The origin of the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) zigzag chain structures composed of pairs of pentagons on the Si(110)-(16 × 2) surface is unveiled through the first-principles calculation method. Stable Si(110) surface structures, on both flat and stepped surfaces, have been discovered. The energy gain of the stable step structure is larger than those of previously proposed models by 5.0 eV/(16 × 2) cell or more. The structure consists of buckled tetramers, heptagonal rings, tetragonal rings, and threefold-coordinated Si atoms, but no pentagonal rings. It reproduces the experimental STM images only when frequent flip-floppings of the buckled tetramers at room temperature are considered.

  15. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  16. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  17. Superiorized algorithm for reconstruction of CT images from sparse-view and limited-angle polyenergetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, T.; Winn, J.; Faridani, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work in CT image reconstruction has seen increasing interest in the use of total variation (TV) and related penalties to regularize problems involving reconstruction from undersampled or incomplete data. Superiorization is a recently proposed heuristic which provides an automatic procedure to ‘superiorize’ an iterative image reconstruction algorithm with respect to a chosen objective function, such as TV. Under certain conditions, the superiorized algorithm is guaranteed to find a solution that is as satisfactory as any found by the original algorithm with respect to satisfying the constraints of the problem; this solution is also expected to be superior with respect to the chosen objective. Most work on superiorization has used reconstruction algorithms which assume a linear measurement model, which in the case of CT corresponds to data generated from a monoenergetic x-ray beam. Many CT systems generate x-rays from a polyenergetic spectrum, however, in which the measured data represent an integral of object attenuation over all energies in the spectrum. This inconsistency with the linear model produces the well-known beam hardening artifacts, which impair analysis of CT images. In this work we superiorize an iterative algorithm for reconstruction from polyenergetic data, using both TV and an anisotropic TV (ATV) penalty. We apply the superiorized algorithm in numerical phantom experiments modeling both sparse-view and limited-angle scenarios. In our experiments, the superiorized algorithm successfully finds solutions which are as constraints-compatible as those found by the original algorithm, with significantly reduced TV and ATV values. The superiorized algorithm thus produces images with greatly reduced sparse-view and limited angle artifacts, which are also largely free of the beam hardening artifacts that would be present if a superiorized version of a monoenergetic algorithm were used.

  18. Determination of optimal imaging parameters for the reconstruction of a nuclear fuel assembly using limited angle neutron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abir, M. I.; Islam, F. F.; Craft, A.; Williams, W. J.; Wachs, D. M.; Chichester, D. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Lee, H. K.

    2016-01-01

    The core components of nuclear reactors (e.g., fuel assemblies, spacer grids, control rods) encounter harsh environments due to high temperature, physical stress, and a tremendous level of radiation. The integrity of these elements is crucial for safe operation of nuclear power plants; post-irradiation examination (PIE) can reveal information about the integrity of these components. Neutron computed tomography (CT) is one important PIE measurement tool for nondestructively evaluating the structural integrity of these items. CT typically requires many projections to be acquired from different view angles, after which a mathematical algorithm is used for