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Sample records for imaging spatial resolution

  1. Effects of Spatial Resolution on Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Can; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial resolution on image registration. Based on the assumption of additive Gaussian noise on the images, the mean and variance of the distribution of the sum of squared differences (SSD) were estimated. Using these estimates, we evaluate a distance between the SSD distributions of aligned images and non-aligned images. The experimental results show that by matching the resolutions of the moving and fixed images one can get a better image registration result. The results agree with our theoretical analysis of SSD, but also suggest that it may be valid for mutual information as well. PMID:27773960

  2. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  3. Photoplethysmographic imaging of high spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei; Teplov, Victor; Saarenheimo, Riku; Nippolainen, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method of formation photoplethysmographic images with high spatial resolution from video recordings of a living body in the reflection geometry. The method (patent pending) is based on lock-in amplification of every pixel of the recorded video frames. A reference function required for synchronous detection of cardiovascular pulse waves is formed from the same frames. The method is featured by ability to visualize dynamic changes in cardiovascular pulse wave during the cardiac (or respiratory) cycle. We demonstrate that the system is capable to detect the minimal irritations of the body such as gentle scratching of the skin by own finger. PMID:21483621

  4. Effects of spatial resolution ratio in image fusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ling, Y.; Ehlers, M.; Usery, E.L.; Madden, M.

    2008-01-01

    In image fusion, the spatial resolution ratio can be defined as the ratio between the spatial resolution of the high-resolution panchromatic image and that of the low-resolution multispectral image. This paper attempts to assess the effects of the spatial resolution ratio of the input images on the quality of the fused image. Experimental results indicate that a spatial resolution ratio of 1:10 or higher is desired for optimal multisensor image fusion provided the input panchromatic image is not downsampled to a coarser resolution. Due to the synthetic pixels generated from resampling, the quality of the fused image decreases as the spatial resolution ratio decreases (e.g. from 1:10 to 1:30). However, even with a spatial resolution ratio as small as 1:30, the quality of the fused image is still better than the original multispectral image alone for feature interpretation. In cases where the spatial resolution ratio is too small (e.g. 1:30), to obtain better spectral integrity of the fused image, one may downsample the input high-resolution panchromatic image to a slightly lower resolution before fusing it with the multispectral image.

  5. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  6. Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method for scintigraphic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinci, G.; Massari, R.; Scandellari, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes an innovative patented Super Spatial Resolution (SSR) method applied to scintigraphic devices. The aim of Super Resolution (SR) techniques is to enhance the resolution of an imaging system, using information from several images. SR reconstruction may be considered as a second generation problem of Image Restoration. It combines several slightly different Low Resolution (LR) images to obtain a High Resolution (HR) image. SR techniques are, widely, described in scientific literature mainly for applications in video communication, object recognition and image compression. In this paper we focus to apply the SR task to the scintigraphic imaging. Specifically, it is described as a patented method that uses a High Resolution Scintigraphic Camera (HRSC) to collect and process a set of scintigraphic images, in view of obtaining a very high resolution image. The HRSC device, which is currently used in Medical Imaging, is based on a parallel square holes collimator and on a Hamamatsu H8500 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT). The SSR method is applied to the synthetic images of three different phantoms, to verify the effective spatial resolution values. The results confirm that it is possible to achieve optimal spatial resolution values at different depths, useful in small object and small animal imaging. Our study confirms the feasibility of a very high resolution system in scintigraphic imaging and the possibility to have gamma cameras using the SSR method, to perform clinical applications on patients.

  7. Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.

  8. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  9. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images characterized by an estimation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency. The contents include: 1) MTF Analysis; 2) Target Analysis; 3) "Pulse Target"; 4) "Pulse" Method; 5) Target Images; 6) Bridge Profiles; 7) MTF Calculation; 8) MTF Results; and 9) Results Summary.

  10. Generating High-Temporal and Spatial Resolution TIR Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Huerta, M.; Lagüela, S.; Alfieri, S. M.; Menenti, M.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery to monitor global biophysical dynamics requires the availability of thermal infrared data at high temporal and spatial resolution because of the rapid development of crops during the growing season and the fragmentation of most agricultural landscapes. Conversely, no single sensor meets these combined requirements. Data fusion approaches offer an alternative to exploit observations from multiple sensors, providing data sets with better properties. A novel spatio-temporal data fusion model based on constrained algorithms denoted as multisensor multiresolution technique (MMT) was developed and applied to generate TIR synthetic image data at both temporal and spatial high resolution. Firstly, an adaptive radiance model is applied based on spectral unmixing analysis of . TIR radiance data at TOA (top of atmosphere) collected by MODIS daily 1-km and Landsat - TIRS 16-day sampled at 30-m resolution are used to generate synthetic daily radiance images at TOA at 30-m spatial resolution. The next step consists of unmixing the 30 m (now lower resolution) images using the information about their pixel land-cover composition from co-registered images at higher spatial resolution. In our case study, TIR synthesized data were unmixed to the Sentinel 2 MSI with 10 m resolution. The constrained unmixing preserves all the available radiometric information of the 30 m images and involves the optimization of the number of land-cover classes and the size of the moving window for spatial unmixing. Results are still being evaluated, with particular attention for the quality of the data streams required to apply our approach.

  11. A 50 nm spatial resolution EUV imaging-resolution dependence on object thickness and illumination bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Kostecki, Jerzy

    2011-05-09

    In this paper we report a desk-top microscopy reaching 50 nm spatial resolution in very compact setup using a gas-puff laser plasma EUV source. The thickness of an object and the bandwidth of illuminating radiation were studied in order to estimate their quantitative influence on the EUV microscope spatial resolution. EUV images of various thickness objects obtained by illumination with variable bandwidth EUV radiation were compared in terms of knife-edge spatial resolution to study the bandwidth/object thickness parasitic influence on spatial resolution of the EUV microscope. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Imaging metals in biology: balancing sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J; de Jonge, Martin D; McColl, Gawain

    2015-10-07

    Metal biochemistry drives a diverse range of cellular processes associated with development, health and disease. Determining metal distribution, concentration and flux defines our understanding of these fundamental processes. A comprehensive analysis of biological systems requires a balance of analytical techniques that inform on metal quantity (sensitivity), chemical state (selectivity) and location (spatial resolution) with a high degree of certainty. A number of approaches are available for imaging metals from whole tissues down to subcellular organelles, as well as mapping metal turnover, protein association and redox state within these structures. Technological advances in micro- and nano-scale imaging are striving to achieve multi-dimensional and in vivo measures of metals while maintaining the native biochemical environment and physiological state. This Tutorial Review discusses state-of-the-art imaging technology as a guide to obtaining novel insight into the biology of metals, with sensitivity, selectivity and spatial resolution in focus.

  13. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(2.5) as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM(2.5) and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM(2.5) ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM(2.5) levels and wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High resolution spatial map imaging of a gaseous target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stei, Martin; von Vangerow, Johannes; Otto, Rico; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Carrascosa, Eduardo; Best, Thorsten; Wester, Roland

    2013-06-01

    Electrostatic ion imaging with the velocity map imaging mode is a widely used method in atomic and molecular physics and physical chemistry. In contrast, the spatial map imaging (SMI) mode has received very little attention, despite the fact that it has been proposed earlier [A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3477 (1997)], 10.1063/1.1148310. Here, we present a detailed parametric characterization of SMI both by simulation and experiment. One-, two- and three-dimensional imaging modes are described. The influence of different parameters on the imaging process is described by means of a Taylor expansion. To experimentally quantify elements of the Taylor expansion and to infer the spatial resolution of our spectrometer, photoionization of toluene with a focused laser beam has been carried out. A spatial resolution of better than 4 μm out of a focal volume of several mm in diameter has been achieved. Our results will be useful for applications of SMI to the characterization of laser beams, the overlap control of multiple particle or light beams, and the determination of absolute collision cross sections.

  15. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  16. Improving PET spatial resolution and detectability for prostate cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, H.; Guerin, L.; Casey, M. E.; Conti, M.; Eriksson, L.; Michel, C.; Fanti, S.; Pettinato, C.; Adler, S.; Choyke, P.

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common forms of cancer among men, can benefit from recent improvements in positron emission tomography (PET) technology. In particular, better spatial resolution, lower noise and higher detectability of small lesions could be greatly beneficial for early diagnosis and could provide a strong support for guiding biopsy and surgery. In this article, the impact of improved PET instrumentation with superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity are discussed, together with the latest development in PET technology: resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction. Using simulated cancer lesions, inserted in clinical PET images obtained with conventional protocols, we show that visual identification of the lesions and detectability via numerical observers can already be improved using state of the art PET reconstruction methods. This was achieved using both resolution recovery and time-of-flight reconstruction, and a high resolution image with 2 mm pixel size. Channelized Hotelling numerical observers showed an increase in the area under the LROC curve from 0.52 to 0.58. In addition, a relationship between the simulated input activity and the area under the LROC curve showed that the minimum detectable activity was reduced by more than 23%.

  17. Dynamic Raman imaging system with high spatial and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Dai, Yinzhen; He, Hao; Lv, Ruiqi; Zong, Cheng; Ren, Bin

    2017-09-01

    There is an increasing need to study dynamic changing systems with significantly high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this work, we integrated point-scanning, line-scanning, and wide-field Raman imaging techniques into a single system. By using an Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) with a high gain and high frame rate, we significantly reduced the time required for wide-field imaging, making it possible to monitor the electrochemical reactions in situ. The highest frame rate of EMCDD was ˜50 fps, and the Raman images for a specific Raman peak can be obtained by passing the signal from the sample through the Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The spatial resolutions of scanning imaging and wide-field imaging with a 100× objective (NA = 0.9) are 0.5 × 0.5 μm2 and 0.36 × 0.36 μm2, respectively. The system was used to study the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal distribution for Au Nanoparticle aggregates, and dynamic Raman imaging of an electrochemical reacting system.

  18. Role of color and spatial resolution in digital imaging colposcopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric R.; Engel, John R.; Craine, Brian L.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a practical digital imaging colposcope for use in research on early detection of cancerous and pre-cancerous tissue in the cervix. Several copies of the system have now been used in a variety of clinical and research environments. Two issues of considerable interest which emerged early in our work involved the roles of color and spatial resolution as they applied to digital imaging colposcopy. In each instance these qualities potentially have a significant impact on the diagnostic efficacy of the system. In order to evaluate the role of these parameters we devised and conducted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) evaluation of the system. It is apparent from these tests that a spatial resolution of 512 x 480 pixel with 7 or 8 bits of contrast is adequate for the task. The more interesting result arises from the study of the use of color in these examinations; it appears that in general, contrary to the widely held perception of the physicians involved, color apparently provides the clinician with little or no diagnostic information. Indeed, in some instances, access to color seemed to confuse the physician and resulted in an elevated rate of false positives. Results of the ROC tests are presented in this paper along with their implications for further development of this imaging modality.

  19. Spatially resolved and observer-free experimental quantification of spatial resolution in tomographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsekenis, S. A.; McCann, H.; Tait, N.

    2015-03-15

    We present a novel framework and experimental method for the quantification of spatial resolution of a tomography system. The framework adopts the “black box” view of an imaging system, considering only its input and output. The tomography system is locally stimulated with a step input, viz., a sharp edge. The output, viz., the reconstructed images, is analysed by Fourier decomposition of their spatial frequency components, and the local limiting spatial resolution is determined using a cut-off threshold. At no point is an observer involved in the process. The framework also includes a means of translating the quantification region in the imaging space, thus creating a spatially resolved map of objectively quantified spatial resolution. As a case-study, the framework is experimentally applied using a gaseous propane phantom measured by a well-established chemical species tomography system. A spatial resolution map consisting of 28 regions is produced. In isolated regions, the indicated performance is 4-times better than that suggested in the literature and varies by 57% across the imaging space. A mechanism based on adjacent but non-interacting beams is hypothesised to explain the observed behaviour. The mechanism suggests that, as also independently concluded by other methods, a geometrically regular beam array maintains maximum objectivity in reconstructions. We believe that the proposed framework, methodology, and findings will be of value in the design and performance evaluation of tomographic imaging arrays and systems.

  20. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperate in the characterization of high-to-moderate-resolution commercial imagery of mutual interest. One of the systems involved in this effort is the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Reourcesat-1 satellite, IRS-P6. Spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images was characterized by estimating the value of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency. The Nyquist frequency is defined as half the sampling frequency, and the sampling frequency is equal to the inverse of the ground sample distance. The MTF was calculated as a ratio of the Fourier transform of a profile across an AWiFS image of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge and the Fourier transform of a profile across an idealized model of the bridge for each spectral band evaluated. The mean MTF value for the AWiFS imagery evaluated was estimated to be 0.1.

  1. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  2. Optoelectronic image scanning with high spatial resolution and reconstruction fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craubner, Siegfried I.

    2002-02-01

    In imaging systems the detector arrays deliver at the output time-discrete signals, where the spatial frequencies of the object scene are mapped into the electrical signal frequencies. Since the spatial frequency spectrum cannot be bandlimited by the front optics, the usual detector arrays perform a spatial undersampling and as a consequence aliasing occurs. A means to partially suppress the backfolded alias band is bandwidth limitation in the reconstruction low-pass, at the price of resolution loss. By utilizing a bilinear detector array in a pushbroom-type scanner, undersampling and aliasing can be overcome. For modeling the perception, the theory of discrete systems and multirate digital filter banks is applied, where aliasing cancellation and perfect reconstruction play an important role. The discrete transfer function of a bilinear array can be imbedded into the scheme of a second-order filter bank. The detector arrays already build the analysis bank and the overall filter bank is completed with the synthesis bank, for which stabilized inverse filters are proposed, to compensate for the low-pass characteristics and to approximate perfect reconstruction. The synthesis filter branch can be realized in a so-called `direct form,' or the `polyphase form,' where the latter is an expenditure-optimal solution, which gives advantages when implemented in a signal processor. This paper attempts to introduce well-established concepts of the theory of multirate filter banks into the analysis of scanning imagers, which is applicable in a much broader sense than for the problems addressed here. To the author's knowledge this is also a novelty.

  3. Spatially Regularized Compressed Sensing for High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Dolui, Sudipto

    2013-01-01

    Despite the relative recency of its inception, the theory of compressive sampling (aka compressed sensing) (CS) has already revolutionized multiple areas of applied sciences, a particularly important instance of which is medical imaging. Specifically, the theory has provided a different perspective on the important problem of optimal sampling in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with an ever-increasing body of works reporting stable and accurate reconstruction of MRI scans from the number of spectral measurements which would have been deemed unacceptably small as recently as five years ago. In this paper, the theory of CS is employed to palliate the problem of long acquisition times, which is known to be a major impediment to the clinical application of high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). Specifically, we demonstrate that a substantial reduction in data acquisition times is possible through minimization of the number of diffusion encoding gradients required for reliable reconstruction of HARDI scans. The success of such a minimization is primarily due to the availability of spherical ridgelet transformation, which excels in sparsifying HARDI signals. What makes the resulting reconstruction procedure even more accurate is a combination of the sparsity constraints in the diffusion domain with additional constraints imposed on the estimated diffusion field in the spatial domain. Accordingly, the present paper describes an original way to combine the diffusion-and spatial-domain constraints to achieve a maximal reduction in the number of diffusion measurements, while sacrificing little in terms of reconstruction accuracy. Finally, details are provided on an efficient numerical scheme which can be used to solve the aforementioned reconstruction problem by means of standard and readily available estimation tools. The paper is concluded with experimental results which support the practical value of the proposed reconstruction methodology. PMID:21536524

  4. A Method of Spatial Mapping and Reclassification for High-Spatial-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guizhou; Liu, Jianbo; He, Guojin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on a strategic mechanism of spatial mapping and reclassification. The proposed method includes four steps. First, the multispectral image is classified by a traditional pixel-based classification method (support vector machine). Second, the panchromatic image is subdivided by watershed segmentation. Third, the pixel-based multispectral image classification result is mapped to the panchromatic segmentation result based on a spatial mapping mechanism and the area dominant principle. During the mapping process, an area proportion threshold is set, and the regional property is defined as unclassified if the maximum area proportion does not surpass the threshold. Finally, unclassified regions are reclassified based on spectral information using the minimum distance to mean algorithm. Experimental results show that the classification method for high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images based on the spatial mapping mechanism and reclassification strategy can make use of both panchromatic and multispectral information, integrate the pixel- and object-based classification methods, and improve classification accuracy. PMID:24453808

  5. Fourier domain design of microgrid imaging polarimeters with improved spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Keigo; LeMaster, Daniel A.

    2014-05-01

    Microgrid polarimetric imagers sacrifice spatial resolution for sensitivity to states of linear polarization. We have recently shown that a 2 × 4 microgrid analyzer pattern sacrifices less spatial resolution than the conventional 2× 2 case without compromising polarization sensitivity. In this paper, we discuss the design strategy that uncovered the spatial resolution benefits of the 2 × 4 array.

  6. On the creation of high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data from multi-temporal low spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; van Aardt, Jan; Messinger, David

    2017-05-01

    The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission aims to provide global imaging spectroscopy data to the benefit of especially ecosystem studies. The onboard spectrometer will collect radiance spectra from the visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) regions (400-2500 nm). The mission calls for fine spectral resolution (10 nm band width) and as such will enable scientists to perform material characterization, species classification, and even sub-pixel mapping. However, the global coverage requirement results in a relatively low spatial resolution (GSD 30m), which restricts applications to objects of similar scales. We therefore have focused on the assessment of sub-pixel vegetation structure from spectroscopy data in past studies. In this study, we investigate the development or reconstruction of higher spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy data via fusion of multi-temporal data sets to address the drawbacks implicit in low spatial resolution imagery. The projected temporal resolution of the HyspIRI VSWIR instrument is 15 days, which implies that we have access to as many as six data sets for an area over the course of a growth season. Previous studies have shown that select vegetation structural parameters, e.g., leaf area index (LAI) and gross ecosystem production (GEP), are relatively constant in summer and winter for temperate forests; we therefore consider the data sets collected in summer to be from a similar, stable forest structure. The first step, prior to fusion, involves registration of the multi-temporal data. A data fusion algorithm then can be applied to the pre-processed data sets. The approach hinges on an algorithm that has been widely applied to fuse RGB images. Ideally, if we have four images of a scene which all meet the following requirements - i) they are captured with the same camera configurations; ii) the pixel size of each image is x; and iii) at least r2 images are aligned on a grid of x/r - then a high-resolution image, with a pixel

  7. Passive Standoff Super Resolution Imaging using Spatial-Spectral Multiplexing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-14

    transform variable of OPD in cycles per unit length, and the constant term from Eq. (89) has been removed for clarity. The full width spectral resolution...an average spatial period of 145.8 μm, which corresponds to an average spatial frequency of fc = 6.87 cycles /mm across the SLM. This carrier was...an average frequency of fc = 6.87 cycles /mm, was modulated with randomly generated envelopes. Random angular spectra were generated in MATLAB as

  8. Super Resolution from Hyperview Image Stack by Spatial Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2016-09-01

    An image stack for a hyperview representation could contain millions of different perspective views with extreme image similarity. The recording of all views from a computational 3d model implicates a lateral displacement of the virtual camera. Because of the huge number of views, the offset in between two adjoining camera positions can be very minor. If such a virtual setup reproduces a real hyperview screen setup, the offset can be below the wavelength of the visible light. But even with such small changes, there is an intrinsic probability for a measurable difference in between two neighbour images. Such image dissimilarity can be proofed successfully also in very basic 3d scenes. By using a quantity of juxtapositional images from the hyperview image stack, the resolution of the rendered images can be considerably improved, which is commonly known as super resolution. The utilisation of super resolution images in hyperview could cut the necessity of full frame computing and will reduce the effective render time.

  9. TDDA technology for high spatial resolution SWIR InGaAs imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-11-01

    With the development of remote sensing technology, shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology has got more and more attention because of its ability through the fog and high spatial resolution. High spatial resolution SWIR imaging often requires high frame frequency. If the frame frequency is too high, it could cause the shortage of the image's signal to noise ratio (SNR), seriously affecting image quality. In order to solve the contradiction between high spatial resolution and sensitivity, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) technology is proposed in this paper to improve system's SNR and image quality. A prototype of SWIR imaging system based on a large format area InGaAs detector is designed, which demonstrates TDDA technology. The experiment results indicate that TDDA technology can increase system's SNR of the square root of accumulative stage and improve image's uniformity. The results in this paper are helpful for the improvement and application of high spatial resolution SWIR imaging technology.

  10. On spatial resolution of quasi-optical focal plane antenna array imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Leonid V.; Voronko, Alexander I.; Volkova, Natalie L.

    2004-08-01

    The spatial resolution of millimeter wave (MMW), submillimeter wave (SMMW) and infrared (IR) quasi-optical imagers based on the usage of focal plane antenna arrays (FPAA) is limited by several common factors. Analytical expressions for the point spread functions (PSF) of FPAA imagers are derived for both coherent and spatially incoherent imaging. The possibility of developing advanced super-resolution imaging algorithms using PSFs determined to a high accuracy is discussed.

  11. Image Jitter Enhances Visual Performance when Spatial Resolution Is Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Lynne M.; Strang, Niall C.; Scobie, Fraser; Love, Gordon D.; Seidel, Dirk; Manahilov, Velitchko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Visibility of low–spatial frequency stimuli improves when their contrast is modulated at 5 to 10 Hz compared with stationary stimuli. Therefore, temporal modulations of visual objects could enhance the performance of low vision patients who primarily perceive images of low–spatial frequency content. We investigated the effect of retinal-image jitter on word recognition speed and facial emotion recognition in subjects with central visual impairment. Methods. Word recognition speed and accuracy of facial emotion discrimination were measured in volunteers with AMD under stationary and jittering conditions. Computer-driven and optoelectronic approaches were used to induce retinal-image jitter with duration of 100 or 166 ms and amplitude within the range of 0.5 to 2.6° visual angle. Word recognition speed was also measured for participants with simulated (Bangerter filters) visual impairment. Results. Text jittering markedly enhanced word recognition speed for people with severe visual loss (101 ± 25%), while for those with moderate visual impairment, this effect was weaker (19 ± 9%). The ability of low vision patients to discriminate the facial emotions of jittering images improved by a factor of 2. A prototype of optoelectronic jitter goggles produced similar improvement in facial emotion discrimination. Word recognition speed in participants with simulated visual impairment was enhanced for interjitter intervals over 100 ms and reduced for shorter intervals. Conclusions. Results suggest that retinal-image jitter with optimal frequency and amplitude is an effective strategy for enhancing visual information processing in the absence of spatial detail. These findings will enable the development of novel tools to improve the quality of life of low vision patients. PMID:22879420

  12. Image jitter enhances visual performance when spatial resolution is impaired.

    PubMed

    Watson, Lynne M; Strang, Niall C; Scobie, Fraser; Love, Gordon D; Seidel, Dirk; Manahilov, Velitchko

    2012-09-06

    Visibility of low-spatial frequency stimuli improves when their contrast is modulated at 5 to 10 Hz compared with stationary stimuli. Therefore, temporal modulations of visual objects could enhance the performance of low vision patients who primarily perceive images of low-spatial frequency content. We investigated the effect of retinal-image jitter on word recognition speed and facial emotion recognition in subjects with central visual impairment. Word recognition speed and accuracy of facial emotion discrimination were measured in volunteers with AMD under stationary and jittering conditions. Computer-driven and optoelectronic approaches were used to induce retinal-image jitter with duration of 100 or 166 ms and amplitude within the range of 0.5 to 2.6° visual angle. Word recognition speed was also measured for participants with simulated (Bangerter filters) visual impairment. Text jittering markedly enhanced word recognition speed for people with severe visual loss (101 ± 25%), while for those with moderate visual impairment, this effect was weaker (19 ± 9%). The ability of low vision patients to discriminate the facial emotions of jittering images improved by a factor of 2. A prototype of optoelectronic jitter goggles produced similar improvement in facial emotion discrimination. Word recognition speed in participants with simulated visual impairment was enhanced for interjitter intervals over 100 ms and reduced for shorter intervals. Results suggest that retinal-image jitter with optimal frequency and amplitude is an effective strategy for enhancing visual information processing in the absence of spatial detail. These findings will enable the development of novel tools to improve the quality of life of low vision patients.

  13. Ultrashort microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging: a breakthrough in excitation efficiency and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Lou, Cunguang; Yang, Sihua; Ji, Zhong; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2012-11-21

    With theoretical prediction and experimental validation, we propose a novel approach to significantly enhance the conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic (TA) imaging by using an ultrashort microwave pulse. The implementation of the ultrashort microwave pulse leads to orders of magnitude enhancement in excitation efficiency and spatial resolution, compared to that from existing TA imaging techniques. This allows high-resolution (~ 100 micron resolution) TA imaging to be acquired noninvasively. The present work represents a major breakthrough in the conversion efficiency of the TA effect and the resolution of TA imaging, which can potentially be used for clinical imaging.

  14. Achieving High Spatial Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy with Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-03-07

    Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful platform for biomedical imaging and molecular binding kinetics analysis. However, the spatial resolution of SPRM along the plasmon propagation direction (longitudinal) is determined by the decaying length of the plasmonic wave, which can be as large as tens of microns. Different methods have been proposed to improve the spatial resolution, but each at the expense of decreased sensitivity or temporal resolution. Here we present a method to achieve high spatial resolution SPRM based on deconvolution of complex field. The method does not require additional optical setup and improves the spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction. We applied the method to image nanoparticles and achieved close-to-diffraction limit resolution in both longitudinal and transverse directions.

  15. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Karls, Joseph; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Vanderby, Ray; Sethares, William

    2014-07-01

    Modern ultrasound systems can output video images containing more spatial and temporal information than still images. Super-resolution techniques can exploit additional information but face two challenges: image registration and complex motion. In addition, information from multiple available frequencies is unexploited. Herein, we utilised these information sources to create better ultrasound images and videos, extending existing technologies for image capture. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution processing using multiple motion estimation and frequency combination was applied to ultrasound videos of deforming models. Processed images are larger, have greater clarity and detail, and less variability in intensity between frames. Significantly, strain measurements are more accurate and precise than those from raw videos, and have a higher contrast ratio between 'tumour' and 'surrounding tissue' in a phantom model. We attribute improvements to reduced noise and increased resolution in processed images. Our methods can significantly improve quantitative and qualitative assessments of ultrasound images when compared assessments of standard images.

  16. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  17. Research on the affect of differential-images technique to the resolution of infrared spatial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guang; An, Yuan; Qi, Yingchun; Hu, Fusheng

    2007-12-01

    The optical system of infrared spatial camera adopts bigger relative aperture and bigger pixel size on focal plane element. These make the system have bulky volume and low resolution. The potential of the optical systems can not be exerted adequately. So, one method for improving resolution of infrared spatial camera based on multi-frame difference-images is introduced in the dissertation. The method uses more than one detectors to acquire several difference images, and then reconstructs a new high-resolution image from these images through the relationship of pixel grey value. The technique of difference-images that uses more than two detectors is researched, and it can improve the resolution 2.5 times in theory. The relationship of pixel grey value between low-resolution difference-images and high-resolution image is found by analyzing the energy of CCD sampling, a general relationship between the enhanced times of the resolution of the detected figure with differential method and the least count of CCD that will be used to detect figure is given. Based on the research of theory, the implementation process of utilizing difference-images technique to improve the resolution of the figure was simulated used Matlab software by taking a personality image as the object, and the software can output the result as an image. The result gotten from the works we have finished proves that the technique is available in high-resolution image reconstruction. The resolution of infrared spatial camera can be improved evidently when holding the size of optical structure or using big size detector by applying for difference image technique. So the technique has a high value in optical remote fields.

  18. Resolution and Brightness Characteristics of Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) Images

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described a novel beamforming method that images the spatial correlation of an echo wave field with demonstrated applications to clutter reduction in high-noise environments. In this paper, several characteristics of the resolution and brightness of short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) images formed by this method are compared with B-mode images formed by conventional delay-and-sum beamforming methods. Point target widths were measured to estimate resolution, the autocorrelation of image texture was measured to estimate texture size, and the contrast (i.e., brightness ratio) of clinically relevant targets was assessed. SLSC images demonstrate improved resolution and contrast with increasing values of channel noise and clutter, whereas B-mode resolution was degraded in the presence of high noise (i.e., > −12 dB channel noise-to-signal ratios) and high clutter magnitudes (i.e., > −21 dB relative to point target magnitude). Lateral resolution in SLSC images was improved with increasing lag value, whereas axial resolution was degraded with increasing correlation kernel length. The texture size of SLSC images was smaller than that of matched B-mode images. Results demonstrate that the resolution and contrast of coherence-based images depend on a range of parameters, but are generally superior to those of matched B-mode images under challenging imaging conditions. PMID:26168173

  19. Spatial resolution is dependent on image content for SPECT with iterative reconstruction incorporating distance dependent resolution (DDR) correction.

    PubMed

    Badger, Daniel; Barnden, Leighton

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the dependence of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) spatial resolution on the content of images for iterative reconstruction with distance dependent resolution (DDR) correction. An experiment was performed using a perturbation technique to measure change in resolution of line sources in simple and complex images with iterative reconstruction with increasing iteration. Projections of the line sources were reconstructed alone and again after the addition of projections of a uniform flood or a complex phantom. An alternative experiment used images of a realistic brain phantom and evaluated an effective spatial resolution by matching the images to the digital version of the phantom convolved with 3D Gaussian kernels. The experiments were performed using ordered subset expectation maximisation iterative reconstruction with and without the use of DDR correction. The results show a significant difference in reconstructed resolution between images of line sources depending on the content of the added image. The full width at half maximum of images of a line source reconstructed using DDR correction increased by 20-30 % when the added image was complex. Without DDR this difference was much smaller and disappeared with increasing iteration. Reported SPECT resolution should be taken as indicative only with regard to clinical imaging if the measurement is made using a point or line source alone and an iterative reconstruction algorithm is used.

  20. Improvement of spatial resolution in the longitudinal direction for isotropic imaging in helical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Ota, Takamasa; Fujii, Misako; Kazama, Masahiro; Okumura, Miwa; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to confirm the isotropic spatial resolution of multislice CT with a 0.5 mm slice thickness. Isotropic spatial resolution means that the spatial resolution in the transaxial plane (X-Y plane) and that in the longitudinal direction (Z direction) are equivalent. To obtain point spread function (PSF) values in the X-Y-Z directions, three-dimensional voxel data were obtained by helical scanning of a bead phantom. The modulation transfer function (MTF) values were then obtained by three-dimensional Fourier transform of the PSF. Evaluation of the spatial resolution in the X-Y-Z directions by the MTF values showed that the spatial resolution in the Z direction does not depend on the reconstruction kernel used. It was also found that the spatial resolution in the Z direction, as compared with that in the X-Y plane, is superior with the standard kernel for the abdomen and is inferior with the high-definition kernel for the ears/bones. By performing sharpening filter processing in the Z direction with a high-definition kernel, comparable spatial resolution could be obtained in the X-Y-Z directions. It was confirmed that adjusting the spatial resolution in the Z direction with the reconstruction kernel used is an effective method for isotropic imaging.

  1. Zoom lens design for a novel imaging spectrometer that controls spatial and spectral resolution individually.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin; Kim, T H; Kong, H J; Lee, Jong Ung

    2006-05-20

    A novel imaging spectrometer can individually control spatial and spectral resolution by using zoom lenses as the foreoptics of the system and a focusing lens. By varying the focal length we can use the focusing lens to change the spatial and spectral dimensions; with the foreoptics, however, we can change only the spatial dimension. Therefore the spectral resolution and the spectral range are affected by the zoom ratio of the focusing lens, whereas the spatial resolution and the field of view are affected by the multiplication of the zoom ratios of the foreoptics and the focusing lens. By properly combining two zoom ratios, we can control the spectral resolution with a fixed spatial resolution or the spatial resolution with a fixed spectral resolution. For an imaging spectrometer with this novel zooming function, we used the lens module method and third-order aberration theory to design an initial four-group zoom system with an external entrance pupil for the focusing lens. Furthermore, using the optical design software CODE V, we obtained an optimized zoom lens with a focal-length range of 50 to 150 mm. Finally, the zoom system with its transmission grating in the Littrow configuration performs satisfactorily as the focusing lens of an imaging spectrometer in the wavelength range 450-900 nm.

  2. Effects of satellite image spatial aggregation and resolution on estimates of forest land area

    Treesearch

    M.D. Nelson; R.E. McRoberts; G.R. Holden; M.E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Satellite imagery is being used increasingly in association with national forest inventories (NFIs) to produce maps and enhance estimates of forest attributes. We simulated several image spatial resolutions within sparsely and heavily forested study areas to assess resolution effects on estimates of forest land area, independent of other sensor characteristics. We...

  3. High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging of cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Turba, Ulku C; Housseini, Ahmed M; Kern, John A; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2010-02-01

    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with cystic adventitial disease can demonstrate connections between cysts in the adventitia and the adjacent joint, which is important for successful treatment. The inability to identify these during surgery can lead to a recurrence; thus, high spatial resolution MRI has the potential to affect therapy. This article presents the high spatial resolution MRI findings of cystic adventitial disease in a series of three consecutive patients and discusses the relevance of these findings to the etiology and therapy.

  4. Note: spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates.

    PubMed

    Fiksel, G; Marshall, F J; Mileham, C; Stoeckl, C

    2012-08-01

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu K(α) radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 μm and 109 μm, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  5. Note: Spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiksel, G.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-08-01

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu Kα radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 μm and 109 μm, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  6. Note: Spatial resolution of Fuji BAS-TR and BAS-SR imaging plates

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2012-08-15

    The spatial resolution of two types of imaging plates, Fuji BAS-TR and Fuji BAS-SR, has been measured using a knife-edge x-ray source of 8-keV Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation. The values for the spatial resolution, defined as the distance between 10% and 90% levels of the edge spread function, are 94 {mu}m and 109 {mu}m, respectively. The resolution values are important for quantitative analysis of x-ray and particle imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics.

  7. Atmospheric Correction Prototype Algorithm for High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Earth Observing Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the creation of a prototype algorithm for atmospheric correction using high spatial resolution earth observing imaging systems. The objective of the work was to evaluate accuracy of a prototype algorithm that uses satellite-derived atmospheric products to generate scene reflectance maps for high spatial resolution (HSR) systems. This presentation focused on preliminary results of only the satellite-based atmospheric correction algorithm.

  8. Enhancing spatial resolution of infrared imagery using overlap of sequence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiahao; Li, Chunlai; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution thermal infrared image, by which the information of a scene can be described in details, is extensively used in many fields including computer vision process, medicine, and remote sensing, etc. This paper introduces a super-resolution reconstruction algorithm in combination of phase related motion estimating algorithm and iterative back-projecting algorithm. Continuous frames of the thermal infrared image aerially shot are extracted, the subpixel displacement of each frame of image relative to the reference image is estimated with the phase related motion estimating algorithm, and then the subpixel displacement data acquired is combined with the iterative back-projecting algorithm to actualize the super-resolution reconstruction of thermal infrared image aerially shot. The thermal infrared images were aerially shot above Zhoushan. The experimental result has proven the image spatial resolution can be effectively improved by this algorithm.

  9. Enhancing effect of phase coherence factor for improvement of spatial resolution in ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the important factors that determines ultrasound image quality. In the present study, methods using the phase variance of ultrasonic echoes received by individual transducer elements have been examined for improvement of spatial resolution. An imaging method, i.e., phase coherence imaging, which uses the phase coherence factor (PCF) obtained from the phase variance of received ultrasonic echoes, was recently proposed. Spatial resolution is improved by weighting ultrasonic RF signals obtained by delay-and-sum (DAS) beam forming using PCF. In the present study, alternative PCFs, i.e., exponential PCF, harmonic PCF, and Gaussian PCF, have been proposed and examined for further improvement of spatial resolution. Spatial resolutions realized by the proposed PCFs were evaluated by an experiment using a phantom. The full widths at half maxima of the lateral profiles of an echo from a string phantom were 2.61 mm (DAS only), 1.46 mm (conventional PCF), and 0.48-0.62 mm (proposed PCFs). The PCFs newly proposed in the present study showed better spatial resolutions than the conventional PCF. The proposed PCFs also realized better visualization of echoes from a diffuse scattering medium than the conventional PCF.

  10. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2016-04-15

    Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe the chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Two image metrics, viz., "chemical image contrast" (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and "corrected resolving power factor" (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest in an image, were developed. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in

  11. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  12. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest in an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.

  13. Noise Removal with Maintained Spatial Resolution in Raman Images of Cells Exposed to Submicron Polystyrene Particles

    PubMed Central

    Ahlinder, Linnea; Wiklund Lindström, Susanne; Lejon, Christian; Geladi, Paul; Österlund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage. In this study we use a super-resolution algorithm with Tikhonov regularization, intended to improve the image quality without demanding an increased number of collected pixels. Images of cells exposed to polystyrene particles have been acquired with two different step lengths, i.e., the distance between pixels, and compared to each other and to corresponding images treated with the super-resolution algorithm. It is shown that the resolution after application of super-resolution algorithms is not significantly improved compared to the theoretical limit for optical microscopy. However, to reduce noise and artefacts in the hyperspectral Raman images while maintaining the spatial resolution, we show that it is advantageous to use short mapping step lengths and super-resolution algorithms with appropriate regularization. The proposed methodology should be generally applicable for Raman imaging of biological samples and other photo-sensitive samples.

  14. Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred G.; Broberg, Steve E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a space based instrument concept that will provide scientists with data needed to support key ongoing and future Earth System Science investigations. The measurement approach builds on the observations made by AIRS and MODIS and exceeds their capability with improved spatial and spectral resolution. This paper describes the expected products and the instrument concept that can meet those requirements.

  15. Full field spatially-variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction for the HRRT.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Georgios I; Kotasidis, Fotis A; Matthews, Julian C; Markiewicz, Pawel J; Lionheart, William R; Reader, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Accurate characterisation of the scanner's point spread function across the entire field of view (FOV) is crucial in order to account for spatially dependent factors that degrade the resolution of the reconstructed images. The HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction software includes a shift-invariant resolution kernel, which leads to transaxially non-uniform resolution in the reconstructed images. Unlike previous work to date in this field, this work is the first to model the spatially variant resolution across the entire FOV of the HRRT, which is the highest resolution human brain PET scanner in the world. In this paper we developed a spatially variant image-based resolution modelling reconstruction dedicated to the HRRT, using an experimentally measured shift-variant resolution kernel. Previously, the system response was measured and characterised in detail across the entire FOV of the HRRT, using a printed point source array. The newly developed resolution modelling reconstruction was applied on measured phantom, as well as clinical data and was compared against the HRRT users' community resolution modelling reconstruction, which is currently in use. Results demonstrated improvements both in contrast and resolution recovery, particularly for regions close to the edges of the FOV, with almost uniform resolution recovery across the entire transverse FOV. In addition, because the newly measured resolution kernel is slightly broader with wider tails, compared to the deliberately conservative kernel employed in the HRRT users' community software, the reconstructed images appear to have not only improved contrast recovery (up to 20% for small regions), but also better noise characteristics.

  16. Direct Imaging of Single Cells and Tissue at Subcellular Spatial Resolution Using Transmission Geometry MALDI MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Todd, Erik M.; Rawhouser, Patrick D.; Yang, Junhai; Norris, Jeremy L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The need of cellular and sub-cellular spatial resolution in LDI / MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) necessitates micron and sub-micron laser spot sizes at biologically relevant sensitivities, introducing significant challenges for MS technology. To this end we have developed a transmission geometry vacuum ion source that allows the laser beam to irradiate the back side of the sample. This arrangement obviates the mechanical / ion optic complications in the source by completely separating the optical lens and ion optic structures. We have experimentally demonstrated the viability of transmission geometry MALDI MS for imaging biological tissues and cells with sub-cellular spatial resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in conjunction with new sample preparation protocols, the sensitivity of this instrument is sufficient to obtain molecular images at sub-micron spatial resolution. PMID:23147833

  17. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  18. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  19. Improvement of range spatial resolution of medical ultrasound imaging by element-domain signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The range spatial resolution is an important factor determining the image quality in ultrasonic imaging. The range spatial resolution in ultrasonic imaging depends on the ultrasonic pulse length, which is determined by the mechanical response of the piezoelectric element in an ultrasonic probe. To improve the range spatial resolution without replacing the transducer element, in the present study, methods based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) were proposed. The proposed methods were applied to echo signals received by individual transducer elements in an ultrasonic probe. The basic experimental results showed that the axial half maximum of the echo from a string phantom was improved from 0.21 mm (conventional method) to 0.086 mm (ML) and 0.094 mm (MUSIC).

  20. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it.

  1. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Conley, Ray; Chu, Yong S.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray’s superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioning it. PMID:26846188

  2. Image readout device with electronically variable spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H. A.

    1981-07-01

    An invention relating to the use of a standing acoustic wave charge storage device as an image readout device is described. A frequency f sub 1 was applied to the storage transfer device to create a traveling electric field in the device in one direction along a straight line. A second frequency f sub 2 was applied to the charge transfer device to create a traveling electric field opposite to the first traveling electric field. A standing wave was created. When an image was focused on the charge transfer device, light was stored in the wells of the standing wave. When the frequency f sub 2 is removed from the device, the standing wave tends to break up and the charges stored move to an electrode connected to an output terminal and to a utilization device where the received charges represent the image on the surface of the charge transfer device along a projection of said straight line.

  3. Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on spatial resolution characterization for QuickBird panochromatic images in 2003-2004 and presents data measurements and analysis of SSC edge target deployment and edge response extraction and modeling. The results of the characterization are shown as values of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency and as the Relative Edge Response (RER) components. The results show that RER is much less sensitive to accuracy of the curve fitting than the value of MTF at Nyquist frequency. Therefore, the RER/edge response slope is a more robust estimator of the digital image spatial resolution than the MTF. For the QuickBird panochromatic images, the RER is consistently equal to 0.5 for images processed with the Cubic Convolution resampling and to 0.8 for the MTF resampling.

  4. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  5. Pushing the boundaries of diagnostic CT systems for high spatial resolution imaging tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P.; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Garrett, John W.; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Ke

    2017-03-01

    In a previous work [Cruz-Bastida et al Med. Phys. 43, 2399 (2016)], the spatial resolution performance of a new High-Resolution (Hi-Res) multi-detector row CT (MDCT) scan mode and the associated High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels was systematically characterized. The purpose of the present work was to study the noise properties of the Hi-Res scan mode and the joint impact of spatial resolution and noise characteristics on high contrast and high spatial resolution imaging tasks. Using a physical phantom and a diagnostic MDCT system, equipped with both Hi-Res and conventional scan modes, noise power spectrum (NPS) measurements were performed at 8 off-centered positions (0 to 14 cm with an increment of 2 cm) for 8 non-HD kernels and 7 HD kernels. An in vivo rabbit experiment was then performed to demonstrate the potential clinical value of the Hi-Res scan mode. Without the HD kernels, the Hi-Res scan mode preserved the shape of the NPS and slightly increased noise magnitude across all object positions. The combined use of the Hi-Res scan mode and HD kernels led to a greater noise increase and pushed the NPS towards higher frequencies, particularly for those edge-preserving or edge-enhancing HD kernels. Results of the in vivo rabbit study demonstrate important trade-offs between spatial resolution and noise characteristics. Overall, for a given high contrast and high spatial resolution imaging task (bronchi imaging), the benefit of spatial resolution improvement introduced by the Hi-Res scan mode outweighs the potential noise amplification, leading to better overall imaging performance for both centered and off-centered positions.

  6. A Comparison of Spatial and Spectral Image Resolution for Mapping Invasive Plants in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Emma C.; Ustin, Susan L.; Ramirez, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant ( Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass ( Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum ( Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  7. A comparison of spatial and spectral image resolution for mapping invasive plants in coastal california.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Ustin, Susan L; Ramirez, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    We explored the potential of detecting three target invasive species: iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata), and blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. We compared the accuracy of mapping six communities (intact coastal scrub, iceplant invaded coastal scrub, iceplant invaded chaparral, jubata grass invaded chaparral, blue gum invaded chaparral, and intact chaparral) using four images with different combinations of spatial and spectral resolution: hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery (174 wavebands, 4 m spatial resolution), spatially degraded AVIRIS (174 bands, 30 m), spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 4 m), and both spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS (6 bands, 30 m, i.e., simulated Landsat ETM data). Overall success rates for classifying the six classes was 75% (kappa 0.7) using full resolution AVIRIS, 58% (kappa 0.5) for the spatially degraded AVIRIS, 42% (kappa 0.3) for the spectrally degraded AVIRIS, and 37% (kappa 0.3) for the spatially and spectrally degraded AVIRIS. A true Landsat ETM image was also classified to illustrate that the results from the simulated ETM data were representative, which provided an accuracy of 50% (kappa 0.4). Mapping accuracies using different resolution images are evaluated in the context of community heterogeneity (species richness, diversity, and percent species cover). Findings illustrate that higher mapping accuracies are achieved with images possessing high spectral resolution, thus capturing information across the visible and reflected infrared solar spectrum. Understanding the tradeoffs in spectral and spatial resolution can assist land managers in deciding the most appropriate imagery with respect to target invasives and community characteristics.

  8. Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging with Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Solomon, Oren; Adam, Dan; Eldar, Yonina

    2016-08-15

    Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current superlocalization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.

  9. Fast Vascular Ultrasound Imaging With Enhanced Spatial Resolution and Background Rejection.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Solomon, Oren; Adam, Dan; Eldar, Yonina C

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound super-localization microscopy techniques presented in the last few years enable non-invasive imaging of vascular structures at the capillary level by tracking the flow of ultrasound contrast agents (gas microbubbles). However, these techniques are currently limited by low temporal resolution and long acquisition times. Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) is a fluorescence microscopy technique enabling sub-diffraction limit imaging with high temporal resolution by calculating high order statistics of the fluctuating optical signal. The aim of this work is to achieve fast acoustic imaging with enhanced resolution by applying the tools used in SOFI to contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) plane-wave scans. The proposed method was tested using numerical simulations and evaluated using two in-vivo rabbit models: scans of healthy kidneys and VX-2 tumor xenografts. Improved spatial resolution was observed with a reduction of up to 50% in the full width half max of the point spread function. In addition, substantial reduction in the background level was achieved compared to standard mean amplitude persistence images, revealing small vascular structures within tumors. The scan duration of the proposed method is less than a second while current super-localization techniques require acquisition duration of several minutes. As a result, the proposed technique may be used to obtain scans with enhanced spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, facilitating flow-dynamics monitoring. Our method can also be applied during a breath-hold, reducing the sensitivity to motion artifacts.

  10. Optimal Spatial Resolution of Omnidirectional Imaging Systems for Pipe Inspection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan Tezerjani, Abbasali; Mehrandezh, Mehran; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-10-01

    Achieving optimal spatial resolution in imaging systems plays a major role in the design of vision-based industrial inspection tools. Single-view omnidirectional imaging systems provide a cost-effective and computationally-traceable solution for real-time inspection of infrastructure with a favorable size factor. We formulate, for the first time, the spatial cylindrical resolution of omnidirectional Catadioptric and Dioptric imaging systems with the focus on pipe inspection applications. We also provide a design guideline to achieve the highest resolution in these systems. First, we deliver a comprehensive study on optimal resolution in Catadioptric imaging systems which consist of a perspective pinhole camera, a collimated laser as the light source, and a reflective surface (i.e., hyperbolic mirror). Variation of the spatial resolution in terms of the camera's focal length, the mirror curvature, and the relative position between the laser projector and the camera is fully investigated via simulation and experiments. Also, the optimal resolution in Dioptric systems, which consist of a camera with compound refractive lenses (i.e., fish-eye lens) is studied and compared with that in Catadioptric systems. Tests were conducted on a 40-cm-diameter PVC pipe in a controlled laboratory environment.

  11. High-Spatial-Resolution Thermal Infrared Satellite Images for Lake Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steissberg, T. E.; Hook, S. J.; Schladow, G.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) satellite images can be used to study transport processes in lakes, such as wind-driven upwelling and surface circulation, providing a measure of spatial variability and horizontal distribution of water temperature that conventional field-based measurements cannot provide. High-spatial-resolution TIR images provide a detailed view of fine-scale processes, such as surface jets, that cannot be clearly resolved in moderate-resolution images, and they enable the accurate measurement of surface transport and circulation patterns. The surface temperature maps derived from high-resolution thermal infrared ASTER and Landsat ETM+ images, in conjunction with moderate-resolution TIR images acquired by MODIS, enabled the characterization of wind-driven upwelling and the measurement of surface currents and circulation at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA. The images, paired with in situ surface temperature and meteorological data, have shown that wind-driven partial upwelling events occur at least twice monthly throughout the spring and summer stratified period, transporting water from intermediate depths to the surface. These are important events that contribute to the patchiness and heterogeneity that characterize natural aquatic systems. The high spatial resolution of ASTER and ETM+ and the small time separation between their subsequent overpasses allow the surface currents and general circulation in lakes and coastal environments to be accurately quantified using the maximum cross-correlation method. The surface currents and circulation at Lake Tahoe were measured using a pair of cross-platform high-resolution TIR images acquired 38 minutes apart by ETM+ and ASTER. Mean currents of 5--10 cm/s were measured, with maximum currents approaching 35 cm/s. The eastward transport of a surface jet extending from an upwelling front was clearly apparent, with 15--30 cm/s currents. The vector field delineated three gyres, consistent with surface drifter

  12. Matrix Sublimation/Recrystallization for Imaging Proteins by Mass Spectrometry at High Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    We have employed matrix deposition by sublimation for protein image analysis on tissue sections using a hydration/recrystallization process that produces high quality MALDI mass spectra and high spatial resolution ion images. We systematically investigated different washing protocols, the effect of tissue section thickness, the amount of sublimated matrix per unit area and different recrystallization conditions. The results show that an organic solvent rinse followed by ethanol/water rinses substantially increased sensitivity for the detection of proteins. Both the thickness of tissue section and amount of sinapinic acid sublimated per unit area have optimal ranges for maximal protein signal intensity. Ion images of mouse and rat brain sections at 50, 20 and 10 µm spatial resolution are presented and are correlated with H&E stained optical images. For targeted analysis, histology directed imaging can be performed using this protocol where MS analysis and H&E staining are performed on the same section. PMID:21639088

  13. Label-free high-resolution imaging of live cells with deconvolved spatial light interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Justin P; Wang, Zhuo; Popescu, Gabriel; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a powerful new quantitative phase optical imaging technique that can be used for studying live cells without the need for exogenous contrast agents. This paper proposes a novel deconvolution-based approach to reconstructing SLIM data, which dramatically improves the visual quality of the images. The proposed deconvolution formulation is tailored to the physics of SLIM imaging of biological samples, and a new fast algorithm is designed for computationally-efficient image reconstruction in this setting. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that deconvolution can reduce the width of the point-spread function by at least 20%, and can significantly improve the contrast of high-resolution features. Temporally-resolved SLIM imaging with the high spatial resolution enabled by deconvolution provides new opportunities for studying the dynamics of cellular and sub-cellular processes.

  14. Two-photon imaging of spatially extended neuronal network dynamics with high temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Kyle P; Eng, Alfred; White, John A; Mertz, Jerome

    2008-07-30

    We describe a simple two-photon fluorescence imaging strategy, called targeted path scanning (TPS), to monitor the dynamics of spatially extended neuronal networks with high spatiotemporal resolution. Our strategy combines the advantages of mirror-based scanning, minimized dead time, ease of implementation, and compatibility with high-resolution low-magnification objectives. To demonstrate the performance of TPS, we monitor the calcium dynamics distributed across an entire juvenile rat hippocampus (>1.5mm), at scan rates of 100 Hz, with single cell resolution and single action potential sensitivity. Our strategy for fast, efficient two-photon microscopy over spatially extended regions provides a particularly attractive solution for monitoring neuronal population activity in thick tissue, without sacrificing the signal-to-noise ratio or high spatial resolution associated with standard two-photon microscopy. Finally, we provide the code to make our technique generally available.

  15. Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Detector for Improved Spatial and Energy Resolution Radioisotopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Samira; Mahmoudian, Babak; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2017-01-01

    The detector in single-photon emission computed tomography has played a key role in the quality of the images. Over the past few decades, developments in semiconductor detector technology provided an appropriate substitution for scintillation detectors in terms of high sensitivity, better energy resolution, and also high spatial resolution. One of the considered detectors is cadmium telluride (CdTe). The purpose of this paper is to review the CdTe semiconductor detector used in preclinical studies, small organ and small animal imaging, also research in nuclear medicine and other medical imaging modalities by a complete inspect on the material characteristics, irradiation principles, applications, and epitaxial growth method.

  16. Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Detector for Improved Spatial and Energy Resolution Radioisotopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour, Samira; Mahmoudian, Babak; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh

    2017-01-01

    The detector in single-photon emission computed tomography has played a key role in the quality of the images. Over the past few decades, developments in semiconductor detector technology provided an appropriate substitution for scintillation detectors in terms of high sensitivity, better energy resolution, and also high spatial resolution. One of the considered detectors is cadmium telluride (CdTe). The purpose of this paper is to review the CdTe semiconductor detector used in preclinical studies, small organ and small animal imaging, also research in nuclear medicine and other medical imaging modalities by a complete inspect on the material characteristics, irradiation principles, applications, and epitaxial growth method. PMID:28553175

  17. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K [Hinsdale, IL

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  18. Compact hybrid real-time hyperspectral imaging system with high effective spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Filip; Abbadi, Ahmad; Herman, Ondrej; Pavelek, Martin; Prenosil, Vaclav

    2016-10-01

    Medical endoscopes for image-guided surgery commonly use standard color image sensors, discarding any more detailed spectral information. Medical spectroscopy devices with various spectral working ranges are specialized to specific medical procedures and in general are not usable for image-guided surgery due to limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. In this paper, we present an initial demonstrator of hyperspectral endoscope, composed of two image sensors with complementing parameters. Using this hybrid approach, combining sensors with different spatial and spectral resolutions and spectral ranges, we obtain improved coverage of all the respective parameters. After digitally processing and merging the video streams, while maintaining the better features of both, we obtain an imaging system providing high effective spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The system is based on field programmable gate arrays. It provides real-time video output (60 Hz), which is usable for navigation during image-guided surgery. The flexible system architecture allows for an easy extension of the processing algorithms and enables minimal video signal latency. Physical dimensions and portability of the system are comparable to standard off-the-shelf medical endoscope cameras. The device can output both processed video and standard visible light video signals on one or more video outputs of the system. The resulting processed video signal obtained from the combined image sensor data greatly increases the amount of useful information available to the end user.

  19. Optimal Gabor filter-based edge detection of high spatial resolution remotely sensed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haohao; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    Edge extraction from high spatial resolution (HSR) remotely sensed images is one of the essential tasks for image segmentation and object identification. We present an optimal Gabor-based edge detection method which mainly focuses on selecting optimal parameters, including central frequency and spectrum scale, for Gabor filter. The central frequency is automatically optimized by phase randomization and the human visual system-based structure similarity index. Next, the optimal spectrum scale is determined based on two-dimensional power spectrum density. The edge detection method is comprehensively discussed in the analysis of parameter sensitivity, overall performance, and comparative tests with several widely used methods. Qualitative and quantitative experimental studies, performed on six test images with various spatial resolution, show that the proposed method provides a promising solution to edge detection from HSR remotely sensed images.

  20. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution of ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Karls, Joseph; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Vanderby, Ray; Sethares, William

    2014-01-01

    Modern ultrasound systems can output video images containing more spatial and temporal information than still images. Super-resolution techniques can exploit additional information but face two challenges: image registration and complex motion. In addition, information from multiple available frequencies is unexploited. Herein, we utilised these information sources to create better ultrasound images and videos, extending existing technologies for image capture. Spatial and frequency-based super-resolution processing using multiple motion estimation and frequency combination was applied to ultrasound videos of deforming models. Processed images are larger, have greater clarity and detail, and less variability in intensity between frames. Significantly, strain measurements are more accurate and precise than those from raw videos, and have a higher contrast ratio between ‘tumour’ and ‘surrounding tissue’ in a phantom model. We attribute improvements to reduced noise and increased resolution in processed images. Our methods can significantly improve quantitative and qualitative assessments of ultrasound images when compared assessments of standard images. PMID:25191631

  1. Assessing spatial resolution versus sensitivity from laser speckle contrast imaging: application to frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Bricq, Stéphanie; Mahé, Guillaume; Rousseau, David; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Varela, Julio Rojas; Abraham, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    For blood perfusion monitoring, laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging is a recent non-contact technique that has the characteristic of delivering noise-like speckled images. To exploit LSC images for quantitative physiological measurements, we developed an approach that implements controlled spatial averaging to reduce the detrimental impact of the noise and improve measurement sensitivity. By this approach, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity can be traded-off in a flexible way depending on the quantitative prospect of the study. As an application, detectability of the cardiac activity from LSC images of forearm using power spectrum analysis is studied through the construction of spatial activity maps offering a window on the blood flow perfusion and its regional distribution. Comparisons with results obtained with signals of laser Doppler flowmetry probes are performed.

  2. High spatial resolution ZnO scintillator for an in situ imaging device in EUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Ren; Nakazato, Tomoharu; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Yamanoi, Kohei; Empizo, Melvin John Fernandez; Hori, Tatsuhiro; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Minami, Yuki; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Momoko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2014-10-01

    A single shot image of a ZnO crystal excited by the EUV laser of Kansai Photon Science Institute was captured. The evaluated EUV beam waist radii from the ZnO emission pattern along the horizontal and vertical axes are 5.0 and 4.7 μm, respectively. The expected focal spot size of EUV laser and the spatial resolution of the magnifier (including the Schwarzschild objectives and lenses) are however 1 and 4 μm, respectively. The discrepancy on the spatial resolutions is attributed to exciton diffusion. We estimated the ZnO exciton diffusion length from the effective decay time which is shortened by exciton-exciton collision quenching and which is dependence on excitation energy density. Our results indicate that the short lifetime of ZnO is required to improve the spatial resolution.

  3. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Foxley, Sean Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  4. High spatial resolution absorption contrast imaging with electron-beam excitation assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Wataru; Fukuta, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    We present high spatial-resolution label-free imaging with an electron-beam excitation-assisted optical microscope (EXA microscope). The EXA microscope improves the spatial resolution down to 100 nm. To realize the high spatial resolution, a nanoscale optical spot is generated by irradiating a fluorescent thin film with a focused electron beam whose spot size is less than 10 nm. The size of the optical spot becomes smaller than the diffraction limited spot size and is reduced to about 100 nm, because the light emission is localized in nanometer-sized region. In this microscopy, it is not necessary to label a specimen for imaging beyond the diffraction limit of the light. The specimen stage is separated from the vacuum chamber of the scanning electron microscope by the fluorescent thin film and a specimen under atmospheric pressure can be imaged. We demonstrated that the high spatial resolution absorption contrast imaging of the crystal of vitamin B9 having absorption at UV wavelengths. The absorption wavelength matches with the wavelength of the emission of the fluorescent thin film we deposited. The fine crystal structure was imaged beyond the optical diffraction limit. The image contrast corresponded with the thickness of the crystal measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The illumination light is absorbed with the vitamin B9 crystal and the intensity of the transmitted light depends on the thickness of the vitamin B9 crystal. The EXA microscope is useful for analysis of growth of a crystal, bio-imaging, and so on.

  5. Laser Beam Filtration for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for Imaging Mass Spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared to the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available. PMID:23661425

  6. Laser beam filtration for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard

    2013-07-01

    We describe an easy and inexpensive way to provide a highly defined Gaussian shaped laser spot on target of 5 μm diameter for imaging mass spectrometry using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument that is designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam on target at its lowest setting. A 25 μm pinhole filter on a swivel arm was installed in the laser beam optics outside the vacuum ion source chamber so it is easily flipped into or out of the beam as desired by the operator. The resulting ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution are sharp since the satellite secondary laser beam maxima have been removed by the filter. Ion images are shown to demonstrate the performance and are compared with the method of oversampling to achieve higher spatial resolution when only a larger laser beam spot on target is available.

  7. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana

    2015-06-24

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ∼13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ∼27000 PSL/mm{sup 2} is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ∼200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry.

  8. Improving the spatial resolution of Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging via the blipped-CAIPI acquisition scheme

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Setsompop, Kawin; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W.; Witzel, Thomas; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    Using simultaneous acquisition from multiple channels of a radio-frequency (RF) coil array, magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) achieves functional MRI acquisitions at a rate of 100 ms per whole-brain volume. InI accelerates the scan by leaving out partition encoding steps and reconstructs images by solving under-determined inverse problems using RF coil sensitivity information. Hence, the correlated spatial information available in the coil array causes spatial blurring in the InI reconstruction. Here, we propose a method that employs gradient blips in the partition encoding direction during the acquisition to provide extra spatial encoding in order to better differentiate signals from different partitions. According to our simulations, this blipped-InI (bInI) method can increase the average spatial resolution by 15.1% (1.3 mm) across the whole brain and from 32.6% (4.2 mm) in subcortical regions, as compared to the InI method. In a visual fMRI experiment, we demonstrate that, compared to InI, the spatial distribution of bInI BOLD response is more consistent with that of a conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) at the level of individual subjects. With the improved spatial resolution, especially in subcortical regions, bInI can be a useful fMRI tool for obtaining high spatiotemporal information for clinical and cognitive neuroscience studies. PMID:24374076

  9. Improving the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance inverse imaging via the blipped-CAIPI acquisition scheme.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Tang; Setsompop, Kawin; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Witzel, Thomas; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous acquisition from multiple channels of a radio-frequency (RF) coil array, magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) achieves functional MRI acquisitions at a rate of 100ms per whole-brain volume. InI accelerates the scan by leaving out partition encoding steps and reconstructs images by solving under-determined inverse problems using RF coil sensitivity information. Hence, the correlated spatial information available in the coil array causes spatial blurring in the InI reconstruction. Here, we propose a method that employs gradient blips in the partition encoding direction during the acquisition to provide extra spatial encoding in order to better differentiate signals from different partitions. According to our simulations, this blipped-InI (bInI) method can increase the average spatial resolution by 15.1% (1.3mm) across the whole brain and from 32.6% (4.2mm) in subcortical regions, as compared to the InI method. In a visual fMRI experiment, we demonstrate that, compared to InI, the spatial distribution of bInI BOLD response is more consistent with that of a conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) at the level of individual subjects. With the improved spatial resolution, especially in subcortical regions, bInI can be a useful fMRI tool for obtaining high spatiotemporal information for clinical and cognitive neuroscience studies.

  10. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-07

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  11. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.

  12. Polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for mass spectrometry imaging using nano-thermal analysis with atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Tai, Tamin; Kertesz, Vilmos; Lin, Ming -Wei; ...

    2017-05-11

    As the spatial resolution of mass spectrometry imaging technologies has begun to reach into the nanometer regime, finding readily available or easily made resolution reference materials has become particularly challenging for molecular imaging purposes. This study describes the fabrication, characterization and use of vertical line array polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging.

  13. Effects of spatial resolution and spectral purity on transvenous coronary angiography images

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.; Thomlinson, W.; Gumer, N.F.

    1994-11-01

    Measurements have been made on the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Coronary Angiography X17B2 beamline under ideal and real imaging conditions to investigate the optimal imaging conditions for spatial resolution and spectral purity. The spatial resolution tests were performed using two multielement Si(Li) detectors (600 element, 0.5mm, pixel-pixel spacing; 1200 element, 0.25mm pixel-pixel spacing. Images were taken of phantoms containing iodine contrast agent over a wide range of incident beam absorption conditions. Patient images were also obtained using the same viewing projection with both detectors. Harmonics present in the imaging beam can be reduced by operating the superconducting wiggler source at reduced field strength. At regions of high absorption in the patient, the harmonics present can contribute to the detected signal. Iodine phantom images were obtained at a wiggler field strength of 3 Tesla (E{sub c}=13.3keV) and 4 Tesla (E{sub c}= I 7.8keV) for comparison. As before, patient images were obtained using the same projection at both wiggler fields. Results of the detector resolution and wiggler eld measurements will be presented for the phantoms as well as the patient scans.

  14. High-resolution digital holographic imaging by using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Da-Yong; Wang, Yun-Xin; Rong, Lu

    2014-09-01

    Digital holography is the product of the optical holography, computer technology and photoelectric detection technology, and has the advantage of high-speed, real-time, full field of view, non-contact and quantitative phase contrast imaging. However, the numerical aperture of the hologram is limited due to the smaller sensitive area of the photoelectric sensor and the larger pixel size, and it is uneasy to meet the practical requirement on the imaging resolution. An approach is presented to achieve the high-resolution digital holographic imaging based on a spatial light modulator(SLM). An amplitude spatial light modulator is placed between the object and the CCD in the lensless Fourier transform digital holographic imaging system. The distribution of a diffraction grating is loaded into the SLM. In this way, more light including the high-frequency content, diffracted from the object, can be collected by the CCD. The standard resolution target is used as the object. The reconstructed image is obtained by the Fresnel diffraction propagation algorithm, which exhibits three diffraction orders. The results show that the resolution is improved from 62.5 μm to 31.3 μm.

  15. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-07-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 μm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 μm×50 μm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 μm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-01-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator∕HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 μm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 μm×50 μm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 μm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity. PMID:18697540

  17. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Wei

    2008-07-01

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 microm. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 microm x 50 microm pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 microm. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  18. SAPHIRE (scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout) for low dose x-ray imaging: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dan; Zhao Wei

    2008-07-15

    An indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with programmable avalanche gain and field emitter array (FEA) readout is being investigated for low-dose and high resolution x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator, e.g., thallium (Tl) doped cesium iodide (CsI), to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP). The charge image created by the scintillator/HARP (SHARP) combination is read out by the electron beams emitted from the FEA. The proposed detector is called scintillator avalanche photoconductor with high resolution emitter readout (SAPHIRE). The programmable avalanche gain of HARP can improve the low dose performance of indirect FPI while the FEA can be made with pixel sizes down to 50 {mu}m. Because of the avalanche gain, a high resolution type of CsI (Tl), which has not been widely used in indirect FPI due to its lower light output, can be used to improve the high spatial frequency performance. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the factors affecting the spatial resolution of SAPHIRE. Since the resolution performance of the SHARP combination has been well studied, the focus of the present work is on the inherent resolution of the FEA readout method. The lateral spread of the electron beam emitted from a 50 {mu}mx50 {mu}m pixel FEA was investigated with two different electron-optical designs: mesh-electrode-only and electrostatic focusing. Our results showed that electrostatic focusing can limit the lateral spread of electron beams to within the pixel size of down to 50 {mu}m. Since electrostatic focusing is essentially independent of signal intensity, it will provide excellent spatial uniformity.

  19. Super-resolution reconstruction to increase the spatial resolution of diffusion weighted images from orthogonal anisotropic acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Benoit; Gholipour, Ali; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables non-invasive investigation and characterization of the white matter but suffers from a relatively poor spatial resolution. Increasing the spatial resolution in DWI is challenging with a single-shot EPI acquisition due to the decreased signal-to-noise ratio and T2* relaxation effect amplified with increased echo time. In this work we propose a super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) technique based on the acquisition of multiple anisotropic orthogonal DWI scans. DWI scans acquired in different planes are not typically closely aligned due to the geometric distortion introduced by magnetic susceptibility differences in each phase-encoding direction. We compensate each scan for geometric distortion by acquisition of a dual echo gradient echo field map, providing an estimate of the field inhomogeneity. We address the problem of patient motion by aligning the volumes in both space and q-space. The SRR is formulated as a maximum a posteriori problem. It relies on a volume acquisition model which describes how the acquired scans are observations of an unknown high-resolution image which we aim to recover. Our model enables the introduction of image priors that exploit spatial homogeneity and enables regularized solutions. We detail our SRR optimization procedure and report experiments including numerical simulations, synthetic SRR and real world SRR. In particular, we demonstrate that combining distortion compensation and SRR provides better results than acquisition of a single isotropic scan for the same acquisition duration time. Importantly, SRR enables DWI with resolution beyond the scanner hardware limitations. This work provides the first evidence that SRR, which employs conventional single shot EPI techniques, enables resolution enhancement in DWI, and may dramatically impact the role of DWI in both neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:22770597

  20. IR-MALDESI Mass Spectrometry Imaging at 50 Micron Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhart, Mark T.; Manni, Jeffrey; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Ekelöf, Måns; Nazari, Milad; Muddiman, David C.

    2017-10-01

    High spatial resolution in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is crucial to understanding the biology dictated by molecular distributions in complex tissue systems. Here, we present MSI using infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) at 50 μm resolution. An adjustable iris, beam expander, and an aspherical focusing lens were used to reduce tissue ablation diameters for MSI at high resolution. The laser beam caustic was modeled using laser ablation paper to calculate relevant laser beam characteristics. The minimum laser spot diameter on the tissue was determined using tissue staining and microscopy. Finally, the newly constructed optical system was used to image hen ovarian tissue with and without oversampling, detailing tissue features at 50 μm resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. High spatial resolution imaging for structural health monitoring based on virtual time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian; Shi, Lihua; Yuan, Shenfang; Shao, Zhixue

    2011-05-01

    Lamb waves are widely used in structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures. Due to the dispersion effect, Lamb wavepackets will be elongated and the resolution for damage identification will be strongly affected. This effect can be automatically compensated by the time reversal process (TRP). However, the time information of the compensated waves is also removed at the same time. To improve the spatial resolution of Lamb wave detection, virtual time reversal (VTR) is presented in this paper. In VTR, a changing-element excitation and reception mechanism (CERM) rather than the traditional fixed excitation and reception mechanism (FERM) is adopted for time information conservation. Furthermore, the complicated TRP procedure is replaced by simple signal operations which can make savings in the hardware cost for recording and generating the time-reversed Lamb waves. After the effects of VTR for dispersive damage scattered signals are theoretically analyzed, the realization of VTR involving the acquisition of the transfer functions of damage detecting paths under step pulse excitation is discussed. Then, a VTR-based imaging method is developed to improve the spatial resolution of the delay-and-sum imaging with a sparse piezoelectric (PZT) wafer array. Experimental validation indicates that the damage scattered wavepackets of A0 mode in an aluminum plate are partly recompressed and focalized with their time information preserved by VTR. Both the single damage and the dual adjacent damages in the plate can be clearly displayed with high spatial resolution by the proposed VTR-based imaging method.

  2. Effect of frequency characteristic of excitation pulse on lateral spatial resolution in coded ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment has frequently been used in clinical situations. The use of portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment expands various diagnosis areas, such as remote medical diagnosis, and emergent diagnosis at disaster. It is expected that portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment will be used more frequently in the future. To make ultrasonic diagnostic equipment portable, the number of transducer elements in an ultrasonic probe should be reduced significantly. Therefore, the transmit-receive sensitivity of the ultrasonic probe is degraded. For the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received ultrasonic echo, coded excitation was introduced in ultrasonic imaging. Owing to pulse compression applied to the received echo signal, its SNR significantly improved without the degradation of the range spatial resolution. However, the lateral spatial resolution in coded ultrasound imaging has not been investigated in previous studies. The present study showed that the lateral resolution in coded ultrasound imaging using a typical code, 5-bit Barker code, was worse than that using a conventional short pulse. Such degradation was discussed in terms of the frequency characteristics of the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer and the excitation pulse. Also, the Gaussian phase coherence factor was introduced as one of the methods to overcome such degradation in lateral spatial resolution.

  3. Effect of optical tissue clearing on spatial resolution and sensitivity of bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Jansen, E Duco; Pickett, Patrick M; Mackanos, Mark A; Virostko, John

    2006-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful method of in vivo molecular imaging based on the use of optically active luciferase reporter genes. Although this method provides superior sensitivity relative to other in vivo imaging methods, spatial resolution is poor due to light scattering. The objective of this study was to use hyperosmotic agents to reduce the scattering coefficient and hence improve spatial resolution of the BLI method. A diffusing fiber tip was used to simulate an isotropic point source of bioluminescence emission (550 to 650 nm). Mouse skin was treated in vitro and in vivo with glycerol (50%, 30 min) and measurements of optical properties, and imaging photon counts were made before, during, and after application of glycerol to the skin sample. Glycerol application to mouse skin had little effect on the absorption coefficient but reduced the reduced scattering coefficient by more than one order of magnitude. This effect was reversible. Consequently, the spot size (i.e., spatial resolution) of the bioluminescence point source imaged through the skin decreased by a factor of 2 (550-nm light) to 3 (650-nm light) after 30 min. Simultaneously, an almost twofold decrease in the amount of light detected by the BLI system was observed, despite the fact that total transmission increased 1.7 times. We have shown here that multiply scattered light is responsible for both observations. We have shown that applying a hyperosmotic clearing agent to the skin of small rodents has the potential to improve spatial resolution of BLI owing to a reduction in the reduced scattering coefficient in the skin by one order of magnitude. However, reducing the scattering coefficient reduces the amount of light reaching the camera due to a reduction in the amount of multiply scattered light that reaches the camera aperture and thus reducing the sensitivity of the method.

  4. Implementation of a Gaussian Beam Laser and Aspheric Optics for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Haase, Andreas; Holle, Armin; Caprioli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a Gaussian beam laser for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry to provide a precisely defined laser spot of 5 µm diameter on target using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument originally designed to produce a 20 µm diameter laser beam spot at its smallest setting. A Gaussian beam laser was installed in the instrument in combination with an aspheric focusing lens. This ion source produced sharp ion images at 5 µm spatial resolution with signals of high intensity as shown for images from thin tissue sections of mouse brain. PMID:24692046

  5. Implementation of a Gaussian Beam Laser and Aspheric Optics for High Spatial Resolution MALDI Imaging MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Haase, Andreas; Holle, Armin; Caprioli, Richard

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the use of a Gaussian beam laser for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry to provide a precisely defined laser spot of 5 μm diameter on target using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument originally designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam spot at its smallest setting. A Gaussian beam laser was installed in the instrument in combination with an aspheric focusing lens. This ion source produced sharp ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution with signals of high intensity as shown for images from thin tissue sections of mouse brain.

  6. Implementation of a Gaussian beam laser and aspheric optics for high spatial resolution MALDI imaging MS.

    PubMed

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Haase, Andreas; Holle, Armin; Caprioli, Richard

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the use of a Gaussian beam laser for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry to provide a precisely defined laser spot of 5 μm diameter on target using a commercial MALDI TOF instrument originally designed to produce a 20 μm diameter laser beam spot at its smallest setting. A Gaussian beam laser was installed in the instrument in combination with an aspheric focusing lens. This ion source produced sharp ion images at 5 μm spatial resolution with signals of high intensity as shown for images from thin tissue sections of mouse brain.

  7. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Hajdok, G; Battista, J J; Cunningham, I A

    2008-07-01

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The "x-ray interaction" modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (< 0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  8. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hajdok, G.; Battista, J. J.; Cunningham, I. A.

    2008-07-15

    The practice of diagnostic x-ray imaging has been transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical advantages over conventional film-based systems, their spatial resolution performance can be a limitation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study to determine fundamental resolution limits caused by x-ray interactions in four converter materials: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), amorphous selenium, cesium iodide, and lead iodide. The ''x-ray interaction'' modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined for each material and compared in terms of the 50% MTF spatial frequency and Wagner's effective aperture for incident photon energies between 10 and 150 keV and various converter thicknesses. Several conclusions can be drawn from their Monte Carlo study. (i) In low-Z (a-Si) converters, reabsorption of Compton scatter x rays limits spatial resolution with a sharp MTF drop at very low spatial frequencies (<0.3 cycles/mm), especially above 60 keV; while in high-Z materials, reabsorption of characteristic x rays plays a dominant role, resulting in a mid-frequency (1-5 cycles/mm) MTF drop. (ii) Coherent scatter plays a minor role in the x-ray interaction MTF. (iii) The spread of energy due to secondary electron (e.g., photoelectrons) transport is significant only at very high spatial frequencies. (iv) Unlike the spread of optical light in phosphors, the spread of absorbed energy from x-ray interactions does not significantly degrade spatial resolution as converter thickness is increased. (v) The effective aperture results reported here represent fundamental spatial resolution limits of the materials tested and serve as target benchmarks for the design and development of future digital x-ray detectors.

  9. Applications of Full-Field X-ray Microscopy for High Spatial Resolution Magnetic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denbeaux, Gregory; Chao, Weilun; Fischer, Peter; Kusinski, Greg; Le Gros, Mark; Pearson, Angelic; Schneider, Gerd

    2001-03-01

    The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope, located at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has recently been established as a tool for high-resolution imaging of magnetic domains. It is a "conventional" full-field transmission microscope which is able to achieve a resolution of 25 nm by using high-precision zone plates. It uses off-axis bend magnet radiation to illuminate samples with elliptically polarized light. When the illumination energy is tuned to absorption edges of specific elements, it can be used as an element-specific probe of magnetism on a 25 nm scale with a contrast provided by magnetic circular dichroism. The illumination energy can be tuned between 250-850 eV. This allows imaging of specific elements including chromium, iron and cobalt. The spectral resolution has been shown to be E/DE = 500-700. This spectral resolution allows a high sensitivity so that magnetization has been imaged within layers as thin as 3 nm. Since this is a photon based magnetic microscopy, fields can be applied to the sample even during imaging without affect ng the spatial resolution. Recent magnetic imaging results will be shown.

  10. Optimization Of The Spatial Resolution Of Moving Object Imaging With Medical X-Ray Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoen, P. J.'t.

    1982-11-01

    The spatial resolution is described in terms of the modulation transfer function (HTF). We will analyze the influence of the focal spot size, the movement of the object, and the resolution of the receptor. The quality of images can only be properly described if the visual system is taken into account. Consequently, we base the MTF quality criterion on the visual detection of the corresponding line-spread and edge-spread images. It appears that there is a positive correlation between this psychophysical quality and the spatial frequency for which the modulation transfer equals 0.25. This finding enables a set of characteristic parameters and nomograms to be developed, which combine the lucidity of the "unsharpness" concept with the exactness of the description by the modulation transfer function,

  11. Increasing spatial resolution and comparison of MR imaging sequences for the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Carl J.; Bolinger, Lizann; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Wang, Ge

    2002-04-01

    The size and location of the cochlea and cochlear nerve are needed to assess the feasibility of cochlea implantation, provide information for surgical planning, and aid in construction of cochlear models. Models of implant stimulation incorporating anatomical and physiological information are likely to provide a better understanding of the biophysics of information transferred with cochlear implants and aid in electrode design and arrangement on cochlear implants. Until recently MR did not provide the necessary image resolution and suffered from long acquisition times. The purpose of this study was to optimize both Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and Steady State Free Precession (FIESTA) imaging scan parameters for the inner ear and comparatively examine both for improved image quality and increased spatial resolution. Image quality was determined by two primary measurements, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness. Optimized parameters for FSE were 120ms, 3000ms, 64, and 32.25kHz for the TE, TR, echo train length, and bandwidth, respectively. FIESTA parameters were optimized to 2.7, 5.5ms, 70 degree(s), and 62.5kHz, for TE, TR, flip angle, and bandwidth, respectively. While both had the same in-plane spatial resolution, 0.625mm, FIESTA data shows higher SNR per acquisition time and better edge sharpness.

  12. Comparison of the spatial resolution of source imaging techniques in high-density EEG and MEG.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, T; Pellegrino, G; Kobayashi, E; Lina, J M; Grova, C

    2017-06-13

    The present study aims at evaluating and comparing electrical and magnetic distributed source imaging methods applied to high-density Electroencephalography (hdEEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. We used resolution matrices to characterize spatial resolution properties of Minimum Norm Estimate (MNE), dynamic Statistical Parametric Mapping (dSPM), standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) and coherent Maximum Entropy on the Mean (cMEM, an entropy-based technique). The resolution matrix provides information of the Point Spread Functions (PSF) and of the Crosstalk functions (CT), this latter being also called source leakage, as it reflects the influence of a source on its neighbors. The spatial resolution of the inverse operators was first evaluated theoretically and then with real data acquired using electrical median nerve stimulation on five healthy participants. We evaluated the Dipole Localization Error (DLE) and the Spatial Dispersion (SD) of each PSF and CT map. cMEM showed the smallest spatial spread (SD) for both PSF and CT maps, whereas localization errors (DLE) were similar for all methods. Whereas cMEM SD values were lower in MEG compared to hdEEG, the other methods slightly favored hdEEG over MEG. In real data, cMEM provided similar localization error and significantly less spatial spread than other methods for both MEG and hdEEG. Whereas both MEG and hdEEG provided very accurate localizations, all the source imaging methods actually performed better in MEG compared to hdEEG according to all evaluation metrics, probably due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the data in MEG. Our overall results show that all investigated methods provide similar localization errors, suggesting very accurate localization for both MEG and hdEEG when similar number of sensors are considered for both modalities. Intrinsic properties of source imaging methods as well as their behavior for well-controlled tasks, suggest an overall better

  13. Test-retest reliability of high spatial resolution diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Shahim, Pashtun; Holleran, Laurena; Kim, Joong H; Brody, David L

    2017-09-11

    We assessed the test-retest reliability of high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Diffusion MRI was acquired using a Siemens 3 Tesla Prisma scanner with 80 mT/m gradients and a 32-channel head coil from each of 3 concussive traumatic brain injury (cTBI) patients and 4 controls twice 0 to 24 days apart. Coefficients of variation (CoV) for DTI parameters were calculated in each DTI Studio parcellated white matter tract at 1.25 mm and 1.75 mm isotropic voxel resolution, as well as DKI parameters at 1.75 mm isotropic. Overall, fractional anisotropy had the best reliability, with mean CoV at 5% for 1.25 mm and 3.5% for 1.75 mm isotropic voxels. Mean CoV for the other DTI metrics were <7.0% for both 1.25 and 1.75 mm isotropic voxels. The mean CoV was ≤4.5% across the DKI metrics. In the commonly injured orbitofrontal and temporal pole regions CoV was <3.5% for all parameters. Thus, with appropriate processing, high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI has good to excellent test-retest reproducibility in both human cTBI patients and controls. However, further technical improvements will be needed to reliably discern the most subtle diffusion abnormalities, especially at high spatial resolution.

  14. High spatial resolution shortwave infrared imaging technology based on time delay and digital accumulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianxin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Yao, Yi; Wang, Shengwei; Zhao, Ding; Shu, Rong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging technology attracts more and more attention by its fascinating ability of penetrating haze and smoke. For application of spaceborne remote sensing, spatial resolution of SWIR is lower compared with that of visible light (VIS) wavelength. It is difficult to balance between the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Some conventional methods, such as enlarging aperture of telescope, image motion compensation, and analog time delay and integration (TDI) technology are used to gain SNR. These techniques bring in higher cost of satellite, complexity of system or other negative factors. In this paper, time delay and digital accumulation (TDDA) method is proposed to achieve higher spatial resolution. The method can enhance the SNR and non-uniformity of system theoretically. A prototype of SWIR imager consists of opto-mechanical, 1024 × 128 InGaAs detector, and electronics is designed and integrated to prove TDDA method. Both of measurements and experimental results indicate TDDA method can promote SNR of system approximated of the square root of accumulative stage. The results exhibit that non-uniformity of system is also improved by this approach to some extent. The experiment results are corresponded with the theoretical analysis. Based on the experiments results, it is proved firstly that the goal of 1 m ground sample distance (GSD) in orbit of 500 km is feasible with the TDDA stage of 30 for SWIR waveband (0.9-1.7 μm).

  15. A Simple Method for Improving the Spatial Resolution in Infrared Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Vaikkinen, Anu; Auno, Samuli; Räikkönen, Heikki; Haapala, Markus; Scotti, Gianmario; Kopra, Jaakko; Piepponen, Petteri; Kauppila, Tiina J.

    2017-06-01

    In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam. Part of the laser energy is lost at longer distance, but this is compensated by focusing of the radiation to a smaller area on the sample surface. The long distance can also be achieved by a set of mirrors, between which the radiation travels before it is directed to the focusing lens and the sample. This method for improving the spatial resolution can be utilized in mass spectrometry imaging of tissues by techniques that utilize IR laser ablation, such as laser ablation electrospray ionization, laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Effect of spatial coherence of LED sources on image resolution in holographic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourreza Ghoushchi, Vahid; Aas, Mehdi; Ulusoy, Erdem; Ürey, Hakan

    2017-02-01

    Holographic Displays (HDs) provide 3D images with all natural depth cues via computer generated holograms (CGHs) implemented on spatial light modulators (SLMs). HDs are coherent light processing systems based on interference and diffraction, thus they generally use laser light. However, laser sources are relatively expensive, available only at some particular wavelengths and difficult to miniaturize. In addition, highly coherent nature of laser light makes some undesired visual effects quite evident, such as speckle noise, interference due to stray light or defects of optical components. On the other hand, LED sources are available in variety of wavelengths, has small die size, and no speckle artifact. However, their finite spatial size introduce some degree of spatial incoherence in an HD system and degrade image resolution, which is the subject of the study in this paper. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the amount of resolution loss depends on the distance between hologram and SLM image planes. For some special configurations, the source size has no effect at all. We also performed experiments with different configurations using lasers and LEDs with different emission areas that vary from 50 μm to 200 μm, and determined Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) curves which agree well with our theoretical model. The results show that it is possible to find configurations where LEDs combined with pinholes almost preserve natural resolution limit of human eye while keeping the loss in light efficiency within tolerable limits.

  17. A Simple Method for Improving the Spatial Resolution in Infrared Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Vaikkinen, Anu; Auno, Samuli; Räikkönen, Heikki; Haapala, Markus; Scotti, Gianmario; Kopra, Jaakko; Piepponen, Petteri; Kauppila, Tiina J.

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry imaging of tissues, the size of structures that can be distinguished is determined by the spatial resolution of the imaging technique. Here, the spatial resolution of IR laser ablation is markedly improved by increasing the distance between the laser and the focusing lens. As the distance between the laser and the lens is increased from 1 to 18 m, the ablation spot size decreases from 440 to 44 μm. This way, only the collimated center of the divergent laser beam is directed on the focusing lens, which results in better focusing of the beam. Part of the laser energy is lost at longer distance, but this is compensated by focusing of the radiation to a smaller area on the sample surface. The long distance can also be achieved by a set of mirrors, between which the radiation travels before it is directed to the focusing lens and the sample. This method for improving the spatial resolution can be utilized in mass spectrometry imaging of tissues by techniques that utilize IR laser ablation, such as laser ablation electrospray ionization, laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization, and matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization.

  18. A versatile fluorescence lifetime imaging system for scanning large areas with high time and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, César; Belsley, Michael; de Matos Gomes, Etelvina; Gonçalves, Hugo; Isakov, Dmitry; Liebold, Falk; Pereira, Eduardo; Pires, Vladimiro; Samantilleke, Anura; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail; Schellenberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    We present a flexible fluorescence lifetime imaging device which can be employed to scan large sample areas with a spatial resolution adjustable from many micrometers down to sub-micrometers and a temporal resolution of 20 picoseconds. Several different applications of the system will be presented including protein microarrays analysis, the scanning of historical samples, evaluation of solar cell surfaces and nanocrystalline organic crystals embedded in electrospun polymeric nanofibers. Energy transfer processes within semiconductor quantum dot superstructures as well as between dye probes and graphene layers were also investigated.

  19. The analysis of high spatial resolution UV and X-ray images by computational modeling. [coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Antiochos, S. K.; Underwood, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Very high resolution stereoscopic images of high temperature loop structures observed at UV and X-ray wavelengths in the solar corona can be used to understand physical processes in the corona. An existing computational model is described and sample results are given to demonstrate that computational modeling of coronal structures can indeed take advantage of very high resolution images. The sample results include the run of temperature and number density along a typical loop and the variation of the differential emission measure with temperature. The integration of the differential emission measure with temperature along a column commensurate with an instrument's spatial resolution is the relevant parameter obtained from UV and X-ray observations. The effects of loop geometry and energy input are examined.

  20. Segmentation d'images a tres haute resolution spatiale basee sur l'analyse multifractale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorons, Matthieu

    The recent availability, in remote sensing, of very high spatial resolution images brings the texture classification of images to a higher level of complexity. The singularity content of very high spatial resolution images, such as those from IKONOS, is very important due to the high local variability of their gray level. Such images have so many details that classical classification algorithms fail to achieve good results. In the case of IKONOS images of forest areas, a texture can be so different within a same class, that it becomes very difficult, even for a human, to classify or interpret them. The study of the high frequency content of the data seems to be a good way to study those images. The multifractal analysis provides us with global and local information on the singularities which represent the high frequency content of the image. We propose a new approach which uses the singularities of the image to achieve the classification of very high spatial resolution optical forestry images. It is based on the computation of the Holder regularity exponent at each point in the image. From this parameter we can compute the local Lacunarity spectrum or the large deviation multifractal spectrum which give information about the geometric distribution of the singularities in the image. So we use global and local descriptors of the regularity of the signal as input parameters to a k-means algorithm. The two algorithms are described and applied to an IKONOS image of forestry as well as to two artificial images, one made of Brodatz textures and the other of fractional brownian motions. The classification results are compared to those obtained with the gabor filters, the laws filters, the fractal dimension, the gaussian Markov random fields and the Haralick co-occurrence parameters. The proposed methods give good results and are even able to segment the image in tree density classes. We also devised tests to see the resistance of the discrimination power of the proposed

  1. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  2. LiF crystals as high spatial resolution neutron imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, M.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Kato, Y.; Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T.; Sakai, T.

    2011-09-01

    Neutron imaging by color center formation in LiF crystals was applied to a sensitivity indicator (SI) as a standard samples for neutron radiography. The SI was exposed to a 5 mm pinhole-collimated thermal neutron beam with an LiF crystal and a neutron imaging plate (NIP) for 120 min in the JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography facility. The image in the LiF crystal was read out using a laser confocal microscope. All gaps were clearly observed in images for both the LiF crystal and the NIP. The experimental results showed that LiF crystals have excellent characteristics as neutron imaging detectors in areas such as high spatial resolution.

  3. A high spatial resolution Stokes polarimeter for motional Stark effect imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Thorman, Alex; Michael, Clive; Howard, John

    2013-06-15

    We describe an enhanced temporally switched interfero-polarimeter that has been successfully deployed for high spatial resolution motional Stark effect imaging on the KSTAR superconducting tokamak. The system utilizes dual switching ferroelectric liquid crystal waveplates to image the full Stokes vector of elliptically polarized and Doppler-shifted Stark-Zeeman Balmer-alpha emission from high energy neutral beams injected into the magnetized plasma. We describe the optical system and compare its performance against a Mueller matrix model that takes account of non-ideal performance of the switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplates and other polarizing components.

  4. Spatially detailed retrievals of spring phenology from single-season high-resolution image time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, Anton; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; Meroni, Michele; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; O'Connor, Brian; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Heurich, Marco; Shepherd, Anita; Paganini, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation indices derived from satellite image time series have been extensively used to estimate the timing of phenological events like season onset. Medium spatial resolution (≥250 m) satellite sensors with daily revisit capability are typically employed for this purpose. In recent years, phenology is being retrieved at higher resolution (≤30 m) in response to increasing availability of high-resolution satellite data. To overcome the reduced acquisition frequency of such data, previous attempts involved fusion between high- and medium-resolution data, or combinations of multi-year acquisitions in a single phenological reconstruction. The objectives of this study are to demonstrate that phenological parameters can now be retrieved from single-season high-resolution time series, and to compare these retrievals against those derived from multi-year high-resolution and single-season medium-resolution satellite data. The study focuses on the island of Schiermonnikoog, the Netherlands, which comprises a highly-dynamic saltmarsh, dune vegetation, and agricultural land. Combining NDVI series derived from atmospherically-corrected images from RapidEye (5 m-resolution) and the SPOT5 Take5 experiment (10m-resolution) acquired between March and August 2015, phenological parameters were estimated using a function fitting approach. We then compared results with phenology retrieved from four years of 30 m Landsat 8 OLI data, and single-year 100 m Proba-V and 250 m MODIS temporal composites of the same period. Retrieved phenological parameters from combined RapidEye/SPOT5 displayed spatially consistent results and a large spatial variability, providing complementary information to existing vegetation community maps. Retrievals that combined four years of Landsat observations into a single synthetic year were affected by the inclusion of years with warmer spring temperatures, whereas adjustment of the average phenology to 2015 observations was only feasible for a few pixels

  5. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2002-10-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial resolution of 5 to 30 {micro}, are a promising approach to high-resolution imaging of NIF target plasmas. Gel bubble detectors were used in successful proof-of-principle imaging experiments on OMEGA. Until recently, bubble detectors appeared to be the only approach capable of achieving neutron images of NIF targets with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. In 2001, NIF reduced the required standoff distance from the target, so that diagnostic components can now be placed as close as 10 cm to the target plasma. This will allow neutron imaging with higher magnification and may make it possible to obtain 5 {micro}m resolution images on NIF using deuterated scintillators. Having accomplished all that they can hope to on OMEGA using gel detectors, they suggested that the 2002 NLUF shots be used to allow experimental tests of the spatial resolution of the CEA-built deuterated scintillators. The preliminary CEA data from the June 2002 run appears to show the spatial resolution using the deuterated scintillator detector array is improved over that obtained in earlier experiments using the proton-based scintillators. Gel detectors, which consist of {approx} 10 {micro}m diameter drops of bubble detector liquid suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume, were chosen for the initial tests on OMEGA since they are easy to use. The bubbles could be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. Imaging NIF target plasmas at neutron yields of 10{sup 15} will require a higher detection efficiency detector. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency which is comparable to that possible using scintillation detectors. A pressure-cycled liquid bubble detector will require a light

  6. Enhanced Sensitivity for High Spatial Resolution Lipid Analysis by Negative Ion Mode MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Peggi M.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Baldwin, H. Scott; Caprioli, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have achieved enhanced lipid imaging to a ~10 μm spatial resolution using negative ion mode matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry, sublimation of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as the MALDI matrix and a sample preparation protocol that uses aqueous washes. We report on the effect of treating tissue sections by washing with volatile buffers at different pHs prior to negative ion mode lipid imaging. The results show that washing with ammonium formate, pH 6.4, or ammonium acetate, pH 6.7, significantly increases signal intensity and number of analytes recorded from adult mouse brain tissue sections. Major lipid species measured were glycerophosphoinositols, glycerophosphates, glycerolphosphoglycerols, glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophospho-serines, sulfatides, and gangliosides. Ion images from adult mouse brain sections that compare washed and unwashed sections are presented and show up to fivefold increases in ion intensity for washed tissue. The sample preparation protocol has been found to be applicable across numerous organ types and significantly expands the number of lipid species detectable by imaging mass spectrometry at high spatial resolution. PMID:22243218

  7. Perfusion and diffusion imaging in acute focal cerebral ischemia: Temporal vs. spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Bardutzky, Juergen; Shen, Qiang; Bouley, James; Sotak, Christopher H.; Duong, Timothy Q.; Fisher, Marc

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) imaging may provide substantial benefits in accurate delineation of normal, ischemic, and at-risk tissue. We compared the capability of low (400 × 400 µm2) and high (200 × 200 µm2) spatial resolution imaging in characterizing the spatiotemporal evolution of the ischemic lesion in a permanent middle artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were performed. Lesion volumes were calculated by using viability thresholds or by visual inspection, and correlated with infarct volume defined by TTC staining at 24 h after MCAO. At the very early phase of ischemia, high-resolution resulted in a significantly larger ADC-derived lesion volume and a smaller PWI/DWI mismatch. At 3 h after MCAO, ADC and CBF lesions showed similar robust correlations with TTC-defined infarct volumes for both groups using previously established thresholds. When lesions were determined visually, low-resolution resulted in a substantial overestimation of TTC-defined infarct volume and a lower inter-observer reliability (r = 0.75), whereas high-resolution produced an excellent correlation with TTC-defined infarct volume and inter-observer reliability (r = 0.96). In conclusion, high-resolution MRI resulted in substantial temporal averaging of the ischemic lesion during the early phase, but was clearly superior in visual determination of final infarct size. Low-resolution reasonably evaluated the temporal and spatial evolution of ischemia when thresholds were used. PMID:15862529

  8. A targeted contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of thrombus: implications of spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L O; Bjørnerud, A; Ahlström, H K; Ladd, D L; Fujii, D K

    2001-04-01

    A preparation of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles coupled to an RGD peptide (RGD-USPIO) was investigated as an MR contrast agent, targeted to activated platelets, in both ex vivo and in vivo thrombus models. Thrombus visualization ex vivo was compared using RGD-USPIO and a non-targeted UPSIO. The influence of thrombus visualization on thrombus exposure time to RGD-USPIO (ex vivo) and on the spatial resolution of the MR image (ex vivo and in vivo) was assessed. RGD-USPIO resulted in better thrombus visualization than non-targeted USPIO ex vivo, and maximum enhancement was achieved after approximately one hour exposure time of the thrombus to RGD-USPIO. The ability to visualize the clots was highly dependent on the spatial resolution of the image. In vivo, an in-plane resolution of less than 0.2 x 0.2 mm(2) was required for good clot visualization after contrast enhancement. It is concluded that the achievable resolution and sensitivity is a potential limitation to the usefulness of active vascular targeting in MRI.

  9. Impulse Response Estimation for Spatial Resolution Enhancement in Ultrasonic NDE Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A

    2004-06-25

    This report describes a signal processing algorithm and MATLAB software for improving spatial resolution in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of materials. Given a measured reflection signal and an associated reference signal, the algorithm produces an optimal least-squares estimate of the impulse response of the material under test. This estimated impulse response, when used in place of the raw reflection signal, enhances the spatial resolution of the ultrasonic measurements by removing distortion caused by the limited-bandwidth transducers and the materials under test. The theory behind the processing algorithms is briefly presented, while the reader is referred to the bibliography for details. The main focus of the report is to describe how to use the MATLAB software. Two processing examples using actual ultrasonic measurements are provided for tutorial purposes.

  10. Measurement Sets and Sites Commonly Used for High Spatial Resolution Image Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Scientists within NASA's Applied Sciences Directorate have developed a well-characterized remote sensing Verification & Validation (V&V) site at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). This site has enabled the in-flight characterization of satellite high spatial resolution remote sensing system products form Space Imaging IKONOS, Digital Globe QuickBird, and ORBIMAGE OrbView, as well as advanced multispectral airborne digital camera products. SSC utilizes engineered geodetic targets, edge targets, radiometric tarps, atmospheric monitoring equipment and their Instrument Validation Laboratory to characterize high spatial resolution remote sensing data products. This presentation describes the SSC characterization capabilities and techniques in the visible through near infrared spectrum and examples of calibration results.

  11. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS-1 image sensor spatial resolution in photographic form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A coherent optical system was used to display the spatial frequency content of the amplitude image of one area of the ground as obtained in the four wavelength bands of the multispectral scanner. This enabled a rapid comparison to be made between the four bands, from which it was clear that bands 5 and 7 were preferred to the others in terms of image definition, and thus mapping and acreage estimation, for the particular agricultural area imaged. With suitable scaling it was also possible to compare the modulation, as a function of spatial frequency, of MSS bands 4 and 5 with the green (BB) and red (DD) bands of the same area from the Apollo 9, SO65 experiment. A significant result is that the modulation in the MSS amplitude imagery is 65%-90% of that in the Apollo 9 amplitude imagery. In addition, the ratio of spatial frequencies for the ERTS-1 and Apollo imagery, at which the same modulation occurs, lies between 0.55 and 0.75 for the red band. This ratio is closely related to the ratio of resolutions for the two sensors. These values corroborate statements that the resolution of the MSS imagery is better than anticipated by pre-flight predictions.

  13. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  14. High-Resolution Cortical Dipole Imaging Using Spatial Inverse Filter Based on Filtering Property

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cortical dipole imaging has been developed to visualize brain electrical activity in high spatial resolution. It is necessary to solve an inverse problem to estimate the cortical dipole distribution from the scalp potentials. In the present study, the accuracy of cortical dipole imaging was improved by focusing on filtering property of the spatial inverse filter. We proposed an inverse filter that optimizes filtering property using a sigmoid function. The ability of the proposed method was compared with the traditional inverse techniques, such as Tikhonov regularization, truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), and truncated total least squares (TTLS), in a computer simulation. The proposed method was applied to human experimental data of visual evoked potentials. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved and the localized dipole distribution was obtained with less noise. PMID:27688747

  15. Monitoring of Antarctic moss ecosystems using a high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovsky, Zbynek; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon; Harwin, Stephen; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The most abundant photosynthetically active plants growing along the rocky Antarctic shore are mosses of three species: Schistidium antarctici, Ceratodon purpureus, and Bryum pseudotriquetrum. Even though mosses are well adapted to the extreme climate conditions, their existence in Antarctica depends strongly on availability of liquid water from snowmelt during the short summer season. Recent changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone are stimulating faster evaporation, which in turn influences moss growing rate, health state and abundance. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Very short growing season, lasting only about three months, requires a time efficient, easily deployable and spatially resolved method for monitoring the Antarctic moss beds. Ground and/or low-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy (called also hyperspectral remote sensing) offers a fast and spatially explicit approach to investigate an actual spatial extent and physiological state of moss turfs. A dataset of ground-based spectral images was acquired with a mini-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) during the Antarctic summer 2012 in the surroundings of the Australian Antarctic station Casey (Windmill Islands). The collection of high spatial resolution spectral images, with pixels about 2 cm in size containing from 162 up to 324 narrow spectral bands of wavelengths between 399 and 998 nm, was accompanied with point moss reflectance measurements recorded with the ASD HandHeld-2 spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., the USA). The first spectral analysis indicates significant differences in red-edge and near-infrared reflectance of differently watered moss patches. Contrary to high plants, where the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents an estimate of green biomass, NDVI of mosses indicates mainly the actual water content. Similarly to high plants, reflectance of visible wavelengths is

  16. Spatial resolution properties of digital autoradiography systems for pre-clinical alpha particle imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Benard, Francois; Celler, Anna; Ruth, Thomas; Schaffer, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Attaching alpha-emitting radionuclides to cancer-targeting agents increases the anti-tumor effects of targeted cancer therapies. The success of alpha therapy for treating bone metastases has increased interest in using targeted alpha therapy (TAT) to treat a broad spectrum of metastatic cancers. Estimating radiation doses to targeted tumors, including small (<250 μm) clusters of cancer cells, and to non-targeted tissues is critical in the pre-clinical development of TATs. However, accurate quantification of heterogeneous distributions of alpha-emitters in small metastases is not possible with existing pre-clinical in-vivo imaging systems. Ex-vivo digital autoradiography using a scintillator in combination with an image intensifier and a charged coupled device (CCD) has gained interest for pre-clinical ex-vivo alpha particle imaging. We present a simulation-based analysis of the fundamental spatial resolution limits of digital autoradiography systems. Spatial resolution was quantified in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and Wagner's equivalent aperture. We modeled systems operating in either particle-counting (PC) or energy-integrating (EI) mode using a cascaded systems approach that accounts for: 1) the stopping power of alpha particles; 2) the distance alpha particles travel within the scintillator; 3) optical blur, and; 4) binning in detector elements. We applied our analysis to imaging of astatine-211 using an LYSO scintillator with thickness ranging from 10 μm to 20 μm. Our analysis demonstrates that when these systems are operated in particle-counting mode with a centroid-calculation algorithm, the effective apertures of 35 μm can be achieved, which suggests that digital autoradiography may enable quantifying the uptake of alpha emitters in tumors consisting of a few cancer cells. Future work will investigate the image noise and energy-resolution properties of digital autoradiography systems.

  17. Ship detection in high spatial resolution remote sensing image based on improved sea-land segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Qiaochu; Zhao, Huijie; Dong, Chao; Meng, Lingjie

    2016-10-01

    A new method to detect ship target at sea based on improved segmentation algorithm is proposed in this paper, in which the improved segmentation algorithm is applied to precisely segment land and sea. Firstly, mean value is replaced instead of average variance value in Otsu method in order to improve the adaptability. Secondly, Mean Shift algorithm is performed to separate the original high spatial resolution remote sensing image into several homogeneous regions. At last, the final sea-land segmentation result can be located combined with the regions in preliminary sea-land segmentation result. The proposed segmentation algorithm performs well on the segment between water and land with affluent texture features and background noise, and produces a result that can be well used in shape and context analyses. Ships are detected with settled shape characteristics, including width, length and its compactness. Mean Shift algorithm can smooth the background noise, utilize the wave's texture features and helps highlight offshore ships. Mean shift algorithm is combined with improved Otsu threshold method in order to maximizes their advantages. Experimental results show that the improved sea-land segmentation algorithm on high spatial resolution remote sensing image with complex texture and background noise performs well in sea-land segmentation, not only enhances the accuracy of land and sea boarder, but also preserves detail characteristic of ships. Compared with traditional methods, this method can achieve accuracy over 90 percent. Experiments on Worldview images show the superior, robustness and precision of the proposed method.

  18. Matrix recrystallization for MALDI-MS imaging of maize lipids at high-spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Duenas, Maria Emilia; Carlucci, Laura; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-06-27

    Matrix recrystallization is optimized and applied to improve lipid ion signals in maize embryos and leaves. A systematic study was performed varying solvent and incubation time. During this study, unexpected side reactions were found when methanol was used as a recrystallization solvent, resulting in the formation of a methyl ester of phosphatidic acid. Furthermore, using an optimum recrystallization condition with isopropanol, there is no apparent delocalization demonstrated with a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pattern and maize leaf images obtained at 10 μm spatial resolution.

  19. Matrix Recrystallization for MALDI-MS Imaging of Maize Lipids at High-Spatial Resolution.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Carlucci, Laura; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-09-01

    Matrix recrystallization is optimized and applied to improve lipid ion signals in maize embryos and leaves. A systematic study was performed varying solvent and incubation time. During this study, unexpected side reactions were found when methanol was used as a recrystallization solvent, resulting in the formation of a methyl ester of phosphatidic acid. Using an optimum recrystallization condition with isopropanol, there is no apparent delocalization demonstrated with a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pattern and maize leaf images obtained at 10 μm spatial resolution. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Matrix Recrystallization for MALDI-MS Imaging of Maize Lipids at High-Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, Maria Emilia; Carlucci, Laura; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-09-01

    Matrix recrystallization is optimized and applied to improve lipid ion signals in maize embryos and leaves. A systematic study was performed varying solvent and incubation time. During this study, unexpected side reactions were found when methanol was used as a recrystallization solvent, resulting in the formation of a methyl ester of phosphatidic acid. Using an optimum recrystallization condition with isopropanol, there is no apparent delocalization demonstrated with a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pattern and maize leaf images obtained at 10 μm spatial resolution.

  1. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

  2. Forest cover of insular Southeast Asia mapped from recent satellite images of coarse spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Malingreau, Jean-Paul

    2003-11-01

    The study provides an example of mapping tropical forest cover from SPOT-Vegetation satellite images of coarse spatial resolution (1 km) for the subregion of insular Southeast Asia. A satellite image mosaic has been generated from satellite images acquired for the period 1998 to 2000. Forest cover has been mapped by unsupervised digital classification. The mapping result has then been compared to selected forest maps from the subregion, demonstrating the potential to provide basic information on forest area extent and distribution, but also on massive forest cover change in the subregional context. Forest area estimates derived from the map for the subregion have been found comparable to those compiled by FAO. The results indicate that many of the remaining tropical forests in Southeast Asia, rich in timber resources and biodiversity, may be lost in the near future if deforestation continues at present or previous rates.

  3. Enhancement of spatial resolution of terahertz imaging systems based on terajet generation by dielectric cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Pham, Hai Huy; Hisatake, Shintaro; Minin, Oleg Vladilenovich; Nagatsuma, Tadao; Minin, Igor Vladilenovich

    2017-05-01

    The terahertz (THz, 0.1-10 THz) region has been attracting tremendous research interest owing to its potential in practical applications such as biomedical, material inspection, and nondestructive imaging. Those applications require enhancing the spatial resolution at a specific frequency of interest. A variety of resolution-enhancement techniques have been proposed, such as near-field scanning probes, surface plasmons, and aspheric lenses. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a mesoscale dielectric cube can be exploited as a novel resolution enhancer by simply placing it at the focused imaging point of a continuous wave THz imaging system. The operating principle of this enhancer is based on the generation—by the dielectric cuboid—of the so-called terajet, a photonic jet in the THz region. A subwavelength hotspot is obtained by placing a Teflon cube, with a 1.46 refractive index, at the imaging point of the imaging system, regardless of the numerical aperture (NA). The generated terajet at 125 GHz is experimentally characterized, using our unique THz-wave visualization system. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the hotspot obtained by placing the enhancer at the focal point of a mirror with a measured NA of 0.55 is approximately 0.55λ, which is even better than the FWHM obtained by a conventional focusing device with the ideal maximum numerical aperture (NA = 1) in air. Nondestructive subwavelength-resolution imaging demonstrations of a Suica integrated circuit card, which is used as a common fare card for trains in Japan, and an aluminum plate with 0.63λ trenches are presented. The amplitude and phase images obtained with the enhancer at 125 GHz can clearly resolve both the air-trenches on the aluminum plate and the card's inner electronic circuitry, whereas the images obtained without the enhancer are blurred because of insufficient resolution. An increase of the image contrast by a factor of 4.4 was also obtained using the enhancer.

  4. Unexpected materials in a Rembrandt painting characterized by high spatial resolution cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyova, Jana; Cersoy, Sophie; Richardin, Pascale; Laprévote, Olivier; Walter, Philippe; Brunelle, Alain

    2011-02-01

    The painting materials of the Portrait of Nicolaes van Bambeeck (Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels, inv. 155) painted by Rembrandt van Rijn in 1641 has been studied using high resolution cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging. In the first step, a moderate spatial resolution (2 μm) was used to characterize the layer structure and the chemical composition of each layer on account of a high mass resolution. Then, in the second step, and despite a low mass resolution, the cluster primary ion beam was focused well below 1 μm in order to reveal smaller structures in the painting sample. The study confirmed the presence of starch in the second ground layer, which is quite surprising and, at least for Rembrandt paintings, has never been reported before. TOF-SIMS also indicated the presence of proteins, which, added to the size and shape of lake particles, suggests that it was manufactured from shearings (waste of textile manufacturing) of dyed wool, used as the source of the dyestuff. The analyses have also shown various lead carboxylates, being the products of the interaction between lead white and the oil of the binding medium. These findings considerably contribute to the understanding of Rembrandt's studio practice and thus demonstrate the importance and potential of cluster-TOF-SIMS imaging in the characterization on a submicrometer scale of artist painting materials.

  5. A new method for spatial resolution enhancement of hyperspectral images using sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, Nezhad Z.; Karami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral images (HSI) have high spectral and low spatial resolutions. However, multispectral images (MSI) usually have low spectral and high spatial resolutions. In various applications HSI with high spectral and spatial resolutions are required. In this paper, a new method for spatial resolution enhancement of HSI using high resolution MSI based on sparse coding and linear spectral unmixing (SCLSU) is introduced. In the proposed method (SCLSU), high spectral resolution features of HSI and high spatial resolution features of MSI are fused. In this case, the sparse representation of some high resolution MSI and linear spectral unmixing (LSU) model of HSI and MSI is simultaneously used in order to construct high resolution HSI (HRHSI). The fusion process of HSI and MSI is formulated as an ill-posed inverse problem. It is solved by the Split Augmented Lagrangian Shrinkage Algorithm (SALSA) and an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to the Hyperion and ALI datasets. Compared with the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Coupled Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (CNMF) and local spectral unmixing, the SCLSU has significantly increased the spatial resolution and in addition the spectral content of HSI is well maintained.

  6. A spatial-temporal Hopfield neural network approach for super-resolution land cover mapping with multi-temporal different resolution remotely sensed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ling, Feng; Du, Yun; Feng, Qi; Zhang, Yihang

    2014-07-01

    The mixed pixel problem affects the extraction of land cover information from remotely sensed images. Super-resolution mapping (SRM) can produce land cover maps with a finer spatial resolution than the remotely sensed images, and reduce the mixed pixel problem to some extent. Traditional SRMs solely adopt a single coarse-resolution image as input. Uncertainty always exists in resultant fine-resolution land cover maps, due to the lack of information about detailed land cover spatial patterns. The development of remote sensing technology has enabled the storage of a great amount of fine spatial resolution remotely sensed images. These data can provide fine-resolution land cover spatial information and are promising in reducing the SRM uncertainty. This paper presents a spatial-temporal Hopfield neural network (STHNN) based SRM, by employing both a current coarse-resolution image and a previous fine-resolution land cover map as input. STHNN considers the spatial information, as well as the temporal information of sub-pixel pairs by distinguishing the unchanged, decreased and increased land cover fractions in each coarse-resolution pixel, and uses different rules in labeling these sub-pixels. The proposed STHNN method was tested using synthetic images with different class fraction errors and real Landsat images, by comparing with pixel-based classification method and several popular SRM methods including pixel-swapping algorithm, Hopfield neural network based method and sub-pixel land cover change mapping method. Results show that STHNN outperforms pixel-based classification method, pixel-swapping algorithm and Hopfield neural network based model in most cases. The weight parameters of different STHNN spatial constraints, temporal constraints and fraction constraint have important functions in the STHNN performance. The heterogeneity degree of the previous map and the fraction images errors affect the STHNN accuracy, and can be served as guidances of selecting the

  7. Resolving the spatial relationship between intracellular components by dual color super resolution optical fluctuations imaging (SOFI)

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, Maria Elena; Xu, Jianmin; Dertinger, Thomas; Aizer, Adva; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Weiss, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-color super-resolution (SR) imaging microscopy techniques can resolve ultrastructura relationships between- and provide co-localization information of- different proteins inside the cell or even within organelles at a higher resolution than afforded by conventional diffraction-limited imaging. While still very challenging, important SR colocalization results have been reported in recent years using STED, PALM and STORM techniques. Results In this work, we demonstrate dual-color Super Resolution Optical Fluctuations Imaging (SOFI) using a standard far-field fluorescence microscope and different color blinking quantum dots. We define the spatial relationship between hDcp1a, a processing body (P-body, PB) protein, and the tubulin cytoskeletal network. Our finding could open up new perspectives on the role of the cytoskeleton in PB formation and assembly. Further insights into PB internal organization are also reported and discussed. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the suitability and facile use of multi-color SOFI for the investigation of intracellular ultrastructures. PMID:24324919

  8. Examination of Tropical Forest Structure Using Field Data and High Spatial Resolution Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palace, M.; Keller, M.; Hunter, M.; Braswell, B.; Hagen, S.; Lefsky, M.

    2007-12-01

    Structural properties of tropical forests are an important component in ecological studies, yet they are difficult to quantify. Remote sensing of forest canopy structure estimation has greatly advanced to due the aid of high resolution satellite images. Field based methods of canopy structure have also improved due to the involvement of handheld laser range finders, which aid in gauging height, width, and depth of tree canopies. Using a handheld laser rangefinder we estimated canopy depth and generated canopy profiles from this data. Previously, we developed a crown characterization algorithm that uses high resolution satellite image data and have applied this algorithm in undisturbed tropical forests with good results. In this work we have further developed the algorithm to examine canopy depth using two allometric equations, developed from field data, that relate crown width to the top of the canopy and bottom of the canopy. Modification of our original algorithm also involved the incorporation of site specific allometric equations developed from field based measurements. Automated analysis of IKONOS imagery was used to estimate the distribution of canopy elements at various heights and their spatial locations. A comparison between the field based data and the estimates derived from remotely sensed images was conducted at four sites throughout Amazonia. We further compared our estimates of canopy structure with results from large footprint LIDAR data from GLAS. Ability to estimate canopy profiles and forest structural properties in vast areas of the Brazilian Amazon using high resolution imagery will help us to understand the regional carbon balance.

  9. Super-resolution imaging using the spatial-frequency filtered intensity fluctuation correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, Jane; Peng, Tao; Shih, Yanhua

    2016-12-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of a nonclassical imaging mechanism with super-resolving power beyond the Rayleigh limit. When the classical image is completely blurred out due to the use of a small imaging lens, by taking advantage of the intensity fluctuation correlation of thermal light, the demonstrated camera recovered the image of the resolution testing gauge. This method could be adapted to long distance imaging, such as satellite imaging, which requires large diameter camera lenses to achieve high image resolution.

  10. Current source imaging for high spatial resolution magnetocardiography in normal and abnormal rat cardiac muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, S.; Iramina, K.; Goto, K.; Ueno, S.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the current source produced by acute ischemia and infarction. We measured magnetocardiograms (MCG) and electrocardiograms (ECG) of five male rats using a high-resolution dc superconducting quantum interference device gradiometer in a magnetically shielded room after performing coronary artery occlusion. The spatial resolution of the detecting magnetic field of our system is higher than the typical system, thus permitting the measurement of magnetic fields in small animals. Distribution of the magnetic fields B(t) and distribution of |rot B(t)|, which corresponded to the distribution of the current source, were imaged by 12-channel MCGs. As a result, the distribution of current source changes in the affected area of the myocardium during the ST segment, and amplitude of the peak significantly increased after occlusion. Our system can be used to help clarify the mechanism of the ST shift related to severe heart disease.

  11. Enhancement of Spatial Resolution of the Lroc Wide Angle Camera Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Awumah, A.; Henriksen, M.

    2016-06-01

    Image fusion, a popular method for resolution enhancement in Earth-based remote sensing studies involves the integration of geometric (sharpness) detail of a high-resolution panchromatic (Pan) image and the spectral information of a lower resolution multi-spectral (MS) image. Image fusion with planetary images is not as widespread as with terrestrial studies, although successful application of image fusion can lead to the generation of higher resolution MS image data. A comprehensive comparison of six image fusion algorithms in the context of lunar images is presented in this work. Performance of these algorithms is compared by visual inspection of the high-resolution multi-spectral products, derived products such as band-to-band ratio and composite images, and performance metrics with an emphasis on spectral content preservation. Enhanced MS images of the lunar surface can enable new science and maximize the science return for current and future missions.

  12. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

    2017-05-15

    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale. Copyright

  13. Calibration of Fuji BAS-SR type imaging plate as high spatial resolution x-ray radiography recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ji; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Li; Wei, Minxi

    2017-05-01

    Image Plates as x-ray recorder have advantages including reusable, high dynamic range, large active area, and so on. In this work, Fuji BAS-SR type image plate combined with BAS-5000 scanner is calibrated. The fade rates of Image Plates has been measured using x-ray diffractometric in different room temperature; the spectral response of Image Plates has been measured using 241Am radioactive sealed source and fitting with linear model; the spatial resolution of Image Plates has been measured using micro-focus x-ray tube. The results show that Image Plates has an exponent decade curve and double absorption edge response curve. The spatial resolution of Image Plates with 25μ/50μ scanner resolution is 6.5lp/mm, 11.9lp/mm respectively and gold grid radiography is collected with 80lp/mm spatial resolution using SR-type Image Plates. BAS-SR type Image Plates can do high spatial resolution and quantitative radiographic works. It can be widely used in High energy density physics (HEDP), inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and laboratory astronomy physics.

  14. Practical method of shadow detection and removal for high spatial resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ru; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhengchao; Wei, Zheng; Zheng, Lanfen

    2007-11-01

    High spatial resolution remote sensing image (HSRRSI) has received a warm welcome in many fields. However, building shadows of large area on HSRRSI (up to 30% in some cases) are one of the biggest hindrances for further applications in many fields. To keep a balance between precision and efficiency required by applications during shadow removal, this paper introduces a creative and practical strategy based on the theory of the pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). By applying the simplified model of PCNN, shadows on HSRRSI had been detected and removed respectively. When applied to HSRRSI, the method could not only remove the shadows, but also keep the contrast between removed areas with shadows and other areas without shadows from being too big, which might distort the image. Therefore the satisfactory result is gained.

  15. Radiofrequency field inhomogeneity compensation in high spatial resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeri, Alessandro; Mazzuca, Stefano; Del Bene, Veronica

    2014-06-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) is a non-invasive functional technique, whose mathematical framework falls into the category of linear inverse problems. However, its use in medical diagnostics is hampered by two main problems, both linked to the Fourier-based technique usually implemented for spectra reconstruction: poor spatial resolution and severe blurring in the spatial localization of the reconstructed spectra. Moreover, the intrinsic ill-posedness of the MRSI problem might be worsened by (i) spatially dependent distortions of the static magnetic field (B0) distribution, as well as by (ii) inhomogeneity in the power deposition distribution of the radiofrequency magnetic field (B1). Among several alternative methods, slim (Spectral Localization by IMaging) and bslim (B0 compensated slim) are reconstruction algorithms in which a priori information concerning the spectroscopic target is introduced into the reconstruction kernel. Nonetheless, the influence of the B1 field, particularly when its operating wavelength is close to the size of the human organs being studied, continues to be disregarded. starslim (STAtic and Radiofrequency-compensated slim), an evolution of the slim and bslim methods, is therefore proposed, in which the transformation kernel also includes the B1 field inhomogeneity map, thus allowing almost complete 3D modelling of the MRSI problem. Moreover, an original method for the experimental determination of the B1 field inhomogeneity map specific to the target under evaluation is also included. The compensation capabilities of the proposed method have been tested and illustrated using synthetic raw data reproducing the human brain.

  16. High spatial resolution image object classification for terrestrial oil spill contamination mapping in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2009-04-01

    This work is a part of the OSCaR pilot study (Oil Spill Contamination mapping in Russia). A synergetic concept for an object based and multi temporal mapping and classification system for terrestrial oil spill pollution using a test area in West Siberia is presented. An object oriented image classification system is created to map contaminated soils, vegetation and changes in the oil exploration well infrastructure in high resolution data. Due to the limited spectral resolution of Quickbird data context information and image object structure are used as additional features building a structural object knowledge base for the area. The distance of potentially polluted areas to industrial land use and infrastructure objects is utilized to classify crude oil contaminated surfaces. Additionally the potential of Landsat data for dating of oil spill events using change indicators is tested with multi temporal Landsat data from 1987, 1995 and 2001. OSCaR defined three sub-projects: (1) high resolution mapping of crude oil contaminated surfaces, (2) mapping of industrial infrastructure change, (3) dating of oil spill events using multi temporal Landsat data. Validation of the contamination mapping results has been done with field data from Russian experts provided by the Yugra State University in Khanty-Mansiyskiy. The developed image object structure classification system has shown good results for the severely polluted areas with good overall classification accuracy. However it has also revealed the need for direct mapping of hydrocarbon substances. Oil spill event dating with Landsat data was very much limited by the low spatial resolution of Landsat TM 5 data, small scale character of oil spilled surfaces and limited information about oil spill dates.

  17. High Spatial Resolution Investigations of Microchannel Plate Imaging Properties for UV Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, Oswald

    1996-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) photon counting detectors are currently being used with great success on many of the recent NASA/ESA ultraviolet (UV) astrophysics missions that make observations in the 1OO A - 1600 A range. These include HUT, the Wide Field Camera on ROSAT, EUVE, ALEXIS, ORFEUS, and SOHO. These devices have also been chosen to fly on future UV astrophysics missions such as FUSE, FUVITA, IMAGE, and both the HST STIS and Advanced Camera instruments. During the period of this award we have fabricated a dual-chamber vacuum test facility to carry out laboratory testing of detector resolution, image stability and linearity, and flat field performance to enable us to characterize the performance of MCPs and their associated read-out architectures. We have also fabricated and tested a laboratory 'test-bed' delay line detector, which can accommodate MCP's with a wide range of formats and run at high data rates, to continue our studies of MCP image fixed pattern noise, and particularly for new small pore MCP's which have recently come onto the market. These tests were mainly focussed on the assessment of cross delay-line (XDL) and double delay line (DDL) anode read-out schemes, with particular attention being focussed on flat-field and spatial resolution performance.

  18. High-spatial-resolution sub-surface imaging using a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Cole, Garrett D; Huber, Robert; Chinn, Diane; Murray, Todd W; Spicer, James B

    2011-01-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy techniques operating at frequencies in the gigahertz range are suitable for the elastic characterization and interior imaging of solid media with micrometer-scale spatial resolution. Acoustic wave propagation at these frequencies is strongly limited by energy losses, particularly from attenuation in the coupling media used to transmit ultrasound to a specimen, leading to a decrease in the depth in a specimen that can be interrogated. In this work, a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique is presented that uses a pulsed laser source for the generation of broadband acoustic waves and an optical interferometer for detection. The use of a 900-ps microchip pulsed laser facilitates the generation of acoustic waves with frequencies extending up to 1 GHz which allows for the resolution of micrometer-scale features in a specimen. Furthermore, the combination of optical generation and detection approaches eliminates the use of an ultrasonic coupling medium, and allows for elastic characterization and interior imaging at penetration depths on the order of several hundred micrometers. Experimental results illustrating the use of the laser-based acoustic microscopy technique for imaging micrometer-scale subsurface geometrical features in a 70-μm-thick single-crystal silicon wafer with a (100) orientation are presented.

  19. Development of a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei

    The combination of a scintillation screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera is a digitized neutron imaging technology that has been widely employed for research and industry application. The maximum of spatial resolution of scintillation screens is in the range of 100 mum and creates a bottleneck for the further improvement of the overall system resolution. In this investigation, a neutron sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with pore pitch of 11.4 mum is combined with a cooled CCD camera with a pixel size of 6.8 mum to provide a high spatial resolution neutron imaging system. The optical path includes a high reflection front surface mirror for keeping the camera out of neutron beam and a macro lens for achieving the maximum magnification that could be achieved. All components are assembled into an aluminum light tight box with heavy radiation shielding to protect the camera as well as to provide a dark working condition. Particularly, a remote controlled stepper motor is also integrated into the system to provide on-line focusing ability. The best focus is guaranteed through use of an algorithm instead of perceptual observation. An evaluation routine not previously utilized in the field of neutron radiography is developed in this study. Routines like this were never previously required due to the lower resolution of other systems. Use of the augulation technique to obtain presampled MTF addresses the problem of aliasing associated with digital sampling. The determined MTF agrees well with the visual inspection of imaging a testing target. Other detector/camera combinations may be integrated into the system and their performances are also compared. The best resolution achieved by the system at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Texas at Austin is 16.2 lp/mm, which is equivalent to a minimum resolvable spacing of 30 mum. The noise performance of the device is evaluated in terms of the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum

  20. The Geospectral Camera: a Compact and Geometrically Precise Hyperspectral and High Spatial Resolution Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delauré, B.; Michiels, B.; Biesemans, J.; Livens, S.; Van Achteren, T.

    2013-04-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being employed for environmental monitoring at local scale, which drives the demand for compact and lightweight spectral imagers. This paper describes the geospectral camera, which is a novel compact imager concept. The camera is built around an innovative detector which has two sensor elements on a single chip and therefore offers the functionality of two cameras within the volume of a single one. The two sensor elements allow the camera to derive both spectral information as well as geometric information (high spatial resolution imagery and a digital surface model) of the scene of interest. A first geospectral camera prototype has been developed. It uses a linear variable optical filter which is installed in front of one of the two sensors of the MEDUSA CMOS imager chip. A accompanying software approach has been developed which exploits the simultaneous information of the two sensors in order to extract an accurate spectral image product. This method has been functionally demonstrated by applying it on image data acquired during an airborne acquisition.

  1. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION SURVEY OF GRAIN SIZE INFORMATION ON RIVER BED BY IMAGE PROCESSING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Keisuke; Ihara, Kazuki; Yasuda, Shingo

    We tried a method of grain sizing by image processing which is available to survey and analyze in short time. The high-efficiency method actualizes high spatial resolution information of grain size distribution. Thus, the information has a vailability to express a situation of stream flow better than traditional grain sizing methods. For this reason, we paid attention to 50 m reservoir area upper from the check dam in mountainous region and surveyed the grain distribution at 26 sites and river channel landform. The grain sizing by image processing provided the appropriate result qualitatively. Moreover we estimated the critical diameter of moving from hydraulic information simultaneously. A qualitative appropriate result is showed less than 50 mm error as a result, however, quantitative response is not found between the critical diameter of moving and the grain size distribution surveyed. Meanwhile,the different grain sizing methods that are image processing and traditional sieving are used to cover the bilateral weak point. Thereby, a peak of grain existence probability is found in the threshold diameter between image processing and sieving. This result indicates that it is necessary to change the threshold diameter much larger than the limit of image processing grain sizing.

  2. Image quality phantom and parameters for high spatial resolution small-animal SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Eric P.; Harteveld, Anita A.; Meeuwis, Antoi P. W.; Disselhorst, Jonathan A.; Beekman, Freek J.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2011-10-01

    At present, generally accepted standards to characterize small-animal single photon emission tomographs (SPECT) do not exist. Whereas for small-animal positron emission tomography (PET), the NEMA NU 4-2008 guidelines are available, such standards are still lacking for small-animal SPECT. More specifically, a dedicated image quality (IQ) phantom and corresponding IQ parameters are absent. The structures of the existing PET IQ phantom are too large to fully characterize the sub-millimeter spatial resolution of modern multi-pinhole SPECT scanners, and its diameter will not fit into all scanners when operating in high spatial resolution mode. We therefore designed and constructed an adapted IQ phantom with smaller internal structures and external diameter, and a facility to guarantee complete filling of the smallest rods. The associated IQ parameters were adapted from NEMA NU 4. An additional parameter, effective whole-body sensitivity, was defined since this was considered relevant in view of the variable size of the field of view and the use of multiple bed positions as encountered in modern small-animal SPECT scanners. The usefulness of the phantom was demonstrated for 99mTc in a USPECT-II scanner operated in whole-body scanning mode using a multi-pinhole mouse collimator with 0.6 mm pinhole diameter.

  3. Spatial resolution improvement and dose reduction potential for inner ear CT imaging using a z-axis deconvolution technique.

    PubMed

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Leng, Shuai; Sunnegardh, Johan; Vrieze, Thomas J; Yu, Lifeng; Lane, John; Raupach, Rainer; Stierstorfer, Karl; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    To assess the z-axis resolution improvement and dose reduction potential achieved using a z-axis deconvolution technique with iterative reconstruction (IR) relative to filtered backprojection (FBP) images created with the use of a z-axis comb filter. Each of three phantoms were scanned with two different acquisition modes: (1) an ultrahigh resolution (UHR) scan mode that uses a comb filter in the fan angle direction to increase in-plane spatial resolution and (2) a z-axis ultrahigh spatial resolution (zUHR) scan mode that uses comb filters in both the fan and cone angle directions to improve both in-plane and z-axis spatial resolution. All other scanning parameters were identical. First, the ACR CT Accreditation phantom, rotated by 90° so that the high-contrast spatial resolution targets were parallel to the coronal plane, was scanned to assess limiting spatial resolution and image noise. Second, section sensitivity profiles (SSPs) were measured using a copper foil embedded in an acrylic cylinder and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and full-width-at-tenth-maximum (FWTM) of the SSPs were calculated. Third, an anthropomorphic head phantom containing a human skull was scanned to assess clinical acceptability for imaging of the temporal bone. For each scan, FBP images were reconstructed for the zUHR scan using the narrowest image thickness available. For the CT accreditation phantom, zUHR images were also reconstructed using an IR algorithm (SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) to assess the influence of the IR algorithm on image noise. A z-axis deconvolution technique combined with the IR algorithm was used to reconstruct images at the narrowest image thickness possible from the UHR scan data. Images of the ACR and head phantoms were reformatted into the coronal plane. The head phantom images were evaluated by a neuroradiologist to assess acceptability for use in patients undergoing clinically indicated CT imaging of the temporal bone. The limiting

  4. Geodesic topological analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture from high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Krug, Roland; Huber, Markus B; Hyun, Ben; Eckstein, Felix; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2009-02-01

    In vivo assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture could improve the prediction of fracture risk and the efficacy of osteoporosis treatment and prevention. Geodesic topological analysis (GTA) is introduced as a novel technique to quantify the trabecular bone microarchitecture from high-spatial resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images. Trabecular bone parameters that quantify the scale, topology, and anisotropy of the trabecular bone network in terms of its junctions are the result of GTA. The reproducibility of GTA was tested with in vivo images of human distal tibiae and radii (n = 6) at 1.5 Tesla; and its ability to discriminate between subjects with and without vertebral fracture was assessed with ex vivo images of human calcanei at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla (n = 30). GTA parameters yielded an average reproducibility of 4.8%, and their individual areas under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for fracture discrimination performed better at 3.0 than at 1.5 Tesla reaching values of up to 0.78 (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that fracture discrimination was improved by combining GTA parameters, and that GTA combined with bone mineral density (BMD) allow for better discrimination than BMD alone (AUC = 0.95; p < 0.001). Results indicate that GTA can substantially contribute in studies of osteoporosis involving imaging of the trabecular bone microarchitecture.

  5. Sunglint effects on the characterization of optically active substances in high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streher, A. S.; Faria Barbosa, C. Clemente; Soares Galvão, L.; Goodman, J. A.; Silva, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Sunglint, also known as the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a component of sensor-received radiance that represents a confounding factor on the characterization of water bodies by remote sensing. In airborne remote sensing images, the effect of sunglint can be minimized by optimizing the flight paths, directing the sensor towards or away from the Sun, and by keeping solar zenith angles between 30° and 60°. However, these guidelines cannot always be applied, often due to the irregular spatial pattern of lakes, estuaries and coastlines. The present study assessed the impact of sunglint on the relationship between the optically active substances (OAS) concentration, in optically complex waters, and the spectral information provided by an airborne high spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor (SpecTIR). The Ibitinga reservoir, located in southeastern Brazil (state of São Paulo), was selected as the study area because of its meandering shape. As a result, there is demanding constant changes in data acquisition geometry to achieve complete coverage, therefore not allowing sunglint conditions to be minimized during image acquisition. Field data collection was carried out on October 23 and 24, 2011. During these two days, 15 water stations along the reservoir were sampled, concurrently with the SpecTIR image acquisition in 357 bands (398-2455 nm) and at 3 m spatial resolution. Chlorophyll, pheophytin, total suspended solids, organic and inorganic suspended solids and colored dissolved matter were determined in laboratory. The images were corrected for the atmospheric effects using the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH) algorithm and then geometrically corrected. In order to evaluate the sunglint effects on the OAS characterization, the images were corrected for such effects using the deglint algorithm from Goodman et al. (2008). The SpecTIR 662-nm band reflectance was selected to be correlated to the OAS due to

  6. System for processing of airborne images of forest ecosystems using high spectral and spatial resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, V. V.; Dmitriev, E. V.; Kamentsev, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The developed hardware and software system for the recognition of natural and man-made objects based on the airborne hyperspectral sensing implements flight tasks on selected survey routes and computational procedures for solving applied problems that occur in data processing. The basics of object recognition based on obtained images of high spectral and spatial resolution in mathematical terms of sets of sites and labels and the basics of interrelations between separate resolution elements (pixels) for selected object classes are presented. Features of energy minimization of the processed scene are depicted as a target function of the optimization of computation and regularization of the solution of the considered problems as a theoretical basis for distinguishing between classes of objects in the presence of boundaries between them. Examples of the formation of information layers of recorded spectra for selected "pure species" of pine and birch forests are cited, with the separation of illuminated and shaded pixels, which increases the accuracy of object recognition in the processing of the images.

  7. Improving the Spatial Resolution of Neutron Imaging at Paul Scherrer Institut - The Neutron Microscope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtik, Pavel; Hovind, Jan; Grünzweig, Christian; Bollhalder, Alex; Thominet, Vincent; David, Christian; Kaestner, Anders; Lehmann, Eberhard H.

    Here we present results stemming from the first prototype of the Neutron Microscope instrument at Paul ScherrerInstitut (PSI). The instrument is based on a very thin gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb+) scintillator screen and a magnifying optics. The Neutron Microscope prototype has been tested at the ICON and the BOA beamlines at PSI and sub-10 μm features can be clearly resolved on a focussed ion beam (FIB) enhance test object - a gadolinium-based Siemens star. The spatial resolution of the images of the gadolinium-based Siemensstar assessed by Fourier ring correlation was about 7.6 μm. The outlook for future improvement of the Neutron Microscope system is presented.

  8. Angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs for diffusion imaging under time constraints

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Liang; Jahanshad, Neda; Ennis, Daniel B.; Jin, Yan; Bernstein, Matthew A.; Borowski, Bret J.; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Leow, Alex D.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) are now widely used to assess brain integrity in clinical populations. The growing interest in mapping brain connectivity has made it vital to consider what scanning parameters affect the accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise of Diffusion measures. Trade-offs between scan parameters can only be optimized if their effects on various commonly derived measures are better understood. To explore angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs in standard tensor-derived measures, and in measures that use the full angular information in diffusion signal, we scanned eight subjects twice, two weeks apart, using three protocols that took the same amount of time (7 minutes). Scans with 3, 2.7, 2.5 mm isotropic voxels were collected using 48, 41, and 37 diffusion-sensitized gradients to equalize scan times. A specially designed DTI phantom was also scanned with the same protocols, and different b-values. We assessed how several diffusion measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and the full 3D orientation distribution function (ODF) depended on the spatial/angular resolution and the SNR. We also created maps of stability over time in the FA, MD, ODF, skeleton FA of 14 TBSS-derived ROIs, and an information uncertainty index derived from the tensor distribution function, which models the signal using a continuous mixture of tensors. In scans of the same duration, higher angular resolution and larger voxels boosted SNR and improved stability over time. The increased partial voluming in large voxels also led to bias in estimating FA, but this was partially addressed by using “beyond-tensor” models of diffusion. PMID:22522814

  9. Angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs for diffusion imaging under time constraints.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Liang; Jahanshad, Neda; Ennis, Daniel B; Jin, Yan; Bernstein, Matthew A; Borowski, Bret J; Jack, Clifford R; Toga, Arthur W; Leow, Alex D; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-10-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) are now widely used to assess brain integrity in clinical populations. The growing interest in mapping brain connectivity has made it vital to consider what scanning parameters affect the accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise of diffusion measures. Trade-offs between scan parameters can only be optimized if their effects on various commonly-derived measures are better understood. To explore angular versus spatial resolution trade-offs in standard tensor-derived measures, and in measures that use the full angular information in diffusion signal, we scanned eight subjects twice, 2 weeks apart, using three protocols that took the same amount of time (7 min). Scans with 3.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm isotropic voxels were collected using 48, 41, and 37 diffusion-sensitized gradients to equalize scan times. A specially designed DTI phantom was also scanned with the same protocols, and different b-values. We assessed how several diffusion measures including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and the full 3D orientation distribution function (ODF) depended on the spatial/angular resolution and the SNR. We also created maps of stability over time in the FA, MD, ODF, skeleton FA of 14 TBSS-derived ROIs, and an information uncertainty index derived from the tensor distribution function, which models the signal using a continuous mixture of tensors. In scans of the same duration, higher angular resolution and larger voxels boosted SNR and improved stability over time. The increased partial voluming in large voxels also led to bias in estimating FA, but this was partially addressed by using "beyond-tensor" models of diffusion.

  10. Super-resolution imaging using the spatial-frequency filtered intensity fluctuation correlation

    PubMed Central

    Sprigg, Jane; Peng, Tao; Shih, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of a nonclassical imaging mechanism with super-resolving power beyond the Rayleigh limit. When the classical image is completely blurred out due to the use of a small imaging lens, by taking advantage of the intensity fluctuation correlation of thermal light, the demonstrated camera recovered the image of the resolution testing gauge. This method could be adapted to long distance imaging, such as satellite imaging, which requires large diameter camera lenses to achieve high image resolution. PMID:27905498

  11. High spatial and temporal resolution wide-field imaging of neuron activity using quantum NV-diamond

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L. T.; Beart, G. C. G.; Thomas, E. A.; Simpson, D. A.; McGuinness, L. P.; Cole, J. H.; Manton, J. H.; Scholten, R. E.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Petrou, S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of the dynamics of biological neural networks is fundamental to gaining insight into information processing in the brain. While techniques exist to measure spatial or temporal properties of these networks, it remains a significant challenge to resolve the neural dynamics with subcellular spatial resolution. In this work we consider a fundamentally new form of wide-field imaging for neuronal networks based on the nanoscale magnetic field sensing properties of optically active spins in a diamond substrate. We analyse the sensitivity of the system to the magnetic field generated by an axon transmembrane potential and confirm these predictions experimentally using electronically-generated neuron signals. By numerical simulation of the time dependent transmembrane potential of a morphologically reconstructed hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron, we show that the imaging system is capable of imaging planar neuron activity non-invasively at millisecond temporal resolution and micron spatial resolution over wide-fields. PMID:22574249

  12. High spatial and temporal resolution wide-field imaging of neuron activity using quantum NV-diamond.

    PubMed

    Hall, L T; Beart, G C G; Thomas, E A; Simpson, D A; McGuinness, L P; Cole, J H; Manton, J H; Scholten, R E; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Petrou, S; Hollenberg, L C L

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of the dynamics of biological neural networks is fundamental to gaining insight into information processing in the brain. While techniques exist to measure spatial or temporal properties of these networks, it remains a significant challenge to resolve the neural dynamics with subcellular spatial resolution. In this work we consider a fundamentally new form of wide-field imaging for neuronal networks based on the nanoscale magnetic field sensing properties of optically active spins in a diamond substrate. We analyse the sensitivity of the system to the magnetic field generated by an axon transmembrane potential and confirm these predictions experimentally using electronically-generated neuron signals. By numerical simulation of the time dependent transmembrane potential of a morphologically reconstructed hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron, we show that the imaging system is capable of imaging planar neuron activity non-invasively at millisecond temporal resolution and micron spatial resolution over wide-fields.

  13. Imaging at high spatial resolution: Soft x-ray microscopy to 15nm

    SciTech Connect

    Attwood, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.; Liddle, J.A.; Harteneck, B.; Fischer, P.; Schneider, G.; Le Gros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2006-04-05

    Soft x-ray microscopy has now achieved 15 nm spatial resolution with new zone plates and bending magnet radiation. Combined with elemental sensitivity and flexible sample environment (applied magnetic or electric fields, wet samples, windows, overcoatings) this emerges as a valuable tool for nanoscience and nanotechnology, complimenting common electron and scanning tip microscopies. In this presentation we describe recent advances in spatial resolution, expectations for the near future, and applications to magnetic materials, bio-tomography, etc.

  14. Nm-scale spatial resolution x-ray imaging with MLL nanofocusing optics: instrumentational requirements and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaretski, E.; Yan, H.; Lauer, K.; Huang, X.; Xu, W.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Yan, Hui; Li, Li; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Shu, D.; Conley, R.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-08-30

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) beamline at NSLS-II has been designed and constructed to enable imaging experiments with unprecedented spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. The HXN X-ray Microscope is a key instrument for the beamline, providing a suite of experimental capabilities which includes scanning fluorescence, diffraction, differential phase contrast and ptychography utilizing Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLL) and zoneplate (ZP) as nanofocusing optics. In this paper, we present technical requirements for the MLL-based scanning microscope, outline the development concept and present first ~15 x 15 nm2 spatial resolution x-ray fluorescence images.

  15. Evaluating the effect of remote sensing image spatial resolution on soil exchangeable potassium prediction models in smallholder farm settings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P

    2017-09-15

    Major end users of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) such as policy makers and agricultural extension workers are faced with choosing the appropriate remote sensing data. The objective of this research is to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in two smallholder farms in Southern India called Kothapally (Telangana State), and Masuti (Karnataka State), and provide empirical guidelines to choose the appropriate remote sensing images in DSM. Bayesian kriging (BK) was utilized to characterize the spatial pattern of exchangeable potassium (Kex) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30 m), RapidEye (5 m), and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A images (2 m). Some spectral indices such as band reflectances, band ratios, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images showed relatively strong correlations with soil Kex in two study areas. The research also suggested that fine spatial resolution WorldView-2/GeoEye-1/Pleiades-1A-based and RapidEye-based soil prediction models would not necessarily have higher prediction performance than coarse spatial resolution Landsat 8-based soil prediction models. The end users of DSM in smallholder farm settings need select the appropriate spectral indices and consider different factors such as the spatial resolution, band width, spectral resolution, temporal frequency, cost, and processing time of different remote sensing images. Overall, remote sensing-based Digital Soil Mapping has potential to be promoted to smallholder farm settings all over the world and help smallholder farmers implement sustainable and field-specific soil nutrient management scheme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Miniaturization of high spectral spatial resolution hyperspectral imagers on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Samuel L.; Clemens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Traditional airborne environmental monitoring has frequently deployed hyperspectral imaging as a leading tool for characterizing and analyzing a scene's critical spectrum-based signatures for applications in agriculture genomics and crop health, vegetation and mineral monitoring, and hazardous material detection. As the acceptance of hyperspectral evaluation grows in the airborne community, there has been a dramatic trend in moving the technology from use on midsize aircraft to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The use of UAS accomplishes a number of goals including the reduction in cost to run multiple seasonal evaluations over smaller but highly valuable land-areas, the ability to use frequent data collections to make rapid decisions on land management, and the improvement of spatial resolution by flying at lower altitudes (<500 ft.). Despite this trend, there are several key parameters affecting the use of traditional hyperspectral instruments in UAS with payloads less than 10 lbs. where size, weight and power (SWAP) are critical to how high and how far a given UAS can fly. Additionally, on many of the light-weight UAS, users are frequently trying to capture data from one or more instruments to augment the hyperspectral data collection, thus reducing the amount of SWAP available to the hyperspectral instrumentation. The following manuscript will provide an analysis on a newly-developed miniaturized hyperspectral imaging platform, the Nano-Hyperspec®, which provides full hyperspectral resolution and traditional hyperspectral capabilities without sacrificing performance to accommodate the decreasing SWAP of smaller and smaller UAS platforms. The analysis will examine the Nano-Hyperspec flown in several UAS airborne environments and the correlation of the systems data with LiDAR and other GIS datasets.

  17. Low-Z target optimization for spatial resolution improvement in megavoltage imaging.

    PubMed

    Connell, Tanner; Robar, James L

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several authors have shown contrast improvements in megavoltage portal imaging and cone-beam computed tomography using low atomic number (Z) targets. This work compliments previous studies by investigating the effects of varying different beam production parameters including target atomic number, target thickness, and incident electron energy on spatial resolution. Target materials of beryllium, aluminum, and tungsten were investigated over a range of thicknesses between 10% and 100% of the continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. Incident electron kinetic energies of 4.5 and 7.0 MeV were used, in conjunction with custom targets installed above the carousel of a modern radiotherapy linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations of the accelerator were constructed and compared to the experimental results. The results showed that thinner targets, as well higher incident electron energies, generally produce more favorable modulation transfer function (MTF) curves. Due to an MTF dependence of the detector system on the photon energy, the experimental results showed that low-Z targets produced superior MTF curves. Simulations showed 14.5% and 21.5% increases in f50 for the 7.0 and 4.5 MeV targets (A1; 60% R% CSDA), respectively, when moved from the carousel to the location of the clinical target. f50 values for the custom targets were compared to the clinical 6 MV beam and were found to be between 10.4% lower (4.5 MeV/W) and 15.5% higher (7.0 MeV/Be). Integration of low-Z external targets into the treatment head of a medical linear was achieved with only minor modifications. It was shown that reasonably high resolution images on par or better than those acquired with the clinical 6 MV beam can be achieved using external low-Z targets.

  18. Reprocessing the Historical Satellite Passive Microwave Record at Enhanced Spatial Resolutions using Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.; Paget, A. C.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning in 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Currently available global gridded passive microwave data sets serve a diverse community of hundreds of data users, but do not meet many requirements of modern Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) or Climate Data Records (CDRs), most notably in the areas of intersensor calibration, quality-control, provenance and consistent processing methods. The original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. Further, since the first Level 3 data sets were produced, the Level 2 passive microwave data on which they were based have been reprocessed as Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) with improved calibration and documentation. We are funded by NASA MEaSUREs to reprocess the historical gridded data sets as EASE-Grid 2.0 ESDRs, using the most mature available Level 2 satellite passive microwave (SMMR, SSM/I-SSMIS, AMSR-E) records from 1978 to the present. We have produced prototype data from SSM/I and AMSR-E for the year 2003, for review and feedback from our Early Adopter user community. The prototype data set includes conventional, low-resolution ("drop-in-the-bucket" 25 km) grids and enhanced-resolution grids derived from the two candidate image reconstruction techniques we are evaluating: 1) Backus-Gilbert (BG) interpolation and 2) a radiometer version of Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR). We summarize our temporal subsetting technique, algorithm tuning parameters and computational costs, and include sample SSM/I images at enhanced resolutions of up to 3 km. We are actively

  19. Optimal sound speed estimation using modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to improve spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Changhan; Seo, Haijin; Lee, Yuhwa; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Chang, Jin Ho

    2012-05-01

    In ultrasound exams of obese patients and the breast, the spatial and contrast resolutions of ultrasound images are severely deteriorated when a constant sound speed corresponding to soft tissue is used in receive dynamic beamformation. This degradation is due to the defocusing of the ultrasound beam because of the disparity in sound speed between soft tissue and fatty layers. To minimize the degradation, this paper proposes a new method of estimating an optimal sound speed that can be used to achieve the best beamforming performance in a region of interest (ROI). The proposed method employs a new focusing quality factor (FQF) as an indicator of how well the focusing is conducted with a given sound speed. The FQF is closely associated with the degree of edge conspicuity, which can be obtained using the proposed modified nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (MNAD) technique. To calculate FQF, ultrasound images are formed with different sound speeds ranging from 1400 to 1600 m/s and, subsequently, the ROI is chosen. In the ROI, the degrees of edge conspicuity (i.e., FQF) are calculated. The sound speed can be considered an optimal one for the ROI if it is used to construct the image that provides the maximum FQF. The performances of the proposed method were evaluated through simulation and in vitro experiments with a tissue-mimicking phantom. The performance was also compared with that of the conventional image-based method employed in a commercial ultrasound imaging system. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of estimating an optimal sound speed with an error of 10 m/s regardless of whether strong targets are included in the ROI or not. On the other hand, the conventional image-based method generated an estimation error of 60 m/s maximally in the case in which there were no strong targets in ROI. This indicates that the proposed method is a useful tool to improve ultrasound image quality for clinical applications, especially for

  20. Neutron imaging detector with 2 μm spatial resolution based on event reconstruction of neutron capture in gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Daniel S.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Baltic, Elias; Jacobson, David L.

    2017-09-01

    We report on efforts to improve the achievable spatial resolution in neutron imaging by centroiding the scintillation light from gadolinium oxysulfide scintillators. The current state-of-the-art neutron imaging spatial resolution is about 10 μm, and many applications of neutron imaging would benefit from at least an order of magnitude improvement in the spatial resolution. The detector scheme that we have developed magnifies the scintillation light from a gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator, calculates the center of mass of the scintillation event, resulting in an event-based imaging detector with spatial resolution of about 2 μm.

  1. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    España, Samuel; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Keereman, Vincent; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel

    2014-07-01

    A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm3. Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm3 optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq-1 and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated. In conclusion, a compact PET

  2. Multiscaling of vegetative indexes from remote sensing images obtained at different spatial resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zuñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation indexes, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and enhanced Vegetation index (EVI), can been used to estimate root zone soil moisture through high resolution remote sensing images. These indexes are based in red (R), near infrared (NIR) and blue (B) wavelengths data. In this work we have studied the scaling properties of both vegetation indexes analyzing the information contained in two satellite data: Landsat-7 and Ikonos. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends possible data archives from present time to over several decades back. For this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. To study the influence of the spatial resolution the vegetation indexes map estimated with Ikonos-2 coded in 8 bits, with a resolution of 4m, have been compared through a multifractal analysis with the ones obtained with Lansat-7 8 bits, of 30 m. resolution, on the same area of study. The scaling behaviour of NDVI and EVI presents several differences that will be discussed based on the multifractal parameters extracted from the analysis. REFERENCES Alonso, C., Tarquis, A. M., Benito, R. M. and Zuñiga, I. Correlation scaling properties between soil moisture and vegetation indices. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-13932, 2009. Alonso, C., Tarquis, A. M. and Benito, R. M. Comparison of fractal dimensions based on segmented NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-14342, 2012. Escribano Rodriguez, J., Alonso, C., Tarquis, A.M., Benito, R.M. and Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona, C. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors. Geophysical Research Abstracts,15, EGU2013-14153, 2013. Lovejoy, S., Tarquis, A., Gaonac'h, H. and Schertzer, D. Single and multiscale remote sensing

  3. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  4. Photoacoustic radar phase-filtered spatial resolution and co-registered ultrasound image enhancement for tumor detection

    PubMed Central

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Shi, Wei; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Co-registered ultrasound (US) and frequency-domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) imaging is reported for the first time in this paper. The merits of ultrasound and cross-correlation (radar) frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging are leveraged for accurate tumor detection. Commercial US imagers possess sophisticated, optimized software for rapid image acquisition that could dramatically speed-up PA imaging. The PAR image generated from the amplitude of the cross-correlation between detected and input signals was filtered by the standard deviation (SD) of the phase of the correlation signal, resulting in strong improvement of image spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. Application of phase-mediated image improvement is illustrated by imaging a cancer cell-injected mouse. A 14–15 dB SNR gain was recorded for the phase-filtered image compared to the amplitude and phase independently, while ~340 μm spatial resolution was seen for the phase PAR image compared to ~840 μm for the amplitude image. PMID:25798321

  5. Photoacoustic radar phase-filtered spatial resolution and co-registered ultrasound image enhancement for tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Shi, Wei; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Co-registered ultrasound (US) and frequency-domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) imaging is reported for the first time in this paper. The merits of ultrasound and cross-correlation (radar) frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging are leveraged for accurate tumor detection. Commercial US imagers possess sophisticated, optimized software for rapid image acquisition that could dramatically speed-up PA imaging. The PAR image generated from the amplitude of the cross-correlation between detected and input signals was filtered by the standard deviation (SD) of the phase of the correlation signal, resulting in strong improvement of image spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. Application of phase-mediated image improvement is illustrated by imaging a cancer cell-injected mouse. A 14-15 dB SNR gain was recorded for the phase-filtered image compared to the amplitude and phase independently, while ~340 μm spatial resolution was seen for the phase PAR image compared to ~840 μm for the amplitude image.

  6. High Spatial Resolution Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Human Optic Nerve Lipids and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David M. G.; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.

    2015-06-01

    The human optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Each optic nerve is comprised of approximately one million nerve fibers that are organized into bundles of 800-1200 fibers surrounded by connective tissue and supportive glial cells. Damage to the optic nerve contributes to a number of blinding diseases including: glaucoma, neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, and neurofibromatosis; however, the molecular mechanisms of optic nerve damage and death are incompletely understood. Herein we present high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis of lipids and proteins to define the molecular anatomy of the human optic nerve. The localization of a number of lipids was observed in discrete anatomical regions corresponding to myelinated and unmyelinated nerve regions as well as to supporting connective tissue, glial cells, and blood vessels. A protein fragment from vimentin, a known intermediate filament marker for astrocytes, was observed surrounding nerved fiber bundles in the lamina cribrosa region. S100B was also found in supporting glial cell regions in the prelaminar region, and the hemoglobin alpha subunit was observed in blood vessel areas. The molecular anatomy of the optic nerve defined by MALDI IMS provides a firm foundation to study biochemical changes in blinding human diseases.

  7. Influence of spatial and temporal coherences on atomic resolution high angle annular dark field imaging.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Andreas; Belz, Jürgen; Knaub, Nikolai; Jandieri, Kakhaber; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) has become a widely used technique when information on the chemical composition is sought on an atomic scale. To extract the desired information, complementary simulations of the scattering process are inevitable. Often the partial spatial and temporal coherences are neglected in the simulations, although they can have a huge influence on the high resolution images. With the example of binary gallium phosphide (GaP) we elucidate the influence of the source size and shape as well as the chromatic aberration on the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) intensity. We achieve a very good quantitative agreement between the frozen phonon simulation and experiment for different sample thicknesses when a Lorentzian source distribution is assumed and the effect of the chromatic aberration is considered. Additionally the influence of amorphous layers introduced by the preparation of the TEM samples is discussed. Taking into account these parameters, the intensity in the whole unit cell of GaP, i.e. at the positions of the different atomic columns and in the region between them, is described correctly. With the knowledge of the decisive parameters, the determination of the chemical composition of more complex, multinary materials becomes feasible.

  8. High spatial resolution imaging mass spectrometry of human optic nerve lipids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David M G; Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Rose, Kristie L; Schey, Kevin L

    2015-06-01

    The human optic nerve carries signals from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain. Each optic nerve is comprised of approximately one million nerve fibers that are organized into bundles of 800-1200 fibers surrounded by connective tissue and supportive glial cells. Damage to the optic nerve contributes to a number of blinding diseases including: glaucoma, neuromyelitis optica, optic neuritis, and neurofibromatosis; however, the molecular mechanisms of optic nerve damage and death are incompletely understood. Herein we present high spatial resolution MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) analysis of lipids and proteins to define the molecular anatomy of the human optic nerve. The localization of a number of lipids was observed in discrete anatomical regions corresponding to myelinated and unmyelinated nerve regions as well as to supporting connective tissue, glial cells, and blood vessels. A protein fragment from vimentin, a known intermediate filament marker for astrocytes, was observed surrounding nerved fiber bundles in the lamina cribrosa region. S100B was also found in supporting glial cell regions in the prelaminar region, and the hemoglobin alpha subunit was observed in blood vessel areas. The molecular anatomy of the optic nerve defined by MALDI IMS provides a firm foundation to study biochemical changes in blinding human diseases.

  9. High Spatial Resolution Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Organic Layers in an Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuko; Nakajima, Yoji; Isemura, Tsuguhide; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Takaya; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2016-01-01

    To improve the durability of organic materials in electronic devices, an analytical method that can obtain information about the molecular structure directly from specific areas on a device is desired. For this purpose, laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LDI-MSI) is one of the most promising methods. The high spatial resolution stigmatic LDI-MSI with MULTUM-IMG2 in the direct analysis of organic light-emitting diodes was shown to obtain a detailed mass image of organic material in the degraded area after air exposure. The mass image was observed to have a noticeably improved spatial resolution over typical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, generally used technique in analysis of electronic devices. A prospective m/z was successfully deduced from the high spatial resolution MSI data. Additionally, mass resolution and accuracy using a spiral-orbit TOF mass spectrometer, SpiralTOF, were also investigated. The monoisotopic mass for the main component, N,N′-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N′-diphenyl-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (m/z 588), was measured with a mass resolution of approximately 80,000 and a mass error of about 5 mDa using an external calibrant. This high mass resolution and accuracy data successfully deduced a possible elemental composition of partially remained material in the degraded area, C36H24, which was determined as anthracene, 9-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl-10-(2-naphthalenyl) by combining structural information with high-energy CID data. The high spatial resolution of 1 μm in LDI-MSI along with high mass resolution and accuracy could be useful in obtaining molecular structure information directly from specific areas on a device, and is expected to contribute to the evolution of electrical device durability. PMID:28101440

  10. Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Weilun; Fischer, Peter; Tyliszczak, T.; Rekawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-04-24

    Using Fresnel zone plates made with our robust nanofabrication processes, we have successfully achieved 10 nm spatial resolution with soft x-ray microscopy. The result, obtained with both a conventional full-field and scanning soft x-ray microscope, marks a significant step forward in extending the microscopy to truly nanoscale studies.

  11. Improving and Understanding Three Dimensional Spatial Resolution in a Confocal Raman Microscopy and Raman Hyperspectral Imaging I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunah; Roussel, Bernard; Froigneux, Emmanuel; Adar, Fran; Mamedov, Sergey; Whitley, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy provides a high spatial resolution because it operates in short wavelength region and utilizes confocal optics. However, the spatial resolution of a confocal Raman microscopy is not well understood, and often confused with the smallest measurable sample size. When performing Raman hyperspectral imaging with a confocal Raman microscope, it is also confused with the smallest distance a mapping stage can step. While all these parameters are pertinent to record a good Raman spectrum or a good Raman map, they are not spatial resolution, and thus have different impacts to the data and results. In this and subsequent papers, we will begin with the theoretical definition, examine the instrumental implementations and present the empirical applications of these parameters with examples.

  12. Analyzing Protein Clusters on the Plasma Membrane: Application of Spatial Statistical Analysis Methods on Super-Resolution Microscopy Images.

    PubMed

    Paparelli, Laura; Corthout, Nikky; Pavie, Benjamin; Annaert, Wim; Munck, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of proteins within the cell affects their capability to interact with other molecules and directly influences cellular processes and signaling. At the plasma membrane, multiple factors drive protein compartmentalization into specialized functional domains, leading to the formation of clusters in which intermolecule interactions are facilitated. Therefore, quantifying protein distributions is a necessity for understanding their regulation and function. The recent advent of super-resolution microscopy has opened up the possibility of imaging protein distributions at the nanometer scale. In parallel, new spatial analysis methods have been developed to quantify distribution patterns in super-resolution images. In this chapter, we provide an overview of super-resolution microscopy and summarize the factors influencing protein arrangements on the plasma membrane. Finally, we highlight methods for analyzing clusterization of plasma membrane proteins, including examples of their applications.

  13. The influence of photon depth of interaction and non-collinear spread of annihilation photons on PET image spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A

    2006-08-01

    The quality of PET imaging is impaired by parallax errors. These errors produce misalignment between the projected location of the true origin of the annihilation event and the line of response determined by the coincidence detection system. Parallax errors are due to the varying depths of photon interaction (DOI) within the scintillator and the non-collinear (NC) emission of the annihilation photons. The aim of this work was to address the problems associated with the DOI and the NC spread of annihilation photons and to develop a quantitative model to assess their impact on image spatial resolution losses for various commonly used scintillators and PET geometries. A theoretical model based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed to assess the relative influence of DOI and the NC spread of annihilation photons on PET spatial resolution for various scintillator materials (BGO, LSO, LuAP, GSO, NaI) and PET geometries. The results demonstrate good agreement between simulated, experimental and published overall spatial resolution for some commercial systems, with maximum differences around 1 mm in both 2D and 3D mode. The DOI introduces an impairment of non-stationary spatial resolution along the radial direction, which can be very severe at peripheral positions. As an example, the radial spatial resolution loss due to DOI increased from 1.3 mm at the centre to 6.7 mm at 20 cm from the centre of a BGO camera with a 412-mm radius in 2D mode. Including the NC, the corresponding losses were 3.0 mm at the centre and 7.3 mm 20 cm from the centre. Without a DOI detection technique, it seems difficult to improve PET spatial resolution and increase sensitivity by reducing the detector ring radius or by extending the detector in the axial direction. Much effort is expended on the design and configuration of smaller detector elements but more effort should be devoted to the DOI complexity.

  14. a Kernel Method Based on Topic Model for Very High Spatial Resolution (vhsr) Remote Sensing Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linmei; Shen, Li; Li, Zhipeng

    2016-06-01

    A kernel-based method for very high spatial resolution remote sensing image classification is proposed in this article. The new kernel method is based on spectral-spatial information and structure information as well, which is acquired from topic model, Latent Dirichlet Allocation model. The final kernel function is defined as K = u1Kspec + u2Kspat + u3Kstru, in which Kspec, Kspat, Kstru are radial basis function (RBF) and u1 + u2 + u3 = 1. In the experiment, comparison with three other kernel methods, including the spectral-based, the spectral- and spatial-based and the spectral- and structure-based method, is provided for a panchromatic QuickBird image of a suburban area with a size of 900 × 900 pixels and spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The result shows that the overall accuracy of the spectral- and structure-based kernel method is 80 %, which is higher than the spectral-based kernel method, as well as the spectral- and spatial-based which accuracy respectively is 67 % and 74 %. What's more, the accuracy of the proposed composite kernel method that jointly uses the spectral, spatial, and structure information is highest among the four methods which is increased to 83 %. On the other hand, the result of the experiment also verifies the validity of the expression of structure information about the remote sensing image.

  15. Magnetoencephalographically directed review of high-spatial-resolution surface-coil MR images improves lesion detection in patients with extratemporal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kevin R; Funke, Michael E; Constantino, Tawnya; Katzman, Gregory L; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether (a) interictal magnetoencephalographic (MEG) epileptiform activity corresponds to anatomic abnormalities at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, (b) high-spatial-resolution MR imaging depicts lesions in regions without MEG spike activity, (c) MEG-directed review of high-spatial-resolution MR images enables detection of abnormalities not apparent on conventional MR images, and (d) MEG information results in a greater number of diagnosed lesions at re-review of conventional MR images. Twenty patients with neocortical epilepsy were evaluated with MEG, conventional brain MR imaging with a head coil, and high-spatial-resolution MR imaging with either a surface coil (n = 17) or a high-spatial-resolution birdcage coil (n = 3). Abnormal MEG foci were compared with corresponding anatomic areas on conventional and high-spatial-resolution MR images to determine the presence (concordance) or absence (discordance) of anatomic lesions corresponding to foci of abnormal MEG activity. Forty-four epileptiform MEG foci were identified. Twelve foci (27%) were concordant with an anatomic abnormality at high-spatial-resolution MR imaging, and 32 foci (73%) were discordant. Results of high-spatial-resolution MR imaging were normal in eight patients, and 23 lesions were detected in the remaining 12 patients. Twelve lesions (52%) were concordant with abnormal MEG epileptiform activity, and 11 (48%) were discordant (ie, there was normal MEG activity in the region of the anatomic abnormality). At retrospective reevaluation of conventional MR images with MEG guidance, four occult gray matter migration lesions that had initially been missed were observed. An additional patient with MEG-concordant postoperative gliosis was readily identified with high-spatial-resolution MR images but not with conventional MR images. Review of MEG-localized epileptiform areas on high-spatial-resolution MR images enables detection of epileptogenic neocortical lesions, some of which are occult on

  16. Polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for mass spectrometry imaging using nano-thermal analysis with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tai, Tamin; Kertesz, Vilmos; Lin, Ming-Wei; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Hensley, Dale K; Xiao, Kai; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2017-07-30

    As the spatial resolution of mass spectrometry imaging technologies has begun to reach into the nanometer regime, finding readily available or easily made resolution reference materials has become particularly challenging for molecular imaging purposes. This paper describes the fabrication, characterization and use of vertical line array polymeric spatial resolution test patterns for nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Test patterns of varied line width (0.7 or 1.0 μm) and spacing (0.7 or 1.0 μm) were created in an ~1-μm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film using electron beam lithography. The patterns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy topography and nano-thermal analysis/mass spectrometry imaging. The efficacy of these polymeric test patterns for the advancement of chemical imaging techniques was illustrated by their use to judge the spatial resolution improvement achieved by heating the ionization interface of the current instrument platform. The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.4 μm, based on the ability to statistically distinguish 0.7-μm-wide lines separated by 0.7-μm-wide spacings in those images when the interface cross was heated to 200°C. This work illustrates that e-beam lithography is a viable method to create spatial resolution test patterns in a thin film of high molecular weight polymer to allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison of instrument advances in nano-thermal analysis/atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry chemical imaging. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Change detection based on deep feature representation and mapping transformation for multi-spatial-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Puzhao; Gong, Maoguo; Su, Linzhi; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhizhou

    2016-06-01

    Multi-spatial-resolution change detection is a newly proposed issue and it is of great significance in remote sensing, environmental and land use monitoring, etc. Though multi-spatial-resolution image-pair are two kinds of representations of the same reality, they are often incommensurable superficially due to their different modalities and properties. In this paper, we present a novel multi-spatial-resolution change detection framework, which incorporates deep-architecture-based unsupervised feature learning and mapping-based feature change analysis. Firstly, we transform multi-resolution image-pair into the same pixel-resolution through co-registration, followed by details recovery, which is designed to remedy the spatial details lost in the registration. Secondly, the denoising autoencoder is stacked to learn local and high-level representation/feature from the local neighborhood of the given pixel, in an unsupervised fashion. Thirdly, motivated by the fact that multi-resolution image-pair share the same reality in the unchanged regions, we try to explore the inner relationships between them by building a mapping neural network. And it can be used to learn a mapping function based on the most-unlikely-changed feature-pairs, which are selected from all the feature-pairs via a coarse initial change map generated in advance. The learned mapping function can bridge the different representations and highlight changes. Finally, we can build a robust and contractive change map through feature similarity analysis, and the change detection result is obtained through the segmentation of the final change map. Experiments are carried out on four real datasets, and the results confirmed the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  18. Regularization Designs for Uniform Spatial Resolution and Noise Properties in Statistical Image Reconstruction for 3D X-ray CT

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang Hwan; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical image reconstruction methods for X-ray computed tomography (CT) provide improved spatial resolution and noise properties over conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction, along with other potential advantages such as reduced patient dose and artifacts. Conventional regularized image reconstruction leads to spatially variant spatial resolution and noise characteristics because of interactions between the system models and the regularization. Previous regularization design methods aiming to solve such issues mostly rely on circulant approximations of the Fisher information matrix that are very inaccurate for undersampled geometries like short-scan cone-beam CT. This paper extends the regularization method proposed in [1] to 3D cone-beam CT by introducing a hypothetical scanning geometry that helps address the sampling properties. The proposed regularization designs were compared with the original method in [1] with both phantom simulation and clinical reconstruction in 3D axial X-ray CT. The proposed regularization methods yield improved spatial resolution or noise uniformity in statistical image reconstruction for short-scan axial cone-beam CT. PMID:25361500

  19. Regularization designs for uniform spatial resolution and noise properties in statistical image reconstruction for 3-D X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jang Hwan; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Statistical image reconstruction methods for X-ray computed tomography (CT) provide improved spatial resolution and noise properties over conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction, along with other potential advantages such as reduced patient dose and artifacts. Conventional regularized image reconstruction leads to spatially variant spatial resolution and noise characteristics because of interactions between the system models and the regularization. Previous regularization design methods aiming to solve such issues mostly rely on circulant approximations of the Fisher information matrix that are very inaccurate for undersampled geometries like short-scan cone-beam CT. This paper extends the regularization method proposed in to 3-D cone-beam CT by introducing a hypothetical scanning geometry that helps address the sampling properties. The proposed regularization designs were compared with the original method in with both phantom simulation and clinical reconstruction in 3-D axial X-ray CT. The proposed regularization methods yield improved spatial resolution or noise uniformity in statistical image reconstruction for short-scan axial cone-beam CT.

  20. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

  1. Particle detector spatial resolution

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  2. Classification of high spatial resolution images by means of a Gabor wavelet decomposition and a support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, Andrea; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2004-11-01

    Very high spatial resolution satellite images, acquired by third-generation commercial remote sensing (RS) satellites (like Ikonos and QuickBird), are characterized by a tremendous spatial complexity, i.e. surface objects are described by a combination of spectral, textural and shape information. Potentially capable of dealing with the spatial complexity of such images, context-sensitive data mapping systems, e.g. employing filter sets designed for texture feature analysis/synthesis, have been extensively studied in pattern recognition literature in recent years. In this work, four implementations of a two-stage classification scheme for the analysis of high spatial resolution images are compared. Competing first stage (feature extraction) implementations of increasing complexity are: 1) a standard multi-scale dyadic Gaussian pyramid image decomposition, and 2) an original almost complete (near-orthogonal) basis for the Gabor wavelet transform of an input image at selected spatial frequencies (i.e. band-pass filter central frequency and filter orientation pairs). The second stage of the classification scheme consists of: a) an ensemble of pixel-based two-class support vector machines (SVMs) applied to the multi-class classification problem according to the one-against-one strategy, exploiting the well-known SVM's capability of dealing with high dimensional mapping problems; and b) a traditional two-phase supervised learning pixel-based Radial Basis Function (RBF) network. In a badly-posed Ikonos image classification experiment, SVM combined with the two filter sets provide an interesting compromise between ease of use (i.e. easy free parameter selection), classification accuracy, robustness to changes in surface properties, capability of detecting genuine, but small, image details as well as linear structures. Qualitatively and quantitatively, the multi-scale multi-orientation almost complete Gabor wavelet transform appears superior to the dyadic multi

  3. Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurt; Leisso, Nathan; Buchanan, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of commercial high spatial resolution sensors. The topics include: 1) Reflectance-based approach; 2) U of A test sites; 3) Test Site Selection; 4) Resort Living; 5) Aerosol parameters; 6) Surface reflectance retrieval; 7) Accuracy/precision; 8) Data sets; 9) June 23, 2005 for Ikonos; 10) QuickBird Results; 11) Ikonos results; 12) Orbview results; 13) Ikonos redux; and 14) Overall results.

  4. Influence of Spatial Resolution in Three-dimensional Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Accuracy of Hemodynamic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Atsushi; Isoda, Haruo; Morita, Kento; Mori, Marika; Watanabe, Tomoya; Ishiguro, Kenta; Komori, Yoshiaki; Kosugi, Takafumi

    2017-10-10

    We aim to elucidate the effect of spatial resolution of three-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (3D cine PC MR) imaging on the accuracy of the blood flow analysis, and examine the optimal setting for spatial resolution using flow phantoms. The flow phantom has five types of acrylic pipes that represent human blood vessels (inner diameters: 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 mm). The pipes were fixed with 1% agarose containing 0.025 mol/L gadolinium contrast agent. A blood-mimicking fluid with human blood property values was circulated through the pipes at a steady flow. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (three-directional phase images with speed information and magnitude images for information of shape) were acquired using the 3-Tesla MR system and receiving coil. Temporal changes in spatially-averaged velocity and maximum velocity were calculated using hemodynamic analysis software. We calculated the error rates of the flow velocities based on the volume flow rates measured with a flowmeter and examined measurement accuracy. When the acrylic pipe was the size of the thoracicoabdominal or cervical artery and the ratio of pixel size for the pipe was set at 30% or lower, spatially-averaged velocity measurements were highly accurate. When the pixel size ratio was set at 10% or lower, maximum velocity could be measured with high accuracy. It was difficult to accurately measure maximum velocity of the 3-mm pipe, which was the size of an intracranial major artery, but the error for spatially-averaged velocity was 20% or less. Flow velocity measurement accuracy of 3D cine PC MR imaging for pipes with inner sizes equivalent to vessels in the cervical and thoracicoabdominal arteries is good. The flow velocity accuracy for the pipe with a 3-mm-diameter that is equivalent to major intracranial arteries is poor for maximum velocity, but it is relatively good for spatially-averaged velocity.

  5. Determination of local thickness values of non-uniform thin films by imaging spectroscopic reflectometer with enhanced spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodák, J.; Nečas, D.; Ohlídal, M.; Ohlídal, I.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper an imaging spectroscopic reflectometer with enhanced spatial resolution is presented. Main features of its design, experimental data acquisition, i.e. maps of thin film spectral dependencies of local reflectance and the local thickness map determination are described. The ability of this instrument to characterize thin film thickness non-uniformity with high gradients is demonstrated on measurements of thin film edges. A comparison with an older device is also presented.

  6. OSIS: remote sensing code for estimating aerosol optical properties in urban areas from very high spatial resolution images.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Colin; Briottet, Xavier; Santer, Richard

    2011-10-01

    The achievement of new satellite or airborne remote sensing instruments enables the more precise study of cities with metric spatial resolutions. For studies such as the radiative characterization of urban features, knowledge of the atmosphere and particularly of aerosols is required to perform first an atmospheric compensation of the remote sensing images. However, to our knowledge, no efficient aerosol characterization technique adapted both to urban areas and to very high spatial resolution images has yet been developed. The goal of this paper is so to present a new code to characterize aerosol optical properties, OSIS, adapted to urban remote sensing images of metric spatial resolution acquired in the visible and near-IR spectral domains. First, a new aerosol characterization method based on the observation of shadow/sun transitions is presented, offering the advantage to avoid the assessment of target reflectances. Its principle and the modeling of the signal used to solve the retrieval equation are then detailed. Finally, a sensitivity study of OSIS from synthetic images simulated by the radiative transfer code AMARTIS v2 is also presented. This study has shown an intrinsic precision of this tool of Δτ(a)=0.1.τ(a) ± (0.02 + 0.4.τ(a)) for retrieval of aerosol optical thicknesses. This study shows that OSIS is a powerful tool for aerosol characterization that has a precision similar to satellite products for the aerosol optical thicknesses retrieval and that can be applied to every very high spatial resolution instrument, multispectral or hyperspectral, airborne or satellite.

  7. Clinical Assessment of Standard and Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition Diffusion Imaging: Effects of Reduction Factor and Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Andre, J.B.; Zaharchuk, G.; Fischbein, N.J.; Augustin, M.; Skare, S.; Straka, M.; Rosenberg, J.; Lansberg, M.G.; Kemp, S.; Wijman, C.A.C.; Albers, G.W.; Schwartz, N.E.; Bammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE PI improves routine EPI-based DWI by enabling higher spatial resolution and reducing geometric distortion, though it remains unclear which of these is most important. We evaluated the relative contribution of these factors and assessed their ability to increase lesion conspicuity and diagnostic confidence by using a GRAPPA technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four separate DWI scans were obtained at 1.5T in 48 patients with independent variation of in-plane spatial resolution (1.88 mm2 versus 1.25 mm2) and/or reduction factor (R = 1 versus R = 3). A neuroradiologist with access to clinical history and additional imaging sequences provided a reference standard diagnosis for each case. Three blinded neuroradiologists assessed scans for abnormalities and also evaluated multiple imaging-quality metrics by using a 5-point ordinal scale. Logistic regression was used to determine the impact of each factor on subjective image quality and confidence. RESULTS Reference standard diagnoses in the patient cohort were acute ischemic stroke (n = 30), ischemic stroke with hemorrhagic conversion (n = 4), intraparenchymal hemorrhage (n = 9), or no acute lesion (n = 5). While readers preferred both a higher reduction factor and a higher spatial resolution, the largest effect was due to an increased reduction factor (odds ratio, 47 ± 16). Small lesions were more confidently discriminated from artifacts on R = 3 images. The diagnosis changed in 5 of 48 scans, always toward the reference standard reading and exclusively for posterior fossa lesions. CONCLUSIONS PI improves DWI primarily by reducing geometric distortion rather than by increasing spatial resolution. This outcome leads to a more accurate and confident diagnosis of small lesions. PMID:22403781

  8. Effect of improving spatial or temporal resolution on image quality and quantitative perfusion assessment with k-t SENSE acceleration in first-pass CMR myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Maredia, Neil; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Kozerke, Sebastian; Larghat, Abdulghani; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven

    2010-12-01

    k-t Sensitivity-encoded (k-t SENSE) acceleration has been used to improve spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and slice coverage in first-pass cardiac magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging. This study compares the effect of investing the speed-up afforded by k-t SENSE acceleration in spatial or temporal resolution. Ten healthy volunteers underwent adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging using four saturation-recovery gradient echo perfusion sequences: a reference sequence accelerated by sensitivity encoding (SENSE), and three k-t SENSE-accelerated sequences with higher spatial resolution ("k-t High"), shorter acquisition window ("k-t Fast"), or a shared increase in both parameters ("k-t Hybrid") relative to the reference. Dark-rim artifacts and image quality were analyzed. Semiquantitative myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) and Fermi-derived quantitative MPR were also calculated. The k-t Hybrid sequence produced highest image quality scores at rest (P = 0.015). Rim artifact thickness and extent were lowest using k-t High and k-t Hybrid sequences (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in MPRI and MPR values derived by each sequence. Maximizing spatial resolution by k-t SENSE acceleration produces the greatest reduction in dark rim artifact. There is good agreement between k-t SENSE and standard acquisition methods for semiquantitative and fully quantitative myocardial perfusion analysis.

  9. WE-EF-303-04: An Advanced Image Processing Method to Improve the Spatial Resolution of Proton Radiographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Krah, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness accuracy of proton radiographies. Methods: The method is designed for imaging systems measuring only the residual range of protons without relying on tracker detectors to determine the beam trajectory before and after the target. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) working as a range telescope. The method uses a decomposition approach of the residual range signal measured by the PPIC and constructs subimages with small size pixels geometrically rearranged and appropriately averaged to be merged into a final single radiography. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results: For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 4 and 3 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography convolved with a Gaussian kernel equal to the proton beam spot-size. For DTA=2.5 mm and RD=2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. An extension of the method allows reducing the dose given to the patient during radiography acquisition. We show that despite a dose reduction of 25 times (leading to a dose of 0.016 mGy for the current imaging set-up), the image quality of the optimized radiographies remains fairly unaffected for both the simulated and experimental results. Conclusion: The optimization method leads to a significant increase of the spatial resolution allowing recovering image details that are unresolved in non-optimized radiographies. These results represent a major step towards clinical

  10. High-spatial-resolution MWPC for medical imaging with positron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Del Guerra, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schwartz, G.; Sleaford, B.

    1982-03-01

    The performance of a 15 x 15 cm/sup 2/ MultiWire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) with lead glass tube converter is presented. A standard Argon-Methane (70-30) gas mixture has been used at various pressures between 1.0 and 2.0 atm. For 511 keV ..gamma..-rays incident almost perpendicular onto a 1.0 cm thick lead glass tube converter, a detection efficiency of 4.5%, a time resolution of 130 ns (FWHM) and a spatial resolution of 1.3 mm (FWHM) has been obtained at 2 atm. Fast delay lines, capacitively coupled to the cathodes, standard integrated amplifiers and comparator electronics have been adopted for the position read-out. The use of fast delay lines (specific delay 8 ns/cm) ensures a high rate capability. A multiplanar positron camera is proposed, made of six MWPC modules arranged to form the lateral surface of a hexagonal prism. Each module (50 x 50 cm/sup 2/) will have a 2 cm thick converter on both sides of the chamber and will be operating at 2 atm. The expected performance is presented and compared with that of a recent multi-ring BGO camera, and is shown to be superior in spatial resolution and comparable in event rate at a considerably lower cost.

  11. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  12. Spatial resolution and cloud optical thickness retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feind, Rand E.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of sensor spatial resolution and accurate cloud pixel identification on cloud property retrievals was investigated. Twelve fair weather cumulus (FWC) scenes of high spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data are analyzed. A variation of the 3-band ratio technique of Gao and Goetz is used to discriminate clouds from the background, and then a discrete ordinate radiative transfer model is used to obtain optical thickness of cloudy regions for each scene. To study the effect of spatial resolution upon retrieved optical thickness, the 20 m AVIRIS data was spatially degraded to spatial resolutions ranging from 40 to 960 m. Cloud area, scene average optical thickness, and distribution of retrieved optical thickness are determined at each spatial resolution. Finally, a comparison between the 3-band ratio technique and monospectral reflectance thresholding, using 20 m spatial resolution data, is presented.

  13. Depth-resolved mid-infrared photothermal imaging of living cells and organisms with submicrometer spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Delong; Li, Chen; Zhang, Chi; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contrast has long been sought for label-free visualization of biomolecules and materials in complex living systems. Although infrared spectroscopic imaging has come a long way in this direction, it is thus far only applicable to dried tissues because of the strong infrared absorption by water. It also suffers from low spatial resolution due to long wavelengths and lacks optical sectioning capabilities. We overcome these limitations through sensing vibrational absorption–induced photothermal effect by a visible laser beam. Our mid-infrared photothermal (MIP) approach reached 10 μM detection sensitivity and submicrometer lateral spatial resolution. This performance has exceeded the diffraction limit of infrared microscopy and allowed label-free three-dimensional chemical imaging of live cells and organisms. Distributions of endogenous lipid and exogenous drug inside single cells were visualized. We further demonstrated in vivo MIP imaging of lipids and proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. The reported MIP imaging technology promises broad applications from monitoring metabolic activities to high-resolution mapping of drug molecules in living systems, which are beyond the reach of current infrared microscopy. PMID:27704043

  14. Depth-resolved mid-infrared photothermal imaging of living cells and organisms with submicrometer spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delong; Li, Chen; Zhang, Chi; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Chemical contrast has long been sought for label-free visualization of biomolecules and materials in complex living systems. Although infrared spectroscopic imaging has come a long way in this direction, it is thus far only applicable to dried tissues because of the strong infrared absorption by water. It also suffers from low spatial resolution due to long wavelengths and lacks optical sectioning capabilities. We overcome these limitations through sensing vibrational absorption-induced photothermal effect by a visible laser beam. Our mid-infrared photothermal (MIP) approach reached 10 μM detection sensitivity and submicrometer lateral spatial resolution. This performance has exceeded the diffraction limit of infrared microscopy and allowed label-free three-dimensional chemical imaging of live cells and organisms. Distributions of endogenous lipid and exogenous drug inside single cells were visualized. We further demonstrated in vivo MIP imaging of lipids and proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. The reported MIP imaging technology promises broad applications from monitoring metabolic activities to high-resolution mapping of drug molecules in living systems, which are beyond the reach of current infrared microscopy.

  15. Evaluation of high spatial resolution imaging of magnetic stray fields for early damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Pelkner, Matthias; Lyamkin, Viktor; Sonntag, Nadja; Bruno, Giovanni; Skrotzki, Birgit; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-02-01

    The paper discusses the evaluation of elastic and plastic strain states in two low-carbon steels of the same steel group with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors. The residual stress distributions of tungsten inert gas welded plates were determined by means of neutron diffraction as a reference. The normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields arise in the vicinity of the positions of maximum stress. The experiments performed on flat tensile specimen indicate that the boundaries of plastic deformations are a source of stray fields. The spatial variations of magnetic stray fields for both the weld and the tensile samples are in the order of the earths magnetic field.

  16. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Duren, Riley M.; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Hook, Simon J.; Vance, Nick; Guillevic, Pierre; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Mihaly, Jonathan M.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Chazanoff, Seth L.; Staniszewski, Zak K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Rivera, Gerardo; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Miller, Charles E.; Malakar, Nabin K.; Sánchez Tomás, Juan M.; Holmes, Kendall T.

    2016-06-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution that permits direct attribution to sources. HyTES is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer with high spectral resolution (256 bands from 7.5 to 12 µm), wide swath (1-2 km), and high spatial resolution (˜ 2 m at 1 km altitude) that incorporates new thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technologies. In this study we introduce a hybrid clutter matched filter (CMF) and plume dilation algorithm applied to HyTES observations to efficiently detect and characterize the spatial structures of individual plumes of CH4, H2S, NH3, NO2, and SO2 emitters. The sensitivity and field of regard of HyTES allows rapid and frequent airborne surveys of large areas including facilities not readily accessible from the surface. The HyTES CMF algorithm produces plume intensity images of methane and other gases from strong emission sources. The combination of high spatial resolution and multi-species imaging capability provides source attribution in complex environments. The CMF-based detection of strong emission sources over large areas is a fast and powerful tool needed to focus on more computationally intensive retrieval algorithms to quantify emissions with error estimates, and is useful for expediting mitigation efforts and addressing critical science questions.

  17. A novel coded excitation scheme to improve spatial and contrast resolution of quantitative ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose R; Pocci, Darren; Oelze, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging techniques based on ultrasonic backscatter have been used successfully to diagnose and monitor disease. A method for improving the contrast and axial resolution of QUS parametric images by using the resolution enhancement compression (REC) technique is proposed. Resolution enhancement compression is a coded excitation and pulse compression technique that enhances the -6-dB bandwidth of an ultrasonic imaging system. The objective of this study was to combine REC with QUS (REC-QUS) and evaluate and compare improvements in scatterer diameter estimates obtained using the REC technique to conventional pulsing methods. Simulations and experimental measurements were conducted with a single-element transducer (f/4) having a center frequency of 10 MHz and a -6-dB bandwidth of 80%. Using REC, the -6-dB bandwidth was enhanced to 155%. Images for both simulation and experimental measurements contained a signal-to-noise ratio of 28 dB. In simulations, to monitor the improvements in contrast a software phantom with a cylindrical lesion was evaluated. In experimental measurements, tissue-mimicking phantoms that contained glass spheres with different scatterer diameters were evaluated. Estimates of average scatterer diameter in the simulations and experiments were obtained by comparing the normalized backscattered power spectra to theory over the -6-dB bandwidth for both conventional pulsing and REC. Improvements in REC-QUS over conventional QUS were quantified through estimate bias and standard deviation, contrast-to-noise ratio, and histogram analysis of QUS parametric images. Overall, a 51% increase in contrast and a 60% decrease in the standard deviation of average scatterer diameter estimates were obtained during simulations, while a reduction of 34% to 71% was obtained in the standard deviation of average scatterer diameter for the experimental results.

  18. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reversible cryo-arrest for imaging molecules in living cells at high spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Ola; Wehner, Frank; Konitsiotis, Antonios; Fuhr, Günther R.; Bastiaens, Philippe I. H.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of molecules in living cells hamper precise imaging of molecular patterns by functional and super resolution microscopy. Circumventing lethal chemical fixation, an on-stage cryo-arrest was developed for consecutive imaging of molecular patterns within the same living, but arrested cells. The reversibility of consecutive cryo-arrests was demonstrated by the high survival rate of different cell lines and intact growth factor signaling that was not perturbed by stress response. Reversible cryo-arrest was applied to study the evolution of ligand-induced receptor tyrosine kinase activation at different scales. The nanoscale clustering of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the plasma membrane was assessed by single molecule localization microscopy and endosomal microscale activity patterns of ephrin receptor type-A (EphA2) by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. We thereby demonstrate that reversible cryo-arrest allows the precise determination of molecular patterns while conserving the dynamic capabilities of living cells. PMID:27400419

  20. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  1. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  2. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D; Green, O; Zeng, Q; Nana, R; Patrick, J; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported into the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green

  3. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  4. A deconvolution approach for the enhancement of spatial resolution in energy dispersive x-ray diffraction and related imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, S.; Bomsdorf, H.

    2013-07-01

    A reconstruction approach is presented, allowing the improvement of spatial resolution of images obtained by sequential pixel scanning techniques. Based on a series of measurements taken under different object positions, the signal contributions from individual voxels of significantly reduced size are calculated. Mathematically, the type of reconstruction used can be regarded as a deconvolution or solving an inverse problem. Due to the specific shape of the convolution kernel in the x-ray diffraction example treated here the problem turns out to be ill-posed, and thus its solution using measured (noisy) data requires the application of a suitable regularization method. Detailed studies on this issue led to the development of a novel iterative algorithm, combining several deconvolution runs with preceding and intermediate image processing steps. The Tikhonov method was used for regularization. Depending on the object under investigation, the original Euclidean norm (least-squares fit) was advantageously replaced by the 1-norm (least absolute deviation, LAD problem). The method presented here was developed to overcome resolution limitations in spatially resolved x-ray diffraction measurements on extended objects as used, e.g., for material analysis or the detection of illicit substances in baggage inspection applications. Nevertheless, the technique may easily be utilized for resolution enhancement within other imaging modalities, provided the task can be written as a deconvolution problem and the corresponding convolution kernel is known. According to the features of our experimental setup the developed reconstruction algorithm is explained for energy dispersive x-ray diffraction with pencil beam irradiation as an example application. The spatial resolution enhancement is demonstrated, using simulated and measured data sets corresponding to objects of different material composition.

  5. Estimation of inter-annual winter crop area variation and spatial distribution with low resolution NDVI data by using neural networks trained on high resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzberger, C.; Rembold, F.

    2009-09-01

    The current work aimed at testing a methodology which can be applied to low spatial resolution satellite data to assess interannual crop area variations on a regional scale. The methodology is based on the assumption that within mixed pixels such variations are reflected by changes in the related multitemporal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) profiles. This implies that low resolution NDVI images with high temporal frequency can be used to update land cover estimates derived from higher resolution cartography. More particularly, changes in the shape of annual NDVI profiles can be detected by a Neural Network trained by using high resolution images for a subset of the study years. By taking into account the respective proportions of the remaining land covers within a given low resolution pixel, the accuracy of the net can be further increased. The proposed methodology was applied in a study region in central Italy to estimate area changes of winter crops from low resolution NDVI profiles. The accuracy of such estimates was assessed by comparison to official agricultural statistics using a bootstrap approach. The method showed promise for estimating crop area variation on a regional scale and proved to have a significantly higher forecast capability than other methods used previously for the same study area.

  6. Spatial resolution and image qualities of Zr-89 on Siemens Biograph TruePoint PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-02-01

    Zirconium-89 (t(1/2)=78.41 hours) is an ideal metallic radioisotope for immuno-positron emission tomography (PET), given that its physical half-life closely matches the biological half-life of monoclonal antibodies. In this study, the authors measured the spatial resolution and image quality of Zr-89 PET and compared the results against those obtained using F-18 PET, which is widely regarded as the gold standard for comparison of imaging characteristics. The spatial resolution and image qualities of Zr-89 were measured on the Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV PET/CT scanner, partly according to NEMA NU2-2007 standards. For spatial resolution measurement, the Zr-89 point source was located at the center of the axial field of view (FOV) and offset 1/4 axial FOV from the center. For image quality measurements, an NEMA IEC Phantom was used. The NEMA IEC Phantom consists of six hot spheres that were filled with Zr-89 solution. Spatial resolution and image quality (%contrast, %background variability [BV], and source to background ratio [SBR]) were assessed to compare the imaging characteristics of F-18 with those of Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV. The transverse and axial spatial resolutions at 1 cm were 4.5 and 4.7 mm for Zr-89, respectively. The %contrast of Zr-89 was 25.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 89.8% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 32.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 103.9% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method. The %BV of F-18 PET was 6.4% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.5% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the OSEM reconstruction. The SBR of Zr-89 was 1.8 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.7 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 2.0 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 4.1 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the OSEM reconstruction method. This study assessed Zr-89

  7. Spatial Resolution and Image Qualities of Zr-89 on Siemens Biograph TruePoint PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Byung Il; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Zirconium-89 (t1/2=78.41 hours) is an ideal metallic radioisotope for immuno–positron emission tomography (PET), given that its physical half-life closely matches the biological half-life of monoclonal antibodies. In this study, the authors measured the spatial resolution and image quality of Zr-89 PET and compared the results against those obtained using F-18 PET, which is widely regarded as the gold standard for comparison of imaging characteristics. Materials and Methods: The spatial resolution and image qualities of Zr-89 were measured on the Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV PET/CT scanner, partly according to NEMA NU2-2007 standards. For spatial resolution measurement, the Zr-89 point source was located at the center of the axial field of view (FOV) and offset 1/4 axial FOV from the center. For image quality measurements, an NEMA IEC Phantom was used. The NEMA IEC Phantom consists of six hot spheres that were filled with Zr-89 solution. Spatial resolution and image quality (%contrast, %background variability [BV], and source to background ratio [SBR]) were assessed to compare the imaging characteristics of F-18 with those of Siemens Biograph Truepoint TrueV. Results: The transverse and axial spatial resolutions at 1 cm were 4.5 and 4.7 mm for Zr-89, respectively. The %contrast of Zr-89 was 25.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 89.8% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 32.5% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 103.9% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction method. The %BV of F-18 PET was 6.4% for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.5% for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the OSEM reconstruction. The SBR of Zr-89 was 1.8 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 3.7 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere, and for F-18, it was 2.0 for the smallest 10 mm sized sphere and 4.1 for the largest 37 mm sized sphere using the

  8. New fluorescence imaging probe with high spatial resolution for in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Bonnans, V; Gharbi, T; Pieralli, C; Wacogne, B; Humbert, Ph

    2004-01-01

    A new fiberized fluorescence imaging probe is presented. This device can potentially be used for a wide range of biological or medical applications. By exploiting the chromatic aberrations of gradient index lenses, the excitation blue or near-UV excitation light is focused on the sample surface, while the red fluorescence signal is efficiently launched back to collecting fibers. The excitation fiber is single mode at the working wavelength so that a resolution of 5 microm is obtained over a scanning area of several square millimeters. Experimental fluorescence images are presented. They concern either self-fabricated fluorescent microsamples or views of leaves that constitute an example of biological tissues analysis. The probe can also be adapted for spectroscopic investigations.

  9. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Noun, Manale; Van Elslande, Elsa; Touboul, David; Glanville, Helen; Bucklow, Spike; Walter, Philippe; Brunelle, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging using cluster primary ion beams is used for the identification of the pigments in the painting of Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well by Nicolas Poussin. The combination of the high mass resolution of the technique with a sub-micrometer spatial resolution offered by a delayed extraction of the secondary ions, together with the possibility to simultaneously identifying both minerals and organics, has proved to be the method of choice for the study of the stratigraphy of a paint cross section. The chemical compositions of small grains are shown with the help of a thorough processing of the data, with images of specific ions, mass spectra extracted from small regions of interest, and profiles drawn along the different painting layers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simultaneous High-Resolution 2-Dimensional Spatial and 1-Dimensional Picosecond Streaked X-ray Pinhole Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, A B; Nagel, S R; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A

    2012-05-03

    A Kentech x-ray streak camera was run at the LLNL Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser to record simultaneous space- and time-resolved measurements of picosecond laser-produced plasmas. Four different x-ray energy channels were monitored using broad-band filters to record the time history of Cu targets heated at irradiances of 10{sup 16} - 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Through the Cu filter channel, a time-resolution below 3ps was obtained. Additionally, an array of 10 {micro}m diameter pinholes was placed in front of the camera to produce multiple time-resolved x-ray images on the photocathode and time-integrated images on the phosphor with 10 and 15 times magnification, respectively, with spatial resolution of <13 {micro}m.

  11. Imaging the propagation of shock waves with both high temporal and high spatial resolution using XFELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of x-ray sources of the fourth generation, so called x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), comes along with completely new research opportunities in various scientific fields. During the last year we developed an x-ray microscope based on beryllium compound refractive lenses (Be-CRLs), which is especially optimized for the XFEL environment and provides focusing capabilities down to 100nm and even below. Based on magnified x-ray phase contrast imaging, this new setup enables us to pursue high-resolution x-ray imaging experiments with single XFEL-pulses. In a first experiment, carried out at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the LCLS, the performance of the instrument was investigated by direct imaging of shock waves in different materials. The shock wave was induced by an intense 150 ps optical laser pulse. The evolution of the shock wave was then monitored with the XFEL-beam. In this contribution we report on first analysis results of phase contrast imaging of shock waves in matter. In collaboration with Brice Arnold, Eric Galtier, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler, Jerome Hastings, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA; Damian Hicks, Yuan Ping, Gilbert Collins, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, USA; and Robert Hoppe, Vivienne Meier, Jens Patommel, Frank Seiboth, Christian Schroer, Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.

  12. Extraction of marine debris in the Sea of Japan using high-spatial-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The flow of marine debris in the Sea of Japan causes extensive damage to coastal environments. It is important to understand the debris flow in the ocean for environmental research. The small size of most marine debris in the Sea of Japan makes it impossible to be confirmed directly, even when using high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery. Thus, to extract candidate pixels containing possible marine debris, pixels with spectra that differ from those of the surrounding ocean and wave crests were identified. As a first step towards monitoring marine debris, a previously proposed method for identifying marine debris floating in the Sea of Japan uses a histogram showing the distance from the regression line of the scatter diagram of satellite spectral bands. In this paper, a new method using a spectral angle mapper (SAM) in four- or eight-dimensional space corresponding to satellite spectral bands is proposed. The validity of the method using SAM is also discussed.

  13. Automatic change detection of buildings in urban environment from very high spatial resolution images using existing geodatabase and prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziani, Mourad; Goïta, Kalifa; He, Dong-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The updating of geodatabases (GDB) in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It may be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. Some change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geodatabase. Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to be added to the geodatabase. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2006 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The rate of good detection is 90%. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the exact contours of the buildings. It could be improved by including a shape post-analysis of detected buildings. The proposed method could be integrated into a cartographic update process or as a method for the quality assessment of a geodatabase. It could be also be used to identify illegal building work or to monitor urban growth.

  14. High-Spatial- and High-Temporal-Resolution Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Breast Imaging with Sweep Imaging with Fourier Transformation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, John C.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Snyder, Angela L.; Snyder, Carl J.; Hutter, Diane; Everson, Lenore I.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Nelson, Michael T.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the results of sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for diagnostic breast imaging. Materials and Methods Informed consent was obtained from all participants under one of two institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant protocols. Twelve female patients (age range, 19–54 years; mean age, 41.2 years) and eight normal control subjects (age range, 22–56 years; mean age, 43.2 years) enrolled and completed the study from January 28, 2011, to March 5, 2013. Patients had previous lesions that were Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 and 5 based on mammography and/or ultrasonographic imaging. Contrast-enhanced SWIFT imaging was completed by using a 4-T research MR imaging system. Noncontrast studies were completed in the normal control subjects. One of two sized single-breast SWIFT-compatible transceiver coils was used for nine patients and five controls. Three patients and five control subjects used a SWIFT-compatible dual breast coil. Temporal resolution was 5.9–7.5 seconds. Spatial resolution was 1.00 mm isotropic, with later examinations at 0.67 mm isotropic, and dual breast at 1.00 mm or 0.75 mm isotropic resolution. Results Two nonblinded breast radiologists reported SWIFT image findings of normal breast tissue, benign fibroadenomas (six of six lesions), and malignant lesions (10 of 12 lesions) concordant with other imaging modalities and pathologic reports. Two lesions in two patients were not visualized because of coil field of view. The images yielded by SWIFT showed the presence and extent of known breast lesions. Conclusion The SWIFT technique could become an important addition to breast imaging modalities because it provides high spatial resolution at all points during the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:25247405

  15. A scintillator fabricated by solid-state diffusion bonding for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameshima, Takashi; Sato, Takahiro; Kudo, Togo; Ono, Shun; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-07-01

    Lens-coupled two-dimensional indirect X-ray detectors with thin-film scintillators are important for high spatial resolution X-ray imaging. To achieve high quality high-resolution images, we propose a novel fabrication method for thin-film scintillators based on solid-state diffusion bonding. Scintillators were successfully produced with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 μm, with a surface flatness better than λ/10. X-ray imaging performance with a point spread function of 8 μm FWHM was demonstrated with a prototype X-ray detector equipped with a 20-μm-thick scintillator, at an effective spatial sampling of 4 μm/pixel and a field of view of 2.56 x 1.92 mm2. At the request of all authors of the paper and with the agreement of the proceedings editors an updated version of this article was published on 1 September 2016. An older version of the paper was inadvertently supplied to AIP Publishing and the final version is now available.

  16. Limits of Spatial Resolution for Thermography and Other Non-destructive Imaging Methods Based on Diffusion Waves.

    PubMed

    Burgholzer, Peter; Hendorfer, Günther

    2013-01-01

    In this work the measured variable, such as temperature, is a random variable showing fluctuations. The loss of information caused by diffusion waves in non-destructive testing can be described by stochastic processes. In non-destructive imaging, the information about the spatial pattern of a samples interior has to be transferred to the sample surface by certain waves, e.g., thermal waves. At the sample surface these waves can be detected and the interior structure is reconstructed from the measured signals. The amount of information about the interior of the sample, which can be gained from the detected waves on the sample surface, is essentially influenced by the propagation from its excitation to the surface. Diffusion causes entropy production and information loss for the propagating waves. Mandelis has developed a unifying framework for treating diverse diffusion-related periodic phenomena under the global mathematical label of diffusion-wave fields, such as thermal waves. Thermography uses the time-dependent diffusion of heat (either pulsed or modulated periodically) which goes along with entropy production and a loss of information. Several attempts have been made to compensate for this diffusive effect to get a higher resolution for the reconstructed images of the samples interior. In this work it is shown that fluctuations limit this compensation. Therefore, the spatial resolution for non-destructive imaging at a certain depth is also limited by theory.

  17. Spatial resolution enhancement of hyperspectral image based on the combination of spectral mixing model and observation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifan

    2014-10-01

    To improve the spatial resolution of a hyperspectral (HS) observation of a scene with the aid of an auxiliary multispectral (MS) observation, a new spectral unmixing-based HS and MS image fusion approach is presented in this paper. In the proposed fusion approach, linear spectral unmixing with sparsity constraint is employed, by taking the impact of linear observation model on linear mixing model into consideration. Simulative experiment is employed for verification and comparison. It is illustrated that the proposed approach would be more promising for practical utilization compared to some state-of-the-art approaches, due to its good balance between fusion performance and calculation cost.

  18. Evaluation of two software tools dedicated to an automatic analysis of the CT scanner image spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Torfeh, Tarraf; Beaumont, Stéphane; Guédon, Jean Pierre; Denis, Eloïse

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of two software tools dedicated to an automatic analysis of the CT scanner image spatial resolution is presented in this paper. The methods evaluated consist of calculating the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the CT scanners; the first uses an image of an impulse source, while the second method proposed by Droege and Morin uses an image of cyclic bar patterns. Two Digital Test Objects (DTO) are created to this purpose. These DTOs are then blurred by doing a convolution with a two-dimensional Gaussian Point Spread Function (PSF(Ref)), which has a well known Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). The evaluation process consists then of comparing the Fourier transform of the PSF on the one hand, and the two mentioned methods on the other hand.

  19. Investigating the effect of pixel size of high spatial resolution FTIR imaging for detection of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, G. R.; Nallala, J.; Stone, N.

    2016-03-01

    FTIR is a well-established technique and there is significant interest in applying this technique to medical diagnostics e.g. to detect cancer. The introduction of focal plane array (FPA) detectors means that FTIR is particularly suited to rapid imaging of biopsy sections as an adjunct to digital pathology. Until recently however each pixel in the image has been limited to a minimum of 5.5 µm which results in a comparatively low magnification image or histology applications and potentially the loss of important diagnostic information. The recent introduction of higher magnification optics gives image pixels that cover approx. 1.1 µm. This reduction in image pixel size gives images of higher magnification and improved spatial detail can be observed. However, the effect of increasing the magnification on spectral quality and the ability to discriminate between disease states is not well studied. In this work we test the discriminatory performance of FTIR imaging using both standard (5.5 µm) and high (1.1 µm) magnification for the detection of colorectal cancer and explore the effect of binning to degrade high resolution images to determine whether similar diagnostic information and performance can be obtained using both magnifications. Results indicate that diagnostic performance using high magnification may be reduced as compared to standard magnification when using existing multivariate approaches. Reduction of the high magnification data to standard magnification via binning can potentially recover some of the lost performance.

  20. Imaging of nanostructures with sub-100 nm spatial resolution using a desktop EUV microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Pánek, Dalibor; Brůža, Petr

    2012-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma sources of short-wavelength radiation offer an interesting alternative to synchrotron and free-electron laser installations. Recently, we reported on a newly developed desktop EUV microscope based on plasma generated from a gas-puff target and diffractive optics. The half-pitch resolution of the microscope approached 50 nm. Compared to analogous microscopes based on synchrotron sources, our system is compact and cost-effective. In this paper, we present the results of imaging experiments on a thin polycrystalline object that was carried out in order to further examine the applicability of the microscope. We have demonstrated here that EUV microscopy can provide structural information that cannot be accessed by conventional optical microscopy or SEM.

  1. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54 μm. After resampling to 54

  2. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. Methods: A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. Results: At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54

  3. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. Methods: A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. Results: At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54

  4. Redox and speciation mapping of rock thin sections using high spatial resolution full-field imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, V.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.; Beraldin, O.; Heymes, T.; Lewin, E.

    2009-04-01

    Because of their complex genesis, natural rocks are the most often heterogeneous systems, with various scale-level heterogeneities for both chemistry and structure. In the last decade, the dramatic improvements of hyperspectral imaging techniques provided new tools for accurate material characterisation. Most of these micro- and nano- analytical techniques rely on scanning instruments, which offer high spatial resolution but suffer from long acquisition times imposing practical limits on the field of view. Conversely, full-field imaging techniques rely on a fast parallel acquisition but have limited resolution. Although soft X-ray full-field microscopes based on Fresnel zone plates are commonly used for high resolution imaging, its combination with spectroscopy is challenging and 2D chemical mapping still difficult. For harder X-rays, lensless X-ray microscope based on simple propagation geometry is easier and can be readily used for 2D spectro-microscopy. A full-field experimental setup was optimized at the ESRF-ID21 beamline to image iron redox and speciation distributions in rocks thin sections. The setup comprises a Si111 or Si220 (E = 0.4 eV) monochromator, a special sample stage and a sensitive camera associated with a brand new GGG:Eu light conversion scintillator and high magnification visible light optics. The pixel size ranges from 1.6 to 0.16 m according to the optic used. This instrument was used to analyse phyllosilicates and oxides of metamorphic sediments coming from the Aspromonte nappes-pile in Calabria. Iron chemical state distributions were derived - from images of 1000 Ã- 2000 Ã- 30 m3 rock thin sections - by subtraction of absorption images above and below the Fe K-edge. Using an automatic stitching reconstruction, a wide field image (4Ã-3 mm2 with a 1 m2 resolution for a total of about 12 millions pixels) of Fetotal elemental distribution was produced. Moreover, -XANES analyses (more than 1 million individual -XANES spectra) were performed

  5. 3-D Spatial Resolution of 350 μm Pitch Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors for Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongzhi; Chen, Ximeng; Wu, Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Garson, Alfred; Li, Qiang; Guo, Qingzhen; Krawczynski, Henric; Meng, Ling-Jian; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    We are currently investigating the feasibility of using highly pixelated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors for sub-500 μm resolution PET imaging applications. A 20 mm × 20 mm × 5 mm CdZnTe substrate was fabricated with 350 μm pitch pixels (250 μm anode pixels with 100 μm gap) and coplanar cathode. Charge sharing among the pixels of a 350 μm pitch detector was studied using collimated 122 keV and 511 keV gamma ray sources. For a 350 μm pitch CdZnTe detector, scatter plots of the charge signal of two neighboring pixels clearly show more charge sharing when the collimated beam hits the gap between adjacent pixels. Using collimated Co-57 and Ge-68 sources, we measured the count profiles and estimated the intrinsic spatial resolution of 350 μm pitch detector biased at −1000 V. Depth of interaction was analyzed based on two methods, i.e., cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time, in both 122 keV and 511 keV measurements. For single-pixel photopeak events, a linear correlation between cathode/anode ratio and electron drift time was shown, which would be useful for estimating the DOI information and preserving image resolution in CdZnTe PET imaging applications. PMID:28250476

  6. Energy-selective neutron imaging with high spatial resolution and its impact on the study of crystalline-structured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Peetermans, S.; Josic, L.; Leber, H.; van Swygenhoven, H.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline-structured materials with preferentially large grains were investigated by means of energy-selective neutron imaging methods (transmission radiography and tomography) under the conditions of the best possible spatial resolution at the ICON facility, SINQ, and PSI. Because of the cold spectrum at that beam line, access to the Bragg diffraction features was possible even when the energy resolution of the used selector device was only 15%. Grains with a size below the detector resolution (approximately 25 μm) are not visible, and a quasi-homogeneous contrast variation is found when the neutron energy is varied.In the cases of welded stainless steel samples and rolled Al plates, we obtained structural information from a very short exposure of approximately 60 s. Tomographic examinations of these samples at suitable neutron energies qualitatively verified the radiographic findings by showing the same features in the bulk. Comparison to common electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations in selected regions of the samples provided a complete verification of the neutron-image data with respect to the grain size and the different grain orientations. The method of energy-selective neutron imaging provides an easy and straightforward approach for non-invasive material research that can be performed without any sample preparation if the most suitable neutron energy is chosen. Further studies will be necessary to extend the experimental data base to other materials with different crystal structures and grain sizes. A comparison to diffraction data will enhance the quantitative value of the investigations.

  7. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B.; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (106 cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  8. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  9. Tool for computer-assisted geo-spatial registration and truthing of images of differing dimensionality and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Bradford D.; Amphay, Sengvieng A.; Stansbery, Stacey; Hulsey, Donald R.

    2000-07-01

    The Air Force Research Lab, Advanced Guidance Division, AFRL/MNG located at Eglin AFB has expanded the capabilities of its Modular Algorithm Concept Evaluation Tool (MACET) for autonomous target acquisition (ATA) analysis to include an imagery truth editor for simultaneously displaying and working with multiple images of differing dimensionality and resolution. To support multi-sensor truthing, the MACET Truth Editor performs computer-assisted geo-spatial registration between multiple 2D images, or between 2D images and 3D images. The input images of overlapping scenes may be obtained from various sensor types (visible, passive infrared, laser radar (ladar), etc.) and taken at different sensor locations and orientations. Registration of 3D to 2D and 2D to 2D imagery pixels is made to a reference 3D coordinate system using `hints' provided by an analyst. Hints may include some combinations of the following to reach an approximate solution to the registration problem: marking of common points in each image, marking of horizon lines in 2D images, entry of imagery sensor characteristics (FOV, FPA layout, etc.), and entry of relative sensor location and orientation. The MACET Truth Editor has a consistent user interface that allows registration hints to be entered and truthing operations to be performed graphically.

  10. Spectroscopic-tomography of biological membrane with high-spatial resolution by the imaging-type 2D Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Asuka; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Qi, Wei; Takuma, Takashi; Ishimaru, Ichirou

    2011-07-01

    We proposed the imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy that is the phase-shift interferometry between the objective lights. The proposed method can measure the 2D spectral image at the limited depth. Because of the imaging optical system, the 2D spectral images can be measured in high spatial resolution. And in the depth direction, we can get the spectral distribution only in the focal plane. In this report, we mention about the principle of the proposed wide field imaging-type 2D Fourier spectroscopy. And, we obtained the spectroscopic tomography of biological tissue of mouse's ear. In the visible region, we confirmed the difference of spectral characteristics between blood vessel region and other region. In the near infrared region (λ=900nm~1700nm), we can obtain the high-contrast blood vessel image of mouse's ear in the deeper part by InGaAs camera. Furthermore, in the middle infrared region(λ=8μ~14μm), we have successfully measured the radiation spectroscopic-imaging with wild field of view by the infrared module, such as the house plants. Additionally, we propose correction geometrical model that can convert the mechanical phase-shift value into the substantial phase difference in each oblique optical axes. We successfully verified the effectiveness of the proposed correction geometrical model and can reduce the spectral error into the error range into +/-3nm using the He-Ne laser whose wavelength 632.8nm.

  11. Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon by high spatial and temporal resolution imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, X.; Jia, T. Q. Peng, N. N.; Feng, D. H.; Zhang, S. A.; Sun, Z. R.

    2014-04-14

    The formation dynamics of periodic ripples induced by femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration τ = 50 fs and central wavelength λ = 800 nm) are studied by a collinear pump-probe imaging technique with a temporal resolution of 1 ps and a spatial resolution of 440 nm. The ripples with periods close to the laser wavelength begin to appear upon irradiation of two pump pulses at surface defects produced by the prior one. The rudiments of periodic ripples emerge in the initial tens of picoseconds after fs laser irradiation, and the ripple positions keep unmoved until the formation processes complete mainly in a temporal span of 1500 ps. The results suggest that the periodic deposition of laser energy during the interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and sample surface plays a dominant role in the formation of periodic ripples.

  12. Exploring Small Spatial Scales in the Transition Region and Solar Corona with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C. M.; Vourlidas, A.; Brown, C. M.; Tun-Beltran, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Davila, J. M.; Hagood, R.; Roberts, D.; Shepler, E.; Feldman, R.; Moser, J.; Shea, J.

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the transition region and coronal loops point to the importance of processes occurring on small spatial scales in governing the strong dynamics and impulsive energy release in these regions. As a consequence, high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution over a broad temperature range, and accuracy in velocity and density determinations are all critical observational parameters. Current instruments lack one or more of these properties. These observational deficiencies have created a wide array of opposing descriptions of coronal loop heating and questions such as whether or not the plasma within coronal loops is multi-thermal or isothermal. High spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopic data are absolutely required to resolve these controversies and to advance our understanding of the dynamics within the solar atmosphere. We will achieve this with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) sounding rocket payload. VERIS consists of an off-axis paraboloid telescope feeding a very high angular resolution, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer that will provide the first ever, simultaneous sub-arcsecond (0.16 arcsecond/pixel) spectra in bright lines needed to study plasma structures in the transition region, quiet corona, and active region core. It will do so with a spectral resolution of >5000 to allow Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two-element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective, broad wavelength coverage EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Combined with Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and ground based observatories, VERIS will deliver simultaneous observations of the entire solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the multi-million degree corona at sub-arcsecond resolution for the first time ever, allowing us to understand the

  13. Preliminary investigations into macroscopic attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared imaging of intact spherical domains: spatial resolution and image distortion.

    PubMed

    Everall, Neil J; Priestnall, Ian M; Clarke, Fiona; Jayes, Linda; Poulter, Graham; Coombs, David; George, Michael W

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes preliminary investigations into the spatial resolution of macro attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging and the distortions that arise when imaging intact, convex domains, using spheres as an extreme example. The competing effects of shallow evanescent wave penetration and blurring due to finite spatial resolution meant that spheres within the range 20-140 microm all appeared to be approximately the same size ( approximately 30-35 microm) when imaged with a numerical aperture (NA) of approximately 0.2. A very simple model was developed that predicted this extreme insensitivity to particle size. On the basis of these studies, it is anticipated that ATR imaging at this NA will be insensitive to the size of intact highly convex objects. A higher numerical aperture device should give a better estimate of the size of small spheres, owing to superior spatial resolution, but large spheres should still appear undersized due to the shallow sampling depth. An estimate of the point spread function (PSF) was required in order to develop and apply the model. The PSF was measured by imaging a sharp interface; assuming an Airy profile, the PSF width (distance from central maximum to first minimum) was estimated to be approximately 20 and 30 microm for IR bands at 1600 and 1000 cm(-1), respectively. This work has two significant limitations. First, underestimation of domain size only arises when imaging intact convex objects; if surfaces are prepared that randomly and representatively section through domains, the images can be analyzed to calculate parameters such as domain size, area, and volume. Second, the model ignores reflection and refraction and assumes weak absorption; hence, the predicted intensity profiles are not expected to be accurate; they merely give a rough estimate of the apparent sphere size. Much further work is required to place the field of quantitative ATR-FT-IR imaging on a sound basis.

  14. High-Spatial and High-Mass Resolution Imaging of Surface Metabolites of Arabidopsis thaliana by Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Colloidal Silver

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Ji Hyun; Song, Zhihong; Liu, Zhenjiu; Nikolau, Basil J.; Yeung, Edward S.; and Lee, Young Jin

    2010-03-17

    High-spatial resolution and high-mass resolution techniques are developed and adopted for the mass spectrometric imaging of epicuticular lipids on the surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Single cell level spatial resolution of {approx}12 {micro}m was achieved by reducing the laser beam size by using an optical fiber with 25 {micro}m core diameter in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer and improved matrix application using an oscillating capillary nebulizer. Fine chemical images of a whole flower were visualized in this high spatial resolution showing substructure of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anthers. The LTQ-Orbitrap with a MALDI ion source was adopted to achieve MS imaging in high mass resolution. Specifically, isobaric silver ion adducts of C29 alkane (m/z 515.3741) and C28 aldehyde (m/z 515.3377), indistinguishable in low-resolution LTQ, can now be clearly distinguished and their chemical images could be separately constructed. In the application to roots, the high spatial resolution allowed molecular MS imaging of secondary roots and the high mass resolution allowed direct identification of lipid metabolites on root surfaces.

  15. The x-ray light valve: A low-cost, digital radiographic imaging system—Spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Robert D.; Koprinarov, Ivaylo; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    An x-ray light valve (XLV) coupled with an optical scanner has the potential to meet the need for a low-cost, high quality digital imaging system for general radiography. The XLV∕scanner concept combines three well-established, and hence, low-cost technologies: An amorphous selenium (a-Se) layer as an x-ray-to-charge transducer, a liquid crystal (LC) cell as an analog display, and an optical scanner for image digitization. The XLV consists of an a-Se layer and LC cell in a sandwich structure which produces an optical image in the LC layer upon x-ray exposure. The XLV∕scanner system consists of an XLV in combination with an optical scanner for image readout. Here, the effect of each component on the spatial resolution of an XLV∕scanner system is investigated. A theoretical model of spatial resolution of an XLV is presented based on calculations of the modulation transfer function (MTF) for a-Se and a LC cell. From these component MTFs, the theoretical MTF of the XLV is derived. The model was validated by experiments on a prototype XLV∕scanner system. The MTF of the scanner alone was obtained by scanning an optical test target and the MTF of the XLV∕scanner system was measured using x rays. From the measured MTF of the scanner, the theoretical MTF of the XLV∕scanner system was established and compared with the experimental results. Good general agreement exists between experimental and theoretical results in the frequency range of interest for general radiography, although the theoretical curves slightly overstate the measured MTFs. The experimental MTF of the XLV was compared with the MTF of two clinical systems and was shown to have the capability to exceed the resolution of flat-panel detectors. From this, the authors can conclude that the XLV has an adequate resolution for general radiography. The XLV∕scanner also has the potential to eliminate aliasing while maintaining a MTF that exceeds that of a flat-panel imager. PMID:18841872

  16. Simbol-X: Imaging The Hard X-ray Sky with Unprecedented Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Simbol-X Joint Scientific Mission Group

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X is a hard X-ray mission, with imaging capability in the 0.5-80 keV range. It is based on a collaboration between the French and Italian space agencies with participation of German laboratories. The launch is foreseen in late 2014. It relies on a formation flight concept, with two satellites carrying one the mirror module and the other one the focal plane detectors. The mirrors will have a 20 m focal length, while the two focal plane detectors will be put one on top of the other one. This combination will provide over two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range with respect to non-focusing techniques. The Simbol-X revolutionary instrumental capabilities will allow us to elucidate outstanding questions in high energy astrophysics such as those related to black-holes accretion physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms. We will give an overall description of the mission characteristics, performances and scientific objectives.

  17. Evaluation of ERTS-1 image sensor spatial resolution in photographic form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The digital Optical Transfer Function (OTF) measurements showed the following: (1) there are no significant differences in optical performance, in terms of OTF, among all four bands of the multispectral scanner, (2) no substantial changes in the OTF's of bands 4, 5, and 6 during the period November 1972 to May 1973, and (3) comparison between the photographic and digital (CCT) two-dimensional OTF's indicated a strong asymmetry in the photographic product OTF between the MSS scan direction and across scan direction. The coherent light Fourier analysis program showed the following: (1) for agricultural areas, bands 5 and 7 of the MSS are superior in terms of image definition, and therefore mapping and acreage estimation, (2) amplitude modulation in imagery from MSS bands 4 and 5 is between 65 to 90 percent of that in corresponding bands of Apollo 9 imagery (SO65), and (3) MSS band 5 imagery has a ground resolution between 55 to 75 percent of that exhibited in the corresponding band of Apollo 9 imagery (SO65).

  18. High spatial resolution infrared imaging of L1551-IRS 5 - Direct observations of its circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moneti, Andrea; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.; Woodward, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Images of L1551-IRS 5 were obtained at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.8 microns using the University of Rochester's Infrared Array Camera. It is found that IRS 5 is spatially resolved, and that it is elongated: the observed FWHM size of IRS 5 is 4.1 x 2.8 arcsec-squared at 2.2 microns. These observations are interpreted in terms of a flattened circumstellar envelope that is viewed from about 18 deg above its equatorial plane, a configuration that has been treated theoretically by Lefevre et al. In this model the central star is not seen directly, but only light scattered toward the observer from the visible polar region, where the envelope is thinnest, is observed. It is deduced that the envelope has a diameter of 1000 AU, a molecular hydrogen density of greater than or approximately equal to 4 x 10 to the 6th/cu cm, and a mass of greater than or approximately equal to 0.02 M solar mass, which results in an extinction of Av greater than about 33 mag to the central source.

  19. Improved Delineation of Short Cortical Association Fibers and Gray/White Matter Boundary Using Whole-Brain Three-Dimensional Diffusion Tensor Imaging at Submillimeter Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Guidon, Arnaud; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recent emergence of human connectome imaging has led to a high demand on angular and spatial resolutions for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there have been significant growths in high angular resolution diffusion imaging, the improvement in spatial resolution is still limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as the low signal-to-noise ratio and high motion artifacts. As a result, the benefit of a high spatial resolution in the whole-brain connectome imaging has not been fully evaluated in vivo. In this brief report, the impact of spatial resolution was assessed in a newly acquired whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging data set with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. It was found that the delineation of short cortical association fibers is drastically improved as well as the definition of fiber pathway endings into the gray/white matter boundary—both of which will help construct a more accurate structural map of the human brain connectome. PMID:25264168

  20. Improved delineation of short cortical association fibers and gray/white matter boundary using whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Song, Allen W; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Guidon, Arnaud; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-11-01

    Recent emergence of human connectome imaging has led to a high demand on angular and spatial resolutions for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there have been significant growths in high angular resolution diffusion imaging, the improvement in spatial resolution is still limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as the low signal-to-noise ratio and high motion artifacts. As a result, the benefit of a high spatial resolution in the whole-brain connectome imaging has not been fully evaluated in vivo. In this brief report, the impact of spatial resolution was assessed in a newly acquired whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging data set with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. It was found that the delineation of short cortical association fibers is drastically improved as well as the definition of fiber pathway endings into the gray/white matter boundary-both of which will help construct a more accurate structural map of the human brain connectome.

  1. Characterization of the spatial resolution of different high-frequency imaging systems using a novel anechoic-sphere phantom

    PubMed Central

    Filoux, Erwan; Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizábal, Orlando; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial resolution of high-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >20 MHz) imaging systems is usually determined using wires perpendicular to the beam. Recently, two tissue-mimicking phantoms (TMPs) were developed to estimate the three-dimensional (3D) resolution. Each of the TMPs consist of nine, 1 cm wide slabs of tissue-mimicking material containing randomly distributed anechoic spheres. All anechoic spheres in one slab have the same dimensions, and their diameter is increased from 0.1 mm in the first slab to 1.09 mm in the last. The scattering background for one set of slabs was fabricated using 3.5 µm glass beads, while those of the second set were 6.4 µm. The ability of a HFU system to detect these spheres against a speckle background provides a realistic estimation of its 3D spatial resolution. In the present study, these TMPs were used with HFU systems using single-element transducers, linear arrays and annular arrays. The TMPs were immersed in water and each slab was scanned using a VisualSonics™ Vevo 770 and Vevo 2100, and a custom HFU system based on a 5-element annular array. The annular array had a nominal center frequency of 40 MHz, a focal length of 12 mm, and a total aperture of 6 mm. A synthetic-focusing algorithm was used to form images with an increased depth-of-field. The penetration depth was increased by using a linear-chirp signal spanning 15 to 65 MHz over 4 µs. Results obtained with the custom system were compared to those of the Vevo systems (40 MHz probes RMV-704 and MS-550D) in terms of sphere detection, i.e., 3D spatial resolution, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Resulting B-mode images indicated that only the linear-array transducer failed to clearly resolve the 0.2 mm spheres, which showed that the 3D spatial resolution of the single-element and annular-array transducers was superior to that of the linear array. The single-element transducer could only detect these spheres over a narrow 1.5 mm depth-of-field, while the annular array

  2. Simulation Study of Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity for Tapered Depth of Interaction PET Detectors for Small Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    James, Sara St.; Yang, Yongfeng; Bowen, Spencer L.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements to current small animal PET scanners can be made by improving the sensitivity and the spatial resolution of the scanner. In the past, efforts have been made to minimize the crystal dimensions in the axial and transaxial directions to improve the spatial resolution and to increase the crystal length to improve the sensitivity of the scanner. We have designed tapered PET detectors with the purpose of reducing the gaps between detector modules and optimizing the sensitivity of a future generation small animal PET scanner. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution and sensitivity of a scanner based on tapered detector elements using Monte Carlo simulations. For tapered detector elements more scintillation material is used per detector resulting in a higher sensitivity of the scanner. However, since the detector elements are not uniform in size, degradation in spatial resolution is also expected. To investigate characteristics of tapered PET detectors the spatial resolution and sensitivity of a one-ring scanner were simulated for a system based on traditional cuboid detectors and a scanner based on tapered detectors. Additionally, the effect of depth of interaction (DOI) resolution on the spatial resolution for the traditional and tapered detectors was evaluated. All simulations were performed using the Monte Carlo simulation package GATE. Using the tapered arrays a 64 % improvement in the sensitivity across the field of view was found compared with traditional detectors for the same ring diameter. The level of DOI encoding was found to be the dominating factor in determining the radial spatial resolution and not the detector shape. For all levels of DOI encoding, no significant difference was found for the spatial resolution when comparing the tapered and the cuboid detectors. Detectors employing the tapered crystal design along with excellent DOI resolution will lead to PET scanners with higher sensitivity and uniform spatial resolution across the

  3. High spatial resolution optical imaging of the multiple T Tauri system Lk Hα 262/Lk Hα 263

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, S.; Rebolo, R.; Oscoz, A.; Mackay, C.; Labadie, L.; Pérez Garrido, A.; Crass, J.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Femenía, B.; González-Escalera, V.; King, D. L.; López, R. L.; Puga, M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Zuther, J.

    2016-08-01

    We report high spatial resolution i' band imaging of the multiple T Tauri system LkHα 262/LkHα 263 obtained during the first commissioning period of the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) at the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, using its Lucky Imaging mode. AOLI images have provided photometry for each of the two components LkHα 263 A and B (0.41 arcsec separation) and marginal evidence for an unresolved binary or a disc in LkHα 262. The AOLI data combined with previously available and newly obtained optical and infrared imaging show that the three components of LkHα 263 are comoving, that there is orbital motion in the AB pair, and, remarkably, that LkHα 262-263 is a common proper motion system with less than 1 mas yr-1 relative motion. We argue that this is a likely five-component gravitationally bounded system. According to BT-settl models the mass of each of the five components is close to 0.4 M⊙ and the age is in the range 1-2 Myr. The presence of discs in some of the components offers an interesting opportunity to investigate the formation and evolution of discs in the early stages of multiple very low mass systems. In particular, we provide tentative evidence that the disc in 263C could be coplanar with the orbit of 263AB.

  4. High spatial and angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging reveals forniceal damage related to memory impairment☆

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Katherine A.; Sakaie, Ken E.; Lowe, Mark J.; Lin, Jian; Stone, Lael; Bermel, Robert A.; Beall, Erik B.; Rao, Stephen M.; Trapp, Bruce D.; Phillips, Micheal D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly those measures associated with a specific white matter pathway, have consistently shown correlations with function. This study sought to investigate correlations between DTI measures in the fornix and common cognitive deficits in MS patients, including episodic memory, working memory and attention. Materials and Methods Patients with MS and group age- and sex-matched controls underwent high-resolution diffusion scanning (1-mm isotropic voxels) and cognitive testing. Manually drawn forniceal regions of interest were applied to individual maps of tensor-derived measures, and mean values of transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity (LD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated. Results In 40 patients with MS [mean age±S.D.=42.55±9.1 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)=2.0±1.2; Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score=0.38±0.46] and 20 healthy controls (mean age±S.D.=41.35±9.7 years; EDSS=0.0±0; MSFC score=0.74±0.24), we found that FA, MD and TD values in the fornix were significantly different between groups (P<.03), and patient performance on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) was correlated with DTI measures (P<.03). Discussion These results are consistent with findings of axonal degeneration in MS and support the use of DTI as an indicator of disease progression. PMID:23295147

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived surface albedo over global arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetsinskaya, Elena A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Gao, Feng; Strahler, Alan H.; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2006-10-01

    We derive spectral and broadband surface albedo for global arid regions from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra spacecraft, at 1 km spatial resolution for 2001. MODIS data show considerable spatial variability both across various arid regions of the globe (from the bright deserts of northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula to substantially less reflective American and Asian deserts) and within regions (variability related to soil and rock types). For example, over arid northern Africa and the Arabian peninsula, albedo in the visible broadband varies by a factor of over 2, from the brightest sand sheets to the darkest luvisols. Few, if any, global and regional land-atmosphere models capture this observed spatial variability in surface albedo over arid regions. We suggest a scheme that relates soil groups (based on the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil classification) to MODIS-derived surface albedo statistics. This approach allows for an efficient representation in climate and weather forecasting models of the observed spatial and temporal variability in surface albedo over global deserts. Observed variability in albedo was reduced to a small (1-13, depending on the region) number of soil-related classes (end-members) that could be used in climate models. We also addressed the temporal evolution of albedo during 2001 over global deserts. Regions/soils of stable albedo with very low temporal variability were identified. For other regions/soils, temporal signals in albedo were related to ephemeral inundation with water or variations in sample size.

  6. Novel Multiplexer to Enable Multiple-Module Imaging with Adjustable High Spatial Resolution and Predetermined Display Bandwidth for Array Medical Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Titus, A H; Qu, B; Huang, Y; Wang, W; Kuhls-Gilcrist, A; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a custom multiple-module multiplexer integrated circuit (MMMIC) that enables the combination of discrete Electron multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCD) based imaging modules to improve medical imaging systems. It is highly desirable to have flexible imaging systems that provide high spatial resolution over a specific region of interest (ROI) and a field of view (FOV) large enough to encompass areas of clinical interest. Also, such systems should be dynamic, i.e. should be able to maintain a specified acquisition bandwidth irrespective of the size of the imaged FOV. The MMMIC achieves these goals by 1) multiplexing the outputs of an array of imaging modules to enable a larger FOV, 2) enabling a number of binning modes for adjustable high spatial resolution, and 3) enabling selection of a subset of modules in the array to achieve ROI imaging at a predetermined display bandwidth. The MMMIC design also allows multiple MMMICs to be connected to control larger arrays. The prototype MMMIC was designed and fabricated in the ON-SEMI 0.5μm CMOS process through MOSIS (www.mosis.org). It has three 12-bit inputs, a single 12-bit output, three input enable bits, and one output enable, so that one MMMIC can control the output from three discrete imager arrays. The modular design of the MMMIC enables four identical chips, connected in a two-stage sequential arrangement, to readout a 3×3 collection of individual imaging modules. The first stage comprises three MMMICs (each connected to three of the individual imaging module), and the second stage is a single MMMIC whose 12-bit output is then sent via a CameraLink interface to the system computer. The prototype MMMIC was successfully tested using digital outputs from two EMCCD-based detectors to be used in an x-ray imaging array detector system.Finally, we show how the MMMIC can be used to extend an imaging system to include any arbitrary (M×N) array of imaging modules enabling a large FOV along with ROI imaging

  7. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, A. Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 μm, respectively.

  8. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, A.; Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 μm, respectively.

  9. An efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of land surface temperature images from MODIS thermal infrared band data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Song, Caiying; Karnieli, Arnon; Zhao, Shuhe

    2014-12-25

    Land surface temperature (LST) images retrieved from the thermal infrared (TIR) band data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have much lower spatial resolution than the MODIS visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band data. The coarse pixel scale of MODIS LST images (1000 m under nadir) have limited their capability in applying to many studies required high spatial resolution in comparison of the MODIS VNIR band data with pixel scale of 250-500 m. In this paper we intend to develop an efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of MODIS LST image using the VNIR band data as assistance. The unique feature of this approach is to maintain the thermal radiance of parent pixels in the MODIS LST image unchanged after they are decomposed into the sub-pixels in the resulted image. There are two important steps in the decomposition: initial temperature estimation and final temperature determination. Therefore the approach can be termed double-step pixel decomposition (DSPD). Both steps involve a series of procedures to achieve the final result of decomposed LST image, including classification of the surface patterns, establishment of LST change with normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and building index (NDBI), reversion of LST into thermal radiance through Planck equation, and computation of weights for the sub-pixels of the resulted image. Since the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with much higher spatial resolution than MODIS data was on-board the same platform (Terra) as MODIS for Earth observation, an experiment had been done in the study to validate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach for pixel decomposition. The ASTER LST image was used as the reference to compare with the decomposed LST image. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the decomposed LST image was very similar to that of the ASTER LST image with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2

  10. An Efficient Approach for Pixel Decomposition to Increase the Spatial Resolution of Land Surface Temperature Images from MODIS Thermal Infrared Band Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Song, Caiying; Karnieli, Arnon; Zhao, Shuhe

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) images retrieved from the thermal infrared (TIR) band data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have much lower spatial resolution than the MODIS visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band data. The coarse pixel scale of MODIS LST images (1000 m under nadir) have limited their capability in applying to many studies required high spatial resolution in comparison of the MODIS VNIR band data with pixel scale of 250–500 m. In this paper we intend to develop an efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of MODIS LST image using the VNIR band data as assistance. The unique feature of this approach is to maintain the thermal radiance of parent pixels in the MODIS LST image unchanged after they are decomposed into the sub-pixels in the resulted image. There are two important steps in the decomposition: initial temperature estimation and final temperature determination. Therefore the approach can be termed double-step pixel decomposition (DSPD). Both steps involve a series of procedures to achieve the final result of decomposed LST image, including classification of the surface patterns, establishment of LST change with normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and building index (NDBI), reversion of LST into thermal radiance through Planck equation, and computation of weights for the sub-pixels of the resulted image. Since the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with much higher spatial resolution than MODIS data was on-board the same platform (Terra) as MODIS for Earth observation, an experiment had been done in the study to validate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach for pixel decomposition. The ASTER LST image was used as the reference to compare with the decomposed LST image. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the decomposed LST image was very similar to that of the ASTER LST image with a root mean square error (RMSE) of

  11. Dem Reconstruction Using Light Field and Bidirectional Reflectance Function from Multi-View High Resolution Spatial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vieilleville, F.; Ristorcelli, T.; Delvit, J.-M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a method for dense DSM reconstruction from high resolution, mono sensor, passive imagery, spatial panchromatic image sequence. The interest of our approach is four-fold. Firstly, we extend the core of light field approaches using an explicit BRDF model from the Image Synthesis community which is more realistic than the Lambertian model. The chosen model is the Cook-Torrance BRDF which enables us to model rough surfaces with specular effects using specific material parameters. Secondly, we extend light field approaches for non-pinhole sensors and non-rectilinear motion by using a proper geometric transformation on the image sequence. Thirdly, we produce a 3D volume cost embodying all the tested possible heights and filter it using simple methods such as Volume Cost Filtering or variational optimal methods. We have tested our method on a Pleiades image sequence on various locations with dense urban buildings and report encouraging results with respect to classic multi-label methods such as MIC-MAC, or more recent pipelines such as S2P. Last but not least, our method also produces maps of material parameters on the estimated points, allowing us to simplify building classification or road extraction.

  12. Dynamic bilateral contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast: trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Christiane K; Schild, Hans H; Morakkabati, Nuschin

    2005-09-01

    To investigate prospectively the trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution in dynamic contrast material-enhanced bilateral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast. Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. An intraindividual comparative study was performed in 30 patients (mean age, 53 years; age range, 27-70 years) with a total of 54 enhancing lesions (28 benign and 26 malignant) who underwent dynamic MR imaging of the breast twice, once with a standard dynamic protocol (256 x 256 matrix, 69 seconds per acquisition) and once on a separate day with a modified dynamic protocol (400 x 512 matrix, 116 seconds per acquisition). Systematic qualitative analysis of morphologic features and region-of-interest-based analysis of enhancement kinetics were performed. A statistically significant difference (generalized linear modeling) in enhancement rates of benign versus malignant lesions was lost when moving from the standard to the modified dynamic protocol. Kinetic information on signal intensity time course patterns was preserved. Delineation of lesion margins and internal architecture was clearly superior with the modified dynamic protocol, which allowed identification of lesion features associated with high positive predictive value or high negative predictive value for breast cancer. Ten benign lesions classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 with the standard protocol were correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 2 with the modified protocol owing to visualization of internal septations. Thirteen malignant lesions categorized as BI-RADS category 3 or 4 with the standard protocol were correctly upgraded to BI-RADS category 4 or 5 with the modified protocol owing to visualization of spicules or rim enhancement. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a significantly larger area under the curve for results obtained with the modified dynamic protocol. Increased spatial resolution

  13. Spatial resolution and noise in organic light-emitting diode displays for medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Wu, Chih-Lei; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Badano, Aldo

    2013-11-18

    We report on the resolution and noise characteristics of handheld and workstation organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays in comparison with liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The results demonstrate advantages, in terms of sharpness, of handheld OLED displays with modulation transfer function (MTF) values exceeding 0.60 at the Nyquist frequencies. The OLED workstation included in this study exhibits significant signal contamination among adjacent pixels resulting in degraded resolution performance indicated by horizontal and vertical MTF values of 0.13 and 0.24 at the Nyquist frequency. On the other hand, its noise characteristics are superior to the LCD workstation tested. While the noise power spectral (NPS) values of the OLED workstation are 8.0×10(-6) mm2 at 1 mm(-1), the LCD workstation has NPS values of 2.6×10(-5) mm2. Although phone-size OLED displays have superior resolution and noise per pixel, the perceived resolution characteristics at appropriate viewing distances are inferior to tablet-size and workstation LCDs. In addition, our results show some degree of dependency of the resolution and noise on luminance level and viewing orientation. We also found a slightly degraded resolution and increased low-frequency noise at off-normal orientations in the handheld displays.

  14. Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    Characterization was conducted under the Memorandum of Understanding among Orbital Sciences Corp., ORBIMAGE, Inc., and NASA Applied Sciences Directorate. Acquired five OrbView-3 panchromatic images of the permanent Stennis Space Center edge targets painted on a concrete surface. Each image is available at two processing levels: Georaw and Basic. Georaw is an intermediate image in which individual pixels are aligned by a nominal shift in the along-scan direction to adjust for the staggered layout of the panchromatic detectors along the focal plane array. Georaw images are engineering data and are not delivered to customers. The Basic product includes a cubic interpolation to align the pixels better along the focal plane and to correct for sensor artifacts, such as smile and attitude smoothing. This product retains satellite geometry - no rectification is performed. Processing of the characterized images did not include image sharpening, which is applied by default to OrbView-3 image products delivered by ORBIMAGE to customers. Edge responses were extracted from images of tilted edges in two directions: along-scan and cross-scan. Each edge response was approximated with a superposition of three sigmoidal functions through a nonlinear least-squares curve-fitting. Line Spread Functions (LSF) were derived by differentiation of the analytical approximation. Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF) were obtained after applying the discrete Fourier transform to the LSF.

  15. Fire Impacts on Mixed Pine-oak Forests Assessed with High Spatial Resolution Imagery, Imaging Spectroscopy, and LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; Wu, J.; Zhao, F. R.; Kathy, S. L.; Dennison, P. E.; Cook, B.; Hanavan, R. P.; Serbin, S.

    2016-12-01

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences forest ecosystems, including the modification or resetting of vegetation composition and structure, which can then significantly impact landscape-scale plant function and carbon stocks. Most ecological processes associated with fire effects (e.g. tree damage, mortality, and vegetation recovery) display fine-scale, species specific responses but can also vary spatially within the boundary of the perturbation. For example, both oak and pine species are fire-adapted, but fire can still induce changes in composition, structure, and dominance in a mixed pine-oak forest, mainly because of their varying degrees of fire adaption. Evidence of post-fire shifts in dominance between oak and pine species has been documented in mixed pine-oak forests, but these processes have been poorly investigated in a spatially explicit manner. In addition, traditional field-based means of quantifying the response of partially damaged trees across space and time is logistically challenging. Here we show how combining high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. Worldview-2,WV-2) and airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR (i.e. NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal airborne imager, G-LiHT) can be effectively used to remotely quantify spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation recovery following a top-killing fire that occurred in 2012 within mixed pine-oak forests in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens Region, New York. We explore the following questions: 1) what are the impacts of fire on species composition, dominance, plant health, and vertical structure; 2) what are the recovery trajectories of forest biomass, structure, and spectral properties for three years following the fire; and 3) to what extent can fire impacts be captured and characterized by multi-sensor remote sensing techniques from active and passive optical remote sensing.

  16. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  17. Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL

    PubMed Central

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C.; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B.; Schroer, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions. PMID:26086176

  18. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G.; Beckwith, Martha A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S.; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C.; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B.; Schroer, Christian G.

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  19. Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL.

    PubMed

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G; Beckwith, Martha A; Collins, Gilbert W; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B; Schroer, Christian G

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  20. Improving the diffuse optical imaging spatial resolution of the cerebral hemodynamic response to brain activation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boas, D. A.; Chen, K.; Grebert, D.; Franceschini, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    We compare two geometries of sources and detectors for optimizing the diffuse optical imaging resolution of brain activation in humans. Because of limitations in the instruments' dynamic range, most diffuse optical brain activation images have used only nonoverlapping measurements. We demonstrate theoretically and with a human experiment that a simple geometry of sources and detectors can provide overlapping measurements within the limitation of instrumentation dynamic range and produce an image resolution and localization accuracy that is twofold better.

  1. Super-Spatial- and -Spectral-Resolution in Vibrational Imaging via Saturated Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemaru, Yasuo; Palonpon, Almar F.; Kawano, Shogo; Smith, Nicholas I.; Kawata, Satoshi; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a vibrational microscopy technique with subdiffraction spatial resolution by the use of saturation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The saturated CARS signals effectively produce a reduced point-spread function at harmonic frequencies, which is extracted by temporal modulation of the pump beam and demodulation of the CARS signal. An increase in spectral resolution and suppression of the nonresonant background signal accompany the spatial- resolution enhancement. Our simple, enhanced CARS technique promises to be useful in studying molecules in gas and liquid phases as well as soft condensed-matter systems.

  2. Coupling high spatial and spectral resolution with high contrast imaging to characterize exoplanets with a hypertelescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patru, F.

    2010-10-01

    A hypertelescope can provide direct snapshot images by using a large optical stellar interferometer, an efficient cophasing system and a pupil densifier to combine the beams. With an appropriate array configuration, the pupil densification optimizes the imaging properties by concentrating most of the light in the central interference peak, allowing stellar coronography for planet finding and characterization. A concept proposed in the framework of the VLTI (Lardiere 2005) can be extrapolated to future large interferometric arrays. The optical scheme consists on a reconfiguration with single-mode fibers and an amplitude apodization of the entrance pupil, and an extinction of the on-axis star by using a phase or amplitude mask located on the central interference peak of the image and a Lyot-stop in the relayed pupil plan. Then the pupil can be rearranged to its original configuration in order to restore the entire field. Moreover, a known planet outside the field of view can be recentered by introducing static staircase pistons between the beams with internal delay-lines. Finally, the photons of the planet are reimaged in a focal plane coupled with a spectrometer. We discuss here on the technical design and performance of such kind of device to enhance the exoplanet imaging capabilites of a large interferometer.

  3. A DOI Detector With Crystal Scatter Identification Capability for High Sensitivity and High Spatial Resolution PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Herman, H.; Dooraghi, A.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    A new phoswich detector is being developed at the Crump Institute, aiming to provide improvements in sensitivity, and spatial resolution for PET. The detector configuration is comprised of two layers of pixelated scintillator crystal arrays, a glass light guide and a light detector. The annihilation photon entrance (top) layer is a 48 × 48 array of 1.01 × 1.01 × 7 mm3 LYSO crystals. The bottom layer is a 32 × 32 array of 1.55 × 1.55 × 9 mm3 BGO crystals. A tapered, multiple-element glass lightguide is used to couple the exit end of the BGO crystal array (52 × 52 mm2) to the photosensitive area of the Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (46 × 46 mm2), allowing the creation of flat panel detectors without gaps between the detector modules. Both simulations and measurements were performed to evaluate the characteristics and benefits of the proposed design. The GATE Monte Carlo simulation indicated that the total fraction of the cross layer crystal scatter (CLCS) events in singles detection mode for this detector geometry is 13.2%. The large majority of these CLCS events (10.1% out of 13.2%) deposit most of their energy in a scintillator layer other than the layer of first interaction. Identification of those CLCS events for rejection or correction may lead to improvements in data quality and imaging performance. Physical measurements with the prototype detector showed that the LYSO, BGO and CLCS events were successfully identified using the delayed charge integration (DCI) technique, with more than 95% of the LYSO and BGO crystal elements clearly resolved. The measured peak-to-valley ratios (PVR) in the flood histograms were 3.5 for LYSO and 2.0 for BGO. For LYSO, the energy resolution ranged from 9.7% to 37.0% full width at half maximum (FWHM), with a mean of 13.4 ± 4.8%. For BGO the energy resolution ranged from 16.0% to 33.9% FWHM, with a mean of 18.6 ± 3.2%. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the proposed detector is feasible and can

  4. A poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based device enabling time-lapse imaging with high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Masahiko; Hoshida, Tetsushi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-02-12

    We have developed a regulator-free device that enables long-term incubation of mammalian cells for epi-fluorescence imaging, based on a concept that the size of sample to be gassed and heated is reduced to observation scale. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) block stamped on a coverslip works as a long-lasting supplier of CO{sub 2}-rich gas to adjust bicarbonate-containing medium in a tiny chamber at physiological pH, and an oil-immersion objective warms cells across the coverslip. A time-lapse imaging experiment using HeLa cells stably expressing fluorescent cell-cycle indicators showed that the cells in the chamber proliferated with normal cell-cycle period over 2 days.

  5. Imaging shock waves in diamond with both high temporal and spatial resolution at an XFEL

    DOE PAGES

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; ...

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnifiedmore » x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.« less

  6. Linear Response Equilibrium versus echo-planar encoding for fast high-spatial resolution 3D chemical shift imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rudolf Fritz; Baltes, Christof; Weiss, Kilian; Pazhenkottil, Aju; Rudin, Markus; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    In this work Linear Response Equilibrium (LRE) and Echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) are compared in terms of sensitivity per unit time and power deposition. In addition an extended dual repetition time scheme to generate broad stopbands for improved inherent water suppression in LRE is presented. The feasibility of LRE and EPSI for assessing cholesterol esters in human carotid plaques with high spatial resolution of 1.95 × 1.15 × 1.15 mm 3 on a clinical 3T MR system is demonstrated. In simulations and phantom experiments it is shown that LRE has comparable but lower sensitivity per unit time relative to EPSI despite stronger signal generated. This relates to the lower sampling efficiency in LRE relative to EPSI as a result of limited gradient performance on clinical MR systems. At the same time, power deposition of LRE is significantly reduced compared to EPSI making it an interesting niche application for in vivo high field spectroscopic imaging of metabolites within a limited bandwidth.

  7. High-resolution and high-sensitivity phase-contrast imaging by focused hard x-ray ptychography with a spatial filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Furutaku, Shin; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution and high-sensitivity x-ray phase-contrast imaging of a weakly scattering extended object by scanning coherent diffractive imaging, i.e., ptychography, using a focused x-ray beam with a spatial filter. We develop the x-ray illumination optics installed with the spatial filter to collect coherent diffraction patterns with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We quantitatively visualize the object with a slight phase shift (˜λ/320) at spatial resolution better than 17 nm in a field of view larger than ˜2×2μm2. The present coherent method has a marked potential for high-resolution and wide-field-of-view observation of weakly scattering objects such as biological soft tissues.

  8. Targeted Multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Transmission Geometry for Subcellular Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Lavenant, Gwendoline Thiery; Zavalin, Andrey I.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry utilizes several different antigen-specific primary antibodies, each directly labeled with a unique photocleavable mass tag, to detect multiple antigens in a single tissue section. Each photocleavable mass tag bound to an antibody has a unique molecular weight and can be readily ionized by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This manuscript describes a mass spectrometry method that allows imaging of targeted single cells within tissue using transmission geometry laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Transmission geometry focuses the laser beam on the back side of the tissue placed on a glass slide, providing a 2 μm diameter laser spot irradiating the biological specimen. This matrix-free method enables simultaneous localization at the sub-cellular level of multiple antigens using specific tagged antibodies. We have used this technology to visualize the co-expression of synaptophysin and two major hormones peptides, insulin and somatostatin, in duplex assays in beta and delta cells contained in a human pancreatic islet. PMID:23397138

  9. Targeted Multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Transmission Geometry for Subcellular Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery-Lavenant, Gwendoline; Zavalin, Andre I.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-04-01

    Targeted multiplex imaging mass spectrometry utilizes several different antigen-specific primary antibodies, each directly labeled with a unique photocleavable mass tag, to detect multiple antigens in a single tissue section. Each photocleavable mass tag bound to an antibody has a unique molecular weight and can be readily ionized by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This article describes a mass spectrometry method that allows imaging of targeted single cells within tissue using transmission geometry laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Transmission geometry focuses the laser beam on the back side of the tissue placed on a glass slide, providing a 2 μm diameter laser spot irradiating the biological specimen. This matrix-free method enables simultaneous localization at the sub-cellular level of multiple antigens using specific tagged antibodies. We have used this technology to visualize the co-expression of synaptophysin and two major hormones peptides, insulin and somatostatin, in duplex assays in beta and delta cells contained in a human pancreatic islet.

  10. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  11. Signal enhancement and Patterson-search phasing for high-spatial-resolution coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological objects.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuki; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Yonekura, Koji

    2015-01-28

    In this decade coherent X-ray diffraction imaging has been demonstrated to reveal internal structures of whole biological cells and organelles. However, the spatial resolution is limited to several tens of nanometers due to the poor scattering power of biological samples. The challenge is to recover correct phase information from experimental diffraction patterns that have a low signal-to-noise ratio and unmeasurable lowest-resolution data. Here, we propose a method to extend spatial resolution by enhancing diffraction signals and by robust phasing. The weak diffraction signals from biological objects are enhanced by interference with strong waves from dispersed colloidal gold particles. The positions of the gold particles determined by Patterson analysis serve as the initial phase, and this dramatically improves reliability and convergence of image reconstruction by iterative phase retrieval. A set of calculations based on current experiments demonstrates that resolution is improved by a factor of two or more.

  12. Dazzled by Ice and Snow: Improving Medium Spatial Resolution Ocean Color Images in Arctic Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyens, Clemence; Belanger, Simon; Babin, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    Ocean color sensors carried on-board satellites represent a valuable tool providing synoptic views of extreme environments such as the Arctic Ocean. However, in icy waters inaccuracies are frequent due to, among others, adjacent and sub-pixel sea-ice contamination. Therefore, there is a need to improve atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms to ensure accurate ocean color images in the vicinity of the ice edge. The present study compares the performance of different AC methods through an in-situ-satellite match-up exercise and investigates the possibility to improve these algorithms in presence of sea-ice floes. Results confirm the large errors resulting from sea-ice contamination and illustrate the difficulty in improving these algorithms due to, among others, the optically complex waters encountered in the Arctic Ocean.

  13. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Haywood, J. M.; Johnson, B. T.; Murakami, H.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the role of mineral dust aerosols in the earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction), are poorly understood because ground observations are limited to several locations and the satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength. We develop a method in this paper to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0) and optical depth (τa), with daily 1 degree latitude and 1 degree longitude resolution, using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We confirm that the uncertainties in our estimation of ω0 and τa are suitably minor and that the characteristic spatial distributions estimated over the Sahara and Asia are significant. The results for the Sahara indicate good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance and between ω0 and τa. Therefore, ω0 is determined mainly by the mineral composition of surface dust and/or the optical depth of airborne dust in the Sahara. On the other hand, the relationships between ω0, τa, and the surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the values of ω0 are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are thought to be transported, as reported in previous studies. Because the coal-burning and carbonaceous aerosols are known to be more absorptive and have smaller ω0 values than dust aerosols, our results indicate that the dust aerosols in Asia are contaminated by

  14. Skeletal muscle fiber analysis by atmospheric pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging at high mass and high spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Garrett, Timothy J; Carter, Christy S; Spengler, Bernhard; Yost, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of heterogeneous muscle fibers with various fiber types. These fibers can be classified into different classes based on their different characteristics. MALDI mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) has been applied to study and visualize different metabolomics profiles of different fiber types. Here, skeletal muscles were analyzed by atmospheric pressure scanning microprobe MALDI-MSI at high spatial and high mass resolution.

  15. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): Data Products for the High Spatial Resolution Imager on NASA's EOS-AMI Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high spatial resolution, multispectral imager with along-track stereo capabilities scheduled for launch on the first NASA spacecraft of the Earth Observing System (EOS AM-1) in mid-1999.

  16. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): Data Products for the High Spatial Resolution Imager on NASA's EOS-AMI Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high spatial resolution, multispectral imager with along-track stereo capabilities scheduled for launch on the first NASA spacecraft of the Earth Observing System (EOS AM-1) in mid-1999.

  17. Tissue protein imaging at 1 μm laser spot diameter for high spatial resolution and high imaging speed using transmission geometry MALDI TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zavalin, Andre; Yang, Junhai; Hayden, Kevin; Vestal, Marvin; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    We have achieved protein imaging mass spectrometry capabilities at sub-cellular spatial resolution and at high acquisition speed by integrating a transmission geometry ion source with time of flight mass spectrometry. The transmission geometry principle allowed us to achieve a 1 μm laser spot diameter on target. A minimal raster step size of the instrument was 2.5 μm. Use of 2,5-dihydroxyacetophenone robotically sprayed on top of a tissue sample as a matrix together with additional sample preparation steps resulted in single pixel mass spectra from mouse cerebellum tissue sections having more than 20 peaks in a range 3–22 kDa. Mass spectrometry images were acquired in a standard step raster microprobe mode at 5 pixels/s and in a continuous raster mode at 40 pixels/s. PMID:25673247

  18. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Rizzo, David G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Noto, Michael J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool enabling the visualization of biomolecules in tissue. However, there are unique challenges associated with protein imaging experiments including the need for higher spatial resolution capabilities, improved image acquisition rates, and better molecular specificity. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR IMS platforms as they relate to these challenges. High spatial resolution MALDI-TOF protein images of rat brain tissue and cystic fibrosis lung tissue were acquired at image acquisition rates >25 pixels/s. Structures as small as 50 μm were spatially resolved and proteins associated with host immune response were observed in cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF enables unique applications including megapixel molecular imaging as demonstrated for lipid analysis of cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Additionally, imaging experiments using MALDI FTICR IMS were shown to produce data with high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) and resolving power (∼75 000 at m/z 5000) for proteins up to ∼20 kDa. Analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using MALDI FTICR IMS identified specific proteins localized to healthy tissue regions, within the tumor, and also in areas of increased vascularization around the tumor. PMID:27060368

  19. Next-generation technologies for spatial proteomics: Integrating ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR imaging mass spectrometry for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Spraggins, Jeffrey M; Rizzo, David G; Moore, Jessica L; Noto, Michael J; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool enabling the visualization of biomolecules in tissue. However, there are unique challenges associated with protein imaging experiments including the need for higher spatial resolution capabilities, improved image acquisition rates, and better molecular specificity. Here we demonstrate the capabilities of ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF and high mass resolution MALDI FTICR IMS platforms as they relate to these challenges. High spatial resolution MALDI-TOF protein images of rat brain tissue and cystic fibrosis lung tissue were acquired at image acquisition rates >25 pixels/s. Structures as small as 50 μm were spatially resolved and proteins associated with host immune response were observed in cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Ultra-high speed MALDI-TOF enables unique applications including megapixel molecular imaging as demonstrated for lipid analysis of cystic fibrosis lung tissue. Additionally, imaging experiments using MALDI FTICR IMS were shown to produce data with high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) and resolving power (∼75 000 at m/z 5000) for proteins up to ∼20 kDa. Analysis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma using MALDI FTICR IMS identified specific proteins localized to healthy tissue regions, within the tumor, and also in areas of increased vascularization around the tumor. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Monitoring Oilfield Operations and GHG Emissions Sources Using Object-based Image Analysis of High Resolution Spatial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englander, J. G.; Brodrick, P. G.; Brandt, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction have become a greater concern with the recent increases in development of shale hydrocarbon resources. There are significant gaps in the tools and research used to estimate fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction. Two approaches exist for quantifying these emissions: atmospheric (or 'top down') studies, which measure methane fluxes remotely, or inventory-based ('bottom up') studies, which aggregate leakage rates on an equipment-specific basis. Bottom-up studies require counting or estimating how many devices might be leaking (called an 'activity count'), as well as how much each device might leak on average (an 'emissions factor'). In a real-world inventory, there is uncertainty in both activity counts and emissions factors. Even at the well level there are significant disagreements in data reporting. For example, some prior studies noted a ~5x difference in the number of reported well completions in the United States between EPA and private data sources. The purpose of this work is to address activity count uncertainty by using machine learning algorithms to classify oilfield surface facilities using high-resolution spatial imagery. This method can help estimate venting and fugitive emissions sources from regions where reporting of oilfield equipment is incomplete or non-existent. This work will utilize high resolution satellite imagery to count well pads in the Bakken oil field of North Dakota. This initial study examines an area of ~2,000 km2 with ~1000 well pads. We compare different machine learning classification techniques, and explore the impact of training set size, input variables, and image segmentation settings to develop efficient and robust techniques identifying well pads. We discuss the tradeoffs inherent to different classification algorithms, and determine the optimal algorithms for oilfield feature detection. In the future, the results of this work will be leveraged to be provide activity

  1. Computer simulation on spatial resolution of X-ray bright-field imaging by dynamical diffraction theory for a Laue-case crystal analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Chikaura, Yoshinori; Ando, Masami

    2011-10-15

    Recently, dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) have been proposed and applied to visualize X-ray refraction effects yielded in biomedical objects. In order to clarify the spatial resolution due to a crystal analyzer in Laue geometry, a program based on the Takagi-Taupin equation was modified to be used for carrying out simulations to evaluate the spatial resolution of images coming into a Laue angular analyzer (LAA). The calculation was done with a perfect plane wave for diffraction wave-fields, which corresponded to BFI, under the conditions of 35 keV and a diffraction index 440 for a 2100 {mu}m thick LAA. As a result, the spatial resolution along the g-vector direction showed approximately 37.5 {mu}m. 126 {mu}m-thick LAA showed a spatial resolution better than 3.1 {mu}m under the conditions of 13.7 keV and a diffraction index 220.

  2. Overlapping MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging for In-Parallel MS and MS/MS Data Acquisition without Sacrificing Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics experiments require chemical identifications, often through MS/MS analysis. In mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), this necessitates running several serial tissue sections or using a multiplex data acquisition method. We have previously developed a multiplex MSI method to obtain MS and MS/MS data in a single experiment to acquire more chemical information in less data acquisition time. In this method, each raster step is composed of several spiral steps and each spiral step is used for a separate scan event (e.g., MS or MS/MS). One main limitation of this method is the loss of spatial resolution as the number of spiral steps increases, limiting its applicability for high-spatial resolution MSI. In this work, we demonstrate multiplex MS imaging is possible without sacrificing spatial resolution by the use of overlapping spiral steps, instead of spatially separated spiral steps as used in the previous work. Significant amounts of matrix and analytes are still left after multiple spectral acquisitions, especially with nanoparticle matrices, so that high quality MS and MS/MS data can be obtained on virtually the same tissue spot. This method was then applied to visualize metabolites and acquire their MS/MS spectra in maize leaf cross-sections at 10 μm spatial resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  4. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Haywood, J. M.; Yokohata, T.; Murakami, H.; Nakajimae, T.

    2013-11-01

    There is great uncertainty regarding the role of mineral dust aerosols in Earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction), are poorly constrained because ground observations are limited to a few locations and satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength, which makes robust retrievals difficult. Here, we develop a method to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0) and optical depth (τa), with daily 1°×1° spatial resolution using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We estimate the uncertainties in ω0 over the Sahara (Asia) to be approximately 0.020 and 0.010 (0.023 and 0.017) for bands 9 and 1, respectively, while the uncertainty in τa is approximately 0.235 and 0.228 (0.464 and 0.370) for bands 9 and 1, respectively. The 5-95% range of the spatial distribution of ω0 over the Sahara (Asia) is approximately 0.90-0.94 and 0.96-0.99 (0.87-0.94 and 0.89-0.97) for bands 9 and 1, respectively, and that of τa over the Sahara (Asia) is approximately 0.8-1.4 and 0.8-1.7 (0.7-2.0 and 0.7-1.9) for bands 9 and 1, respectively. The results for the Sahara indicate a good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance, and between ω0 and τa. However, the relationships between ω0, τa, and surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the ω0 values are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are reported to be transported in previous studies

  5. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS, Final Report for the Period November 1, 1999 - February 28, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2003-02-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 {micro}, are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 {center_dot} 10{sup 13} yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of {approx} 140 {micro}. As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of {approx} 5000 drops ({approx} 100 {micro} in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm{sup 3} suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are {approx} 10 {micro} in diameter, should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of {approx} 10 to 50 {micro}.

  6. Wireless amplified nuclear MR detector (WAND) for high-spatial-resolution MR imaging of internal organs: preclinical demonstration in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chunqi; Yu, Xin; Chen, Der-Yow; Dodd, Stephen; Bouraoud, Nadia; Pothayee, Nikorn; Chen, Yun; Beeman, Scott; Bennett, Kevin; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; Koretsky, Alan

    2013-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging deep-lying internal organs at high spatial resolution by imaging kidney glomeruli in a rodent model with use of a newly developed, wireless amplified nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) detector. This study was approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurologic Disorder and Stroke. As a preclinical demonstration of this new detection technology, five different millimeter-scale wireless amplified nuclear MR detectors configured as double frequency resonators were chronically implanted on the medial surface of the kidney in five Sprague-Dawley rats for MR imaging at 11.7 T. Among these rats, two were administered gadopentetate dimeglumine to visualize renal tubules on T1-weighted gradient-refocused echo (GRE) images, two were administered cationized ferritin to visualize glomeruli on T2*-weighted GRE images, and the remaining rat was administered both gadopentetate dimeglumine and cationized ferritin to visualize the interleaved pattern of renal tubules and glomeruli. The image intensity in each pixel was compared with the local tissue signal intensity average to identify regions of hyper- or hypointensity. T1-weighted images with 70-μm in-plane resolution and 200-μm section thickness were obtained within 3.2 minutes to image renal tubules, and T2*-weighted images of the same resolution were obtained within 5.8 minutes to image the glomeruli. Hyperintensity from gadopentetate dimeglumine enabled visualization of renal tubules, and hypointensity from cationic ferritin enabled visualization of the glomeruli. High-spatial-resolution images have been obtained to observe kidney microstructures in vivo with a wireless amplified nuclear MR detector.

  7. High spatial resolution quantitative imaging by cross-calibration using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao A O; Grolimund, Daniel; Van Loon, Luc R; Barmettler, Kurt D; Borca, Camelia N; Aeschlimann, Beat; Günther, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    High spatial resolution, quantitative chemical imaging is of importance to various scientific communities, however high spatial resolution and robust quantification are not trivial to attain at the same time. In order to achieve microscopic chemical imaging with enhanced quantification capabilities, the current study links the independent and complementary advantages of two micro-analytical techniques - Synchrotron Radiation-based micro X-ray Fluorescence (SR-microXRF) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). A cross-calibration approach is established between these two techniques and validated by one experimental demonstration. In the presented test case, the diffusion pattern of trace level Cs migrating into a heterogeneous geological medium is imaged quantitatively with high spatial resolution. The one-dimensional line scans and the two-dimensional chemical images reveal two distinct types of geochemical domains: calcium carbonate rich domains and clay rich domains. During the diffusion, Cs shows a much higher interfacial reactivity within the clay rich domain, and turns out to be nearly non-reactive in the calcium carbonate domains. Such information obtained on the micrometer scale improves our chemical knowledge concerning reactive solute transport mechanism in heterogeneous media. Related to the chosen demonstration study, the outcome of the quantitative, microscopic chemical imaging contributes to a refined safety assessment of potential host rock materials for deep-geological nuclear waste storage repositories.

  8. Image resolution and deconvolution in optical tomography.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Jelle; Kalkman, Jeroen

    2016-10-17

    We present a frequency domain analysis of the image resolution of optical tomography systems. The result of our analysis is a description of the spatially-variant resolution in optical tomographic image after reconstruction as a function of the properties of the imaging system geometry. We validate our model using optical projection tomography (OPT) measurements of fluorescent beads embedded in agarose gel. Our model correctly describes both the radial and tangential resolution of the measured images. In addition, we present a correction of the tomographic images for the spatially-varying resolution using a deconvolution algorithm. The resulting corrected tomographic reconstruction shows a homogeneous and isotropic pixel-limited resolution across the entire image. Our method is applied to OPT measurements of a zebrafish, showing improved resolution. Aside from allowing image correction and providing a resolution measure for OPT systems, our model provides a powerful tool for the design of optical tomographic systems.

  9. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 μm) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 μm was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial

  10. A Monte Carlo investigation of the spatial resolution performance of a small-animal PET scanner designed for mouse brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed PET detectors with depth-encoding accuracy of ∼2 mm based on finely pixelated crystals with a tapered geometry, readout at both ends with position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). These detectors are currently being used in our laboratory to build a one-ring high resolution PET scanner for mouse brain imaging studies. Due to the inactive areas around the PSAPDs, large gaps exist between the detector modules which can degrade the image spatial resolution obtained using analytical reconstruction with filtered backprojection (FBP). In this work, the Geant4-based GATE Monte Carlo package was used to assist in determining whether gantry rotation was necessary and to assess the expected spatial resolution of the system. The following factors were investigated: rotating vs. static gantry modes with and without compensation of missing data using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) method, two levels of depth-encoding, and positron annihilation effects for (18)F. Our results indicate that while the static scanner produces poor quality FBP images with streak and ring artifacts, the image quality was greatly improved after compensation of missing data. The simulation indicates that the expected FWHM system spatial resolution is 0.70 ± 0.05 mm, which approaches the predicted limit of 0.5 mm FWHM due to positron range, photon non-colinearity and physical detector element size effects. We conclude that excellent reconstructed resolution without gantry rotation is possible even using FBP if the gaps are appropriately handled and that this design can approach the resolution limits set by positron annihilation physics.

  11. Advanced Penning-type ion source development and passive beam focusing techniques for an associated particle imaging neutron generator with enhanced spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sy, Amy Vong

    The use of accelerator-based neutron generators for non-destructive imaging and analysis in commercial and security applications is continuously under development, with improvements to available systems and combinations of available techniques revealing new capabilities for real-time elemental and isotopic analysis. The recent application of associated particle imaging (API) techniques for time- and directionally-tagged neutrons to induced fission and transmission imaging methods demonstrates such capabilities in the characterization of fissile material configurations and greatly benefits from improvements to existing neutron generator systems. Increased neutron yields and improved spatial resolution can enhance the capabilities of imaging methods utilizing the API technique. The work presented in this dissertation focused on the development of components for use within an API neutron generator with enhanced system spatial resolution. The major focus areas were the ion source development for plasma generation, and passive ion beam focusing techniques for the small ion beam widths necessary for the enhanced spatial resolution. The ion source development focused on exploring methods for improvement of Penning-type ion sources that are used in conventional API neutron generator systems, while the passive beam focusing techniques explored both ion beam collimation and ion guiding with tapered dielectric capillaries for reduced beam widths at the neutron production target.

  12. The effect of spatial micro-CT image resolution and surface complexity on the morphological 3D analysis of open porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pyka, Grzegorz; Kerckhofs, Greet

    2014-01-15

    In material science microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques to visualise and quantify the internal structure of materials in 3D. Despite constant system improvements, state-of-the-art micro-CT images can still hold several artefacts typical for X-ray CT imaging that hinder further image-based processing, structural and quantitative analysis. For example spatial resolution is crucial for an appropriate characterisation as the voxel size essentially influences the partial volume effect. However, defining the adequate image resolution is not a trivial aspect and understanding the correlation between scan parameters like voxel size and the structural properties is crucial for comprehensive material characterisation using micro-CT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spatial image resolution on the micro-CT based morphological analysis of three-dimensional (3D) open porous structures with a high surface complexity. In particular the correlation between the local surface properties and the accuracy of the micro-CT-based macro-morphology of 3D open porous Ti6Al4V structures produced by selective laser melting (SLM) was targeted and revealed for rough surfaces a strong dependence of the resulting structure characteristics on the scan resolution. Reducing the surface complexity by chemical etching decreased the sensitivity of the overall morphological analysis to the spatial image resolution and increased the detection limit. This study showed that scan settings and image processing parameters need to be customized to the material properties, morphological parameters under investigation and the desired final characteristics (in relation to the intended functional use). Customization of the scan resolution can increase the reliability of the micro-CT based analysis and at the same time reduce its operating costs. - Highlights: • We examine influence of the image resolution

  13. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  14. Enhancing spatial resolution of (18)F positron imaging with the Timepix detector by classification of primary fired pixels using support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Zhen; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Shi, Kuangyu

    2015-07-07

    Position-sensitive positron cameras using silicon pixel detectors have been applied for some preclinical and intraoperative clinical applications. However, the spatial resolution of a positron camera is limited by positron multiple scattering in the detector. An incident positron may fire a number of successive pixels on the imaging plane. It is still impossible to capture the primary fired pixel along a particle trajectory by hardware or to perceive the pixel firing sequence by direct observation. Here, we propose a novel data-driven method to improve the spatial resolution by classifying the primary pixels within the detector using support vector machine. A classification model is constructed by learning the features of positron trajectories based on Monte-Carlo simulations using Geant4. Topological and energy features of pixels fired by (18)F positrons were considered for the training and classification. After applying the classification model on measurements, the primary fired pixels of the positron tracks in the silicon detector were estimated. The method was tested and assessed for [(18)F]FDG imaging of an absorbing edge protocol and a leaf sample. The proposed method improved the spatial resolution from 154.6   ±   4.2 µm (energy weighted centroid approximation) to 132.3   ±   3.5 µm in the absorbing edge measurements. For the positron imaging of a leaf sample, the proposed method achieved lower root mean square error relative to phosphor plate imaging, and higher similarity with the reference optical image. The improvements of the preliminary results support further investigation of the proposed algorithm for the enhancement of positron imaging in clinical and preclinical applications.

  15. Mixel camera--a new push-broom camera concept for high spatial resolution keystone-free hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Høye, Gudrun; Fridman, Andrei

    2013-05-06

    Current high-resolution push-broom hyperspectral cameras introduce keystone errors to the captured data. Efforts to correct these errors in hardware severely limit the optical design, in particular with respect to light throughput and spatial resolution, while at the same time the residual keystone often remains large. The mixel camera solves this problem by combining a hardware component--an array of light mixing chambers--with a mathematical method that restores the hyperspectral data to its keystone-free form, based on the data that was recorded onto the sensor with large keystone. A Virtual Camera software, that was developed specifically for this purpose, was used to compare the performance of the mixel camera to traditional cameras that correct keystone in hardware. The mixel camera can collect at least four times more light than most current high-resolution hyperspectral cameras, and simulations have shown that the mixel camera will be photon-noise limited--even in bright light--with a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to traditional cameras. A prototype has been built and is being tested.

  16. Angular Resolution Enhanced Spitzer images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, T.; Beichman, C. A.; Backus, C. R.; Marsh, K. A.; Thompson, T. J.

    2004-05-01

    We have developed a 'HiRes' software for deconvolution of Spitzer images that increases the angular resolution by a factor of two to three over that obtainable in a standard mosaiced image. This software is an extension of the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM) described by Aumann et al. (1990 AJ, 99, 1674), incorporating features that are applicable to the Spitzer data and FFT convolutions to speed up. While the Spitzer Space Telescope provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared, its spatial resolution is limited by the relatively small aperture (0.85 m) of the primary mirror. In this paper we present resolution enhanced Spitzer images demonstrating the benefits of HiRes imaging: (1) The ability to detect sources below the diffraction-limited confusion level; at 160 micron, the corresponding increase in confusion-limited sensitivity is about a factor of two. (2) The ability to separate blended sources, and thereby provide guidance to point-source extraction procedures. (3) An improved ability to show the spatial morphology of resolved sources. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography with improved spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Drukier, A.K.

    1990-04-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) proposed the development of a new class of solid state detectors called Superconducting Granular Detectors (SGD). These new detectors permit considerable improvements in medical imaging, e.g. Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The biggest impact of this technique will be in imaging of the brain. It should permit better clinical diagnosis of such important diseases as Altzheimer's or schizophrenia. More specifically, we will develop an improved PET-imager; a spatial resolution 2 mm may be achievable with SGD. A time-of-flight capability(t {approx} 100 psec) will permit better contrast and facilitate 3D imaging. In the following, we describe the results of the first 9 months of the development.

  18. Assessing resolution in super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Demmerle, Justin; Wegel, Eva; Schermelleh, Lothar; Dobbie, Ian M

    2015-10-15

    Resolution is a central concept in all imaging fields, and particularly in optical microscopy, but it can be easily misinterpreted. The mathematical definition of optical resolution was codified by Abbe, and practically defined by the Rayleigh Criterion in the late 19th century. The limit of conventional resolution was also achieved in this period, and it was thought that fundamental constraints of physics prevented further increases in resolution. With the recent development of a range of super-resolution techniques, it is necessary to revisit the concept of optical resolution. Fundamental differences in super-resolution modalities mean that resolution is not a directly transferrable metric between techniques. This article considers the issues in resolution raised by these new technologies, and presents approaches for comparing resolution between different super-resolution methods.

  19. Planar evanescent microwave imaging probes for nondestructive evaluation of materials with very high spatial resolutions and scan rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood; Wang, Ruoxun

    2001-04-01

    Local probes, such as scanning tunneling, atomic force, near-field scanning, and evanescent microwave microscopes are important material characterization tools with nearly atomic spatial resolutions capable of operating in many different environments. All these probes are currently laboratory tools with limited real-time manufacturing applications because of their low speed. EMM has the greatest potential of acquiring higher scanning speed because it does not require an intimate contact with the material surface. EMM is also capable of characterizing a variety of organic and inorganic materials including metals, semiconductors, and insulators over a wide range of frequencies and length scales. Here we discuss the application of parallel EMMs in monitoring thin-film quality in real-time and in situ. We address data management and mining issues to deal with the very large data bandwidth generated by EMM.

  20. Image acquisition with immersion objective lenses using electrons emitted with several tenths of an electron volt energies: towards high spatial resolution ESCA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, M

    2006-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the spatial resolution achievable with photoelectrons in order to perform localised UPS or XPS analyses on various heterogeneous samples. This investigation is intentionally restricted to direct image acquisition by immersion objective lenses, involving electrons ejected with initial energies of several tenths of an electron-volt. In order to characterise the contribution of all optical elements, analytical investigations were associated to numerical simulations based on SIMION 7 software. The acquisition of high-quality images implies a simultaneous reduction in spherical and chromatic aberrations by a narrow aperture stop placed at the output pupil of the objective. With such limitations in useful emission angles, it is shown that monochromatic electron beams build images with a resolution of about 1 nm, especially for the acceleration bias mode where the focussing electrode is biased at a positive high voltage. Even energy dispersed electron beams, limited by a 4 eV band pass spectrometer, can produce images convenient for highly localised ESCA analyses (resolution 3 nm), where the objective lens is associated with an aperture stop of 30 microm in diameter without using acceleration voltages above 5000 V.

  1. Object-oriented classification of a high-spatial resolution SPOT5 image for mapping geology and landforms of active volcanoes: Semeru case study, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassouk, Zeineb; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Solikhin, Akhmad; Liew, Soo Chin

    2014-09-01

    The present work explores the object-oriented classification (OOC) of high-spatial resolution (HSR) satellite panchromatic imagery for mapping the geology of the persistently active Semeru volcano and its ring plain, east Java, Indonesia. A panchromatic SPOT5 image and a digital elevation model (DEM) have been used to identify geologic units, structures, landforms and deposits. The panchromatic image was georeferenced and enhanced using histogram equalization. The enhanced image was segmented into polygons using the EnviFx (©Exelis) Software. The polygons were delineated and classified on the basis of spectral (panchromatic hues and textures), topographic (slope, elevation) information and geologic/geomorphic processes. The validity of classification was evaluated by interpreting Google Earth images, aerial photographs and limited field observations. The classification consists of three hierarchical levels across the volcanic area of about 745 km2. The first operational spatial level includes seven large volcano domains based on the spectral content of the volcanic, tectonic and lithological structures, and principal catchments. The second operational level, based on contextual relationships (topography, drainage network, vegetation cover type, stratigraphy and slope dynamics), encompasses 20 geological units that range between 30 and 80 km2 in area. Among the units, the third operational level distinguishes as many as 47 geomorphological sub-units (0.25-25 km2) according to slope gradient, deposit type, mass-wasting process and weathering. The resulting map provides a detailed pattern of geologic and geomorphic features unlike previous geologic maps that identified only 11 stratigraphic units. We show that the high-spatial resolution panchromatic SPOT5 scene can help to safely map the geology and landforms of persistently active volcanoes such as Semeru. We have applied the OOC technique on one HSR GeoEye panchromatic image to map another active volcano, Merapi

  2. High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (CE-MRA) using Compressed Sensing with Magnitude Image Subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Rapacchi, Stanislas; Han, Fei; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Kroeker, Randall; Plotnik, Adam; Lehman, Evan; Sayre, James; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul; Hu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We propose a compressed-sensing (CS) technique based on magnitude image subtraction for high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). Methods Our technique integrates the magnitude difference image into the CS reconstruction to promote subtraction sparsity. Fully sampled Cartesian 3D CE-MRA datasets from 6 volunteers were retrospectively under-sampled and three reconstruction strategies were evaluated: k-space subtraction CS, independent CS, and magnitude subtraction CS. The techniques were compared in image quality (vessel delineation, image artifacts, and noise) and image reconstruction error. Our CS technique was further tested on 7 volunteers using a prospectively under-sampled CE-MRA sequence. Results Compared with k-space subtraction and independent CS, our magnitude subtraction CS provides significantly better vessel delineation and less noise at 4X acceleration, and significantly less reconstruction error at 4X and 8X (p<0.05 for all). On a 1–4 point image quality scale in vessel delineation, our technique scored 3.8±0.4 at 4X, 2.8±0.4 at 8X and 2.3±0.6 at 12X acceleration. Using our CS sequence at 12X acceleration, we were able to acquire dynamic CE-MRA with higher spatial and temporal resolution than current clinical TWIST protocol while maintaining comparable image quality (2.8±0.5 vs. 3.0±0.4, p=NS). Conclusion Our technique is promising for dynamic CE-MRA. PMID:23801456

  3. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  4. Monitoring mangrove forests after aquaculture abandonment using time series of very high spatial resolution satellite images: A case study from the Perancak estuary, Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Proisy, Christophe; Viennois, Gaëlle; Sidik, Frida; Andayani, Ariani; Enright, James Anthony; Guitet, Stéphane; Gusmawati, Niken; Lemonnier, Hugues; Muthusankar, Gowrappan; Olagoke, Adewole; Prosperi, Juliana; Rahmania, Rinny; Ricout, Anaïs; Soulard, Benoit; Suhardjono

    2017-06-23

    Revegetation of abandoned aquaculture regions should be a priority for any integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). This paper examines the potential of a matchless time series of 20 very high spatial resolution (VHSR) optical satellite images acquired for mapping trends in the evolution of mangrove forests from 2001 to 2015 in an estuary fragmented into aquaculture ponds. Evolution of mangrove extent was quantified through robust multitemporal analysis based on supervised image classification. Results indicated that mangroves are expanding inside and outside ponds and over pond dykes. However, the yearly expansion rate of vegetation cover greatly varied between replanted ponds. Ground truthing showed that only Rhizophora species had been planted, whereas natural mangroves consist of Avicennia and Sonneratia species. In addition, the dense Rhizophora plantations present very low regeneration capabilities compared with natural mangroves. Time series of VHSR images provide comprehensive and intuitive level of information for the support of ICZM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Results of the spatial resolution simulation for multispectral data (resolution brochures)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The variable information content of Earth Resource products at different levels of spatial resolution and in different spectral bands is addressed. A low-cost brochure that scientists and laymen could use to visualize the effects of increasing the spatial resolution of multispectral scanner images was produced.

  6. Assessing Long-Term Seagrass Changes by Integrating a High-Spatial Resolution Image, Historical Aerial Photography and Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Perez, M.; Hernandez, W. J.; Armstrong, R.

    2016-02-01

    Reported cases of seagrass loss have increased over the last 40 years, increasing the awareness of the need for assessing seagrass health. In situ monitoring has been the main method to assess spatial and temporal changes in seagrass ecosystem. Although remote sensing techniques with multispectral imagery have been recently used for these purposes, long-term analysis is limited to the sensor's mission life. The objective of this project is to determine long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover at Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve, by combining in situ data with a satellite image and historical aerial photography. A current satellite imagery of the WorldView-2 sensor was used to generate a 2014 benthic habitat map for the study area. The multispectral image was pre-processed using: conversion of digital numbers to radiance, and atmospheric and water column corrections. Object-based image analysis was used to segment the image into polygons representing different benthic habitats and to classify those habitats according to the classification scheme developed for this project. The scheme include the following benthic habitat categories: seagrass (sparse, dense and very dense), colonized hard bottom (sparse, dense and very dense), sand and mix algae on unconsolidated sediments. Field work was used to calibrate the satellite-derived benthic maps and to asses accuracy of the final products. In addition, a time series of satellite imagery and historic aerial photography from 1950 to 2014 provided data to assess long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover within the Reserve. Preliminary results show an increase in seagrass habitat cover, contrasting with the worldwide declining trend. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the conservation and management of seagrass habitat in the Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve.

  7. Mapping the vegetation colonization on recent lava flows using spectral unmixing of moderate spatial resolution satellite images: Nyamuragira volcano, D. R. Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Kervyn, Matthieu; Canters, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas, vegetation colonizes recently erupted lava flows and expands over time. The fraction of vegetation is therefore likely to provide information on lava flows' age. Individual lava flows are usually not well resolved on satellite imagery due to the coarse spatial resolution: one pixel on the imagery is a mixture of mainly lava and vegetation. In order to solve the mixed pixel problem, many different methods have been proposed among which linear spectral unmixing is the most widely-used. It assumes that the reflectance of the mixed pixel is the sum of the reflectance of each pure end members multiplied by their proportion in the pixel. It has been frequently used in urban area studies, but no efforts have yet been made to apply it to volcanic areas. Here, we demonstrate the application of linear spectral unmixing for the lava flows of Nyamuragira volcano, in the Virunga Volcanic province. Nyamuragira is an active volcano, emitting over 30 lava flows in the last 100 years. The limited access to the volcano due to social unrest in D. R. Congo justifies the value of remote sensing techniques. This shield volcano is exposed to tropical climate and thus vegetation colonizes lava flows rapidly. An EO-1 ALI image (Advanced land imager mounted on Earth Observing -1 Satellite) acquired over Nyamuragira on January 3, 2012 at spatial resolution of 30 m was processed with minimum noise fraction transform and end member extraction, and spectrally unmixed by linear mixture modelling technique into two types of lava, and one or two types of vegetation. The three end member model is better in terms of the RMSE and the expected spatial distribution of end members. A 2 m resolution Pleiades image acquired on January 21, 2013 and partly overlapping with the ALI image was taken as the reference image for validation. It was first classified using a supervised pixel-based classification technique and then compared to the proportion image derived from the ALI image

  8. High Resolution Image Reconstruction from Projection of Low Resolution Images DIffering in Subpixel Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mareboyana, Manohar; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Bennett, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple algorithm that projects low resolution (LR) images differing in subpixel shifts on a high resolution (HR) also called super resolution (SR) grid. The algorithm is very effective in accuracy as well as time efficiency. A number of spatial interpolation techniques using nearest neighbor, inverse-distance weighted averages, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) etc. used in projection yield comparable results. For best accuracy of reconstructing SR image by a factor of two requires four LR images differing in four independent subpixel shifts. The algorithm has two steps: i) registration of low resolution images and (ii) shifting the low resolution images to align with reference image and projecting them on high resolution grid based on the shifts of each low resolution image using different interpolation techniques. Experiments are conducted by simulating low resolution images by subpixel shifts and subsampling of original high resolution image and the reconstructing the high resolution images from the simulated low resolution images. The results of accuracy of reconstruction are compared by using mean squared error measure between original high resolution image and reconstructed image. The algorithm was tested on remote sensing images and found to outperform previously proposed techniques such as Iterative Back Projection algorithm (IBP), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum a posterior (MAP) algorithms. The algorithm is robust and is not overly sensitive to the registration inaccuracies.

  9. Photon event distribution sampling: an image formation technique for scanning microscopes that permits tracking of sub-diffraction particles with high spatial and temporal resolutions.

    PubMed

    Larkin, J D; Publicover, N G; Sutko, J L

    2011-01-01

    In photon event distribution sampling, an image formation technique for scanning microscopes, the maximum likelihood position of origin of each detected photon is acquired as a data set rather than binning photons in pixels. Subsequently, an intensity-related probability density function describing the uncertainty associated with the photon position measurement is applied to each position and individual photon intensity distributions are summed to form an image. Compared to pixel-based images, photon event distribution sampling images exhibit increased signal-to-noise and comparable spatial resolution. Photon event distribution sampling is superior to pixel-based image formation in recognizing the presence of structured (non-random) photon distributions at low photon counts and permits use of non-raster scanning patterns. A photon event distribution sampling based method for localizing single particles derived from a multi-variate normal distribution is more precise than statistical (Gaussian) fitting to pixel-based images. Using the multi-variate normal distribution method, non-raster scanning and a typical confocal microscope, localizations with 8 nm precision were achieved at 10 ms sampling rates with acquisition of ~200 photons per frame. Single nanometre precision was obtained with a greater number of photons per frame. In summary, photon event distribution sampling provides an efficient way to form images when low numbers of photons are involved and permits particle tracking with confocal point-scanning microscopes with nanometre precision deep within specimens.

  10. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    imagery based on their spectral and spatial signatures. We classified conifers in 6,230 tiles and then tested for errors of omission and commission using confusion matrices. Accuracy ranged from 79.1 to 96.8, with an overall accuracy of 84.3 percent across all mapped areas. An estimated accuracy coefficient (kappa) indicated substantial to nearly perfect agreement, which varied across mapped areas. For this mapping process across the entire mapping extent, four sets of products are available at https://doi.org/10.5066/F7348HVC, including (1) a shapefile representing accuracy results linked to mapping subunits; (2) binary rasters representing conifer presence or absence at a 1 × 1 m resolution; (3) a 30 × 30 m resolution raster representing percentages of conifer canopy cover within each cell from 0 to 100; and (4) 1 × 1 m resolution canopy cover classification rasters derived from a 50-m-radius moving window analysis. The latter two products can be reclassified in a geographic information system (GIS) into user-specified bins to meet different objectives, which include approximations for phases of encroachment. These products complement, and in some cases improve upon, existing conifer maps in the Western United States, and will help facilitate sage-grouse habitat management and sagebrush ecosystem restoration.

  11. High Spatial Resolution Photometric Imaging of the Area Around the Nucleus of C/2011 W3 Lovejoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the newly discovered comet C/2011 W3 Lovejoy at one epoch near its closest approach to the Earth in early-January 2012. Lovejoy is a member of the Kreutz group of sungrazing comets and is the first sungrazing comet known to have survived perihelion during the era of modern observations {since 1970}. Its size is currently unconstrained but is critical for understanding Lovejoy?s place in the Kreutz group hierarchy {either as one of the 1600+ known ?pygmy? fragments or one of a handful of major fragments of the parent body, which support and fuel the rest}. Kreutz comets are known to fragment frequently, and we expect that Hubble?s high spatial resolution will reveal individual fragments undetectable by any other means. We will estimate the size distribution of these fragments. Due to Lovejoy?s extreme southern declination, small solar elongation, and 300+ year orbit, these observations can only be obtained using Hubble, and cannot be accomplished at any other epoch.

  12. Time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging of biological samples with delayed extraction for high mass and high spatial resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Vanbellingen, Quentin P.; Elie, Nicolas; Eller, Michael J.; Della‐Negra, Serge; Touboul, David

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In Time‐of‐Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF‐SIMS), pulsed and focused primary ion beams enable mass spectrometry imaging, a method which is particularly useful to map various small molecules such as lipids at the surface of biological samples. When using TOF‐SIMS instruments, the focusing modes of the primary ion beam delivered by liquid metal ion guns can provide either a mass resolution of several thousand or a sub‐µm lateral resolution, but the combination of both is generally not possible. Methods With a TOF‐SIMS setup, a delayed extraction applied to secondary ions has been studied extensively on rat cerebellum sections in order to compensate for the effect of long primary ion bunches. Results The use of a delayed extraction has been proven to be an efficient solution leading to unique features, i.e. a mass resolution up to 10000 at m/z 385.4 combined with a lateral resolution of about 400 nm. Simulations of ion trajectories confirm the experimental determination of optimal delayed extraction and allow understanding of the behavior of ions as a function of their mass‐to‐charge ratio. Conclusions Although the use of a delayed extraction has been well known for many years and is very popular in MALDI, it is much less used in TOF‐SIMS. Its full characterization now enables secondary ion images to be recorded in a single run with a submicron spatial resolution and with a mass resolution of several thousand. This improvement is very useful when analyzing lipids on tissue sections, or rare, precious, or very small size samples. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26395603

  13. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  14. ROLE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND SPECTRAL CONTENT IN CHANGE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1984-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Advancements in remote sensing technology have brought improvements and sophistication to modern remote sensor systems, especially those aboard earth resources satellites. These improvements have considerbly expanded the capabilities of the newer sensor systems, particularly the capability to achieve greatly increased spatial and spectral resolution levels. The debate still lingers, however, over whether future systems should maximize spatial resolution or spectral information, or both. As yet, the high costs and large volumes of data associated with even modest incremental improvements in spatial and spectral content have precluded the design of a single system that attempts to fully optimize both. Thus, the user is faced with having to choose between those systems providing high spatial resolutions but limited spectral information and those which offer a broad range of spectral data but hold spatial resolution to a less than optimum level. In this study, the contribution of both spatial resolution and spectral content to land cover change detection is examined. Ten-meter SPOT simulation imagery is compared with multispectral images acquired by the Thematic Mapper sensor system for use in the visual interpretation and mapping of changes. Several image processing and enhancement techniques are utilized to maximize the spatial and spectral data content offered by each system. Results indicate that when using visual image interpretation techniques to detect change, higher spatial resolutions are generally preferred over increased spectral content.

  15. High spatial resolution performance of pixelated scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeta, Kazuki; Fujioka, Nobuyasu; Murai, Takahiro; Hikita, Izumi; Morinaga, Tomohiro; Tanino, Takahiro; Kodama, Haruhito; Okamura, Masaki

    2017-03-01

    In indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) for digital X-ray imaging, scintillating materials such as Terbiumdoped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gadox) convert X-ray into visible light, and an amorphous silicon (a-Si) photodiode array converts the light into electrons. It is, however, desired that the detector spatial resolution is improved because the light spreading inside scintillator causes crosstalk to next a-Si photodiode pixels and the resolution is degraded compared with direct conversion FPDs which directly convert X-ray into electrons by scintillating material such as amorphous selenium. In this study, the scintillator was pixelated with same pixel pitch as a-Si photodiode array by barrier rib structure to limit the light spreading, and the detector spatial resolution was improved. The FPD with pixelated scintillator was manufactured as follows. The barrier rib structure with 127μm pitch was fabricated on a substrate by a photosensitive organic-inorganic paste method, and a reflective layer was coated on the surface of the barrier rib, then the structure was filled up with Gadox particles. The pixelated scintillator was aligned with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array and set as a FPD. The FPD with pixelated scintillator showed high modulation transfer function (MTF) and 0.94 at 1cycle/mm and 0.88 at 2cycles/mm were achieved. The MTF values were almost equal to the maximum value that can be theoretically achieved in the FPD with 127μm pixel pitch of a-Si photodiode array. Thus the FPD with pixelated scintillators has great potential to apply for high spatial resolution applications such as mammography and nondestructive testing.

  16. A compact thermal infrared imaging radiometer with high spatial resolution and wide swath for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumi, Kenji; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Tanii, Jun; Kawanishi, Toneo; Ueno, Shinichi; Kuga, Hideki

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study for the potential of a high spatial resolution and wide swath thermal infrared (TIR) imaging radiometer for a small satellite using a large format uncooled infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA). The preliminary TIR imaging radiometer designs were performed. One is a panchromatic (mono-band) imaging radiometer (8-12μm) with a large format 2000 x 1000 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 15 μm. The other is a multiband imaging radiometer (8.8μm, 10.8μm, 11.4μm). This radiometer is employed separate optics and detectors for each wave band. It is based on the use of a 640 x 480 pixels uncooled IR-FPA with a pixel pitch of 25 μm. The thermal time constant of an uncooled IR-FPA is approximately 10-16ms, and introduces a constraint to the satellite operation to achieve better signal-to-noise ratio, MTF and linearity performances. The study addressed both on-ground time-delayintegration binning and staring imaging solutions, although a staring imaging was preferred after trade-off. The staring imaging requires that the line of sight of the TIR imaging radiometer gazes at a target area during the acquisition time of the image, which can be obtained by rotating the satellite or a steering mirror around the pitch axis. The single band radiometer has been designed to yield a 30m ground sample distance over a 30km swath width from a satellite altitude of 500km. The radiometric performance, enhanced with staring imaging, is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.5K for a 300K ground scene. The multi-band radiometer has three spectral bands with spatial resolution of 50m and swath width of 24km. The radiometric performance is expected to yield a NETD less than 0.85K. We also showed some preliminary simulation results on volcano, desert/urban scenes, and wildfire.

  17. Enhanced spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    2017-08-01

    The spatial resolution of the vector potential photoelectron microscope is determined by the maximum size of the cyclotron orbits of the imaged electrons at the surface of a sample. It is straightforward to calculate the spatial resolution for any imaged electron energy given the magnetic field strength. However, in low-energy secondary photoelectron images from an aluminium-calcium metal matrix alloy, we find the apparent spatial resolution is significantly higher than expected. A possible explanation for the enhanced resolution is that the low-energy cyclotron orbits are distorted when passing from one area of work function to another and the image is dependent on the surface field distribution. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Detection automatique des changements du bati en milieu urbain sur des images a tres haute resolution spatiale (Ikonos et QuickBird) en utilisant des donnees cartographiques numeriques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouziani, Mourad

    The updating of cartographic databases in urban environments is a difficult and expensive task. It can be facilitated by an automatic change detection method. Several methods have been developed for medium and low spatial resolution images. These methods are not adapted for the very high spatial resolution images (VHSR) and are not applicable in urban environment. This study proposes a new method for change detection of buildings in urban environments from VHSR images and using existing digital cartographic data. The proposed methodology is composed of several stages. The existing knowledge on the buildings and the other urban objects are first modelled and saved in a knowledge base. All change detection rules are defined at this stage. Then, the image is segmented. The parameters of segmentation are computed thanks to the integration between the image and the geographical database (GDB). Thereafter, the segmented image is analyzed using the knowledge base to localize the segments where the change of building is likely to occur. The change detection rules are then applied on these segments to identify the segments that represent the changes of buildings. These changes represent the updates of buildings to add to the geographical database. Finally, the map representing changes is assessed before being integrated in the geographical database. The data used in this research concern the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) and the city of Rabat (Morocco). For Sherbrooke, we used an Ikonos image acquired in October 2004, an Ikonos image acquired in July 2006 and a GDB at the scale of 1:20,000. For Rabat, a QuickBird image acquired in August 2004 has been used with a GDB at the scale of 1:10,000. The results of tests on several zones are encouraging. Indeed, the rate of good detection is of 90%. Concerning the geometric precision of detection, the mean error is 3 m for Ikonos and 2 m for QuickBird. The proposed method presents some limitations on the detection of the

  19. High Spatial Resolution Mid-IR Imaging of V838 Monocerotis: Evidence of New Circumstellar Dust Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsiewski, John P.; Clampin, Mark; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Barry, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    The eruptive variable V838 Monocerotis experienced three dramatic outbursts in early 2002. Its unexpectedly erratic photometric behavior wes matched by strong spectroscopic variability, in which the srar transitioned through the F, K, G spectral type s in 2002 February, reseabled a M5 supergiant by 2002 Aprll, and had a L-type super qiant spectram in 2002 October. The star is also infamous for producisg e spectacu lar light echo whose evolction has beer traced by HST/ACS. We report high sFatial resolution 11.2 and 18.1 micron imagicq of V838 Nonoceroris obrained with Genini Ob servatory's Klchelle in 2007 March. The 2007 flux density of the unresclved stellar core of is rouqhly 2 tixes brighter than zhaz observed in 2C04. We interpret tkese aata as evidecce t-at V838 Mon has experienced a new circumsellar dust creatioc evezt. We suggest that this newly c reated dust is Likely clumpy, and speculate that one (or ore) of Ekese clumps migh t have passed through the line-cf-sight in late 2036, prodccing the brief rnalti-wav elength pkotonetric event reported by Bond (2006) and Yunari ez a1 (2007). A gap o f spatially exzended therrrzl (18 micron) emission is present over radial distances of 1860 - 93000 AU from che central source. Assuming ejecta material expands at a constant velocity of 300-500 km/s, this gap suggests that no prior significanz circ unstellar dust production events have occurred withiin the past approx. 900-1500 years.

  20. Spatial Phase Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Frequently, scientists grow crystals by dissolving a protein in a specific liquid solution, and then allowing that solution to evaporate. The methods used next have been, variously, invasive (adding a dye that is absorbed by the protein), destructive (crushing protein/salt-crystal mixtures and observing differences between the crushing of salt and protein), or costly and time-consuming (X-ray crystallography). In contrast to these methods, a new technology for monitoring protein growth, developed in part through NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Marshall Space Flight Center, is noninvasive, nondestructive, rapid, and more cost effective than X-ray analysis. The partner for this SBIR, Photon-X, Inc., of Huntsville, Alabama, developed spatial phase imaging technology that can monitor crystal growth in real time and in an automated mode. Spatial phase imaging scans for flaws quickly and produces a 3-D structured image of a crystal, showing volumetric growth analysis for future automated growth.

  1. Analysis of the 2006 block-and-ash flow deposits of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, using high-spatial resolution IKONOS images and complementary ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Liew, Soo Chin; Lube, Gert; Cronin, Shane J.; Surono, Dr

    2010-05-01

    On 16 June 2006 an overpass of IKONOS coincided with the emplacement of an active block-and-ash flow fed by a lava dome collapse event at Merapi Volcano (Java, Indonesia). This was the first satellite image recorded for a moving pyroclastic flow. The very high-spatial resolution data displayed the extent and impact of the pyroclastic deposits emplaced during and prior to, the day of image acquisition. This allowed a number of features associated with high-hazard block-and-ash flows emplaced in narrow, deep gorges to be mapped, interpreted and understood. The block-and-ash flow and surge deposits recognized in the Ikonos images include: (1) several channel-confined flow lobes and tongues in the box-shaped valley; (2) thin ash-cloud surge deposit and knocked-down trees in constricted areas on both slopes of the gorge; (3) fan-like over bank deposits on the Gendol-Tlogo interfluves from which flows were re-routed in the Tlogo secondary valley; (4) massive over bank lobes on the right bank from which flows devastated the village of Kaliadem 0.5 km from the main channel, a small part of this flow being re-channeled in the Opak secondary valley. The high-resolution IKONOS images also helped us to identify geomorphic obstacles that enabled flows to ramp and spill out from the sinuous channel, a process called flow avulsion. Importantly, the avulsion redirected flows to unexpected areas away from the main channel. In the case of Merapi we see that the presence of valley fill by previous deposits, bends and man-made dams influence the otherwise valley-guided course of the flows. Sadly, Sabo dams (built to ameliorate the effect of high sediment load streams) can actually cause block-and-ash flows to jump out of their containing channel and advance into sensitive areas. Very-high-spatial resolution satellite images are very useful for mapping and interpreting the distribution of freshly erupted volcanic deposits. IKONOS-type images with 1-m resolution provide opportunities to

  2. Single-Step 3-D Image Reconstruction in Magnetic Induction Tomography: Theoretical Limits of Spatial Resolution and Contrast to Noise Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hollaus, Karl; Rosell-Ferrer, Javier; Merwa, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a low-resolution imaging modality for reconstructing the changes of the complex conductivity in an object. MIT is based on determining the perturbation of an alternating magnetic field, which is coupled from several excitation coils to the object. The conductivity distribution is reconstructed from the corresponding voltage changes induced in several receiver coils. Potential medical applications comprise the continuous, non-invasive monitoring of tissue alterations which are reflected in the change of the conductivity, e.g. edema, ventilation disorders, wound healing and ischemic processes. MIT requires the solution of an ill-posed inverse eddy current problem. A linearized version of this problem was solved for 16 excitation coils and 32 receiver coils with a model of two spherical perturbations within a cylindrical phantom. The method was tested with simulated measurement data. Images were reconstructed with a regularized single-step Gauss–Newton approach. Theoretical limits for spatial resolution and contrast/noise ratio were calculated and compared with the empirical results from a Monte-Carlo study. The conductivity perturbations inside a homogeneous cylinder were localized for a SNR between 44 and 64 dB. The results prove the feasibility of difference imaging with MIT and give some quantitative data on the limitations of the method. PMID:17031597

  3. Spatial and molecular resolution of diffuse malignant mesothelioma heterogeneity by integrating label-free FTIR imaging, laser capture microdissection and proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Großerueschkamp, Frederik; Bracht, Thilo; Diehl, Hanna C.; Kuepper, Claus; Ahrens, Maike; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Mosig, Axel; Eisenacher, Martin; Marcus, Katrin; Behrens, Thomas; Brüning, Thomas; Theegarten, Dirk; Sitek, Barbara; Gerwert, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is a heterogeneous malignant neoplasia manifesting with three subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic. DMM exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity that complicates a thorough understanding of the underlying different molecular processes in each subtype. We present a novel approach to spatially resolve the heterogeneity of a tumour in a label-free manner by integrating FTIR imaging and laser capture microdissection (LCM). Subsequent proteome analysis of the dissected homogenous samples provides in addition molecular resolution. FTIR imaging resolves tumour subtypes within tissue thin-sections in an automated and label-free manner with accuracy of about 85% for DMM subtypes. Even in highly heterogeneous tissue structures, our label-free approach can identify small regions of interest, which can be dissected as homogeneous samples using LCM. Subsequent proteome analysis provides a location specific molecular characterization. Applied to DMM subtypes, we identify 142 differentially expressed proteins, including five protein biomarkers commonly used in DMM immunohistochemistry panels. Thus, FTIR imaging resolves not only morphological alteration within tissue but it resolves even alterations at the level of single proteins in tumour subtypes. Our fully automated workflow FTIR-guided LCM opens new avenues collecting homogeneous samples for precise and predictive biomarkers from omics studies. PMID:28358042

  4. Spatial Resolution Effects of Remote Sensing Informed Soil Nutrient Models Based on Landsat 8, RapidEye, WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Grunwald, S.; Smith, S. E.; Abd-Elrahman, A.; Clingensmith, C. M.; Wani, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil nutrient storage is essential and important to maintain food security and soil security in smallholder farm settings. The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial resolution effects of different remote sensing images on soil prediction models in Kothapally, India. We utilized Bayesian kriging (BK) to characterize the spatial pattern of total nitrogen (TN) and exchangeable potassium (Kex) in the topsoil (0-15 cm) at different spatial resolutions by incorporating spectral indices from Landsat 8 (30m), RapidEye (5m) and WorldView-2/GeoEye-1 images (2m). The band ratio of red to green, red to blue and green to blue, Crust Index and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index from multiple images generally had high linear correlations with TN and Kex. The BK model of TN based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 attained the highest model fit (R2=0.41) and lowest prediction error (RMSE=171.35 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of TN based on Landsat 8 (R2=0.30; RMSE=182.26 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.28; RMSE=183.52 mg kg-1). The BK model of Kex based on Landsat 8 had the highest model fit (R2=0.55) and the second lowest prediction error (RMSE=79.57 mg kg-1) compared with the BK models of Kex based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 (R2=0.52; RMSE=79.42 mg kg-1) and RapidEye (R2=0.47; RMSE=83.91 mg kg-1). The lowest prediction fit and highest prediction error of soil TN and Kex models based on RapidEye suggest that the effect of fine spatial remote sensing spectral data inputs do not always lead to an increase of model fit. Soil maps based on WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 have significant advantages in characterizing the variation of soil TN and Kex spatial pattern in smallholder farm settings compared with coarser maps. This research suggests that Digital Soil Mapping utilizing remote sensing spectral data from WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 has high potential to be widely applied in smallholder farm settings and help smallholder farmers manage their soils and attain soil

  5. Improved contrast and spatial resolution with Single Photon Counting (SPC) for an area x-ray imager, the newly developed high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) detector.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Although in radiological imaging, the prevailing mode of acquisition is the integration of the energy deposited by all x-rays absorbed in the imaging detector, much improvement in image spatial and contrast resolution could be achieved if each individual x-ray photon were detected and counted separately. In this work we compare the conventional energy integration (EI) mode with the new single photon counting (SPC) mode for a recently developed high-resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) detector, which is uniquely capable of both modes of operation. The MAF has 1024×1024 pixels of 35 microns effective size and is capable of real-time imaging at 30 fps. The large variable gain of its light image intensifier (LII) provides quantum limited operation with essentially no additive instrumentation noise and enables the MAF to operate in both EI and the very sensitive low-exposure SPC modes. We used high LII gain with very low exposure (<1 x-ray photon/pixel) per frame for SPC mode and higher exposure per frame with lower gain for EI mode. Multiple signal-thresholded frames were summed in SPC mode to provide an integrated frame with the same total exposure as EI mode. A heavily K-edge filtered x-ray beam (average energy of 31 keV) was used to provide a nearly monochromatic spectrum. The MTF measured using a standard slit method showed a dramatic improvement for the SPC mode over the EI mode at all frequencies. Images of a line pair phantom also showed improved spatial resolution with 12 lp/mm visible in SPC mode compared to only 8 lp/mm in EI mode. In SPC mode, images of human distal and middle phalanges showed the trabecular structures of the bone with far better contrast and detail. These improvements with the SPC mode should be advantageous for clinical applications where high resolution and/or high contrast are essential such as in mammography and extremity imaging as well as for dual modality applications, which combine nuclear medicine and x-ray imaging

  6. Extending a prototype knowledge and object based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  7. Extending a prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  8. Duality between noise and spatial resolution in linear systems.

    PubMed

    Gureyev, Timur E; Nesterets, Yakov I; de Hoog, Frank; Schmalz, Gerd; Mayo, Sheridan C; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana

    2014-04-21

    It is shown that in a broad class of linear systems, including general linear shift-invariant systems, the spatial resolution and the noise satisfy a duality relationship, resembling the uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics. The product of the spatial resolution and the standard deviation of output noise in such systems represents a type of phase-space volume that is invariant with respect to linear scaling of the point-spread function, and it cannot be made smaller than a certain positive absolute lower limit. A corresponding intrinsic "quality" characteristic is introduced and then evaluated for the cases of some popular imaging systems, including computed tomography, generic image convolution and phase-contrast imaging. It is shown that in the latter case the spatial resolution and the noise can sometimes be decoupled, potentially leading to a substantial increase in the imaging quality.

  9. Monitoring of the Spatial Distribution and Temporal Dynamics of the Green Vegetation Fraction of Croplands in Southwest Germany Using High-Resolution RapidEye Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imukova, Kristina; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The green vegetation fraction (GVF) is a key input variable to the evapotranspiration scheme applied in the widely used NOAH land surface model (LSM). In standard applications of the NOAH LSM, the GVF is taken from a global map with a 15 km×15 km resolution. The central objective of the present study was (a) to derive gridded GVF data in a high spatial and temporal resolution from RapidEye images for a region in Southwest Germany, and (b) to improve the representation of the GVF dynamics of croplands in the NOAH LSM for a better simulation of water and energy exchange between land surface and atmosphere. For the region under study we obtained monthly RapidEye satellite images with a resolution 5 m×5 m by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The images hold five spectral bands: blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR). The GVF dynamics were determined based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from the red and near-infrared bands of the satellite images. The satellite GVF data were calibrated and validated against ground truth measurements. Digital colour photographs above the canopy were taken with a boom-mounted digital camera at fifteen permanently marked plots (1 m×1 m). Crops under study were winter wheat, winter rape and silage maize. The GVF was computed based on the red and the green band of the photographs according to Rundquist's method (2002). Based on the obtained calibration scheme GVF maps were derived in a monthly resolution for the region. Our results confirm a linear relationship between GVF and NDVI and demonstrate that it is possible to determine the GVF of croplands from RapidEye images based on a simple two end-member mixing model. Our data highlight the high variability of the GVF in time and space. At the field scale, the GVF was normally distributed with a coefficient of variation of about 32%. Variability was mainly caused by soil heterogeneities and management differences. At the regional scale the GVF

  10. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-03-06

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

  11. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL RESOLUTION IN GEOBOTANY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, Nancy M.; Mouat, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed data are now available from a wide variety of instruments, each data set having a particular spectral and spatial resolution. The changes in vegetation associated with changes in lithology or the presence of mineral deposits can also occur at different scales. The task of geobotanical remote sensing is to choose or adapt the remotely sensed data to the appropriate geobotanical technique to solve the geological problem of interest. Examples are given of a number of applications of data sets of different spectral and spatial resolution. The relative importance of spectral and spatial resolution is discussed.

  12. Simulation, optimization and testing of a novel high spatial resolution X-ray imager based on Zinc Oxide nanowires in Anodic Aluminium Oxide membrane using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandi, F.; Saramad, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a new generation of scintillator based X-ray imagers based on ZnO nanowires in Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nanoporous template is characterized. The optical response of ordered ZnO nanowire arrays in porous AAO template under low energy X-ray illumination is simulated by the Geant4 Monte Carlo code and compared with experimental results. The results show that for 10 keV X-ray photons, by considering the light guiding properties of zinc oxide inside the AAO template and suitable selection of detector thickness and pore diameter, the spatial resolution less than one micrometer and the detector detection efficiency of 66% are accessible. This novel nano scintillator detector can have many advantages for medical applications in the future.

  13. Super-resolution imaging of C-type lectin spatial rearrangement within the dendritic cell plasma membrane at fungal microbe contact sites

    PubMed Central

    Itano, Michelle S.; Graus, Matthew S.; Pehlke, Carolyn; Wester, Michael J.; Liu, Ping; Lidke, Keith A.; Thompson, Nancy L.; Jacobson, Ken; Neumann, Aaron K.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells express DC-SIGN and CD206, C-type lectins (CTLs) that bind a variety of pathogens and may facilitate pathogen uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. Both proteins form punctate membrane nanodomains (∼80 nm) on naïve cells. We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of CTLs following host-fungal particle contact using confocal microscopy and three distinct methods of cluster identification and measurement of receptor clusters in super-resolution datasets: DBSCAN, Pair Correlation and a custom implementation of the Getis spatial statistic. Quantitative analysis of confocal and super-resolution images demonstrated that CTL nanodomains become concentrated in the contact site relative to non-contact membrane after the first hour of exposure and established that this recruitment is sustained out to 4 h. DC-SIGN nanodomains in fungal contact sites exhibit a 70% area increase and a 38% decrease in interdomain separation. Contact site CD206 nanodomains possess 90% greater area and 42% lower interdomain separation relative to non-contact regions. Contact site CTL clusters appear as disk-shaped domains of approximately 150–175 nm in diameter. The increase in length scale of CTL nanostructure in contact sites suggests that the smaller nanodomains on resting membranes may merge during fungal recognition, or that they become packed closely enough to achieve sub-resolution inter-domain edge separations of <30 nm. This study provides evidence of local receptor spatial rearrangements on the nanoscale that occur in the plasma membrane upon pathogen binding and may direct important signaling interactions required to recognize and respond to the presence of a relatively large pathogen. PMID:25506589

  14. Super-resolution imaging of C-type lectin spatial rearrangement within the dendritic cell plasma membrane at fungal microbe contact sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, Michelle; Graus, Matthew; Pehlke, Carolyn; Wester, Michael; Liu, Ping; Lidke, Keith; Thompson, Nancy; Jacobson, Ken; Neumann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    Dendritic cells express DC-SIGN and CD206, C-type lectins (CTLs) that bind a variety of pathogens and may facilitate pathogen uptake for subsequent antigen presentation. Both proteins form punctate membrane nanodomains (~80 nm) on naïve cells. We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of CTLs following host-fungal particle contact using confocal microscopy and three distinct methods of cluster identification and measurement of receptor clusters in super-resolution datasets: DBSCAN, Pair Correlation and a custom implementation of the Getis spatial statistic. Quantitative analysis of confocal and super-resolution images demonstrated that CTL nanodomains become concentrated in the contact site relative to non-contact membrane after the first hour of exposure and established that this recruitment is sustained out to four hours. DC-SIGN nanodomains in fungal contact sites exhibit a 70% area increase and a 38% decrease in interdomain separation. Contact site CD206 nanodomains possess 90% greater area and 42% lower interdomain separation relative to non-contact regions. Contact site CTL clusters appear as disk-shaped domains of approximately 150-175 nm in diameter. The increase in length scale of CTL nanostructure in contact sites suggests that the smaller nanodomains on resting membranes may merge during fungal nanodomain structure, or that they become packed closely enough to achieve sub-resolution inter-domain edge separations of < 30 nm. This study provides evidence of local receptor spatial rearrangements on the nanoscale that occur in the plasma membrane upon pathogen binding and may direct important signaling interactions required to recognize and respond to the presence of a relatively large pathogen.

  15. Fundamental Limits of Spatial Resolution in PET

    PubMed Central

    Moses, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental limits of spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) have been understood for many years. The physical size of the detector element usually plays the dominant role in determining resolution, but the combined contributions from acollinearity, positron range, penetration into the detector ring, and decoding errors in the detector modules often combine to be of similar size. In addition, the sampling geometry and statistical noise further degrade the effective resolution. This paper describes quantitatively describes these effects, discusses potential methods for reducing the magnitude of these effects, and computes the ultimately achievable spatial resolution for clinical and pre-clinical PET cameras. PMID:21804677

  16. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtley, John R. Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Paulius, Lisa; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.

    2016-09-15

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2}. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  17. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ0/Hz1/2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  18. TU-G-207-03: High Spatial Resolution and High Sensitivity X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, L.

    2015-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications.

  19. Non-contrast enhanced MRI for evaluation of breast lesions: comparison of non-contrast enhanced high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images vs. contrast enhanced fat-suppressed images

    PubMed Central

    Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Wood, Abbie M.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Kulkarni, Kirti; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer without injection of contrast media: to compare the performance of pre-contrast HiSS images to conventional contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, based on image quality and in the task of classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten benign and 44 malignant lesions were imaged at 1.5T with HiSS (pre-contrast administration) and conventional fat-suppressed imaging (3–10 min post-contrast). This set of 108 images, after randomization, was evaluated by three experienced radiologists blinded to the imaging technique. BIRADS morphologic criteria (lesion shape; lesion margin; internal signal intensity pattern) and final assessment were used to measure reader performance. Image quality was evaluated based on boundary delineation and quality of fat suppression. An overall probability of malignancy was assigned to each lesion for HiSS and conventional images separately. RESULTS On boundary delineation and quality of fat-suppression, pre-contrast HiSS scored similarly to conventional post-contrast MRI. On benign vs. malignant lesion separation, there was no statistically significant difference in ROC performance between HiSS and conventional MRI, and HiSS met a reasonable non-inferiority condition. CONCLUSION Pre-contrast HiSS imaging is a promising approach for showing lesion morphology without blooming and other artifacts caused by contrast agents. HiSS images could be used to guide subsequent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans, to maximize spatial and temporal resolution in suspicious regions. HiSS MRI without contrast agent injection may be particularly important for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, or allergic reactions. PMID:21962476

  20. REFLECT: Logiciel de restitution des reflectances au sol pour l'amelioration de la qualite de l'information extraite des images satellitales a haute resolution spatiale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouroubi, Mohamed Yacine

    Multi-spectral satellite imagery, especially at high spatial resolution (finer than 30 m on the ground), represents an invaluable source of information for decision making in various domains in connection with natural resources management, environment preservation or urban planning and management. The mapping scales may range from local (finer resolution than 5 m) to regional (resolution coarser than 5m). The images are characterized by objects reflectance in the electromagnetic spectrum witch represents the key information in many applications. However, satellite sensor measurements are also affected by parasite input due to illumination and observation conditions, to the atmosphere, to topography and to sensor properties. Two questions have oriented this research. What is the best approach to retrieve surface reflectance with the measured values while taking into account these parasite factors? Is this retrieval a sine qua non condition for reliable image information extraction for the diverse domains of application for the images (mapping, environmental monitoring, landscape change detection, resources inventory, etc.)? The goals we have delineated for this research are as follow: (1) Develop software to retrieve ground reflectance while taking into account the aspects mentioned earlier. This software had to be modular enough to allow improvement and adaptation to diverse remote sensing application problems; and (2) Apply this software in various context (urban, agricultural, forest) and analyse results to evaluate the accuracy gain of extracted information from remote sensing imagery transformed in ground reflectance images to demonstrate the necessity of operating in this way, whatever the type of application. During this research, we have developed a tool to retrieve ground reflectance (the new version of the REFLECT software). This software is based on the formulas (and routines) of the 6S code (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum

  1. Improving Nano-MRI Spatial Resolution with Phase Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad; Eichler, Alex; Degen, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is a scanning probe technique that allows measuring nuclear spin densities with resolution better than 10nm. Detecting such small volumes of spins (less than (10nm)3 corresponds to approximately 20,000 spins) requires long averaging of signals from statistically polarized nuclei. For instance, previous work demonstrated that imaging a single isotope (1H) of a Tobacco Mosaic Virus required averaging for 2 weeks, and therefore the chemical contrast abilities of MRFM had to be forfeited to enable higher spatial resolution. In order to reconcile the chemical selectivity of MRFM along with the proven high spatial resolution, we have developed a phase multiplexing technique capable of simultaneously acquiring spin signals from multiple isotopes and from up to six spatial locations. We have demonstrated this method using a nanowire test sample, and have achieved one-dimensional imaging resolution of less than 5 nm and subnanometer positional accuracy.

  2. Fast high-spatial-resolution MRI of the ankle with parallel imaging using GRAPPA at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jan Stefan; Banerjee, Suchandrima; Henning, Tobias D; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmilla; Link, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare an autocalibrating parallel imaging technique at 3 T with standard acquisitions at 3 and 1.5 T for small-field-of-view imaging of the ankle. MRI of the ankle was performed in three fresh human cadaver specimens and three healthy volunteers. Axial and sagittal T1-weighted, axial fat-saturated T2-weighted, and coronal intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo sequences, as well as a fat-saturated spoiled gradient-echo sequence, were acquired at 1.5 and 3 T. At 3 T, reduced data sets were reconstructed using a generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) technique, with a scan time reduction of approximately 44%. All images were assessed by two radiologists independently concerning image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in every data set. In the cadaver specimens, macroscopic findings after dissection served as a reference for the pathologic evaluation. SNR and CNR in the GRAPPA images were comparable to the standard acquisition at 3 T. The image quality was rated significantly higher at 3 T with both normal and parallel acquisition compared with 1.5 T. There was no significant difference in ligament and cartilage visualization or in image quality between standard and GRAPPA reconstruction at 3 T. Ankle abnormalities were better seen at 3 T than at 1.5 T for both normal and parallel acquisitions. Using higher field strength combined with parallel technique, MR images of the ankle were obtained with excellent diagnostic quality and a scan time reduction of about 44%. In addition, parallel imaging can provide more flexibility in protocol design.

  3. An investigation of the potential of optical computed tomography for imaging of synchrotron-generated x-rays at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Simon J.; Brochard, Thierry; Adamovics, John; Krstajic, Nikola; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2010-03-01

    X-ray microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel form of treatment, currently in its preclinical stage, which uses microplanar x-ray beams from a synchrotron radiation source. It is important to perform accurate dosimetry on these microbeams, but, to date, there has been no accurate enough method available for making 3D dose measurements with isotropic, high spatial resolution to verify the results of Monte Carlo dose simulations. Here, we investigate the potential of optical computed tomography for satisfying these requirements. The construction of a simple optical CT microscopy (optical projection tomography) system from standard commercially available hardware is described. The measurement of optical densities in projection data is shown to be highly linear (r2 = 0.999). The depth-of-field (DOF) of the imaging system is calculated based on the previous literature and measured experimentally using a commercial DOF target. It is shown that high quality images can be acquired despite the evident lack of telecentricity and despite DOF of the system being much lower than the sample diameter. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Results are presented for a complex irradiation of a 22 mm diameter cylinder of the radiochromic polymer PRESAGE™, demonstrating the exquisite 'dose-painting' abilities available in the MRT hutch of beamline ID-17 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Dose distributions in this initial experiment are equally well resolved on both an optical CT scan and a corresponding transmission image of radiochromic film, down to a line width of 83 µm (6 lp mm-1) with an MTF value of 0.40. A group of 33 µm wide lines was poorly resolved on both the optical CT and film images, and this is attributed to an incorrect exposure time calculation, leading to under-delivery of dose. Image artefacts in the optical CT scan are discussed. PRESAGE™ irradiated using the microbeam facility is proposed as a suitable material for producing phantom

  4. Increasing the spatial resolution and sensitivity of magnetic resonance elastography by correcting for subject motion and susceptibility-induced image distortions.

    PubMed

    Fehlner, Andreas; Hirsch, Sebastian; Weygandt, Martin; Christophel, Thomas; Barnhill, Eric; Kadobianskyi, Mykola; Braun, Jürgen; Bernarding, Johannes; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Sack, Ingolf; Hetzer, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    To improve the resolution of elasticity maps by adapting motion and distortion correction methods for phase-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique for measuring mechanical tissue properties in vivo. MRE data of the brain were acquired with echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 3T (n = 14) and 7T (n = 18). Motion and distortion correction parameters were estimated using the magnitude images. The real and imaginary part of the complex MRE data were corrected separately and recombined. The width of the point-spread function (PSF) and the position variability were calculated. The images were normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) anatomical template. The gray-to-white matter separability of the elasticity maps was tested. Motion correction sharpened the |G*| maps as demonstrated by a narrowing of the PSF by 0.78 ± 0.51 mm at 7T and 0.52 ± 0.63 mm at 3T. The amount of individual head motion during MRE acquisition correlated with the decrease in the width of the PSF at 7T (r = 0.53, P = 0.025) and at 3T (r = 0.69, P = 0.006) and with the increase of gray-to-white matter separability after motion correction at 7T (r = 0.64, P = 0.0039) and at 3T (r = 0.57, P = 0.0319). Improved spatial accuracy after distortion correction results in a significant increase in separability of gray and white matter stiffness (P = 0.0067), especially in inferior parts of the brain suffering from strong B0 inhomogeneities. We demonstrate that our method leads to sharper images and higher spatial accuracy, raising the prospect of the investigation of smaller brain areas with increased sensitivity in studies using MRE. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:134-141. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  6. Characterization of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering measurements in shock-compressed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed, designed and built a dual-channel x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for spectrally- and spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurements in the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This spectrometer employs two spherically-bent germanium (Ge) 220 crystals, which are combined to form a large aperture dispersive element with a spectral bandwidth of 300 eV that enables both the elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering peaks to be simultaneously measured. The apparatus and its characterization are described. A resolving power of 1900 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of 12 μm was achieved in calibration tests. For XRTS measurements, a narrow-bandwidth (ΔE/E<0.003) LCLS x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) beam at 5.07 keV was used to probe a dense carbon plasma produced in shock-compressed samples of different forms of carbon. Preliminary results of the scattering experiments from Pyrolytic Graphite samples that illustrate the utility of the instrument are presented.

  7. TRACE Images of the Solar Chromosphere, Transition Region, and Low Corona at High Cadence and High Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Handy, B. N.; Judge, P. G.

    1999-05-01

    We present TRACE images and movies showing C IV emission (transition region at 80,000 degrees) and UV continuum (temperature minimum region) of quiet and active regions. TRACE images using the 1550, 1600, and 1700 Angstroms filters can be combined to estimate the total emission in the C IV 1548 and 1550 lines and the UV continuum. These are supplemented in different observations with MDI magnetograms, TRACE 171 Angstroms images (Fe IX/X and perhaps O VI), and SUMER spectra of chromospheric and transition region lines from SOHO JOP 72. In quiet sun, bright C IV transients are seen in the vicinity of flux emergence, flux cancellation, and less dramatic interactions of small magnetic structures. Some of these are accompanied by high-velocity explosive events seen in SUMER spectra. The C IV emission can be well-separated from the photospheric magnetic footpoints, suggesting that it takes place on current sheets higher in the atmosphere separating different flux systems. In active regions, both bright and dark fibrils or loops are seen in C IV. Many nano/micro/sub flares are seen, some but not all of which are associated with emerging flux. The C IV emission of "moss" regions, footpoints of hot coronal loops, is contrasted with that of similar plage which does not have hot loops above it. This work was supported by the NASA contracts and grants for TRACE, MDI, and SOHO.

  8. Solar system events at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

    1999-02-19

    Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

  9. High spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the genetically programmed, developmental modification of the distribution of thylakoid membrane lipids among individual cells of maize leaf

    DOE PAGES

    Duenas, Maria Emilia; Klein, Adam T.; Alexander, Liza E.; ...

    2016-11-17

    Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single-cell resolution. Here we applied 5- and 10 μm high spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of Zea mays (maize) leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG). The quantification and localization of SQDG and PG molecular species, among mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells, are compared across the leaf developmental gradient frommore » four maize genotypes (the inbreds B73 and Mo17, and the reciprocal hybrids B73 × Mo17 and Mo17 × B73). SQDG species are uniformly distributed in both photosynthetic cell types, regardless of leaf development or genotype; however, PG shows photosynthetic cell-specific differential localization depending on the genotype and the fatty acyl chain constituent. Overall, 16:1-containing PGs primarily contribute to the thylakoid membranes of M cells, whereas BS chloroplasts are mostly composed of 16:0-containing PGs. Furthermore, PG 32:0 shows genotype-specific differences in cellular distribution, with preferential localization in BS cells for B73, but more uniform distribution between BS and M cells in Mo17. Maternal inheritance is exhibited within the hybrids, such that the localization of PG 32:0 in B73 × Mo17 is similar to the distribution in the B73 parental inbred, whereas that of Mo17 × B73 resembles the Mo17 parent. As a result, this study demonstrates the power of MALDI-MSI to reveal unprecedented insights on metabolic outcomes in multicellular organisms at single-cell resolution.« less

  10. High spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the genetically programmed, developmental modification of the distribution of thylakoid membrane lipids among individual cells of maize leaf

    SciTech Connect

    Duenas, Maria Emilia; Klein, Adam T.; Alexander, Liza E.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2016-11-17

    Metabolism in plants is compartmentalized among different tissues, cells and subcellular organelles. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) has recently advanced to allow for the visualization of metabolites at single-cell resolution. Here we applied 5- and 10 μm high spatial resolution MALDI-MSI to the asymmetric Kranz anatomy of Zea mays (maize) leaves to study the differential localization of two major anionic lipids in thylakoid membranes, sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG). The quantification and localization of SQDG and PG molecular species, among mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells, are compared across the leaf developmental gradient from four maize genotypes (the inbreds B73 and Mo17, and the reciprocal hybrids B73 × Mo17 and Mo17 × B73). SQDG species are uniformly distributed in both photosynthetic cell types, regardless of leaf development or genotype; however, PG shows photosynthetic cell-specific differential localization depending on the genotype and the fatty acyl chain constituent. Overall, 16:1-containing PGs primarily contribute to the thylakoid membranes of M cells, whereas BS chloroplasts are mostly composed of 16:0-containing PGs. Furthermore, PG 32:0 shows genotype-specific differences in cellular distribution, with preferential localization in BS cells for B73, but more uniform distribution between BS and M cells in Mo17. Maternal inheritance is exhibited within the hybrids, such that the localization of PG 32:0 in B73 × Mo17 is similar to the distribution in the B73 parental inbred, whereas that of Mo17 × B73 resembles the Mo17 parent. As a result, this study demonstrates the power of MALDI-MSI to reveal unprecedented insights on metabolic outcomes in multicellular organisms at single-cell resolution.

  11. Automated Wetland Delineation from Multi-Frequency and Multi-Polarized SAR Images in High Temporal and Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, L.; Schmitt, A.; Wendleder, A.

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity is one of the main challenges posed by the changing climate. Especially in semi-arid regions where water reservoirs are filled during the very short rainy season, but have to store enough water for the extremely long dry season, the intelligent handling of water resources is vital. This study focusses on Lac Bam in Burkina Faso, which is the largest natural lake of the country and of high importance for the local inhabitants for irrigated farming, animal watering, and extraction of water for drinking and sanitation. With respect to the competition for water resources an independent area-wide monitoring system is essential for the acceptance of any decision maker. The following contribution introduces a weather and illumination independent monitoring system for the automated wetland delineation with a high temporal (about two weeks) and a high spatial sampling (about five meters). The similarities of the multispectral and multi-polarized SAR acquisitions by RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X are studied as well as the differences. The results indicate that even basic approaches without pre-classification time series analysis or post-classification filtering are already enough to establish a monitoring system of prime importance for a whole region.

  12. An efficient visual saliency analysis model for region-of-interest extraction in high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Shiyi; Zhang, Libao

    2016-10-01

    Accurate region of interest (ROI) extraction is a hotspot of remote sensing image analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel ROI extraction method based on multi-scale hybrid visual saliency analysis (MHVSA) that can be divided into two sub-models: the frequency feature analysis (FFA) model and the multi-scale region aggregation (MRA) model. In the FFA sub-model, we utilize the human visual sensitivity and the Fourier transform to produce the local saliency map. In the MRA sub-model, saliency maps of various scales are generated by aggregating regions. A tree-structure graphical model is suggested to fuse saliency maps into one global saliency map. We obtain two binary masks by segmenting the local and global saliency maps and perform the logical AND operation on the two masks to acquire the final mask. Experimental results reveal that the MHVSA model provides more accurate extraction results.

  13. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  14. High spatial resolution particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for detecting particles, such as radiation or charged particles. One exemplary embodiment disclosed herein is particle detector comprising an optical fiber with a first end and second end opposite the first end. The optical fiber of this embodiment further comprises a doped region at the first end and a non-doped region adjacent to the doped region. The doped region of the optical fiber is configured to scintillate upon interaction with a target particle, thereby generating one or more photons that propagate through the optical fiber and to the second end. Embodiments of the disclosed technology can be used in a variety of applications, including associated particle imaging and cold neutron scattering.

  15. Super-Resolution Imaging and Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Willets, Katherine A; Wilson, Andrew J; Sundaresan, Vignesh; Joshi, Padmanabh B

    2017-06-14

    This review describes the growing partnership between super-resolution imaging and plasmonics, by describing the various ways in which the two topics mutually benefit one another to enhance our understanding of the nanoscale world. First, localization-based super-resolution imaging strategies, where molecules are modulated between emissive and nonemissive states and their emission localized, are applied to plasmonic nanoparticle substrates, revealing the hidden shape of the nanoparticles while also mapping local electromagnetic field enhancements and reactivity patterns on their surface. However, these results must be interpreted carefully due to localization errors induced by the interaction between metallic substrates and single fluorophores. Second, plasmonic nanoparticles are explored as image contrast agents for both superlocalization and super-resolution imaging, offering benefits such as high photostability, large signal-to-noise, and distance-dependent spectral features but presenting challenges for localizing individual nanoparticles within a diffraction-limited spot. Finally, the use of plasmon-tailored excitation fields to achieve subdiffraction-limited spatial resolution is discussed, using localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons to create confined excitation volumes or image magnification to enhance spatial resolution.

  16. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Noun, M; Van Elslande, E; Touboul, D; Glanville, H; Bucklow, S; Walter, P; Brunelle, A

    2016-12-01

    The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue. This study paves the way to a wider use of ToF-SIMS for the analysis of ancient cultural heritage artefacts. Dr. Walter is the Director of the Molecular and Structural Archeology Laboratory (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France). Dr. Brunelle is Head of the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). Their long standing collaboration has led to several seminal publications on the analysis of ancient artefacts by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fusion of high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery and LiDAR pseudo-waveform for object-based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Qiu, Fang

    2015-03-01

    High spatial resolution (HSR) imagery and high density LiDAR data provide complementary horizontal and vertical information. Therefore, many studies have focused on fusing the two for mapping geographic features. It has been demonstrated that the synergetic use of LiDAR and HSR imagery greatly improves classification accuracy. This is especially true with waveform LiDAR data since they provide more detailed vertical profiles of geographic objects than discrete-return LiDAR data. Fusion of discrete-return LiDAR and HSR imagery mostly takes place at the object level due to the superiority of object-based image analysis (OBIA) for classifying HSR imagery. However, the fusion of the waveform LiDAR and HSR imagery at the object level has not been adequately studied. To fuse LiDAR waveform and image objects, the waveform for the objects derived from image segmentation are needed. However, the footprints of existing waveform are usually of fixed size and fixed shape, while those of building are of different size and shape. In order to obtain waveforms with footprints that match those of image objects, we proposed synthesizing object-based pseudo-waveforms using discrete-returns LiDAR data by utilizing count or intensity based histogram over the footprints of the objects. The pseudo-waveforms were then fused with the object-level spectral histograms from HSR WorldView-2 imagery to classify the image objects using a Kullback-Leibler divergence-based curve matching approach. The fused dataset achieved an overall classification accuracy of 97.58%, a kappa coefficient of 0.97, and producer's accuracies and user's accuracies all larger than 90%. The use of the fused dataset improved the overall accuracy by 7.61% over the use of HSR imagery alone, and McNemar's test indicated that such improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates the great potential of pseudo-waveform in improving object-based image analysis. This is especially true since

  18. A Climate Record of Enhanced Spatial Resolution Radiometer Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paget, A. C.; Long, D. G.; Brodzik, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite radiometers, such SMMR, SSM/I, SSMIS, and AMSR, provide a multi-decadal time series of observations of the globe to support studies of climate change. Unfortunately, spatial resolution and sampling characteristics differ between sensors, which complicate compiling a single climate record. Resolution concerns can be ameliorated by reconstructing radiometer brightness temperature measurement (Tb) data onto daily-averaged compatible grids. We consider and contrast two widely used methods for image reconstruction: a radiometer version of the scatterometer image reconstruction (SIR) algorithm and Backus-Gilbert (BG). Both require detailed information about the spatial response function (antenna gain pattern) and the sampling geometry. We discuss considerations for an optimum gridding scheme based on the EASE-Grid 2.0 map projection. The EASE-Grid 2.0 simplifies the application of the Tb images in derived products since the reconstruction for each radiometer channel is implement on the same grid. This has the effect of optimally interpolating low-resolution measurements to locations of the highest resolution measurements. By employing reconstruction techniques rather than 'drop in the bucket' (dib) gridding, the effective resolution of the images is spatially enhanced compared to dib images, at the expense of additional computation required for the reconstruction processing. We evaluate the sensitivity of the radiometric accuracy of the resulting Tb images to uncertainties in the antenna gain pattern as well as variations in local-time-of-day. We briefly consider a number of applications of reconstructed Tb images. As part of the NASA-MEASUREs project 'An improved, enhanced-resolution, gridded passive microwave ESDR for monitoring cryospheric and hydrologic time series' we are processing all available satellite radiometer data to generate a consistently calibrated and processed time series of gridded images spanning from the 1970's to the present.

  19. Resolution enhancement techniques for halftoned images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Byong Tae; Lee, Jong Ok; Kim, Choon-Woo; Lee, Ho Keun; Kim, Sang Ho

    2007-01-01

    Recently, speed and resolution of electrophotographic printer engine have been significantly improved. In today's market, it is not difficult to find low to mid-end electrophotographic printers with the spatial resolution greater than 600 dpi and/or bit-depth resolution more than 1 bit. Printing speed is determined by the processing time at computer, data transmission time between computer and printer, and processing and printing time at printer. When halftoning is performed at computer side, halftoned data would be compressed and sent to printer. In this case, increase in the spatial and bit-depth resolution would increase data size to be transmitted and memory size at printer. For a high-speed printer, increased transmission time may limit the throughput in imaging chain. One of possible solutions to this problem is to develop resolution enhancement techniques. In this paper, a fast and efficient spatial resolution enhancement technique is proposed. Objectives of the proposed technique are to reduce the data size for transmission and minimize image quality deterioration. In the proposed technique, number of black pixels in the halftoned data is binary coded for data reduction. At printer, black pixel placement algorithm is applied to binary coded data. For non-edge area, screen order is utilized for the black pixel placement. When identified as edge area, locations of black pixels are selected by the edge order designed by genetic algorithm.

  20. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William A. Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HiSS MRI) yields information on the local environment of suspicious lesions. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of HiSS (complete fat-suppression, improved image contrast, no required contrast agent, etc.), leading to initial investigations of water resonance lineshape for the purpose of breast lesion classification. The purpose of this study is to investigate a quantitative imaging biomarker, which characterizes non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance in HiSS MRI datasets, for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: The inhomogeneous broadening and non-Lorentzian or “off-peak” components seen in the water resonance of proton spectra of breast HiSS images are analyzed by subtracting a Lorentzian fit from the water peak spectra and evaluating the difference spectrum or “residual.” The maxima of these residuals (referred to hereafter as “off-peak components”) tend to be larger in magnitude in malignant lesions, indicating increased broadening in malignant lesions. The authors considered only those voxels with the highest magnitude off-peak components in each lesion, with the number of selected voxels dependent on lesion size. Our voxel-based method compared the magnitudes and frequencies of off-peak components of all voxels from all lesions in a database that included 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions (yielding ∼3900 voxels) based on the lesions’ biopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Lesion classification was accomplished by comparing the average off-peak component magnitudes and frequencies in malignant and benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for both the voxel-based and lesion-based methods. Results: In the voxel-based task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, off-peak magnitude yielded an AUC of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the lesion-based task of distinguishing malignant and

  1. Residual analysis of the water resonance signal in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, William A. Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: High spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HiSS MRI) yields information on the local environment of suspicious lesions. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of HiSS (complete fat-suppression, improved image contrast, no required contrast agent, etc.), leading to initial investigations of water resonance lineshape for the purpose of breast lesion classification. The purpose of this study is to investigate a quantitative imaging biomarker, which characterizes non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance in HiSS MRI datasets, for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). Methods: The inhomogeneous broadening and non-Lorentzian or “off-peak” components seen in the water resonance of proton spectra of breast HiSS images are analyzed by subtracting a Lorentzian fit from the water peak spectra and evaluating the difference spectrum or “residual.” The maxima of these residuals (referred to hereafter as “off-peak components”) tend to be larger in magnitude in malignant lesions, indicating increased broadening in malignant lesions. The authors considered only those voxels with the highest magnitude off-peak components in each lesion, with the number of selected voxels dependent on lesion size. Our voxel-based method compared the magnitudes and frequencies of off-peak components of all voxels from all lesions in a database that included 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions (yielding ∼3900 voxels) based on the lesions’ biopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Lesion classification was accomplished by comparing the average off-peak component magnitudes and frequencies in malignant and benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used as a figure of merit for both the voxel-based and lesion-based methods. Results: In the voxel-based task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, off-peak magnitude yielded an AUC of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the lesion-based task of distinguishing malignant and

  2. Validation of modelled imaging plates sensitivity to 1-100 keV x-rays and spatial resolution characterisation for diagnostics for the "PETawatt Aquitaine Laser".

    PubMed

    Boutoux, G; Batani, D; Burgy, F; Ducret, J-E; Forestier-Colleoni, P; Hulin, S; Rabhi, N; Duval, A; Lecherbourg, L; Reverdin, C; Jakubowska, K; Szabo, C I; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Consoli, F; Curcio, A; De Angelis, R; Ingenito, F; Baggio, J; Raffestin, D

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to their high dynamic range and ability to withstand electromagnetic pulse, imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. In the framework of the development of the diagnostics for the Petawatt Aquitaine Laser facility, we present an absolute calibration and spatial resolution study of five different available types of IP (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) performed by using laser-induced K-shell X-rays emitted by a solid silver target irradiated by the laser ECLIPSE at CEntre Lasers Intenses et Applications. In addition, IP sensitivity measurements were performed with a 160 kV X-ray generator at CEA DAM DIF, where the absolute response of IP SR and TR has been calibrated to X-rays in the energy range 8-75 keV with uncertainties of about 15%. Finally, the response functions have been modeled in Monte Carlo GEANT4 simulations in order to reproduce experimental data. Simulations enable extrapolation of the IP response functions to photon energies from 1 keV to 1 GeV, of interest, e.g., for laser-driven radiography.

  3. Support vector machine-based decision tree for snow cover extraction in mountain areas using high spatial resolution remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liujun; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Zuo; Jiang, Luyuan

    2014-01-01

    Snow cover extraction in mountain areas is a complex task, especially from high spatial resolution remote sensing (HSRRS) data. The influence of mountain shadows in HSRRS is severe and normalized difference snow index-based snow cover extraction methods are inaccessible. A decision tree building method for snow cover extraction (DTSE) integrated with an efficiency feature selection algorithm is proposed. The severe influence of terrain shadows is eliminated by extracting snow in sunlight and snow in shadow separately in different nodes. In the feature selection algorithm, deviation of fuzzy grade matrix is proposed as a class-specific criterion which improves the efficiency and robustness of the selected feature set, thus making the snow cover extraction accurate. Two experiments are carried out based on ZY-3 image of two regions (regions A and B) located in Tianshan Mountains, China. The experiment on region A achieves an adequate accuracy demonstrating the robustness of the DTSE building method. The experiment on region B shows that a general DTSE model achieves an unsatisfied accuracy for snow in shadow and DTSE rebuilding evidently improves the performance, thus providing an accurate and fast way to extract snow cover in mountain areas.

  4. Validation of modelled imaging plates sensitivity to 1-100 keV x-rays and spatial resolution characterisation for diagnostics for the "PETawatt Aquitaine Laser"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutoux, G.; Batani, D.; Burgy, F.; Ducret, J.-E.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Hulin, S.; Rabhi, N.; Duval, A.; Lecherbourg, L.; Reverdin, C.; Jakubowska, K.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Consoli, F.; Curcio, A.; De Angelis, R.; Ingenito, F.; Baggio, J.; Raffestin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to their high dynamic range and ability to withstand electromagnetic pulse, imaging plates (IPs) are commonly used as passive detectors in laser-plasma experiments. In the framework of the development of the diagnostics for the Petawatt Aquitaine Laser facility, we present an absolute calibration and spatial resolution study of five different available types of IP (namely, MS-SR-TR-MP-ND) performed by using laser-induced K-shell X-rays emitted by a solid silver target irradiated by the laser ECLIPSE at CEntre Lasers Intenses et Applications. In addition, IP sensitivity measurements were performed with a 160 kV X-ray generator at CEA DAM DIF, where the absolute response of IP SR and TR has been calibrated to X-rays in the energy range 8-75 keV with uncertainties of about 15%. Finally, the response functions have been modeled in Monte Carlo GEANT4 simulations in order to reproduce experimental data. Simulations enable extrapolation of the IP response functions to photon energies from 1 keV to 1 GeV, of interest, e.g., for laser-driven radiography.

  5. Spatial resolution considerations for urban hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, G.; Kokkonen, T.; Valtanen, M.; Setälä, H.; Koivusalo, H.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological model simulations can be applied to evaluate the performance of low impact development (LID) tools in urban areas. However, the assessment for large-scale urban areas remains a challenge due to the required high spatial resolution and limited availability of field measurements for model calibration. This study proposes a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model (SWMM) with sufficiently high spatial resolution and direct accessibility of model parameters for LID performance simulation applicable to a large-scale ungauged urban area. Based on calibrated high-resolution models for three small-scale study catchments (6-12 ha), we evaluated how constraints implied by large-scale urban modelling, such as data limitations, affect the model results. The high-resolution surface representation, resulting in subcatchments of uniform surface types, reduced the number of calibration parameters. Calibration conducted independently for all catchments yielded similar parameter values for same surface types in each study catchment. These results suggest the applicability of the parameter values calibrated for high resolution models to be regionalized to larger, ungauged urban areas. The accessibility of surface specific model parameters for LID simulation is then also retained. Conducted perturbations in spatial resolution through sewer network truncation showed that while the runoff volume was mostly unaffected by resolution perturbations, lower resolutions resulted in over-simulation of peak flows due to excessively rapid catchment response to storm events. Our results suggest that a hydrological model where parameter values are adopted from high-resolution models and that is developed based on a minimum conduit diameter of 300 mm provides good simulation performance and is applicable to large-scale urban areas with reasonable effort.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body trunk using a single-slab, 3-dimensional, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence with high sampling efficiency (SPACE) for high spatial resolution imaging: initial clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Lichy, Matthias Philipp; Wietek, Beate M; Mugler, John P; Horger, Wilhelm; Menzel, Marion Irene; Anastasiadis, Aristotelis; Siegmann, Katja; Niemeyer, Thomas; Königsrainer, Arnulf; Kiefer, Berthold; Schick, Fritz; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2005-12-01

    The authors conducted a clinical evaluation of single-slab, 3-dimensional, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) with high sampling efficiency (SPACE) for high isotropic body imaging with large field-of-view (FoV). Fifty patients were examined in clinical routine with SPACE (regions of interest: pelvis n=30, lower spine n=12, upper spine n=6, extremities n=4) at 1.5 T. For achieving a high sampling efficiency, parallel imaging, high turbofactor, and magnetization restore pulses were used. In contrast to a conventional TSE imaging technique with constant flip angle refocusing, the refocusing pulse train of the SPACE sequence consists of variable flip angle radiofrequency pulses along the echo train. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of SPACE images were of sufficient diagnostic value. The possibility of image reconstruction in multiple planes was of clinical relevance in all cases and simplified data analysis. The achievement of 3-dimensional, T2-weighted TSE magnetic resonance imaging with isotropic and high spatial resolution and interactive 3-dimensional visualization essentially improve the diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Vehicle detection of parking lot with different resolution aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zezhong; Lu, Yufeng; Zhou, Guoqing; Liu, Yalan; Li, Xiaowen; Chen, Jinxi; Li, Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle detection is a very important task for intelligent transportation system. In this paper, a method with mathematical morphology and template matching is presented to detect the crowded vehicles of parking lot with high resolution aerial image. Our experimental results with high resolution aerial image showed that the graded image, with the spatial resolution of 1×1ft, could greatly reduce the calculation time, but with the same accuracy as the original image with the spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5ft .

  8. High-Temporal-Resolution High-Spatial-Resolution Spaceborne SAR Based on Continuously Varying PRF.

    PubMed

    Men, Zhirong; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Fang, Yue

    2017-07-25

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a well-established and powerful imaging technique for acquiring high-spatial-resolution images of the Earth's surface. With the development of beam steering techniques, sliding spotlight and staring spotlight modes have been employed to support high-spatial-resolution applications. In addition to this strengthened high-spatial-resolution and wide-swath capability, high-temporal-resolution (short repeat-observation interval) represents a key capability for numerous applications. However, conventional SAR systems are limited in that the same patch can only be illuminated for several seconds within a single pass. This paper considers a novel high-squint-angle system intended to acquire high-spatial-resolution spaceborne SAR images with repeat-observation intervals varying from tens of seconds to several minutes within a single pass. However, an exponentially increased range cell migration would arise and lead to a conflict between the receive window and 'blind ranges'. An efficient data acquisition technique for high-temporal-resolution, high-spatial-resolution and high-squint-angle spaceborne SAR, in which the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is continuously varied according to the changing slant range, is presented in this paper. This technique allows echo data to remain in the receive window instead of conflicting with the transmitted pulse or nadir echo. Considering the precision of hardware, a compromise and practical strategy is also proposed. Furthermore, a detailed performance analysis of range ambiguities is provided with respect to parameters of TerraSAR-X. For strong point-like targets, the range ambiguity of this technique would be better than that of uniform PRF technique. For this innovative technique, a resampling strategy and modified imaging algorithm have been developed to handle the non-uniformly sampled echo data. Simulations are performed to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique and the associated

  9. MALIBU: A High Spatial Resolution Multi-Angle Imaging Unmanned Airborne System to Validate Satellite-derived BRDF/Albedo Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Pahlevan, N.; Stachura, M.; McCorkel, J.; Bland, G.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Albedo is a key climate forcing variable that governs the absorption of incoming solar radiation and its ultimate transfer to the atmosphere. Albedo contributes significant uncertainties in the simulation of climate changes; and as such, it is defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as a terrestrial essential climate variable (ECV) required by global and regional climate and biogeochemical models. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's Multi AngLe Imaging Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function small-UAS (MALIBU) is part of a series of pathfinder missions to develop enhanced multi-angular remote sensing techniques using small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS). The MALIBU instrument package includes two multispectral imagers oriented at two different viewing geometries (i.e., port and starboard sides) capture vegetation optical properties and structural characteristics. This is achieved by analyzing the surface reflectance anisotropy signal (i.e., BRDF shape) obtained from the combination of surface reflectance from different view-illumination angles and spectral channels. Satellite measures of surface albedo from MODIS, VIIRS, and Landsat have been evaluated by comparison with spatially representative albedometer data from sparsely distributed flux towers at fixed heights. However, the mismatch between the footprint of ground measurements and the satellite footprint challenges efforts at validation, especially for heterogeneous landscapes. The BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) models of surface anisotropy have only been evaluated with airborne BRDF data over a very few locations. The MALIBU platform that acquires extremely high resolution sub-meter measures of surface anisotropy and surface albedo, can thus serve as an important source of reference data to enable global land product validation efforts, and resolve the errors and uncertainties in the various existing products generated by NASA and its national and

  10. Visualization and processing of images in nano-resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozenilek, Vit; Pour, Tomas

    2017-02-01

    The paper aims to apply the methods of image processing which are widely used in Earth remote sensing for processing and visualization of images in nano-resolution because most of these images are currently analyzed only by an expert researcher without proper statistical background. Nano-resolution level may range from a resolution in picometres to the resolution of a light microscope that may be up to about 200 nanometers. Images in nano-resolution play an essential role in physics, medicine, and chemistry. Three case studies demonstrate different image visualization and image analysis approaches for different scales at the nano-resolution level. The results of case studies prove the suitability and applicability of Earth remote sensing methods for image visualization and processing for the nanoresolution level. It even opens new dimensions for spatial analysis at such an extreme spatial detail.

  11. Modeling Spatial Dependencies in High-Resolution Overhead Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Human settlement regions with different physical and socio-economic attributes exhibit unique spatial characteristics that are often illustrated in high-resolution overhead imageries. For example- size, shape and spatial arrangements of man-made structures are key attributes that vary with respect to the socioeconomic profile of the neighborhood. Successfully modeling these attributes is crucial in developing advanced image understanding systems for interpreting complex aerial scenes. In this paper we present three different approaches to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. First, we show that the frequency domain of the image can be used to model the spatial context [1]. The shape of the spectral energy contours characterize the scene context and can be exploited as global features. Secondly, we explore a discriminative framework based on the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) [2] to model the spatial context in the overhead imagery. The features derived from the edge orientation distribution calculated for a neighborhood and the associated class labels are used as input features to model the spatial context. Our third approach is based on grouping spatially connected pixels based on the low-level edge primitives to form support-regions [3]. The statistical parameters generated from the support-region feature distributions characterize different geospatial neighborhoods. We apply our approaches on high-resolution overhead imageries. We show that proposed approaches characterize the spatial context in overhead imageries.

  12. Full Spatial Resolution Infrared Sounding Application in the Preconvection Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, G.; Lin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Advanced infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution and high accuracy in preconvection environments. The derived atmospheric stability indices such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) and lifted index (LI) from advanced IR soundings can provide critical information 1 ; 6 h before the development of severe convective storms. Three convective storms are selected for the evaluation of applying AIRS full spatial resolution soundings and the derived products on providing warning information in the preconvection environments. In the first case, the AIRS full spatial resolution soundings revealed local extremely high atmospheric instability 3 h ahead of the convection on the leading edge of a frontal system, while the second case demonstrates that the extremely high atmospheric instability is associated with the local development of severe thunderstorm in the following hours. The third case is a local severe storm that occurred on 7-8 August 2010 in Zhou Qu, China, which caused more than 1400 deaths and left another 300 or more people missing. The AIRS full spatial resolution LI product shows the atmospheric instability 3.5 h before the storm genesis. The CAPE and LI from AIRS full spatial resolution and operational AIRS/AMSU soundings along with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Sounder derived product image (DPI) products were analyzed and compared. Case studies show that full spatial resolution AIRS retrievals provide more useful warning information in the preconvection environments for determining favorable locations for convective initiation (CI) than do the coarser spatial resolution operational soundings and lower spectral resolution GOES Sounder retrievals. The retrieved soundings are also tested in a regional data assimilation WRF 3D-var system to evaluate the

  13. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  14. What are the basic concepts of temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution in cardiac CT?

    PubMed

    Lin, Eugene; Alessio, Adam

    2009-01-01

    An imaging instrument can be characterized by its spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and temporal resolution. The capabilities of computed tomography (CT) relative to other cardiac imaging modalities can be understood in these terms. The purpose of this review is to characterize the spatial, contrast, and temporal resolutions of cardiac CT in practical terms. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging: spatial and temporal patterns of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Obusez, E C; Hui, F; Hajj-Ali, R A; Cerejo, R; Calabrese, L H; Hammad, T; Jones, S E

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution MR imaging is an emerging tool for evaluating intracranial artery disease. It has an advantage of defining vessel wall characteristics of intracranial vascular diseases. We investigated high-resolution MR imaging arterial wall characteristics of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome to determine wall pattern changes during a follow-up period. We retrospectively reviewed 3T-high-resolution MR imaging vessel wall studies performed on 26 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome during a follow-up period. Vessel wall imaging protocol included black-blood contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression and a saturation band, and time-of-flight MRA of the circle of Willis. Vessel wall characteristics including enhancement, wall thickening, and lumen narrowing were collected. Thirteen patients with CNS vasculitis and 13 patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome were included. In the CNS vasculitis group, 9 patients showed smooth, concentric wall enhancement and thickening; 3 patients had smooth, eccentric wall enhancement and thickening; and 1 patient was without wall enhancement and thickening. Six of 13 patients had follow-up imaging; 4 patients showed stable smooth, concentric enhancement and thickening; and 2 patients had resoluton of initial imaging findings. In the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome group, 10 patients showed diffuse, uniform wall thickening with negligible-to-mild enhancement. Nine patients had follow-up imaging, with 8 patients showing complete resolution of the initial findings. Postgadolinium 3T-high-resolution MR imaging appears to be a feasible tool in differentiating vessel wall patterns of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome changes during a follow-up period. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Does resolution really increase image quality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisse, Christel-Loïc; Guichard, Frédéric; Cao, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    A general trend in the CMOS image sensor market is for increasing resolution (by having a larger number of pixels) while keeping a small form factor by shrinking photosite size. This article discusses the impact of this trend on some of the main attributes of image quality. The first example is image sharpness. A smaller pitch theoretically allows a larger limiting resolution which is derived from the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). But recent sensor technologies (1.75μm, and soon 1.45μm) with typical aperture f/2.8 are clearly reaching the size of the diffraction blur spot. A second example is the impact on pixel light sensitivity and image sensor noise. For photonic noise, the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) is typically a decreasing function of the resolution. To evaluate whether shrinking pixel size could be beneficial to the image quality, the tradeoff between spatial resolution and light sensitivity is examined by comparing the image information capacity of sensors with varying pixel size. A theoretical analysis that takes into consideration measured and predictive models of pixel performance degradation and improvement associated with CMOS imager technology scaling, is presented. This analysis is completed by a benchmarking of recent commercial sensors with different pixel technologies.

  17. Dynamical Imaging using Spatial Nonlinearity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-29

    a 532nm laser is incident on a resolution chart followed by a holographic diffuser. A lens then images the resolution chart onto a photorefractive... laser sources), a Hamiltonian or eikonal description of wave evolution is suitable[51]. Accordingly, any (nonlinear) dynamics that can benefit from a...terms of imaging, the results generalized the field of computational imaging, on both the device and algorithmic levels. They also introduced many new

  18. High Resolution Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-31

    9--A. *P P~- !I HGH RESOLUTION RADAIR IMAGhNG 1 4’Periio& 1December 1987-31 May 198-8 -’:14 HIGH RESOLUIMON RADAR IMALGLN-G Semi-Annual. Progress...Director, Electronic SysteMs and Signals Rlesearch 1 .bor~arry - ~Washington -univerit One Brookmngs flrive ~ACSOIF 1 -~ Stlcuis, fsor 631301 ,4...Chicago, Illinois 60605-1598 Dr. Rabinder Madan 1 Office of Naval Research Codle 1114SE 800 -Norath Quincy Street Ariin2toi, Virginia 222!-5Mo DirectorI IR

  19. High Resolution Frequency Swept Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-14

    image resolution comparable to an ordinary photographic camera. In addition to inconvenient size, the cost of filling such a large aperture with... cost of implementing a LFTDR. Because of the large difference between the high frequency imaging frequencies and the low frequency reference frequency... cost . In addition since the measured reference phase must be multiplied by a factor a equal to the ratio of the imaging to the reference frequency

  20. A spatial-temporal-spectral blending model using satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fu, D.; Sun, X.; Chen, H.; She, X.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the budget and technical limitations, remote sensing sensor designs trade spatial resolution, swath width and spectral resolution. Consequently, no sensor can provide high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and high spectral resolution simultaneously. However, the ability of Earth observation at fine resolution is urgently needed for global change science. One possible solution is to “blend” the reflectance from a variety of satellite data sources, including those providing high spatial resolution and less frequent coverage (e.g., Landsat Thematic Mapper, TM), daily global data (e.g., Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS), and high spectral resolution and infrequent revisit cycle (e.g., Hyperion). However, the previous algorithms for blending multi-source remotely sensed data have some shortcomings, especially with regard to hyperspectral information. This study has developed a SPAtial-Temporal-Spectral blending model (SPATS) that can simulate surface reflectance with high spatial-temporal-spectral resolution. SPATS is based on an existing spatial-temporal image blending model and a spatial-spectral image blending model. The performance of SPATS was tested with both simulated and observed satellite data, using Landsat TM, Hyperion and MODIS data, as well as heterogeneous landscapes as examples. The results show that the high spatial-temporal-spectral resolution reflectance data can be applied to investigations of global landscapes that are changing at different temporal scales.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at microscopic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Allan; Thompson, Morrow B.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Hayes, Cecil E.

    Resolution limits in NMR imaging are imposed by bandwidth considerations, available magnetic gradients for spatial encoding, and signal to noise. This work reports modification of a clinical NMR imaging device with picture elements of 500 × 500 × 5000 μm to yield picture elements of 50 × 50 × 1000 μm. Resolution has been increased by using smaller gradient coils permitting gradient fields >0.4 mT/cm. Significant improvements in signal to noise are achieved with smaller rf coils, close attention to choice of bandwidth, and signal averaging. These improvements permit visualization of anatomical structures in the rat brain with an effective diameter of 1 cm with the same definition as is seen in human imaging. The techniques and instrumentation should open a number of basic sciences such as embryology, plant sciences, and teratology to the potentials of NMR imaging.

  2. Subaru adaptive-optics high-spatial-resolution infrared K- and L'-band imaging search for deeply buried dual AGNs in merging galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Saito, Yuriko

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of infrared K- (2.2 μm) and L'-band (3.8 μm) high-spatial-resolution (<0.''2) imaging observations of nearby gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies, assisted by the adaptive optics system on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We investigate the presence and frequency of red K – L' compact sources, which are sensitive indicators of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including AGNs that are deeply buried in gas and dust. We observed 29 merging systems and confirmed at least one AGN in all but one system. However, luminous dual AGNs were detected in only four of the 29 systems (∼14%), despite our method's being sensitive to buried AGNs. For multiple nuclei sources, we compared the estimated AGN luminosities with supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses inferred from large-aperture K-band stellar emission photometry in individual nuclei. We found that mass accretion rates onto SMBHs are significantly different among multiple SMBHs, such that larger-mass SMBHs generally show higher mass accretion rates when normalized to SMBH mass. Our results suggest that non-synchronous mass accretion onto SMBHs in gas- and dust-rich infrared luminous merging galaxies hampers the observational detection of kiloparsec-scale multiple active SMBHs. This could explain the significantly smaller detection fraction of kiloparsec-scale dual AGNs when compared with the number expected from simple theoretical predictions. Our results also indicate that mass accretion onto SMBHs is dominated by local conditions, rather than by global galaxy properties, reinforcing the importance of observations to our understanding of how multiple SMBHs are activated and acquire mass in gas- and dust-rich merging galaxies.

  3. High-spatial-resolution mapping of superhydrophobic cicada wing surface chemistry using infrared microspectroscopy and infrared imaging at two synchrotron beamlines.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Mark J; Puskar, Ljiljana; Hasan, Jafar; Webb, Hayden K; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Nasse, Michael J; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Watson, Gregory S; Watson, Jolanta A; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2013-05-01

    The wings of some insects, such as cicadae, have been reported to possess a number of interesting and unusual qualities such as superhydrophobicity, anisotropic wetting and antibacterial properties. Here, the chemical composition of the wings of the Clanger cicada (Psaltoda claripennis) were characterized using infrared (IR) microspectroscopy. In addition, the data generated from two separate synchrotron IR facilities, the Australian Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy beamline (AS-IRM) and the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC), University of Wisconsin-Madison, IRENI beamline, were analysed and compared. Characteristic peaks in the IR spectra of the wings were assigned primarily to aliphatic hydrocarbon and amide functionalities, which were considered to be an indication of the presence of waxy and proteinaceous components, respectively, in good agreement with the literature. Chemical distribution maps showed that, while the protein component was homogeneously distributed, a significant degree of heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of the waxy component, which may contribute to the self-cleaning and aerodynamic properties of the cicada wing. When comparing the data generated from the two beamlines, it was determined that the SRC IRENI beamline was capable of producing higher-spatial-resolution distribution images in a shorter time than was achievable at the AS-IRM beamline, but that spectral noise levels per pixel were considerably lower on the AS-IRM beamline, resulting in more favourable data where the detection of weak absorbances is required. The data generated by the two complementary synchrotron IR methods on the chemical composition of cicada wings will be immensely useful in understanding their unusual properties with a view to reproducing their characteristics in, for example, industry applications.

  4. Heuristic optimization in penumbral image for high resolution reconstructed image

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, R.; Nozaki, S.; Fujioka, S.; Chen, Y. W.; Namihira, Y.

    2010-10-15

    Penumbral imaging is a technique which uses the fact that spatial information can be recovered from the shadow or penumbra that an unknown source casts through a simple large circular aperture. The size of the penumbral image on the detector can be mathematically determined as its aperture size, object size, and magnification. Conventional reconstruction methods are very sensitive to noise. On the other hand, the heuristic reconstruction method is very tolerant of noise. However, the aperture size influences the accuracy and resolution of the reconstructed image. In this article, we propose the optimization of the aperture size for the neutron penumbral imaging.

  5. Spatial resolution enhancement of EO-1 ALI bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2006-09-01

    spectral characteristics, they do not take into account the resolution ratio of the input images. Usually the spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is two (Landsat 7, Spot 1-4) or four times (Ikonos, Quickbird) better than the size of the multispectral images. This paper is an attempt to fuse high-resolution panchromatic and low-resolution multispectral bands of the EO-1 ALI sensor. ALI collects nine multispectral bands with 30m resolution and a panchromatic band with 3 times better resolution (10m). ALI has a panchromatic band narrower than the respective band of Landsat7. It has also two narrower bands in the spectral range of Landsat7 band 4. It has also an extra narrower band near the spectral range of Landsat7 band 1. In this study we compare the efficiency of seven fusion techniques and more especially the efficiency of Gram Schmidt, Modified IHS, PCA, Pansharp, Wavelet and LMM (Local Mean Matching) LMVM (Local Mean and Variance Matching) fusion techniques for the fusion of ALI data. Two ALI images collected over the same area have been used. In order to quantitatively measure the quality of the fused images we have made the following controls: Firstly, we have examined the optical qualitative result. Then, we examined the correlation between the original multispectral and the fused images and all the statistical parameters of the histograms of the various frequency bands. All the fusion techniques improve the resolution and the optical result. In contrary to the fusion of other data (ETM, Spot5, Ikonos and Quickbird) all the algorithms provoke small changes to the statistical parameters.

  6. High spatial resolution passive microwave sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Bonanni, P. G.; Gasiewski, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Two extensive series of flights aboard the ER-2 aircraft were conducted with the MIT 118 GHz imaging spectrometer together with a 53.6 GHz nadir channel and a TV camera record of the mission. Other microwave sensors, including a 183 GHz imaging spectrometer were flown simultaneously by other research groups. Work also continued on evaluating the impact of high-resolution passive microwave soundings upon numerical weather prediction models.

  7. High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jakob C.; Vâgberg, William; Vogt, Carmen; Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence tomography (XFCT) has potential for high-resolution 3D molecular x-ray bio-imaging. In this technique the fluorescence signal from targeted nanoparticles (NPs) is measured, providing information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the NPs inside the object. However, present laboratory XFCT systems typically have limited spatial resolution (>1 mm) and suffer from long scan times and high radiation dose even at high NP concentrations, mainly due to low efficiency and poor signal-to-noise ratio. We have developed a laboratory XFCT system with high spatial resolution (sub-100 μm), low NP concentration and vastly decreased scan times and dose, opening up the possibilities for in-vivo small-animal imaging research. The system consists of a high-brightness liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray source, x-ray focusing optics and an energy-resolving photon-counting detector. By using the source's characteristic 24 keV line-emission together with carefully matched molybdenum nanoparticles the Compton background is greatly reduced, increasing the SNR. Each measurement provides information about the spatial distribution and concentration of the Mo nanoparticles. A filtered back-projection method is used to produce the final XFCT image.

  8. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  9. Influence of hydration and annealing on structure, PSL yield and spatial resolution of pressed powder imaging plates of the X-ray storage phosphor CsBr:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersting, E.; von Seggern, H.

    2017-08-01

    A new production route for europium doped cesium bromide (CsBr:Eu2+) imaging plates has been developed, synthesizing CsBr:Eu2+ powder from a precipitation reaction of aqueous CsBr solution with ethanol. This new route allows the control of features like homogeneous grain size and grain shape of the obtained powder. After drying and subsequent compacting the powder, disk-like samples were fabricated, and their resulting photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties like yield and spatial resolution were determined. It will be shown that hydration of such disks causes the CsBr:Eu2+ powder to recrystallize starting from the humidity exposed surfaces to the sample interior up to a completely polycrystalline sample resulting in a decreasing PSL yield and an increasing resolution. Subsequent annealing leads to grain refinement combined with a large PSL yield increment and a minor effect on the spatial resolution. By first annealing the "as made" disk, one observes a strong increment of the PSL yield and almost no effect on the spatial resolution. During subsequent hydration, the recrystallization is hindered by minor structural changes of the grains. The related PSL yield drops slightly with increasing hydration time, and the spatial resolution drops considerably. The obtained PSL properties with respect to structure will be discussed with a simple model.

  10. Spatial Classification of Orchards and Vineyards with High Spatial Resolution Panchromatic Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Timothy; Steinmaus, Karen L.

    2005-02-01

    New high resolution single spectral band imagery offers the capability to conduct image classifications based on spatial patterns in imagery. A classification algorithm based on autocorrelation patterns was developed to automatically extract orchards and vineyards from satellite imagery. The algorithm was tested on IKONOS imagery over Granger, WA, which resulted in a classification accuracy of 95%.

  11. High resolution imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goody, R.; Papaliolios, C.; Beletic, J.

    1986-01-01

    Diffraction-limited telescopic observations were obtained of solar system objects and a program of research into Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and the asteroids based upon the data obtained was persued. Two camera systems appropriate for this work were developed. Most importantly, the PAPA photon address camera was developed and proven. Algorithms were developed for both phase and amplitude recovery and were validated on theoretical and laboratory data and to a limited extent on telescopic data. A laboratory simulator was constructed that was used for development but is also available for controlled investigation of image reconstruction. During 1985 two successful expeditions were made to Hawaii and Cerro Tololo and a large body of data on Pluto, Uranus, Neptune and two asteroids are on tape.

  12. Evolution of spatial resolution in breast CT at UC Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Yang, Kai; Burkett, George W.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Anthony Seibert, J.; Boone, John M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) technology for the purpose of breast cancer screening has been a focus of research at UC Davis since the late 1990s. Previous studies have shown that improvement in spatial resolution characteristics of this modality correlates with greater microcalcification detection, a factor considered a potential limitation of bCT. The aim of this study is to improve spatial resolution as characterized by the modulation transfer function (MTF) via changes in the scanner hardware components and operational schema. Methods: Four prototypes of pendant-geometry, cone-beam breast CT scanners were designed and developed spanning three generations of design evolution. To improve the system MTF in each bCT generation, modifications were made to the imaging components (x-ray tube and flat-panel detector), system geometry (source-to-isocenter and detector distance), and image acquisition parameters (technique factors, number of projections, system synchronization scheme, and gantry rotational speed). Results: Characterization of different generations of bCT systems shows these modifications resulted in a 188% improvement of the limiting MTF properties from the first to second generation and an additional 110% from the second to third. The intrinsic resolution degradation in the azimuthal direction observed in the first generation was corrected by changing the acquisition from continuous to pulsed x-ray acquisition. Utilizing a high resolution detector in the third generation, along with modifications made in system geometry and scan protocol, resulted in a 125% improvement in limiting resolution. An additional 39% improvement was obtained by changing the detector binning mode from 2 × 2 to 1 × 1. Conclusions: These results underscore the advancement in spatial resolution characteristics of breast CT technology. The combined use of a pulsed x-ray system, higher resolution flat-panel detector and changing the scanner geometry and image

  13. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-01

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  14. Resolution enhancement in nonlinear photoacoustic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Goy, Alexandre S.; Fleischer, Jason W.

    2015-11-23

    Nonlinear processes can be exploited to gain access to more information than is possible in the linear regime. Nonlinearity modifies the spectra of the excitation signals through harmonic generation, frequency mixing, and spectral shifting, so that features originally outside the detector range can be detected. Here, we present an experimental study of resolution enhancement for photoacoustic imaging of thin metal layers immersed in water. In this case, there is a threshold in the excitation below which no acoustic signal is detected. Above threshold, the nonlinearity reduces the width of the active area of the excitation beam, resulting in a narrower absorption region and thus improved spatial resolution. This gain is limited only by noise, as the active area of the excitation can be arbitrarily reduced when the fluence becomes closer to the threshold. Here, we demonstrate a two-fold improvement in resolution and quantify the image quality as the excitation fluence goes through threshold.

  15. Preliminary assessment of dispersion versus absorption analysis of high spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Weiss, William A; Medved, Milica; Karczmar, Gregory S; Giger, Maryellen L

    2015-04-01

    Water resonance lineshapes observed in breast lesions imaged with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) magnetic resonance imaging have been shown to contain diagnostically useful non-Lorentzian components. The purpose of this work is to update a previous method of breast lesion diagnosis by including phase-corrected absorption and dispersion spectra. This update includes information about the shape of the complex water resonance, which could improve the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis breast lesion classification scheme. The non-Lorentzian characteristics observed in complex breast lesion water resonance spectra are characterized by comparing a plot of the real versus imaginary components of the spectrum to that of a perfect complex Lorentzian spectrum, a "dispersion versus absorption" (DISPA) analysis technique. Distortion in the shape of the observed spectra indicates underlying physiologic changes, which have been shown to be correlated with malignancy. These spectral shape distortions in each lesion voxel are quantified by summing the deviations in DISPA radius from an ideal complex Lorentzian spectrum over all Fourier components, yielding a "total radial difference" (TRD). We limited our analysis to those voxels in each lesion with the largest TRD. The number of voxels considered was dependent on the lesion size. The TRD was used to classify voxels from 15 malignant and 8 benign lesions ([Formula: see text] voxels after voxel elimination). Lesion discrimination performance was evaluated for both the average and variance of the TRD within each lesion. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) was used to assess both the voxel- and lesion-based discrimination methods in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign. In the task of distinguishing voxels from malignant and benign lesions, TRD yielded an AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [0.84, 0.91]). In the task of distinguishing malignant from benign lesions

  16. A super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Di; Agam, Gady

    2013-01-01

    Optical character recognition is widely used for converting document images into digital media. Existing OCR algorithms and tools produce good results from high resolution, good quality, document images. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based super resolution framework for low resolution document image OCR. Two main techniques are used in our proposed approach: a document page segmentation algorithm and a modified K-means clustering algorithm. Using this approach, by exploiting coherence in the document, we reconstruct from a low resolution document image a better resolution image and improve OCR results. Experimental results show substantial gain in low resolution documents such as the ones captured from video.

  17. High resolution ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for latent image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Hongsong; Wu, Wenmin

    2016-03-21

    In this work, we present a close-range ultraviolet imaging spectrometer with high spatial resolution, and reasonably high spectral resolution. As the transmissive optical components cause chromatic aberration in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range, an all-reflective imaging scheme is introduced to promote the image quality. The proposed instrument consists of an oscillating mirror, a Cassegrain objective, a Michelson structure, an Offner relay, and a UV enhanced CCD. The finished spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 29.30μm on the target plane; the spectral scope covers both near and middle UV band; and can obtain approximately 100 wavelength samples over the range of 240~370nm. The control computer coordinates all the components of the instrument and enables capturing a series of images, which can be reconstructed into an interferogram datacube. The datacube can be converted into a spectrum datacube, which contains spectral information of each pixel with many wavelength samples. A spectral calibration is carried out by using a high pressure mercury discharge lamp. A test run demonstrated that this interferometric configuration can obtain high resolution spectrum datacube. The pattern recognition algorithm is introduced to analyze the datacube and distinguish the latent traces from the base materials. This design is particularly good at identifying the latent traces in the application field of forensic imaging.

  18. Synchrotron infrared confocal microspectroscopic spatial resolution or a customized synchrotron/focal plane array system enhances chemical imaging of biological tissue or cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, David L.; Nasse, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 μm with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  19. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopic Spatial Resolution or a Customized Synchrotron/focal Plane Array System Enhances Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue or Cells

    SciTech Connect

    D Wetzel; M Nasse; =

    2011-12-31

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 {mu} with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  20. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  1. Detector motion method to increase spatial resolution in photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Kyeongjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Gyuseong

    2017-03-01

    Medical imaging requires high spatial resolution of an image to identify fine lesions. Photon-counting detectors in medical imaging have recently been rapidly replacing energy-integrating detectors due to the former`s high spatial resolution, high efficiency and low noise. Spatial resolution in a photon counting image is determined by the pixel size. Therefore, the smaller the pixel size, the higher the spatial resolution that can be obtained in an image. However, detector redesigning is required to reduce pixel size, and an expensive fine process is required to integrate a signal processing unit with reduced pixel size. Furthermore, as the pixel size decreases, charge sharing severely deteriorates spatial resolution. To increase spatial resolution, we propose a detector motion method using a large pixel detector that is less affected by charge sharing. To verify the proposed method, we utilized a UNO-XRI photon-counting detector (1-mm CdTe, Timepix chip) at the maximum X-ray tube voltage of 80 kVp. A similar spatial resolution of a 55- μm-pixel image was achieved by application of the proposed method to a 110- μm-pixel detector with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method could be a way to increase spatial resolution without a pixel redesign when pixels severely suffer from charge sharing as pixel size is reduced.

  2. Spatial resolution in CBCT machines for dental/maxillofacial applications-what do we know today?

    PubMed

    Brüllmann, D; Schulze, R K W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the most important parameters objectively defining image quality, particularly in dental imaging, where fine details often have to be depicted. Here, we review the current status on assessment parameters for spatial resolution and on published data regarding spatial resolution in CBCT images. The current concepts of visual [line-pair (lp) measurements] and automated [modulation transfer function (MTF)] assessment of spatial resolution in CBCT images are summarized and reviewed. Published measurement data on spatial resolution in CBCT are evaluated and analysed. Effective (i.e. actual) spatial resolution available in CBCT images is being influenced by the two-dimensional detector, the three-dimensional reconstruction process, patient movement during the scan and various other parameters. In the literature, the values range between 0.6 and 2.8 lp mm(-1) (visual assessment; median, 1.7 lp mm(-1)) vs MTF (range, 0.5-2.3 cycles per mm; median, 2.1 lp mm(-1)). Spatial resolution of CBCT images is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of intraoral radiographs. Considering movement, scatter effects and other influences in real-world scans of living patients, a realistic spatial resolution of just above 1 lp mm(-1) could be expected.

  3. Regional spatially adaptive total variation super-resolution with spatial information filtering and clustering.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei; Shen, Huanfeng

    2013-06-01

    Total variation is used as a popular and effective image prior model in the regularization-based image processing fields. However, as the total variation model favors a piecewise constant solution, the processing result under high noise intensity in the flat regions of the image is often poor, and some pseudoedges are produced. In this paper, we develop a regional spatially adaptive total variation model. Initially, the spatial information is extracted based on each pixel, and then two filtering processes are added to suppress the effect of pseudoedges. In addition, the spatial information weight is constructed and classified with k-means clustering, and the regularization strength in each region is controlled by the clustering center value. The experimental results, on both simulated and real datasets, show that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the pseudoedges of the total variation regularization in the flat regions, and maintain the partial smoothness of the high-resolution image. More importantly, compared with the traditional pixel-based spatial information adaptive approach, the proposed region-based spatial information adaptive total variation model can better avoid the effect of noise on the spatial information extraction, and maintains robustness with changes in the noise intensity in the super-resolution process.

  4. Potentiel des images satellitaires multibandes a haute resolution spatiale pour la cartographie des componsants de l'eau en milieu cotier marin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoie, Andre

    organiques dissoutes. Particulierement dans la bande TM1, il est possible de definir trois classes de concentration dans l'intervalle de 0,5 a 12 g.m-3. Quant aux autres composants, un maximum de deux classes peut etre defini a la condition que la concentration en matieres minerales soit relativement faible. Une analyse du potentiel de suivi temporel de l'observation du milieu cotier marin a ete realisee. La compilation d'images archivees des capteurs TM et HRV montre qu'un utilisateur ne peut esperer obtenir plus de 2 a 3 bonnes images durant la periode estivale a nos latitudes (en combinant les deux capteurs). Finalement, les resultats obtenus montrent que le modele peut s'adapter a differents types d'eau et a differents capteurs parce que la formulation n'impose pas de rectrictions au niveau des caracteristiques des masses d'eau, de la resolution spatiale, spectrale et radiometrique du capteur simule. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  6. Passive High Resolution RF Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-02

    sensing applications: 1. Imaging with potential resolution of meters sq. 1.1 Forests areas controlling 1.2 Foliage mass evaluation 1.3...from TOPCON. Currently, work is in progress to study and customise the software and satellite position extraction from the receiver. 6. BRIEF

  7. A multipinhole small animal SPECT system with submillimeter spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Tobias; Despres, Philippe; Barber, William C.; Shah, Kanai S.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2006-05-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an important technology for molecular imaging studies of small animals. In this arena, there is an increasing demand for high performance imaging systems that offer improved spatial resolution and detection efficiency. We have designed a multipinhole small animal imaging system based on position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors with the goal of submillimeter spatial resolution and high detection efficiency, which will allow us to minimize the radiation dose to the animal and to shorten the time needed for the imaging study. Our design will use 8x24 mm{sup 2} PSAPD detector modules coupled to thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] scintillators, which can achieve an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm at 140 keV. These detectors will be arranged in rings of 24 modules each; the animal is positioned in the center of the 9 stationary detector rings which capture projection data from the animal with a cylindrical tungsten multipinhole collimator. The animal is supported on a bed which can be rocked about the central axis to increase angular sampling of the object. In contrast to conventional SPECT pinhole systems, in our design each pinhole views only a portion of the object. However, the ensemble of projection data from all of the multipinhole detectors provide angular sampling that is sufficient to reconstruct tomographic data from the object. The performance of this multipinhole PSAPD imaging system was simulated using a ray tracing program that models the appropriate point spread functions and then was compared against the performance of a dual-headed pinhole SPECT system. The detection efficiency of both systems was simulated and projection data of a hot rod phantom were generated and reconstructed to assess spatial resolution. Appropriate Poisson noise was added to the data to simulate an acquisition time of 15 min and an activity of 18.5 MBq distributed in the phantom. Both sets of data

  8. Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-06ER15835: Chemical Imaging with 100nm Spatial Resolution: Combining High Resolution Flurosecence Microscopy and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Buratto, Steven K.

    2013-09-03

    We have combined, in a single instrument, high spatial resolution optical microscopy with the chemical specificity and conformational selectivity of ion mobility mass spectrometry. We discuss the design and construction of this apparatus as well as our efforts in applying this technique to thin films of molecular semiconductor materials.

  9. Quantifying mangrove chlorophyll from high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenkenda, Muditha K.; Joyce, Karen E.; Maier, Stefan W.; de Bruin, Sytze

    2015-10-01

    Lower than expected chlorophyll concentration of a plant can directly limit photosynthetic activity, and resultant primary production. Low chlorophyll concentration may also indicate plant physiological stress. Compared to other terrestrial vegetation, mangrove chlorophyll variations are poorly understood. This study quantifies the spatial distribution of mangrove canopy chlorophyll variation using remotely sensed data and field samples over the Rapid Creek mangrove forest in Darwin, Australia. Mangrove leaf samples were collected and analyzed for chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Once the leaf area index (LAI) of sampled trees was estimated using the digital cover photography method, the canopy chlorophyll contents were calculated. Then, the nonlinear random forests regression algorithm was used to describe the relationship between canopy chlorophyll content and remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 satellite image bands and their spectral transformations), and to estimate the spatial distribution of canopy chlorophyll variation. The imagery was evaluated at full 2 m spatial resolution, as well as at decreased resampled resolutions of 5 m and 10 m. The root mean squared errors with validation samples were 0.82, 0.64 and 0.65 g/m2 for maps at 2 m, 5 m and 10 m spatial resolution respectively. The correlation coefficient was analyzed for the relationship between measured and predicted chlorophyll values. The highest correlation: 0.71 was observed at 5 m spatial resolution (R2 = 0.5). We therefore concluded that estimating mangrove chlorophyll content from remotely sensed data is possible using red, red-edge, NIR1 and NIR2 bands and their spectral transformations as predictors at 5 m spatial resolution.

  10. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; ...

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss ofmore » spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.« less

  11. Camera system resolution and its influence on digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Sweatt, William; Miller, Timothy; Fleming, Darryn

    2014-09-21

    Digital image correlation (DIC) uses images from a camera and lens system to make quantitative measurements of the shape, displacement, and strain of test objects. This increasingly popular method has had little research on the influence of the imaging system resolution on the DIC results. This paper investigates the entire imaging system and studies how both the camera and lens resolution influence the DIC results as a function of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). It will show that when making spatial resolution decisions (including speckle size) the resolution limiting component should be considered. A consequence of the loss of spatial resolution is that the DIC uncertainties will be increased. This is demonstrated using both synthetic and experimental images with varying resolution. The loss of image resolution and DIC accuracy can be compensated for by increasing the subset size, or better, by increasing the speckle size. The speckle-size and spatial resolution are now a function of the lens resolution rather than the more typical assumption of the pixel size. The study will demonstrate the tradeoffs associated with limited lens resolution.

  12. Highest Resolution Image of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During its twelfth orbit around Jupiter, on Dec. 16, 1997, NASA's Galileo spacecraft made its closest pass of Jupiter's icy moon Europa, soaring 200 kilometers (124 miles) kilometers above the icy surface. This image was taken near the closest approach point, at a range of 560 kilometers (335 miles) and is the highest resolution picture of Europa that will be obtained by Galileo. The image was taken at a highly oblique angle, providing a vantage point similar to that of someone looking out an airplane window. The features at the bottom of the image are much closer to the viewer than those at the top of the image. Many bright ridges are seen in the picture, with dark material in the low-lying valleys. In the center of the image, the regular ridges and valleys give way to a darker region of jumbled hills, which may be one of the many dark pits observed on the surface of Europa. Smaller dark, circular features seen here are probably impact craters.

    North is to the right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from that direction. This image, centered at approximately 13 degrees south latitude and 235 degrees west longitude, is approximately 1.8 kilometers (1 mile) wide. The resolution is 6 meters (19 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 by the solid state imaging system camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  13. Highest Resolution Image of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During its twelfth orbit around Jupiter, on Dec. 16, 1997, NASA's Galileo spacecraft made its closest pass of Jupiter's icy moon Europa, soaring 200 kilometers (124 miles) kilometers above the icy surface. This image was taken near the closest approach point, at a range of 560 kilometers (335 miles) and is the highest resolution picture of Europa that will be obtained by Galileo. The image was taken at a highly oblique angle, providing a vantage point similar to that of someone looking out an airplane window. The features at the bottom of the image are much closer to the viewer than those at the top of the image. Many bright ridges are seen in the picture, with dark material in the low-lying valleys. In the center of the image, the regular ridges and valleys give way to a darker region of jumbled hills, which may be one of the many dark pits observed on the surface of Europa. Smaller dark, circular features seen here are probably impact craters.

    North is to the right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from that direction. This image, centered at approximately 13 degrees south latitude and 235 degrees west longitude, is approximately 1.8 kilometers (1 mile) wide. The resolution is 6 meters (19 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 by the solid state imaging system camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  14. Super-resolution Microscopy Approaches for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Antoine G.; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    By delivering optical images with spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit, several super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques opened new opportunities to study biological structures with details approaching molecular structure sizes. They have now become methods of choice for imaging proteins and their nanoscale dynamic organizations in live cells. In this mini-review, we describe and compare the main far-field super-resolution approaches that allow studying endogenous or overexpressed proteins in live cells. PMID:25418158

  15. High-performance adaptive optics system with long-term stability using liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator for high-resolution retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongxin; Inoue, Takashi; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Hara, Tsutomu

    2011-11-01

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator was developed. For routine clinical applications, long-term stability of the AO system is very important because unavoidable eye movement may degrade the instrument's performance. We studied the long-term performance of the aberration correction with healthy human eyes. Retinal image acquisition and AO data collection were performed simultaneously for periods of several minutes. We confirmed that, for more than 90% of the periods, the root-mean-square errors of residual wavefront were below the Marechal criterion. Drifts and microsaccades of fixational eye movement were examined using retinal images and residual aberrations. The results showed significant correlation between the transverse shift of retinal image and the low-order residual wavefront aberration during the drifts.

  16. Spatial resolution improvement of the scanning detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Yasuto; Ito, Yoshihiro; Tomonura, Nobuhisa; Tomioka, Satoshi; Enoto, Takeaki

    2001-04-01

    In the scanning detector we propose the new system for improving spatial resolution by making sensitivity distribution of a detecting element vary. This can be simply done by only adding the filter with sensitivity distribution in front of a detecting element without requiring the higher density of equipment. In our laboratory, the plasma electron density distribution measurement by the holographic interferometry in far-infrared region has been proceeded. As one of the infrared detection material, we chose HgCdTe, and it was used as a scanning detecting element. As a verification of this system, we added the infrared filter in the front of HgCdTe, and measured the spatial resolution using a knife edge. For the method for calculating Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) from Edge Response Function (ERF), we also propose the new technique that we name the virtual test chart method. In this technique, we simulate the response corresponded to periodic bar patterns from ERF, and calculate the contrast ratio from this response. From the result of measurement that added the infrared ray filter, the validity of this system was shown. By the simulation and the experiment, the optimum sensitivity distribution was obtained in this system.

  17. Spatial resolution in plantar pressure measurement revisited.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2012-08-09

    Plantar pressures are typically measured using sensors of finite area, so the accuracy with which one can measure true maximum pressure is dependent on sensor size. Measurement accuracy has been modeled previously for one patient's metatarsals (Lord, 1997), but has not been modeled either for general subjects or for other parts of the foot. The purposes of this study were (i) to determine whether Lord's (1997) model is also valid for heel and hallux pressures, and (ii) to examine how sensor size relates to measurement accuracy in the context of four factors common to many measurement settings: pressure pulse size, foot positioning, pressure change quantification, and gross pressure redistribution. Lord's (1997) model was first generalized and was then validated using 10 healthy walking subjects, with relatively low RMSE values on the order of 20 kPa. Next, postural data were used to show that gross pressure redistributions can be accurately quantified (p<0.002), even with rather gross sensor sizes of 30 mm. Finally, numerical analyses revealed that the relation between sensor size and measurement accuracy is highly complex, with deep dependency on the measurement context. In particular, the critical sensor widths required to achieve 90% accuracy ranged from 1.7 mm to 17.4 mm amongst the presently investigated scenarios. Since measurement accuracy varies so extensively with so many factors, the current results cannot yield specific recommendations regarding spatial resolution. It is concluded simply that no particular spatial resolution can yield a constant measurement accuracy across common plantar pressure measurement tasks.

  18. High spatial resolution imaging of SO and H2CO in AB Auriga: The first SO image in a transitional disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S.; Fuente, A.; Baruteau, C.; Berné, O.; Agúndez, M.; Neri, R.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Bachiller, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Transitional disks are structures of dust and gas around young stars with large inner cavities in which planet formation may occur. Lopsided dust distributions are observed in the dust continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths. These asymmetrical structures can be explained as being the result of an enhanced gas density vortex where the dust is trapped, potentially promoting the rapid growth to the planetesimal scale. Aims: AB Aur hosts a transitional disk with a clear horseshoe morphology which strongly suggests the presence of a dust trap. Our goal is to investigate its formation and the possible effects on the gas chemistry. Methods: We used the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometer to image the 1 mm continuum dust emission and the 13CO J = 2 → 1, C18O J = 2 → 1, SO J = 56 → 45, and H2CO J = 303 → 202 rotational lines. Results: Line integrated intensity ratio images are built to investigate the chemical changes within the disk. The I(H2CO J = 303 → 202)/I(C18O J = 2 → 1) ratio is fairly constant along the disk with values of ~0.15 ± 0.05. On the contrary, the I(SO J = 56 → 45)/I(C18O J = 2 → 1) and I(SO J = 56 → 45)/I(H2CO J = 303 → 202) ratios present a clear northeast-southwest gradient (a factor of 3-6) with the minimum towards the dust trap. This gradient cannot be explained by a local change in the excitation conditions but by a decrease in the SO abundance. Gas densities up to ~109 cm-3 are expected in the disk midplane and two-three times larger in the high pressure vortex. We have used a single point (n,T) chemical model to investigate the lifetime of gaseous CO, H2CO, and SO in the dust trap. Our model shows that for densities >107 cm-3, the SO molecules are depleted (directly frozen, or converted into SO2 and then frozen out) in less than 0.1 Myr. The lower SO abundance towards the dust trap could indicate that a larger fraction of the gas is in a high density environment. Conclusions: Gas dynamics

  19. High spatial resolution imaging of SO and H2CO in AB Auriga: The first SO image in a transitional disk.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vázquez, S; Fuente, A; Baruteau, C; Berné, O; Agúndez, M; Neri, R; Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Bachiller, R

    2016-05-01

    Transitional disks are structures of dust and gas around young stars with large inner cavities in which planet formation may occur. Lopsided dust distributions are observed in the dust continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths. These asymmetrical structures can be explained as being the result of an enhanced gas density vortex where the dust is trapped, potentially promoting the rapid growth to the planetesimal scale. AB Aur hosts a transitional disk with a clear horseshoe morphology which strongly suggests the presence of a dust trap. Our goal is to investigate its formation and the possible effects on the gas chemistry. We used the NOEMA (NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array) interferometer to image the 1mm continuum dust emission and the (13)CO J=2 →1, C(18)OJ=2 →1, SO J=56 →45, and H2CO J=303 →202 rotational lines. Line integrated intensity ratio images are built to investigate the chemical changes within the disk