Science.gov

Sample records for imaging systematic review

  1. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  2. Laparoscopic Imaging Techniques in Endometriosis Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vlek, Stijn L; Lier, M C I; Ankersmit, M; Ket, Johannes C F; Dekker, J J M L; Mijatovic, V; Tuynman, J B

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease associated with pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopic surgical treatment has proven effective in endometriosis, but is hampered by a high rate of recurrence. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the intraoperative identification of endometriosis by enhanced laparoscopic imaging techniques, focusing on sensitivity and specificity. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Published prospective studies reporting on enhanced laparoscopic imaging techniques during endometriosis surgery were included. General study characteristics and reported outcomes, including sensitivity and specificity, were extracted. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. Three techniques were described: 5-ALA fluorescence (5-ALA), autofluorescence (AFI), and narrow-band imaging (NBI). The reported sensitivity of 5-ALA and AFI for identifying endometriosis ranged from 91% to 100%, compared with 48% to 69% for conventional white light laparoscopy (WL). A randomized controlled trial comparing NBI + WL with WL alone reported better sensitivity of NBI (100% vs 79%; p < .001). All 9 studies reported an enhanced detection rate of endometriotic lesions with enhanced imaging techniques. Enhanced imaging techniques are a promising additive for laparoscopic detection and treatment of endometriosis. The 5-ALA, AFI, and NBI intraoperative imaging techniques had a better detection rate for peritoneal endometriosis compared with conventional WL laparoscopy. None of the studies reported clinical data regarding outcomes. Future studies should address long-term results, such as quality of life, recurrence, and need for reoperation.

  3. Systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Milner, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are a type of literature review in which authors systematically search for, critically appraise, and synthesize evidence from several studies on the same topic (Grant & Booth, 2009). The precise and systematic method differentiates systematic reviews from traditional reviews (Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen, & Antes, 2003). In all types of systematic reviews, a quality assessment is done of the individual studies that meet inclusion criteria. These individual assessments are synthesized, and aggregated results are reported. Systematic reviews are considered the highest level of evidence in evidence-based health care because the reviewers strive to use transparent, rigorous methods that minimize bias.

  4. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  5. A systematic review of visual image theory, assessment, and use in skin cancer and tanning research.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Visual images increase attention, comprehension, and recall of health information and influence health behaviors. Health communication campaigns on skin cancer and tanning often use visual images, but little is known about how such images are selected or evaluated. A systematic review of peer-reviewed, published literature on skin cancer and tanning was conducted to determine (a) what visual communication theories were used, (b) how visual images were evaluated, and (c) how visual images were used in the research studies. Seven databases were searched (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) resulting in 5,330 citations. Of those, 47 met the inclusion criteria. Only one study specifically identified a visual communication theory guiding the research. No standard instruments for assessing visual images were reported. Most studies lacked, to varying degrees, comprehensive image description, image pretesting, full reporting of image source details, adequate explanation of image selection or development, and example images. The results highlight the need for greater theoretical and methodological attention to visual images in health communication research in the future. To this end, the authors propose a working definition of visual health communication.

  6. Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Brinjikji, W.; Luetmer, P.H.; Comstock, B.; Bresnahan, B.W.; Chen, L.E.; Deyo, R.A.; Halabi, S.; Turner, J.A.; Avins, A.L.; James, K.; Wald, J.T.; Kallmes, D.F.; Jarvik, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review of articles reporting the prevalence of imaging findings (CT or MR imaging) in asymptomatic individuals from published English literature through April 2014. Two reviewers evaluated each manuscript. We selected age groupings by decade (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 years), determining age-specific prevalence estimates. For each imaging finding, we fit a generalized linear mixed-effects model for the age-specific prevalence estimate clustering in the study, adjusting for the midpoint of the reported age interval. RESULTS Thirty-three articles reporting imaging findings for 3110 asymptomatic individuals met our study inclusion criteria. The prevalence of disk degeneration in asymptomatic individuals increased from 37% of 20-year-old individuals to 96% of 80-year-old individuals. Disk bulge prevalence increased from 30% of those 20 years of age to 84% of those 80 years of age. Disk protrusion prevalence increased from 29% of those 20 years of age to 43% of those 80 years of age. The prevalence of annular fissure increased from 19% of those 20 years of age to 29% of those 80 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Imaging findings of spine degeneration are present in high proportions of asymptomatic individuals, increasing with age. Many imaging-based degenerative features are likely part of normal aging and unassociated with pain. These imaging findings must be interpreted in the context of the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:25430861

  7. Systematic reviews. Some examples.

    PubMed Central

    Knipschild, P.

    1994-01-01

    Reviewing the literature is a scientific inquiry that needs a clear design to preclude bias. It is a real enterprise if one aims at completeness of the literature on a certain subject. Going through refereed English language journals is not enough. On line databases are helpful, but mainly as a starting point. This article gives examples of systematic reviews on vitamin C and the common cold, pyridoxine against the premenstrual syndrome, homeopathy, and physiotherapy. Images p720-a PMID:7950526

  8. Fundus autofluorescence imaging: systematic review of test accuracy for the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Frampton, G K; Kalita, N; Payne, L; Colquitt, J L; Loveman, E; Downes, S M; Lotery, A J

    2017-03-10

    We conducted a systematic review of the accuracy of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging for diagnosing and monitoring retinal conditions. Searches in November 2014 identified English language references. Sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and MEDION databases; reference lists of retrieved studies; and internet pages of relevant organisations, meetings, and trial registries. For inclusion, studies had to report FAF imaging accuracy quantitatively. Studies were critically appraised using QUADAS risk of bias criteria. Two reviewers conducted all review steps. From 2240 unique references identified, eight primary research studies met the inclusion criteria. These investigated diagnostic accuracy of FAF imaging for choroidal neovascularisation (one study), reticular pseudodrusen (three studies), cystoid macular oedema (two studies), and diabetic macular oedema (two studies). Diagnostic sensitivity of FAF imaging ranged from 32 to 100% and specificity from 34 to 100%. However, owing to methodological limitations, including high and/or unclear risks of bias, none of these studies provides conclusive evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of FAF imaging. Study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. In most studies, the patient spectrum was not reflective of those who would present in clinical practice and no studies adequately reported whether FAF images were interpreted consistently. No studies of monitoring accuracy were identified. An update in October 2016, based on MEDLINE and internet searches, identified four new studies but did not alter our conclusions. Robust quantitative evidence on the accuracy of FAF imaging and how FAF images are interpreted is lacking. We provide recommendations to address this.Eye advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.19.

  9. Visual images for skin cancer prevention: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2012-06-01

    Visual images play an important role in educating the public about skin cancer prevention. The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) determine how visual images are evaluated in skin cancer and tanning qualitative research studies (including theoretical and methodological approaches) and 2) summarize and discuss the image-related findings of the studies with respect to cancer education and public health. Seven databases were searched (PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) using multiple search terms, including MeSH terms, resulting in 5330 citations. Studies were included if they were in English, peer-reviewed, qualitative in design or methodology, dealt with skin cancer or UV exposure, used visual images, and had a focus on the public or patients (i.e., not medical professionals). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: seven content analyses and one focus group study. Content analysis studies in this review suggest the mass media portray Caucasian men and women as unprotected from the sun and with tanned skin, and thus, may inform behaviors related to skin cancer risk. The focus group study suggests visible minorities may benefit from the incorporation of images of melanoma on ethnic skin in cancer education materials. None of the studies used visual communication theory to explicitly guide the research, nor were standardized tools used for image assessment. The lack of guiding theory and standardized assessment instruments can introduce bias in how images are selected and used in research on skin cancer education.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, Julie; Kealey, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size.

  11. White matter alterations in anorexia nervosa: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Hay, Phillipa; Foroughi, Nasim; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify findings concerning white matter (WM) fibre microstructural alterations in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: A systematic electronic search was undertaken in several databases up to April 2015. The search strategy aimed to locate all studies published in English or Spanish that included participants with AN and which investigated WM using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Trials were assessed for quality assessment according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses checklist and a published quality index guideline. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies met the inclusion criteria, four of people in the acute state of the illness, one included both recovered and unwell participants, and one included people who had recovered. Participants were female with ages ranging from 14 to 29 years. All studies but one measured a range of psychopathological features. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were the main DTI correlates reported. Alterations were reported in a range of WM structures of the limbic system, most often of the fornix and cingulum as well as the fronto-occipital fibre tracts, i.e., regions associated with anxiety, body image and cognitive function. Subtle abnormalities also appeared to persist after recovery. CONCLUSION: This diversity likely reflects the symptom complexity of AN. However, there were few studies, they applied different methodologies, and all were cross-sectional. PMID:27014606

  12. Contribution of brain imaging to the understanding of gait disorders in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric; Beauchet, Olivier; Celle, Sébastien; Roche, Frédéric; Annweiler, Thierry; Allali, Gilles; Bartha, Robert; Montero-Odasso, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Although gait disorders are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), determining which brain structures and related lesions are specifically involved is a goal yet to be reached. Our objective was to systematically review all published data that examined associations between gait disorders and brain imaging in AD. Of 486 selected studies, 4 observational studies met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 2 to 61 community dwellers (29%-100% female) with prodromal or dementia-stage AD. Quantitative gait disorders (ie, slower gait velocity explained by shorter stride length) were associated with white matter lesions, mainly in the medial frontal lobes and basal ganglia. The nigrostriatal dopamine system was unaffected. Qualitative gait disorders (ie, higher stride length variability) correlated with lower hippocampal volume and function. Gait disorders in AD could be explained by a high burden of age-related subcortical hyperintensities on the frontal-subcortical circuits (nonspecific) together with hippocampal atrophy and hypometabolism (specific).

  13. Recent development of feature extraction and classification multispectral/hyperspectral images: a systematic literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyoko, A.; Dharma, I. G. W. S.; Haryanto, T.

    2017-01-01

    Multispectral data and hyperspectral data acquired from satellite sensor have the ability in detecting various objects on the earth ranging from low scale to high scale modeling. These data are increasingly being used to produce geospatial information for rapid analysis by running feature extraction or classification process. Applying the most suited model for this data mining is still challenging because there are issues regarding accuracy and computational cost. This research aim is to develop a better understanding regarding object feature extraction and classification applied for satellite image by systematically reviewing related recent research projects. A method used in this research is based on PRISMA statement. After deriving important points from trusted sources, pixel based and texture-based feature extraction techniques are promising technique to be analyzed more in recent development of feature extraction and classification.

  14. Systematic review automation technologies.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Glasziou, Paul; Choong, Miew Keen; Dunn, Adam; Galgani, Filippo; Coiera, Enrico

    2014-07-09

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects.We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time.

  15. Systematic review automation technologies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  16. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P < 0.001) and that CPHP participants were more likely to have plantar fascia thickness values greater than 4.0 mm (OR = 105.11, 95% CI = 3.09 to 3577.28, P = 0.01). CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P < 0.001). Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP

  17. Radiological interpretation of images displayed on tablet computers: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Armfield, N R; Smith, A C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review the published evidence and to determine if radiological diagnostic accuracy is compromised when images are displayed on a tablet computer and thereby inform practice on using tablet computers for radiological interpretation by on-call radiologists. Methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies on the diagnostic accuracy or diagnostic reliability of images interpreted on tablet computers. Studies were screened for inclusion based on pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias using Quality Appraisal of Diagnostic Reliability Studies or the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Treatment of studies was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. 10 of these studies tested the Apple iPad® (Apple, Cupertino, CA). The included studies reported high sensitivity (84–98%), specificity (74–100%) and accuracy rates (98–100%) for radiological diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in accuracy between a tablet computer and a digital imaging and communication in medicine-calibrated control display. There was a near complete consensus from authors on the non-inferiority of diagnostic accuracy of images displayed on a tablet computer. All of the included studies were judged to be at risk of bias. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the diagnostic accuracy of radiological interpretation is not compromised by using a tablet computer. This result is only relevant to the Apple iPad and to the modalities of CT, MRI and plain radiography. Advances in knowledge: The iPad may be appropriate for an on-call radiologist to use for radiological interpretation. PMID:25882691

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging vs autopsy-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anders; Gustafsson, Torfinn; Höistad, Malin; Hultcrantz, Monica; Jacobson, Stella; Mejare, Ingegerd; Persson, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Background Postmortem imaging has been used for more than a century as a complement to medico-legal autopsies. The technique has also emerged as a possible alternative to compensate for the continuous decline in the number of clinical autopsies. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging for various types of findings, we performed this systematic literature review. Data sources The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library through January 7, 2015. Relevant publications were assessed for risk of bias using the QUADAS tool and were classified as low, moderate or high risk of bias according to pre-defined criteria. Autopsy and/or histopathology were used as reference standard. Findings The search generated 2600 abstracts, of which 340 were assessed as possibly relevant and read in full-text. After further evaluation 71 studies were finally included, of which 49 were assessed as having high risk of bias and 22 as moderate risk of bias. Due to considerable heterogeneity - in populations, techniques, analyses and reporting - of included studies it was impossible to combine data to get a summary estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the various findings. Individual studies indicate, however, that imaging techniques might be useful for determining organ weights, and that the techniques seem superior to autopsy for detecting gas Conclusions and Implications In general, based on the current scientific literature, it was not possible to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging and its usefulness in conjunction with, or as an alternative to autopsy. To correctly determine the usefulness of postmortem imaging, future studies need improved planning, improved methodological quality and larger materials, preferentially obtained from multi-center studies.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  20. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  1. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Pattern of Imaging Defined Post-TB Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meghji, Jamilah; Simpson, Hope; Squire, S. Bertel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease in resource poor settings. The persistence of abnormal spirometry and symptoms after treatment are well described, but the structural abnormalities underlying these changes remain poorly defined, limiting our ability to phenotype post-TB lung disease in to meaningful categories for clinical management, prognostication, and ongoing research. The relationship between post-TB lung damage and patient-centred outcomes including functional impairment, respiratory symptoms, and health related quality of life also remains unclear. Methods We performed a systematic literature review to determine the prevalence and pattern of imaging-defined lung pathology in adults after medical treatment for pleural, miliary, or pulmonary TB disease. Data were collected on study characteristics, and the modality, timing, and findings of thoracic imaging. The proportion of studies relating imaging findings to spirometry results and patient morbidity was recorded. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottowa score. (Prospero Registration number CRD42015027958) Results We identified 37 eligible studies. The principle features seen on CXR were cavitation (8.3–83.7%), bronchiectasis (4.3–11.2%), and fibrosis (25.0–70.4%), but prevalence was highly variable. CT imaging identified a wider range of residual abnormalities than CXR, including nodules (25.0–55.8%), consolidation (3.7–19.2%), and emphysema (15.0–45.0%). The prevalence of cavitation was generally lower (7.4–34.6%) and bronchiectasis higher (35.0–86.0%) on CT vs. CXR imaging. A paucity of prospective data, and data from HIV-infected adults and sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) was noted. Few studies related structural damage to physiological impairment, respiratory symptoms, or patient morbidity. Conclusions Post-TB structural lung pathology is common. Prospective data are required to determine the evolution of this lung damage and

  2. Emerging clinical imaging techniques for cerebral cavernous malformations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Peter G.; Jabbour, Pascal; Yadla, Sanjay; Awad, Issam A.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are divided into sporadic and familial forms. For clinical imaging, T2-weighted gradient-echo sequences have been shown to be more sensitive than conventional sequences. Recently more advanced imaging techniques such as high-field and susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been employed for the evaluation of CCMs. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been applied to the preoperative and intraoperative management of these lesions. In this paper, the authors attempt to provide a concise review of the emerging imaging methods utilized in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of CCMs. PMID:20809764

  3. Whole Brain Magnetic Resonance Image Atlases: A Systematic Review of Existing Atlases and Caveats for Use in Population Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Shenkin, Susan D.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Lee, Juyoung; Blesa Cabez, Manuel; Rodriguez, David; Boardman, James P.; Waldman, Adam; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    Brain MRI atlases may be used to characterize brain structural changes across the life course. Atlases have important applications in research, e.g., as registration and segmentation targets to underpin image analysis in population imaging studies, and potentially in future in clinical practice, e.g., as templates for identifying brain structural changes out with normal limits, and increasingly for use in surgical planning. However, there are several caveats and limitations which must be considered before successfully applying brain MRI atlases to research and clinical problems. For example, the influential Talairach and Tournoux atlas was derived from a single fixed cadaveric brain from an elderly female with limited clinical information, yet is the basis of many modern atlases and is often used to report locations of functional activation. We systematically review currently available whole brain structural MRI atlases with particular reference to the implications for population imaging through to emerging clinical practice. We found 66 whole brain structural MRI atlases world-wide. The vast majority were based on T1, T2, and/or proton density (PD) structural sequences, had been derived using parametric statistics (inappropriate for brain volume distributions), had limited supporting clinical or cognitive data, and included few younger (>5 and <18 years) or older (>60 years) subjects. To successfully characterize brain structural features and their changes across different stages of life, we conclude that whole brain structural MRI atlases should include: more subjects at the upper and lower extremes of age; additional structural sequences, including fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2* sequences; a range of appropriate statistics, e.g., rank-based or non-parametric; and detailed cognitive and clinical profiles of the included subjects in order to increase the relevance and utility of these atlases. PMID:28154532

  4. Ethics in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper.

  5. A systematic review of brain frontal lobe parcellation techniques in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; Ferguson, Karen J; Royle, Natalie A; Shenkin, Susan D; MacPherson, Sarah E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2014-01-01

    Manual volumetric measurement of the brain's frontal lobe and its subregions from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is an established method for researching neural correlates of clinical disorders or cognitive functions. However, there is no consensus between methods used to identify relevant boundaries of a given region of interest (ROI) on MRIs, and those used may bear little relation to each other or the underlying structural, functional and connective architecture. This presents challenges for the analysis and synthesis of such results. We therefore performed a systematic literature review to highlight variations in the anatomical boundaries used to measure frontal regions, contextualised by up-to-date evidence from histology, hodology and neuropsychology. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies in English reporting three-dimensional boundaries for manually delineating the brain's frontal lobe or sub-regional ROIs from MRIs. Exclusion criteria were: exclusive use of co-ordinate grid systems; insufficient detail to allow method replication; publication in grey literature only. Papers were assessed on quality criteria relating to bias, reproducibility and protocol rationale. There was a large degree of variability in the three-dimensional boundaries of all regions used by the 208 eligible papers. Half of the reports did not justify their rationale for boundary selection, and each paper met on average only three quarters of quality criteria. For the frontal lobe and each subregion (frontal pole, anterior cingulate, dorsolateral, inferior-lateral, and orbitofrontal) we identified reproducible methods for a biologically plausible target ROI. It is hoped that this synthesis will guide the design of future volumetric studies of cerebral structure.

  6. A systematic review of automated melanoma detection in dermatoscopic images and its ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Abder-Rahman A.; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent type of skin cancer and one of the most malignant tumors, accounting for 79% of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma is highly curable if diagnosed early and treated properly as survival rate varies between 15% and 65% from early to terminal stages, respectively. So far, melanoma diagnosis is depending subjectively on the dermatologist's expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on epiluminescense light microscopy can provide an objective second opinion on pigmented skin lesions (PSL). This work systematically analyzes the evidence of the effectiveness of automated melanoma detection in images from a dermatoscopic device. Automated CAD applications were analyzed to estimate their diagnostic outcome. Searching online databases for publication dates between 1985 and 2011, a total of 182 studies on dermatoscopic CAD were found. With respect to the systematic selection criterions, 9 studies were included, published between 2002 and 2011. Those studies formed databases of 14,421 dermatoscopic images including both malignant "melanoma" and benign "nevus", with 8,110 images being available ranging in resolution from 150 x 150 to 1568 x 1045 pixels. Maximum and minimum of sensitivity and specificity are 100.0% and 80.0% as well as 98.14% and 61.6%, respectively. Area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUC) and pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostics odds ratio are respectively 0.87, 0.90, 0.81, and 15.89. So, although that automated melanoma detection showed good accuracy in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, but diagnostic performance in terms of DOR was found to be poor. This might be due to the lack of dermatoscopic image resources (ground truth) that are needed for comprehensive assessment of diagnostic performance. In future work, we aim at testing this hypothesis by joining dermatoscopic images into a unified database that serves as a standard reference for dermatology related research in

  7. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Eric V; Lee, James; Branch, Kelley R; Hamilton-Craig, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In this review discuss the application of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to the evaluation and quantification of mitral regurgitation and provide a systematic literature review for comparisons with echocardiography. Using the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, we searched Medline and PubMed for original research articles published since 2000 that provided data on the quantification of mitral regurgitation by CMR. We identified 220 articles of which 33 were included. Four main techniques of mitral regurgitation quantification were identified. Reproducibility varied substantially between papers but was high overall for all techniques. However, quantification differed between the techniques studied. When compared with two-dimensional echocardiography, mitral regurgitation fraction and regurgitant volume measured by CMR were comparable but typically lower. CMR has high reproducibility for the quantification of mitral regurgitation in experienced centres, but further technological refinement is needed. An integrated and standardised approach that combines multiple techniques is recommended for optimal reproducibility and precise mitral regurgitation quantification. Definitive outcome studies using CMR as a basis for treatment are lacking but needed.

  8. An overview of systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included.

  9. Autism spectrum disorder: does neuroimaging support the DSM-5 proposal for a symptom dyad? A systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-07-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with 'autism spectrum disorder' (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported abnormal function and structure of fronto-temporal and limbic networks with social and pragmatic language deficits, of temporo-parieto-occipital networks with syntactic-semantic language deficits, and of fronto-striato-cerebellar networks with repetitive behaviors and restricted interests in ASD patients. Therefore, this review partially supports the DSM-5 proposal for the ASD dyad.

  10. Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging of the oral and maxillofacial region: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Vos, W; Casselman, J; Swennen, G R J

    2009-06-01

    This study reviewed the literature on cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging of the oral and maxillofacial (OMF) region. A PUBMED search (National Library of Medicine, NCBI; revised 1 December 2007) from 1998 to December 2007 was conducted. This search revealed 375 papers, which were screened in detail. 176 papers were clinically relevant and were analyzed in detail. CBCT is used in OMF surgery and orthodontics for numerous clinical applications, particularly for its low cost, easy accessibility and low radiation compared with multi-slice computerized tomography. The results of this systematic review show that there is a lack of evidence-based data on the radiation dose for CBCT imaging. Terminology and technical device properties and settings were not consistent in the literature. An attempt was made to provide a minimal set of CBCT device-related parameters for dedicated OMF scanners as a guideline for future studies.

  11. MRI in Dentistry- A Future Towards Radiation Free ImagingSystematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Ali, Irfan; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Prasad, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), being a technique with huge potential, has become the primary diagnostic investigation for many clinical problems. Its application now has been successfully used in dentistry to maximize the diagnostic certainty. Aim The present review aims to analyze the applicability, feasibility and efficacy of MRI in the field of dentistry. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed in main databases like Pub Med Central, Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar from 1970 up to December 2015. The 2672 titles that appeared, 25 fulfilled the criteria and were included in the review. Two articles were hand searched and three articles through e-mail were also included. Results The review highlights the increasing role of MRI in dentistry. In the available literature, it was found that T1 and T2 weighted images were the acceptable diagnostic images for detection of dental related diseases. Conclusion MRI can be used in diagnosis and treatment planning of implants, jaw lesions, diseases of Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ), orthodontic treatment, endodontic treatment etc., to achieve better prognosis. PMID:27891491

  12. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Filipe; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Norte, Marco; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been applied on clinical injuries and as a method for exercise recovery. It is aimed to reduce edema, nervous conduction velocity, and tissue metabolism, as well as to accelerate the recovery process of the muscle injury induced by exercise. Objective: This review aim to investigate the applicability of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy. Method: Search the Web of Science database using the terms "Cryotherapy", "Thermography", "Thermal Image" and "Cooling". Results: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and pass the PEDro scale quality evaluation. Evidence support the use of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring the skin temperature during cryotherapy, and it is superior to other contact methods and subjective methods of assessing skin temperature. Conclusion: Thermography seems to be an efficient, trustworthy and secure method in order to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy application. Evidence supports the use of thermography in detriment of contact methods as well as other subjective ones.

  13. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.

  14. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes.

    PubMed

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-06-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated mass media effects on body image and disordered eating. More recently, research in this area has turned to 'new' forms of media, such as the Internet, and particularly Social Networking Sites (SNSs). A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles on SNS use and body image and eating disorders resulted in 20 studies meeting specific inclusion criteria. As a whole, these articles demonstrated that use of SNSs is associated with body image and disordered eating. Specific SNS activities, such as viewing and uploading photos and seeking negative feedback via status updates, were identified as particularly problematic. A small number of studies also addressed underlying processes and found that appearance-based social comparison mediated the relationship between SNS use and body image and eating concerns. Gender was not found to be a moderating factor. It was concluded that, although there is a good deal of correlational research supporting the maladaptive effect of SNS use on body image and disordered eating, more longitudinal and experimental studies are needed.

  15. Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Leslie, Wilma; Govan, Lindsay; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-02-01

    Identification and management of sarcopenia are limited by lack of reliable simple approaches to assess muscle mass. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate simple methods to quantify muscle mass/volume of adults. Using Cochrane Review methodology, Medline (1946-2012), Embase (1974-2012), Web of Science (1898-2012), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (to 08/2012) were searched for publications that included prediction equations (from anthropometric measurements) to estimate muscle mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. Of 257 papers identified from primary search terms, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 10) assessed only regional/limb muscle mass/volume. Many studies (n = 9) assessed limb circumference adjusted for skinfold thickness, which limits their practical applications. Only two included validation in separate subject-samples, and two reported relationships between whole-body MRI-measured muscle mass and anthropometry beyond linear correlations. In conclusion, one simple prediction equation shows promise, but it has not been validated in a separate population with different investigators. Furthermore, it did not incorporate widely available trunk/limb girths, which have offered valuable prediction of body composition in other studies.

  16. (68)Ga-DOTATOC Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael M; Gu, Xiaomei; Ginader, Timothy; Breheny, Patrick; Sunderland, John

    2017-03-09

    (68)Ga-DOTATOC, a somatostatin receptor targeted ligand, has been used clinically in Europe over the past decade for imaging neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It appears to be quite sensitive and effective for clinical management decision-making. This meta-analysis summarizes the efficacy of (68)Ga-DOTATOC for several distinct indications and is intended to support approval of this agent by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Methods: The major electronic medical databases were searched for relevant papers over the period from January 2001 until November 2015. Papers were selected for review in 3 categories: clinical trials that reported sensitivity and specificity, comparison studies with (111)In-octreotide, and change of management studies. All the eligible papers underwent Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) assessment, which was useful in the final selection of papers for review. Results: The initial search yielded 468 papers. After detailed evaluation, 17 papers were finally selected. Five types of studies emerged: workup of patients with symptoms and biomarker findings suggestive of NET, but with negative conventional imaging (3 papers, yield was only 13%); sensitivity (12 papers, sensitivity 92%,) and specificity (7 papers, specificity 82%); identification of site of unknown primary in patients with metastatic NET (4 papers, yield was 44%); impact on subsequent NET patient management (4 papers - change in management in 51%); and comparison with (111)In-octreotide (2 papers, sensitivity of DOTATOC on a per lesion basis was 100%,for (111)In-octreotide was 78.2%; specificity was not available). Safety was not explicitly addressed in any study, but there were no reports of adverse events. Conclusion:(68)Ga-DOTATOC is useful for evaluating the presence and extent in disease for staging, restaging, and to assist in treatment decision making for patients with NET. It is also effective in locating the site of an unknown primary in NET patients

  17. Accuracy of musculoskeletal imaging for the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Sarah Louise; Koduri, Gouri; Hill, Catherine L; Wakefield, Richard J; Hutchings, Andrew; Loy, Clement; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for accuracy of imaging for diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed. Evaluations of diagnostic accuracy of imaging tests for PMR were eligible, excluding reports with <10 PMR cases. Two authors independently extracted study data and three authors assessed methodological quality using modified QUADAS-2 criteria. Results 26 studies of 2370 patients were evaluated: 10 ultrasound scanning studies; 6 MRI studies; 1 USS and MRI study; 7 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) studies; 1 plain radiography and 1 technetium scintigraphy study. In four ultrasound studies, subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 80% (95% CI 55% to 93%) and specificity 68% (95% CI 60% to 75%), whereas bilateral subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 66% (95% CI 43% to 87%) and specificity 89% (95% CI 66% to 97%). Sensitivity for ultrasound detection of trochanteric bursitis ranged from 21% to 100%. In four ultrasound studies reporting both subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and glenohumeral synovitis, detection of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis was more accurate than that of glenohumeral synovitis (p=0.004). MRI and PET/CT revealed additional areas of inflammation in the spine and pelvis, including focal areas between the vertebrae and anterior to the hip joint, but the number of controls with inflammatory disease was inadequate for precise specificity estimates. Conclusions Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis appears to be the most helpful ultrasound feature for PMR diagnosis, but interpretation is limited by study heterogeneity and methodological issues, including variability in blinding and potential bias due to case–control study designs. Recent MRI and PET/CT case–control studies, with blinded readers, yielded promising data requiring validation within a diagnostic cohort study. PMID:26535139

  18. The injecting use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPED) in the general population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rebekah; Wells, John S G; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2016-01-25

    Injecting use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPED) in the general population is a public health concern. A wide and varied range of IPED are now easily accessible to all through the online market. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken according to Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines for systematic review, to identify the relevant literature. No date restrictions were placed on the database search in the case of human growth hormone melanotan I and II, and oil and cosmetic injectables. In the case of anabolic androgenic steroids search dates were restricted to January 2014-2015. Publications not in English and with a lack of specificity to the topic were excluded. The review yielded 133 relevant quantitative and qualitative papers, clinical trials, clinical case presentations and editorials/reports. Findings were examined/reviewed under emergent themes which identified/measured extent of use, user profiling, sourcing, product endorsement, risk behaviours and health outcomes in users. Motivation for IPED use may be grounded in appearance, pursuit of health and youth, and body image disturbance. IPED users can practice moderated use, with pathological use linked to high-risk behaviours, which may be normalised within IPED communities. Many IPED trajectories and pathways of use are not scientifically documented. Much of this information may be available online in IPED specific discussion forums, an underutilised setting for research, where uncensored discourse takes place among users. This review underscores the need for future internet and clinical research to investigate prevalence and patterns of injecting use, and to map health outcomes in IPED users. This paper provides community-based clinical practice and health promotion services with a detailed examination and analysis of the injecting use of IPED, highlighting the patterns of this public health issue. It serves to disseminate updated publication information to health

  19. Bias associated with left ventricular quantification by multimodality imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rigolli, Marzia; Anandabaskaran, Sulakchanan; Christiansen, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiac MR (CMR) is the gold standard for left ventricular (LV) quantification. However, two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) is the most common approach, and both three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and multidetector CT (MDCT) are increasingly available. The clinical significance and interchangeability of these modalities remains under-investigated. Therefore, we undertook a systemic review to evaluate the accuracy and absolute bias in LV quantification of all the commonly available non-invasive imaging modalities (2DE, CE-2DE, 3DE, MDCT) compared to cardiac MR (CMR). Methods Studies were included that reported LV echocardiographic (2DE, CE-2DE, 3DE) and/or MDCT measurements compared to CMR. Only modern CMR (SSFP sequences) was considered. Studies involving small sample size (<10 patients) and unusual cardiac geometry (ie, congenital heart diseases) were excluded. We evaluated LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF). Results 1604 articles were initially considered: 65 studies were included (total of 4032 scans (echo, CT, MRI) performed in 2888 patients). Compared to CMR, significant biased underestimation of LV volumes with 2DE was seen (LVEDV—33.30 mL, LVESV −16.20 mL, p<0.0001). This difference was reduced but remained significant with CE-2DE (LVEDV −18.05, p<0.0001) and 3DE (LVEDV −14.41, p<0.001), while MDCT values were similar to CMR (LVEDV −1.20, p=0.43; LVESV −0.13, p=0.91). However, excellent agreement for echocardiographic LVEF evaluation (2DE LVEF 0.78–1.01%, p=0.37) was observed, especially with 3DE (LVEF 0.14%, p=0.88). Conclusions Comparing imaging modalities to CMR as reference standard, 3DE had the highest accuracy in LVEF estimation: 2DE and 3DE-derived LV volumes were significantly underestimated. Newer generation CT showed excellent accuracy for LV volumes. PMID:27158524

  20. A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Drejet, Sarah; Halum, Stacey; Brigger, Matthew; Skopelja, Elaine; Parker, Noah P

    2017-03-01

    Objectives (1) To systematically identify studies evaluating the use of intralesional cidofovir or bevacizumab as an adjunct in adult recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, determine disease severity and functional outcomes, and assess study quality. (2) To compare outcomes between the 2 adjuncts. Data Sources Ovid Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Clinical-Trials.gov . Review Methods Data sources were systematically searched. A priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were instituted. Quality was evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. A priori criteria were instituted to select studies suitable for comparison. Results A total of 254 identified studies led to 16 for full-text review, including 14 for cidofovir and 2 for bevacizumab. Disease severity outcomes were reported in all studies, including remission rate, Derkay scores, time interval between operations, and/or lesion volume reduction. Remission rate was the most commonly reported (14 studies). Functional outcomes were reported in 5 studies (36%), including quality-of-life questionnaires, acoustic/aerodynamic analysis, and perceptual voice analysis. Voice-related quality of life was the most commonly reported (2 studies). Of 16 studies, 12 (75%) were rated poor quality. Reports almost invariably showed improved disease severity and functional outcomes following treatment; however, variable outcome measures and inadequate follow-up disallowed direct comparison of adjuncts. Conclusion Remission rate was the most commonly reported disease severity outcome, and voice-related quality of life was the most commonly reported functional outcome. Most studies were of poor quality. No studies met criteria for comparative analysis between adjuncts. Future research would be improved by reporting consistent and comparable disease severity and functional outcomes, treatment protocols, and follow-up.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Small Bowel in Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osman; Rodrigues, David Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Crohn's disease is most commonly found in the terminal ileum and colonic region. Magnetic resonance has become a useful modality for assessing small bowel activity. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of MR in detecting small bowel activity as well as extramural complications in Crohn's patients. Methods. Two independent reviewers sorted through articles until October 2, 2014. We included both studies providing raw data for pooling and studies without raw data. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Results. There were 27 included studies, of which 19 were included in the pooled analysis. Pooled analysis of the 19 studies (1020 patients) with raw data revealed a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.91) and specificity was 0.88 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.91). In regard to detecting stenosis, pooled sensitivity was 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.76) and specificity was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusion. MR imaging provides a reliable alternative in detecting small bowel activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Its advantages include high diagnostic accuracy and no radiation exposure while its disadvantages include high cost and limited availability. PMID:27446869

  2. Volumetric Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Fatima; Ras, Johan; Seedat, Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and six in OCD were suitable for inclusion. Results: Volumetric findings were inconsistent in both disorders. In PTSD, findings suggest increased as well as decreased volumes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and corpus callosum; whilst in OCD studies indicate volumetric increase of the putamen, with inconsistent findings for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontal regions. Conclusions: Methodological differences may account for some of this inconsistency and additional volume-based studies in pediatric anxiety disorders using more uniform approaches are needed. PMID:23272001

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Normal, Chronologically Aged, Photoaged and Photodamaged Skin: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mamalis, Andrew; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of providing a non-invasive real-time cross-sectional image of the skin through the use of light-based interferometry– a method sometimes described as a “light-based ultrasound.” One key application of OCT in dermatology is the visualization of dermal collagen during processes such as chronological aging, photoaging, or photodamage. These skin conditions are typically managed by the practitioner’s subjective assessment of severity and response to therapy. METHODS & MATERIALS We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases for published literature on the imaging of skin collagen by OCT using the following search terms: “optical coherence tomography,” “OCT,” “skin,” “collagen,” “photoaging,” “wrinkles,” and “photodamage.” RESULTS Our search resulted in 23 articles investigating OCT skin collagen imaging meeting our search criteria. CONCLUSION We anticipate tremendous growth in the field of OCT skin imaging that will parallel the development ultrasound technology has experienced over the past 30 years. We foresee that OCT imaging to evaluate skin aging will not only help identify pathological changes earlier, but will also assist evaluation of response-to-therapy longitudinally without biopsy. PMID:26322560

  4. Can functional magnetic resonance imaging studies help with the optimization of health messaging for lifestyle behavior change? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Maxine E; Morgan, Paul S; Sherar, Lauren B; Orme, Mark W; Esliger, Dale W

    2017-02-15

    Unhealthy behaviors, including smoking, poor nutrition, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles, are global risk factors for non-communicable diseases and premature death. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a unique approach to optimize health messages by examining how the brain responds to information relating to health. Our aim was to systematically review fMRI studies that have investigated variations in brain activation in response to health messages relating to (i) smoking; (ii) alcohol consumption; (iii) physical activity; (iv) diet; and (v) sedentary behavior. The electronic databases used were Medline/PubMed, Web of Science (Core Collection), PsychINFO, SPORTDiscuss, Cochrane Library and Open Grey. Studies were included if they investigated subjects aged ≥10years and were published before January 2017. Of the 13,836 studies identified in the database search, 18 studies (smoking k=15; diet k=2; physical activity/sedentary behavior k=1) were included in the review. The prefrontal cortex was activated in seven (47%) of the smoking-related studies and the physical activity study. Results suggest that activation of the ventromedial, dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex regions were predictive of subsequent behavior change following exposure to aversive anti-smoking stimuli. Studies investigating the neurological responses to anti-smoking material were most abundant. Of note, the prefrontal cortex and amygdala were most commonly activated in response to health messages across lifestyle behaviors. The review highlights an important disparity between research focusing on different lifestyle behaviors. Insights from smoking literature suggest fMRI may help to optimize health messaging in relation to other lifestyle behaviors.

  5. Neurophysiological effects of acute oxytocin administration: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Rebekah; Radua, Jocham; Allen, Paul; Averbeck, Bruno; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhi S.; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) plays a prominent role in social cognition and may have clinical applications for disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and social anxiety. The neural basis of its mechanism of action remains unclear. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of placebo-controlled imaging studies using OXT as a pharmacological manipulator of brain activity. Results We identified a total of 21 studies for inclusion in our review, and after applying additional selection criteria, 11 of them were included in our fMRI voxel-based meta-analysis. The results demonstrate consistent alterations in activation of brain regions, including the temporal lobes and insula, during the processing of social stimuli, with some variation dependent on sex and task. The meta-analysis revealed significant left insular hyperactivation after OXT administration, suggesting a potential modulation of neural circuits underlying emotional processing. Limitations This quantitative review included only a limited number of studies, thus the conclusions of our analysis should be interpreted cautiously. This limited sample size precluded a more detailed exploration of potential confounding factors, such as sex or other demographic factors, that may have affected our meta-analysis. Conclusion Oxytocin has a wide range of effects over neural activity in response to social and emotional processing, which is further modulated by sex and task specificity. The magnitude of this neural activation is largest in the temporal lobes, and a meta-analysis across all tasks and both sexes showed that the left insula demonstrated the most robust activation to OXT administration. PMID:25520163

  6. Quantification of Heterogeneity as a Biomarker in Tumor Imaging: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alic, Lejla; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veenland, Jifke F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many techniques are proposed for the quantification of tumor heterogeneity as an imaging biomarker for differentiation between tumor types, tumor grading, response monitoring and outcome prediction. However, in clinical practice these methods are barely used. This study evaluates the reported performance of the described methods and identifies barriers to their implementation in clinical practice. Methodology The Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases were searched up to 20 September 2013. Heterogeneity analysis methods were classified into four categories, i.e., non-spatial methods (NSM), spatial grey level methods (SGLM), fractal analysis (FA) methods, and filters and transforms (F&T). The performance of the different methods was compared. Principal Findings Of the 7351 potentially relevant publications, 209 were included. Of these studies, 58% reported the use of NSM, 49% SGLM, 10% FA, and 28% F&T. Differentiation between tumor types, tumor grading and/or outcome prediction was the goal in 87% of the studies. Overall, the reported area under the curve (AUC) ranged from 0.5 to 1 (median 0.87). No relation was found between the performance and the quantification methods used, or between the performance and the imaging modality. A negative correlation was found between the tumor-feature ratio and the AUC, which is presumably caused by overfitting in small datasets. Cross-validation was reported in 63% of the classification studies. Retrospective analyses were conducted in 57% of the studies without a clear description. Conclusions In a research setting, heterogeneity quantification methods can differentiate between tumor types, grade tumors, and predict outcome and monitor treatment effects. To translate these methods to clinical practice, more prospective studies are required that use external datasets for validation: these datasets should be made available to the community to facilitate the development of new and improved methods. PMID:25330171

  7. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Dotterer, Hailey L; Murray, Laura; Maxwell, Andrea M; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-01-01

    Antisocial behavior (AB), including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  8. Relationship between brain structure on magnetic resonance imaging and motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Arnfield, Evyn; Guzzetta, Andrea; Boyd, Roslyn

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended in all children with cerebral palsy (CP) where the aetiology has not been established, and the major presenting problem in CP is reduced motor capacity. A systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the relationship between brain structure on MRI and motor outcomes in children with CP. A total of 37 studies met inclusion criteria, and were analysed in terms of (a) population characteristics, (b) MRI data, (c) motor outcome data, and (d) the relationship between MRI data and motor outcomes. All studies used a qualitative system to classify brain lesions; however, few reported information about the location and extent of lesions. Valid and reliable classifications of motor abilities were not always used, and three studies did not link motor findings to MRI features. There was, however, a relationship between the type of brain lesion on MRI and two specific motor outcomes, namely gross motor functional classification (using GMFCS) and motor type. This relationship could aid in the prediction and optimisation of early interventions for children with CP. There is also need for a quantitative MRI classification measure which includes detailed information about the location and severity of lesions.

  9. Role of follow-up imaging after resection of brain arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Joaquin E; Gersey, Zachary C; Wagner, Jason; Snelling, Brian; Ambekar, Sudheer; Peterson, Eric C

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Pediatric patients are at risk for the recurrence of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after resection. While there is general consensus on the importance of follow-up after surgical removal of an AVM, there is a lack of consistency in the duration of that follow-up. The object of this systematic review was to examine the role of follow-up imaging in detecting AVM recurrence early and preventing AVM rupture. METHODS This systematic review was performed using articles obtained through a search of the literature contained in the MeSH database, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS Search results revealed 1052 articles, 13 of which described 31 cases of AVM recurrence meeting the criteria for inclusion in this study. Detection of AVM occurred significantly earlier (mean ± SD, 3.56 ± 3.67 years) in patients with follow-up imaging than in those without (mean 8.86 ± 5.61 years; p = 0.0169). While 13.34% of patients who underwent follow-up imaging presented with rupture of a recurrent AVM, 57.14% of those without follow-up imaging presented with a ruptured recurrence (p = 0.0377). CONCLUSIONS Follow-up imaging has an integral role after AVM resection and is sometimes not performed for a sufficient period, leading to delayed detection of recurrence and an increased likelihood of a ruptured recurrent AVM.

  10. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  11. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-02

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. Here, we draw on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor-intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora - including non-random selection of review topics, 'small world' properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning - greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for so-called 'narrative' reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review. Where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods from linguistics and information management that provide models for mapping and resolving that complexity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. [Iridology: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2008-09-01

    This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.

  13. Three-dimensional Imaging Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Facial Soft Tissues and Skeletal Morphology in Patients with Orofacial Clefts: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, Mette A. R.; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Nada, Rania M.; Carels, Carine E. L.; Fudalej, Piotr S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for evaluating cleft palate treatments are mostly based on two-dimensional (2D) evaluation, but three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods to assess treatment outcome are steadily rising. Objective To identify 3D imaging methods for quantitative assessment of soft tissue and skeletal morphology in patients with cleft lip and palate. Data sources Literature was searched using PubMed (1948–2012), EMBASE (1980–2012), Scopus (2004–2012), Web of Science (1945–2012), and the Cochrane Library. The last search was performed September 30, 2012. Reference lists were hand searched for potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. Study selection We included publications using 3D imaging techniques to assess facial soft tissue or skeletal morphology in patients older than 5 years with a cleft lip with/or without cleft palate. We reviewed studies involving the facial region when at least 10 subjects in the sample size had at least one cleft type. Only primary publications were included. Data extraction Independent extraction of data and quality assessments were performed by two observers. Results Five hundred full text publications were retrieved, 144 met the inclusion criteria, with 63 high quality studies. There were differences in study designs, topics studied, patient characteristics, and success measurements; therefore, only a systematic review could be conducted. Main 3D-techniques that are used in cleft lip and palate patients are CT, CBCT, MRI, stereophotogrammetry, and laser surface scanning. These techniques are mainly used for soft tissue analysis, evaluation of bone grafting, and changes in the craniofacial skeleton. Digital dental casts are used to evaluate treatment and changes over time. Conclusion Available evidence implies that 3D imaging methods can be used for documentation of CLP patients. No data are available yet showing that 3D methods are more informative than conventional 2D methods. Further research

  14. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Assaf, Suely Muro Reis; Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco de; Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha de; Souza, Jacqueline Mazzuchelli de; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; Módolo, Diego Grando; Roperto, Franco Peppino; Stocco, Rita de Cassia; Beçak, Willy

    2017-02-16

    In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women.

  15. Image-Based Medical Expert Teleconsultation in Acute Care of Injuries. A Systematic Review of Effects on Information Accuracy, Diagnostic Validity, Clinical Outcome, and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Hasselberg, Marie; Beer, Netta; Blom, Lisa; Wallis, Lee A.; Laflamme, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. Design Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. Data sources Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. Eligibility criteria Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. Method The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. Results Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. Conclusions Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological shortcomings. As in the case

  16. Synchrotron μCT imaging of bone, titanium implants and bone substitutes - a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2014-09-01

    Today X-ray micro computer tomography (μCT) imaging is used to investigate bone microarchitecture. μCT imaging is obtained by polychromatic X-ray beams, resulting in images with beam hardening artifacts, resolution levels at 10 μm, geometrical blurring, and lack of contrasts. When μCT is coupled to synchrotron sources (SRμCT) a spatial resolution up to one tenth of a μm may be achieved. A review of the literature concerning SRμCT was performed to investigate its usability and its strength in visualizing fine bone structures, vessels, and microarchitecture of bone. Although mainly limited to in vitro examinations, SRμCT is considered as a gold standard to image trabecular bone microarchitecture since it is possible in a 3D manner to visualize fine structural elements within mineralized tissue such as osteon boundaries, rods and plates structures, cement lines, and differences in mineralization.

  17. F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography imaging in primary staging of patients with malignant melanoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic review was to systematically assess the potential patient-relevant benefit (primary aim) and diagnostic and prognostic accuracy (secondary aim) of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (CT) in primary staging of malignant melanoma. This systematic review updates the previous evidence for PET(/CT) in malignant melanoma. Materials and methods For the first aim, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating patient-relevant outcomes and comparing PET and PET(/CT) with each other or with conventional imaging were considered. For the secondary aim, a review of reviews was conducted, which was amended by an update search for primary studies. MEDLINE, EMBASE and four databases of the Cochrane Library were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified QUADAS tool. Results No RCTs investigating the patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) and no prognostic accuracy studies were found. Seventeen diagnostic accuracy studies of varying quality were identified. For patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I and II, sensitivity mostly ranged from 0 to 67%. Specificity ranged from 77 to 100%. For AJCC stages III and IV, sensitivity ranged from 68 to 87% and specificity from 92 to 98%. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of a patient-relevant benefit of PET(/CT) in the primary staging of malignant melanoma. RCTs investigating patient-relevant outcomes are therefore required. The diagnostic accuracy of PET(/CT) appears to increase with higher AJCC stages. PMID:23237499

  18. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ejzenberg, Dani; Mendes, Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli; de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Baracat, Edmund Chada; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Andraus, Wellington

    2016-01-01

    Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women. PMID:27982170

  19. Conventional radiography and cross-sectional imaging when planning dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible to support an overdenture: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shelley, A M; Glenny, A-M; Goodwin, M; Brunton, P; Horner, K

    2014-01-01

    The objectives for this systematic review were to determine if the pre-operative availability of cross-sectional imaging, such as cone beam CT, has a diagnostic impact, therapeutic impact or impact on patients' outcome when placing two dental implants in the anterior mandible to support an overdenture. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE® and Embase were searched up to, and including, February 2013. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they compared the impact of conventional and cross-sectional imaging when placing dental implants in sites including the anterior mandible. An adapted quality assessment tool was used for the assessment of the risk of bias in included studies. Pooled quantitative analysis was not possible and, therefore, synthesis was qualitative. Of 2374 potentially eligible papers, 5 studies were included. Little can be determined from a synthesis of these studies because of their small number, clinical diversity and high risks of bias. Notwithstanding, it may be tentatively inferred that cross-sectional imaging has a therapeutic impact in the more challenging cases. In terms of impact, this review has found no evidence to support any specific imaging modality when planning dental implant placement in any region of the mouth. Therefore, those who argue that cross-sectional imaging should be used for the assessment of all dental implant sites are unsupported by evidence.

  20. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management.

    PubMed

    Vollherbst, Dominik; Bertheau, Robert; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Radeleff, Boris Alexis; Pereira, Philippe L; Sommer, Christof-Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an established treatment for small renal tumors. The objective of this review is to systematically assess the type, frequency, risk factors and management of treatment failure after image-guided percutaneous RFA of renal tumors. Method 10 studies (967 patients, 1033 tumors) with a mean/median follow-up of ≥ 30 months were systematically identified and analyzed. Results and Conclusion Image-guided percutaneous RFA of localized renal tumors is very effective. The most common type of treatment failure is residual unablated tumor (5.9 %), followed by local tumor progression (4.7 %). De novo tumors in the kidneys occur in 1.3 % of cases and extra-renal metastases in 2.0 %. Local tumor progression, de novo tumors in the kidneys and extra-renal metastases occur predominantly later than 12 months after initial RFA. Tumor size > 3 cm and central tumor location are the major risk factors for treatment failure. In the case of treatment failure, repeated RFA shows high success rates (86.3 % for residual unablated tumors and 87.5 % for local tumor progression). Key Points: · Treatment failure can be subdivided into residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression.. · Residual unablated tumor occurs in 5.9 % of cases.. · Local tumor progression occurs in 4.7 % of cases.. · Tumor size and location are the major risk factors for treatment failure.. · Repeated RFA is effective and commonly used for management.. Citation Format · Vollherbst D, Bertheau R, Kauczor H et al. Treatment Failure After Image-Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Renal Tumors - A Systematic Review with Description of Type, Frequency, Risk Factors and Management. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 219 - 227.

  1. 68Ga-DOTATATE Compared with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide and Conventional Imaging for Pulmonary and Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen A.; Blume, Jeffrey; Bobbey, Adam J.; Shah, Chirayu; Graham, Michael M.; Lee, Patricia; Delbeke, Dominique; Walker, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors with increasing incidence and prevalence. Current reports suggest that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging improves diagnosis and staging of NETs compared with 111In-DTPA-octreotide and conventional imaging. We performed a systematic review of 68Ga-DOTATATE for safety and efficacy compared with octreotide and conventional imaging to determine whether available evidence supports U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Methods Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Reviews electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to September 2015. Results were restricted to human studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of 68Ga-DOTATATE with octreotide or conventional imaging for pulmonary or gastroenteropancreatic NET and for human studies reporting safety/ toxicity for 68Ga-DOTATATE with 10 subjects or more thought to have NETs. Direct communication with corresponding authors was attempted to obtain missing information. Abstracts meeting eligibility criteria were collected by a research librarian and assembled for reviewers; 2 reviewers independently determined whether or not to include each abstract. If either reviewer chose inclusion, the abstract was accepted for review. Results Database and bibliography searches yielded 2,479 articles, of which 42 were eligible. Three studies compared the 2 radiopharmaceuticals in the same patient, finding 68Ga-DOTATATE to be more sensitive than octreotide. Nine studies compared 68Ga-DOTATATE with conventional imaging. 68Ga-DOTATATE estimated sensitivity, 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 81.4%–96.4%), and specificity, 90.6% (95% confidence interval, 77.8%–96.1%), were high. Five studies were retained for safety reporting only. Report of harm possibly related to 68Ga-DOTATATE was rare (6 of 974), and no study reported major toxicity or safety issues. Conclusion No direct comparison of octreotide and 68Ga-DOTATATE imaging for diagnosis and staging in an unbiased population of NETs

  2. A Systematic Review of Cochrane Anticoagulation Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Cundiff, David Keith

    2009-01-01

    Context I coauthored a published review of anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published a review on the same topic in MedGenMed (now the Medscape Journal of Medicine). In contrast to the article in Medscape, the discussion and conclusions in the Cochrane review were altered appreciably during the review process. Consequently, I decided to critique all anticoagulation drug-related reviews and protocols in the Cochrane database with feedback letters concerning any issues of potential controversy. Evidence Acquisition Using key words in the search engine of the Cochrane Reviews, I located reviews and protocols involving anticoagulant drugs. I critiqued each anticoagulation review and protocol and sent a total of 57 feedback letters to Cochrane concerning each publication to elicit a response/rebuttal from the authors. Evidence Synthesis Cochrane anticoagulation review editors acknowledged receipt of all letters. As of 12 months after receipt of my last letter, the Cochrane authors have replied to 13 of the 57 and agreed with many of my points. Two protocols were withdrawn after my feedback letters were acknowledged. The 58 Cochrane anticoagulation drug reviews, including mine, contained 9 categories of methodological errors (207 total instances) and 4 types of biases (18 total instances). This review of those Cochrane reviews suggests that the effectiveness of anticoagulants for 30 medical indications is questionable. Conclusions The efficacy of anticoagulants for treatment and prophylaxis for 30 current medical indications should be reconsidered by the scientific community and medical regulatory agencies. At least 50,000 people per year worldwide have fatal bleeding due to anticoagulant treatment or prophylaxis for these indications. PMID:19295926

  3. Searching for non-genetic molecular and imaging PTSD risk and resilience markers: Systematic review of literature and design of the German Armed Forces PTSD biomarker study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kowalski, Jens T; Zimmermann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers allowing the identification of individuals with an above average vulnerability or resilience for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would especially serve populations at high risk for trauma exposure like firefighters, police officers and combat soldiers. Aiming to identify the most promising putative PTSD vulnerability markers, we conducted the first systematic review on potential imaging and non-genetic molecular markers for PTSD risk and resilience. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically screened the PubMed database for prospective longitudinal clinical studies and twin studies reporting on pre-trauma and post-trauma PTSD risk and resilience biomarkers. Using 25 different combinations of search terms, we retrieved 8151 articles of which we finally included and evaluated 9 imaging and 27 molecular studies. In addition, we briefly illustrate the design of the ongoing prospective German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) PTSD biomarker study (Bw-BioPTSD) which not only aims to validate these previous findings but also to identify novel and clinically applicable molecular, psychological and imaging risk, resilience and disease markers for deployment-related psychopathology in a cohort of German soldiers who served in Afghanistan.

  4. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  5. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pursey, Kirrilly M.; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J.; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies. PMID:25988110

  6. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Martin L.; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B.; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A.; Scherer, Roberta W.; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  7. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Imaging for the diagnosis of malignancy in incidentally discovered adrenal masses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dinnes, Jacqueline; Bancos, Irina; Ferrante di Ruffano, Lavinia; Chortis, Vasileios; Davenport, Clare; Bayliss, Susan; Sahdev, Anju; Guest, Peter; Fassnacht, Martin; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adrenal masses are incidentally discovered in 5% of CT scans. In 2013/2014, 81 million CT examinations were undertaken in the USA and 5 million in the UK. However, uncertainty remains around the optimal imaging approach for diagnosing malignancy. We aimed to review the evidence on the accuracy of imaging tests for differentiating malignant from benign adrenal masses. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and ZETOC (January 1990 to August 2015). We included studies evaluating the accuracy of CT, MRI, or 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET compared with an adequate histological or imaging-based follow-up reference standard. Results We identified 37 studies suitable for inclusion, after screening 5469 references and 525 full-text articles. Studies evaluated the accuracy of CT (n=16), MRI (n=15), and FDG-PET (n=9) and were generally small and at high or unclear risk of bias. Only 19 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Limited data suggest that CT density >10HU has high sensitivity for detection of adrenal malignancy in participants with no prior indication for adrenal imaging, that is, masses with ≤10HU are unlikely to be malignant. All other estimates of test performance are based on too small numbers. Conclusions Despite their widespread use in routine assessment, there is insufficient evidence for the diagnostic value of individual imaging tests in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. Future research is urgently needed and should include prospective test validation studies for imaging and novel diagnostic approaches alongside detailed health economics analysis. PMID:27257145

  8. Telemedicine Security: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Vaibhav; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is a technology-based alternative to traditional health care delivery. However, poor security measures in telemedicine services can have an adverse impact on the quality of care provided, regardless of the chronic condition being studied. We undertook a systematic review of 58 journal articles pertaining to telemedicine security. These articles were selected based on a keyword search on 14 relevant journals. The articles were coded to evaluate the methodology and to identify the key areas of research in security that are being reviewed. Seventy-six percent of the articles defined the security problem they were addressing, and only 47% formulated a research question pertaining to security. Sixty-one percent proposed a solution, and 20% of these tested the security solutions that they proposed. Prior research indicates inadequate reporting of methodology in telemedicine research. We found that to be true for security research as well. We also identified other issues such as using outdated security standards. PMID:21722592

  9. Telemedicine security: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vaibhav; Brewer, Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Telemedicine is a technology-based alternative to traditional health care delivery. However, poor security measures in telemedicine services can have an adverse impact on the quality of care provided, regardless of the chronic condition being studied. We undertook a systematic review of 58 journal articles pertaining to telemedicine security. These articles were selected based on a keyword search on 14 relevant journals. The articles were coded to evaluate the methodology and to identify the key areas of research in security that are being reviewed. Seventy-six percent of the articles defined the security problem they were addressing, and only 47% formulated a research question pertaining to security. Sixty-one percent proposed a solution, and 20% of these tested the security solutions that they proposed. Prior research indicates inadequate reporting of methodology in telemedicine research. We found that to be true for security research as well. We also identified other issues such as using outdated security standards.

  10. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  11. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  12. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH]), “child” (MeSH), and “childhood depression” (keyword). Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs concerning childhood depression are not always taken into consideration. In this context, this review demonstrated that childhood-onset depression commonly leads to other psychiatric disorders and co-morbidities. Many of the retrieved studies also confirmed the hypothesis that human resources (eg, health care team in general) are not yet adequately trained to address childhood depression. Thus, further research on the development of programs to prepare health care professionals to deal with childhood depression is needed, as well as complementary studies, with larger and more homogeneous samples, centered on prevention

  13. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  14. Computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Li, B; Li, C J; Li, Y; Su, F; Gao, Q H; Wu, F L; Yu, T; Wu, L; Li, L J

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are common imaging methods to detect cervical lymph node metastasis of head and neck cancer. We aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of CT and MRI in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis, and to establish unified diagnostic criteria via systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search in five databases until January 2014 was carried out. All retrieved studies were reviewed and eligible studies were qualitatively summarized. Besides pooling the sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE) data of CT and MRI, summary receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. A total of 63 studies including 3,029 participants were involved. The pooled results of meta-analysis showed that CT had a higher SEN (0.77 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.73-0.87]) than MRI (0.72 [95% CI 0.70-0.74]) when node was considered as unit of analysis (P<0.05); MRI had a higher SPE (0.81 [95% CI 0.80-0.82]) than CT (0.72 [95% CI 0.69-0.74]) when neck level was considered as unit of analysis (P<0.05) and MRI had a higher area under concentration-time curve than CT when the patient was considered as unit of analysis (P<0.05). With regards to diagnostic criteria, for MRI, the results showed that the minimal axial diameter of 10 mm could be considered as the best size criterion, compared to 12 mm for CT. Overall, MRI conferred significantly higher SPE while CT demonstrated higher SEN. The diagnostic criteria for MRI and CT on size of metastatic lymph nodes were suggested as 10 and 12 mm, respectively.

  15. The value of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion biopsy platforms in prostate cancer detection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Maudy; van der Aa, Anouk; Beerlage, Harrie P; Schrier, Bart Ph; Mulders, Peter F A; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite limitations considering the presence, staging and aggressiveness of prostate cancer, ultrasonography (US)-guided systematic biopsies (SBs) are still the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, promising results have been published for targeted prostate biopsies (TBs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion platforms. Different platforms are USA Food and Drug Administration registered and have, mostly subjective, strengths and weaknesses. To our knowledge, no systematic review exists that objectively compares prostate cancer detection rates between the different platforms available. To assess the value of the different MRI/US-fusion platforms in prostate cancer detection, we compared platform-guided TB with SB, and other ways of MRI TB (cognitive fusion or in-bore MR fusion). We performed a systematic review of well-designed prospective randomised and non-randomised trials in the English language published between 1 January 2004 and 17 February 2015, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included: 'prostate cancer', 'MR/ultrasound(US) fusion' and 'targeted biopsies'. Extraction of articles was performed by two authors (M.G. and A.A.) and were evaluated by the other authors. Randomised and non-randomised prospective clinical trials comparing TB using MRI/US-fusion platforms and SB, or other ways of TB (cognitive fusion or MR in-bore fusion) were included. In all, 11 of 1865 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving seven different fusion platforms and 2626 patients: 1119 biopsy naïve, 1433 with prior negative biopsy, 50 not mentioned (either biopsy naïve or with prior negative biopsy) and 24 on active surveillance (who were disregarded). The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the quality of included articles. No clear advantage of MRI/US fusion-guided TBs was seen for cancer detection rates (CDRs) of all prostate

  16. A clinician's guide to systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Crowther, David M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss systematic reviews, how they are performed, and their associated strengths and limitations. A systematic review is an assessment of evidence involving exact methods to systematically identify, select, and critically evaluate all available literature on a particular topic. Unlike most narrative reviews, systematic reviews have defined methods established a priori for searching, evaluating, extracting, synthesizing, and reporting available evidence. Key characteristics differentiating systematic reviews from most narrative reviews include: clearly stated objectives, pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, an explicit reproducible methodology, systematic exhaustive searches to identify all sources of evidence, an assessment of the validity for each included study, and a systematic presentation of the study characteristics/results. Though there are significant advantages to systematic reviews, there are also clear limitations such as: the quality of included evidence; heterogeneity and homogeneity of included studies; and publication bias. Even with these limitations, systematic reviews are beneficial to front line clinicians when the quantity of evidence is so substantial that reviewing and synthesizing it is not feasible, available evidence is conflicting, or when the robustness of available evidence is unknown.

  17. How to Conduct a Systematic Review: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Nusrat; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews are ranked very high in research and are considered the most valid form of medical evidence. They provide a complete summary of the current literature relevant to a research question and can be of immense use to medical professionals. Our goal with this paper is to conduct a narrative review of the literature about systematic reviews and outline the essential elements of a systematic review along with the limitations of such a review. PMID:27924252

  18. Keratocystic odontogenic tumour: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this review is to evaluate the principal clinical and conventional radiographic features of non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KCOT) by systematic review (SR), and to compare the frequencies between four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of Medline and LILACS. Only those reports of KCOTs that occurred in a series of consecutive cases, in the reporting authors' caseload, were considered. Results 51 reports, of 49 series of cases, were included in the SR. 11 SR-included series were in languages other than English. KCOTs affected males more frequently and were three times more prevalent in the mandible. Although the mean age at first presentation was 37 years, the largest proportion of cases first presented in the third decade. The main symptom was swelling. Over a third were found incidentally. Nearly two-thirds displayed buccolingual expansion. Over a quarter of cases recurred. Only a quarter of all SR-included reported series of cases included details of at least one radiological feature. The East Asian global group presented significantly as well-defined, even corticated, multilocular radiolucencies with buccolingual expansion. The KCOTs affecting the Western global group significantly displayed an association with unerupted teeth. Conclusions Long-term follow-up of large series that would have revealed detailed radiographic description and long-term outcomes of non-syndromic KCOT was lacking. PMID:21159911

  19. Retinal implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability.

  20. Masked hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bobrie, Guillaume; Clerson, Pierre; Ménard, Joël; Postel-Vinay, Nicolas; Chatellier, Gilles; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to review the literature on masked hypertension. Studies, reviews and editorials on masked hypertension were identified by PubMed, Pascal BioMed and Cochrane literature systematic searches. Then, we carried out a meta-analysis of the six cohort studies reporting quantitative data for masked hypertension prognosis. There is still no clear consensus definition of masked hypertension and the reproducibility of the phenomenon is unknown. Nevertheless, the prevalence of masked hypertension seems to lie between 8 and 20%, and can be up to 50% in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects with masked hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular accidents [hazard ratios: 1.92 (1.51-2.44)] than normotensive subjects. This is due to a possible failure to recognize and appropriately manage this particular form of hypertension, the frequent association with other risk factors and coexisting target organ damage. The remaining unresolved questions are as follows: is masked hypertension a clinical entity that requires identification and characterization or a statistical phenomenon linked to the variability of blood pressure measurements?; because screening of the entire population is not feasible, how to identify individuals with masked hypertension?; and, in the absence of randomized trial, how to treat masked hypertension?

  1. Examining a supramodal network for conflict processing: a systematic review and novel functional magnetic resonance imaging data for related visual and auditory stroop tasks.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Katherine L; Hall, Deborah A

    2008-06-01

    Cognitive control over conflicting information has been studied extensively using tasks such as the color-word Stroop, flanker, and spatial conflict task. Neuroimaging studies typically identify a fronto-parietal network engaged in conflict processing, but numerous additional regions are also reported. Ascribing putative functional roles to these regions is problematic because some may have less to do with conflict processing per se, but could be engaged in specific processes related to the chosen stimulus modality, stimulus feature, or type of conflict task. In addition, some studies contrast activation on incongruent and congruent trials, even though a neutral baseline is needed to separate the effect of inhibition from that of facilitation. In the first part of this article, we report a systematic review of 34 neuroimaging publications, which reveals that conflict-related activity is reliably reported in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior insula, and the parietal lobe. In the second part, we further explore these candidate "conflict" regions through a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, in which the same group of subjects perform related visual and auditory Stroop tasks. By carefully controlling for the same task (Stroop), the same to-be-ignored stimulus dimension (word meaning), and by separating out inhibitory processes from those of facilitation, we attempt to minimize the potential differences between the two tasks. The results provide converging evidence that the regions identified by the systematic review are reliably engaged in conflict processing. Despite carefully matching the Stroop tasks, some regions of differential activity remained, particularly in the parietal cortex. We discuss some of the task-specific processes which might account for this finding.

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Gasparini, G; Parodi, A

    2014-10-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, chronic neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown etiology. The world wide incidence is estimated to be around 3-10 cases per million population per year. In 50-70% of cases inflammatory bowel diseases, hematological malignancies or rheumatologic disorders are associated to PG. Although the etiology is uncertain, the dysregulation of the immune system appears to be implied. Pathergy is the most important triggering factor of PG. Indeed, 20-30% of patients report the onset of PG following trivial trauma. Four main variants of PG have been described, namely classic, pustular, bullous, and vegetative forms. The classic form of PG is characterized by ulcers with a raised, undermined, inflammatory border. Intense pain is generally associated to PG. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and of exclusion. The differential diagnosis should take into account infections, vascular disorders and malignancies. The clinical course can be explosive and rapidly progressive or indolent and gradually progressive. Often patients develop only one episode and the overall prognosis is good but extremely influenced by the underlying disorders. Local therapy, mainly with topic steroids is used for mild to moderate lesions. For severe forms of PG a systemic therapy with glucocorticoids and/or other drugs such as tacrolimus, cyclosporine, etc. is needed. This paper is a systematic review of literature on PG.

  3. Does pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder alter the brain? Systematic review and meta-analysis of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Milani, Ana Carolina C; Hoffmann, Elis V; Fossaluza, Victor; Jackowski, Andrea P; Mello, Marcelo F

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that the volumes of specific brain regions are reduced in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those of healthy controls. Our study investigated the potential association between early traumatic experiences and altered brain regions and functions. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature regarding functional magnetic resonance imaging and a meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies that investigated cerebral region volumes in pediatric patients with PTSD. We searched for articles from 2000 to 2014 in the PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and ISI (Web of Knowledge) databases. All data regarding the amygdala, hippocampus, corpus callosum, brain, and intracranial volumes that fit the inclusion criteria were extracted and combined in a meta-analysis that assessed differences between groups. The meta-analysis found reduced total corpus callosum areas and reduced total cerebral and intracranial volumes in the patients with PTSD. The total hippocampus (left and right hippocampus) and gray matter volumes of the amygdala and frontal lobe were also reduced, but these differences were not significant. The functional studies revealed differences in brain region activation in response to stimuli in the post-traumatic stress symptoms/PTSD group. Our results confirmed that the pediatric patients with PTSD exhibited structural and functional brain abnormalities and that some of the abnormalities occurred in different brain regions than those observed in adults.

  4. Glandular odontogenic cyst: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal features of “glandular odontogenic cyst” (GOC), by systematic review (SR), and to compare their frequencies among four global groups. Methods The databases searched were the PubMed interface of MEDLINE and LILACS. Only those reports of GOCs that occurred in a series in the reporting authors' caseload were considered. All cases were confirmed histopathologically. Results 18 reports on 17 series of consecutive cases were included in the SR. GOC affected males twice as frequently and the mandible almost three times as frequently. The mean age at first presentation was 44 years, coincident with that of the Western global group, in which the largest proportion of reports and cases first presented in the second half of the fifth decade. However, age at presentation of GOCs in the East Asian and sub-Saharan African global groups was nearly a decade younger, this was significant. Six reports included details of at least one clinical presentation. Eight reports included at least one conventional radiological feature. There were some significant differences between global groups. The Western global group had a particular predilection for the anterior sextants of both jaws. The sub-Saharan African group displayed buccolingual expansion (as did the Latin American group) and tooth displacement in every case. 18% of GOCs recurred overall, except in the sub-Saharan African global group. Conclusions GOCs have a marked propensity to recur in most global groups. GOCs presented in older patients and with swellings, affected the anterior sextants of both jaws, and radiologically were more likely to present as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with buccolingual expansion. Tooth displacement, root resorption and an association with unerupted teeth occurred in 50%, 30% and 11% of cases, respectively. PMID:20203274

  5. Search strategies for finding systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, D

    2017-03-13

    I have read with interest the 2017 article by F Gómez-García and colleagues called "Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest, and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality" published in the BJD. This study makes a very important point about the influence of funding sources and conflicts of interests on the methodological quality of systematic reviews. However, I have some concerns about the search strategy used to find systematic reviews for this analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Accuracy of imaging parameters in the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia secondary to mid-trimester prelabor rupture of fetal membranes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Teeffelen, A S P; Van Der Heijden, J; Oei, S G; Porath, M M; Willekes, C; Opmeer, B; Mol, B W J

    2012-05-01

    In women who have suffered mid-trimester prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia is important for optimal management. We performed a systematic review to assess the capacity of imaging parameters to predict pulmonary hypoplasia. We searched for published articles that reported on biometric parameters and allowed the construction of a 2 × 2 table, comparing at least one of these parameters with the occurrence of pulmonary hypoplasia. The selected studies were scored on methodological quality and we calculated sensitivity and specificity of the tests in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia and lethal pulmonary hypoplasia. Overall performance was assessed by summary receiver-operating characteristics (sROC) analyses that were performed with bivariate meta-analysis. We detected 13 studies that reported on the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia. The quality of the included studies was poor to mediocre. The estimated sROC curves for the chest circumference/abdominal circumference ratio and other parameters showed limited accuracy in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia. In women with mid-trimester PPROM, the available evidence indicates limited accuracy of biometric parameters in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  7. A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju

    2012-11-01

    As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

  8. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  9. Systematic reviews in the field of nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...

  10. Advancing Systematic Review Workshop (December 2015)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.

  11. A systematic review of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in imaging studies of cognitive aging: time to establish new norms

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, Liesel-Ann C.; Kansal, Nisha; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; Yuen, William; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Greenwood, Carol E.; Anderson, Nicole D.

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hypertension in older adults, and the deleterious effect of these conditions on cerebrovascular and brain health, is creating a growing discrepancy between the “typical” cognitive aging trajectory and a “healthy” cognitive aging trajectory. These changing health demographics make T2DM and hypertension important topics of study in their own right, and warrant attention from the perspective of cognitive aging neuroimaging research. Specifically, interpretation of individual or group differences in blood oxygenation level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET H2O15) signals as reflective of differences in neural activation underlying a cognitive operation of interest requires assumptions of intact vascular health amongst the study participants. Without adequate screening, inclusion of individuals with T2DM or hypertension in “healthy” samples may introduce unwanted variability and bias to brain and/or cognitive measures, and increase potential for error. We conducted a systematic review of the cognitive aging neuroimaging literature to document the extent to which researchers account for these conditions. Of the 232 studies selected for review, few explicitly excluded individuals with T2DM (9%) or hypertension (13%). A large portion had exclusion criteria that made it difficult to determine whether T2DM or hypertension were excluded (44 and 37%), and many did not mention any selection criteria related to T2DM or hypertension (34 and 22%). Of all the surveyed studies, only 29% acknowledged or addressed the potential influence of intersubject vascular variability on the measured BOLD or PET signals. To reinforce the notion that individuals with T2DM and hypertension should not be overlooked as a potential source of bias, we also provide an overview of metabolic and vascular changes associated with T2DM and hypertension, as they relate to cerebrovascular and

  12. A systematic method for search term selection in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user.

  13. A Guideline for Applying Systematic Reviews to Child Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…

  14. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  15. A systematic review of antiproton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Wilkens, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.

  16. Oral manifestations of lymphoma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Taísa Domingues Bernardes; Ferreira, Camila Belo Tavares; Leite, Gustavo Boehmer; de Menezes Pontes, José Roberto; Antunes, Héliton S

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma is a malignant disease with two forms: Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed in extranodal sites in 40% of cases, and the head and neck region is the second most affected, with an incidence of 11–33%, while HL has a very low incidence in extranodal sites (1–4%). The aim of this study was to identify the oral manifestations of lymphoma through a systematic literature review, which we conducted using the PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We found 1456 articles, from which we selected 73. Among the intraoral findings, the most frequent were ulcerations, pain, swelling, and tooth mobility, while the extraoral findings included facial asymmetry and cervical, submandibular, and submental lymphadenopathy. Among the few studies reporting imaging findings, the most cited lesions included hypodense lesions with diffuse boundaries, bone resorptions, and tooth displacements. The publications reviewed highlight gaps in the areas of early detection, diagnosis, and proper treatment. PMID:27594910

  17. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  18. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  19. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  20. A systematic review of the reporting of sample size calculations and corresponding data components in observational functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Thabane, Lehana; Hall, Geoffrey; McKinnon, Margaret; Goeree, Ron; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2014-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies rarely consider statistical power when setting a sample size. This raises concerns since undersized studies may fail to detect effects of interest and encourage data dredging. Although sample size methodology in this field exists, implementation requires specifications of estimated effect size and variance components. We therefore systematically evaluated how often estimates of effect size and variance components were reported in observational fMRI studies involving clinical human participants published in six leading journals between January 2010 and December 2011. A random sample of 100 eligible articles was included in data extraction and analyses. Two independent reviewers assessed the reporting of sample size calculations and the data components required to perform the calculations in the fMRI literature. One article (1%) reported sample size calculations. The reporting of parameter estimates for effect size (8%), between-subject variance (4%), within-subject variance (1%) and temporal autocorrelation matrix (0%) was uncommon. Three articles (3%) reported Cohen's d or F effect sizes. The majority (83%) reported peak or average t, z or F statistics. The inter-rater agreement was very good, with a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) value greater than 0.88. We concluded that sample size calculations were seldom reported in fMRI studies. Moreover, omission of parameter estimates for effect size, between- and within-subject variances, and temporal autocorrelation matrix could limit investigators' ability to perform power analyses for new studies. We suggest routine reporting of these quantities, and recommend strategies for reducing bias in their reported values.

  1. Dental insurance: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.

    2014-01-01

    To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately. PMID:25558454

  2. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    PubMed Central

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings. PMID:16917652

  3. Challenges of Systematic Reviewing Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Ian D.; Khorsan, Raheleh; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on an extensive review of integrative medicine (IM) and integrative health care (IHC). Since there is no general agreement of what constitutes IM/IHC, several major problems were identified that make the review of work in this field problematic. In applying the systematic review methodology, we found that many of those captured articles that used the term integrative medicine were in actuality referring to adjunctive, complementary, or supplemental medicine. The objective of this study was to apply a sensitivity analysis to demonstrate how the results of a systematic review of IM and IHC will differ according to what inclusion criteria is used based on the definition of IM/IHC. By analyzing 4 different scenarios, the authors show that, due to unclear usage of these terms, results vary dramatically, exposing an inconsistent literature base for this field. PMID:23843689

  4. VISCOSUPPLEMENTATION IN ANKLE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Thiago Batista; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Jambeiro, Jorge Eduardo de Schoucair; Tavares, Antero; Delmonte, Fernando Moreira; Daltro, Gildásio de Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To evaluate the efficacy of viscosupplementation in patients with osteoarthritis of the ankle. A systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature on the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. For this review, we considered blind randomized prospective studies involving the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. A total of 1,961 articles were identified in various databases. After examining each of the articles, five articles were included in this review. Treatment with intraarticular hyaluronic acid is a safe treatment modality that significantly improves functional scores of patients, with no evidence of superiority in relation to other conservative treatments. Further clinical trials with larger numbers of patients are needed so that we can recommend its use and address unanswered questions. Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. PMID:26997916

  5. VISCOSUPPLEMENTATION IN ANKLE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Faleiro, Thiago Batista; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Jambeiro, Jorge Eduardo de Schoucair; Tavares, Antero; Delmonte, Fernando Moreira; Daltro, Gildásio de Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of viscosupplementation in patients with osteoarthritis of the ankle. A systematic review to evaluate the evidence in the literature on the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. For this review, we considered blind randomized prospective studies involving the use of viscosupplementation for osteoarthritis of the ankle. A total of 1,961 articles were identified in various databases. After examining each of the articles, five articles were included in this review. Treatment with intraarticular hyaluronic acid is a safe treatment modality that significantly improves functional scores of patients, with no evidence of superiority in relation to other conservative treatments. Further clinical trials with larger numbers of patients are needed so that we can recommend its use and address unanswered questions . Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials.

  6. A systematic review of busways

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    Busways are controlled-access facilities dedicated for bus service separated from general traffic. The concept of busways was first given serious consideration in the 1960s; however, only a few of them have been constructed in North America. This paper examines the potential of busway transit in providing urban environments with cost-effective mobility. The review makes the case that there are some misconceptions concerning the cost and level-of-service characteristics of busways. In the final section, a comparison is made between busways and their most prominent competitor, light rail. The comparison is done in the framework of the four most cited advantages of light rail, and concludes that busways, in most cases, are likely to be a superior mode of transit to light rail.

  7. Ostomy care and management: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Recalla, Stacy; English, Kim; Nazarali, Rishma; Mayo, Samantha; Miller, Debbie; Gray, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of ostomy surgery in Canada is not known, but it is estimated that approximately 13,000 ostomy surgeries are performed annually in Canada. This systematic review incorporates evidence for the assessment and management of colostomies, ileostomies, and urostomies, as well as the peristomal skin. The review was completed as part of a best practice guideline document generated by a task force appointed by the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario.

  8. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  9. A Systematic Review of Assessment Literacy Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotch, Chad M.; French, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    This work systematically reviews teacher assessment literacy measures within the context of contemporary teacher evaluation policy. In this study, the researchers collected objective tests of assessment knowledge, teacher self-reports, and rubrics to evaluate teachers' work in assessment literacy studies from 1991 to 2012. Then they evaluated…

  10. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  11. Mobile text messaging for health: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda K; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-03-18

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness.

  12. Aging techniques for deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajah, B; Sounderajah, V; Rowland, S P; Leen, E L S; Davies, A H

    2015-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is common with an incidence of 1 in 1000. Acute thrombus removal for extensive proximal deep vein thrombosis using catheter-directed techniques highlights the need for accurate assessment of thrombus age. This systematic review summarises experimental and clinical evidence of imaging techniques for aging deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance imaging were highlighted as the most studied imaging modalities. Elastography was shown to distinguish between acute and chronic clots, despite demonstrating difficulty in accurate aging of clots older than 10 days in rat models. Elastography is noted as a feasible adjunct to current first-line imaging for deep vein thrombosis using duplex ultrasonography. Combinations of magnetic resonance imaging techniques can identify acute, sub-acute and chronic thrombi using endogenous contrast agents and provide objective standardisation of the diagnostic process, with reduced onus upon operator dependency. Further validation is required of these novel imaging techniques prior to clinical implementation for deep vein thrombosis aging.

  13. [Medical indications for acupuncture: Systematic review].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme

    2016-09-16

    Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies.

  14. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Exam, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture with an Exploration of Test Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher R.; Hussain, Adnan M.; Ward, Michael J.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M.; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. Objectives To perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH. A secondary objective was to delineate probability of disease thresholds for imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). Methods PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and research meeting abstracts were searched up to June 2015 for studies of emergency department (ED) patients with acute headache clinically concerning for spontaneous SAH. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR−) likelihood ratios. To identify test- and treatment-thresholds, we employed the Pauker-Kassirer method with Bernstein test-indication curves using the summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 5,022 publications were identified, of which 122 underwent full text-review; 22 studies were included (average SAH prevalence 7.5%). Diagnostic studies differed in assessment of history and physical exam findings, CT technology, analytical techniques used to identify xanthochromia, and criterion standards for SAH. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was variable; however, most had a relatively low-risk of biases. A history of neck pain (LR+ 4.1 [95% CI 2.2-7.6]) and neck stiffness on physical exam (LR+ 6.6 [4.0-11.0]) were the individual findings most strongly associated with SAH. Combinations of findings may rule out SAH, yet promising clinical decision rules await external validation. Non-contrast cranial CT within 6 hours of headache onset accurately ruled-in (LR+ 230 [6-8700]) and ruled-out SAH (LR− 0

  15. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...

  16. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...

  17. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...

  18. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...

  19. Public health interventions in midwifery: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice. PMID:23134701

  20. Biliary Dyskinesia in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Neha R; Hyman, Paul E; Harmon, Carroll M; Schiavo, Julie H; Hussain, Sunny Z

    2017-02-01

    Cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia in children are rising in the United States, but not in other countries. Biliary dyskinesia is a validated functional gallbladder disorder in adults, requiring biliary colic in the diagnosis. In contrast, most studies in children require upper abdominal pain, absent gallstones on ultrasound, and an abnormal gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) on cholecystokinin-stimulated cholescintigraphy for diagnosis. We aimed to systematically review existing literature in biliary dyskinesia in children, determine the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria, GBEF, and to assess outcomes following cholecystectomy. We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA checklist and searched 7 databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Ovid, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Bibliographies of articles were screened for additional studies. Our search terms yielded 916 articles of which 28 were included. Three articles were manually added from searched references. We reviewed 31 peer-reviewed publications, all retrospective chart reviews. There was heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and GBEF values. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied from 34% to 100% success, and there was no consensus concerning factors influencing outcomes. The observational, retrospective study designs that comprised our review limited interpretation of safety and efficacy of the investigations and treatment in biliary dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of biliary dyskinesia overlapped with functional dyspepsia. There is a need for consensus on symptoms defining biliary dyskinesia, validation of testing required for diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia, and randomized controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in children with upper abdominal pain.

  1. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  2. What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.

  3. Adipokines and Migraine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, B. Lee; Sacco, Simona; Bernecker, Claudia; Scher, Ann I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine is comorbid with obesity. Recent research suggests an association between migraine and adipocytokines, proteins that are predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and which participate in energy homeostasis and inflammatory processes. Objectives In this review, we first briefly discuss the association between migraine and obesity and the importance of adipose tissue as a neuroendocrine organ. We then present a systematic review of the extant literature evaluating circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin in those with migraine. Methods A search of the PubMed database was conducted using the keywords “migraine,” “adiponectin,” and “leptin.” In addition reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed for possible inclusion. English language studies published between 2005 and 2015 evaluating circulating blood concentration of adiponectin or leptin in those with migraine were included. Conclusions While the existing data are suggestive that adipokines may be associated with migraine, substantial study design differences and conflicting results limit definitive conclusions. Future research utilizing carefully considered designs and methodology is warranted. In particular careful and systematic characterization of pain states at the time of samples, as well as systematic consideration of demographic (eg, age, sex) and other vital covariates (eg, obesity status, lipids) are needed to determine if adipokines play a role in migraine pathophysiology and if any adipokine represents a viable, novel migraine biomarker, or drug target. PMID:27012149

  4. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January 2014) for case reports, case series and original articles using the following search terms: ‘amitraz’, ‘poisoning’, ‘toxicity’, ‘intoxication’ and ‘overdose’. Articles published in a language other than English, abstracts and those not providing sufficient clinical information were excluded. Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children) of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%). Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management. PMID:28139533

  5. Metabolomics in bladder cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yidong; Yang, Xiao; Deng, Xiaheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Pengchao; Tao, Jun; Qin, Chao; Wei, Jifu; Lu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common urological malignancy. Early diagnosis of BC is crucial to improve patient outcomes. Currently, metabolomics is a potential technique that can be used to detect BC. We reviewed current publications and synthesised the findings on BC and metabolomics, i.e. metabolite upregulation and downregulation. Fourteen metabolites (lactic acid, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, glutamate, histidine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine, uracil, hypoxanthine, carnitine, pyruvic acid and citric acid) were identified as potential biomarkers for BC. In conclusion, this systematic review presents new opportunities for the diagnosis of BC. PMID:26379905

  6. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention.

  7. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  8. Evidence-based interventions to reduce adverse events in hospitals: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Zegers, Marieke; Hesselink, Gijs; Geense, Wytske; Vincent, Charles; Wollersheim, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. Study selection English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed each study's quality and extracted data on the study population, study design, intervention characteristics and adverse patient outcomes. Results Sixty systematic reviews with moderate to high quality were included. Statistically significant pooled effect sizes were found for 14 types of interventions, including: (1) multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium; (2) rapid response teams to reduce cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality rates; (3) pharmacist interventions to reduce adverse drug events; (4) exercises and multicomponent interventions to prevent falls; and (5) care bundle interventions, checklists and reminders to reduce infections. Most (82%) of the significant effect sizes were based on 5 or fewer primary studies with an experimental study design. Conclusions The evidence for patient-safety interventions implemented in hospitals worldwide is weak. The findings address the need to invest in high-quality research standards in order to identify interventions that have a real impact on patient safety. Interventions to prevent delirium, cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality, adverse drug events, infections and falls are most effective and should therefore be prioritised by clinicians. PMID:27687901

  9. Systematic reviews in bioethics: types, challenges, and value.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2014-02-01

    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.

  10. Developing a library systematic review service: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Emilie; Downton, Katherine; Shipper, Andrea Goldstein; Fu, Yunting

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review searching is a standard job responsibility for many health sciences librarians. The strategies a library uses to market its expertise may affect the number of researchers requesting librarian assistance as well as how researchers perceive librarians as systematic review collaborators. This article describes how one health sciences library developed, launched, and promoted its systematic review service to researchers on campus.

  11. 14 CFR 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for... years old. (2) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will...

  12. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  13. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  14. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  15. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  16. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  17. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  18. 14 CFR 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for... years old. (2) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will...

  19. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  20. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  1. 14 CFR 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Systematic review for declassification. 1203... SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for declassification. (a...) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will be coordinated through...

  2. 14 CFR 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for... years old. (2) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  4. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  6. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  7. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  8. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  9. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  10. Disasters and Perinatal Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Harville, EW; Xiong, X; Buekens, P

    2012-01-01

    Background The empirical literature on the effects of disaster on pregnancy and the postpartum period is limited. The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence on the effect of disasters on perinatal health. Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycInfo), including literature on disasters and pregnancy outcomes (e.g., preterm birth, low birthweight, congenital anomalies), mental health, and child development. 110 articles were identified, but many published reports were anecdotes or recommendations rather than systematic studies. The final review included 49 peer-reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria. Results Studies addressing the World Trade Center disaster of September 11th and other terrorist attacks, environmental/chemical disasters, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes were identified. Disasters of various types may reduce fetal growth in some women, though there does not appear to be an effect on gestational age at birth. Severity of exposure is the major predictor of mental health issues among pregnant and postpartum women. The mother's mental health after a disaster may more strongly influence on child development than any direct effect of disaster-related prenatal stress. Conclusions There is evidence that disaster impacts maternal mental health and some perinatal health outcomes, particular among highly-exposed women. Future research should focus on under-studied outcomes such as spontaneous abortion. Relief workers and clinicians should concentrate on the most exposed women, particularly with respect to mental health. PMID:21375788

  11. Health effects of indebtedness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, millions of households have been left with debts that they are unable to manage. Indebtedness may impair the wellbeing of those affected by it for years to come. This systematic review focuses on the long-term consequences of indebtedness on health. Methods The method used in the paper is a systematic review. First, bibliographic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles. Second, the references and citations of the included articles were searched for additional articles. Results The results from our sample of 33 peer-reviewed studies demonstrate serious health effects related to indebtedness. Individuals with unmet loan payments had suicidal ideation and suffered from depression more often than those without such financial problems. Unpaid financial obligations were also related to poorer subjective health and health-related behaviour. Debt counselling and other programmes to mitigate debt-related stress are needed to alleviate the adverse effects of indebtedness on health. Conclusions The results demonstrate that indebtedness has serious effects on health. PMID:24885280

  12. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  13. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.

  14. Infliximab-Related Infusion Reactions: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Yulia; Kivity, Shmuel; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Israeli, Eran; Fraser, Gerald M.; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Weiss, Batia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Administration of infliximab is associated with a well-recognised risk of infusion reactions. Lack of a mechanism-based rationale for their prevention, and absence of adequate and well-controlled studies, has led to the use of diverse empirical administration protocols. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of the evidence behind the strategies for preventing infusion reactions to infliximab, and for controlling the reactions once they occur. Methods: We conducted extensive search of electronic databases of MEDLINE [PubMed] for reports that communicate various aspects of infusion reactions to infliximab in IBD patients. Results: We examined full texts of 105 potentially eligible articles. No randomised controlled trials that pre-defined infusion reaction as a primary outcome were found. Three RCTs evaluated infusion reactions as a secondary outcome; another four RCTs included infusion reactions in the safety evaluation analysis; and 62 additional studies focused on various aspects of mechanism/s, risk, primary and secondary preventive measures, and management algorithms. Seven studies were added by a manual search of reference lists of the relevant articles. A total of 76 original studies were included in quantitative analysis of the existing strategies. Conclusions: There is still paucity of systematic and controlled data on the risk, prevention, and management of infusion reactions to infliximab. We present working algorithms based on systematic and extensive review of the available data. More randomised controlled trials are needed in order to investigate the efficacy of the proposed preventive and management algorithms. PMID:26092578

  15. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  16. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  17. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal

    PubMed Central

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study’s findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings in adult civilian, military, and sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): a systematic critical review.

    PubMed

    Asken, Breton Michael; DeKosky, Steven T; Clugston, James R; Jaffee, Michael S; Bauer, Russell M

    2017-03-24

    This review seeks to summarize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies that have evaluated structural changes attributed to the mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in adult civilian, military, and athlete populations. Articles from 2002 to 2016 were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar, using a Boolean search string containing the following terms: "diffusion tensor imaging", "diffusion imaging", "DTI", "white matter", "concussion", "mild traumatic brain injury", "mTBI", "traumatic brain injury", and "TBI". We added studies not identified by this method that were found via manually-searched reference lists. We identified 86 eligible studies from English-language journals using, adult, human samples. Studies were evaluated based on duration between injury and DTI assessment, categorized as acute, subacute/chronic, remote mTBI, and repetitive brain trauma considerations. Since changes in brain structure after mTBI can also be affected by other co-occurring medical and demographic factors, we also briefly review DTI studies that have addressed socioeconomic status factors (SES), major depressive disorder (MDD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The review describes population-specific risks and the complications of clinical versus pathophysiological outcomes of mTBI. We had anticipated that the distinct population groups (civilian, military, and athlete) would require separate consideration, and various aspects of the study characteristics supported this. In general, study results suggested widespread but inconsistent differences in white matter diffusion metrics (primarily fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], radial diffusivity [RD], and axial diffusivity [AD]) following mTBI/concussion. Inspection of study designs and results revealed potential explanations for discrepant DTI findings, such as control group variability, analytic techniques, the manner in which regional differences were reported, and

  19. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-06-10

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.

  20. Inuit Elderly: A Systematic Review of Peer Reviewed Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  1. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  2. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173

  3. Systematic review of childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Linda G

    2008-02-01

    This systematic review identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of obesity in young children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. Because the gap between clear articulation of the problem as well as population and the best strategies to impact the prevention of the problem is evident, health care practitioners must be involved in well-constructed implementation and evaluation studies that build on the limited base of current evidence.

  4. Emotional intelligence and addictions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    Since the millennium, an expanding number of research articles have examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and physical and mental health. The relationship between EI and addictive disorders has, however, remained relatively well-hidden. We therefore systematically reviewed and critically evaluated the literature on this relationship. We identified 51 articles on the topic of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Results indicate that a lower level of EI is associated with more intensive smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use and two components of EI play a key role in addictions: "decoding and differentiation of emotions" and "regulation of emotions."

  5. Manual therapies for migraine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2011-04-01

    Migraine occurs in about 15% of the general population. Migraine is usually managed by medication, but some patients do not tolerate migraine medication due to side effects or prefer to avoid medication for other reasons. Non-pharmacological management is an alternative treatment option. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine. However, the evaluated RCTs had many methodological shortcomings. Therefore, any firm conclusion will require future, well-conducted RCTs on manual therapies for migraine.

  6. Genetic variation and dopamine D2 receptor availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human in vivo molecular imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Gluskin, B S; Mickey, B J

    2016-01-01

    The D2 dopamine receptor mediates neuropsychiatric symptoms and is a target of pharmacotherapy. Inter-individual variation of D2 receptor density is thought to influence disease risk and pharmacological response. Numerous molecular imaging studies have tested whether common genetic variants influence D2 receptor binding potential (BP) in humans, but demonstration of robust effects has been limited by small sample sizes. We performed a systematic search of published human in vivo molecular imaging studies to estimate effect sizes of common genetic variants on striatal D2 receptor BP. We identified 21 studies examining 19 variants in 11 genes. The most commonly studied variant was a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ANKK1 (rs1800497, Glu713Lys, also called ‘Taq1A'). Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses of this variant (5 studies, 194 subjects total) revealed that striatal BP was significantly and robustly lower among carriers of the minor allele (Lys713) relative to major allele homozygotes. The weighted standardized mean difference was −0.57 under the fixed-effect model (95% confidence interval=(−0.87, −0.27), P=0.0002). The normal relationship between rs1800497 and BP was not apparent among subjects with neuropsychiatric diseases. Significant associations with baseline striatal D2 receptor BP have been reported for four DRD2 variants (rs1079597, rs1076560, rs6277 and rs1799732) and a PER2 repeat polymorphism, but none have yet been tested in more than two independent samples. Our findings resolve apparent discrepancies in the literature and establish that rs1800497 robustly influences striatal D2 receptor availability. This genetic variant is likely to contribute to important individual differences in human striatal function, neuropsychiatric disease risk and pharmacological response. PMID:26926883

  7. Tinnitus and arterial hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; de Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Tinnitus is considered a multi-factorial symptom. Arterial hypertension has been cited as a tinnitus etiological factor. To assess the scientific evidence on the associations between arterial hypertension and tinnitus. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, ISI Web, Lilacs and SciELO scientific databases. This review included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English correlating tinnitus with hypertension. Letters to editors and case reports were excluded. A total of 424 articles were identified, of which only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Studies that analyzed the incidence of hypertension in tinnitus patients tended to show an association, while those that evaluated the incidence of tinnitus in hypertensive patients did not. There is evidence of an association between tinnitus and hypertension, although a cause and effect relationship is uncertain. Changes in the cochlear microcirculation, resulting in hearing loss, may be an adjuvant factor in tinnitus pathophysiology.

  8. Systematic review of human papillomavirus vaccine coadministration.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-05-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.

  9. Rhinoplasty Complications and Reoperations: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin Borges; Nunes, Flávio Barbosa; Rodrigues, Danilo Santana; Figueiredo, Ana Rosa Pimentel; Becker, Helena Maria Gonçalves; Becker, Celso Goncalves; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article is related to complications of rhinoplasty and its main causes of reoperations. Objectives The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review of literature on complications in rhinoplasty. Data Synthesis The authors conducted a survey of articles related to key terms in the literature by using three important databases within 11 years, between January 2002 and January 2013. We found 1,271 abstracts and selected 49 articles to this review. Conclusion The main results showed that the number of primary open rhinoplasty was 7902 (89%) and 765 closed (11%) and the percentage of reoperations in primary open complete rhinoplasties was 2.73% and closed complete was 1.56%. The statistical analysis revealed a value of p = 0.071. The standardization of terms can improve the quality of scientific publications about rhinoplasty. There is no difference between primary open or closed rhinoplasty techniques in relation to reoperations. PMID:28050215

  10. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity.

  11. 14 CFR § 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification:

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification: Â... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for declassification: (a) General. (1) NASA must establish and conduct a program for systematic declassification...

  12. Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

  13. Hypersensitivity reactions to dapsone: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Maria; Wozel, Gottfried; Schmitt, Jochen

    2012-03-01

    Dapsone is widely used in the treatment of leprosy and several chronic inflammatory dermatological conditions. Hypersensitivity reactions to dapsone are potentially fatal adverse drug reactions with unknown prevalence and risk factors. We performed a systematic review covering all reported cases of hypersensitivity reactions, in order to systematically summarize the published evidence on prevalence, clinical course and fatality rate. Articles were identified through standardized search strategies. Included studies were reviewed for hypersensitivity characteristics and odds ratios were calculated in univariate and multivariate regression models to assess the risk factors for fatal outcome. A total of 114 articles (17 epidemiological studies, 97 case reports) totalling 336 patients with hypersensitivity reactions were included for analysis. From the epidemiological studies a total hypersensitivity reaction prevalence rate of 1.4% (95% confidence interval 1.2–1.7%) was determined. Mucosal involvement, hepatitis, higher age and disease occurrence in non-affluent countries were associated with higher risk of fatal outcome. Overall, the fatality rate was 9.9%.

  14. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  15. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  16. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  17. Processing of food, body and emotional stimuli in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yikang; Hu, Xiaochen; Wang, Jijun; Chen, Jue; Guo, Qian; Li, Chunbo; Enck, Paul

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the cognitive processing of food, body and emotional information in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are debatable. We reviewed functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to assess whether there were consistent neural basis and networks in the studies to date. Searching PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 1980 and May 2012, we identified 17 relevant studies. Activation likelihood estimation was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. For both food stimuli and body stimuli, AN patients showed increased hemodynamic response in the emotion-related regions (frontal, caudate, uncus, insula and temporal) and decreased activation in the parietal region. Although no robust brain activation has been found in response to emotional stimuli, emotion-related neural networks are involved in the processing of food and body stimuli among AN. It suggests that negative emotional arousal is related to cognitive processing bias of food and body stimuli in AN.

  18. Work-related leukemia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia is a complex disease, which only became better understood during the last decades following the development of new laboratory techniques and diagnostic methods. Despite our improved understanding of the physiology of the disease, little is yet known about the causes of leukemia. A variety of potential risk factors have been suggested so far, including personal habits and lifestyle, and a wide range of occupational or environmental exposures. A causal association with leukemia has only been documented to date for ionizing radiation, benzene and treatment with cytostatic drugs, but there is an ongoing scientific debate on the possible association of leukemia with a number of other work-related hazards. In this article, we have reviewed scientific studies, published over the past 5 years, which investigated potential associations between leukemia and exposure to occupational risk factors. The systematic literature review took place via electronic databases, using specific search criteria, and independent reviewers have further filtered the search results to identify the number of articles, presented in our paper. A large number of studies included in the review referred to the effects of ionizing radiation, where new data suggest that the effects of exposure to small doses of ionizing radiation should probably be reevaluated. Some other works appear to substantiate a potential association of the disease with certain pesticides. Further research is also suggested regarding the role of infectious agents or exposure to certain chemicals like formaldehyde or butadiene in the pathogenesis of leukemia. PMID:23697536

  19. Interventions to delay functional decline in people with dementia: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Laver, Kate; Dyer, Suzanne; Whitehead, Craig; Clemson, Lindy; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarise existing systematic reviews that assess the effects of non-pharmacological, pharmacological and alternative therapies on activities of daily living (ADL) function in people with dementia. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Methods A systematic search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo in April 2015. Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials conducted in people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia measuring the impact on ADL function were included. Methodological quality of the systematic reviews was independently assessed by two authors using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of evidence of the primary studies for each intervention was assessed using GRADE. Results A total of 23 systematic reviews were included in the overview. The quality of the reviews varied; however most (65%) scored 8/11 or more on the AMSTAR tool, indicating high quality. Interventions that were reported to be effective in minimising decline in ADL function were: exercise (6 studies, 289 participants, standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.68, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.27; GRADE: low), dyadic interventions (8 studies, 988 participants, SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.69; GRADE: low) acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine (12 studies, 4661 participants, donepezil 10 mg SMD 0.18, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.32; GRADE: moderate), selegiline (7 studies, 810 participants, SMD 0.27, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41; GRADE: low), huperzine A (2 studies, 70 participants, SMD 1.48, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.02; GRADE: very low) and Ginkgo biloba (7 studies, 2530 participants, SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.44; GRADE: very low). Conclusions Healthcare professionals should ensure that people with dementia are encouraged to exercise and that primary carers are trained and supported to provide safe and effective care for the person with dementia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine should be trialled unless contraindicated. Trial registration number CRD

  20. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28–29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching. PMID:27219460

  1. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las

  2. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review*

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD. PMID:25909154

  3. Topiramate and the vision: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Fazel, Farhad; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Etemadifar, Masoud; Jenab, Keivan; Akbari, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Topiramate (TPM) is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue. Methods For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance. Results A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma). A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results. Discussion Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM, neurologists and psychiatrists should be aware of its diverse ocular side effects. In conclusion, ocular complications following this drug should be taken seriously and be subjected to ophthalmic counseling. PMID:22275816

  4. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  5. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.

  6. Processing medical data: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical data recording is one of the basic clinical tools. Electronic Health Record (EHR) is important for data processing, communication, efficiency and effectiveness of patients’ information access, confidentiality, ethical and/or legal issues. Clinical record promote and support communication among service providers and hence upscale quality of healthcare. Qualities of records are reflections of the quality of care patients offered. Methods Qualitative analysis was undertaken for this systematic review. We reviewed 40 materials Published from 1999 to 2013. We searched these materials from databases including ovidMEDLINE and ovidEMBASE. Two reviewers independently screened materials on medical data recording, documentation and information processing and communication. Finally, all selected references were summarized, reconciled and compiled as one compatible document. Result Patients were dying and/or getting much suffering as the result of poor quality medical records. Electronic health record minimizes errors, saves unnecessary time, and money wasted on processing medical data. Conclusion Many countries have been complaining for incompleteness, inappropriateness and illegibility of records. Therefore creating awareness on the magnitude of the problem has paramount importance. Hence available correct patient information has lots of potential in reducing errors and support roles. PMID:24107106

  7. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63%) had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA), speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies. PMID:27540546

  8. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  9. Obesity and lung function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luciana Costa; da Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça; Calles, Ana Carolina do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat that is harmful to the individuals. Respiratory disorders are among the comorbidities associated with obesity. This study had the objective of investigating the alterations in respiratory function that affect obese individuals. A systematic review was performed, by selecting publications in the science databases MEDLINE and LILACS, using PubMed and SciELO. The articles that assessed pulmonary function by plethysmography and/or spirometry in obese individuals aged under 18 years were included. The results demonstrated that the obese individuals presented with a reduction in lung volume and capacity as compared to healthy individuals. Reduction of total lung capacity and reduction of forced vital capacity, accompanied by reduction of the forced expiratory volume after one second were the most representative findings in the samples. The articles analyzed proved the presence of a restrictive respiratory pattern associated with obesity. PMID:24728258

  10. Pertuzumab in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Zografos, Constantine G; Filipits, Martin; Bartsch, Rupert; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora

    2013-10-01

    Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that represents the first among a new class of agents known as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) dimerization inhibitors. This is the first systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to synthesize all available data of pertuzumab in breast cancer. The search strategy retrieved 11 studies that evaluated pertuzumab. One study was conducted in the neoadjuvant setting (417 patients), whereas all the others dealt with patients with recurrent, metastatic, or refractory disease (1023 patients). Six studies were conducted in HER2(+) breast cancer population (1354 patients), whereas 5 studies (86 patients) were conducted in HER2(-) (or unknown HER2 status) disease. Pertuzumab is the most recent agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with HER2(+) metastatic breast cancer who have not received prior anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. This approval has been based on data from a phase III Clinical Evaluation of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab (CLEOPATRA) study. The antitumor activity with the significant reduction in the risk of progression or death, as reflected upon the increase of 6.1 months in median progression-free survival, indicates that pertuzumab may provide an avenue for achieving additional benefit for patients with HER2(+). Moreover, pertuzumab seems to have a putative role in the management of patients with HER2 who are resistant to trastuzumab. The promising role of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings remains to be further investigated and established in the future.

  11. Diabetic nephropathy in Africa: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Naidoo, Jashira; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Africa. METHODS: We performed a systematic narrative review of published literature following the MOOSE Guidelines for Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies. We searched PubMed-MEDLINE for all articles published in English and French languages between January 1994 and July 2014 using a predefined strategy based on the combination of relevant terms and the names of each of the 54 African countries and African sub-regions to capture the largest number of studies, and hand-searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies reported on the prevalence, incidence or determinants of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes within African countries. RESULTS: Overall, we included 32 studies from 16 countries; two being population-based studies and the remaining being clinic-based surveys. Most of the studies (90.6%) were conducted in urban settings. Methods for assessing and classifying CKD varied widely. Measurement of urine protein was the most common method of assessing kidney damage (62.5% of studies). The overall prevalence of CKD varied from 11% to 83.7%. Incident event rates were 94.9% for proteinuria at 10 years of follow-up, 34.7% for end-stage renal disease at 5 years of follow-up and 18.4% for mortality from nephropathy at 20 years of follow-up. Duration of diabetes, blood pressure, advancing age, obesity and glucose control were the common determinants of kidney disease. CONCLUSION: The burden of CKD is important among people with diabetes in Africa. High quality data from large population-based studies with validated measures of kidney function are still needed to better capture the magnitude and characteristics of diabetic nephropathy in Africa. PMID:26069725

  12. Career Choice in Academic Medicine: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. DESIGN A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. DATA SOURCES Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. SELECTION OF STUDIES We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. RESULTS The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency

  13. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Bee; Hadley, Gina; Derry, Sheena

    2008-01-01

    Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews in palliative care are well

  14. Short dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants < 10 mm in length, to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Implant survival, incidence of biological and biomechanical complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone loss were evaluated. Screening of eligible studies, quality assessment, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Meta-analyses were performed by the pooling of survival data by implant surface, surgical technique, implant location, type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.

  15. Gastroparesis and Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Heetun, Zaid S; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-06-01

    Some of the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been attributed to gastroparesis; however, the precise prevalence and relevance of gastric emptying delay in PD is unclear. The definition of gastroparesis varies; currently the most widely accepted definition (from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium) is the presence of appropriate symptoms (including nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, and inability to finish a meal) for ≥ 12 weeks, together with delayed gastric emptying on scintigraphy and the absence of any obstructive lesions on upper GI endoscopy. In PD patients, gastroparesis has the potential to affect nutrition and quality of life, as well as the absorption of PD medications, including L-dopa. This reduced absorption of L-dopa has implications for the control of the PD motor symptoms for which it is administered. We performed a systematic review of the literature on gastroparesis in PD with the aim of developing an evidence-based approach to its management. Based on this review, we conclude that while gastric emptying has been reported to be frequently delayed in PD, the existing data do not permit definitive conclusions concerning its true prevalence, relationship to the underlying disease process, relevance to PD management, or the optimal therapy of related GI symptoms. Further study of these important issues is, therefore, required.

  16. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs.

  17. NSAIDs and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The resulting pain is the main symptom of acute pancreatitis and it should be alleviated as soon as possible. NSAIDs are the first line therapy for pain and they are generally administered to acute pancreatitis patients upon admission to the hospital. In addition, these drugs have also been used to prevent post-endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, there are several reports indicating that NSAIDs may be the actual cause of acute pancreatitis. We carried out a literature search on PubMed/MEDLINE; all full text papers published in from January 1966 to November 2009 on the use of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis were collected; the literature search was also supplemented by a review of the bibliographies of the papers evaluated. Thus, in this article, we will systematically review the current literature in order to better illustrate the role of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis, in particular: i) NSAIDs as a cause of acute pancreatitis; ii) their use to prevent post-retrograde ERCP pancreatitis and iii) their efficacy for pain relief in the acute illness of the pancreas. PMID:27713268

  18. Measures of personal recovery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Vicki; Williams, Julie; Leamy, Mary; Bird, Victoria J; Le Boutillier, Clair; Slade, Mike

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental health systems internationally have adopted a goal of supporting recovery. Measurement of the experience of recovery is, therefore, a priority. The aim of this review was to identify and analyze recovery measures in relation to their fit with recovery and their psychometric adequacy. METHODS A systematic search of six data sources for articles, Web-based material, and conference presentations related to measurement of recovery was conducted by using a defined search strategy. Results were filtered by title and by abstract (by two raters in the case of abstracts), and the remaining papers were reviewed to identify any suitable measures of recovery. Measures were then evaluated for their fit with the recovery processes identified in the CHIME framework (connectedness, hope, identity, meaning, and empowerment) and for demonstration of nine predefined psychometric properties. RESULTS Thirteen measures of personal recovery were identified from 336 abstracts and 35 articles. The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was published most, and the Questionnaire About the Process of Recovery (QPR) was the only measure to have all items map to the CHIME framework. No measure demonstrated all nine psychometric properties. The Stages of Recovery Instrument demonstrated the most psychometric properties (N=6), followed by the Maryland Assessment of Recovery (N=5), and the QPR and the RAS (N=4). Criterion validity, responsiveness, and feasibility were particularly underinvestigated properties. CONCLUSIONS No recovery measure can currently be unequivocally recommended, although the QPR most closely maps to the CHIME framework of recovery and the RAS is most widely published.

  19. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  20. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  1. Transplantation of Cryopreserved Teeth: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the research articles regarding biological and mechanical properties of cryopreserved teeth for potential use in tooth transplantation. A systematic review of literatures was performed by Pubmed searching with assigned key words from January 1, 1990 to June 8, 2009. All articles were examined for inclusion criteria. Secondary search was conducted by hand-search through references of included articles from primary search. A total of 24 articles were obtained from both primary and secondary search and used as fundamental articles in this review. Periodontal ligament tissues of cryopreserved teeth were able to maintain their biological properties resulted in a satisfactory healing of periodontium. Dental pulp tissues, however, may be compromised by limitation of permeability of cryopreservative agent into pulp cavity. Therefore, an endodontic treatment of transplanted cryopreserved teeth was recommended. Cryopreserved teeth had comparable mechanical properties to those of normal teeth. Importantly, the success of cryopreserved tooth transplantation treatment in orthodontic patients was reported. The cryopreserved teeth for tooth banking have a potential clinical application for treatment of missing teeth. Case selection, however, is critical for treatment success. More studies and data regarding masticatory function and periodontal healing of transplanted cryopreserved teeth are needed. PMID:20737931

  2. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  3. Which resources should be used to identify RCT/CCTs for systematic reviews: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Ellen T; Wiebe, Natasha; Cramer, Kristie; Klassen, Terry P; Hartling, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Background Systematic reviewers seek to comprehensively search for relevant studies and summarize these to present the most valid estimate of intervention effectiveness. The more resources searched, the higher the yield, and thus time and costs required to conduct a systematic review. While there is an abundance of evidence to suggest how extensive a search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should be, it is neither conclusive nor consistent. This systematic review was conducted in order to assess the value of different resources to identify trials for inclusion in systematic reviews. Methods Seven electronic databases, four journals and Cochrane Colloquia were searched. Key authors were contacted and references of relevant articles screened. Included studies compared two or more sources to find RCTs or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). A checklist was developed and applied to assess quality of reporting. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Medians and ranges for precision and recall were calculated; results were grouped by comparison. Meta-analysis was not performed due to large heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were conducted for: search strategy (Cochrane, Simple, Complex, Index), expertise of the searcher (Cochrane, librarian, non-librarian), and study design (RCT and CCT). Results Sixty-four studies representing 13 electronic databases met inclusion criteria. The most common comparisons were MEDLINE vs. handsearching (n = 23), MEDLINE vs. MEDLINE+handsearching (n = 13), and MEDLINE vs. reference standard (n = 13). Quality was low, particularly for the reporting of study selection methodology. Overall, recall and precision varied substantially by comparison and ranged from 0 to 100% and 0 to 99%, respectively. The trial registries performed the best with median recall of 89% (range 84, 95) and median precision of 96.5% (96, 97), although these results are based on a small number of studies. Inadequate or inappropriate indexing was

  4. Psychological controversies in gastroparesis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Sally; Hebbard, Geoff; Knowles, Simon R

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systematically review literature addressing three key psychologically-oriented controversies associated with gastroparesis. METHODS A comprehensive search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases was performed to identify literature addressing the relationship between gastroparesis and psychological factors. Two researchers independently screened all references. Inclusion criteria were: an adult sample of gastroparesis patients, a quantitative methodology, and at least one of the following: (1) evaluation of the prevalence of psychopathology; (2) an outcome measure of anxiety, depression, or quality of life; and (3) evidence of a psychological intervention. Case studies, review articles, and publications in languages other than English were excluded from the current review. RESULTS Prevalence of psychopathology was evaluated by three studies (n = 378), which found that combined anxiety/depression was present in 24% of the gastroparesis cohort, severe anxiety in 12.4%, depression in 21.8%-23%, and somatization in 50%. Level of anxiety and depression was included as an outcome measure in six studies (n = 1408), and while limited research made it difficult to determine the level of anxiety and depression in the cohort, a clear positive relationship with gastroparesis symptom severity was evident. Quality of life was included as an outcome measure in 11 studies (n = 2076), with gastroparesis patients reporting lower quality of life than population norms, and a negative relationship between quality of life and symptom severity. One study assessed the use of a psychological intervention for gastroparesis patients (n = 120) and found that depression and gastric function were improved in patients who received psychological intervention, however the study had considerable methodological limitations. CONCLUSION Gastroparesis is associated with significant psychological distress and poor quality of life. Recommendations for future studies and the development of

  5. What is orthopaedic triage? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanne H; James, Rebecca E; Davey, Rachel; Waddington, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Complex and chronic disease is placing significant pressure on hospital outpatient departments. Novel ways of delivering care have been developed recently and are often described as ‘triage’ services. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to definitions and descriptions of orthopaedic/musculoskeletal triage processes, in order to provide information on ‘best practice’ to assist health care facilities. Method A comprehensive open-ended search was conducted using electronic databases to identify studies describing models of triage clinics for patients with a musculoskeletal/orthopaedic complaint, who have been referred to hospital outpatient clinics for a surgical consultation. Studies were critically appraised using the McMaster quality appraisal tool and ranked using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence. A thematic analysis of the definitions, processes and procedures of triage described within the literature was undertaken. Results 1930 studies were identified and 45 were included in the review (including diagnostic and evaluative research). The hierarchy of evidence ranged from I to IV; however, the majority were at low levels of evidence and scored poorly on the critical appraisal tool. Three broad themes of triage were identified: presence of a referral, configuration of the triage (who, how and where) and the aim of triage. However, there were significant inconsistencies across these themes. Conclusions This systematic review highlighted the need for standardization of the definition of triage, the procedures of assessment and management and measures of outcome used in orthopaedic/musculoskeletal triage to ensure best-practice processes, procedures and outcomes for triage clinics. PMID:25410703

  6. Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gual-Vaqués, Patricia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Egido-Moreno, Sonia; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Marí-Roig, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia (IPH) is a benign lesion of the palatal mucosa. It is usually found in denture-wearers but also has been reported in patients without a history of use of a maxillary prosthesis use. Objetives The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the prevalence of denture stomatitis and inflammatory papillary hyperplasia and the etiological factors associated. Material and Methods A search was carried out in PubMed (January 2005 to October 2015) with the key words “inflammatory papillary hyperplasia”, “denture stomatitis”, “granular stomatitis” and “Newton’s type III” The inclusion criteria were studies including at least a sample of 50 apparently healthy patients, articles published from 2005 to 2015 written in English. The exclusion criteria were reviews and non-human studies. Results Out of the 190 studies obtained initially from the search 16 articles were selected to be included in our systematic review. The prevalence of denture stomatitis was 29.56% and 4.44% for IPH. We found 5 cases of denture stomatitis among non-denture-wearer individuals. All IPH cases were associated with the use of prosthesis. Smoking and continued use of ill-fitting dentures turned out to be the most frequent risk factors for developing IPH. Conclusions IPH is a rare oral lesion and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Its presentation among non-denture-wearers is extremely unusual. Key words:Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, denture stomatitis, prevalence, granular stomatitis, Newton’s type III stomatitis. PMID:27918740

  7. Radiation costing methods: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, F.; Seung, S.J.; Cheng, S.Y.; Saherawala, H.; Earle, C.C.; Mittmann, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Costs for radiation therapy (rt) and the methods used to cost rt are highly diverse across the literature. To date, no study has compared various costing methods in detail. Our objective was to perform a thorough review of the radiation costing literature to identify sources of costs and methods used. Methods A systematic review of Ovid medline, Ovid oldmedline, embase, Ovid HealthStar, and EconLit from 2005 to 23 March 2015 used search terms such as “radiation,” “radiotherapy,” “neoplasm,” “cost,” “ cost analysis,” and “cost benefit analysis” to locate relevant articles. Original papers were reviewed for detailed costing methods. Cost sources and methods were extracted for papers investigating rt modalities, including three-dimensional conformal rt (3D-crt), intensity-modulated rt (imrt), stereotactic body rt (sbrt), and brachytherapy (bt). All costs were translated into 2014 U.S. dollars. Results Most of the studies (91%) reported in the 33 articles retrieved provided rt costs from the health system perspective. The cost of rt ranged from US$2,687.87 to US$111,900.60 per treatment for imrt, followed by US$5,583.28 to US$90,055 for 3D-crt, US$10,544.22 to US$78,667.40 for bt, and US$6,520.58 to US$19,602.68 for sbrt. Cost drivers were professional or personnel costs and the cost of rt treatment. Most studies did not address the cost of rt equipment (85%) and institutional or facility costs (66%). Conclusions Costing methods and sources were widely variable across studies, highlighting the need for consistency in the reporting of rt costs. More work to promote comparability and consistency across studies is needed. PMID:27536189

  8. Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rachidi, Saleh; Sood, Amit J; Patel, Krishna G; Nguyen, Shaun A; Hamilton, Heidi; Neville, Brad W; Day, Terry A

    2015-10-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare tumor, usually diagnosed within the first year of age, with a predilection for the maxilla. Although the tumor is usually benign, its rapidly growing nature and ability to cause major deformities in surrounding structures necessitate early diagnosis and intervention. It is important that medical and dental specialists are prepared to make the diagnosis and proceed with appropriate intervention. The authors performed a systematic review of the 472 reported cases from 1918 through 2013 and provided a comprehensive update on this rare entity that can have devastating effects on young patients. This investigation uncovered age at diagnosis as an important prognostic indicator, because younger age correlated with a higher recurrence rate. The authors also present a case report of a 5-month-old girl diagnosed with MNTI and review her clinical presentation and imaging and histopathologic findings.

  9. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  10. Amputees and sports: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2011-09-01

    Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling

  11. Cost of epilepsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Reese, Jens Peter; Dodel, Richard; Hamer, Hajo M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to overview published cost-of-illness (COI) studies of epilepsy and their methodological approaches. Epilepsy imposes a substantial burden on individuals and society as a whole. The mean prevalence of epilepsy is estimated at 0.52% in Europe, 0.68% in the US, and peaks up to 1.5% in developing countries. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. This is especially so with the introduction of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the marketing of vagal-nerve stimulators and the resurgence of new surgical treatment options, which have the potential to considerably increase the costs of treating epilepsy.A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies that evaluated direct and indirect costs of epilepsy. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodological framework and data sources were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We identified 22 studies worldwide on costs of epilepsy. The majority of the studies reflected the costs of epilepsy in Europe (three studies each for the UK and Italy, one study each for Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the EU) and the US (four studies), but studies were also available from India (two), Hong Kong, Oman, Burundi, Chile and Mexico. The studies utilized different frameworks to evaluate costs. All used a bottom-up approach; however, only 12 studies (55%) evaluated direct as well as indirect costs. The range for the mean annual direct costs lay between 40 International Dollar purchasing power parities (PPP-$) in rural Burundi and PPP-$4748 (adjusted to 2006 values) in a German epilepsy centre. Recent studies suggest AEDs are becoming the main contributor to direct costs. The mean indirect costs ranged between 12% and 85% of the total annual costs. Epilepsy is a cost-intensive disorder. A reliable comparison of the different COI

  12. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qigong for hypertension.A systematic literature search was performed in 7 databases from their respective inceptions until April 2014, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials of qigong as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with antihypertensive drugs versus no intervention, exercise, or antihypertensive drugs for hypertension were identified. The risk of bias was assessed using the tool described in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0.Twenty trials containing 2349 hypertensive patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high. Compared with no intervention, qigong significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -17.40 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -21.06 to -13.74, P < 0.00001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD = -10.15 mm Hg, 95% CI -13.99 to -6.30, P < 0.00001). Qigong was inferior to exercise in decreasing SBP (WMD = 6.51 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.81 to 10.21, P = 0.0006), but no significant difference between the effects of qigong and exercise on DBP (WMD = 0.67 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.39 to 2.73, P = 0.52) was identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, qigong produced a clinically meaningful but not statistically significant reduction in SBP (WMD = -7.91 mm Hg, 95% CI -16.81 to 1.00, P = 0.08), but appeared to be more effective in lowering DBP (WMD = -6.08 mm Hg, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.58, P = 0.0007). Qigong plus antihypertensive drugs significantly lowered both SBP (WMD = -11.99 mm Hg, 95% CI -15.59 to -8.39, P < 0.00001) and DBP (WMD = -5.28 mm Hg, 95% CI, -8.13 to -2.42, P = 0.0003) compared with antihypertensive drugs alone

  13. Effectiveness of adjunctive interventions for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianru; Xiao, Jiani; Li, Hanshi; Li, Yu; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Zhihe

    2017-03-16

    This study was aimed to summarize published systematic reviews that assess the effects of adjunctive interventions on the acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Electronic and manual searches were performed up to Aug 2016. Systematic reviews investigating the impact of adjunctive techniques on the promotion of OTM were included. The methodological quality of the included reviews was evaluated using the AMSTAR scale. The quality of evidence for each intervention was assessed using GRADE. The Jadad decision algorithm was used to select a study to provide body evidence from discordant reviews on the same intervention. A total of 11 systematic reviews were included in this study. AMSTAR scores ranged from 4 to 10 out of 11. The quality of evidence ranged from very low to low. The short-term (1-3 months) effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 5 and 8 J/cm(2) ) and corticotomy were supported by low-quality evidence. The evidence regarding the efficacy of photobiomodulation, pulsed electromagnetic field, interseptal bone reduction, 2 vibrational devices (Tooth Masseuse and Orthoaccel) and electrical current was of very low quality. Relaxin injections and extracorporeal shock waves were reported to have no impact on OTM according to low- and very low-quality evidence, respectively. Based on currently available information, we conclude that low-quality evidence indicates that LLLT (5 and 8 J/cm(2) ) and corticotomy are effective to promote OTM in the short term. Future high-quality trials are required to determine the optimal protocols, as well as the long-term effects of LLLT and corticotomy, before warranting recommendations for orthodontics clinics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Pain and Mortality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Diane; Wilkie, Ross; Uthman, Olalekan; Jordan, Joanne L.; McBeth, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality. Methods A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia) and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies. Results Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n = 7)(I2 = 78.8%) and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95–1.37) for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n = 5,I2 = 82.3%) MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93–1.60). The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors. Conclusion This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn

  15. Neuroimaging essentials in essential tremor: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Sarvi; Nederveen, Aart J.; Booij, Jan; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Background Essential tremor is regarded to be a disease of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging is a rapidly growing field with potential benefits to both diagnostics and research. The exact role of imaging techniques with respect to essential tremor in research and clinical practice is not clear. A systematic review of the different imaging techniques in essential tremor is lacking in the literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms essential tremor and familial tremor with the following keywords: imaging, MRI, VBM, DWI, fMRI, PET and SPECT, both in abbreviated form as well as in full form. We summarize and discuss the quality and the external validity of each study and place the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of essential tremor. Results A total of 48 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided into 19 structural and 29 functional and metabolic studies. The quality of the studies varied, especially concerning inclusion criteria. Functional imaging studies indicated cerebellar hyperactivity during rest and during tremor. The studies also pointed to the involvement of the thalamus, the inferior olive and the red nucleus. Structural studies showed less consistent results. Discussion and conclusion Neuroimaging techniques in essential tremor give insight into the pathophysiology of essential tremor indicating the involvement of the cerebellum as the most consistent finding. GABAergic dysfunction might be a major premise in the pathophysiological hypotheses. Inconsistencies between studies can be partly explained by the inclusion of heterogeneous patient groups. Improvement of scientific research requires more stringent inclusion criteria and application of advanced analysis techniques. Also, the use of multimodal neuroimaging techniques is a promising development in movement disorders research. Currently, the role of imaging techniques in essential tremor in daily

  16. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  17. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  18. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  19. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  20. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  1. The Alameda County Study: A Systematic, Chronological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This study is a systematic review of the Alameda County study findings and their importance in establishing a link between lifestyle and health outcomes. A systematic review of literature was performed and data indicating important links between lifestyle and health were synthesized. Although initial studies focused on the associations between…

  2. Assessing the Strengths of Mental Health Consumers: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…

  3. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Malhamé, Isabelle; Cormier, Maxime; Sugarman, Jordan; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background In countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial. Objectives In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection. Methods A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library) covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1) Full text was not available (2) they were case series or case studies (3) they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4) the study population was exclusively HIV-infected. Results Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24–3.07). There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90–100%) and chest radiography (93–100%.). In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance

  4. Manual search approaches used by systematic reviewers in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Vassar, Matt; Atakpo, Paul; Kash, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Manual searches are supplemental approaches to database searches to identify additional primary studies for systematic reviews. The authors argue that these manual approaches, in particular hand-searching and perusing reference lists, are often considered the same yet lead to different outcomes. Methods We conducted a PubMed search for systematic reviews in the top 10 dermatology journals (January 2006–January 2016). After screening, the final sample comprised 292 reviews. Statements related to manual searches were extracted from each review and categorized by the primary and secondary authors. Each statement was categorized as either “Search of Reference List,” “Hand Search,” “Both,” or “Unclear.” Results Of the 292 systematic reviews included in our sample, 143 reviews (48.97%) did not report a hand-search or scan of reference lists. One-hundred thirty-six reviews (46.58%) reported searches of reference lists, while 4 reviews (1.37%) reported systematic hand-searches. Three reviews (1.03%) reported use of both hand-searches and scanning reference lists. Six reviews (2.05%) were classified as unclear due to vague wording. Conclusions Authors of systematic reviews published in dermatology journals in our study sample scanned reference lists more frequently than they conducted hand-searches, possibly contributing to biased search outcomes. We encourage systematic reviewers to routinely practice hand-searching in order to minimize bias. PMID:27822152

  5. Smartphone Apps for Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using mobile technologies such as smartphones for improving the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the current clinical evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of smartphone apps in this population. Objective To review the published literature of smartphone apps applied for the care of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Methods An electronic database search of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted on May 24, 2015. All eligible studies were systematically reviewed, and proportional meta-analyses were applied to pooled data on recruitment, retention, and adherence to examine the overall feasibility of smartphone interventions for schizophrenia. Results Our search produced 226 results from which 7 eligible articles were identified, reporting on 5 studies of smartphone apps for patients with schizophrenia. All examined feasibility, and one assessed the preliminary efficacy of a smartphone intervention for schizophrenia. Study lengths varied between 6 and 130 days. Overall retention was 92% (95% CI 82-98%). Participants consistently used the smartphone apps on more than 85% of days during the study period, averaging 3.95 interactions per person per day. Furthermore, participants responded to 71.9% of automated prompts (95% CI 65.7-77.8%). Participants reported a range of potential benefits from the various interventions, and user experience was largely positive. Conclusions Although small, the current published literature demonstrates strong evidence for the feasibility of using smartphones to enhance the care of people with schizophrenia. High rates of engagement and satisfaction with a broad range of apps suggest the nascent potential of this mobile technology. However, there remains limited

  6. Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Amanda L; Hill, Malinda; Pazder, Rachel; Feudtner, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group), 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group), and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group). Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups). Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1) excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2) stultifying between-study variation, 3) inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4) few published replication studies, and 5) methodological flaws of study design. PMID:15274744

  7. Injury epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID) and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD) age among these cases was 30 (17.4) years. The males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%) followed by falls (22.3%). In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%). Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%). The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%). The mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 8.1(8.6%). The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes). PMID:28039683

  8. Systematic Review of Pears and Health

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Holly; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties. Pears contain antioxidants and provide between 27 and 41 mg of phenolics per 100 g. Animal studies with pears suggest that pears may regulate alcohol metabolism, protect against ulcers, and lower plasma lipids. Human feeding studies with pears have not been conducted. In epidemiological studies, pears are combined with all fresh fruits or with apples, because they are most similar in composition. The high content of dietary fiber in pears and their effects on gut health set pears apart from other fruit and deserves study. PMID:26663955

  9. Autism and social robotics: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Paola; Tonacci, Alessandro; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Billeci, Lucia; Ruta, Liliana; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Pioggia, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Social robotics could be a promising method for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) treatment. The aim of this article is to carry out a systematic literature review of the studies on this topic that were published in the last 10 years. We tried to address the following questions: can social robots be a useful tool in autism therapy? We followed the PRISMA guidelines, and the protocol was registered within PROSPERO database (CRD42015016158). We found many positive implications in the use of social robots in therapy as for example: ASD subjects often performed better with a robot partner rather than a human partner; sometimes, ASD patients had, toward robots, behaviors that TD patients had toward human agents; ASDs had a lot of social behaviors toward robots; during robotic sessions, ASDs showed reduced repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and, social robots manage to improve spontaneous language during therapy sessions. Therefore, robots provide therapists and researchers a means to connect with autistic subjects in an easier way, but studies in this area are still insufficient. It is necessary to clarify whether sex, intelligence quotient, and age of participants affect the outcome of therapy and whether any beneficial effects only occur during the robotic session or if they are still observable outside the clinical/experimental context.

  10. Neuroprotection trials in Parkinson's disease: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hart, Robert G; Pearce, Lesly A; Ravina, Bernard M; Yaltho, Toby C; Marler, John R

    2009-04-15

    Treatments to slow the progression are a major unmet need in Parkinson's disease. Detailed assessment of randomized trials testing putative neuroprotective drugs was undertaken to inform the design, reporting, and interpretation of future studies. This study is a systematic review of trials testing neuroprotective drugs. Data were extracted independently by two coauthors. Fifteen completed, published trials involving 4,087 participants tested 13 different drugs in 18 double-blind comparisons with placebo. Seven comparisons involving 2,000 subjects assessed MAO-B inhibitors. The primary outcome was change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score in eight trials and time to need for dopaminergic therapy in seven. Mean participant age was 62 years, 35% were women, the interval from diagnosis to entry averaged 11 months, and the number of participants averaged 272 (largest = 806). Follow-up averaged <16 months in all but two trials. Detailed randomization methods and success of double-blinding were reported in 20% and 13%, respectively. Based on the investigators' conclusions, six trials were interpreted as consistent with a neuroprotective effect, three as negative, and five as either confounded or not meeting criteria for futility. Neuroprotection trials have involved relatively uniform groups of participants early in the clinical disease course, with outcomes weighted heavily toward motor deterioration. Future trials should include participants with wider ranges of disease stages and assess broader neurological outcomes.

  11. Systematic reviews: Separating fact from fiction.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment.

  12. Mucormycosis in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Afsane; Moazeni, Maryam; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; de Hoog, Sybren; Badali, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Fungi in the order Mucorales cause acute, invasive and frequently fatal infections in susceptible patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases during the last 25 years in Iran. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 98 cases in Iran from 1990-2015. The mean patient age was 39.8 ± 19.2 years. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (47.9%), and 22.4% of the patients underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The most common clinical forms of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral (48.9%), pulmonary (9.2%) and cutaneous (9.2%). Eight cases of disseminated disease were identified. Overall mortality in the identified cases was 40.8%, with the highest mortality rate in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (75%). The mortality rate in rhinocerebral infection patients was significantly lower (45.8%). Rhinocerebral infection was the most common clinical manifestation in diabetes patients (72.9%). Patients were diagnosed using various methods including histopathology (85.7%), microscopy (12.3%) and culture (2.0%). Rhizopus species were the most prevalent (51.7%), followed by Mucor species (17.2%). Sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy (resulting survival rate, 66.7%). Owing to the high mortality rate of advanced mucormycosis, early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival rates. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical.

  13. Oxytocin for frontotemporal dementia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tampi, Rajesh R.; Maksimowski, Michael; Ahmed, Mohsina; Tampi, Deena J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this systematic review is to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in any language that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD. Bibliographic databases of published articles were also searched for additional studies. Results: A total of two RCTs that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD were identified. In one study, the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD produced a reduction in identification of negative facial expressions (anger and fear) which can be hypothesized to improve trust and increase cooperation in these individuals. Both studies noted oxytocin was well tolerated and showed short term benefits on behavioral symptoms in individuals with FTD. Conclusions: Oxytocin appears to improve social aspects of cognition and behavioral symptoms in individuals with FTD and is well tolerated. However, positive data from larger and longer duration RCTs are needed before the routine use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD can be recommended. PMID:28101324

  14. A systematic review of factitious decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Kenedi, Christopher; Sames, Christopher; Paice, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of factitious decompression sickness (DCS) involving a patient emergently treated at a hyperbaric medicine facility in New Zealand. Patients with factitious disorder feign illnesses such as DCS in order to receive care and attention despite the lack of an underlying illness. Other studies have suggested that 0.6% to as many as 9.3% of hospital admissions are factitious in nature. Therefore we believe that factitious DCS is occurring more often than hyperbaric clinicians suspect. DCS can be life-threatening, and hyperbaric medicine clinicians will almost always "err on the side of caution" when patients are referred with symptoms of DCS. Because DCS can be diagnosed based on subjective symptoms and self-reported history, there are opportunities for factitious patients to receive hyperbaric therapy. The costs associated with factitious DCS include transport, staff resources and preventing patients with treatable conditions from accessing the hyperbaric chamber. We performed a systematic review of the literature and found eight additional reported cases of confirmed or suspected factitious DCS. We report our findings and recommendations for hyperbaric medicine specialists regarding the recognition and management of factitious DCS.

  15. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  16. Maternal healthcare in migrants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora; Dias, Sónia

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is a period of increased vulnerability for migrant women, and access to healthcare, use and quality of care provided during this period are important aspects to characterize the support provided to this population. A systematic review of the scientific literature contained in the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases was carried out, searching for population based studies published between 1990 and 2012 and reporting on maternal healthcare in immigrant populations. A total of 854 articles were retrieved and 30 publications met the inclusion criteria, being included in the final evaluation. The majority of studies point to a higher health risk profile in immigrants, with an increased incidence of co-morbidity in some populations, reduced access to health facilities particularly in illegal immigrants, poor communication between women and caregivers, a lower rate of obstetrical interventions, a higher incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death, an increased risk of maternal death, and a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Incidences vary widely among different population groups. Some migrant populations are at a higher risk of serious complications during pregnancy, for reasons that include reduced access and use of healthcare facilities, as well as less optimal care, resulting in a higher incidence of adverse outcomes. Tackling these problems and achieving equality of care for all is a challenging aim for public healthcare services.

  17. Assessing Proprioception: A Systematic Review of Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Susan; Immink, Maarten; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Proprioception is a vital aspect of motor control and when degraded or lost can have a profound impact on function in diverse clinical populations. This systematic review aimed to identify clinically related tools to measure proprioceptive acuity, to classify the construct(s) underpinning the tools, and to report on the clinimetric properties of the tools. We searched key databases with the pertinent search terms, and from an initial list of 935 articles, we identified 57 of relevance. These articles described 32 different tools or methods to quantify proprioception. There was wide variation in methods, the joints able to be tested, and the populations sampled. The predominant construct was active or passive joint position detection, followed by passive motion detection and motion direction discrimination. The clinimetric properties were mostly poorly evaluated or reported. The Rivermead Assessment of Somatosensory Perception was generally considered to be a valid and reliable tool but with low precision; other tools with higher precision are potentially not clinically feasible. Clinicians and clinical researchers can use the summary tables to make more informed decisions about which tool to use to match their predominant requirements. Further discussion and research is needed to produce measures of proprioception that have improved validity and utility.

  18. [Basal metabolism during pregnancy: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sally, Enilce de Oliveira Fonseca; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Wahrlich, Vivian

    2013-02-01

    Gestational energy expenditure (EE) is the basis for nutritional counseling and body weight control. The objective of this study was to systematically review the behavior of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the major component of EE, during non gemelar pregnancy of healthy women. Based on the inclusion criteria, 37 articles were identified (24 cohort and 13 cross-sectional studies). Increases in BMR (between 8% and 35%) were observed in most cohort studies and it was related to the duration of follow-up and nutritional status. In the cross-sectionals, the increase in BMR varied from 8% to 28% close to delivery in comparison with the first trimester or post-partum. Lack of information on maternal age, loss of follow-up and short duration of follow-up during the pregnancy were serious limitations in the identified studies. In conclusion, BMR increases during pregnancy, and the increase is more intense after the second trimester. The most reliable data come from the few cohort studies that initiated before pregnancy.

  19. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a disorder characterized by amyloid deposition in the walls of leptomeningeal and cortical arteries, arterioles, and less often capillaries and veins of the central nervous system. CAA occurs mostly as a sporadic condition in the elderly, its incidence associating with advancing age. All sporadic CAA cases are due to deposition of amyloid-β, originating from proteolytic cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein. Hereditary forms of CAA are generally familial (and therefore rare in the general population), more severe and earlier in onset. CAA-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage is the most well-studied clinical condition associated with brain amyloid deposition. Despite ever increasing understanding of CAA pathogenesis and availability of reliable clinical and diagnostic tools, preventive and therapeutic options remain very limited. Further research efforts are required in order to identify biological targets for novel CAA treatment strategies. We present a systematic review of existing evidence regarding the epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of CAA. PMID:21519520

  20. Childhood asthma prediction models: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup

    2015-12-01

    Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.

  1. A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal experiments with guidelines for reporting.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jaime L; Sutton, Alex J; Jones, David R; Rushton, Lesley; Abrams, Keith R

    2006-01-01

    To maximize the findings of animal experiments to inform likely health effects in humans, a thorough review and evaluation of the animal evidence is required. Systematic reviews and, where appropriate, meta-analyses have great potential in facilitating such an evaluation, making efficient use of the animal evidence while minimizing possible sources of bias. The extent to which systematic review and meta-analysis methods have been applied to evaluate animal experiments to inform human health is unknown. Using systematic review methods, we examine the extent and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of in vivo animal experiments carried out to inform human health. We identified 103 articles meeting the inclusion criteria: 57 reported a systematic review, 29 a systematic review and a meta-analysis, and 17 reported a meta-analysis only. The use of these methods to evaluate animal evidence has increased over time. Although the reporting of systematic reviews is of adequate quality, the reporting of meta-analyses is poor. The inadequate reporting of meta-analyses observed here leads to questions on whether the most appropriate methods were used to maximize the use of the animal evidence to inform policy or decision-making. We recommend that guidelines proposed here be used to help improve the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal experiments. Further consideration of the use and methodological quality and reporting of such studies is needed.

  2. Innovations in data collection, management, and archiving for systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianjing; Vedula, S Swaroop; Hadar, Nira; Parkin, Christopher; Lau, Joseph; Dickersin, Kay

    2015-02-17

    Data abstraction is a key step in conducting systematic reviews because data collected from study reports form the basis of appropriate conclusions. Recent methodological standards and expectations highlight several principles for data collection. To support implementation of these standards, this article provides a step-by-step tutorial for selecting data collection tools; constructing data collection forms; and abstracting, managing, and archiving data for systematic reviews. Examples are drawn from recent experience using the Systematic Review Data Repository for data collection and management. If it is done well, data collection for systematic reviews only needs to be done by 1 team and placed into a publicly accessible database for future use. Technological innovations, such as the Systematic Review Data Repository, will contribute to finding trustworthy answers for many health and health care questions.

  3. The detectability of brain metastases using contrast-enhanced spin-echo or gradient-echo images: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chong Hyun; Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Kyung Won; Pyo, Junhee

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the detectability of brain metastases using contrast-enhanced spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) T1-weighted images. The Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for studies on the detectability of brain metastases using contrast-enhanced SE or GRE images. The pooled proportions for the detectability of brain metastases were assessed using random-effects modeling. Heterogeneity among studies was determined using χ (2) statistics for the pooled estimates and the inconsistency index, I (2) . To overcome heterogeneity, subgroup analyses according to slice thickness and lesion size were performed. A total of eight eligible studies, which included a sample size of 252 patients and 1413 brain metastases, were included. The detectability of brain metastases using SE images (89.2 %) was higher than using GRE images (81.6 %; adjusted 84.0 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2385). In subgroup analysis of studies with 1-mm-thick slices and small metastases (<5 mm in diameter), 3-dimensional (3D) SE images demonstrated a higher detectability in comparison to 3D GRE images (93.7 % vs 73.1 % in 1-mm-thick slices; 89.5 % vs 59.4 % for small metastases) (p < 0.0001). Although both SE or GRE images are acceptable for detecting brain metastases, contrast-enhanced 3D SE images using 1-mm-thick slices are preferred for detecting brain metastases, especially small lesions (<5 mm in diameter).

  4. Laparoscopic surgery: A qualified systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Buia, Alexander; Stockhausen, Florian; Hanisch, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review current applications of the laparoscopic surgery while highlighting the standard procedures across different fields. METHODS: A comprehensive search was undertaken using the PubMed Advanced Search Builder. A total of 321 articles were found in this search. The following criteria had to be met for the publication to be selected: Review article, randomized controlled trials, or meta-analyses discussing the subject of laparoscopic surgery. In addition, publications were hand-searched in the Cochrane database and the high-impact journals. A total of 82 of the findings were included according to matching the inclusion criteria. Overall, 403 full-text articles were reviewed. Of these, 218 were excluded due to not matching the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 185 relevant articles were identified matching the search criteria for an overview of the current literature on the laparoscopic surgery. Articles covered the period from the first laparoscopic application through its tremendous advancement over the last several years. Overall, the biggest advantage of the procedure has been minimizing trauma to the abdominal wall compared with open surgery. In the case of cholecystectomy, fundoplication, and adrenalectomy, the procedure has become the gold standard without being proven as a superior technique over the open surgery in randomized controlled trials. Faster recovery, reduced hospital stay, and a quicker return to normal activities are the most evident advantages of the laparoscopic surgery. Positive outcomes, efficiency, a lower rate of wound infections, and reduction in the perioperative morbidity of minimally invasive procedures have been shown in most indications. CONCLUSION: Improvements in surgical training and developments in instruments, imaging, and surgical techniques have greatly increased safety and feasibility of the laparoscopic surgical procedures. PMID:26713285

  5. Acupuncture for low back pain: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area.

  6. Acupuncture for Low Back Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area. PMID:25821485

  7. Managing and Coding References for Systematic Reviews and Scoping Reviews in EndNote.

    PubMed

    Peters, Micah D J

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for using EndNote to manage and code references in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and scoping reviews. The process is simple and easy for reviewers new to both EndNote and systematic reviews. This process allows reviewers to easily conduct and report systematic reviews in line with the internationally recognized PRISMA reporting guidelines and also facilitates the overall task of systematic or scoping review conduct and reporting from the initial search through to structuring the results, discussion, and conclusions in a rigorous, reproducible, and user-friendly manner.

  8. A Systematic Review of Interspinous Dynamic Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Heui; Seol, Aram; Cho, Tae-Young; Kim, Soo-Young; Lim, Hyung-Mook

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic literature review of interspinous dynamic stabilization, including DIAM, Wallis, Coflex, and X-STOP, was conducted to assess its safety and efficacy. Methods The search was done in Korean and English, by using eight domestic databases which included KoreaMed and international databases, such as Ovid Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. A total of 306 articles were identified, but the animal studies, preclinical studies, and studies that reported the same results were excluded. As a result, a total of 286 articles were excluded and the remaining 20 were included in the final assessment. Two assessors independently extracted data from these articles using predetermined selection criteria. Qualities of the articles included were assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Results The complication rate of interspinous dynamic stabilization has been reported to be 0% to 32.3% in 3- to 41-month follow-up studies. The complication rate of combined interspinous dynamic stabilization and decompression treatment (32.3%) was greater than that of decompression alone (6.5%), but no complication that significantly affected treatment results was found. Interspinous dynamic stabilization produced slightly better clinical outcomes than conservative treatments for spinal stenosis. Good outcomes were also obtained in single-group studies. No significant difference in treatment outcomes was found, and the studies compared interspinous dynamic stabilization with decompression or fusion alone. Conclusions No particular problem was found regarding the safety of the technique. Its clinical outcomes were similar to those of conventional techniques, and no additional clinical advantage could be attributed to interspinous dynamic stabilization. However, few studies have been conducted on the long-term efficacy of interspinous dynamic stabilization. Thus, the authors suggest further clinical studies be conducted to validate the theoretical

  9. Systematic Review of the Human Milk Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-27

    Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.

  10. Suicide in India: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    RANE, Anil; NADKARNI, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide is an important cause of death in India but estimated suicide rates based on data from India’s National Crime Records Bureau are unreliable. Aim Systematically review existing literature on suicide and the factors associated with suicide in India. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar and IndMED were searched using appropriate search terms. The abstracts of relevant papers were independently examined by both authors for possible inclusion. A standardized set of data items were abstracted from the full text of the selected papers. Results Thirty-six papers met inclusion criteria for the analysis. The heterogeneity of sampling procedures and methods of the studies made meta-analysis of the results infeasible. Verbal autopsy studies in several rural locations in India report high suicide rates, from 82 to 95 per 100,000 population – up to 8-fold higher than the official national suicide rates. Suicide rates are highest in persons 20 to 29 years of age. Female suicide rates are higher than male rates in persons under 30 years of age but the opposite is true in those 30 years of age or older. Hanging and ingestion of organophosphate pesticides are the most common methods of suicide. Among women, self-immolation is also a relatively common method of suicide. Low socioeconomic status, mental illness (especially alcohol misuse) and inter-personal difficulties are the factors that are most closely associated with suicide. Conclusion The quality of the information about suicide in India is quite limited, but it is clearly an important and growing public health problem. Compared to suicides in high-income countries, suicide in India is more prevalent in women (particularly young women), is much more likely to involve ingestion of pesticides, is more closely associated with poverty, and is less closely associated with mental illness. PMID:25092952

  11. Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients’ health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. Objective This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. Methods The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. Results As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches

  12. Systematic Review Checklist: A Standardized Technique for Assessing and Reporting Reviews of Life Cycle Assessment Data

    PubMed Central

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M.; Cooper, Joyce S.; Noon, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systematic review, including meta-analysis, is increasingly utilized in life cycle assessment (LCA). There are currently no widely recognized guidelines for designing, conducting, or reporting systematic reviews in LCA. Other disciplines such as medicine, ecology, and software engineering have both recognized the utility of systematic reviews and created standardized protocols for conducting and reporting systematic reviews. Based largely on the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, which updated the preferred format for reporting of such reviews in biomedical research, we provide an introduction to the topic and a checklist to guide the reporting of future LCA reviews in a standardized format. The standardized technique for assessing and reporting reviews of LCA (STARR-LCA) checklist is a starting point for improving the utility of systematic reviews in LCA. PMID:26069437

  13. Population attributable fraction of modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Narjes; Seddigh, Leila; Rampisheh, Zahra; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Demonstrating the modifiable risk factors of AD can help to plan for prevention of this disease. The aim of the current review was to characterize modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of AD using existing data and determine their contribution in AD development in Iran and the world. Methods: The systematic search was done in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2014 to find systematic reviews or meta-analyses about association between AD and cardiovascular modifiable risk factors included diabetes, hypertension (HTN), physical inactivity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight and obesity. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for these risk factors in Iran and the world. Results: Of 2651 articles, 11 were eligible for data extraction after assessing relevancy and quality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2, smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of AD. Physical inactivity with 22.0% and smoking with 15.7% had the highest PAF for AD in Iran and the world, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that modifiable cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of AD. Moreover, about one-third of AD cases were attributed to five modifiable risk factors. PMID:27648178

  14. Search strategies for finding systematic reviews: reply from authors.

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, F; Ruano, J; Aguilar-Luque, M; Gay-Mimbrera, J; Maestre-Lopez, B; Sanz-Cabanillas, J L; Carmona-Fernández, P J; González-Padilla, M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Isla-Tejera, B

    2017-03-24

    Dr. Grindlay provided a critique of systematic search strategies reported in our article by Gómez-García et al. titled "Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest, and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality," which was recently published in your journal (1) . Specifically, he explained his concern about the search strategy used to obtain the maximum number of systematic reviews published. He suggested that the problem probably arises because of the diversity in the nomenclature used to denominate this type of review and the low compliance with the PRISMA recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the first in a series of six articles related to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. In this article, we overview the methodology of systematic reviews and provide a discussion of their use. Systematic reviews differ qualitatively from traditional reviews by explicitly defining a specific review question, employing methods to reduce bias in the selection and inclusion of studies that address the review question (including a systematic and specified search strategy, and selection of studies based on explicit eligibility criteria), an assessment of the risk of bias for included studies and objectively summarizing the results qualitatively or quantitatively (i.e. via meta-analysis). Systematic reviews have been widely used to address human healthcare questions and are increasingly being used in veterinary medicine. Systematic reviews can provide veterinarians and other decision-makers with a scientifically defensible summary of the current state of knowledge on a topic without the need for the end-user to read the vast amount of primary research related to that topic.

  16. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S.; Bansal, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of fevers, migraine headaches, rheumatoid arthritis, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility, and problems with menstruation and labor during childbirth. The feverfew herb has a long history of use in traditional and folk medicine, especially among Greek and early European herbalists. Feverfew has also been used for psoriasis, allergies, asthma, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. The plant contains a large number of natural products, but the active principles probably include one or more of the sesquiterpene lactones known to be present, including parthenolide. Other potentially active constituents include flavonoid glycosides and pinenes. It has multiple pharmacologic properties, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, an emmenagogue, and as an enema for worms. In this review, we have explored the various dimensions of the feverfew plant and compiled its vast pharmacologic applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent. The plant is widely cultivated to large regions of the world and its importance as a medicinal plant is growing substantially with increasing and stronger reports in support of its multifarious therapeutic uses. PMID:22096324

  17. Searching for grey literature for systematic reviews: challenges and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-09-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.

  18. Risk of bias reporting in Cochrane systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    Risk of bias is an inherent quality of primary research and therefore of systematic reviews. This column addresses the Cochrane Collaboration's approach to assessing, risks of bias, the meaning of each, indicators of low, high and uncertain, and ways that risk of bias can be represented in a Cochrane systematic review report. The sources of risk of bias that reviewers evaluate include selection, performance, detection, attrition and reporting bias. Each poses threat to the internal validity of the primary studies and requires the reviewer to judge the level of risk as high, low or unclear. Reviewers need to address how studies of higher risk of bias might impact the pooled effect.

  19. Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guolan; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. HSI acquires a three-dimensional dataset called hypercube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension. Spatially resolved spectral imaging obtained by HSI provides diagnostic information about the tissue physiology, morphology, and composition. This review paper presents an overview of the literature on medical hyperspectral imaging technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application.

  20. Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guolan; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications, especially in disease diagnosis and image-guided surgery. HSI acquires a three-dimensional dataset called hypercube, with two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension. Spatially resolved spectral imaging obtained by HSI provides diagnostic information about the tissue physiology, morphology, and composition. This review paper presents an overview of the literature on medical hyperspectral imaging technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application. PMID:24441941

  1. A Systematic Summary of Systematic Reviews on the Topic of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael J.; Browning, William M.; Urband, Christopher E.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded. Results: A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous. Conclusion: A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature. PMID:27047983

  2. Evidence and Health Policy: Using and Regulating Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Fox, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews have, increasingly, informed policy for almost 3 decades. In many countries, systematic reviews have informed policy for public and population health, paying for health care, increasing the quality and efficiency of interventions, and improving the effectiveness of health sector professionals and the organizations in which they work. Systematic reviews also inform other policy areas: criminal justice, education, social welfare, and the regulation of toxins in the environment. Although the production and use of systematic reviews has steadily increased, many clinicians, public health officials, representatives of commercial organizations, and, consequently, policymakers who are responsive to them, have been reluctant to use these reviews to inform policy; others have actively opposed using them. Systematic reviews could inform policy more effectively with changes to current practices and the assumptions that sustain these practices-assumptions made by researchers and the organizations that employ them, by public and private funders of systematic reviews, and by organizations that finance, set priorities and standards for, and publish them.

  3. Using Systematic Reviews to Investigate Research in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen; Lloyd, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the evidence base for aspects of early childhood has been explored using systematic research synthesis methods developed at the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre). Three early childhood systematic reviews have been carried out using EPPI-Centre procedures and tools. The…

  4. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Lymph Nodes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng; Xie, Mingxing; Lv, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall performance of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) in differentiating between benign and malignant lymph nodes (LNs) by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were comprehensively searched for potential studies through August 13th, 2016. Studies that investigated the diagnostic power of ARFI for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant LNs by using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) or virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) were collected. The included articles were published in English or Chinese. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the methodological quality. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve (AUC) were calculated by means of a bivariate mixed-effects regression model. Meta-regression analysis was performed to identify the potential sources of between study heterogeneity. Fagan plot analysis was used to explore the clinical utilities. Publication bias was assessed using Deek’s funnel plot. Results Nine studies involving 1084 LNs from 929 patients were identified to analyze in the meta-analysis. The summary sensitivity and specificity of ARFI in detecting malignant LNs were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–0.91) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82–0.92), respectively. The AUC was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90–0.95). The pooled DOR was 49.59 (95% CI, 26.11–94.15). Deek’s funnel plot revealed no significant publication bias. Conclusion ARFI is a promising tool for the differentiation of benign and malignant LNs with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27855188

  5. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach of synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas and formulate scientific consensus state...

  6. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  7. Including non-public data and studies in systematic reviews and systematic maps.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.

  8. Starting a Fee-Based Systematic Review Service.

    PubMed

    Knehans, Amy; Dell, Esther; Robinson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The George T. Harrell Health Sciences Library at Penn State College of Medicine began a fee-based systematic review service, a model for cost recovery, in October 2013. This article describes the library's experience in establishing, introducing, and promoting the new service, which follows the Institute of Medicine's recommended standards for performing systematic reviews. The goal is to share this information with librarians who are contemplating starting such a service.

  9. A Web-based archive of systematic review data.

    PubMed

    Ip, Stanley; Hadar, Nira; Keefe, Sarah; Parkin, Christopher; Iovin, Ramon; Balk, Ethan M; Lau, Joseph

    2012-02-21

    Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics.In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own.In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource.Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory.

  10. Integration of existing systematic reviews into new reviews: identification of guidance needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937

  11. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sakes, Aimée; van der Wiel, Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W. J.; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill. Methods We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting. Results Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10−9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi), or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals), or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to −197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi). The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential) energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1) in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum) by compression of the spore and droplets and (2) in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5

  12. White light, autofluorescence and narrow-band imaging bronchoscopy for diagnosing airway pre-cancerous and early cancer lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianrong; Wu, Jieyu; Yang, Yujing; Liao, Hua; Xu, Zhiheng; Hamblin, Lindsey Tristine; Jiang, Long; Depypere, Lieven; Ang, Keng Leong; He, Jiaxi; Liang, Ziyan; Huang, Jun; Li, Jingpei; He, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) and advanced techniques for airway pre-cancerous lesions and early cancer, such as autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), AFB combined with WLB (AFB + WLB) and narrow-band imaging (NBI) bronchoscopy. Methods We searched for eligible studies in seven electronic databases from their date of inception to Mar 20, 2015. In eligible studies, detected lesions should be confirmed by histopathology. We extracted and calculated the 2×2 data based on the pathological criteria of lung tumor, including high-grade lesions from moderate dysplasia (MOD) to invasive carcinoma (INV). Random-effect model was used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results In 53 eligible studies (39 WLB, 39 AFB, 17 AFB + WLB, 6 NBI), diagnostic performance for high-grade lesions was analyzed based on twelve studies (10 WLB, 7 AFB, 7 AFB + WLB, 1 NBI), involving with totally 2,880 patients and 8,830 biopsy specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, DOR and AUC of WLB were 51% (95% CI, 34–68%), 86% (95% CI, 73–84%), 6 (95% CI, 3–13) and 77% (95% CI, 73–81%). Those of AFB and AFB + WLB were 93% (95% CI, 77–98%) and 86% (95% CI, 75–97%), 52% (95% CI, 37–67%) and 71% (95% CI, 56–87%), 15 (95% CI, 4–57) and 16 (95% CI, 6–41), and 76% (95% CI, 72–79%) and 82% (95% CI, 78–85%), respectively. NBI presented 100% sensitivity and 43% specificity. Conclusions With higher sensitivity, advanced bronchoscopy could be valuable to avoid missed diagnosis. Combining strategy of AFB and WLB may contribute preferable diagnosis rather than their alone use for high-grade lesions. Studies of NBI warrants further investigation for precancerous lesions. PMID:28066600

  13. Instruments Measuring Integrated Care: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Mary Ann C; Nurjono, Milawaty; Lim, Yee Wei; Dessers, Ezra; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2016-12-01

    Policy Points: Investigations on systematic methodologies for measuring integrated care should coincide with the growing interest in this field of research. A systematic review of instruments provides insights into integrated care measurement, including setting the research agenda for validating available instruments and informing the decision to develop new ones. This study is the first systematic review of instruments measuring integrated care with an evidence synthesis of the measurement properties. We found 209 index instruments measuring different constructs related to integrated care; the strength of evidence on the adequacy of the majority of their measurement properties remained largely unassessed.

  14. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moher, David

    2015-11-02

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors' reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as a peer reviewer, to use. Additionally, keeping up with the current literature, whether as a content expert or being aware of advances in systematic review methods is likely be make for a more comprehensive and effective peer review. Providing a brief summary of what the systematic review has reported is an important first step in the peer review process (and not performed frequently enough). At its core, it provides the authors with some sense of what the peer reviewer believes was performed (Methods) and found (Results). Importantly, it also provides clarity regarding any potential problems in the methods, including statistical approaches for meta-analysis, results, and interpretation of the systematic review, for which the peer reviewer can seek explanations from the authors; these clarifications are best presented as questions to the authors.

  15. Oral Implant Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Sarika; PATIL, Neelkant; SOLANKI, Jitender; SINGH, Ravinder; LALLER, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate implant imaging technique has become a challenging task since the advent of advanced imaging modalities, and many of these are used for implant imaging. On imaging, the modality should not only consider the anatomy but should also provide dimensional accuracy. Many dentists use the conventional method, mostly orthopantograph (OPG), in their routine practice of implant placement. However, because of the drawbacks associated with OPG, higher technologies, such as computed tomography (CT) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), are better accepted. These help improve image sharpness and reduce distortion. These techniques are not used widely due to the cost effect. Therefore, to decide on the type of imaging technique, all associated advantages and disadvantages should be considered, which will be broadly discussed in this review. PMID:26715891

  16. Epicardial fat: definition, measurements and systematic review of main outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-07-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used.

  17. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used. PMID:23917514

  18. Natural Language Processing in Radiology: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed.

  19. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the “highest level of evidence” for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies – sometimes with contradictory conclusions – on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist. PMID:27904176

  20. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    PubMed Central

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. PMID:23372426

  1. Systematic reviews of animal models: methodology versus epistemology.

    PubMed

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the assumptions, or axioms, upon which the research studies are based, are untenable either scientifically or logically, then the results must be highly suspect regardless of the otherwise high quality of the studies or the systematic reviews. We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. It is this failure that is purportedly being corrected via systematic reviews. We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions.

  2. A Systematic Review of Whole School Improvement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Yael; Darwin, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review of widely implemented, externally developed whole school improvement models. The models serve elementary, middle, and high schools and schools operated by education service providers. A systematic review of the research was conducted using rigorous evidence standards. Across models, the whole school improvement…

  3. Research on Teaching Practicum--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…

  4. Teaching Reading for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…

  5. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  6. An overview of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The Cochrane Collaboration says that the Cochrane handbook for diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTAR) is currently in development as per the Cochrane Collaboration. This implies that the methodology of systematic reviews (SR) of diagnostic test accuracy is still a matter of debate. At this point, comparison of methodologies for SR in case of interventions as against diagnostics would be helpful to understand DTAR.

  7. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  8. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  9. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section 1045.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data §...

  10. Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A

    2015-12-01

    Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations.

  11. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olivia

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content (defining and measuring the diffusion of innovation in organizations) and process (reviewing the literature in a systematic and reproducible way). This article discusses (1) a parsimonious and evidence-based model for considering the diffusion of innovations in health service organizations, (2) clear knowledge gaps where further research should be focused, and (3) a robust and transferable methodology for systematically reviewing health service policy and management. Both the model and the method should be tested more widely in a range of contexts. PMID:15595944

  12. Spiritual care as eHealth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Nooten, Johan; Oh, Hans; Pierce, Bruce; Koning, Frederic J; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review was undertaken of the literature on the use of the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICT's) in the provision and support of religious and spiritual care in healthcare. Indexes such as Medline, PsychoINFO and Proquest Religion were searched. The review found little systematic study of the effectiveness of the Internet and other ICT's in religious and spiritual care. It is believed that the results of this review provide a basis for promise spiri care in the further explora of the potential and of ICT's for tual healthcare.

  13. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in eating disorders: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcelle Barrueco; Melnik, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eating disorders are psychiatric conditions originated from and perpetuated by individual, family and sociocultural factors. The psychosocial approach to treatment and prevention of relapse is crucial. To present an overview of the scientific evidence on effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in treatment of eating disorders. All systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Cochrane Library on the topic were included. Afterwards, as from the least recent date of these reviews (2001), an additional search was conducted at PubMed with sensitive search strategy and with the same keywords used. A total of 101 primary studies and 30 systematic reviews (5 Cochrane systematic reviews), meta-analysis, guidelines or narrative reviews of literature were included. The main outcomes were: symptomatic remission, body image, cognitive distortion, psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial functioning and patient satisfaction. The cognitive behavioral approach was the most effective treatment, especially for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome. For anorexia nervosa, the family approach showed greater effectiveness. Other effective approaches were interpersonal psychotherapy, dialectic behavioral therapy, support therapy and self-help manuals. Moreover, there was an increasing number of preventive and promotional approaches that addressed individual, family and social risk factors, being promising for the development of positive self-image and self-efficacy. Further studies are required to evaluate the impact of multidisciplinary approaches on all eating disorders, as well as the cost-effectiveness of some effective modalities, such as the cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:27462898

  14. [VAP and oral hygiene.A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Guerra, F; De Martino, F; Capocci, M; Rinaldo, F; Mannocci, A; De Biase, A; Ottolenghi, L; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units. International literature showed how the use of professional oral hygiene protocols provide an essential support in VAP prevention. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic and narrative updated review, to further demonstrate that a proper protocol of oral hygiene, in special needs patients, can reduce risk of developing VAP. In this study were analyzed 10 narrative and 3 systematic reviews. Systematic reviews were evaluated with AMSTAR checklist, INSA tool was used to analyze narrative reviews. The findings of this study suggest that the use of antimicrobials combined with tooth brushing can actively contribute to reducing the incidence of VAP.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease: A region-of-interest and voxel-based study at 3 T and systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan T; Abaei, Maryam; Gontu, Vamsi; Morgan, Paul S; Bajaj, Nin; Auer, Dorothee P

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in developing a reliable, affordable and accessible disease biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) to facilitate disease modifying PD-trials. Imaging biomarkers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can describe parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These parameters, when measured in the substantia nigra (SN), have not only shown promising but also varying and controversial results. To clarify the potential diagnostic value of nigral DTI in PD and its dependency on selection of region-of-interest, we undertook a high resolution DTI study at 3 T. 59 subjects (32 PD patients, 27 age and sex matched healthy controls) were analysed using manual outlining of SN and substructures, and voxel-based analysis (VBA). We also performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect size (DES) of disease related nigral DTI changes. We found a regional increase in nigral mean diffusivity in PD (mean ± SD, PD 0.80 ± 0.10 vs. controls 0.73 ± 0.06 · 10(- 3) mm(2)/s, p = 0.002), but no difference using a voxel based approach. No significant disease effect was seen using meta-analysis of nigral MD changes (10 studies, DES = + 0.26, p = 0.17, I(2) = 30%). None of the nigral regional or voxel based analyses of this study showed altered fractional anisotropy. Meta-analysis of 11 studies on nigral FA changes revealed a significant PD induced FA decrease. There was, however, a very large variation in results (I(2) = 86%) comparing all studies. After exclusion of five studies with unusual high values of nigral FA in the control group, an acceptable heterogeneity was reached, but there was non-significant disease effect (DES = - 0.5, p = 0.22, I(2) = 28%). The small PD related nigral MD changes in conjunction with the negative findings on VBA and meta-analysis limit the usefulness of nigral MD

  16. The quality of nutrition and cancer reviews: a systematic assessment.

    PubMed

    Weed, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    The methodological quality of published reviews of nutrition and cancer (2008-2009) and of the carcinogenicity of acrylamide (1999-2009) was systematically assessed. Each review was examined with respect to four characteristics: whether the purpose of the review was explicitly stated, whether a methods section (detailing the methods used to "weigh" the evidence) was included, whether "weight of evidence" methods were described elsewhere in the paper (e.g., in the discussion), and finally, whether references to recognized "weight of evidence" methods were included. In this study, ninety per cent of a systematically selected sample of recent reviews on nutrition and cancer published in 2008-2009 and 74% of reviews on acrylamide on cancer published in 1999-2009 were found to be methodologically troublesome or frankly unsound. Failure of peer review and editorial oversight are possible explanations, suggesting a broad lack of concern about this issue in the scientific community. If peer reviewers in the nutrition and cancer community do not require "weight of evidence" methods, then these methods may not appear in the published reviews. Similarly, if journal editors (or editorial policies) do not require methods sections in literature reviews, then these sections may not appear. The prerogative of the author(s) seems the most likely determinant of whether a systematic approach is used or not in nutrition and cancer reviews.

  17. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  18. Testing Scientific Software: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798

  19. Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Koretz, Ronald L; Lipman, Timothy O

    2017-03-01

    Systematic reviews should be distinguished from narrative reviews. In the latter, an editor asks an expert to sum up all of the information that is known about a particular topic. However, the expert is under no constraints regarding what he or she does, or does not, choose to include in the review. As a result, his or her bias can influence the final message. A systematic review, which may or may not be written by experts, typically asks a narrower question, and then answers it using the entirety of the medical literature. The systematic review process includes computer searches to identify the pertinent literature, a statement of the inclusion and exclusion criteria for identified studies, a list of items of interest to extract from each study, a method to assess the quality of each study, a summary of the evidence that has been found (which may or may not involve attempts to combine data), a discussion of the evidence and the limitations of the conclusions, and suggestions for future research efforts. If the data are combined, that process is called meta-analysis. In meta-analysis, an estimate of the reliability of each study is made, and those that appear to be more reliable are weighed more heavily when the data are combined. While systematic reviews depend on a more preplanned method and thus, unlike narrative reviews, contain sections on method, they can be easily read once the reader becomes familiar with the vocabulary.

  20. Intraperitoneal Local Anesthetic in Pediatric Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hamill, James K; Rahiri, Jamie-Lee; Liley, Andrew; Hill, Andrew G

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Systematic reviews report intraperitoneal local anesthetic (IPLA) effective in adults but until now no review has addressed IPLA in children. The objective of this review was to answer the question, does IPLA compared with control reduce pain after pediatric abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, trials registries, ProQuest, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Open Gray.

  1. Midfacial Reconstruction – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Aala; ElFetouh, Adel Abou; Hakam, Maha; Mostafa, Basma

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Different lesions affecting the midfacial regions require surgical reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess the different methods used in midfacial reconstruction after maxillectomy procedures. The various reported surgical reconstructive techniques focusing on the esthetic and functional outcomes are to be reviewed in this article. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A thorough PUBMED and hand-search of journals of relevance was performed on related terms and yielded 772 titles of which 45 abstracts were selected and obtained as full articles for further evaluation while the rest were excluded by title/abstract. According to the inclusion criteria; 14 of these studies were used to complete this article. RESULTS: In this review we showed that fibular and radial vascularized grafts were the most commonly reported methods in literature with a few other options. Computer aided design and surgical planning has been also reviewed and seems to be a rapidly evolving option for maxillofacial reconstruction. Lack of RCTs (randomized controlled trials) and large scale case series was noticed in this review making the evidence of poor quality. CONCLUSION: Methods of evaluation of reconstruction options mainly qualitative and subjective made the evaluation of the techniques in this review difficult. PMID:27703577

  2. Systematic review and assessment of systematic reviews examining the effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Shinya; Suzuki, Daigo; Kawano, Eisuke; Sato, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Objetives There have been several systematic reviews(SRs) on whether periodontal treatment for an individual with both periodontal disease and diabetes can improve diabetes outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review (SR) of previous meta-analyses, and to assess the methodological quality of the SRs examining the effects of periodontal treatment and diabetes. (PROSPERO Registration # CRD 42015023470). Study Design We searched five electronic databases and identified previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published through July 2015. In cases where the meta-analysis did not meet our criteria, the meta-analyses were recalculated. General characteristics of each included trial were abstracted, analyzed, and compared. The mean difference, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the I2 statistic were abstracted or recalculated. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews Instrument (AMSTAR) was used to assess methodological quality. Results Of the 475 citations screened, nine systematic reviews were included. In total, 13 meta-analyses included in nine SRs were examined. In comparability analyses, meta-analyses in four SRs did not meet our criteria, and were recalcuated. Of these 13 meta-analyses, 10 suggested significant effects of periodontal treatment on HbA1c improvement. Mean differences found in the 13 meta-analyses ranged from -0.93 to 0.13. AMSTAR assessment revealed six SRs with moderate and three with high overall quality. Conclusions We can conclude that there is a significant effect of periodontal treatment on improvement of HbA1c in diabetes patients, although the effect size is extremely small. In addition to the small effect size, not all SRs could be considered of high quality. Key words:Periodontal treatment, diabetes, HbA1c, systematic review, systematic review of systematic reviews, evidence-based medicine, AMSTAR. PMID:28160589

  3. Global cardiovascular risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in adults: systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice C; Onakpoya, Igho J; Roberts, Nia; Ward, Alison M; Heneghan, Carl J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify, critically appraise and summarise existing systematic reviews on the impact of global cardiovascular risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews published between January 2005 and October 2016 in The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE or CINAHL databases, and post hoc analysis of primary trials. Participants, interventions, outcomes Systematic reviews of interventions involving global cardiovascular risk assessment relative to no formal risk assessment in adults with no history of CVD. The primary outcomes of interest were CVD-related morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol and smoking. Results We identified six systematic reviews of variable but generally of low quality (mean Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 4.2/11, range 0/11 to 7/11). No studies identified by the systematic reviews reported CVD-related morbidity or mortality or all-cause mortality. Meta-analysis of reported randomised controlled trials (RCTs) showed small reductions in SBP (mean difference (MD) −2.22 mm Hg (95% CI −3.49 to −0.95); I2=66%; n=9; GRADE: very low), total cholesterol (MD −0.11 mmol/L (95% CI −0.20 to −0.02); I2=72%; n=5; GRADE: very low), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD −0.15 mmol/L (95% CI −0.26 to −0.05), I2=47%; n=4; GRADE: very low) and smoking cessation (RR 1.62 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.43); I2=17%; n=7; GRADE: low). The median follow-up time of reported RCTs was 12 months (range 2–36 months). Conclusions The quality of existing systematic reviews was generally poor and there is currently no evidence reported in these reviews that the prospective use of global cardiovascular risk assessment translates to reductions in CVD morbidity or mortality. There are reductions in SBP, cholesterol and smoking but they may not be clinically

  4. Microthreaded Implants and Crestal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Thobity, Ahmad; Kutkut, Ahmad; Almas, Khalid

    2016-11-21

    This systematic literature review investigated the effect of microthreaded-neck dental implants on crestal bone loss. Using the participants, interventions, comparison groups, outcomes, and study design (PICOS) system, we addressed the following focused question: Do microthreaded-neck dental implants positively affect the crestal bone level around dental implants? We searched 3 electronic databases to find articles published between January 1995 and June 2016 that contained any combination of the following keywords: dental implant, microthread, microthreaded, crestal bone level, crestal bone loss, and alveolar bone level. We excluded case reports, review articles, letters to the editor, commentaries, and articles published in a language other than English. We found a total of 70 articles. After eliminating duplicates and applying PICOS eligibility criteria, we selected only articles that reported the results of randomized controlled trials, prospective or retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, or other types of clinical trials that compared the microthreaded implant design to other implant designs. We were left with 23 articles for review. The 23 articles reported crestal bone loss ranging from 0.05 mm to 0.9 mm, with a range of 12 to 96 months of follow-up. Less crestal bone was lost with dental implants that had a microthreaded neck design than with machined-surface or conventional rough-surface dental implants. Thus, microthreaded dental implants are a better choice than are implants with other designs. Future studies should use standardized imaging techniques to to evaluate the placement of these implants in bone-augmented sites.

  5. Systematic review of suicide in economic recession

    PubMed Central

    Oyesanya, Mayowa; Lopez-Morinigo, Javier; Dutta, Rina

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a systematic update of the evidence concerning the relationship between economic recession and suicide. METHODS: A keyword search of Ovid Medline, Embase, Embase Classic, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES was performed to identify studies that had investigated the association between economic recession and suicide. RESULTS: Thirty-eight studies met predetermined selection criteria and 31 of them found a positive association between economic recession and increased suicide rates. Two studies reported a negative association, two articles failed to find such an association, and three studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Economic recession periods appear to increase overall suicide rates, although further research is warranted in this area, particularly in low income countries. PMID:26110126

  6. Economic burden of asthma: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Katayoun; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Marra, Carlo; Lynd, Larry; Alasaly, Kadria; Swiston, John; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is associated with enormous healthcare expenditures that include both direct and indirect costs. It is also associated with the loss of future potential earnings related to both morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to determine the burden of disease costs associated with asthma. Methods We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CDSR, OHE-HEED, and Web of Science Databases between 1966 and 2008. Results Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Hospitalization and medications were found to be the most important cost driver of direct costs. Work and school loss accounted for the greatest percentage of indirect costs. The cost of asthma was correlated with comorbidities, age, and disease severity. Conclusion Despite the availability of effective preventive therapy, costs associated with asthma are increasing. Strategies including education of patients and physicians, and regular follow-up are required to reduce the economic burden of asthma. PMID:19454036

  7. A systematic review: perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zehong; Han, Siqi; Wu, Jialin; Xiong, Minmin; Huang, Yanqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Yuan, Yujie; Peng, Jianjun; Song, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare entity with distinctive morphology and of expressing myomelanocytic markers. Gastrointestinal tract (GI) is one of the most common anatomic sites of origin and counts for 20% to 25% of all reported cases of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS). However, the biologic behavior of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas-NOS) is still unclear. The aim of conducting this systematic review is to sum up what is known so far of the epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComas-NOS. A systematic research was performed on PubMed and EMBASE using the following terms: (“perivascular epithelioid cell tumor” or “PEComa”) and (“gastrointestinal tract” or “GI” or “oral ” or “mouth” or “esophagus” or “gullet” or “gastric” or “stomach” or “duodenum” or “jejunum” or “ileum” or “cecum” or “colon” or “colorectal” or “sigmoid” or “rectum” or “anus” or “mesentery”) up to December 1, 2015. Retrieved GI PEComas-NOS publications, which included these terms, contains case reports, case series to case characteristic researches. A total of 168 articles were reviewed, 41 GI PEComa-NOS English studies among which were retrieved for analysis. We reviewed epidemiology, natural history, management and prognosis of GI PEComa-NOS. Generally GI PEComa-NOS is believed to have women predomination. The most frequently involved location is colon with non-specific clinical signs. Pathologically, GI PEComas-NOS shows epithelioid predominance (70%), meanwhile coexpresses melanocytic and muscle markers characteristically, while immunohistochemistry is a useful tool for identify, which indicates that HMB-45 is regarded as the most sensitive reagent. Complete resection served as mainstay of treatment, while chemotherapy should be unanimously considered to apply in malignant

  8. Aetiology of auditory dysfunction in amusia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause’s frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. Methods Design: systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Setting: Retrospective medical database review. Main outcome measures: evidence yielded from the systematic review process. Results The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Conclusion Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required. PMID:23618339

  9. Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

  10. A systematic review of web-based educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    A complement to in-hospital educational interventions is web-based patient education accessed during the home recovery period. While findings demonstrate the effectiveness of web-based patient education interventions on patient outcomes, they fall short of identifying the characteristics that are associated with desired outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the characteristics of web-based patient education interventions that are associated with producing changes in self-care behaviors. A systematic review involving 19 studies was conducted to determine the most effective components of a web-based intervention. Findings suggest that the most effective form of web-based patient education is one that is interactive and allows patients to navigate the online system on their own. The findings from this systematic review allow for the design of a web-based educational intervention that will promote increased performance of self-care behaviors during the home recovery period.

  11. Addressing resistance to antibiotics in systematic reviews of antibiotic interventions.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David J; Afshari, Arash; Pace, Nathan Leon; Cullum, Nicky; Williams, Hywel C; Smyth, Alan; Skoetz, Nicole; Del Mar, Chris; Schilder, Anne G M; Yahav, Dafna; Tovey, David

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies. This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should be reported and taken into account when interpreting results. Data on emergence of resistance (whether in the body reservoirs or in the bacteria causing infection) are important outcomes. Emergence of resistance should be taken into account when interpreting the evidence on antibiotic treatment in randomized controlled trials or systematic reviews.

  12. Broadening Public Participation in Systematic Reviews: A Case Example Involving Young People in Two Configurative Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…

  13. Statistical Inference Models for Image Datasets with Systematic Variations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Bendlin, Barbara B; Chung, Moo K; Johnson, Sterling C; Singh, Vikas

    2015-06-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal or cross sectional brain imaging data to identify effects of neurodegenerative diseases is a fundamental task in various studies in neuroscience. However, when there are systematic variations in the images due to parameter changes such as changes in the scanner protocol, hardware changes, or when combining data from multi-site studies, the statistical analysis becomes problematic. Motivated by this scenario, the goal of this paper is to develop a unified statistical solution to the problem of systematic variations in statistical image analysis. Based in part on recent literature in harmonic analysis on diffusion maps, we propose an algorithm which compares operators that are resilient to the systematic variations. These operators are derived from the empirical measurements of the image data and provide an efficient surrogate to capturing the actual changes across images. We also establish a connection between our method to the design of wavelets in non-Euclidean space. To evaluate the proposed ideas, we present various experimental results on detecting changes in simulations as well as show how the method offers improved statistical power in the analysis of real longitudinal PIB-PET imaging data acquired from participants at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  14. Statistical Inference Models for Image Datasets with Systematic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Hwa; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Chung, Moo K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal or cross sectional brain imaging data to identify effects of neurodegenerative diseases is a fundamental task in various studies in neuroscience. However, when there are systematic variations in the images due to parameter changes such as changes in the scanner protocol, hardware changes, or when combining data from multi-site studies, the statistical analysis becomes problematic. Motivated by this scenario, the goal of this paper is to develop a unified statistical solution to the problem of systematic variations in statistical image analysis. Based in part on recent literature in harmonic analysis on diffusion maps, we propose an algorithm which compares operators that are resilient to the systematic variations. These operators are derived from the empirical measurements of the image data and provide an efficient surrogate to capturing the actual changes across images. We also establish a connection between our method to the design of wavelets in non-Euclidean space. To evaluate the proposed ideas, we present various experimental results on detecting changes in simulations as well as show how the method offers improved statistical power in the analysis of real longitudinal PIB-PET imaging data acquired from participants at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). PMID:26989336

  15. Sedentary Behavior and Health Outcomes: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rodrigues Lopes, Maurício; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2) To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found. Methodology/Principal Findings Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase); PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers. Conclusions This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted. PMID:25144686

  16. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Lau, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach to synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas, and formulate scientific consensus statements. The use of systematic reviews for nutrition-related topics is more recent. Systematic reviews provide independently conducted comprehensive and objective assessments of available information addressing precise questions. This approach to summarizing available data is a useful tool for identifying the state of science including knowledge gaps and associated research needs, supporting development of science-based recommendations and guidelines, and serving as the foundation for updates as new data emerge. Our objective is to describe the steps for performing systematic reviews and highlight areas unique to the discipline of nutrition that are important to consider in data assessment. The steps involved in generating systematic reviews include identifying staffing and planning for outside expert input, forming a research team, developing an analytic framework, developing and refining research questions, defining eligibility criteria, identifying search terms, screening abstracts according to eligibility criteria, retrieving articles for evaluation, constructing evidence and summary tables, assessing methodological quality and applicability, and synthesizing results including performing meta-analysis, if appropriate. Unique and at times challenging, nutrition-related considerations include baseline nutrient exposure, nutrient status, bioequivalence of bioactive compounds, bioavailability, multiple and interrelated biological functions, undefined nature of some interventions, and uncertainties in intake assessment. Systematic reviews are a valuable and independent component of decision-making processes by groups responsible for developing science-based recommendations

  17. How to write a systematic review of reasons

    PubMed Central

    Sofaer, Neema

    2011-01-01

    Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy. They are better tools than informal reviews or samples of literature with respect to the identification of the reasons relevant to a conceptual question, and they enable the setting of agendas for conceptual and empirical research necessary for sound policy-making. This model comprises prescriptions for writing the systematic review's review question and eligibility criteria, the identification of the relevant literature, the type of data to extract on reasons and publications, and the derivation and presentation of results. This paper explains how to adapt the model to the review question, literature reviewed and intended readers, who may be decision-makers or academics. Obstacles to the model's application are described and addressed, and limitations of the model are identified. PMID:22080465

  18. Acupuncture for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinna; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yang; Peng, Weina

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test. Results were presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. This review included 7 RCTs with a total of 564 participants. The combined results showed that acupuncture may have better short-term effect than Western medicine for TS and that acupuncture may be an effective adjuvant therapy in improving the effect of Western medicine on TS, but the evidence is limited because of existing biases. Rigorous high-quality RCTs are needed to verify these findings. PMID:27725839

  19. Fluoropyrimidine and platinum toxicity pharmacogenetics: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Bateman, Emma; Peters, Micah Dj; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M; Stephenson, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Fluoropyrimidine (FU) and platinum-based chemotherapies are greatly complicated by their associated toxicities. This umbrella systematic review synthesized all systematic reviews that investigated associations between germline variations and toxicity, with the aim of informing personalized medicine. Systematic reviews are important in pharmacogenetics where false positives are common. Four systematic reviews were identified for FU-induced toxicity and three for platinum. Polymorphisms of DPYD and TYMS, but not MTHFR, were statistically significantly associated with FU-induced toxicity (although only DPYD had clinical significance). For platinum, GSTP1 was found to not be associated with toxicity. This umbrella systematic review has synthesized the best available evidence on the pharmacogenetics of FU and platinum toxicity. It provides a useful reference for clinicians and identifies important research gaps.

  20. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  1. Spinal manipulation or mobilization for radiculopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Brent; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Reiter, Todd

    2011-02-01

    In this systematic review, we present a comprehensive and up-to-date systematic review of the literature as it relates to the efficacy and effectiveness of spinal manipulation or mobilization in the management of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar-related extremity pain. There is moderate quality evidence that spinal manipulation is effective for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy. The quality of evidence for chronic lumbar spine-related extremity symptoms and cervical spine-related extremity symptoms of any duration is low or very low. At present, no evidence exists for the treatment of thoracic radiculopathy. Future high-quality studies should address these conditions.

  2. Systematic Review of Educational Interventions to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Weizer, Jennifer S.; Heisler, Michele; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed glaucoma medications is often poor, and proper adherence can be challenging for patients. We systematically reviewed the literature and identified eight studies using educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Overall, five of the eight studies found that educational interventions lead to a significant improvement in medication adherence, and the remaining studies found a trend towards improvement. Using information from this systematic review and Health Behavior Theory, we constructed a conceptual framework to illustrate how counseling and education can improve glaucoma medication adherence. More rigorous studies grounded in Health Behavior Theory with adequately powered samples and longer follow-up are needed. PMID:23697623

  3. Melasma: systematic review of the systemic treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linghong Linda; Baibergenova, Akerke

    2017-02-27

    Currently available treatment options for melasma include prevention of UV radiation, topical lightening agents, chemical peels, and light-based and laser therapies. However, none have shown effective and sustained results, with incomplete clearance and frequent recurrences. There has been increasing interest recently in oral medications and dietary supplements in improving melasma. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of oral medications and dietary supplements for the treatment of melasma. Multiple databases were systematically searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of oral medication for treatment of melasma alone or in combination with other treatments. A total of eight RCTs met inclusion criteria. Oral medications and dietary supplements evaluated include tranexamic acid, Polypodium leucotomos extract, beta-carotenoid, melatonin, and procyanidin. These agents appear to have a beneficial effect on melasma improvement. In conclusion, oral medications have a role in melasma treatment and have been shown to be efficacious and tolerable with a minimal number and severity of adverse events. Therefore, dermatologists should keep oral medications and dietary supplements in their armamentarium for the treatment of melasma.

  4. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  5. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels.

  6. Systematic Calibration for a Backpacked Spherical Photogrammetry Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, J. Y.; Su, B. W.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    A spherical camera can observe the environment for almost 720 degrees' field of view in one shoot, which is useful for augmented reality, environment documentation, or mobile mapping applications. This paper aims to develop a spherical photogrammetry imaging system for the purpose of 3D measurement through a backpacked mobile mapping system (MMS). The used equipment contains a Ladybug-5 spherical camera, a tactical grade positioning and orientation system (POS), i.e. SPAN-CPT, and an odometer, etc. This research aims to directly apply photogrammetric space intersection technique for 3D mapping from a spherical image stereo-pair. For this purpose, several systematic calibration procedures are required, including lens distortion calibration, relative orientation calibration, boresight calibration for direct georeferencing, and spherical image calibration. The lens distortion is serious on the ladybug-5 camera's original 6 images. Meanwhile, for spherical image mosaicking from these original 6 images, we propose the use of their relative orientation and correct their lens distortion at the same time. However, the constructed spherical image still contains systematic error, which will reduce the 3D measurement accuracy. Later for direct georeferencing purpose, we need to establish a ground control field for boresight/lever-arm calibration. Then, we can apply the calibrated parameters to obtain the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of all spherical images. In the end, the 3D positioning accuracy after space intersection will be evaluated, including EOPs obtained by structure from motion method.

  7. Pain in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, D.; Foley, P.; Palace, J.; Lima, D.; Ramos, I.; Tracey, I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, in many cases the precise mechanisms are unclear. Neuroimaging studies could have a valuable role in investigating the aetiology of pain syndromes. The aim of this review was to synthesise and appraise the current literature on neuroimaging studies of pain syndromes in MS. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus from their inception dates to the 2nd of April 2013. Studies were selected by predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality was appraised. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. Results We identified 38 studies of variable methodology and quality. All studies but one used conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging, and the majority reported a positive association between location of demyelinating lesions and specific neuropathic pain syndromes. Most investigated headache and facial pain, with more common pain syndromes such as limb pain being relatively understudied. We identified a number of methodological concerns, which along with variable study design and reporting limit our ability to synthesise data. Higher quality studies were however less likely to report positive associations of lesion distribution to pain syndromes. Conclusions Further high quality hypothesis-driven neuroimaging studies of pain syndromes in MS are required to clarify pain mechanisms, particularly for the commonest pain syndromes. PMID:25161898

  8. Patient-based radiographic exposure factor selection: a systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, William; Robinson, John; McEntee, Mark

    2014-09-15

    Digital technology has wider exposure latitude and post-processing algorithms which can mask the evidence of underexposure and overexposure. Underexposure produces noisy, grainy images which can impede diagnosis and overexposure results in a greater radiation dose to the patient. These exposure errors can result from inaccurate adjustment of exposure factors in response to changes in patient thickness. This study aims to identify all published radiographic exposure adaptation systems which have been, or are being, used in general radiography and discuss their applicability to digital systems. Studies in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were systematically reviewed. Some of the search terms used were exposure adaptation, exposure selection, exposure technique, 25% rule, 15% rule, DuPont™ Bit System and radiography. A manual journal-specific search was also conducted in The Radiographer and Radiologic Technology. Studies were included if they demonstrated a system of altering exposure factors to compensate for variations in patients for general radiography. Studies were excluded if they focused on finding optimal exposures for an ‘average’ patient or focused on the relationship between exposure factors and dose. The database search uncovered 11 articles and the journal-specific search uncovered 13 articles discussing systems of exposure adaptation. They can be categorised as simple one-step guidelines, comprehensive charts and computer programs. Only two papers assessed the efficacy of exposure adjustment systems. No literature compares the efficacy of exposure adaptations system for film/screen radiography with digital radiography technology nor is there literature on a digital specific exposure adaptation system.

  9. Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis: A Recent Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vishnubhotla, Priya

    2017-01-01

    The pulmonary veins (PVs) are the most proximal source of arterial thromboembolism. Pulmonary vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but potentially lethal disease; its incidence is unclear, as most of the literature includes case reports. It most commonly occurs as a complica­tion of malignancy, post lung surgery, or atrial fibrillation and can be idiopathic in some cases. Most patients with PVT are commonly asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea from pulmonary edema or infarction. The thrombi are typically detected using a variety of imaging modalities including transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), computed tomography (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or pulmonary angiog­raphy. Treatment should be determined by the obstructing pathological finding and can include antibiotic therapy, anticoagulation, thrombectomy, and/or pulmonary resection. The delay in diagnosing this medical entity can lead to complications including pulmonary infarction, pulmonary edema, right ventricular failure, allograft failure, and peripheral embolism resulting in limb ischemia, stroke, and renal infarction (RI). PMID:28265529

  10. Systematic reviews of treatment for inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, RAC

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the progress made in preparing Cochrane systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and the demyelinating neuropathies associated with paraproteins. The discovery of antibodies against myelin andaxolemmal glycolipids and proteins has not yet replaced the clinicopathological classificationon which treatment trials have been based. Systematic reviews have endorsed the equivalence of plasma exchange (PE) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and the lack of efficacy of steroids in GBS. Systematic reviews have also endorsed the value of steroids, PE and IVIg in CIDP butrandomized controlled trials have only shown benefit from IVIg in MMN. There is a paucity of evidence concerning the efficacy of treatments in paraproteinaemic demyelinating neuropathy apartment from small trials showing short-term benefit from PE or IVIg. There is a lack of good quality controlled trials of immunosuppressive agents in any of these conditions. As the numberof treatment trials increases, Cochrane systematic reviews will be an increasingly valuable resource for summarizing the evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base clinical practice. They already demonstrate major deficiencies in the existing evidence base. PMID:12090400

  11. Moxibustion for hypertension: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Moxibustion is a traditional East Asian medical therapy that uses the heat generated by burning herbal preparations containing Artemisia vulgaris to stimulate acupuncture points. The aim of this review was to evaluate previously published clinical evidence for the use of moxibustion as a treatment for hypertension. Methods We searched 15 databases without language restrictions from their respective dates of inception until March 2010. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing moxibustion to either antihypertensive drugs or no treatment. The risk of bias was assessed for each RCT. Results During the course of our search, we identified 519 relevant articles. A total of 4 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria, two of which failed to report favorable effects of moxibustion on blood pressure (BP) compared to the control (antihypertensive drug treatment alone). However, a third RCT showed significant effects of moxibustion as an adjunct treatment to antihypertensive drug therapy for lowering BP compared to antihypertensive drug therapy alone. The fourth RCT included in this review addressed the immediate BP-lowering effects of moxibustion compared to no treatment. None of the included RCTs reported the sequence generation, allocation concealment and evaluator blinding. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to suggest that moxibustion is an effective treatment for hypertension. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to answer the many remaining questions. PMID:20602794

  12. Campylobacter Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms). PMID:17360026

  13. Neonatal testicular torsion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Biplab; Murphy, Feilim Liam

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion (NTT) is rare and reported salvage rates vary widely both in their cited frequency and plausibility. The timing and necessity of surgery is controversial with different centers arguing for the conservative management of all cases while others argue for prompt exploration for all. Confusion also reigns over the need to fix the contralateral testis. In order to clarify the issue the authors reviewed the literature and found 18 case series of NTT, containing 268 operated cases suitable for analysis. This paper reviews the literature on NTT specifically regarding salvage rates and timing/necessity of surgery. Its primary aim is to produce an overall salvage rate in the operated group. Overall salvage rate was 8.96%, 24 testes. When operation is specified as an emergency, salvage may be as high as 21.7%. While salvage of a testis torted at birth is rare, it is reported. Early asynchronous torsion is also rare but reported. Worryingly, bilateral torsion can present with unilateral signs.Given these findings, we would suggest early surgery with fixation of the contralateral side.

  14. A systematic review of best practices in HIV care

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Geoffrey; Mill, Judy; Chaw-Kant, Jean; Caine, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Best practices in HIV care have the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform practice. We conducted a systematic review of best practices in HIV care that were published from 2003 to 2013. Practices that demonstrated success in achieving desired results based on their objectives were included in the review. Two themes emerged from the eight articles reviewed: (a) the importance of linking newly diagnosed people living with HIV to care and (b) the role of integrated and comprehensive service provision in improving patient outcomes. Inconsistencies in reporting and arbitrary use of the term “best practices” were hurdles in this review. PMID:27152102

  15. A systematic review of best practices in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Maina, Geoffrey; Mill, Judy; Chaw-Kant, Jean; Caine, Vera

    2016-03-22

    Best practices in HIV care have the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform practice. We conducted a systematic review of best practices in HIV care that were published from 2003 to 2013. Practices that demonstrated success in achieving desired results based on their objectives were included in the review. Two themes emerged from the eight articles reviewed: (a) the importance of linking newly diagnosed people living with HIV to care and (b) the role of integrated and comprehensive service provision in improving patient outcomes. Inconsistencies in reporting and arbitrary use of the term "best practices" were hurdles in this review.

  16. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.

  17. Curcumin and diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Wei; Fu, Min; Gao, Si-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a "super curcumin" through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics.

  18. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed.

  19. [Psychological therapy of migraine: systematic review].

    PubMed

    Fritsche, G; Kröner-Herwig, B; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Haag, G

    2013-06-01

    This review summarizes the various forms of behavioral treatment of migraine which could demonstrate empirical efficacy. The main unimodal kinds of treatment are thermal and electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training and progressive muscle relaxation. The various relaxation techniques do not differ in their efficacy in treating migraine. On average a reduction in migraine frequency of 35-45 % is achieved. The mean effect sizes (ES) of various biofeedback techniques are between 0.4 and 0.6. Cognitive-behavioral treatment is applied as a multimodal treatment and on average achieves an improvement in migraine activity by 39 % and an ES of 0.54. All behavioral procedures can be used in combination or as an alternative to drug prophylaxis with comparable success. A combination of pharmacological and behavioral treatment can achieve additional success. There is strong evidence for the clinically significant efficacy of all forms of behavioral treatment in childhood and adolescence. There are no signs of differential indications.

  20. Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-wei; Fu, Min; Gao, Si-Hua; Liu, Jun-Li

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics. PMID:24348712

  1. Augmented reality in neurosurgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meola, Antonio; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marina; Cagnazzo, Federico; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2016-05-07

    Neuronavigation has become an essential neurosurgical tool in pursuing minimal invasiveness and maximal safety, even though it has several technical limitations. Augmented reality (AR) neuronavigation is a significant advance, providing a real-time updated 3D virtual model of anatomical details, overlaid on the real surgical field. Currently, only a few AR systems have been tested in a clinical setting. The aim is to review such devices. We performed a PubMed search of reports restricted to human studies of in vivo applications of AR in any neurosurgical procedure using the search terms "Augmented reality" and "Neurosurgery." Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers in an unblinded standardized manner. The systems were qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the following: neurosurgical subspecialty of application, pathology of treated lesions and lesion locations, real data source, virtual data source, tracking modality, registration technique, visualization processing, display type, and perception location. Eighteen studies were included during the period 1996 to September 30, 2015. The AR systems were grouped by the real data source: microscope (8), hand- or head-held cameras (4), direct patient view (2), endoscope (1), and X-ray fluoroscopy (1) head-mounted display (1). A total of 195 lesions were treated: 75 (38.46 %) were neoplastic, 77 (39.48 %) neurovascular, and 1 (0.51 %) hydrocephalus, and 42 (21.53 %) were undetermined. Current literature confirms that AR is a reliable and versatile tool when performing minimally invasive approaches in a wide range of neurosurgical diseases, although prospective randomized studies are not yet available and technical improvements are needed.

  2. A systematic guide for peer reviewers for a medical journal.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Joseph M; Kaye, Alan David; Kolinsky, Daniel C; Urman, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Performing a peer review of an article under consideration for publication requires not only an understanding of the subject matter, but also a systematic approach that includes screening for conflicts of interest; determining whether the manuscript is within or outside the reviewer's area of expertise; properly classifying the manuscript; and writing a detailed, organized review. Although some journals may provide guidelines for the reviewers, the guidelines usually are not detailed and do not take into consideration the variability in reviewer experience. This article is meant to serve as a guideline for peer reviewers and provide concrete information on how to write a comprehensive, unbiased review that will serve both the author and the journal well.

  3. Investigating asthma comorbidities: a systematic scoping review protocol

    PubMed Central

    El Ferkh, Karim; Nwaru, Bright; Griffiths, Chris; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is a common long-term disorder with a number of related comorbid conditions, which may affect asthma outcomes. There is a need for greater appreciation for understanding how these comorbidities interact with asthma in order to improve asthma outcomes. Objectives To systematically identify and map out key asthma comorbidities. Methods We will systematically search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Additional literature will be identified by searching the reference list of identified eligible studies and by searching the repositories of international conference proceedings, including ISI Conference Proceeding Citation Index, and ZETOC (British Library). Dissemination The findings from this systematic scoping review will be reported at scientific meetings and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PMID:27558899

  4. Ultrasound Imaging Velocimetry: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poelma, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Whole-field velocity measurement techniques based on ultrasound imaging (a.k.a. `ultrasound imaging velocimetry' or `echo-PIV') have received significant attention from the fluid mechanics community in the last decade, in particular because of their ability to obtain velocity fields in flows that elude characterisation by conventional optical methods. In this review, an overview is given of the history, typical components and challenges of these techniques. The basic principles of ultrasound image formation are summarised, as well as various techniques to estimate flow velocities; the emphasis is on correlation-based techniques. Examples are given for a wide range of applications, including in vivo cardiovascular flow measurements, the characterisation of sediment transport and the characterisation of complex non-Newtonian fluids. To conclude, future opportunities are identified. These encompass not just optimisation of the accuracy and dynamic range, but also extension to other application areas.

  5. Engaging parents to increase youth physical activity: A systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents are often involved in interventions to engage youth in physical activity, but it is not clear which methods for involving parents are effective. A systematic review was conducted of interventions with physical activity and parental components among healthy youth to identify how best to invol...

  6. Understanding Listening Competency: A Systematic Review of Research Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Peter C.; Cohen, Steven D.; Wolvin, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand what constitutes listening competency, we perform a systematic review of listening scales. Our goal was twofold: to determine the most commonly appearing listening traits and to determine if listening scales are similar to one other. As part of our analysis, we identified 53 relevant scales and analyzed the scales…

  7. Systematic Reviews: Inducting Research Students into Scholarly Conversations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janni; Ferrari, Alize; Baxter, Amanda; Schoultz, Mariyana; Beattie, Michelle; Harris, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews are common in disciplines such as medicine, nursing, and health sciences and students are increasingly being encouraged to conduct them as a component of their thesis (Pickering & Byrne, 2014). Fortunately, the tedious old days of writing a thesis by gathering mountains of hard-copy papers are long behind us. Privileged…

  8. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a “gold standard” for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  9. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13 Section 2008.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  10. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  11. Designs and Methods in School Improvement Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhoff, Tobias; Radisch, Falk; Bischof, Linda Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on challenges faced by longitudinal quantitative analyses of school improvement processes and offers a systematic literature review of current papers that use longitudinal analyses. In this context, the authors assessed designs and methods that are used to analyze the relation between school…

  12. Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…

  13. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  14. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION... request. (c) Office of Science and Technology Policy Responsibility. The Director, OSTP, shall: (1) Issue... of Science and Technology Policy shall be bound by the special procedures for systematic review...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION... request. (c) Office of Science and Technology Policy Responsibility. The Director, OSTP, shall: (1) Issue... of Science and Technology Policy shall be bound by the special procedures for systematic review...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION... request. (c) Office of Science and Technology Policy Responsibility. The Director, OSTP, shall: (1) Issue... of Science and Technology Policy shall be bound by the special procedures for systematic review...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION... request. (c) Office of Science and Technology Policy Responsibility. The Director, OSTP, shall: (1) Issue... of Science and Technology Policy shall be bound by the special procedures for systematic review...

  18. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION... request. (c) Office of Science and Technology Policy Responsibility. The Director, OSTP, shall: (1) Issue... of Science and Technology Policy shall be bound by the special procedures for systematic review...

  19. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  20. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13 Section 2008.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  1. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13 Section 2008.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  2. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13 Section 2008.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  3. The Relations between Perfectionism and Suicidality: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rory C.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, there has been a 300 percent increase in the number of published papers on perfectionism. Given the inconsistent findings in the literature, this systematic review examines, for the first time, the nature of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidality. To this end, the three main psychological and medical databases…

  4. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…

  5. A Systematic Review of Action Imitation in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Justin H. G.; Whiten, Andrew; Singh, Tulika

    2004-01-01

    Imitative deficits have been associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for many years, most recently through more robust methodologies. A fresh, systematic review of the significance, characteristics, and underlying mechanism of the association is therefore warranted. From 121 candidates, we focused on 21 well-controlled studies involving…

  6. Crohn’s disease complicated by strictures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Zimmermann, Ellen M; Remzi, Feza H; Sandborn, William J

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of strictures as a complication of Crohn’s disease is a significant clinical problem. No specific antifibrotic therapies are available. This systematic review comprehensively addresses the pathogenesis, epidemiology, prediction, diagnosis and therapy of this disease complication. We also provide specific recommendations for clinical practice and summarise areas that require future investigation. PMID:23626373

  7. Dietary Change Interventions for Undergraduate Populations: Systematic Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Sarah E.; Knowlden, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research demonstrates a decline in healthy eating behaviors during transitional years at university, potentially leading to weight gain and establishing maladaptive dietary habits. Purpose: This systematic review assessed the efficacy of previous nutrition interventions for undergraduates, evaluating design and implementation. Methods:…

  8. Student Online Readiness Assessment Tools: A Systematic Review Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farid, Alem

    2014-01-01

    Although there are tools to assess student's readiness in an "online learning context," little is known about the "psychometric" properties of the tools used or not. A systematic review of 5107 published and unpublished papers identified in a literature search on student online readiness assessment tools between 1990 and…

  9. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  10. Brief Report: Systematic Review of Rett Syndrome in Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; George-Puskar, Annie; Lutz, Tara; Smith, Isaac C.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurogenetic disorder in which a period of typical development is followed by loss of previously acquired skills. Once thought to occur exclusively in females, increasing numbers of male cases of RTT have been reported. This systematic review included 36 articles describing 57 cases of RTT in males. Mutations of the MECP2…

  11. Psychological Distress in Refugee Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…

  12. Communication Intervention in Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Schlosser, Ralf; O'eilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main…

  13. Technology in Social Work Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wretman, Christopher J.; Macy, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the growing prevalence of technology-based instruction, social work faculty need a clear understanding of the strengths and limitations of these methods. We systematically examined the evidence for technology-based instruction in social work education. Using comprehensive and rigorous methods, 38 articles were included in the review. Of…

  14. The Effectiveness of Intensive Interaction, A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nick; Bodicoat, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive Interaction is an approach used for communicating with people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities [PMID] or autism. It has gained increased recognition as a helpful technique, but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. Method: Computerized and hand searches of the literature were conducted using…

  15. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  16. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  17. Facial Emotion Recognition in Child Psychiatry: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…

  18. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13 Section 2008.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  19. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  20. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  1. Higher Education for Sustainable Development: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yen-Chun Jim; Shen, Ju-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to provide a complete understanding of academic research into higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Design/methodology/approach: This study utilizes a systematic review of four scientific literature databases to outline topics of research during the UN's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development…

  2. Onset factors in cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Pascal; Candundo, Hamilton; Martino, Rosemary; Shin, Sabina; Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Studies have noted several factors associated with the occurrence of Cerebral Palsy (CP), yet considerable uncertainty remains about modifiable factors related to disease onset. A systematic review was performed to identify existing systematic reviews and primary studies pertaining to targeted factors associated with the onset of CP. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINHAL, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, Huge Navigator, AARP Ageline. Variations of MeSH and keyword search terms were used. Critical appraisal was conducted on selected articles. Data extraction targeted reported factors, risk estimates, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings identified two systematic reviews and three meta- analyses, as well as 83 studies of case control, cohort, and cross-sectional methodological designs. Selected studies indicated that lower gestational age was associated with the onset of CP. Medical diagnoses for the mother, in particular chorioamnionitis, was found to be positively associated with onset of CP. Preeclampsia was reported to be either inconclusive or positively associated with CP onset. Low birth weight predominantly indicated a positive association with the onset of CP, while male gender showed mixed findings. The combination of male gender with pre-term or low birth weight was also found to be positively associated with CP. Evidence was identified in the literature pertaining to specific factors relating to the onset of CP, in particular showing positive associations with lower gestational age and low birth weight.

  3. Effective Early Childhood Education Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert E.; Smith, Dewi; Laurenzano, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This report systematically reviews research on the outcomes of programs that teach young children in a group setting before they begin kindergarten. Study inclusion criteria included the use of randomized or matched control groups, evidence of initial equality, and study duration of at least 12 weeks. Studies included valid measures of language,…

  4. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META‐ANALYSIS: A PRIMER

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The use of an evidence‐based approach to practice requires “the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values”, where the best evidence can be gathered from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta‐analyses. Furthermore, informed decisions in healthcare and the prompt incorporation of new research findings in routine practice necessitate regular reading, evaluation, and integration of the current knowledge from the primary literature on a given topic. However, given the dramatic increase in published studies, such an approach may become too time consuming and therefore impractical, if not impossible. Therefore, systematic reviews and meta‐analyses can provide the “best evidence” and an unbiased overview of the body of knowledge on a specific topic. In the present article the authors aim to provide a gentle introduction to readers not familiar with systematic reviews and meta‐analyses in order to understand the basic principles and methods behind this type of literature. This article will help practitioners to critically read and interpret systematic reviews and meta‐analyses to appropriately apply the available evidence to their clinical practice. PMID:23091781

  5. Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.

  6. Osteopathy for primary headache patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cerritelli, Francesco; Lacorte, Eleonora; Ruffini, Nuria; Vanacore, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in patients with headache. Background Migraine is one of the most common and disabling medical conditions. It affects more than 15% of the general population, causing high global socioeconomic costs, and the currently available treatment options are inadequate. Methods We systematically reviewed all available studies investigating the use of OMT in patients with migraine and other forms of headache. Results The search of literature produced six studies, five of which were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that patients with migraine can benefit from OMT. OMT could most likely reduce the number of episodes per month as well as drug use. None of the included studies, however, was classified as low risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Conclusion The results from this systematic review show a preliminary low level of evidence that OMT is effective in the management of headache. However, studies with more rigorous designs and methodology are needed to strengthen this evidence. Moreover, this review suggests that new manual interventions for the treatment of acute migraine are available and developing. PMID:28352200

  7. Consumer involvement in systematic reviews of comparative effectiveness research

    PubMed Central

    Kreis, Julia; Puhan, Milo A.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Dickersin, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background  The Institute of Medicine recently recommended that comparative effectiveness research (CER) should involve input from consumers. While systematic reviews are a major component of CER, little is known about consumer involvement. Objective  To explore current approaches to involving consumers in US‐based and key international organizations and groups conducting or commissioning systematic reviews (‘organizations’). Design  In‐depth, semi‐structured interviews with key informants and review of organizations’ websites. Setting and participants  Seventeen highly regarded US‐based and international (Cochrane Collaboration, Campbell Collaboration) organizations. Results  Organizations that usually involve consumers (seven of 17 in our sample) involve them at a programmatic level in the organization or in individual reviews through one‐time consultation or on‐going collaboration. For example, consumers may suggest topics, provide input on the key questions of the review, provide comments on draft protocols and reports, serve as co‐authors or on an advisory group. Organizations involve different types of consumers (individual patients, consumer advocates, families and caregivers), recruiting them mainly through patient organizations and consumer networks. Some offer training in research methods, and one developed training for researchers on how to involve consumers. Little formal evaluation of the effects of consumer involvement is being carried out. Conclusions  Consumers are currently involved in systematic reviews in a variety of ways and for various reasons. Assessing which approaches are most effective in achieving different aims of consumer involvement is now required to inform future recommendations on consumer involvement in CER. PMID:22390732

  8. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic. PMID:26535182

  9. Fitness in contemporary dance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angioi, M; Metsios, G S; Metsios, G; Koutedakis, Y; Wyon, M A

    2009-07-01

    It has been suggested that dancers are less fit compared to other athletes. However, the majority of studies make their arguments based on data deriving mainly from ballet. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to investigate: a) aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition characteristics in contemporary dancers of different levels, and b) whether supplementary exercise interventions, in addition to normal dance training, further improves contemporary dance performance. Three databases (Medline, Cochrane and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health research database) were searched to identify publications regarding the main fitness components of contemporary professional and student dancers. At a professional level, it appears that contemporary dancers demonstrate higher maximal oxygen uptake and higher scores in muscular endurance than ballet dancers. However, contemporary dance students are equally fit compared to their ballet counterparts and their body composition is also very similar. Only two studies have investigated the effects of supplementary exercise training on aspects of dance performance. Further research is needed in order to confirm preliminary data, which suggest that the implementation of additional fitness training is beneficial for contemporary dance students to achieve a better performance outcome.

  10. A systematic review of concept mapping dissertations.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, James P

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, summarize, and synthesize all doctoral dissertations completed using Trochim's concept mapping methodology between 1985 and 2014. A comprehensive search produced a set of 108 eligible dissertations; of which 104 were available as full-text or hard copy. The studies were coded on 77 variables, which were summarized in descriptive analyses. The dissertations were conducted in a wide variety of topic areas and completed at 35 different universities in the US and Canada. On comparable variables, the results were similar to two prior syntheses (Trochim, 1993; Rosas & Kane, 2012). The mean multidimensional scaling analysis stress value for 96 concept maps was 0.26 with a standard deviation of 0.05. Cumulative rates of dissertation completion and resulting citations of the dissertations and any resulting articles were plotted over the study period. Reliability and validity were considered in most studies but formally assessed in a minority of cases. The review concludes with a summary of findings and thoughts about future studies.

  11. Does sunlight prevent cancer? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Rhee, H J; de Vries, E; Coebergh, J W W

    2006-09-01

    Accumulating evidence for beneficial effects of sunlight on several types of cancer with a high mortality rate makes it necessary to reconsider the health recommendations on sun exposure, which are now mainly based on the increased risks for skin cancer. We reviewed all published studies concerning sun exposure and cancer, excluding skin cancer. All selected studies on prostate (3 ecologic, 3 case-control and 2 cohort), breast (4 ecologic, 1 case-control and 2 cohort) and ovary cancer (2 ecologic and 1 case-control) showed a significantly inverse correlation between sunlight and mortality or incidence. Two ecologic, 1 case-control and 2 prospective studies showed an inverse relation between sunlight and colon cancer mortality; 1 case-control study found no such association. Ecologic studies on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality and sunlight gave conflicting results: early studies showing mostly positive and later studies showing mostly negative correlations. Three case-control studies and 1 cohort study found a significant inverse association between the incidence of NHL and sunlight. The question of how to apply these findings to (public) health recommendations is discussed.

  12. Endodontic-related facial paresthesia: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alves, Flávio R; Coutinho, Mariana S; Gonçalves, Lucio S

    2014-01-01

    Paresthesia is a neurosensitivity disorder caused by injury to the neural tissue. It is characterized by a burning or twinging sensation or by partial loss of local sensitivity. Paresthesia related to endodontic treatment can occur because of extravasation of filling material or the intracanal dressing, as a consequence of periapical surgery or because of periapical infection. A literature review of paresthesia in endodontics was undertaken, with a view to identifying and discussing the most commonly affected nerves, the diagnostic process and the treatment options. Among reported cases, the most commonly affected nerves were those passing through the jaw: the inferior alveolar nerve, the mental nerve and the lingual nerve. To diagnose paresthesia, the endodontist must carry out a complete medical history, panoramic and periapical radiography, and (in some cases) computed tomography, as well as mechanoceptive and nociceptive tests. To date, no specific treatment for endodontic-related paresthesia has been described in the literature, since the problem may be related to a variety of causes.

  13. Yoga for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). Strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. Conclusions There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here. PMID:24124549

  14. Serotonergic genes and suicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Antypa, Niki; Serretti, Alessandro; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Its aetiology is complex and diverse, however, epidemiological studies show that suicidal behavior is partly heritable. Neurobiological evidence implicates serotonergic dysfunction in suicidality, stimulating genetic research to focus on genes related to the serotonergic system. In this paper, we review evidence from studies examining the association between various serotonergic genes (Tryptophan Hydroxylase genes: TPH1; TPH2, Serotonin Transporter gene: 5-HTTLPR in SLC6A4, Serotonin Receptor genes: HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR1B, HTR2C and Monoamine Oxidase A gene: MAOA) and suicidal behavior. The data show associations between variation on the TPH1 gene and 5-HTTLPR gene and violent suicidal behavior in Caucasian populations, with the least inconsistencies. Results are mixed for the TPH2 gene and serotonin receptor genes, but for some genes, studies that include haplotypic analyses or that examine a larger coding region of the genes tend to provide more reliable results. Findings on endophenotypes of suicidality, such as aggression and impulsivity traits, show positive associations for the TPH1, HTR2A, and MAOA genes, but need further replication, since negative associations are also occasionally reported. Since genes can only partially explain suicidal risk, several studies during the past decade have tried to incorporate environmental factors in the susceptibility model. Studies to date show that variation on the 5-HTTLPR, MAOA and HTR2A gene can interact with stressful life events to increase risk for suicidal behavior. Limitations of case-control studies are discussed and future considerations are put forward with regard to endophenotypic measurements and gene-environment interactions.

  15. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T.; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in Pubmed and Ebsco databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively-assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, twelve cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively-measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote wellbeing and reduce health inequities across the life course. PMID:25770043

  16. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course.

  17. Electroacupuncture for Tinnitus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhong, Juan; Jiang, Luyun; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qing; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Qinxiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment effects of electroacupuncture for patients with subjective tinnitus has yet to be clarified. Objectives To assess the effect of electroacupuncutre for alleviating the symptoms of subjective tinnitus. Methods Extensive literature searches were carried out in three English and four Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Chinese Digital Periodical and Conference Database, VIP, and ChiCTR).The date of the most recent search was 1 June 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs were included. The titles, abstracts, and keywords of all records were reviewed by two authors independently. The data were collected and extracted by three authors. The risk of bias in the trials was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook, version 5.1.0. (http://www.handbook.cochrane.org). Eighty-nine studies were retrieved. After discarding 84 articles, five studies with 322 participants were identified. Assessment of the methodological quality of the studies identified weaknesses in all five studies. All studies were judged as having a high risk of selection and performance bias. The attrition bias was high in four studies. Incompleteness bias was low in all studies. Reporting bias was unclear in all studies. Because of the limited number of trials included and the various types of interventions and outcomes, we were unable to conduct pooled analyses. Conclusions Due to the poor methodological quality of the primary studies and the small sample sizes, no convincing evidence that electroacupuncture is beneficial for treating tinnitus could be found. There is an urgent need for more high-quality trials with large sample sizes for the investigation of electroacupuncture treatment for tinnitus. PMID:26938213

  18. A Systematic Map of Systematic Reviews in Pediatric Dentistry—What Do We Really Know?

    PubMed Central

    Mejàre, Ingegerd A.; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K.; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H. A.; Tranæus, Sofia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. Methods A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps. Results Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. Conclusion There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry. PMID:25706629

  19. Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Pei; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Li, Zongheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, and imposes a huge burden and significant workload for patients, their families and society. As a special form of physical activity, Tai Chi is may be useful for stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for rehabilitation in stroke patients. Methods and analysis We will conduct a systematic search of the following electronic databases from their inception to 31 October 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Wanfang and the Chinese Dissertation Database. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in English and Chinese will be included. The main outcomes will be changes in the neurological function of patients and in independence in activities of daily living. Adverse events, adherence, costs and the cost effectiveness of Tai Chi will also be assessed. Two independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess quality. Review Manager 5.3 will be used for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review does not require formal ethical approval because all data will be analysed anonymously. Results will provide a general overview and evidence concerning the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for stroke rehabilitation. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42015026999. PMID:27311906

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  1. A critical appraisal of the methodology and quality of evidence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional Chinese medical nursing interventions: a systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ying-Hui; Wang, Guo-Hao; Sun, Yi-Rong; Li, Qi; Zhao, Chen; Li, Ge; Si, Jin-Hua; Li, Yan; Lu, Cui; Shang, Hong-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the methodology and quality of evidence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of traditional Chinese medical nursing (TCMN) interventions in Chinese journals. These interventions include acupressure, massage, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, electroacupuncture and use of Chinese herbal medicines—for example, in enemas, foot massage and compressing the umbilicus. Design A systematic literature search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of TCMN interventions was performed. Review characteristics were extracted. The methodological quality and the quality of the evidence were evaluated using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approaches. Result We included 20 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and a total of 11 TCMN interventions were assessed in the 20 reviews. The compliance with AMSTAR checklist items ranged from 4.5 to 8 and systematic reviews/meta-analyses were, on average, of medium methodological quality. The quality of the evidence we assessed ranged from very low to moderate; no high-quality evidence was found. The top two causes for downrating confidence in effect estimates among the 31 bodies of evidence assessed were the risk of bias and inconsistency. Conclusions There is room for improvement in the methodological quality of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of TCMN interventions published in Chinese journals. Greater efforts should be devoted to ensuring a more comprehensive search strategy, clearer specification of the interventions of interest in the eligibility criteria and identification of meaningful outcomes for clinicians and patients (consumers). The overall quality of evidence among reviews remains suboptimal, which raise concerns about their roles in influencing clinical practice. Thus, the conclusions in reviews we assessed must be treated with caution and their roles in influencing clinical practice should be limited. A critical

  2. A systematic review of perinatal depression interventions for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Kate; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F

    2014-12-01

    Poor, adolescent, racial/ethnic minority women are at great risk for developing perinatal depression. However, little research has been conducted evaluating interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review of preventive and treatment interventions for perinatal depression tested with adolescents, with a focus on low income, minority populations. Nine research-based articles (including one that reported on two studies) were reviewed systematically, and quality ratings were assigned based on a validated measure assessing randomization, double-blinding, and reporting of participant withdrawals. Two treatment studies were identified, both of which were successful in reducing depression. Eight prevention studies were located, of which four were more efficacious than control conditions in preventing depression. Studies sampled mostly minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents. No consistent characteristics across efficacious interventions could be identified. This review underscores the need for researchers to further investigate and build an evidence base.

  3. Occupational therapy interventions for shoulder conditions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    von der Heyde, Rebecca L

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were (1) to identify, evaluate, and synthesize the research literature of relevance to occupational therapy regarding interventions for work-related shoulder conditions and (2) to interpret and apply the research literature to occupational therapy. Twenty-two studies were reviewed for this study-16 of Level I evidence, 2 of Level II evidence, and 4 of Level III evidence. In this systematic review, limited evidence from Level I studies was found to support exercise for shoulder pain; manual therapy and laser for adhesive capsulitis; conservative management of shoulder instability; early intervention without immobilization for specific, nondisplaced proximal humerus fractures; and exercise, joint mobilizations, and laser for patients with shoulder impingement. Further prospective studies are necessary for the delineation of specific surgical and therapeutic variables that facilitate positive outcomes in the treatment of patients with shoulder conditions.

  4. Systematic review of apraxia treatments to improve occupational performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lindsten-McQueen, Kathryn; Weiner, Nikki Williamson; Wang, Hsin-Yen; Josman, Naomi; Connor, Lisa Tabor

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess effectiveness of apraxia treatments using a systematic review. In contrast to previous reviews, each study was rated as to its applicability to occupational therapy practice and its focus on occupational performance using the FAME rating system (defined by four categories: Feasibility, Appropriateness, Meaningfulness, Effectiveness). This systematic review included eight studies: four randomized controlled trials (level 1 evidence) and four pre-post designs (level 3 evidence). Three treatment approaches were reported: errorless learning with training of details; gesture training; and strategy training. FAME scores ranged from A to C. All studies reported significant treatment effects, but only one demonstrated an impact on observed occupational performance that transferred from clinic to home.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Philip M.

    2008-06-01

    scans is taken on different days. Both allow planning to account for variability intrinsic to the patient. Treatment verification has been carried out using a variety of technologies including: MV portal imaging, kV portal/fluoroscopy, MVCT, conebeam kVCT, ultrasound and optical surface imaging. The various methods have their pros and cons. The four x-ray methods involve an extra radiation dose to normal tissue. The portal methods may not generally be used to visualize soft tissue, consequently they are often used in conjunction with implanted fiducial markers. The two CT-based methods allow measurement of inter-fraction variation only. Ultrasound allows soft-tissue measurement with zero dose but requires skilled interpretation, and there is evidence of systematic differences between ultrasound and other data sources, perhaps due to the effects of the probe pressure. Optical imaging also involves zero dose but requires good correlation between the target and the external measurement and thus is often used in conjunction with an x-ray method. The use of anatomical imaging in radiotherapy allows treatment uncertainties to be determined. These include errors between the mean position at treatment and that at planning (the systematic error) and the day-to-day variation in treatment set-up (the random error). Positional variations may also be categorized in terms of inter- and intra-fraction errors. Various empirical treatment margin formulae and intervention approaches exist to determine the optimum strategies for treatment in the presence of these known errors. Other methods exist to try to minimize error margins drastically including the currently available breath-hold techniques and the tracking methods which are largely in development. This paper will review anatomical imaging techniques in radiotherapy and how they are used to boost the therapeutic benefit of the treatment.

  6. Review of chart recognition in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiaoqing; Qin, Yeyang; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    As an effective information transmitting way, chart is widely used to represent scientific statistics datum in books, research papers, newspapers etc. Though textual information is still the major source of data, there has been an increasing trend of introducing graphs, pictures, and figures into the information pool. Text recognition techniques for documents have been accomplished using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Chart recognition techniques as a necessary supplement of OCR for document images are still an unsolved problem due to the great subjectiveness and variety of charts styles. This paper reviews the development process of chart recognition techniques in the past decades and presents the focuses of current researches. The whole process of chart recognition is presented systematically, which mainly includes three parts: chart segmentation, chart classification, and chart Interpretation. In each part, the latest research work is introduced. In the last, the paper concludes with a summary and promising future research direction.

  7. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  8. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  9. Emotional labour in mental health nursing: An integrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    2017-04-04

    Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience.

  10. Imaging radar polarimetry - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a tutorial review of the broad sweep of topics relating to imaging radar polarimetry, ranging from mathematical foundations to hardware and from implementation approaches to signal processing and calibration. The authors examine current developments in sensor technology and implementation for recording polarimetric measurements, and describe techniques and areas of application for this form of remotely sensed data. Those aspects of ground signal processing and calibration peculiar to the polarimetric signals are addressed. Several of the currently operating instruments and some of the implementations planned for future use are discussed.

  11. Lobar lung transplantation from deceased donors: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M; Chahla, Mayy; Bolukbas, Servet; Blevins, Amy; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Stanzi, Alessia; Inci, Ilhan; Marasco, Silvana; Shigemura, Norihisa; Aigner, Clemens; Deuse, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    AIM To systematically review reports on deceased-donor-lobar lung transplantation (ddLLTx) and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient predicted-total lung-capacity (pTLC) ratio. METHODS We set out to systematically review reports on ddLLTx and uniformly describe size matching using the donor-to-recipient pTLC ratio and to summarize reported one-year survival data of ddLLTx and conventional-LTx. We searched in PubMed, CINAHL via EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews via Wiley (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects via Wiley (DARE), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley (CENTRAL), Scopus (which includes EMBASE abstracts), and Web of Science for original reports on ddLLTx. RESULTS Nine observational cohort studies reporting on 301 ddLLTx met our inclusion criteria for systematic review of size matching, and eight for describing one-year-survival. The ddLLTx-group was often characterized by high acuity; however there was heterogeneity in transplant indications and pre-operative characteristics between studies. Data to calculate the pTLC ratio was available for 242 ddLLTx (80%). The mean pTLCratio before lobar resection was 1.25 ± 0.3 and the transplanted pTLCratio after lobar resection was 0.76 ± 0.2. One-year survival in the ddLLTx-group ranged from 50%-100%, compared to 72%-88% in the conventional-LTx group. In the largest study ddLLTx (n = 138) was associated with a lower one-year-survival compared to conventional-LTx (n = 539) (65.1% vs 84.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Further investigations of optimal donor-to-recipient size matching parameters for ddLLTx could improve outcomes of this important surgical option. PMID:28280698

  12. Sarcopenia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Is there a relationship? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tovo, Cristiane V; Fernandes, Sabrina A; Buss, Caroline; de Mattos, Angelo A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To perform a systematic review to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adult patients with sarcopenia. METHODS Randomized clinical trials, cross-sectional or cohort studies including adult patients (over 18 years) with sarcopenia were selected. The primary outcomes of interest were the prevalence or incidence of NAFLD in sarcopenic patients. In the screening process, 44 full-text articles were included in the review and 41 studies were excluded. RESULTS Three cross-sectional studies were included. The authors attempted to perform a systematic review, but due to the differences between the studies, a qualitative synthesis was provided. The diagnosis of NAFLD was made by non-invasive methods (image methods or any surrogate markers) in all three evaluated studies. All the studies suggested that there was an independent association between sarcopenia and NAFLD. CONCLUSION Sarcopenia is independently associated with NAFLD and possibly to an advanced fibrosis. PMID:28293382

  13. A composite likelihood method for bivariate meta-analysis in diagnostic systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yulun; Ning, Jing; Nie, Lei; Zhu, Hongjian; Chu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic systematic review is a vital step in the evaluation of diagnostic technologies. In many applications, it involves pooling pairs of sensitivity and specificity of a dichotomized diagnostic test from multiple studies. We propose a composite likelihood method for bivariate meta-analysis in diagnostic systematic reviews. This method provides an alternative way to make inference on diagnostic measures such as sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratio. Its main advantages over the standard likelihood method are the avoidance of the non-convergence problem, which is non-trivial when the number of studies are relatively small, the computational simplicity and some robustness to model mis-specifications. Simulation studies show that the composite likelihood method maintains high relative efficiency compared to that of the standard likelihood method. We illustrate our method in a diagnostic review of the performance of contemporary diagnostic imaging technologies for detecting metastases in patients with melanoma. PMID:25512146

  14. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Conflicts of interest and spin in reviews of psychological therapies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore conflicts of interest (COI) and their reporting in systematic reviews of psychological therapies, and to evaluate spin in the conclusions of the reviews. Methods MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2013 that assessed effects of psychological therapies for anxiety, depressive or personality disorders, and included at least one randomised controlled trial. Required COI disclosure by journal, disclosed COI by review authors, and the inclusion of own primary studies by review authors were extracted. Researcher allegiance, that is, that researchers concluded favourably about the interventions they have studied, as well as spin, that is, differences between results and conclusions of the reviews, were rated by 2 independent raters. Results 936 references were retrieved, 95 reviews fulfilled eligibility criteria. 59 compared psychological therapies with other forms of psychological therapies, and 36 psychological therapies with pharmacological interventions. Financial, non-financial, and personal COI were disclosed in 22, 4 and 1 review, respectively. 2 of 86 own primary studies of review authors included in 34 reviews were disclosed by review authors. In 15 of the reviews, authors showed an allegiance effect to the evaluated psychological therapy that was never disclosed. Spin in review conclusions was found in 27 of 95 reviews. Reviews with a conclusion in favour of psychological therapies (vs pharmacological interventions) were at high risk for a spin in conclusions (OR=8.31 (1.41 to 49.05)). Spin was related in trend to the inclusion of own primary studies in the systematic review (OR=2.08 (CI 0.83 to 5.18) p=0.11) and researcher allegiance (OR=2.63 (0.84 to 8.16) p=0.16). Conclusions Non-financial COI, especially the inclusion of own primary studies into reviews and researcher allegiance, are frequently seen in systematic reviews of psychological therapies and need more transparency and

  16. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cardiovascular events: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Eshraghi, Ali; Vojdanparast, Mohammad; Abtahi, Saeed; Nezafati, Pouya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of the role of depression in predicting the outcome of cardiovascular disorders, current medications for treating depression, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are taken into consideration. This study aimed to systematically review the published findings in the use of SSRIs and the risk for cardiac events. Materials and Methods: An independent review of the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, index Copernicus, and Google Scholar, up to 2014, was performed. We identified studies evaluating the effect of SSRIs, on cardiovascular events. Articles in English with full text availability, review articles, and experimental studies were included in the study. Among 150 studies reviewed based on the included keywords, 17 met the study criteria and were finally reviewed. Results: The use of some types of SSRIs may prevent platelet adhesion and aggregation; control the cardiovascular risk profile including hypertension, insulin resistance, and body weight; and also inhibit inflammatory processes. The appearance of adverse cardiac events, including cardiac arrhythmias (torsade de pointes and QT prolongation), syncope, increased systolic and diastolic right ventricular volume, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading atherosclerosis development, has also been expected with the chronic use of some types of SSRIs. Conclusion: According to our systematic review, both beneficial and adverse cardiovascular events can be established following the chronic use of various types of SSRIs. Therefore, when taking SSRIs, the cardiovascular effect of each SSRI has to be carefully considered, based on patients’ cardiovascular risk profiles. PMID:27904611

  17. Treatment of Nightmares With Prazosin: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Simon; Espinel, Zelde; Lapid, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Nightmares, frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and clinically relevant in today's world of violence, are difficult to treat, with few pharmacologic options. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence for the use of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares. A comprehensive search was performed using the databases EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from their inception to March 9, 2012, using keywords prazosin and nightmares/PTSD or associated terms (see text). Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts and selected relevant studies. Descriptive data and outcomes of interest from eligible studies were extracted by 1 author, and checked by 2 others. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Articles met criteria for inclusion if prazosin was used to treat nightmares, and outcome measures included nightmares or related symptoms of sleep disorders. Our search yielded 21 studies, consisting of 4 RCTs, 4 open-label studies, 4 retrospective chart reviews, and 9 single case reports. The prazosin dose ranged from 1 to 16 mg/d. Results were mixed for the 4 RCTs: 3 reported significant improvement in the number of nightmares, and 1 found no reduction in the number of nightmares. Reduced nightmare severity with use of prazosin was consistently reported in the open-label trials, retrospective chart reviews, and single case reports. PMID:22883741

  18. Treatment of nightmares with prazosin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kung, Simon; Espinel, Zelde; Lapid, Maria I

    2012-09-01

    Nightmares, frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and clinically relevant in today's world of violence, are difficult to treat, with few pharmacologic options. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence for the use of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares. A comprehensive search was performed using the databases EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from their inception to March 9, 2012, using keywords prazosin and nightmares/PTSD or associated terms (see text). Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts and selected relevant studies. Descriptive data and outcomes of interest from eligible studies were extracted by 1 author, and checked by 2 others. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Articles met criteria for inclusion if prazosin was used to treat nightmares, and outcome measures included nightmares or related symptoms of sleep disorders. Our search yielded 21 studies, consisting of 4 RCTs, 4 open-label studies, 4 retrospective chart reviews, and 9 single case reports. The prazosin dose ranged from 1 to 16 mg/d. Results were mixed for the 4 RCTs: 3 reported significant improvement in the number of nightmares, and 1 found no reduction in the number of nightmares. Reduced nightmare severity with use of prazosin was consistently reported in the open-label trials, retrospective chart reviews, and single case reports.

  19. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  20. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  1. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  2. Hemostatic Powders in Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-07-01

    Topical hemostatic agents and powders are an emerging modality in the endoscopic management of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This systematic review demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of these agents with special emphasis on TC-325 and Ankaferd Blood Stopper. The unique noncontact/nontraumatic application, ability to cover large areas of bleed, and ease of use make these hemostatic agents an attractive option in certain clinical situations, such as massive bleeding with poor visualization, salvage therapy, and diffuse bleeding from luminal malignancies.

  3. Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) Tool to Support Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Emma R.; Bell, Shannon M.; Cote, Ila; Wang, Rong-Lin; Perkins, Edward J.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gong, Ping; Burgoon, Lyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessors are challenged to understand and incorporate new data streams as the field of toxicology continues to adopt new molecular and systems biology technologies. Systematic screening reviews can help risk assessors and assessment teams determine which studies to consider for inclusion in a human health assessment. A tool for systematic reviews should be standardized and transparent in order to consistently determine which studies meet minimum quality criteria prior to performing in-depth analyses of the data. The Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool is focused on assisting risk assessment support teams in performing systematic reviews of transcriptomic studies. SOAR is a spreadsheet tool of 35 objective questions developed by domain experts, focused on transcriptomic microarray studies, and including four main topics: test system, test substance, experimental design, and microarray data. The tool will be used as a guide to identify studies that meet basic published quality criteria, such as those defined by the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment standard and the Toxicological Data Reliability Assessment Tool. Seven scientists were recruited to test the tool by using it to independently rate 15 published manuscripts that study chemical exposures with microarrays. Using their feedback, questions were weighted based on importance of the information and a suitability cutoff was set for each of the four topic sections. The final validation resulted in 100% agreement between the users on four separate manuscripts, showing that the SOAR tool may be used to facilitate the standardized and transparent screening of microarray literature for environmental human health risk assessment. PMID:25531884

  4. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Cardiology Fellows.

    PubMed

    Fares, Munes; Alahdab, Fares; Alsaied, Tarek

    2016-07-01

    Participating in a scholarly activity is one of the training requirements for cardiology fellows. However, it can be very challenging to complete a research project during such a busy period of clinical training. To help the cardiology fellows in choosing and starting off a research project, a light has been shed on the process of conducting a systematic review, and the importance of this research activity, as well as its limitations.

  5. Gastrostomy feeding in cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, G; Brocklehurst, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine benefits and risks for gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding compared with oral feeding for children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Systematic review. Search strategy: electronic databases—Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, databases of theses, grey literature. Included: relevant systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case reports. Excluded: non-systematic reviews and qualitative research. Participants: children with cerebral palsy. Intervention: use of gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube to provide nutrition. Outcome: evaluated outcome measures included death, growth, gastro-oesophageal reflux, other complications, psychosocial aspects, and caregiver wellbeing. Results: No relevant systematic reviews or randomised controlled trials were found. Two cohort studies, 15 case series, and eight case reports met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies specifically described percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy as the intervention. Weight gain resulted from gastrostomy feeding in most cases. There was an approximately fourfold increased risk of death reported in one cohort study for the gastrostomy fed children. Many complications were reported, including potential for increased gastro-oesophageal reflux and fluid aspiration into the lungs. Conclusions: Benefits associated with gastrostomy or jejunostomy feeding are difficult to assess from the available evidence. Risks of gastrostomy, particularly in relation to surgical complications, have been described but the size of the risk could not be quantified. The finding of a higher death rate for children fed by gastrostomy may merely reflect the greater disability of these compared with orally fed children. Lack of available evidence and the substantial risk of bias in observational studies suggests that a well conducted randomised controlled trial of sufficient size will be needed to answer these problems. PMID:15155398

  6. Care transitions: a systematic review of best practices.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Brenda; Pearce, Nancy; Harripaul, Anastasia; Lloyd, Monique

    2015-01-01

    This article reports results from a systematic review used to inform the development of a best practice guideline to assist nurses in understanding their roles and responsibilities in promoting safe and effective client care transitions. A care transition is a set of actions designed to ensure safe and effective coordination and continuity of care as clients experience a change in health status, care needs, health care providers, or location.

  7. Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Emma R; Bell, Shannon M; Cote, Ila; Wang, Rong-Lin; Perkins, Edward J; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gong, Ping; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessors are challenged to understand and incorporate new data streams as the field of toxicology continues to adopt new molecular and systems biology technologies. Systematic screening reviews can help risk assessors and assessment teams determine which studies to consider for inclusion in a human health assessment. A tool for systematic reviews should be standardized and transparent in order to consistently determine which studies meet minimum quality criteria prior to performing in-depth analyses of the data. The Systematic Omics Analysis Review (SOAR) tool is focused on assisting risk assessment support teams in performing systematic reviews of transcriptomic studies. SOAR is a spreadsheet tool of 35 objective questions developed by domain experts, focused on transcriptomic microarray studies, and including four main topics: test system, test substance, experimental design, and microarray data. The tool will be used as a guide to identify studies that meet basic published quality criteria, such as those defined by the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment standard and the Toxicological Data Reliability Assessment Tool. Seven scientists were recruited to test the tool by using it to independently rate 15 published manuscripts that study chemical exposures with microarrays. Using their feedback, questions were weighted based on importance of the information and a suitability cutoff was set for each of the four topic sections. The final validation resulted in 100% agreement between the users on four separate manuscripts, showing that the SOAR tool may be used to facilitate the standardized and transparent screening of microarray literature for environmental human health risk assessment.

  8. Systematic review of pathways for the delivery of allergy services

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Carole; Lilford, Richard; Roberts, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The incidence and prevalence of allergies worldwide has been increasing and allergy services globally are unable to keep up with this increase in demand. This systematic review aims to understand the delivery of allergy services worldwide, challenges faced and future directions for service delivery. Methods A systematic scoping review of Ovid, EMBASE, HMIC, CINAHL, Cochrane, DARE, NHS EED and INAHTA databases was carried out using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data on the geographical region, study design and treatment pathways described were collected, and the findings were narratively reported. This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results 205 publications were screened and 27 selected for review. Only 3 were prospective studies, and none included a control group. There were no eligible publications identified from North America, Africa, Australia and most parts of Asia. Most publications relate to allergy services in the UK. In general, allergy services globally appear not to have kept pace with increasing demand. The review suggests that primary care practitioners are not being adequately trained in allergy and that there is a paucity of appropriately trained specialists, especially in paediatric allergy. There appear to be considerable barriers to service improvement, including lack of political will and reluctance to allocate funds from local budgets. Conclusions Demand for allergy services appears to have significantly outpaced supply. Primary and secondary care pathways in allergy seem inadequate leading to poor referral practices, delays in patient management and consequently poor outcomes. Improvement of services requires strong public and political engagement. There is a need for well-planned, prospective studies in this area and a few are currently underway. There is no evidence to suggest that any given pathway of service provision is better than

  9. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2016-10-12

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Research on injury prevention: topics for systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Johansen, J; Thompson, D

    2002-01-01

    Background: Duplication should be avoided in research and only effective intervention programs should be implemented. Objective: To arrive at a consensus among injury control investigators and practitioners on the most important research questions for systematic review in the area of injury prevention. Design: Delphi survey. Methods: A total of 34 injury prevention experts were asked to submit questions for systematic review. These were then collated; experts then ranked these on importance and availability of research. Results: Twenty one experts generated 79 questions. The prevention areas with the most number of questions generated were fires and burns, motor vehicle, and violence (other than intimate partner), and the least were other interventions (which included Safe Communities), and risk compensation. These were ranked by mean score. There was good agreement between the mean score and the proportion of experts rating questions as important or very important. Nine of the top 24 questions were rated as having some to a substantial amount of research available, and 15 as having little research available. Conclusions: The Delphi technique provided a useful means to develop consensus on injury prevention research needs and questions for systematic review. PMID:12120838

  11. Surface electromyography in animal biomechanics: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Zsoldos, Rebeka R

    2016-06-01

    The study of muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) is commonly used for investigations of the neuromuscular system in man. Although sEMG has faced methodological challenges, considerable technical advances have been made in the last few decades. Similarly, the field of animal biomechanics, including sEMG, has grown despite being confronted with often complex experimental conditions. In human sEMG research, standardised protocols have been developed, however these are lacking in animal sEMG. Before standards can be proposed in this population group, the existing research in animal sEMG should be collated and evaluated. Therefore the aim of this review is to systematically identify and summarise the literature in animal sEMG focussing on (1) species, breeds, activities and muscles investigated, and (2) electrode placement and normalisation methods used. The databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Vetmed Resource were searched systematically for sEMG studies in animals and 38 articles were included in the final review. Data on methodological quality was collected and summarised. The findings from this systematic review indicate the divergence in animal sEMG methodology and as a result, future steps required to develop standardisation in animal sEMG are proposed.

  12. Effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Habacher, Gabriele; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-01-01

    Acupuncture is a popular complementary treatment option in human medicine. Increasingly, owners also seek acupuncture for their animals. The aim of the systematic review reported here was to summarize and assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine. Systematic searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina and Chikusan Bunken Kensaku. Hand-searches included conference proceedings, bibliographies, and contact with experts and veterinary acupuncture associations. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. All controlled clinical trials testing acupuncture in any condition of domestic animals were included. Studies using laboratory animals were excluded. Titles and abstracts of identified articles were read, and hard copies were obtained. Inclusion and exclusion of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by two reviewers. Methodologic quality was evaluated by means of the Jadad score. Fourteen randomized controlled trials and 17 nonrandomized controlled trials met our criteria and were, therefore, included. The methodologic quality of these trials was variable but, on average, was low. For cutaneous pain and diarrhea, encouraging evidence exists that warrants further investigation in rigorous trials. Single studies reported some positive intergroup differences for spinal cord injury, Cushing's syndrome, lung function, hepatitis, and rumen acidosis. These trials require independent replication. On the basis of the findings of this systematic review, there is no compelling evidence to recommend or reject acupuncture for any condition in domestic animals. Some encouraging data do exist that warrant further investigation in independent rigorous trials.

  13. Conceptualizing prognostic awareness in advanced cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Allison J; Kolva, Elissa A; Kulikowski, Julia R; Jacobs, Jordana D; DeRosa, Antonio; Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Olden, Megan E; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the complex literature on prognostic awareness in cancer. A total of 37 studies examining cancer patients’ understanding of their prognosis were included. Prognostic awareness definitions and assessment methods were inconsistent across studies. A surprisingly high percentage of patients (up to 75%) were unaware of their poor prognosis, and in several studies, even their cancer diagnosis (up to 96%), particularly in studies conducted outside of North America. This review highlights surprisingly low rates of prognostic awareness in patients with advanced cancer as well as discrepancies in prognostic awareness assessment, suggesting the need for empirically validated measures of prognostic awareness. PMID:24157936

  14. Systematic Review to Inform Dual Tobacco Use Prevention.

    PubMed

    Evans, William Douglas; Horn, Kimberly A; Gray, Tiffany

    2015-10-01

    With more tobacco products now available and heavily marketed, dual tobacco use is increasing among youth. We systematically reviewed literature on dual tobacco use interventions, with an emphasis on mass health communication strategies. The review identified 46 articles meeting initial criteria and ultimately included 8 articles. Included studies reported a mix of health communication and social marketing techniques. Although there is a body of research on dual tobacco use, there is limited literature describing interventions aimed at controlling it. Design and evaluation of such interventions showing reductions in dual use of cigarettes, smokeless, and alternative products would advance the field.

  15. Frozen shoulder: A systematic review of therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Harpal Singh; Evans, Jonathan Peter; Smith, Christopher

    2015-03-18

    Frozen shoulder is a common disease which causes significant morbidity. Despite over a hundred years of treating this condition the definition, diagnosis, pathology and most efficacious treatments are still largely unclear. This systematic review of current treatments for frozen shoulder reviews the evidence base behind physiotherapy, both oral and intra articular steroid, hydrodilatation, manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release. Key areas in which future research could be directed are identified, in particular with regard to the increasing role of arthroscopic capsular release as a treatment.

  16. Internalized Homonegativity: A Systematic Mapping Review of Empirical Research

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Internalized homonegativity (IH) is an important variable affecting the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. We included 201 studies in a systematic mapping review of IH. Most studies were conducted in North America and examined IH as a predictor of poor health. The primary focus of 14 studies was IH scale measurement, and, in total, these studies detailed nine distinct scales. Eighteen studies compared levels of IH in LGB populations, four described prevention programs, and one investigated IH using qualitative methods. Our review indicates that further research is needed, particularly qualitative research and ways to ameliorate IH. PMID:26436322

  17. Conceptualizing prognostic awareness in advanced cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Allison J; Kolva, Elissa A; Kulikowski, Julia R; Jacobs, Jordana D; DeRosa, Antonio; Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Olden, Megan E; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2014-09-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the complex literature on prognostic awareness in cancer. A total of 37 studies examining cancer patients' understanding of their prognosis were included. Prognostic awareness definitions and assessment methods were inconsistent across studies. A surprisingly high percentage of patients (up to 75%) were unaware of their poor prognosis, and in several studies, even their cancer diagnosis (up to 96%), particularly in studies conducted outside of North America. This review highlights surprisingly low rates of prognostic awareness in patients with advanced cancer as well as discrepancies in prognostic awareness assessment, suggesting the need for empirically validated measures of prognostic awareness.

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention.

  19. A systematic review of genetic syndromes with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Y; de Souza, R J; Gibson, W T; Meyre, D

    2017-03-27

    Syndromic monogenic obesity typically follows Mendelian patterns of inheritance and involves the co-presentation of other characteristics, such as mental retardation, dysmorphic features and organ-specific abnormalities. Previous reviews on obesity have reported 20 to 30 syndromes but no systematic review has yet been conducted on syndromic obesity. We searched seven databases using terms such as 'obesity', 'syndrome' and 'gene' to conduct a systematic review of literature on syndromic obesity. Our literature search identified 13,719 references. After abstract and full-text review, 119 relevant papers were eligible, and 42 papers were identified through additional searches. Our analysis of these 161 papers found that 79 obesity syndromes have been reported in literature. Of the 79 syndromes, 19 have been fully genetically elucidated, 11 have been partially elucidated, 27 have been mapped to a chromosomal region and for the remaining 22, neither the gene(s) nor the chromosomal location(s) have yet been identified. Interestingly, 54.4% of the syndromes have not been assigned a name, whereas 13.9% have more than one name. We report on organizational inconsistencies (e.g. naming discrepancies and syndrome classification) and provide suggestions for improvements. Overall, this review illustrates the need for increased clinical and genetic research on syndromes with obesity.

  20. Psychological profile of sasang typology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-09-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.

  1. Information skills training: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brettle, Alison

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to undertake a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of information skills training, to identify effective methods of training and to determine whether information skills training affects patient care. A systematic review, using an iterative approach to searching, was employed. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a tool used in previous reviews. A tabular approach was used to provide a summary of each paper allowing synthesis of results. One thousand, three hundred and fifty-seven potentially relevant papers were located. On the basis of titles and abstracts, 41 potentially relevant studies were identified for potential inclusion. Further reading and application of the inclusion criteria left 24 studies for critical appraisal and inclusion in the review. Study designs included randomised controlled trials, cohort designs and qualitative studies. The majority of studies took place in US medical schools. Wide variations were found in course content and training methods. Eight studies used objective methods to test skills, two compared training methods and two examined the effects on patient care. There was limited evidence to show that training improves skills, insufficient evidence to determine the most effective methods of training and limited evidence to show that training improves patient care. Further research is needed in a number of areas.

  2. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition. PMID:19745008

  3. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  4. A Systematic Review of Personality Disorders and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Whalen, Diana J.; Layden, Brianne K.; Chapman, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality disorders have been associated with a wide swath of adverse health outcomes and correspondingly high costs to healthcare systems. To date, however, there has not been a systematic review of the literature on health conditions among individuals with personality disorders. The primary aim of this article is to review research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. A systematic review of the literature revealed 78 unique empirical English-language peer-reviewed articles examining the association of personality disorders and health outcomes over the past 15 years. Specifically, we reviewed research examining the association of personality disorders with sleep disturbance, obesity, pain conditions, and other chronic health conditions. In addition, we evaluated research on candidate mechanisms underlying health problems in personality disorders and potential treatments for such disorders. Results underscore numerous deleterious health outcomes associated with PD features and PD diagnoses, and suggest potential biological and behavioural factors that may account for these relations. Guidelines for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:26456998

  5. Pediatric Observation Units in the US: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Michelle L.; Kim, Christopher S.; Sasson, Comilla; Lozon, Marie M.; Davis, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background As the United States' (US) health system seeks more efficient and value-based care models, geographically distinct observation units (OUs) may become an integral part of hospital-based care for children. Purpose To systematically review the literature and evaluate the structure and function of pediatric OUs in the US. Data Sources Searches were conducted in Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, HCAB, Lexis Nexis, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Cochrane Reviews through February 2009, with review of select bibliographies. Study Selection English language peer-reviewed publications on pediatric OU care in the US. Data Extraction Two authors independently determined study eligibility. Studies were graded using a 5-level quality assessment tool. Data were extracted using a standardized form. Data Synthesis 21 studies met inclusion criteria: 2 randomized trials, 2 prospective observational, 12 retrospective cohort, 2 before and after, and 3 descriptive studies. Studies present data on more than 22,000 children cared for in OUs, most at large academic centers. This systematic review provides a descriptive overview of the structure and function of pediatric OUs in the US. Despite seemingly straightforward outcomes for OU care, significant heterogeneity in the reporting of length of stay, admission rates, return visit rates, and costs precluded our ability to conduct meta-analyses. We propose standard outcome measures and future directions for pediatric OU research. Conclusions Future research using consistent outcome measures will be critical to determining whether OUs can improve the quality and cost of providing care to children requiring observation-length stays. PMID:20235288

  6. Interventions to enhance work participation of workers with a chronic disease: a systematic review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Vooijs, Marloes; Leensen, Monique C J; Hoving, Jan L; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the available effective interventions that enhance work participation of people with a chronic disease, irrespective of their diagnosis. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library, searching for systematic reviews published between 2004 and February 2015. Systematic reviews were eligible for inclusion if they described an intervention aimed at enhancing work participation and included participants of working age (18-65 years) with a chronic disease. Reviews had to include populations having different chronic diseases. The quality of the included reviews was evaluated using the quality instrument AMSTAR. Results of reviews of medium and high quality were described in this review. The search resulted in 9 reviews, 5 of which were of medium quality. No high quality reviews were retrieved. 1 review reported inconclusive evidence for policy-based return to work initiatives. The 4 other reviews described interventions focused on changes at work, such as changes in work organisation, working conditions and work environment. Of these 4 reviews, 3 reported beneficial effects of the intervention on work participation. Interventions examined in populations having different chronic diseases were mainly focused on changes at work. The majority of the included interventions were reported to be effective in enhancing work participation of people with a chronic disease, indicating that interventions directed at work could be considered for a generic approach in order to enhance work participation in various chronic diseases.

  7. Acupuncture for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yejiao; He, Qi; Zhang, Xinghe

    2017-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP), a childhood disease of high morbidity and serious harmfulness, has no effective therapies to completely relieve the associated pain. Acupuncture has been used widely in China to alleviate several CP symptoms, such as pain and motion disorders, despite the deficiency of high-quality evidence related to this practice. Objective The aim of this systematic review protocol is to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP. Methods The following electronic databases will be searched: Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBASE, Springer, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan-fang database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and other sources. All published randomized controlled trials from inception to December 2016 will be included. RevMan V.5.3 software will be implemented for the assessment of bias risk, data synthesis, subgroup analysis, and meta-analyses if inclusion conditions are met. Individuals recruited into the trials will include children with all types of CP, and these individuals will be involved as coresearchers to develop and evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP. Due to language barriers, only English and Chinese articles will be retrieved. Results The systematic review will synthesize the available knowledge surrounding acupuncture for children with CP. The findings will be synthesized to determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with CP. Conclusions The review has not been completed. This protocol presents a proper method to implement the systematic review, and ensures transparency for the completed review. Findings from the systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and results will be presented at relevant conferences. The data of individual patients will not be included

  8. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Hale, Andrew T; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Zuckerman, Scott L; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Over the last 2 decades, sport-related concussion (SRC) has garnered significant attention. Even with increased awareness and athlete education, sideline recognition and real-time diagnosis remain crucial. The need for an objective and standardized assessment of concussion led to the eventual development of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) during the Second International Conference on Concussion in Sport in 2004, which is now in its third iteration (SCAT3). In an effort to update our understanding of the most well-known sideline concussion assessment, the authors conducted a systematic review of the SCAT and the evidence supporting its use to date. METHODS English-language titles and abstracts published between 1995 and October 2015 were searched systematically across 4 electronic databases and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines adapted for the review of a heterogeneous collection of study designs. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they reported quantitative data on any iteration of the SCAT, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), or modified Balance Error Scoring System (mBESS) data at baseline or following concussion in an exclusively athlete population with any portion older than 13 years of age. Studies that included nonathletes, only children less than 13 years old, exclusively BESS data, exclusively symptom scale data, or a non-SCAT-related assessment were excluded. RESULTS The database search process yielded 549 abstracts, and 105 full-text articles were reviewed with 36 meeting criteria for inclusion. Nineteen studies were associated with the SAC, 1 was associated with the mBESS exclusively, and 16 studies were associated with a full iteration of the SCAT. The majority of these studies (56%) were prospective cohort studies. Male football players were the most common athletes studied. An analysis of the studies focused on

  9. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as

  10. Nonadherence to Medication Therapy in Haemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Saurav; Castelino, Ronald L.; Lioufas, Nicole M.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R.

    2015-01-01

    Background End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients are often prescribed multiple medications. Together with a demanding weekly schedule of dialysis sessions, increased number of medicines and associated regimen complexity pre-dispose them at high risk of medication nonadherence. This review summarizes existing literature on nonadherence and identifies factors associated with nonadherence to medication therapy in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews covering the period from 1970 through November 2014 was performed following a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reference lists from relevant materials were reviewed. Data on study characteristics, measures of nonadherence, prevalence rates and factors associated with nonadherence were collected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed in conducting this systematic review. Results Of 920 relevant publications, 44 were included. The prevalence of medication nonadherence varied from 12.5% to 98.6%, with widespread heterogeneity in measures and definitions employed. Most common patient-related factors significantly associated with nonadherence were younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, illness interfering family life, being a smoker, and living single and being divorced or widowed. Similarly, disease-related factors include longevity of haemodialysis, recurrent hospitalization, depressive symptoms and having concomitant illness like diabetes and hypertension. Medication-related factors such as daily tablet count, total pill burden, number of phosphate binders prescribed and complexity of medication regimen were also associated with poor adherence. Conclusions A number of patient-, disease-, and medication-related factors are associated with medication nonadherence in haemodialysis patients. Clinicians should be aware of such factors so that

  11. Boolean versus ranked querying for biomedical systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The process of constructing a systematic review, a document that compiles the published evidence pertaining to a specified medical topic, is intensely time-consuming, often taking a team of researchers over a year, with the identification of relevant published research comprising a substantial portion of the effort. The standard paradigm for this information-seeking task is to use Boolean search; however, this leaves the user(s) the requirement of examining every returned result. Further, our experience is that effective Boolean queries for this specific task are extremely difficult to formulate and typically require multiple iterations of refinement before being finalized. Methods We explore the effectiveness of using ranked retrieval as compared to Boolean querying for the purpose of constructing a systematic review. We conduct a series of experiments involving ranked retrieval, using queries defined methodologically, in an effort to understand the practicalities of incorporating ranked retrieval into the systematic search task. Results Our results show that ranked retrieval by itself is not viable for this search task requiring high recall. However, we describe a refinement of the standard Boolean search process and show that ranking within a Boolean result set can improve the overall search performance by providing early indication of the quality of the results, thereby speeding up the iterative query-refinement process. Conclusions Outcomes of experiments suggest that an interactive query-development process using a hybrid ranked and Boolean retrieval system has the potential for significant time-savings over the current search process in the systematic reviewing. PMID:20937152

  12. The Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Hyperlipidemia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalifa, Khalid; Alsayed, Abdul Rahim; Violato, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight loss and reduction in comorbidities can be achieved by longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Existing evidence suggests that LSG resolves or improves hyperlipidemia in morbidly obese patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of LSG on hyperlipidemia. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted from English-language studies published from 2000 to 2012 for the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Clinical evidence, Scopus, Dara, Web of Sciences, TRIP, Health Technology Database, Cochrane library, and PsycINFO. Results. A total of 4,211 articles were identified in the initial search, and 4,185 articles were excluded based on the exclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review, involving 3,591 patients. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 48 ± 7.0 kg/m2 (range 37.2–65.3). The mean postoperative BMI was 35 ± 5.9 kg/m2 (range 26.3–49). The mean percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) was 63.1% (range 37.7–84.5), with a mean followup of 19.1 months (range 6–60). The mean levels of pre and post operative cholesterol were 194.4 ± 12.3 mg/dL (range 178–213) and 181 ± 16.3 mg/dL (range 158–200), respectively. Conclusion. Most patients with hyperlipidemia showed improvement or resolution of lipid profiles after LSG. Based on this systematic review, LSG has a significant effect on hyperlipidemia in the form of resolution or improvement in the majority of patients. PMID:24286009

  13. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  14. SU-E-J-185: A Systematic Review of Breathing Guidance in Radiation Oncology and Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, S; Keall, P; Keall, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. A review of such research had not yet been performed, it was therefore our aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: Results of online database searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with the PRISMAStatement reporting standard (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) utilizing the PICOS approach (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design). Participants: Cancer patients, healthy volunteers. Intervention: Biofeedback breathing guidance systems. Comparison: No breathing guidance of the same breathing type. Outcome: Regularity of breathing signal and anatomic/tumor motion, medical image quality, radiation treatment margins and coverage, medical imaging and radiation treatment times. Study design: Quantitative and controlled prospective or retrospective trials. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 479 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. The vast majority of investigated outcomes were significantly positively impacted by the use of breathing guidance; however, this was dependent upon the nature of the breathing guidance system and study design. In 25/27 studies significant improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusion: The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted which quantify more comprehensively the

  15. Breathing guidance in radiation oncology and radiology: A systematic review of patient and healthy volunteer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Sean Keall, Paul; Keall, Robyn

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion irregularities is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. These systems aim to facilitate regular respiratory motion which in turn improves image quality and radiation treatment accuracy. A review of such research has yet to be performed; it was therefore their aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: From August 1–14, 2014, the following online databases were searched: Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science. Results of these searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Reference lists of included articles, and repeat authors of included articles, were hand-searched. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 480 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. These 27 articles detailed the intervention of breathing guidance strategies in controlled studies assessing its impact on such outcomes as breathing regularity, image quality, target coverage, and treatment margins, recruiting either healthy adult volunteers or patients with thoracic or abdominal lesions. In 21/27 studies, significant (p < 0.05) improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusions: There is a trend toward the number of breathing guidance studies increasing with time, indicating a growing clinical interest. The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted that quantify the

  16. Treatment for Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Tessa; Schomer, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence on interventions for depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research. We reviewed pharmacological, other biological, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitation interventions for depression following TBI from the following data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We included studies written in English published since 1980 investigating depression and depressive symptomatology in adults with TBI; 658 articles were identified. After reviewing the abstracts, 57 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition to studies describing interventions designed to treat depression, we included intervention studies in which depressive symptoms were reported as a secondary outcome. At the end of a full review in which two independent reviewers extracted data, 26 articles met the final criteria that included reporting data on participants with TBI, and using validated depression diagnostic or severity measures pre- and post-treatment. Three external reviewers also examined the study methods and evidence tables, adding 1 article, for a total of 27 studies. Evidence was classified based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. The largest pharmacological study enrolled 54 patients, and none of the psychotherapeutic/rehabilitation interventions prospectively targeted depression. This systematic review documents that there is a paucity of randomized controlled trials for depression following TBI. Serotonergic antidepressants and cognitive behavioral interventions appear to have the best preliminary evidence for treating depression following TBI. More research is needed to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations for depression following TBI. PMID:19698070

  17. Diabetic Personal Health Record: A Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    AZIZI, Amirabbas; ABOUTORABI, Robab; MAZLOUM-KHORASANI, Zahra; HOSEINI, Benyamin; TARA, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes disease is one of the 4 main types of non-communicable diseases. No research has been conducted in order to identify data items for Diabetic Personal Health Record (DPHR), in Iran. This study, with the aim of systematically developing the DPHR was done to supply ultimately the country with a national model through Delphi method. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of sciences, Scopus, Science Direct, and ACM digital library. The year of the study included the obtained articles was 2013. We used a 3-step method to identify studies related to DPHR. Study selection processes were performed by two reviewers independently. The eligible studies were included in this review. Quality of studies was assessed using a mixed approach scoring system. Reviewers used 2-step method for the validation of the final DPHR model. Results: Initially, 2011 papers were returned from online databases and 186 studies from gray literature search. After removing duplicates, study screening, and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 129 studies were eligible for further full-text review. Considering the full-text review, 34 studies were identified for final review. Given the content of selected studies, we determined seven main classes of DPHR. The highest score belongs to home monitoring data class by mean of 19.83, and the lowest was general data class by mean of 3.89. Conclusion: Together with representative sample of endocrinologist in Iran achieved consensus on a DPHR model to improve self-care for diabetic patients and to facilitate physician decision making. PMID:28032056

  18. Effect of Telehealth Interventions on Hospitalization Indicators: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalankesh, Leila R.; Pourasghar, Faramarz; Nicholson, Lorraine; Ahmadi, Shamim; Hosseini, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Telehealth has been defined as the remote delivery of healthcare services using information and communication technology. Where resource-limited health systems face challenges caused by the increasing burden of chronic diseases and an aging global population, telehealth has been advocated as a solution for changing and improving the paradigm of healthcare delivery to cope with these issues. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effect of telehealth interventions on two indicators: hospitalization rate and length of stay. Materials and Methods The reviewers searched the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Springer electronic databases from January 2005 to November 2013. A search strategy was developed using a combination of the following search keywords: impact, effect, telehealth, telemedicine, telecare, hospitalization, length of stay, and resource utilization. Both randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included in the review. To be included in the review, articles had to be written in English. The results of study were compiled, reviewed, and analyzed on the basis of the review aims. Results This systematic review examined 22 existing studies with a total population of 19,086 patients. The effect of telehealth on all-cause hospitalization was statistically significant in 40 percent of the related studies, whereas it was not statistically significant in 60 percent. Similarly, the effect of telehealth on the all-cause length of stay was statistically significant in 36 percent of the studies and nonsignificant in 64 percent. Conclusion Considering the fact that hospitalization rate and length of stay can be confounded by factors other than telehealth intervention, studies examining the effect of the intervention on these indicators must take into account all other factors influencing them. Otherwise any judgment on the effect of telehealth on these indicators cannot be valid. PMID:27843425

  19. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  20. Couples coping with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trump, Lisa J; Mendenhall, Tai J

    2016-09-29

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women. Its potential ramifications on all aspects of life, for patients and partners, are just beginning to be understood. Although research has focused on the individual who has received the diagnosis, relatively little is known about how couples manage CVD. This article presents a systematic review of literature that focuses on how couples cope with one partner's CVD diagnosis. A systematic review is warranted to orient practitioners, policy makers, and researchers to the state of existing knowledge and its gaps and to identify what still needs to be done. Method: Data were extracted from 25 peer-reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Content examined included theory integration, coping constructs and instruments, samples, analyses, and findings. Results: Most articles successfully integrated theory in the studies' respective conceptualizations and designs. Most used valid and reliable instruments to measure coping. Principal limitations included problematic sampling strategies and analysis techniques, thereby limiting external validity. Discussion: Principal implications of this review's findings relate to our fields' need to provide more care focused on dyads (vs. individual patients), adopt an integrated model in health care, and conduct systemic, longitudinal research to gain a better grasp on how coping changes over time. Doing so will serve to better equip providers in the support of patients and partners living with CVD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Systematic Review of Inspiratory Muscle Training After Cerebrovascular Accident.

    PubMed

    Martín-Valero, Rocío; De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Casuso-Holgado, Maria Jesus; Heredia-Madrazo, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines levels of evidence and recommendation grades of various therapeutic interventions of inspiratory muscle training in people who have had a stroke. Benefits from different levels of force and resistance in respiratory muscles are shown in this population. This review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) directives and was completed in November 2014. The search limits were studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Relevant studies were searched for in MEDLINE, PEDro, OAIster, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, DOAJ, Cochrane, Embase, Academic Search Complete, Fuente Académica, and MedicLatina. Initially, 20 articles were identified. After analyzing all primary documents, 14 studies were excluded. Only 6 studies were relevant to this review. Three different types of interventions were found (maximum inspiratory training, controlled training, and nonintervention) in 3 different groups. One specific study compared 3 inspiratory muscle training groups with a group of breathing exercises (diaphragmatic exercises with pursed lips) and a control group. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed. It is necessary to apply respiratory muscle training as a service of the national health system and to consider its inclusion in the conventional neurological program.

  2. Reducing systematic review workload through certainty-based screening

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Makoto; Thomas, James; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    In systematic reviews, the growing number of published studies imposes a significant screening workload on reviewers. Active learning is a promising approach to reduce the workload by automating some of the screening decisions, but it has been evaluated for a limited number of disciplines. The suitability of applying active learning to complex topics in disciplines such as social science has not been studied, and the selection of useful criteria and enhancements to address the data imbalance problem in systematic reviews remains an open problem. We applied active learning with two criteria (certainty and uncertainty) and several enhancements in both clinical medicine and social science (specifically, public health) areas, and compared the results in both. The results show that the certainty criterion is useful for finding relevant documents, and weighting positive instances is promising to overcome the data imbalance problem in both data sets. Latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) is also shown to be promising when little manually-assigned information is available. Active learning is effective in complex topics, although its efficiency is limited due to the difficulties in text classification. The most promising criterion and weighting method are the same regardless of the review topic, and unsupervised techniques like LDA have a possibility to boost the performance of active learning without manual annotation. PMID:24954015

  3. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  4. Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Tremblay, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, reviews, and meta-analyses have reported elevated mental health problems for sexual minority (SM) individuals. This systematic review provides an update by including numerous recent studies, and explores whether SM individuals are at increased risk across selected mental health problems as per dimensions of sexual orientation (SO), genders, life-stages, geographic regions, and in higher quality studies. A systematic search in PubMed produced 199 studies appropriate for review. A clear majority of studies reported elevated risks for depression, anxiety, suicide attempts or suicides, and substance-related problems for SM men and women, as adolescents or adults from many geographic regions, and with varied SO dimensions (behaviour, attraction, identity), especially in more recent and higher quality studies. One notable exception is alcohol-related problems, where many studies reported zero or reversed effects, especially for SM men. All SM subgroups were at increased risk, but bisexual individuals were at highest risk in the majority of studies. Other subgroup and gender differences are more complex and are discussed. The review supports the long-standing mental health risk proposition for SM individuals, overall and as subgroups.

  5. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838

  7. Digital Asthma Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Deborah; Wyke, Sally; Agur, Karolina; Cameron, Euan J; Docking, Robert I; MacKenzie, Alison M; McConnachie, Alex; Raghuvir, Vandana; Thomson, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people with asthma tolerate symptoms and lifestyle limitations unnecessarily by not utilizing proven therapies. Better support for self-management is known to improve asthma control, and increasingly the Internet and other digital media are being used to deliver that support. Objective Our goal was to summarize current knowledge, evidenced through existing systematic reviews, of the effectiveness and implementation of digital self-management support for adults and children with asthma and to examine what features help or hinder the use of these programs. Methods A comprehensive search strategy combined 3 facets of search terms: (1) online technology, (2) asthma, and (3) self-management/behavior change/patient experience. We undertook searches of 14 databases, and reference and citation searching. We included qualitative and quantitative systematic reviews about online or computerized interventions facilitating self-management. Title, abstract, full paper screening, and quality appraisal were performed by two researchers independently. Data extraction was undertaken using standardized forms. Results A total of 3810 unique papers were identified. Twenty-nine systematic reviews met inclusion criteria: the majority were from the United States (n=12), the rest from United Kingdom (n=6), Canada (n=3), Portugal (n=2), and Australia, France, Spain, Norway, Taiwan, and Greece (1 each). Only 10 systematic reviews fulfilled pre-determined quality standards, describing 19 clinical trials. Interventions were heterogeneous: duration of interventions ranging from single use, to 24-hour access for 12 months, and incorporating varying degrees of health professional involvement. Dropout rates ranged from 5-23%. Four RCTs were aimed at adults (overall range 3-65 years). Participants were inadequately described: socioeconomic status 0/19, ethnicity 6/19, and gender 15/19. No qualitative systematic reviews were included. Meta-analysis was not attempted due to

  8. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wortzel, Hal S; Shura, Robert D; Brenner, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global health concern, and the recent literature reports that a single mild TBI can result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It has been suggested that CTE may lead to death by suicide, raising important prevention, treatment, and policy implications. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to answer the key question: What is the existing evidence in support of a relationship between CTE and suicide? Systematic searches of CTE and suicide yielded 85 unique abstracts. Seven articles were identified for full text review. Only two case series met inclusion criteria and included autopsies from 17 unique cases, 5 of whom died by suicide. Neither studies used blinding, control cases, or systematic data collection regarding TBI exposure and/or medical/neuropsychiatric history. The identified CTE literature revealed divergent opinions regarding neuropathological elements of CTE and heterogeneity regarding clinical manifestations. Overall quality of evidence regarding a relationship between CTE and suicide was rated as very low using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE) criteria. Further studies of higher quality and methodological rigor are needed to determine the existence and nature of any relationship between CTE and suicide.

  9. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  10. Characteristics of an Effective International Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Ardalan, Ali; Waugh, William; Tirone, Daniel C.; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is to identify the effectiveness characteristics, review the definition of them, and develop a conceptual mapping of existing domains in the field of International Humanitarian Assistance (IHA). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched the major databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer and Pubmed) and grey literature, including references of potentially eligible articles and conference proceedings through March 2015. Articles were included if they focused on IHA effectiveness. Reviewers independently identified the eligible studies and extracted data. Results: 10 studies were included and 48 characteristics were identified. There is a lack of scientific studies and agreement on the characteristics of IHA effectiveness.  Conclusion: This study could be the step toward an understanding of IHA effectiveness characteristics and its definitions with the findings making a base line for more research in this area.  PMID:26981325

  11. Information technologies to improve public health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Melissa; Kuo, Mu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review examines a total of eighteen studies on the use of health information technologies to improve public health. Health information technologies are tools that allow for the management of health information in computerized systems. Health information technology, including electronic health records, computers/emails, social media, and cellphones/text messaging are becoming widespread and readily accessible to populations around the globe. In this review, the use of these technologies and interventions are discussed and evaluated for their potential to improve public health. This review found some good-quality evidence on the use of electronic health records and little good-quality evidence on the use of email, social media, cell phones and text messaging to improve healthcare, illustrating the need for further study in these areas.

  12. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  13. HIV Disclosure Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Theoretical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Evangeli, Michael; Wroe, Abigail L

    2017-01-01

    HIV disclosure can help people living with HIV to access social support, enhance antiretroviral adherence, facilitate engagement in care and reduce unprotected sex. Given interpersonal risks associated with HIV disclosure, however, anxiety about sharing one's status is common. To investigate anxiety about HIV disclosure in HIV-positive populations, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies, with 119 studies included. The review demonstrated that perceived interpersonal risks are associated with HIV disclosure and outlined evidence of associations with anxiety, fear and worry. We present a new cognitive model of HIV disclosure anxiety adapted from clinical theories of health and social anxiety, consistent with evidence from the review. The model attempts to explain the development and maintenance of anxiety in individuals whose functioning is most affected by concerns about sharing their status. Implications for helping people living with HIV struggling with significant levels of anxiety about HIV disclosure are discussed.

  14. Nutrition Informatics Applications in Clinical Practice: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    North, Jennifer C; Jordan, Kristine C; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended.

  15. Exercise as Treatment for Anxiety: Systematic Review and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stonerock, Gregory L.; Hoffman, Benson M.; Smith, Patrick J.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety, but few studies have studied exercise in individuals pre-selected because of their high anxiety. Purpose To review and critically evaluate studies of exercise training in adults with either high levels of anxiety or an anxiety disorder. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which anxious adults were randomized to an exercise or non-exercise control condition. Data were extracted concerning anxiety outcomes and study design. Existing meta-analyses were also reviewed. Results Evidence from 12 RCTs suggested benefits of exercise, for select groups, similar to established treatments and greater than placebo. However, most studies had significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, concurrent therapies, and inadequate assessment of adherence and fitness levels. Conclusions Exercise may be a useful treatment for anxiety, but lack of data from rigorous, methodologically sound RCTs precludes any definitive conclusions about its effectiveness. PMID:25697132

  16. Nutrition Informatics Applications in Clinical Practice: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    North, Jennifer C.; Jordan, Kristine C.; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended. PMID:26958233

  17. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.

  18. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  20. How objective are systematic reviews? Differences between reviews on complementary medicine

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Klaus; Willich, Stefan N

    2003-01-01

    Systematic reviews are considered the most reliable tool to summarize existing evidence. To determine whether reviews that address the same questions can produce different answers we examined systematic reviews of herbal medicine, homeopathy, and acupuncture taken from a previously established database. Information on literature searching, inclusion criteria, selection process, quality assessment, data extraction, methods to summarize primary studies, number of included studies, results and conclusions was compared qualitatively. Seventeen topics (eight on acupuncture, six on herbal medicines, three on homeopathy) had been addressed by 2-5 systematic reviews each. The number of primary studies in the reviews varied greatly within most topics. The most obvious reason for discrepancies between the samples was different inclusion criteria (in thirteen topics). Methods of literature searching may have contributed with some topics but the equivalence of the searches was difficult to assess. Differences were frequently observed in other methodological aspects, in results and in conclusions. This analysis shows that, at least in the three areas examined, systematic reviews often differ considerably. Readers should be aware that apparently minor decisions in the review process can have major impact. PMID:12519797

  1. Strategies for Increasing Recruitment to Randomised Controlled Trials: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Patrina H. Y.; Hamilton, Sana; Tan, Alvin; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recruitment of participants into randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is critical for successful trial conduct. Although there have been two previous systematic reviews on related topics, the results (which identified specific interventions) were inconclusive and not generalizable. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of recruitment strategies for participation in RCTs. Methods and Findings A systematic review, using the PRISMA guideline for reporting of systematic reviews, that compared methods of recruiting individual study participants into an actual or mock RCT were included. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies. From over 16,000 titles or abstracts reviewed, 396 papers were retrieved and 37 studies were included, in which 18,812 of at least 59,354 people approached agreed to participate in a clinical RCT. Recruitment strategies were broadly divided into four groups: novel trial designs (eight studies), recruiter differences (eight studies), incentives (two studies), and provision of trial information (19 studies). Strategies that increased people's awareness of the health problem being studied (e.g., an interactive computer program [relative risk (RR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.18], attendance at an education session [RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28], addition of a health questionnaire [RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14–1.66]), or a video about the health condition (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.74), and also monetary incentives (RR1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.64 to RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.84) improved recruitment. Increasing patients' understanding of the trial process, recruiter differences, and various methods of randomisation and consent design did not show a difference in recruitment. Consent rates were also higher for nonblinded trial design, but differential loss to follow up between groups may jeopardise the study findings. The study's main limitation was the necessity of

  2. Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. Methods and Findings Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 – February 2006). Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims

  3. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding.

  4. Consumers in mental health service leadership: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Happell, Brenda

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for greater involvement of mental health service consumers in all aspects and at all levels of service planning, delivery, and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the decision-making function of mental health organizations varies. This systematic review synt