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Sample records for imaging targeting myeloperoxidase

  1. Myeloperoxidase Nuclear Imaging for Epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinian; Seeburg, Daniel P; Pulli, Benjamin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Bure, Lionel; Atkinson, Wendy; Schob, Stefan; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Ali, Muhammad; Zhang, Wei; Rodriguez, Elisenda; Milewski, Andrew; Keliher, Edmund J; Wang, Cuihua; Pan, Yawen; Swirski, Filip K; Chen, John W

    2016-03-01

    To determine if myeloperoxidase (MPO) is involved in epileptogenesis and if molecular nuclear imaging can be used to noninvasively map inflammatory changes in epileptogenesis. The animal and human studies were approved by the institutional review boards. Pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (n = 46), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor, or saline (n = 42). Indium-111-bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate was used to image brain MPO activity (n = 6 in the 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide and saline groups; n = 5 in the sham group) by using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. The role of MPO in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures was assessed by means of clinical symptoms and biochemical and histopathologic data. Human brain specimens from a patient with epilepsy and a patient without epilepsy were stained for MPO. The Student t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Differences were regarded as significant if P was less than .05. MPO and leukocytes increased in the brain during epileptogenesis (P < .05). Blocking MPO delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures (99.6 vs 142 hours, P = .016), ameliorated the severity of spontaneous recurrent seizures (P < .05), and inhibited mossy fiber sprouting (Timm index, 0.31 vs 0.03; P = .003). Matrix metalloproteinase activity was upregulated during epileptogenesis in an MPO-dependent manner (1.44 vs 0.94 U/mg, P = .049), suggesting that MPO acts upstream of matrix metalloproteinases. MPO activity was mapped during epileptogenesis in vivo in the hippocampal regions. Resected temporal lobe tissue from a human patient with refractory epilepsy but not the temporal lobe tissue from a patient without seizures demonstrated positive MPO immunostaining, suggesting high translational potential for this imaging technology. The findings of this study highlight an important role for MPO in

  2. Bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Shimon; Gammon, Seth T; Moss, Britney L; Rauch, Daniel; Harding, John; Heinecke, Jay W; Ratner, Lee; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2010-01-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) system of activated phagocytes is central to normal host defense mechanisms, and dysregulated MPO contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease states ranging from atherosclerosis to cancer. Here we show that upon systemic administration, the small molecule luminol enables noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of MPO activity in vivo. Luminol-BLI allowed quantitative longitudinal monitoring of MPO activity in animal models of acute dermatitis, mixed allergic contact hypersensitivity, focal arthritis and spontaneous large granular lymphocytic tumors. Bioluminescence colocalized with histological sites of inflammation and was totally abolished in gene-deleted Mpo−/− mice, despite massive tissue infiltration of neutrophils and activated eosinophils, indicating that eosinophil peroxidase did not contribute to luminol-BLI in vivo. Thus, luminol-BLI provides a noninvasive, specific and highly sensitive optical readout of phagocyte-mediated MPO activity in vivo and may enable new diagnostic applications in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:19305414

  3. Bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gross, Shimon; Gammon, Seth T; Moss, Britney L; Rauch, Daniel; Harding, John; Heinecke, Jay W; Ratner, Lee; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2009-04-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) system of activated phagocytes is central to normal host defense mechanisms, and dysregulated MPO contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease states ranging from atherosclerosis to cancer. Here we show that upon systemic administration, the small molecule luminol enables noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of MPO activity in vivo. Luminol-BLI allowed quantitative longitudinal monitoring of MPO activity in animal models of acute dermatitis, mixed allergic contact hypersensitivity, focal arthritis and spontaneous large granular lymphocytic tumors. Bioluminescence colocalized with histological sites of inflammation and was totally abolished in gene-deleted Mpo(-/-) mice, despite massive tissue infiltration of neutrophils and activated eosinophils, indicating that eosinophil peroxidase did not contribute to luminol-BLI in vivo. Thus, luminol-BLI provides a noninvasive, specific and highly sensitive optical readout of phagocyte-mediated MPO activity in vivo and may enable new diagnostic applications in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

  4. Myeloperoxidase: a target for new drug development?

    PubMed

    Malle, E; Furtmüller, P G; Sattler, W; Obinger, C

    2007-11-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a member of the haem peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, is abundantly expressed in neutrophils and to a lesser extent in monocytes and certain type of macrophages. MPO participates in innate immune defence mechanism through formation of microbicidal reactive oxidants and diffusible radical species. A unique activity of MPO is its ability to use chloride as a cosubstrate with hydrogen peroxide to generate chlorinating oxidants such as hypochlorous acid, a potent antimicrobial agent. However, evidence has emerged that MPO-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage and the initiation and propagation of acute and chronic vascular inflammatory disease. The fact that circulating levels of MPO have been shown to predict risks for major adverse cardiac events and that levels of MPO-derived chlorinated compounds are specific biomarkers for disease progression, has attracted considerable interest in the development of therapeutically useful MPO inhibitors. Today, detailed information on the structure of ferric MPO and its complexes with low- and high-spin ligands is available. This, together with a thorough understanding of reaction mechanisms including redox properties of intermediates, enables a rationale attempt in developing specific MPO inhibitors that still maintain MPO activity during host defence and bacterial killing but interfere with pathophysiologically persistent activation of MPO. The various approaches to inhibit enzyme activity of MPO and to ameliorate adverse effects of MPO-derived oxidants will be discussed. Emphasis will be put on mechanism-based inhibitors and high-throughput screening of compounds as well as the discussion of physiologically useful HOCl scavengers.

  5. Myeloperoxidase: a target for new drug development?

    PubMed Central

    Malle, E; Furtmüller, P G; Sattler, W; Obinger, C

    2007-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a member of the haem peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, is abundantly expressed in neutrophils and to a lesser extent in monocytes and certain type of macrophages. MPO participates in innate immune defence mechanism through formation of microbicidal reactive oxidants and diffusible radical species. A unique activity of MPO is its ability to use chloride as a cosubstrate with hydrogen peroxide to generate chlorinating oxidants such as hypochlorous acid, a potent antimicrobial agent. However, evidence has emerged that MPO-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage and the initiation and propagation of acute and chronic vascular inflammatory disease. The fact that circulating levels of MPO have been shown to predict risks for major adverse cardiac events and that levels of MPO-derived chlorinated compounds are specific biomarkers for disease progression, has attracted considerable interest in the development of therapeutically useful MPO inhibitors. Today, detailed information on the structure of ferric MPO and its complexes with low- and high-spin ligands is available. This, together with a thorough understanding of reaction mechanisms including redox properties of intermediates, enables a rationale attempt in developing specific MPO inhibitors that still maintain MPO activity during host defence and bacterial killing but interfere with pathophysiologically persistent activation of MPO. The various approaches to inhibit enzyme activity of MPO and to ameliorate adverse effects of MPO-derived oxidants will be discussed. Emphasis will be put on mechanism-based inhibitors and high-throughput screening of compounds as well as the discussion of physiologically useful HOCl scavengers. PMID:17592500

  6. Myeloperoxidase targets oxidative host attacks to Salmonella and prevents collateral tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Nura; Forrer, Pascal; Casse, Olivier; Li, Jiagui; Felmy, Boas; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Ehrenfeuchter, Nikolaus; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Recher, Mike; Hess, Christoph; Tschan-Plessl, Astrid; Khanna, Nina; Bumann, Dirk

    2017-01-23

    Host control of infections crucially depends on the capability to kill pathogens with reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, these toxic molecules can also readily damage host components and cause severe immunopathology. Here, we show that neutrophils use their most abundant granule protein, myeloperoxidase, to target ROS specifically to pathogens while minimizing collateral tissue damage. A computational model predicted that myeloperoxidase efficiently scavenges diffusible H2O2 at the surface of phagosomal Salmonella and converts it into highly reactive HOCl (bleach), which rapidly damages biomolecules within a radius of less than 0.1 μm. Myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils were predicted to accumulate large quantities of H2O2 that still effectively kill Salmonella, but most H2O2 would leak from the phagosome. Salmonella stimulation of neutrophils from normal and myeloperoxidase-deficient human donors experimentally confirmed an inverse relationship between myeloperoxidase activity and extracellular H2O2 release. Myeloperoxidase-deficient mice infected with Salmonella had elevated hydrogen peroxide tissue levels and exacerbated oxidative damage of host lipids and DNA, despite almost normal Salmonella control. These data show that myeloperoxidase has a major function in mitigating collateral tissue damage during antimicrobial oxidative bursts, by converting diffusible long-lived H2O2 into highly reactive, microbicidal and locally confined HOCl at pathogen surfaces.

  7. Myeloperoxidase Enhances Etoposide and Mitoxantrone-Mediated DNA Damage: A Target for Myeloprotection in Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, Mandeep; Lishman, Emma L.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is expressed exclusively in granulocytes and immature myeloid cells and transforms the topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons etoposide and mitoxantrone to chemical forms that have altered DNA damaging properties. TOP2 poisons are valuable and widely used anticancer drugs, but they are associated with the occurrence of secondary acute myeloid leukemias. These factors have led to the hypothesis that myeloperoxidase inhibition could protect hematopoietic cells from TOP2 poison-mediated genotoxic damage and, therefore, reduce the rate of therapy-related leukemia. We show here that myeloperoxidase activity leads to elevated accumulation of etoposide- and mitoxantrone-induced TOP2A and TOP2B-DNA covalent complexes in cells, which are converted to DNA double-strand breaks. For both drugs, the effect of myeloperoxidase activity was greater for TOP2B than for TOP2A. This is a significant finding because TOP2B has been linked to genetic damage associated with leukemic transformation, including etoposide-induced chromosomal breaks at the MLL and RUNX1 loci. Glutathione depletion, mimicking in vivo conditions experienced during chemotherapy treatment, elicited further MPO-dependent increase in TOP2A and especially TOP2B-DNA complexes and DNA double-strand break formation. Together these results support targeting myeloperoxidase activity to reduce genetic damage leading to therapy-related leukemia, a possibility that is enhanced by the recent development of novel specific myeloperoxidase inhibitors for use in inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil infiltration. PMID:27974636

  8. Myeloperoxidase propagates damage and is a potential therapeutic target for subacute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Reza; Kim, Hyeon Ju; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Bure, Lionel; Wu, Yue; Hayase, Makoto; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W

    2015-01-01

    Few effective treatment options exist for stroke beyond the hyperacute period. Radical generation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been implicated in stroke. We investigated whether pharmacologic reduction or gene deletion of this highly oxidative enzyme reduces infarct propagation and improves outcome in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model (MCAO). Mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor. Three treatment regimens were used: (1) daily throughout the 21-day observational period, (2) during the acute stage (first 24 hours), or (3) during the subacute stage (daily starting on day 2). We found elevated MPO activity in ipsilateral brain 3 to 21 days after ischemia. 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced enzyme activity by 30% to 40% and final lesion volume by 60% (P<0.01). The MPO-knockout (KO) mice subjected to MCAO also showed a similar reduction in the final lesion volume (P<0.01). The ABAH treatment or MPO-KO mice also improved neurobehavioral outcome (P<0.001) and survival (P=0.01), but ABAH had no additional beneficial effects in MPO-KO mice, confirming specificity of ABAH. Interestingly, inhibiting MPO activity during the subacute stage recapitulated most of the therapeutic benefit of continuous MPO inhibition, suggesting that MPO-targeted therapies could be useful when given after 24 hours of stroke onset. PMID:25515211

  9. Myeloperoxidase propagates damage and is a potential therapeutic target for subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Reza; Kim, Hyeon Ju; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Bure, Lionel; Wu, Yue; Hayase, Makoto; Wei, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W

    2015-03-01

    Few effective treatment options exist for stroke beyond the hyperacute period. Radical generation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been implicated in stroke. We investigated whether pharmacologic reduction or gene deletion of this highly oxidative enzyme reduces infarct propagation and improves outcome in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model (MCAO). Mice were treated with 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH), a specific irreversible MPO inhibitor. Three treatment regimens were used: (1) daily throughout the 21-day observational period, (2) during the acute stage (first 24 hours), or (3) during the subacute stage (daily starting on day 2). We found elevated MPO activity in ipsilateral brain 3 to 21 days after ischemia. 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced enzyme activity by 30% to 40% and final lesion volume by 60% (P<0.01). The MPO-knockout (KO) mice subjected to MCAO also showed a similar reduction in the final lesion volume (P<0.01). The ABAH treatment or MPO-KO mice also improved neurobehavioral outcome (P<0.001) and survival (P=0.01), but ABAH had no additional beneficial effects in MPO-KO mice, confirming specificity of ABAH. Interestingly, inhibiting MPO activity during the subacute stage recapitulated most of the therapeutic benefit of continuous MPO inhibition, suggesting that MPO-targeted therapies could be useful when given after 24 hours of stroke onset.

  10. Cytoplasmic-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies targeting myeloperoxidase in Wegener's granulomatosis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Bhavana M; Joshi, Sangeeta; Adhikary, Ranjeeta

    2014-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) patients can rarely have antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO), producing a cytoplasmic pattern on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). This has important implications in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease. We present to you a report of three cases of WG, demonstrating a cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern on indirect IIF, but directed against MPO. It is necessary to diagnose a patient taking into account both the autoimmune test results and the clinical features.

  11. Targeted subendothelial matrix oxidation by myeloperoxidase triggers myosin II-dependent de-adhesion and alters signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rees, Martin D; Dang, Lei; Thai, Thuan; Owen, Dylan M; Malle, Ernst; Thomas, Shane R

    2012-12-15

    During inflammation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) released by circulating leukocytes accumulates within the subendothelial matrix by binding to and transcytosing the vascular endothelium. Oxidative reactions catalyzed by subendothelial-localized MPO are implicated as a cause of endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease. While the subendothelial matrix is a key target for MPO-derived oxidants during disease, the implications of this damage for endothelial morphology and signaling are largely unknown. We found that endothelial-transcytosed MPO produced hypochlorous acid (HOCl) that reacted locally with the subendothelial matrix and induced covalent cross-linking of the adhesive matrix protein fibronectin. Real-time biosensor and live cell imaging studies revealed that HOCl-mediated matrix oxidation triggered rapid membrane retraction from the substratum and adjacent cells (de-adhesion). De-adhesion was linked with the alteration of Tyr-118 phosphorylation of paxillin, a key adhesion-dependent signaling process, as well as Rho kinase-dependent myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. De-adhesion dynamics were dependent on the contractile state of cells, with myosin II inhibition with blebbistatin attenuating the rate of membrane retraction. Rho kinase inhibition with Y-27632 also conferred protection, but not during the initial phase of membrane retraction, which was driven by pre-existing actomyosin tensile stress. Notably, diversion of MPO from HOCl production by thiocyanate or nitrite attenuated de-adhesion and associated signaling responses, despite the latter substrate supporting MPO-catalyzed fibronectin nitration. These data show that subendothelial-localized MPO employs a novel "outside-in" mode of redox signaling, involving HOCl-mediated matrix oxidation. These MPO-catalyzed oxidative events are likely to play a previously unrecognized role in altering endothelial integrity and signaling during inflammatory vascular disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Binding of human myeloperoxidase to red blood cells: Molecular targets and biophysical consequences at the plasma membrane level.

    PubMed

    Gorudko, Irina V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Mironova, Elena V; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Gusev, Sergey A; Gusev, Alexander A; Chekanov, Andrey V; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-producing enzyme that can also bind to cellular surface proteins. We found that band 3 protein and glycophorins A and B were the key MPO-binding targets of human red blood cells (RBCs). The interaction of MPO with RBC proteins was mostly electrostatic in nature because it was inhibited by desialation, exogenic sialic acid, high ionic strength, and extreme pH. In addition, MPO failed to interfere with the lectin-induced agglutination of RBCs, suggesting a minor role of glycan-recognizing mechanisms in MPO binding. Multiple biophysical properties of RBCs were altered in the presence of native (i.e., not hypochlorous acid-damaged) MPO. These changes included transmembrane potential, availability of intracellular Ca(2+), and lipid organization in the plasma membrane. MPO-treated erythrocytes became larger in size, structurally more rigid, and hypersensitive to acidic and osmotic hemolysis. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the plasma MPO concentration and RBC rigidity index in type-2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease. These findings suggest that MPO functions as a mediator of novel regulatory mechanism in microcirculation, indicating the influence of MPO-induced abnormalities on RBC deformability under pathological stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo examination of 111In-bis-5HT-DTPA to target myeloperoxidase in atherosclerotic ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Che; Ho, Hsin-I; Lee, Te-Wei; Wu, Hua-Lin; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility of imaging specific activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a leukocyte-derived enzyme with important role in atherosclerosis, by SPECT/CT using a novel radiotracer, (111)In-bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate ((111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA). Bis-5HT-DTPA was synthesized. Oligomerization of bis-5HT-DTPA in the presence of MPO/H(2)O(2) was studied and confirmed using MALDI-TOF. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice was used as an atherosclerosis-prone rodent model. Biodistribution assay and micro SPECT/CT imaging were carried out to prove the atherosclerosis targeting of (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA in the ApoE KO mice. MALDI-TOF spectrum showed that the 5HT base agent can self oligomerize after activating by MPO. From the biodistribution study, (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA was quantified to be retained markedly higher while eliminated much slower in the aortas of the ApoE KO mice than that of the wild type (WT) mice within 1 h post-injection. The nuclear imaging showed significantly higher uptake in the aorta of the ApoE KO mice than that of the WT mice at least within 2 h post-injection. This study described the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of (111)In-bis-5HT-DTPA in ApoE KO mice and validated its utilization for early detection of atherosclerotic marker, MPO, in the aortic wall of atherosclerosis-prone rodent model.

  14. Myeloperoxidase and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2005-06-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a number of reactive oxidant species. In addition to being an integral component of the innate immune response, evidence has emerged that MPO-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage during inflammation. MPO-catalyzed reactions have been attributed to potentially proatherogenic biological activities throughout the evolution of cardiovascular disease, including during initiation, propagation, and acute complication phases of the atherosclerotic process. As a result, MPO and its downstream inflammatory pathways represent attractive targets for both prognostication and therapeutic intervention in the prophylaxis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  15. Smart imaging of acute lung injury: exploration of myeloperoxidase activity using in vivo endoscopic confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chagnon, Frédéric; Bourgouin, Alexandra; Lebel, Réjean; Bonin, Marc-André; Marsault, Eric; Lepage, Martin; Lesur, Olivier

    2015-09-15

    The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) is well characterized, but its real-time assessment at bedside remains a challenge. When patients do not improve after 1 wk despite supportive therapies, physicians have to consider open lung biopsy (OLB) to identify the process(es) at play. Sustained inflammation and inadequate repair are often observed in this context. OLB is neither easy to perform in a critical setting nor exempt from complications. Herein, we explore intravital endoscopic confocal fluorescence microscopy (ECFM) of the lung in vivo combined with the use of fluorescent smart probe(s) activated by myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO is a granular enzyme expressed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs), catalyzing the synthesis of hypoclorous acid, a by-product of hydrogen peroxide. Activation of these probes was first validated in vitro in relevant cells (i.e., AMs and PMNs) and on MPO-non-expressing cells (as negative controls) and then tested in vivo using three rat models of ALI and real-time intravital imaging with ECFM. Semiquantitative image analyses revealed that in vivo probe-related cellular/background fluorescence was associated with corresponding enhanced lung enzymatic activity and was partly prevented by specific MPO inhibition. Additional ex vivo phenotyping was performed, confirming that fluorescent cells were neutrophil elastase(+) (PMNs) or CD68(+) (AMs). This work is a first step toward "virtual biopsy" of ALI without OLB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Targeted treatments: which imaging?].

    PubMed

    Lassau, Nathalie; Chebil, Mohamed; Benatsou, Baya; Chami, Linda; Roche, Alain

    2008-10-01

    Currently, the evaluation of targeted treatments by functional imaging in oncology is a main goal. Several techniques as Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI, CT-perfusion or Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-US are proposed. The blood flow perfusing the tumor, the blood volume corresponding to the percentage of vessels of total tumor or the diffusion of contrast agent are parameters calculated from the acquisition of time intensity curves during several minutes (TIC). Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time could be calculated by DCE-US, DCE-MRI and CT-perfusion. But the capillary permeability and the interstitial volume could be evaluated only with DCE-MRI and CT-perfusion because US contrast agent is strictly intravascular. These functional imaging techniques allow predicting earlier the clinical response to targeted treatments before the modification of tumoral volume evaluated according to RECIST criteria.

  17. Targeted Endoscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Wang, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Summary Endoscopy has undergone explosive technological growth in over recent years, and with the emergence of targeted imaging, its truly transformative power and impact in medicine lies just over the horizon. Today, our ability to see inside the digestive tract with medical endoscopy is headed toward exciting crossroads. The existing paradigm of making diagnostic decisions based on observing structural changes and identifying anatomical landmarks may soon be replaced by visualizing functional properties and imaging molecular expression. In this novel approach, the presence of intracellular and cell surface targets unique to disease are identified and used to predict the likelihood of mucosal transformation and response to therapy. This strategy can result in the development of new methods for early cancer detection, personalized therapy, and chemoprevention. This targeted approach will require further development of molecular probes and endoscopic instruments, and will need support from the FDA for streamlined regulatory oversight. Overall, this molecular imaging modality promises to significantly broaden the capabilities of the gastroenterologist by providing a new approach to visualize the mucosa of the digestive tract in a manner that has never been seen before. PMID:19423025

  18. Myeloperoxidase: Bridging the gap in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ray, R S; Katyal, Anju

    2016-09-01

    Neurodegenerative conditions present a group of complex disease pathologies mostly due to unknown aetiology resulting in neuronal death and permanent neurological disability. Any undesirable stress to the brain, disrupts homeostatic balance, through a remarkable convergence of pathophysiological changes and immune dysregulation. The crosstalk between inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms results in the release of neurotoxic mediators apparently spearheaded by myeloperoxidase derived from activated microglia, astrocytes, neurons as well as peripheral inflammatory cells. These isolated entities combinedly have the potential to flare up and contribute significantly to neuropathology and disease progression. Recent, clinicopathological evidence support the association of myeloperoxidase and its cytotoxic product, hypochlorous acid in a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Multiple sclerosis, Stroke, Epilepsy etc. But the biochemical and mechanistic insights into myeloperoxidase mediated neuroinflammation and neuronal death is still an uncharted territory. The current review outlines the emerging recognition of myeloperoxidase in neurodegeneration, which may offer novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  20. Targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-09-30

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Target identification using laser imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.; Baker, M.; Barrett, J.; Ellis, B.N.; Kacerek, J.; Yee, J.

    1994-12-31

    Solid state lasers have been utilized for many varied applications. This application describes how the high peak power, short pulse capability of an alexandrite laser, in combination with a generation 3 image intensified receiver can solve the problem of very long range target identification. Applications have relevance to both commercial and military uses where day/night all weather imaging is required. Wavelength diversity provides single and multispectral system capability, therefore allowing discrimination of targets against varied backgrounds.

  2. Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E; Baker, K; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Olivier, S; Brase, J; Olivier, S; Brase, J

    2003-10-03

    Laboratory and field demonstration results obtained as part of the DARPA-sponsored Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting (CCIT) program are reviewed. The CCIT concept uses a Phase Conjugation Engine based on a quadrature receiver array, a hologram processor and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for high-speed, digital beam control. Progress on the enabling MEMS SLM, being developed by a consortium consisting of LLNL, academic institutions and small businesses, is presented.

  3. Genetic variants influencing elevated myeloperoxidase levels increase risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Dave, Tushar; Malik, Rainer; Raffeld, Miriam R; Ayres, Alison M; Goldstein, Joshua N; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M; Hansen, Björn M; Norrving, Bo; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Roquer, Jaume; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Biffi, Alessandro; Rost, Natalia; Langefeld, Carl D; Markus, Hugh S; Mitchell, Braxton D; Worrall, Brad B; Kittner, Steven J; Woo, Daniel; Dichgans, Martin; Rosand, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher D

    2017-10-01

    intracerebral haemorrhage risk (odds ratio, 1.07, P = 0.04) and recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage risk (hazards ratio, 1.45, P = 0.006). In analysis of ischaemic stroke subtypes, the myeloperoxidase increasing genetic risk score was strongly associated with lacunar subtype only (odds ratio, 1.05, P = 0.0012). These results, demonstrating that common genetic variants that increase myeloperoxidase levels increase risk of primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar stroke, directly implicate the myeloperoxidase pathway in the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. Because genetic variants are not influenced by environmental exposures, these results provide new support for a causal rather than bystander role for myeloperoxidase in the progression of cerebrovascular disease. Furthermore, these results support a rationale for chronic inflammation as a potential modifiable stroke risk mechanism, and suggest that immune-targeted therapies could be useful for treatment and prevention of cerebrovascular disease. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Seismoelectric imaging of shallow targets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, S.S.; Pride, S.R.; Klemperer, S.L.; Biondi, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken a series of controlled field experiments to develop seismoelectric experimental methods for near-surface applications and to improve our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena. In a set of off-line geometry surveys (source separated from the receiver line), we place seismic sources and electrode array receivers on opposite sides of a man-made target (two sand-filled trenches) to record separately two previously documented seismoelectric modes: (1) the electromagnetic interface response signal created at the target and (2) the coseismic electric fields located within a compressional seismic wave. With the seismic source point in the center of a linear electrode array, we identify the previously undocumented seismoelectric direct field, and the Lorentz field of the metal hammer plate moving in the earth's magnetic field. We place the seismic source in the center of a circular array of electrodes (radial and circumferential orientations) to analyze the source-related direct and Lorentz fields and to establish that these fields can be understood in terms of simple analytical models. Using an off-line geometry, we create a multifold, 2D image of our trenches as dipping layers, and we also produce a complementary synthetic image through numerical modeling. These images demonstrate that off-line geometry (e.g., crosswell) surveys offer a particularly promising application of the seismoelectric method because they effectively separate the interface response signal from the (generally much stronger) coseismic and source-related fields. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. "Clickable" nanoparticles for targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eric Yi; Josephson, Lee; Weissleder, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Nanomaterials functionalized with targeting ligands are increasingly recognized as useful materials for molecular imaging and drug delivery. Here we describe the development and validation of azide-alkyne reactions ("click chemistry") for the rapid, site-specific modification of nanoparticles with small molecules. The facile preparation of stable nanoparticles bearing azido or alkyne groups capable of reaction with their corresponding counterpart functionalized small molecules is demonstrated. The Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides and alkynes is shown to be a highly efficient and selective method for point functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. Derivatized nanoparticles bearing biotin, fluorochrome, or steroid moieties are stable for several months. Nanoparticle click chemistry will be useful for other nanomaterials, design of novel sensors, and drug delivery vehicles.

  6. Myeloperoxidase, a catalyst for lipoprotein oxidation, is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, A; Dunn, J L; Rateri, D L; Heinecke, J W

    1994-01-01

    Oxidatively modified lipoproteins have been implicated in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms that promote oxidation in vivo have not been identified. Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein secreted by activated macrophages, generates reactive intermediates that oxidize lipoproteins in vitro. To explore the potential role of myeloperoxidase in the development of atherosclerosis, we determined whether the enzyme was present in surgically excised human vascular tissue. In detergent extracts of atherosclerotic arteries subjected to Western blotting, a rabbit polyclonal antibody monospecific for myeloperoxidase detected a 56-kD protein, the predicted molecular mass of the heavy subunit. Both the immunoreactive protein and authentic myeloperoxidase bound to a lectin-affinity column; after elution with methyl mannoside their apparent molecular masses were indistinguishable by nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography. Peroxidase activity in detergent extracts of atherosclerotic lesions likewise bound to a lectin column and eluted with methyl mannoside. Moreover, eluted peroxidase generated the cytotoxic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), indicating that enzymatically active myeloperoxidase was present in lesions. Patterns of immunostaining of arterial tissue with antihuman myeloperoxidase antibodies were similar to those produced by an antimacrophage antibody, and were especially prominent in the shoulder region of transitional lesions. Intense foci of myeloperoxidase immunostaining also appeared adjacent to cholesterol clefts in lipid-rich regions of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These findings identify myeloperoxidase as a component of human vascular lesions. Because this heme protein can generate reactive species that damage lipids and proteins, myeloperoxidase may contribute to atherogenesis by catalyzing oxidative reactions in the vascular wall. Images PMID:8040285

  7. Integrin Targeting for Tumor Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunpeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging has emerged as a powerful modality for studying molecular recognitions and molecular imaging in a noninvasive, sensitive, and real-time way. Some advantages of optical imaging include cost-effectiveness, convenience, and non-ionization safety as well as complementation with other imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in tumor optical imaging by targeting integrin receptors in preclinical studies. This review has emphasized the construction and evaluation of diverse integrin targeting agents for optical imaging of tumors in mouse models. They mainly include some near-infrared fluorescent dye-RGD peptide conjugates, their multivalent analogs, and nanoparticle conjugates for targeting integrin αvβ3. Some compounds targeting other integrin subtypes such as α4β1 and α3 for tumor optical imaging have also been included. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed some promising integrin-targeting optical agents which have further enhanced our understanding of integrin expression and targeting in cancer biology as well as related anticancer drug discovery. Especially, some integrin-targeted multifunctional optical agents including nanoparticle-based optical agents can multiplex optical imaging with other imaging modalities and targeted therapy, serving as an attractive type of theranostics for simultaneous imaging and targeted therapy. Continued efforts to discover and develop novel, innovative integrin-based optical agents with improved targeting specificity and imaging sensitivity hold great promises for improving cancer early detection, diagnosis, and targeted therapy in clinic. PMID:21546996

  8. Myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation targets serum apolipoprotein A-I in diabetic patients and represents a potential mechanism leading to impaired anti-apoptotic activity of high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Xie, Shiliang; Li, Jiayu; Tian, Rong; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2015-02-20

    It is demonstrated that levels of protein-bound chlorotyrosine, nitrotyrosine and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a protein that catalyzes generation of chlorinating and nitrating oxidants, serve as independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot were used to analyze protein concentration, nitration and chlorination. LC-MS/MS was used to identify nitrated and chlorinated sites of Tyr from immunoprecipitated serum proteins. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the primary protein constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), was identified as a selective target for MPO-catalyzed nitration and chlorination in patients with type 2 diabetes. The serum proteins from diabetic subjects showed that the levels of apoA-I nitration and chlorination were clearly increased, whereas apoA-I concentration and cholesterol efflux activity were significantly decreased. MPO as a likely mechanism for oxidative modification of apoA-I in vivo was apparently facilitated by MPO binding to apoA-I. Subsequently, it was found that Tyr 192 was the major nitration and chlorination site in apoA-I from diabetic serum. Further studies in vitro revealed that besides the classic inhibition in cholesterol efflux activities, MPO-catalyzed oxidation could result in a loss of anti-apoptotic activity of lipoprotein. ApoA-I undergoes MPO-mediated oxidation in serum from diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic subjects and MPO-catalyzed modification may impair the anti-apoptotic properties of HDL in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spacecraft Images Comet Target's Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Deep Impact spacecraft's High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers (HRI and MRI) have captured multiple jets turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers (5 million miles) away fro...

  10. Spacecraft Images Comet Target Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-04

    NASA Deep Impact spacecraft High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers HRI and MRI captured multiple jets emanating from comet Hartley 2 turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers 5 million miles away from the comet.

  11. Ceruloplasmin Is an Endogenous Inhibitor of Myeloperoxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Anna L. P.; Mocatta, Tessa J.; Shiva, Sruti; Seidel, Antonia; Chen, Brian; Khalilova, Irada; Paumann-Page, Martina E.; Jameson, Guy N. L.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a neutrophil enzyme that promotes oxidative stress in numerous inflammatory pathologies. It uses hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the production of strong oxidants including chlorine bleach and free radicals. A physiological defense against the inappropriate action of this enzyme has yet to be identified. We found that myeloperoxidase oxidized 75% of the ascorbate in plasma from ceruloplasmin knock-out mice, but there was no significant loss in plasma from wild type animals. When myeloperoxidase was added to human plasma it became bound to other proteins and was reversibly inhibited. Ceruloplasmin was the predominant protein associated with myeloperoxidase. When the purified proteins were mixed, they became strongly but reversibly associated. Ceruloplasmin was a potent inhibitor of purified myeloperoxidase, inhibiting production of hypochlorous acid by 50% at 25 nm. Ceruloplasmin rapidly reduced Compound I, the FeV redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase, to Compound II, which has FeIV in its heme prosthetic groups. It also prevented the fast reduction of Compound II by tyrosine. In the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, ceruloplasmin converted myeloperoxidase to Compound II and slowed its conversion back to the ferric enzyme. Collectively, our results indicate that ceruloplasmin inhibits myeloperoxidase by reducing Compound I and then trapping the enzyme as inactive Compound II. We propose that ceruloplasmin should provide a protective shield against inadvertent oxidant production by myeloperoxidase during inflammation. PMID:23306200

  12. Refocusing vibrating targets in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Santhanam, Balu; Pepin, Matthew; Atwood, Tom; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2012-06-01

    In synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) returned signals, ground-target vibrations introduce a phase modulation that is linearly proportional to the vibration displacement. Such modulation, termed the micro-Doppler effect, introduces ghost targets along the azimuth direction in reconstructed SAR images that prevents SAR from forming focused images of the vibrating targets. Recently, a discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) based method was developed to estimate the vibration frequencies and instantaneous vibration accelerations of the vibrating targets from SAR returned signals. In this paper, a demodulation-based algorithm is proposed to reconstruct focused SAR images of vibrating targets by exploiting the estimation results of the DFrFT-based vibration estimation method. For a single-component harmonic vibration, the history of the vibration displacement is first estimated from the estimated vibration frequency and the instantaneous vibration accelerations. Then a reference signal whose phase is modulated by the estimated vibration displacement with a delay of 180 degree is constructed. After that, the SAR phase history from the vibration target is multiplied by the reference signal and the vibration-induced phase modulation is canceled. Finally, the SAR image containing the re-focused vibration target is obtained by applying the 2-D Fourier transform to the demodulated SAR phase history. This algorithm is applied to simulated SAR data and successfully reconstructs the SAR image containing the re-focused vibrating target.

  13. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Methods in Wave Propagation, Vaxjo, Swe- den. • February 19, 2008, "Radar Imaging", math colloquium, Brigham- Young University. • January 31, 2008...manuscript, namely "Radar detection using sparsely distributed 19 apertures in urban environments", Ling Wang, II- Young Son, Trond Varslot, C. Evren...Coinmun. COM- 20, pp. 774-780, 1972. [24] M. Tomlinson, "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic," Electron. Lett. 7, pp. 138-139, 1971

  14. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-24

    fast ISAR imaging algorithm, related to my work with Brett Borden, based on a suggestion from Emmanuel Cand~s. 4 Chapter 2 Current Status of Effort...were Lee Potter (Ohio State) , Miijdat 4ýetin (MIT), bf Alan Willsky (MIT), Todd Hale (AFIT), Brian Rigling (Wright State U., a for- mer student of...met Todd Hale and Marshall Greenspan (Norden Systems, Northrup Grum- man); the latter turned out to be on the same departing flight out of Huntsville

  15. A Targeting Microbubble for Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, James Shue-Min; Sennoga, Charles A.; McConnell, Ellen; Eckersley, Robert; Tang, Meng-Xing; Nourshargh, Sussan; Seddon, John M.; Haskard, Dorian O.; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Microbubbles conjugated with targeting ligands are used as contrast agents for ultrasound molecular imaging. However, they often contain immunogenic (strept)avidin, which impedes application in humans. Although targeting bubbles not employing the biotin-(strept)avidin conjugation chemistry have been explored, only a few reached the stage of ultrasound imaging in vivo, none were reported/evaluated to show all three of the following properties desired for clinical applications: (i) low degree of non-specific bubble retention in more than one non-reticuloendothelial tissue; (ii) effective for real-time imaging; and (iii) effective for acoustic quantification of molecular targets to a high degree of quantification. Furthermore, disclosures of the compositions and methodologies enabling reproduction of the bubbles are often withheld. Objective To develop and evaluate a targeting microbubble based on maleimide-thiol conjugation chemistry for ultrasound molecular imaging. Methods and Results Microbubbles with a previously unreported generic (non-targeting components) composition were grafted with anti-E-selectin F(ab’)2 using maleimide-thiol conjugation, to produce E-selectin targeting microbubbles. The resulting targeting bubbles showed high specificity to E-selectin in vitro and in vivo. Non-specific bubble retention was minimal in at least three non-reticuloendothelial tissues with inflammation (mouse heart, kidneys, cremaster). The bubbles were effective for real-time ultrasound imaging of E-selectin expression in the inflamed mouse heart and kidneys, using a clinical ultrasound scanner. The acoustic signal intensity of the targeted bubbles retained in the heart correlated strongly with the level of E-selectin expression (|r|≥0.8), demonstrating a high degree of non-invasive molecular quantification. Conclusions Targeting microbubbles for ultrasound molecular imaging, based on maleimide-thiol conjugation chemistry and the generic composition described

  16. Advanced Research into Imaging of Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Radar imaging is an area of tremendous... radar waveforms transmitted. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 14. SUBJECT TERMS Radar Imaging , Moving Targets, Point-Spread Function 16. PRICE CODE 17...Chairman, Department of Physics iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Radar imaging is an area of tremendous interest as radar -based

  17. Space target image fusion method based on image clarity criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhisheng; Yang, Miao; Xie, Chunzhi

    2017-05-01

    Optical and infrared imaging is often used in ground-based optical space target observation. The fusion of the two types of images for a more detailed observation is the key problem to be solved. A space target multimodal image fusion scheme based on the joint sparsity model, which takes the correlations among the native sparse characteristics of the image, clarity features of the image, and multisource images into consideration, is proposed. First, using an overcomplete dictionary, the source images are represented as a combination of a shared sparse component and exclusive sparse components. Second, a method for image clarity feature extraction is proposed to design the fusion rules of exclusive sparse components to obtain the fused exclusive sparse components. Finally, the fused image is reconstructed with the fused sparse components and overcompleted dictionary. The proposed method was tested on the space target image and nature scene image data sets. Compared with traditional methods such as the multiscale transform-based methods, sparse representation-based methods, and joint sparsity representation-based methods, the final experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods on the human visual effect and the objective evaluation indexes. In particular, for the evaluation indexes Q and QE, the scores increase to nearly 10% more than those for traditional methods, which indicates that the fused image of our method has better edge clarity.

  18. THz polarization difference imaging of aqueous targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Ramirez, Lucia; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the basic design, implementation, and testing of a polarization difference imaging system for use on aqueous targets. The ultimate performance limitation of THz imaging in many active areas of research is clutter from surface geometry. While the signal to nose ratio (SNR) of standard THz imaging systems is quite large, the signal to clutter ratio (SCR) often faced in an imaging application is orders of magnitude lower and, in many cases, lower than the contrast to noise (CNR) resulting in imagery where the contrast mechanism of interest does not significantly contribute to the overall observed contrast. To overcome these limitations we develop a system that uses a circularly polarized source and linearly polarized detectors to acquire images of transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) reflectivities of the target over the same field of view. Geletin based tissue mimicking phantoms are fabricated with spatially varying water content and modified with a range of surface topologies and surface roughness. TE and TM images are combined to yield self-calibrated clutter-suppressed images. The resulting image indicates that the imaging field clutter affected both polarization channels nearly equally allowing the system to resolve differences in phantom water content. This design is a step toward windowless THz imaging capability critical for clinical translation where patient imaging is dominated by clutter.

  19. Folate-receptor-targeted radionuclide imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Mathias, Carla J; Green, Mark A

    2004-04-29

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including delivery of radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. This review surveys the growing literature on tumor imaging with radionuclide agents targeted to the folate receptor. Successful folate-receptor targeting has been reported, both in vitro and in vivo, using a variety of radionuclides that are suitable for clinical diagnostic imaging (67Ga, 111In, 99mTc, 66Ga, and 64Cu). While none of these agents has, to date, been demonstrated to have clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool, existing data indicates that it is feasible to noninvasively assess (at least qualitatively) tissue folate receptor levels by external radionuclide imaging.

  20. Automatic target tracking in FLIR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Abdullah; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2004-09-01

    Moving target tracking is a challenging task and is increasingly becoming important for various applications. In this paper, we have presented target detection and tracking algorithm based on target intensity feature relative to surrounding background, and shape information of target. Proposed automatic target tracking algorithm includes two techniques: intensity variation function (IVF) and template modeling (TM). The intensity variation function is formulated by using target intensity feature while template modeling is based on target shape information. The IVF technique produces the maximum peak value whereas the reference target intensity variation is similar to the candidate target intensity variation. When IVF technique fails, due to background clutter, non-target object or other artifacts, the second technique, template modeling, is triggered by control module. By evaluating the outputs from the IVF and TM techniques, the tracker determines the real coordinates of the target. Performance of the proposed ATT is tested using real life forward-looking infrared (FLIR) image sequences taken from an airborne, moving platform.

  1. Automatic recognition of targets from hyperspectra images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George A.; Li, Yifeng; Boulter, James F.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of the problem for recognition of targets from hyperspectra images. It is shown that conventional recognition techniques may be extended to hyperspectra images for the distribution process. It is also shown that the recognition process is directly proportional to the number of multispectra frames that represent each target. For the discrimination process we propose a parametric and a nonparametric process in which both are extensions to Fisher and Fukunaga-Mantock methods respectively. Examples that show the composition of hyperspectra features are presented.

  2. Heterobivalent Imaging Agents Targeting Prostate Cancer Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    has been implicated as a salient player in the pathobiology of cancers of epithelial origin, e.g. prostate, cervix , ovarian, colon and...ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0481 Heterobivalent Imaging Agents Targeting Prostate Cancer Training Aaron LeBeau University of California, San...Francisco San Francisco, CA 94103 Annual Summary 31 MAY 2010 - 1JUN 201101-06-2011 To determine the utility of imaging MT-SP1 in cancer , xenografts of

  3. Results of Topical Myeloperoxidase/Glucose Oxidase/Glucose in the Walker-Mason Burn Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    The system consists of an enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MEPO) and the requisite substrates which have been optimized for the production of bactericidal ...consists of an enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the requisite substrates which have been optimized for the production of bactericidal reactive oxygen...engineered to luminesce. The bacterial infection is monitored by non -invasive bioluminescent imaging as a means to assess the animals’ infection

  4. Rational drug design applied to myeloperoxidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Van Antwerpen, P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K

    2015-06-01

    Rational drug design is a general approach using protein-structure technique in which the discovery of a ligand can be driven either by chance, screening, or rational theory. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) was rapidly identified as a therapeutical target because of its involvement in chronic inflammatory syndromes. In this context, the research of MPO inhibitors was intensified and development of new chemical entities was rationally driven by the research of ligands that enter into the MPO catalytic pocket. Actually, as soon as crystallography data of MPO have become available and its structure was virtually designed, the rational drug design has been applied to this peroxidase. Pharmaceutical industries and academic laboratories apply rational drug design on MPO by either optimizing known inhibitors or searching new molecules by high-throughput virtual screening. By these ways, they were able to find efficient MPO inhibitors and understand their interactions with the enzyme. During this quest of MPO inhibition, it appears that Glu268 is a crucial residue in order to optimize ligand-target interaction. This amino acid should be carefully considered by medicinal chemist when they design inhibitors interfering with MPO activity.

  5. An improved imaging method for extended targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Songming; Zhang, Sui

    2017-03-01

    When we use direct imaging methods for solving inverse scattering problems, we observe artificial lines which make it hard to determine the shape of targets. We propose a signal space test to study the cause of the artificial lines and we use multiple frequency data to reduce the effect from them. Finally, we use the active contour without edges (ACWE) method to further improve the imaging results. The final reconstruction is accurate and robust. The computational cost is lower than iterative imaging methods which need to solve the forward problem in each iteration.

  6. Myeloperoxidase in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhana Rao, A; Anand, Usha; Anand, C V

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence implicate a role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a well accepted fact that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for CVD. MPO is a pro-oxidant enzyme which could be involved in the increased susceptibility of these patients to CVD. Hence, the levels of plasma MPO was determined in healthy controls as well as in patients with CKD [stratified with the level of their kidney failure as CKD stages II-V (end stage renal disease)]. Plasma MPO was assayed by a spectrophotometric method. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated on a clinical chemistry analyzer using standard laboratory procedures. The mean plasma MPO levels were significantly lower with advancing stages of renal failure (P < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between MPO and GFR (r = +0.89, P < 0.001) and a negative correlation with urea (r = -0.85, P < 0.001) and creatinine (r = -0.82, P < 0.001). While an inverse association was observed between plasma MPO and urea in CKD patients, such an association was not observed in control subjects (P = 0.43). In conclusion, the decline in plasma MPO levels may be due to the inhibitory effect of uraemic toxins on the enzyme.

  7. Molecular Imaging of Immunotherapy Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ehlerding, Emily B.; England, Christopher G.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising alternative in the arsenal against cancer by harnessing the power of the immune system to specifically target malignant tissues. As the field of immunotherapy continues to expand, researchers will require newer methods for studying the interactions between the immune system, tumor cells, and immunotherapy agents. Recently, several noninvasive imaging strategies have been used to map the biodistribution of immune checkpoint molecules, monitor the efficacy and potential toxicities of the treatments, and identify patients who are likely to benefit from immunotherapies. In this review, we outline the current applications of noninvasive techniques for the preclinical imaging of immunotherapy targets and suggest future pathways for molecular imaging to contribute to this developing field. PMID:27469363

  8. Image-based air target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glais, Thierry; Ayoun, Andre

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the main results obtained through a study on aircraft identification and attitude estimation conducted by Thomson TRT Defense for the French Ministry of Defense/Direction Generale de l'Armement/Direction des Constructions Aeronautiques. The purpose of this study was automatic assistance to aircraft identification. Indeed, modern fight airplanes are equipped with optronic systems capable of detecting and tracking enemy aircraft. In order to react quickly, the pilot must know at least the target type and possibly its identity. Recognition of the target type and attitude is obtained by matching the observed image with patterns belonging to a database. Two matching algorithms, which have been tested, are presented. The first one, based on the contour Fourier transform, needs the complete target silhouette extraction. The second one, belonging to the class of prediction and verification algorithms, compares the individual parts of the target to the database and is able to recognize the target, even when it is partially occluded or ill-segmented due to the lack of contrast between the target and its environment. An original feature of the algorithm stays in a validation process which increases the reliability of transmitted answers. In case of low confidence, no answer is provided. In addition, successive answers are consolidated. This strategy is interesting especially for image sequences where the tracked airplane achieves attitude evolution or even simply flies over various backgrounds. The main output of this study is the parametric analysis of various factors which influence performance such as contrast, background complexity, distance, attitude and type. The evaluation method, largely based on image synthesis (including image sequences), allows fine interpretation of statistical results. Misclassification errors occur when resolution is not sufficient or when complex backgrounds cause erroneous segmentation. Best results are obtained when the

  9. Stroma Targeting Nuclear Imaging and Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Jeong, Jae-Min; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Malignant transformation of tumor accompanies profound changes in the normal neighboring tissue, called tumor stroma. The tumor stroma provides an environment favoring local tumor growth, invasion, and metastatic spreading. Nuclear imaging (PET/SPECT) measures biochemical and physiologic functions in the human body. In oncology, PET/SPECT is particularly useful for differentiating tumors from postsurgical changes or radiation necrosis, distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, identifying the optimal site for biopsy, staging cancers, and monitoring the response to therapy. Indeed, PET/SPECT is a powerful, proven diagnostic imaging modality that displays information unobtainable through other anatomical imaging, such as CT or MRI. When combined with coregistered CT data, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET is particularly useful. However, [18F]FDG is not a target-specific PET tracer. This paper will review the tumor microenvironment targeting oncologic imaging such as angiogenesis, invasion, hypoxia, growth, and homing, and also therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals to provide a roadmap for additional applications of tumor imaging and therapy. PMID:22685650

  10. Molecular imaging with targeted contrast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Mark; Allroggen, Achim; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound uses targeted microbubbles that are retained in diseased tissue. The resonant properties of these microbubbles produce acoustic signals in an ultrasound field. The microbubbles are targeted to diseased tissue by using certain chemical constituents in the microbubble shell or by attaching disease-specific ligands such as antibodies to the microbubble. In this review, we discuss the applications of this technique to pathological states in the cerebrovascular system including atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, intravascular thrombus, and inflammation.

  11. Targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Caruthers, Shelton D; Winter, Patrick M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2006-01-01

    The era of personalized medicine is emerging as physicians attempt to diagnose disease in asymptomatic individuals and treat pathology early in its natural history. A novel tool in an emerging armamentarium, molecular imaging will allow noninvasive characterization and segmentation of patients for delivering custom-tailored therapy. Nanoparticulate agents, such as superparamagnetic agents, liposomes, perfluorocarbon nanoparticle emulsions, and dendrimers, are being intensively researched as formulation platforms for various targeted clinical applications. As exemplified by perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, these new agents, in combination with the rapid innovations in imaging hardware and software, will allow the emergence of new medical diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms.

  12. Dynamic targeting image-guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Calvin; Munro, Peter; Johnson, Scott; Miettinen, Mika; Zankowski, Corey; Ahlstrom, Greg; Glettig, Reto; Filliberti, Reto; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Kamber, Martin; Amstutz, Martin; Bouchet, Lionel; Klebanov, Dan; Mostafavi, Hassan; Stark, Richard

    2006-07-01

    Volumetric imaging and planning for 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have highlighted the need to the oncology community to better understand the geometric uncertainties inherent in the radiotherapy delivery process, including setup error (interfraction) as well as organ motion during treatment (intrafraction). This has ushered in the development of emerging technologies and clinical processes, collectively referred to as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The goal of IGRT is to provide the tools needed to manage both inter- and intrafraction motion to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery. Like IMRT, IGRT is a process involving all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, including patient immobilization, computed tomogaphy (CT) simulation, treatment planning, plan verification, patient setup verification and correction, delivery, and quality assurance. The technology and capability of the Dynamic Targeting{sup TM} IGRT system developed by Varian Medical Systems is presented. The core of this system is a Clinac (registered) or Trilogy{sup TM} accelerator equipped with a gantry-mounted imaging system known as the On-Board Imager{sup TM} (OBI). This includes a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray source, an amorphous silicon kV digital image detector, and 2 robotic arms that independently position the kV source and imager orthogonal to the treatment beam. A similar robotic arm positions the PortalVision{sup TM} megavoltage (MV) portal digital image detector, allowing both to be used in concert. The system is designed to support a variety of imaging modalities. The following applications and how they fit in the overall clinical process are described: kV and MV planar radiographic imaging for patient repositioning, kV volumetric cone beam CT imaging for patient repositioning, and kV planar fluoroscopic imaging for gating verification. Achieving image-guided motion management throughout the radiation oncology process

  13. Denoising HSI images for standoff target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Steven; Latifi, Shahram

    2014-06-01

    Hyperspectral image denoising methods aim to improve the spatial and spectral quality of the image to increase the effectiveness of target detection algorithms. Comparing denoising methods is difficult, because sometimes authors have compared their algorithms to simple methods such as Wiener filter and wavelet thresholding. We would like to compare only the most effective methods for standoff target detection using sampled training spectra. Our overall goal is to implement an HSI algorithm to detect possible weapons and shielding materials in a scene, using a lab collected library of materials spectra. Selection of a suitable method is based on PSNR, classification accuracy, and time complexity. Since our goal is target detection, classification accuracy is more emphasized; however, an algorithm that requires large processing time would not be effective for the purpose of real-time detection. Elapsed time between HSI data collection and its processing could allow changes or movement in the scene, decreasing the validity of results. Based on our study, the First Order Roughness Penalty algorithm provides computation time of less than 2 seconds, but only provides an overall accuracy of 88% for the Indian Pines dataset. The Spectral Spatial Adaptive Total Variation method increases overall accuracy to almost 97%, but requires a computation time of over 50 seconds. For standoff target detection, Spectral Spatial Adaptive Total Variation is preferable, because it increases the probability of classification. By increasing the percentage of weapons materials that are correctly identified, further actions such as inspection or interception can be determined with confidence.

  14. Target detection using image motion error measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayman, James L.; Libert, John M.; Tsao, Thomas R.

    1993-09-01

    The spatio-temporal constraint equation for computation of the optical flow holds only over local spatio-temporal regions where motion is translational with constant velocity or over non- moving background regions where the image velocity is zero. Where the expression is true, it is possible to estimate the image motion vector of local image regions by minimizing the squared error over the local region. The expression is not true in the moving boundaries of moving objects over a stationary background, over regions with multiple moving objects, or over objects not in purely translational motion. Under these conditions, the accurate computation of motion vectors is not possible using this method. However, the error squared term, itself, may be used as a moving target indicator able to segment moving targets from noise and background clutter. This paper proposes and assesses the feasibility of using the error measure to detect moving boundaries in high noise images. We assess the performance of this error-squared measure in localizing object motion in high noise environments for two filtering functions G(x,y): the Gaussian function and the Gabor function.

  15. Targeted Probes for Cardiovascular MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Ritika; Caravan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in studying molecular and cellular processes associated with heart disease. Targeted probes that recognize important biomarkers of atherosclerosis, apoptosis, necrosis, angiogenesis, thrombosis and inflammation have been developed. Discussion This review discusses properties of chemically different types of contrast agents including iron oxide nanoparticles, gadolinium based nanoparticles or micelles, discrete peptide conjugates and activatable probes. Numerous examples of contrast agents based on these approaches have been used in preclinical MR imaging of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical applications are still under investigation for some selected agents with highly promising initial results. Conclusion Molecular MR imaging shows great potential for the detection, characterization of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases and for monitoring response to therapy. PMID:20539821

  16. Target image search using fMRI signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shi; Song, Sutao; Zhan, Yu; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-03-01

    Recent neural signal decoding studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified the specific image presenting to the subject from a set of potential images, and some studies extend neural decoding into image reconstruction, i.e. image contents that the subject perceived were decoded from the fMRI signals recorded during the subject looking at images. In this paper, we decoded the target images using fMRI signals and described a target image searching method based on the relationship between target image stimuli and fMRI activity. We recorded fMRI data during a serial visual stimuli image presentation task, some of the stimuli images were target images and the rest images were non-target ones. Our fMRI data analysis results showed that in the serial visual presentation task, target images elicited a stereotypical response in the fMRI, which can be detected by multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Classifiers designed with support vector machine (SVM) used this response to decipher target images from non-target images. The leave-one-run-out cross-validation showed that we can pick out the target images with a possibility far above the chance level, which indicate that there's a neural signatures correlated with the target image recognition process in the human systems.

  17. Adaptive image denoising by targeted databases.

    PubMed

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2015-07-01

    We propose a data-dependent denoising procedure to restore noisy images. Different from existing denoising algorithms which search for patches from either the noisy image or a generic database, the new algorithm finds patches from a database that contains relevant patches. We formulate the denoising problem as an optimal filter design problem and make two contributions. First, we determine the basis function of the denoising filter by solving a group sparsity minimization problem. The optimization formulation generalizes existing denoising algorithms and offers systematic analysis of the performance. Improvement methods are proposed to enhance the patch search process. Second, we determine the spectral coefficients of the denoising filter by considering a localized Bayesian prior. The localized prior leverages the similarity of the targeted database, alleviates the intensive Bayesian computation, and links the new method to the classical linear minimum mean squared error estimation. We demonstrate applications of the proposed method in a variety of scenarios, including text images, multiview images, and face images. Experimental results show the superiority of the new algorithm over existing methods.

  18. Calibration Target as Seen by Mars Hand Lens Imager

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-07

    During pre-flight testing, the Mars Hand Lens Imager MAHLI camera on NASA Mars rover Curiosity took this image of the MAHLI calibration target from a distance of 3.94 inches 10 centimeters away from the target.

  19. Artifacts in Radar Imaging of Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    coherent summing of random scatterers contributes to bright points on the imagery, which is known as speckle noise [3]. Figure 2. Radar...illustrate two commonly described schemes. A strip-map or scan mode of SAR imaging continually sweeps along a track and produces a strip of imagery. Here... track . Hence, the resolution for a broadside target is given by ([5], p. 22) 2 2( / ) 2 Stripmap D CR D         (3) where  is the carrier

  20. Progesterone-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Determination of progesterone receptor (PR) status in hormone-dependent diseases is essential in ascertaining disease prognosis and monitoring treatment response. The development of a noninvasive means of monitoring these processes would have significant impact on early detection, cost, repeated measurements, and personalized treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely recognized as a technique that can produce longitudinal studies, and PR-targeted MR probes may address a clinical problem by providing contrast enhancement that reports on PR status without biopsy. Commercially available MR contrast agents are typically delivered via intravenous injection, whereas steroids are administered subcutaneously. Whether the route of delivery is important for tissue accumulation of steroid-modified MRI contrast agents to PR-rich tissues is not known. To address this question, modification of the chemistry linking progesterone with the gadolinium chelate led to MR probes with increased water solubility and lower cellular toxicity and enabled administration through the blood. This attribute came at a cost through lower affinity for PR and decreased ability to cross the cell membrane, and ultimately it did not improve delivery of the PR-targeted MR probe to PR-rich tissues or tumors in vivo. Overall, these studies are important, as they demonstrate that targeted contrast agents require optimization of delivery and receptor binding of the steroid and the gadolinium chelate for optimal translation in vivo. PMID:25019183

  1. Accelerated nonlinear multichannel ultrasonic tomographic imaging using target sparseness.

    PubMed

    Chengdong Dong; Yuanwei Jin; Enyue Lu

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an accelerated iterative Landweber method for nonlinear ultrasonic tomographic imaging in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration under a sparsity constraint on the image. The proposed method introduces the emerging MIMO signal processing techniques and target sparseness constraints in the traditional computational imaging field, thus significantly improves the speed of image reconstruction compared with the conventional imaging method while producing high quality images. Using numerical examples, we demonstrate that incorporating prior knowledge about the imaging field such as target sparseness accelerates significantly the convergence of the iterative imaging method, which provides considerable benefits to real-time tomographic imaging applications.

  2. A computational imaging target specific detectivity metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Nehmetallah, George

    2017-05-01

    Due to the large quantity of low-cost, high-speed computational processing available today, computational imaging (CI) systems are expected to have a major role for next generation multifunctional cameras. The purpose of this work is to quantify the performance of theses CI systems in a standardized manner. Due to the diversity of CI system designs that are available today or proposed in the near future, significant challenges in modeling and calculating a standardized detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the performance of these systems. In this paper, we developed a path forward for a standardized detectivity metric for CI systems. The detectivity metric is designed to evaluate the performance of a CI system searching for a specific known target or signal of interest, and is defined as the optimal linear matched filter SNR, similar to the Hotelling SNR, calculated in computational space with special considerations for standardization. Therefore, the detectivity metric is designed to be flexible, in order to handle various types of CI systems and specific targets, while keeping the complexity and assumptions of the systems to a minimum.

  3. Targeted polymeric magnetic nanoparticles for brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirthivasan, Bharat; Singh, Dhirender; Raut, Sangram; Bommana, Murali Mohan; Squillante, Emilio, III; Sadoqi, Mostafa

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop targeted polymeric magnetic nanoparticle system for brain imaging. Near infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) or p-gycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123) were encapsulated along with oleic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) in a matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactide) (Met-PEG-PLA). The nanoparticles were evaluated for morphology, particle size, dye content and magnetite content. The in vivo biodistribution study was carried out using three groups of six male Sprague Dawley rats each. Group I received a saline solution containing the dye, group II received dye-loaded polymeric magnetic nanoparticles without the aid of a magnetic field, and group III received dye-loaded polymeric magnetic nanoparticles with a magnet (8000 G) placed on the head of the rat. After a preset exposure period, the animals were sacrificed and dye concentration was measured in the brain, liver, kidney, lungs and spleen homogenates. Brain sections were fixed, cryotomed and visualized using fluorescence microscopy. The particles were observed to be spherical and had a mean size of 220 nm. The encapsulation efficiency for OAMNP was 57%, while that for ICG was 56% and for Rh123 was 45%. In the biodistribution study, while the majority of the dose for all animals was found in the liver, kidneys and spleen, group III showed a significantly higher brain concentration than the other two groups (p < 0.001). This result was corroborated by the fluorescence microscopy studies, which showed enhanced dye penetration into the brain tissue for group III. Further studies need to be done to elucidate the exact mechanism responsible for the increased brain uptake of dye to help us understand if the magnetic nanoparticles actually penetrate the blood brain barrier or merely deliver a massive load of dye just outside it, thereby triggering passive diffusion into the brain parenchyma. These results reinforce

  4. Vascular targeting of nanoparticles for molecular imaging of diseased endothelium.

    PubMed

    Atukorale, Prabhani U; Covarrubias, Gil; Bauer, Lisa; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2016-09-15

    This review seeks to highlight the enormous potential of targeted nanoparticles for molecular imaging applications. Being the closest point-of-contact, circulating nanoparticles can gain direct access to targetable molecular markers of disease that appear on the endothelium. Further, nanoparticles are ideally suitable to vascular targeting due to geometrically enhanced multivalent attachment on the vascular target. This natural synergy between nanoparticles, vascular targeting and molecular imaging can provide new avenues for diagnosis and prognosis of disease with quantitative precision. In addition to the obvious applications of targeting molecular signatures of vascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis), deep-tissue diseases often manifest themselves by continuously altering and remodeling their neighboring blood vessels (e.g., cancer). Thus, the remodeled endothelium provides a wide range of targets for nanoparticles and molecular imaging. To demonstrate the potential of molecular imaging, we present a variety of nanoparticles designed for molecular imaging of cancer or atherosclerosis using different imaging modalities.

  5. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase and its substrates: formation of specific markers and reactive compounds during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is an inflammatory enzyme that generates reactive hypochlorous acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion. However, this enzyme also uses bromide ion or thiocyanate as a substrate to form hypobromous or hypothiocyanous acid, respectively. These species play important roles in host defense against the invasion of microorganisms. In contrast, these enzyme products modify biomolecules in hosts during excess inflammation, indicating that the action of myeloperoxidase is both beneficial and harmful. Myeloperoxidase uses other endogenous compounds, such as serotonin, urate, and l-tyrosine, as substrates. This broad-range specificity may have some biological implications. Target molecules of this enzyme and its products vary, including low-molecular weight thiols, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The modified products represent biomarkers of myeloperoxidase action. Moderate inhibition of this enzyme might be critical for the prevention/modulation of excess, uncontrolled inflammatory events. Some phytochemicals inhibit myeloperoxidase, which might explain the reductive effect caused by the intake of vegetables and fruits on cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27013775

  6. Intravascular Targets for Molecular Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moestue, Siver A.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Hansen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Molecular targeting of contrast agents for ultrasound imaging is emerging as a new medical imaging modality. It combines advances in ultrasound technology with principles of molecular imaging, thereby allowing non-invasive assessment of biological processes in vivo. Preclinical studies have shown that microbubbles, which provide contrast during ultrasound imaging, can be targeted to specific molecular markers. These microbubbles accumulate in tissue with target (over) expression, thereby significantly increasing the ultrasound signal. This concept offers safe and low-cost imaging with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. It is therefore considered to have great potential in cancer imaging, and early-phase clinical trials are ongoing. In this review, we summarize the current literature on targets that have been successfully imaged in preclinical models using molecularly targeted ultrasound contrast agents. Based on preclinical experience, we discuss the potential clinical utility of targeted microbubbles. PMID:22837657

  7. Myeloperoxidase Exerts Microbicidal Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Violetta; Banfi, Elena; Perrotta, Maria Giovanna; Zabucchi, Giuliano

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the antimycobacterial role of myeloperoxidase (MPO), one of the most abundant granule proteins in human neutrophils. Our data indicate that purified MPO, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, exerts a consistent killing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and against a clinical isolate. The activity is time and dose dependent and requires the presence of chloride ions in the assay medium. PMID:10417186

  8. Thiols as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, B E

    1988-01-01

    Nine low-Mr thiols were compared with regard to their ability to function as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates under conditions where no auto-oxidation of the thiols could be observed. The methyl and ethyl esters of cysteine were found to be about twice as active as cysteamine at pH 7.0, in terms of increased O2 consumption. Cysteine itself was poorly active, whereas glutathione, N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine were completely inactive as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates under these conditions. The structure-activity relationships indicated that both a free thiol and free amino group were required for peroxidase-oxidase activity, and also that a free carboxy group abolished activity. In analogy with cysteamine, the activities of both cysteine esters were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (less than 5 micrograms/ml) and by catalase and not by the hydroxyl-radical scavenger mannitol. In contrast with cysteamine, the activities of both cysteine esters were stimulated more than 2-fold by high concentrations (greater than 5 micrograms/ml) of superoxide dismutase. The activities of both cysteine esters exhibited broad pH optima at pH 7. A mechanism for the myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of the cysteine esters is proposed, which is partly different from that previously proposed for cysteamine. PMID:2845919

  9. Audible sonar images generated with proprioception for target analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Roman B

    2017-05-01

    Some blind humans have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify objects with echolocation using palatal clicks. An audible-sonar robot mimics human click emissions, binaural hearing, and head movements to extract interaural time and level differences from target echoes. Targets of various complexity are examined by transverse displacements of the sonar and by target pose rotations that model movements performed by the blind. Controlled sonar movements executed by the robot provide data that model proprioception information available to blind humans for examining targets from various aspects. The audible sonar uses this sonar location and orientation information to form two-dimensional target images that are similar to medical diagnostic ultrasound tomograms. Simple targets, such as single round and square posts, produce distinguishable and recognizable images. More complex targets configured with several simple objects generate diffraction effects and multiple reflections that produce image artifacts. The presentation illustrates the capabilities and limitations of target classification from audible sonar images.

  10. Image Analyzed by Mars Rover for Selection of Target

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    NASA Opportunity used newly developed and uploaded software called AEGIS, to analyze images to identify features that best matched criteria for selecting an observation target; the criteria in this image -- rocks that are larger and darker than others.

  11. First Night Image of MAHLI Calibration Target Under Ultraviolet Lights

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-24

    Illumination in this image comes from MAHLI two ultraviolet LEDs, which emit light in a waveband centered at a wavelength of 365 nanometers in this image of a calibration target on NASA Mars rover Curiosity.

  12. Exploring underwater target detection by imaging polarimetry and correlation techniques.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, M; Delrot, P; Leonard, I; Alfalou, A; Brosseau, C; Dogariu, A

    2013-02-10

    Underwater target detection is investigated by combining active polarization imaging and optical correlation-based approaches. Experiments were conducted in a glass tank filled with tap water with diluted milk or seawater and containing targets of arbitrary polarimetric responses. We found that target estimation obtained by imaging with two orthogonal polarization states always improves detection performances when correlation is used as detection criterion. This experimental study illustrates the potential of polarization imaging for underwater target detection and opens interesting perspectives for the development of underwater imaging systems.

  13. Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles with specific targeting functions for combinded targeting, optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chu; Chang, Wen-Hsiang; Wang, Shian-Jy; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxides nanoparticles possess specific magnetic properties to be an efficient contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to enhance the detection and characterization of tissue lesions within the body. To endow specific properties to nanoparticles that can target cancer cells and prevent recognition by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), the surface of the nanoparticles was modified with folic-acid-conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) (FA-PEG). In this study, we investigated the multifunctional fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (IOPFC) that can specifically target cancer cells and be monitored by both MRI and optical imaging. IOPFC consists of an iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticle conjugated with a layer of PEG, which was terminal modified with either Cypher5E or folic acid molecules. The core sizes of IOPFC nanoparticles are around 10 nm, which were visualized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hysteresis curves, generated with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer analysis, demonstrated that IOPFC nanoparticles are superparamagnetic with insignificant hysteresis. IOPFC displays higher intracellular uptake into KB and MDA-MB-231 cells due to the over-expressed folate receptor. This result is confirmed by laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) and atomic flow cytometry. Both in vitro and in vivo MRI studies show better IOPFC uptake by the KB cells (folate positive) than the HT1080 cells (folate negative) and, hence, stronger T 2-weighted signals enhancement. The in vivo fluorescent image recorded at 20 min post injection show strong fluorescence from IOPFC which can be observed around the tumor region. This multifunctional nanoparticle can assess the potential application of developing a magnetic nanoparticle system that combines tumor targeting, as well as MRI and optical imaging.

  14. Camouflage target detection via hyperspectral imaging plus information divergence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Target detection is one of most important applications in remote sensing. Nowadays accurate camouflage target distinction is often resorted to spectral imaging technique due to its high-resolution spectral/spatial information acquisition ability as well as plenty of data processing methods. In this paper, hyper-spectral imaging technique together with spectral information divergence measure method is used to solve camouflage target detection problem. A self-developed visual-band hyper-spectral imaging device is adopted to collect data cubes of certain experimental scene before spectral information divergences are worked out so as to discriminate target camouflage and anomaly. Full-band information divergences are measured to evaluate target detection effect visually and quantitatively. Information divergence measurement is proved to be a low-cost and effective tool for target detection task and can be further developed to other target detection applications beyond spectral imaging technique.

  15. Leukocyte myeloperoxidase deficiency and disseminated candidiasis: the role of myeloperoxidase in resistance to Candida infection

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Robert I.; Cline, Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    The neutrophils and monocytes of a patient with disseminated candidiasis were found to lack detectable levels of the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), although they had normal levels of other granule-associated enzymes. Leukocytes from one of the patient's sisters also lacked detectable MPO; leukocytes from his four sons contained approximately one-third of mean normal peroxidase levels. Neither the patient nor his affected relatives had experienced frequent or unusual bacterial infections. The phagocytic activity of the patient's MPO-deficient neutrophils was intact, and the cells displayed normal morphologic and metabolic responses to phagocytosis. In contrast to normal leukocytes which killed 30.5±7.3% of ingested Candida albicans in 1 hr, however, the patient's neutrophils killed virtually none. His leukocytes also failed to kill the strain of C. albicans recovered from his lesions, as well as other Candida species. These MPO-deficient neutrophils killed Serratia marcescens and Staphylococens aureus 502A at an abnormally slow rate, requiring 3-4 hr to achieve the bactericidal effect attained by normal leukocytes after 45 min. No other abnormalities in his cellular or humoral immune responses were demonstrated. These findings suggest that hereditary MPO deficiency is transmitted as an autosomal recessive characteristic, that the homozygous state conveys enhanced susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis, and that MPO is necessary for candidacidal activity in human neutrophils. Although lending support to the suggested bactericidal role of MPO in leukocytes, the data indicate that alternative bactericidal mechanisms, effective in the absence of MPO, are functionally dominant in the human neutrophil. Images PMID:5796360

  16. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  17. Advance of Molecular Imaging Technology and Targeted Imaging Agent in Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yang, Feng; Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Liao, Yang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that integrates advanced imaging technology with cellular and molecular biology. It can realize noninvasive and real time visualization, measurement of physiological or pathological process in the living organism at the cellular and molecular level, providing an effective method of information acquiring for diagnosis, therapy, and drug development and evaluating treatment of efficacy. Molecular imaging requires high resolution and high sensitive instruments and specific imaging agents that link the imaging signal with molecular event. Recently, the application of new emerging chemical technology and nanotechnology has stimulated the development of imaging agents. Nanoparticles modified with small molecule, peptide, antibody, and aptamer have been extensively applied for preclinical studies. Therapeutic drug or gene is incorporated into nanoparticles to construct multifunctional imaging agents which allow for theranostic applications. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of molecular imaging, the novel imaging agent including targeted imaging agent and multifunctional imaging agent, as well as cite some examples of their application in molecular imaging and therapy. PMID:24689058

  18. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Space target detection in star image based on motion information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Ren, Jian-cun; Cheng, Shao-cheng

    2013-08-01

    In order to precisely locate and track space targets, construct targets' kinematic trajectories, a space target detection algorithm in star image based on motion information is researched in this paper. Firstly, Target's SNR is increased based on spatial energy accumulation, and the faint targets can be easily segmented from the background. Then, according to the invariance of stars' relative position in neighboring 2 frames, the control points of star images are extracted. And the global motion parameters can be calculated with the control points in succession. Then, according to the relative position between star points and the control points, stars and potential targets are classified. And then, targets are grossly detected utilizing 3-frames nearest neighboring correlation method, and false targets are filtered with multi-frame back and forth searching method. In the end, all targets in star image sequence are numbered, and targets' trajectories are constructed. Experimental results about 4 groups of real photographed star images are as follows: All targets' trajectories are constructed. The least average SNR detected is 2.99. The least mean motion velocity is 2.47 pixel /frame. The most mean motion velocity is 12.72pixel /frame. The algorithm in this paper can satisfy the space target detection requirements, which include high detection probability, few false alarms and high trajectory locating accuracy, etc..

  20. Target model and simulation for laser imaging fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiheng; Song, Chengtian

    2013-09-01

    Image detection is an important direction of fuze development nowadays, and laser imaging fuze is one of the main technologies. This paper carries out the research in simulation technology of the process with detection, scan and imaging, which is used in laser imaging fuze for tank target, and get the simulation images information of different intersection conditions, including tank spot information,distance information and power information. The target coordinate system is established with the movement characteristics,physical characteristics and existing coordinate system of tank target. And through transferring missile coordinates to the target coordinate system as well as the relative movement between the different time intervals, the model of missile-target in time and space is build up. The model is build up according to the tank target and diffusion properties of different background, including desert, soil, vegetation, and buildings. The relations of scattering power and bidirectional reflectance distribution function deduced the laser echo power calculation formula, which can calculate the echoes incidence to each surface of the laser.The design of laser imaging fuze simulation system is complicated ,which contains the technology of the process with detection, scan and imaging used in laser imaging fuze for tank target. The simulation system products the tank spot picture, the distance gradation picture, and the power gradation picture. The latter two contains two-dimensional information, the scanning distance as well as the value of echo power to meet the expected design effects.

  1. Autonomous target reacquisition after image disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, Lee; Thornton, John; White, David; Dale, Jason

    2006-05-01

    Many Command-to-Line-of-Sight missile systems use ground-based electro-optic sensors to track their targets. Both optical and Infra-Red systems can be affected by launch effects, which can include camera shake on launch and target obscuration due to the missile exhaust plume. Further effects can be encountered during flight including aimpoint disturbance, launch debris and countermeasures. An automatic video tracking system (AVT) is required to cope with all of these distractions, whilst maintaining track on the primary target. If track is broken during the engagement, the AVT needs to employ a strategy that will enable reacquisition of the primary target with the minimum of delay. This task can be significantly more complicated in a cluttered scene. This paper details such a reacquisition algorithm, the primary purpose of which is to correctly identify the primary target whilst reducing the reacquisition timeline. Results are presented against synthetic imagery and actual missile firings.

  2. Targeted-ROI imaging in electron paramagnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Xia, Dan; Halpern, Howard

    2007-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is a technique that has been used for in vivo oxygen imaging of small animals. In continuous wave (CW) EPRI, the measurement can be interpreted as a sampled 4D Radon transform of the image function. The conventional filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm has been used widely for reconstructing images from full knowledge of the Radon transform acquired in CW EPRI. In practical applications of CW EPRI, one often is interested in information only in a region of interest (ROI) within the imaged subject. It is desirable to accurately reconstruct an ROI image only from partial knowledge of the Radon transform because acquisition of the partial data set can lead to considerable reduction of imaging time. The conventional FBP algorithm cannot, however, reconstruct accurate ROI images from partial knowledge of the Radon transform of even dimension. In this work, we describe two new algorithms, which are referred to as the backprojection filtration (BPF) and minimum-data filtered-backprojection (MDFBP) algorithms, for accurate ROI-image reconstruction from a partial Radon transform (or, truncated Radon transform) in CW EPRI. We have also performed numerical studies in the context of ROI-image reconstruction of a synthetic 2D image with density similar to that found in a small animal EPRI. This demonstrates both the inadequacy of the conventional FBP algorithm and the success of BPF and MDFBP algorithms in ROI reconstruction. The proposed ROI imaging approach promises a means to substantially reduce image acquisition time in CW EPRI.

  3. When is polarimetric imaging preferable to intensity imaging for target detection?

    PubMed

    Goudail, François; Tyo, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    We consider target detection in images perturbed with additive noise. We determine the conditions in which polarimetric imaging, which consists of analyzing of the polarization of the light scattered by the scene before forming the image, yields better performance than classical intensity imaging. These results give important information to assess the interest of polarimetric imaging in a given application.

  4. Molecular Targeted Viral Nanoparticles as Tools for Imaging Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, C.F.; Sourabh, S.; Simpson, E.J.; Steinmetz, N.F.; Luyt, L.G.; Lewis, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are a novel class of bionanomaterials that harness the natural biocompatibility of viruses for the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and imaging tools. The plant virus, cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), has been successfully engineered to create novel cancer-targeted imaging agents by incorporating fluorescent dyes, polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, and targeting moieties. Using straightforward conjugation strategies, VNPs with high selectivity for cancer-specific molecular targets can be synthesized for in vivo imaging of tumors. Here we describe the synthesis and purification of CPMV-based VNPs, the functionalization of these VNPs using click chemistry, and their use for imaging xenograft tumors in animal models. VNPs decorated with fluorescent dyes, PEG, and targeting ligands can be synthesized in one day, and imaging studies can be performed over hours, days, or weeks, depending on the application. PMID:24243252

  5. Improved target detection by IR dual-band image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, U.; Ebert, R.

    2009-09-01

    Dual-band thermal imagers acquire information simultaneously in both the 8-12 μm (long-wave infrared, LWIR) and the 3-5 μm (mid-wave infrared, MWIR) spectral range. Compared to single-band thermal imagers they are expected to have several advantages in military applications. These advantages include the opportunity to use the best band for given atmospheric conditions (e. g. cold climate: LWIR, hot and humid climate: MWIR), the potential to better detect camouflaged targets and an improved discrimination between targets and decoys. Most of these advantages have not yet been verified and/or quantified. It is expected that image fusion allows better exploitation of the information content available with dual-band imagers especially with respect to detection of targets. We have developed a method for dual-band image fusion based on the apparent temperature differences in the two bands. This method showed promising results in laboratory tests. In order to evaluate its performance under operational conditions we conducted a field trial in an area with high thermal clutter. In such areas, targets are hardly to detect in single-band images because they vanish in the clutter structure. The image data collected in this field trial was used for a perception experiment. This perception experiment showed an enhanced target detection range and reduced false alarm rate for the fused images compared to the single-band images.

  6. 3-D Target Location from Stereoscopic SAR Images

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    1999-10-01

    SAR range-Doppler images are inherently 2-dimensional. Targets with a height offset lay over onto offset range and azimuth locations. Just which image locations are laid upon depends on the imaging geometry, including depression angle, squint angle, and target bearing. This is the well known layover phenomenon. Images formed with different aperture geometries will exhibit different layover characteristics. These differences can be exploited to ascertain target height information, in a stereoscopic manner. Depending on the imaging geometries, height accuracy can be on the order of horizontal position accuracies, thereby rivaling the best IFSAR capabilities in fine resolution SAR images. All that is required for this to work are two distinct passes with suitably different geometries from any plain old SAR.

  7. Statistical algorithms for target detection in coherent active polarimetric images.

    PubMed

    Goudail, F; Réfrégier, P

    2001-12-01

    We address the problem of small-target detection with a polarimetric imager that provides orthogonal state contrast images. Such active systems allow one to measure the degree of polarization of the light backscattered by purely depolarizing isotropic materials. To be independent of the spatial nonuniformities of the illumination beam, small-target detection on the orthogonal state contrast image must be performed without using the image of backscattered intensity. We thus propose and develop a simple and efficient target detection algorithm based on a nonlinear pointwise transformation of the orthogonal state contrast image followed by a maximum-likelihood algorithm optimal for additive Gaussian perturbations. We demonstrate the efficiency of this suboptimal technique in comparison with the optimal one, which, however, assumes a priori knowledge about the scene that is not available in practice. We illustrate the performance of this approach on both simulated and real polarimetric images.

  8. Polarization analysis of target imaging in an underwater environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yalong; Gilerson, Alexander; Carrizo, Carlos; Ibrahim, Amir; Ahmed, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Polarized light fields contain more information than simple irradiance and such capabilities provide an advanced tool for underwater imaging. We used a Monte Carlo technique to simulate the vector point spread function for a broad range of water parameters from clear to turbid coastal waters. We also analyzed the impact of light scattered by suspended particles between the target and the camera on the polarized image together with the light from the target. This knowledge is expected to contribute to solutions of the inverse problem of the restoration of the target polarization characteristics from its underwater image.

  9. Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevis, Andrew J.

    1996-05-01

    The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

  10. Snapshot spectral and polarimetric imaging; target identification with multispectral video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.

    2013-05-01

    As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.

  11. Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, myeloperoxidase cDNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myeloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), a heme-containing lysosomal glycoprotein, is found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and monocytes. Upon activation, neutrophiles produce hydrogen peroxide and release myeloperoxidase from the granules that the latter catalyzes the former in the presence of vario...

  12. Comparison of image processing algorithms for tracking illuminated targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukley, Jerry W.; Cramblitt, Robert M.

    1999-07-01

    Pointing the line-of-sight of an acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) system at a target requires designation of a reference line of sight (LOS) based principally on the target image. For many system, this will also include registration of a specific fiducial on the target for precision pointing. It is difficult to select a track reference because of algorithm sensitivity to modeling of the image. The selection of a track reference ins further complicated by image variations associated with changes in the viewing geometry and target characteristics. This paper compares several image-processing algorithms for the precision pointing of a near-space ATP platform that is viewing missile targets. The platform has state-of-the-art alignment, stabilization and tracking functions. The algorithms are tested in a full imaging and control system simulation that models an illuminating laser beam, target reflectance, optical effects, the sensor, a high order control system and pointing dynamics. The target models are based on flight dynamics, orientation, measured drawings and surface reflectivity. The simulation results are compared by calculating bias, drift and jitter characteristics of the error incurred when attempting to point the optical line-of- sight at the target. Several algorithms have been identified that provide a pointing reference capable of sustaining sub- microradian error. This paper describes the calculation of the fiducials for the algorithms and compares their relative merits.

  13. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalm, Simone U.; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully. PMID:28134770

  14. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-26

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully.

  15. Size-varying small target detection for infrared image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Ran; Long, Yunli; An, Wei; Zhou, Yiyu

    2015-10-01

    IRST (Infrared Search and Track) has been applied to many military or civil fields such as precise guidance, aerospace, early warning. As a key technique, small target detection based on infrared image plays an important role. However, infrared targets have their own characteristics, such as target size variation, which make the detection work quite difficult. In practical application, the target size may vary due to many reasons, such as optic angle of sensors, imaging distance, environment and so on. For conventional detection methods, it is difficult to detect such size-varying targets, especially when the backgrounds have strong clutters. This paper presents a novel method to detect size-varying infrared targets in a cluttered background. It is easy to find that the target region is salient in infrared images. It means that target region have a signature of discontinuity with its neighboring regions and concentrates in a relatively small region, which can be considered as a homogeneous compact region, and the background is consistent with its neighboring regions. Motivated by the saliency feature and gradient feature, we introduce minimum target intensity (MTI) to measure the dissimilarity between different scales, and use mean gradient to restrict the target scale in a reasonable range. They are integrated to be multiscale MTI filter. The proposed detection method is designed based on multiscale MTI filter. Firstly, salient region is got by morphological low-pass filtering, where the potential target exists in. Secondly, the candidate target regions are extracted by multiscale minimum target intensity filter, which can effectively give the optimal target size. At last, signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is used to segment targets, which is computed based on optimal scale of candidate targets. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve both higher detection precision and robustness in complex background.

  16. Wavelet-Based Signal and Image Processing for Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    in target recognition applications. Classical spatial and frequency domain image processing algorithms were generalized to process discrete wavelet ... transform (DWT) data. Results include adaptation of classical filtering, smoothing and interpolation techniques to DWT. From 2003 the research

  17. First Image from a Mars Rover Choosing a Target

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    This true-color image is the result of the first observation of a target selected autonomously by NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using newly developed and uploaded software named Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science, or AEGIS.

  18. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase destruction by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanker, J.; Giammara, B.; Strauss, G.

    1988-01-01

    The peroxidase activity of enriched leukocyte preparations on coverslips was determined cytochemically with a newly developed method. The techniques utilizes diaminobenzidine medium and cupric nitrate intensification and is suitable for analysis with light microscopy, SEM, and TEM. Blood specimens from control individuals were studied with and without in vitro UV irradiation and compared with those from psoriasis patients exposed therapeutically to various types of UV in phototherapy. All UV irradiated samples showed diminished neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MP) activity although that of the principal eosinophil peroxidase was unaffected. The SEMs supported the contention that decreased neutrophil MP activity might be related to UV induced degranulation. It is believed to be possible, eventually, to equate the observed MP degranulation effect after UV irradiation with diminished ability to fight bacterial infections.

  19. Classification of Targets in SAR Images Using ISAR Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Classification of Targets in SAR Images Using ISAR Data J. J. M. de Wit, R. J. Dekker, and A. C. van den Broek TNO Defence, Security, and Safety...classification of targets in SAR images by using ISAR measurements was studied, based on polarimetric SAR and ISAR data acquired with the MEMPHIS...interest in synthetic aperture radar ( SAR ) systems is increasing as well, mainly due to their all-weather capability. A study for the Dutch Ministry of

  20. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis

  1. Radar Imaging of Stationary and Moving Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-28

    Altrichter (Ph.D. candidate, Math, 2009 - present) – Jerry Kim (Ph.D. candidate, Math, 2010 - present). His work is supported by the GI Bill. – Michael... Mahalanobis , Proc. SPIE 7335, 73350I (2009); doi:10.1117/12.818554 3. M. Cheney, L. Wang, and B. Borden, “Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Aspects of...the individual transmit/receive sensors are separated by large distances . The scene to be imaged has been illuminated by direct path and multipath

  2. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  3. Feature-aided multiple target tracking in the image plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew P.; Sullivan, Kevin J.; Miller, David J.

    2006-05-01

    Vast quantities of EO and IR data are collected on airborne platforms (manned and unmanned) and terrestrial platforms (including fixed installations, e.g., at street intersections), and can be exploited to aid in the global war on terrorism. However, intelligent preprocessing is required to enable operator efficiency and to provide commanders with actionable target information. To this end, we have developed an image plane tracker which automatically detects and tracks multiple targets in image sequences using both motion and feature information. The effects of platform and camera motion are compensated via image registration, and a novel change detection algorithm is applied for accurate moving target detection. The contiguous pixel blob on each moving target is segmented for use in target feature extraction and model learning. Feature-based target location measurements are used for tracking through move-stop-move maneuvers, close target spacing, and occlusion. Effective clutter suppression is achieved using joint probabilistic data association (JPDA), and confirmed target tracks are indicated for further processing or operator review. In this paper we describe the algorithms implemented in the image plane tracker and present performance results obtained with video clips from the DARPA VIVID program data collection and from a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight.

  4. Ultra wide band radar holographic imaging of subsurface targets

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses ultra wide band (i.e., 60 ps impulse) radar holography which is a unique technique for imaging subsurface targets with extremely high lateral and depth resolution. The large frequency bandwidth, typically 100%, provides excellent depth resolution and the synthetic aperture optimum lateral resolution of one-half wavelength at the center pulse frequency. Radar impulse holography can simply be described as a multi-frequency detection and imaging technique where the target`s broadband time waveform signals are recorded over a defined aperture; decomposed into their discrete frequency components as single frequency holograms, and reconstructed into a composite image. Computer generated holograms are constructed for each frequency component in the 3-dB pulse bandwidth and plane wave angular spectrums computed to provide unique detection analysis with respect to target identification, etc. The hologram at each frequency component in the pulse can be thought of as a diffraction lens for each reflecting point on the target. A complex target consists, of a multitude of points, and the recorded hologram becomes the superposition of these individual diffraction lens. It is a unique diffraction pattern capable of defining the target`s image and scattering characteristics in the near- and far-field.

  5. Passive synthetic aperture radar imaging of ground moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for imaging ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. A passive radar imaging system uses small, mobile receivers that do not radiate any energy. For these reasons, passive imaging systems result in signicant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages. The received signals are obtained by multiple airborne receivers collecting scattered waves due to illuminating sources of opportunity such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. We describe a novel forward model and a corresponding ltered-backprojection type image reconstruction method combined with entropy optimization. Our method determines the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at dierent velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. we present numerical simulations to verify the imaging method.

  6. Target Images in the Sonar of Bats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    targets was regulated by controlling the delay of the echoes electronically. The bat was rewarded with a piece of a mealworm offered in forceps for each...and on the test-days each bat was run on a number of trials that was determined by its current body weight and the quantity of mealworms consumed...Naval Research in a series of meetings held in 1985 and 1986. We are grateful for having the opportunity to address them. 56 REFERENCES Altes, RA (1976

  7. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  8. Echo signal modeling of imaging LADAR target simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    LADAR guidance technology is one of the most promising precision guidance technologies. In the aim of simulating the return waveform of the target, a 3D geometrical model of a target is built and mathematical model of target echo signal for imaging LADAR target simulator is established by using the coordinate transformation, radar equation and ranging equation. First, the 3D geometrical data of the object model is obtained by 3D geometrical modeling. Then, target coordinate system and viewpoint coordinate system are created respectively. 3D geometrical model is built in the target coordinate system. The 3D geometrical model is transformed to the viewpoint coordinate system based on the derived relationship between the two coordinate systems. Furthermore, the range information of the target could be obtained under viewpoint coordinate system. Thus, the data of the target echo signal can be obtained by using radar equation and ranging equation. Finally, the echo signal can be exported through corresponding data interface. In order to validate the method proposed in this paper, the echo signal generated by a typical target is computed and compared with the theory solutions. The signals can be applied to drive target simulator to generate a physical target LADAR image.

  9. Optimal configuration of static polarization imagers for target detection.

    PubMed

    Goudail, François; Boffety, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    We determine the set of analysis states of a static Stokes imager that maximizes target detection performance for the least favorable target-background polarimetric configuration. By using a minimax approach, we demonstrate that the optimal choice consists of four analysis states forming a regular tetrahedron in the Poincaré sphere. We also show that the value of the contrast in the best of the four Stokes channels is, in the worst case, equal to one third of that provided by a fully adaptive polarimetric imager. Static Stokes imagers thus constitute an attractive solution in applications where limited loss of discrimination ability can be tolerated.

  10. Selecting Potential Targetable Biomarkers for Imaging Purposes in Colorectal Cancer Using TArget Selection Criteria (TASC): A Novel Target Identification Tool.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Marleen; Crane, Lucia Ma; Bart, Joost; van Leeuwen, Fijs W; van Dam, Gooitzen M

    2011-04-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin is associated with a poor prognosis. However, cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is available for a selected group of PC patients, which significantly increases overall survival rates up to 30%. As a consequence, there is substantial room for improvement. Tumor targeting is expected to improve the treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) further through 1) more sensitive preoperative tumor detection, thus reducing overtreatment; 2) better intraoperative detection and surgical elimination of residual disease using tumor-specific intraoperative imaging; and 3) tumor-specific targeted therapeutics. This review focuses, in particular, on the development of tumor-targeted imaging agents. A large number of biomarkers are known to be upregulated in CRC. However, to date, no validated criteria have been described for the selection of the most promising biomarkers for tumor targeting. Such a scoring system might improve the selection of the correct biomarker for imaging purposes. In this review, we present the TArget Selection Criteria (TASC) scoring system for selection of potential biomarkers for tumor-targeted imaging. By applying TASC to biomarkers for CRC, we identified seven biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen, CXC chemokine receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinases, mucin 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A) that seem most suitable for tumor-targeted imaging applications in colorectal cancer. Further cross-validation studies in CRC and other tumor types are necessary to establish its definitive value.

  11. Applications of Aptamers in Targeted Imaging: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Casey A.; Cai, Weibo; Hong, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with high affinity and specificity to the target molecules or cells, thus they can serve as an important category of molecular targeting ligand. Since their discove1y, aptamers have been rapidly translated into clinical practice. The strong target affinity/selectivity, cost-effectivity, chemical versatility and safety of aptamers are superior to traditional peptides- or proteins-based ligands which make them unique choices for molecular imaging. Therefore, aptamers are considered to be extremely useful to guide various imaging contrast agents to the target tissues or cells for optical, magnetic resonance, nuclear, computed tomography, ultra sound and multimodality imaging. This review aims to provide an overview of aptamers' advantages as targeting ligands and their application in targeted imaging. Further research in synthesis of new types of aptamers and their conjugation with new categories of contrast agents is required to develop clinically translatable aptamer-based imaging agents which will eventually result in improved patient care. PMID:25866268

  12. Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

  13. Preparation of a versatile bifunctional zeolite for targeted imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K; Larsen, Sarah

    2011-03-15

    Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1)-catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 ((68)Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile "clickable" zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities.

  14. Targeting Apolipoproteins in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Renuka; Lagerstedt, Jens O.; Samardzic, Haris; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Petrolova, Jitka; Xie, Hongtao; Kaysen, George A.; Voss, John C.; Desreux, Jean F.; Jue, Thomas

    Maintaining normal physiological homeostasis depends upon a coordinated metabolism of both water-soluble and -insoluble substrates. In humans the body derives these molecules — such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids — from complex food matter. Water-soluble substrates can circulate readily in blood, while water-insoluble molecules — such as fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol — require ampiphathic carriers to transport them from the site of biosynthesis (liver and intestine) to the target tissue. For fatty acid, albumin serves as the major transporter. For triacylglycerol and cholesterol, however, macromolecular complexes aggregate the hydrophobic molecules into the core and cover the surface with amphiphatic proteins and phospholipids to solubilize the particles in the lymphatic and circulatory systems. These macromolecules belong to a class of proteins, plasma lipoproteins, with specific functions and cellular targets. In the clinic these lipoproteins prognosticate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins divide usually into five major types: chylomicron, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Each lipoprotein type exhibits characteristic density, size, and composition. As implied in the name, the density varies from the low-density chylomicron (<0.95 g/ml) to the high-density HDL (1.2 g/ml). Size also varies. The chylomicron has the largest diameter (75-1,200 nm), and HDL has the smallest (5-12 nm). The physical property variation arises from each lipoprotein's distinct composition. In a chylomicron, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid predominate and constitute about 90% of the particle. Protein constitutes only about 10%. In contrast, the smaller HDL has less cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid (65% of the particle) but more protein (over 30%).

  15. Target-driven selection of lossy hyperspectral image compression ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jason R.; McGuinness, Christopher D.

    2017-05-01

    A common problem in applying lossy compression to a hyperspectral image is predicting its effect on spectral target detection performance. Recent work has shown that light amounts of lossy compression can remove noise in hyperspectral imagery that would otherwise bias a covariance-based spectral target detection algorithm's background-normalized response to target samples. However, the detection performance of such an algorithm is a function of both the specific target of interest as well as the background, among other factors, and therefore sometimes lossy compression operating at a particular compression ratio (CR) will not negatively affect the detection of one target, while it will negatively affect the detection of another. To account for the variability in this behavior, we have developed a target-centric metric that guides the selection of a lossy compression algorithm's CR without knowledge of whether or not the targets of interest are present in an image. Further, we show that this metric is correlated with the adaptive coherence estimator's (ACE's) signal to clutter ratio when targets are present in an image.

  16. Fundamental limits of target detection performance in passive polarization imaging.

    PubMed

    Goudail, François; Boffety, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    We quantitatively determine the target detection performance of different passive polarization imaging architectures perturbed by signal-independent detection noise or signal-dependent Poisson shot noise. We compare the fully adaptive polarimetric imager and the best channel of a static polarimetric imager, and in each case, we compare the use of a polarizer and a polarizing beam splitter as the polarization analyzing device. For all these configurations, we derive a closed-form expression of the target/background separability and quantify the performance gain brought by polarization imaging compared to standard intensity imaging. We show in particular that all the considered polarimetric imaging configurations but one require a minimum value of the polarimetric contrast in order to outperform intensity imaging. The only configuration that always performs better than intensity imaging uses a polarizing beam splitter in the presence of background shot noise. These results are useful in evaluating the fundamental limits of the gain brought by polarization imaging and determining, in practice, which type of imaging architecture is preferable for a given application.

  17. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26610702

  18. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Automatic target recognition using polarization-sensitive thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Cornell S. L.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Ferris, David D., Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The performance of automatic target recognition (ATR) systems using thermal infrared images is limited by the low contrast in intensity for terrestrial scenes. We are developing a thermal imaging technique where, in each image pixel, a combination of intensity and polarization data is captured simultaneously. In this paper, we demonstrate, using synthetic polarization images, that a combination of intensity and polarization data will significantly improve the performance of detection and classification functions in an ATR system. The images were generated using a ray tracing computer program, modified to calculate the polarization characteristics of thermal radiation emitted from surfaces. We developed novel polarization- sensitive target edge detection, segmentation, and recognition algorithms. A set of performance metrics for the evaluation showed that, for large ranges of viewing elevation and aspect angles, using a combination of polarization and intensity data significantly improves the performance of the algorithms over using only the intensity data.

  20. Magnetic particle imaging for aerosol-based magnetic targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banura, Natsuo; Murase, Kenya

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic targeting is a strategy for improving the efficacy of therapeutic agents and minimizing the unwanted side effects by attaching the therapeutic agents to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and concentrating them to the targeted region such as solid tumors and regions of infection using external magnetic fields. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) for monitoring the effect of aerosol-based magnetic targeting by phantom experiments using a simple flow model and nebulized MNPs. Our results suggest that MPI is useful for monitoring the effect of aerosol-based magnetic targeting.

  1. Mechanism of reaction of myeloperoxidase with nitrite.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Furtmuller, P G; Kettle, A J; Koppenol, W H; Obinger, C

    2000-07-07

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a major neutrophil protein and may be involved in the nitration of tyrosine residues observed in a wide range of inflammatory diseases that involve neutrophils and macrophage activation. In order to clarify if nitrite could be a physiological substrate of myeloperoxidase, we investigated the reactions of the ferric enzyme and its redox intermediates, compound I and compound II, with nitrite under pre-steady state conditions by using sequential mixing stopped-flow analysis in the pH range 4-8. At 15 degrees C the rate of formation of the low spin MPO-nitrite complex is (2.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(4) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (2.2 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. The dissociation constant of nitrite bound to the native enzyme is 2.3 +/- 0.1 mm at pH 7 and 31.3 +/- 0.5 micrometer at pH 5. Nitrite is oxidized by two one-electron steps in the MPO peroxidase cycle. The second-order rate constant of reduction of compound I to compound II at 15 degrees C is (2.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(7) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. The rate constant of reduction of compound II to the ferric native enzyme at 15 degrees C is (5.5 +/- 0.1) x 10(2) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 7 and (8.9 +/- 1.6) x 10(4) m(-1) s(-1) at pH 5. pH dependence studies suggest that both complex formation between the ferric enzyme and nitrite and nitrite oxidation by compounds I and II are controlled by a residue with a pK(a) of (4.3 +/- 0.3). Protonation of this group (which is most likely the distal histidine) is necessary for optimum nitrite binding and oxidation.

  2. Degradation of endothelial cell matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycan by elastase and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system.

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, S. J.; Kinsella, M. G.; Wight, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The degradation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans of subendothelial matrix by neutrophil elastase and the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system added separately, sequentially, or together at pH 4.5 to 7.5 was determined by the release of lower molecular weight 35S-labeled material. Elastase alone and the myeloperoxidase system alone caused degradation, and when 4-hour exposure to elastase was followed by 15 minutes of exposure to the myeloperoxidase system, the effect was greater than additive. A greater than additive effect was not observed when elastase followed the myeloperoxidase system or the two were added together. Chloride (or sulfate) alone increased the release of 35S-labeled material from elastase-treated matrix, although the effect of 0.1 M chloride was not as great as that observed when an equivalent concentration of chloride was combined with myeloperoxidase and H2O2. The release of these systems at sites of adherence of neutrophils to glomerular basement membrane may contribute to neutrophil-associated proteinuria. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8395774

  3. Slant path range gated imaging of static and moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Elmqvist, Magnus; Karlsson, Kjell; Gustafsson, Ove; Chevalier, Tomas

    2012-06-01

    This paper will report experiments and analysis of slant path imaging using 1.5 μm and 0.8 μm gated imaging. The investigation is a follow up on the measurement reported last year at the laser radar conference at SPIE Orlando. The sensor, a SWIR camera was collecting both passive and active images along a 2 km long path over an airfield. The sensor was elevated by a lift in steps from 1.6-13.5 meters. Targets were resolution charts and also human targets. The human target was holding various items and also performing certain tasks some of high of relevance in defence and security. One of the main purposes with this investigation was to compare the recognition of these human targets and their activities with the resolution information obtained from conventional resolution charts. The data collection of human targets was also made from out roof top laboratory at about 13 m height above ground. The turbulence was measured along the path with anemometers and scintillometers. The camera was collecting both passive and active images in the SWIR region. We also included the Obzerv camera working at 0.8 μm in some tests. The paper will present images for both passive and active modes obtained at different elevations and discuss the results from both technical and system perspectives.

  4. A novel fast target tracking method for UAV aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfang, Liu; Hao, Zheng; Jingli, Gao

    2017-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are able to achieve autonomous flight without drivers, and UAV has been a key tool to extract space data. Therefore, how to detect the trajectories of targets from UAV aerial image sequences is of great importance. Because local features are suitable to detect target tracking, we exploit scaleinvariant feature transform (SIFT) features to describe the interesting keypoints of targets. The main innovation of this paper is to utilize Multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithm to track an object (target) in a series of image sequences. Particularly, we develop a MHT framework based on a multidimensional assignment formulation and a sliding time window policy. To obtain target tracking from UAV aerial image sequences, three steps should be done, that is, 1) Breaking each track set into tracklet at a specific time, 2) Estimating the association cost of each track set, 3) Merging trajectory fragments to a longer one iteratively. Finally, we collect several UAV aerial image sequences with different target density to construct a dataset, and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Targeting tumors with nanobodies for cancer imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sabrina; Heukers, Raimond; Sornkom, Jirawas; Kok, Robbert J; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    2013-12-28

    The use of monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized both cancer therapy and cancer imaging. Antibodies have been used to directly inhibit tumor cell proliferation or to target drugs to tumors. Also in molecular imaging, monoclonal antibodies have found their way to the clinic. Nevertheless, distribution within tumors is hampered by their size, leading to insufficient efficacy of cancer treatment and irregular imaging. An attractive alternative for monoclonal antibodies are nanobodies or VHHs. These are the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies from animals from the Camelidae family that were first discovered in 1993. Stimulated by the ease of nanobody selection, production, and low immunogenicity potential, a number of nanobodies specific to different disease-related targets have been developed. For cancer therapy, nanobodies have been employed as antagonistic drugs, and more recently, as targeting moieties of effector-domaINS and of drug delivery systems. In parallel, nanobodies have also been employed for molecular imaging with modalities such as nuclear and optical imaging. In this review, we discuss recent developments in the application of nanobodies as targeting moieties in cancer therapy and cancer imaging. With such a wide range of successful applications, nanobodies have become much more than simple antagonists.

  6. Moving target imaging using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanwei; Liang, Diannong; Wan, Yan; Huang, Xiaotao; Dong, Zhen

    2003-09-01

    Moving Target High Resolution Imaging of Foliage Penetrate Ultra-Wide Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (FOPEN UWB SAR) is of great significance for battlefield awareness of concealed target. Great range migration and strong clutter make moving target detection and imaging difficult, especially the Signal to Clutter Ration(SCR) some times is so low that the moving targets is invisible in FOPEN UWB SAR imagery. To improve SCR, the clean technique is used in range compressed data domain. The clean technique and data reconstruction help single channel of FOPEN UWB SAR suppress strong tree clutter and stationary target signal from region of interest. A new definition called General Key-Stone Transform is given, which can correct any order of range migration. FOPEN UWB SAR has long integrated time. The plane and target moving in long time lead to complex range migration. To obtain high resolution imagery of moving target, General Key-Stone transform are applied to remove the range migration and realize multiple moving target data segment. Both General Key-Stone Transform and Clean Technique are applied in real data processing of FOPEN UWB SAR. The result shows that multiple moving targets in the trees are clearly detected and high resolution imagery is formed.

  7. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B; Erridge, Sara C; McLaughlin, Stephen; Nailon, William H

    2015-10-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required.

  8. Identifying radiotherapy target volumes in brain cancer by image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Feng, Yang; Steel, Robin; Liao, Hanqing; McLaren, Duncan B.; Erridge, Sara C.; McLaughlin, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    To establish the optimal radiotherapy fields for treating brain cancer patients, the tumour volume is often outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images, where the tumour is clearly visible, and mapped onto computerised tomography images used for radiotherapy planning. This process requires considerable clinical experience and is time consuming, which will continue to increase as more complex image sequences are used in this process. Here, the potential of image analysis techniques for automatically identifying the radiation target volume on MR images, and thereby assisting clinicians with this difficult task, was investigated. A gradient-based level set approach was applied on the MR images of five patients with grades II, III and IV malignant cerebral glioma. The relationship between the target volumes produced by image analysis and those produced by a radiation oncologist was also investigated. The contours produced by image analysis were compared with the contours produced by an oncologist and used for treatment. In 93% of cases, the Dice similarity coefficient was found to be between 60 and 80%. This feasibility study demonstrates that image analysis has the potential for automatic outlining in the management of brain cancer patients, however, more testing and validation on a much larger patient cohort is required. PMID:26609418

  9. Upregulation of Key Molecules for Targeted Imaging and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Vincent F; Radojewski, Piotr; Marincek, Nicolas; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Grotzky, Andrea; Olariu, Cristina I; Perren, Aurel; Stettler, Christoph; Krause, Thomas; Meier, Lorenz P; Cescato, Renzo; Walter, Martin A

    2016-11-01

    Targeted diagnosis and therapy enable precise tumor detection and treatment. Successful examples for precise tumor targeting are diagnostic and therapeutic radioligands. However, patients with tumors expressing low levels of the relevant molecular targets are deemed ineligible for such targeted approaches. We performed a screen for drugs that upregulate the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sstr2). Then, we characterized the effects of these drugs on transcriptional, translational, and functional levels in vitro and in vivo. We identified 9 drugs that act as epigenetic modifiers, including the inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase decitabine as well as the inhibitors of histone deacetylase tacedinaline and romidepsin. In vitro, these drugs upregulated sstr2 on transcriptional, translational, and functional levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Thereby, their combinations revealed synergistic effects. In vivo, drug-based sstr2 upregulation improved the tumor-to-background and tumor-to-kidney ratios, which are the key determinants of successful sstr2-targeted imaging and radiopeptide therapy. We present an approach that uses epigenetic modifiers to improve sstr2 targeting in vitro and in vivo. Translation of this method into the clinic may potentially convert patients ineligible for targeted imaging and therapy to eligible candidates. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Target penetration of laser-based 3D imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Geraldine S.; Saidi, Kamel S.; Franaszek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The ASTM E57.02 Test Methods Subcommittee is developing a test method to evaluate the ranging performance of a 3D imaging system. The test method will involve either measuring the distance between two targets or between an instrument and a target. The first option is necessary because some instruments cannot be centered over a point and will require registration of the instrument coordinate frame into the target coordinate frame. The disadvantage of this option is that registration will introduce an additional error into the measurements. The advantage of this option is that this type of measurement, relative measurement, is what is typically used in field applications. A potential target geometry suggested for the test method is a planar target. The ideal target material would be diffuse, have uniform reflectivity for wavelengths between 500 nm to 1600 nm (wavelengths of most commercially-available 3D imaging systems), and have minimal or no penetration of the laser into the material. A possible candidate material for the target is Spectralon1. However, several users have found that there is some penetration into the Spectralon by a laser and this is confirmed by the material manufacturer. The effect of this penetration on the range measurement is unknown. This paper will present an attempt to quantify the laser penetration depth into the Spectralon material for four 3D imaging systems.

  11. Inactivation of human myeloperoxidase by hydrogen peroxide☆

    PubMed Central

    Paumann-Page, Martina; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Hofbauer, Stefan; Paton, Louise N.; Obinger, Christian; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Human myeloperoxidase (MPO) uses hydrogen peroxide generated by the oxidative burst of neutrophils to produce an array of antimicrobial oxidants. During this process MPO is irreversibly inactivated. This study focused on the unknown role of hydrogen peroxide in this process. When treated with low concentrations of H2O2 in the absence of reducing substrates, there was a rapid loss of up to 35% of its peroxidase activity. Inactivation is proposed to occur via oxidation reactions of Compound I with the prosthetic group or amino acid residues. At higher concentrations hydrogen peroxide acts as a suicide substrate with a rate constant of inactivation of 3.9 × 10−3 s−1. Treatment of MPO with high H2O2 concentrations resulted in complete inactivation, Compound III formation, destruction of the heme groups, release of their iron, and detachment of the small polypeptide chain of MPO. Ten of the protein’s methionine residues were oxidized and the thermal stability of the protein decreased. Inactivation by high concentrations of H2O2 is proposed to occur via the generation of reactive oxidants when H2O2 reacts with Compound III. These mechanisms of inactivation may occur inside neutrophil phagosomes when reducing substrates for MPO become limiting and could be exploited when designing pharmacological inhibitors. PMID:24035742

  12. Urate as a Physiological Substrate for Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Meotti, Flavia C.; Jameson, Guy N. L.; Turner, Rufus; Harwood, D. Tim; Stockwell, Samantha; Rees, Martin D.; Thomas, Shane R.; Kettle, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Urate and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we assessed whether urate is a likely physiological substrate for MPO and if the products of their interaction have the potential to exacerbate inflammation. Urate was readily oxidized by MPO and hydrogen peroxide to 5-hydroxyisourate, which decayed to predominantly allantoin. The redox intermediates of MPO were reduced by urate with rate constants of 4.6 × 105 m−1 s−1 for compound I and 1.7 × 104 m−1 s−1 for compound II. Urate competed with chloride for oxidation by MPO and at hyperuricemic levels is expected to be a substantive substrate for the enzyme. Oxidation of urate promoted super-stoichiometric consumption of glutathione, which indicates that it is converted to a free radical intermediate. In combination with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, MPO oxidized urate to a reactive hydroperoxide. This would form by addition of superoxide to the urate radical. Urate also enhanced MPO-dependent consumption of nitric oxide. In human plasma, stimulated neutrophils produced allantoin in a reaction dependent on the NADPH oxidase, MPO and superoxide. We propose that urate is a physiological substrate for MPO that is oxidized to the urate radical. The reactions of this radical with superoxide and nitric oxide provide a plausible link between urate and MPO in cardiovascular disease. PMID:21266577

  13. INACTIVATION OF MYELOPEROXIDASE BY BENZOIC ACID HYDRAZIDE*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiansheng; Smith, Forrest; Panizzi, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Douglas C.; Panizzi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is expressed by myeloid cells for the purpose of catalyzing the formation of hypochlorous acid, from chloride ions and reaction with a hydrogen peroxide-charged heme covalently bound to the enzyme. Most peroxidase enzymes both plant and mammalian are inhibited by benzoic acid hydrazide (BAH)-containing compounds, but the mechanism underlying MPO inhibition by BAH compounds is largely unknown. Recently, we reported MPO inhibition by BAH and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-BAH was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain glutamate 242 (Glu242) residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the heme linked light chain MPO subunit from the larger remaining heavy chain portion. Here we probed the structure and function relationship behind this ester bond cleavage using a panel of BAH analogs to gain insight into the constraints imposed by the MPO active site and channel leading to the buried protoporphyrin IX ring. In addition, we show evidence that destruction of the heme ring does not occur by tracking the heme prosthetic group and provide evidence that the mechanism of hydrolysis follows a potential attack of the Glu242 carbonyl leading to a rearrangement causing the release of the vinyl-sulfonium linkage between HC-Met243 and the pyrrole A ring. PMID:25688920

  14. Inactivation of myeloperoxidase by benzoic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Smith, Forrest; Panizzi, Jennifer R; Goodwin, Douglas C; Panizzi, Peter

    2015-03-15

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is expressed by myeloid cells for the purpose of catalyzing the formation of hypochlorous acid, from chloride ions and reaction with a hydrogen peroxide-charged heme covalently bound to the enzyme. Most peroxidase enzymes both plant and mammalian are inhibited by benzoic acid hydrazide (BAH)-containing compounds, but the mechanism underlying MPO inhibition by BAH compounds is largely unknown. Recently, we reported MPO inhibition by BAH and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-BAH was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain glutamate 242 ((HC)Glu(242)) residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the heme linked light chain MPO subunit from the larger remaining heavy chain portion. Here we probed the structure and function relationship behind this ester bond cleavage using a panel of BAH analogs to gain insight into the constraints imposed by the MPO active site and channel leading to the buried protoporphyrin IX ring. In addition, we show evidence that destruction of the heme ring does not occur by tracking the heme prosthetic group and provide evidence that the mechanism of hydrolysis follows a potential attack of the (HC)Glu(242) carbonyl leading to a rearrangement causing the release of the vinyl-sulfonium linkage between (HC)Met(243) and the pyrrole A ring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies with Cytoplasmic Fluorescence Pattern.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Seema; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Goyal, Lekha; Sharma, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    We report here two rare cases of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive Wegener's granulomatosis (limited variant) which deceptively produced a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) pattern on indirect immunofluorescence.

  16. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  17. Simulation of transition radiation based beam imaging from tilted targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhikh, L. G.; Kube, G.; Potylitsyn, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Transverse beam profile diagnostics in linear electron accelerators is usually based on direct imaging of a beam spot via visible transition radiation. In this case the fundamental resolution limit is determined by radiation diffraction in the optical system. A method to measure beam sizes beyond the diffraction limit is to perform imaging dominated by a single-particle function (SPF), i.e. when the recorded image is dominated not by the transverse beam profile but by the image function of a point source (single electron). Knowledge of the SPF for an experimental setup allows one to extract the transverse beam size from an SPF dominated image. This paper presents an approach that allows one to calculate two-dimensional SPF dominated beam images, taking into account the target inclination angle and the depth-of-field effect. In conclusion, a simple fit function for beam size determination in the case under consideration is proposed and its applicability is tested under various conditions.

  18. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao; Cai, Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET]) have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc) have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment) has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc) are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In) are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”. PMID:19578524

  19. Multi-point sources and imaging compound infrared target simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui; Xu, Rui; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Xin; Wu, Di; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared target simulator is an important unit in guidance hardware-in-the-loop simulation systems. It is used to simulate the radiation and motion characteristics of target, decoy and background. This paper proposed a multi-channel IR target simulator. It could generate one IR point target, two pairs of IR decoys and background respectively in the same field of view of the seeker's optical system simultaneously. An IR imaging fiber bundle as the focal plane of the projection optical system was used to compound the target, decoys and background. The compound scene was projected to the seeker by the projection optical system. In IR imaging channel, IR scene was generated by an optical film chip as a visible to thermal transducer which was placed in a vacuum cell. The simulated temperature range of IR scene could be from room temperature to 430K.The thin film transducer had 512×512 pixels. Its frame rate could reach to 100Hz. Light sources with high equivalent black body temperature were adopted in IR target and decoy channels. The size and the radiation intensity of the IR point target and decoys could be controlled by pin holes and attenuators. The point target and decoys driven by high precise motors could travel through the whole instantaneous field of view of the seeker's optical system. Two pairs of decoys could move away from the center to the edge of the instantaneous field of view. The highest simulated black body temperature of the point source was 1200K.

  20. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO radar, High-Resolution radar 19 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO radar as nodes. Nodes may be equipped

  1. Sequential Superresolution Imaging of Multiple Targets Using a Single Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence superresolution (SR) microscopy, or fluorescence nanoscopy, provides nanometer scale detail of cellular structures and allows for imaging of biological processes at the molecular level. Specific SR imaging methods, such as localization-based imaging, rely on stochastic transitions between on (fluorescent) and off (dark) states of fluorophores. Imaging multiple cellular structures using multi-color imaging is complicated and limited by the differing properties of various organic dyes including their fluorescent state duty cycle, photons per switching event, number of fluorescent cycles before irreversible photobleaching, and overall sensitivity to buffer conditions. In addition, multiple color imaging requires consideration of multiple optical paths or chromatic aberration that can lead to differential aberrations that are important at the nanometer scale. Here, we report a method for sequential labeling and imaging that allows for SR imaging of multiple targets using a single fluorophore with negligible cross-talk between images. Using brightfield image correlation to register and overlay multiple image acquisitions with ~10 nm overlay precision in the x-y imaging plane, we have exploited the optimal properties of AlexaFluor647 for dSTORM to image four distinct cellular proteins. We also visualize the changes in co-localization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and clathrin upon EGF addition that are consistent with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results are the first to demonstrate sequential SR (s-SR) imaging using direct stochastic reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and this method for sequential imaging can be applied to any superresolution technique. PMID:25860558

  2. Evaluation of image metrics for target discrimination using psychophysical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Anthony C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.; McManamey, James R.

    1996-06-01

    Image clutter affects the perceptual ability of any system for object detection. A procedure for conducting psychophysical experiments has been developed to test computational models for the perceptual similarity or difference of texture patterns, which contributes to image clutter. This experimental procedure is based on Thurstone's law of comparative judgment, which is used along with the method of paired comparisons to assign relative psychological scale values to image stimuli. To facilitate consistency in the presentation of stimuli and collection of data, an X-windows testing environment has been developed called the X-based perceptual experiment testbed. Using this experimental procedure, a pilot study was conducted in which the image stimuli consisted of targets and backgrounds with texture patterns of uncorrelated Gaussian noise. With such patterns, only first-order image statistics are of significance. The psychological scale values relating the level of `target distinctness' in each of the image stimuli were compared to several first-order image metrics. Correlation coefficients as high as 0.9881 were found between the scale values and the image metrics.

  3. Superoxide-dependent oxidation of melatonin by myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Valdecir F; Silva, Sueli de O; Rodrigues, Maria R; Catalani, Luiz H; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Kettle, Anthony J; Campa, Ana

    2005-11-18

    Myeloperoxidase uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize numerous substrates to hypohalous acids or reactive free radicals. Here we show that neutrophils oxidize melatonin to N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) in a reaction that is catalyzed by myeloperoxidase. Production of AFMK was highly dependent on superoxide but not hydrogen peroxide. It did not require hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, or hydroxyl radical. Purified myeloperoxidase and a superoxide-generating system oxidized melatonin to AFMK and a dimer. The dimer would result from coupling of melatonin radicals. Oxidation of melatonin was partially inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. Formation of AFMK was almost completely eliminated by superoxide dismutase but weakly inhibited by catalase. In contrast, production of melatonin dimer was enhanced by superoxide dismutase and blocked by catalase. We propose that myeloperoxidase uses superoxide to oxidize melatonin by two distinct pathways. One pathway involves the classical peroxidation mechanism in which hydrogen peroxide is used to oxidize melatonin to radicals. Superoxide adds to these radicals to form an unstable peroxide that decays to AFMK. In the other pathway, myeloperoxidase uses superoxide to insert dioxygen into melatonin to form AFMK. This novel activity expands the types of oxidative reactions myeloperoxidase can catalyze. It should be relevant to the way neutrophils use superoxide to kill bacteria and how they metabolize xenobiotics.

  4. Developing Targeted Hybrid Imaging Probes by Chelator Scaffolding

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) as well as optical imaging (OI) with peptide receptor targeting probes have proven their value for oncological applications but also show restrictions depending on the clinical field of interest. Therefore, the combination of both methods, particularly in a single molecule, could improve versatility in clinical routine. This proof of principle study aims to show that a chelator, Fusarinine C (FSC), can be utilized as scaffold for novel dimeric dual-modality imaging agents. Two targeting vectors (a minigastrin analogue (MG11) targeting cholecystokinin-2 receptor overexpression (CCK2R) or integrin αVβ3 targeting cyclic pentapeptides (RGD)) and a near-infrared fluorophore (Sulfo-Cyanine7) were conjugated to FSC. The probes were efficiently labeled with gallium-68 and in vitro experiments including determination of logD, stability, protein binding, cell binding, internalization, and biodistribution studies as well as in vivo micro-PET/CT and optical imaging in U-87MG αVβ3- and A431-CCK2R expressing tumor xenografted mice were carried out. Novel bioconjugates showed high receptor affinity and highly specific targeting properties at both receptors. Ex vivo biodistribution and micro-PET/CT imaging studies revealed specific tumor uptake accompanied by slow blood clearance and retention in nontargeted tissues (spleen, liver, and kidneys) leading to visualization of tumors at early (30 to 120 min p.i.). Excellent contrast in corresponding optical imaging studies was achieved especially at delayed time points (24 to 72 h p.i.). Our findings show the proof of principle of chelator scaffolding for hybrid imaging agents and demonstrate FSC being a suitable bifunctional chelator for this approach. Improvements to fine-tune pharmacokinetics are needed to translate this into a clinical setting. PMID:28462989

  5. Real Time Target Tracking in a Phantom Using Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Corner, G.; Huang, Z.

    In this paper we present a real-time ultrasound image guidance method suitable for tracking the motion of tumors. A 2D ultrasound based motion tracking system was evaluated. A robot was used to control the focused ultrasound and position it at the target that has been segmented from a real-time ultrasound video. Tracking accuracy and precision were investigated using a lesion mimicking phantom. Experiments have been conducted and results show sufficient efficiency of the image guidance algorithm. This work could be developed as the foundation for combining the real time ultrasound imaging tracking and MRI thermometry monitoring non-invasive surgery.

  6. Automatic target detection in UAV imagery using image formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about automatic target detection (ATD) in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. Extracting reliable features under all conditions from a 2D projection of a target in UAV imagery is a difficult problem. However, since the target size information is usually invariant to the image formation proces, we propose an algorithm for automatically estimating the size of a 3D target by using its 2D projection. The size information in turn becomes an important feature to be used in a knowledge-driven, multi-resolution-based algorithm for automatically detecting targets in UAV imagery. Experimental results show that our proposed ATD algorithm provides outstanding detection performance, while significantly reducing the false alarm rate and the computational complexity.

  7. HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2004-08-01

    A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

  8. LRCS calculation and imaging of complex target based on GRECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Xu, Fu-chang; Han, Xiang'e.

    2013-09-01

    The research on Laser Radar Cross Section(LRCS) is of great significance in many research fields, such as defense, aviation, aerospace, meteorology etc. Current study of LRCS focuses mainly on the full-size target. The LRCS of full-size target, characterized by the scattering properties of the target, is influenced by target material, shape, size, and the wavelength of laser, but it is independent on the size of irradiation beam. In fact, when the target is in large size, and the beam emitted from laser radar is very narrow, it may be in a local rather than a full-size irradiation. In this case, the scattering properties of a target are dependent on not only the size of irradiation beam on the target, but also the direction of irradiation beam. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the scattering properties of a complex target in a local irradiation. Based on the basic theory of Graphic-electromagnetic Computing(GRECO), we improved the method used in the processing of electromagnetic scattering, calculated the monostatic and bistatic LRCS of several targets. The results are consistent with that in the early work done by other researchers. In addition, by changing the divergence angle of the incident beam, the situation of narrow beam in a local irradiation was presented. Under different sizes of irradiation beam, analysis and calculation of local cross section was made in detail. The results indicate that the size of irradiation beam can greatly affect the LRCS for targets. Finally, we calculated scattering cross section per unit of each location point; with color tag, scattering intensity distribution of every location point on the target was displayed, which can be revealed by the color of every pixel point. On the basis of scattering intensity distribution of every location point, the imaging of a target was realized, which provides a reference for quick identification of the target.

  9. [Multimodalities imaging for target volume definition in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Daisne, Jean-François; Grégoire, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    Modern radiotherapy delivery nowadays relies on tridimensional, conformal techniques. The aim is to better target the tumor while decreasing the dose administered to surrounding normal tissues. Gold standard imaging modality remains computed-tomography (CT) scanner. However, the intrinsic lack of contrast between soft tissues leads to high variabilities in target definition. The risks are : a geographical miss with tumor underirradiation on the one hand, and a tumor overestimation with undue normal tissues irradiation on the other hand. Alternative imaging modalities like magnetic resonance imaging and functional positron emission tomography could theoretically overcome the lack of soft tissues contrast of CT. However, the fusion of the different imaging modalities images requires the use of sophisticated computer algorithms. We will briefly review them. We will then review the different clinical results reported with multi-modalities imaging for tumors of the head, neck, lung, esophagus, cervix and lymphomas. Finally, we will briefly give practical recommendations for multi-modality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning process.

  10. PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

    2010-02-01

    By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

  11. Acoustic Molecular Imaging and Targeted Drug Delivery with Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Gregory M.; Hughes, Michael. S.; Marsh, Jon N.; Scott, Michael J.; Zhang, Huiying; Lacy, Elizabeth K.; Allen, John S.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2005-03-01

    Advances in molecular biology and cellular biochemistry are providing new opportunities for diagnostic medical imaging to "see" beyond the anatomical manifestations of disease to the earliest biochemical signatures of disease. Liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provide inherent acoustic contrast when bound to targets, e.g., fibrin deposits in a thrombus, but unbound nanoparticles are undetectable. This nanoparticle platform may be further functionalized with paramagnetic metals, such as gadolinium, or radionuclides, with homing ligands, like anti-αvβ3-integrins, and therapeutic agents. Acoustic imaging of densely distributed biomarkers, e.g., fibrin epitopes, is readily accommodated with fundamental imaging, but for sparse biomarkers, e.g., integrins, we have developed and implemented novel, nonlinear imaging techniques based upon information-theoretic receivers (i.e., thermodynamic receivers). These novel receivers allow sensitive direct imaging of contrast development.

  12. Structural and functional imaging for vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Buhong; Gu, Ying; Wilson, Brian C.

    2017-02-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely used for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, such as localized prostate cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, port wine stains, esophageal varices and bleeding gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In this study, the fundamental mechanisms of vascular responses during and after V-PDT will be introduced. Based on the V-PDT treatment of blood vessels in dorsal skinfold window chamber model, the structural and functional imaging, which including white light microscopy, laser speckle imaging, singlet oxygen luminescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging for evaluating vascular damage will be presented, respectively. The results indicate that vessel constriction and blood flow dynamics could be considered as the crucial biomarkers for quantitative evaluation of vascular damage. In addition, future perspectives of non-invasive optical imaging for evaluating vascular damage of V-PDT will be discussed.

  13. Extracellular Matrix Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Imaging, and Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    use in diagnosis, prognosis, early detection, in situ imaging and, eventually, targeting of breast cancer metastases, which are the major cause of...the management and treatment of metastatic breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer , Metastasis, Extracellular Matrix, Tumor Microenvironment...KEYWORDS: Breast Cancer , Metastasis, Extracellular Matrix, Tumor Microenvironment, Tumor Heterogeneity 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: HYNES lab: Major Task 1

  14. Tracking of deformable target in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Lucas; Marchal, Maud; Le Bras, Anthony; Dardenne, Guillaume; Krupa, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically tracking deformable target within 2D ultrasound images. Our approach uses only dense information combined with a physically-based model and has therefore the advantage of not using any fiducial marker nor a priori knowledge on the anatomical environment. The physical model is represented by a mass-spring damper system driven by different types of forces where the external forces are obtained by maximizing image similarity metric between a reference target and a deformed target across the time. This deformation is represented by a parametric warping model where the optimal parameters are estimated from the intensity variation. This warping function is well-suited to represent localized deformations in the ultrasound images because it directly links the forces applied on each mass with the motion of all the pixels in its vicinity. The internal forces constrain the deformation to physically plausible motions, and reduce the sensitivity to the speckle noise. The approach was validated on simulated and real data, both for rigid and free-form motions of soft tissues. The results are very promising since the deformable target could be tracked with a good accuracy for both types of motion. Our approach opens novel possibilities for computer-assisted interventions where deformable organs are involved and could be used as a new tool for interactive tracking of soft tissues in ultrasound images.

  15. Narrowband radar imaging for precessional targets with specular scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuling; Wei, Xizhang; Peng, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Narrowband radar imaging algorithms based on the micro-Doppler (m-D) characteristics of precessional targets will lose efficacy since specular scattering makes the spectrogram discontinuous and unrecognizable. Specular scattering occurs under the condition that the incident angle of wave is perpendicular to the target surface. To image the precessional target under specular scattering, we propose a narrowband imaging algorithm via complex-valued empirical-mode decomposition-time frequency distribution-general Radon transform (CEMD-TFD-GRT) after analyzing the m-D characteristics of specular scattering centers. The CEMD first decomposes the echo into several components according to their spectrums varying from high to low so that the Doppler spectrums suppressed by the specular scattering can be recognized. Then, TFD-GRT is used to extract the parameters of m-D curves from which the positions of scattering centers can be reconstructed. In addition, the computation complexity of CEMD-TFD-GRT is analyzed and the Cramer-Rao low bounds for the coordinates estimation are derived. The experiment results with anechoic chamber data demonstrate that the scattering centers of precessional targets can be imaged with the proposed algorithm even when specular scattering occurs. The noise influence on the proposed algorithm is also presented with the experiments.

  16. CD44 targeting magnetic glyconanoparticles for atherosclerotic plaque imaging.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; El-Boubbou, Kheireddine; Kamat, Medha; Huang, Ruiping; Abela, George S; Kiupel, Matti; Zhu, David C; Huang, Xuefei

    2014-06-01

    The cell surface adhesion molecule CD44 plays important roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to develop nanoparticles that can selectively target CD44 for the non-invasive detection of atherosclerotic plaques by magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic glyconanoparticles with hyaluronan immobilized on the surface have been prepared. The binding of these nanoparticles with CD44 was evaluated in vitro by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of plaques was performed on an atherosclerotic rabbit model. The magnetic glyconanoparticles can selectively bind CD44. In T2* weighted magnetic resonance images acquired in vivo, significant contrast changes in aorta walls were observed with a very low dose of the magnetic nanoparticles, allowing the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, imaging could be performed without significant delay after probe administration. The selectivity of hyaluronan nanoparticles in plaque imaging was established by several control experiments. Magnetic nanoparticles bearing surface hyaluronan enabled the imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. The low dose of nanoparticles required, the possibility to image without much delay and the high biocompatibility are the advantages of these nanoparticles as contrast agents for plaque imaging.

  17. CD44 Targeting Magnetic Glyconanoparticles for Atherosclerotic Plaque Imaging

    PubMed Central

    El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H.; El-Boubbou, Kheireddine; Kamat, Medha; Huang, Ruiping; Abela, George S.; Kiupel, Matti; Zhu, David C.; Huang, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The cell surface adhesion molecule CD44 plays important roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to develop nanoparticles that can selectively target CD44 for the non-invasive detection of atherosclerotic plaques by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Magnetic glyco-nanoparticles with hyaluronan immobilized on the surface have been prepared. The binding of these nanoparticles with CD44 in vitro was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of plaques was performed on an atherosclerotic rabbit model. Results The magnetic glyconanoparticles can selectively bind CD44. In T2* weighted magnetic resonance images acquired in vivo, significant contrast changes in aorta walls were observed with a very low dose of the magnetic nanoparticles, allowing the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, imaging could be performed without significant delay after probe administration. The selectivity of hyaluronan nanoparticles in plaque imaging was established by several control experiments. Conclusions Magnetic nanoparticles bearing surface hyaluronan enabled the imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. The low dose of nanoparticles required, the possibility to image without much delay and the high biocompatibility are the advantages of these nanoparticles as contrast agents for plaque imaging. PMID:23568520

  18. Mitochondrial-Targeted Molecular Imaging in Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhui

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the role of mitochondrion in cardiac function and disease. The mitochondrion plays a fundamental role in cellular processes ranging from metabolism to apoptosis. The mitochondrial-targeted molecular imaging could potentially illustrate changes in global and regional cardiac dysfunction. The collective changes that occur in mitochondrial-targeted molecular imaging probes have been widely explored and developed. As probes currently used in the preclinical setting still have a lot of shortcomings, the development of myocardial metabolic activity, viability, perfusion, and blood flow molecular imaging probes holds great potential for accurately evaluating the myocardial viability and functional reserve. The advantages of molecular imaging provide a perspective on investigating the mitochondrial function of the myocardium in vivo noninvasively and quantitatively. The molecular imaging tracers of single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography could give more detailed information on myocardial metabolism and restoration. In this study, series mitochondrial-targeted 99mTc-, 123I-, and 18F-labeled tracers displayed broad applications because they could provide a direct link between mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac disease. PMID:28638829

  19. Time-reversal MUSIC imaging of extended targets.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Edwin A; Gruber, Fred K; Simonetti, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    This paper develops, within a general framework that is applicable to rather arbitrary electromagnetic and acoustic remote sensing systems, a theory of time-reversal "MUltiple Signal Classification" (MUSIC)-based imaging of extended (nonpoint-like) scatterers (targets). The general analysis applies to arbitrary remote sensing geometry and sheds light onto how the singular system of the scattering matrix relates to the geometrical and propagation characteristics of the entire transmitter-target-receiver system and how to use this effect for imaging. All the developments are derived within exact scattering theory which includes multiple scattering effects. The derived time-reversal MUSIC methods include both interior sampling, as well as exterior sampling (or enclosure) approaches. For presentation simplicity, particular attention is given to the time-harmonic case where the informational wave modes employed for target interrogation are purely spatial, but the corresponding generalization to broadband fields is also given. This paper includes computer simulations illustrating the derived theory and algorithms.

  20. Targeting Strategies for Multifunctional Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jon, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions including targeting, imaging, therapy, and etc have been intensively studied aiming to overcome limitations associated with conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of various nanoparticles, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property have shown potential as multifunctional nanoparticles for clinical translation because they have been used asmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constrast agents in clinic and their features could be easily tailored by including targeting moieties, fluorescence dyes, or therapeutic agents. This review summarizes targeting strategies for construction of multifunctional nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles-based theranostic systems, and the various surface engineering strategies of nanoparticles for in vivo applications. PMID:22272217

  1. Photoacoustic imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma targeting gold nanoshells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quan; Chen, Yan; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Juan; Duan, Xiyu; Wang, Thomas D.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic gold nanoshell (GNS) probe penetrates into tumors for deep imaging, enables superior photoacoustic contrast. Glypican-3 (GPC3) specific peptide (Kd = 71 nM) conjugated gold nanoshell (λabs=770nm) was used to detect HCC xenograft tumors in mice with photoacoustic imaging. This targeting probe demonstrated tumor uptake after 1 hr and cleared in 12 hrs. Images at a mean (±SD) depth of 9.7±1.4 mm from 0 to 2.1 cm beneath the skin revealed increased PA signal from tumors. Highest tumor uptake and tumor to normal tissue ratio occurred at 2 hrs post injection (T/B = 4.45±0.22, n = 8). Molecular targeting GNS showed potential as a simple, effective and rapid technique for noninvasive in vivo monitoring HCC tumor growth and GPC3 expression.

  2. Targeted flyby images of propellers in Saturn's A ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Baker, Emily J.; the Cassini ISS Team

    2017-06-01

    As part of its two-part end-of-mission maneuvers, the Cassini has targeted three "propeller moons" for close-range flybys, obtaining images that greatly improve on all previous images in terms of resolution and detailed structure. Propeller moons are ~1 km in size and are embedded in the disk of Saturn's A ring (Tiscareno et al. 2010, ApJL). Unlike the moons Pan and Daphnis, propeller moons have insufficient mass to carve out a fully circumferential gap; instead, we see a propeller-shaped disturbance around the moon (which itself is unseen) as the moon's attempted gap is filled back in, due to the dynamical viscosity of the ring particles.The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) has obtained images of the propeller moon "Santos-Dumont" on both the lit and unlit sides of the rings, and of "Earhart" on the lit side. As of this writing, a final targeted flyby of "Bleriot" on the unlit side of the rings has yet to take place. The resolution of these images is at least 3x to 4x better than those of nearly all previous propeller images, and at least 2x better than those of a small handful of the best previous propeller images.We will present maps of of the propeller structures, with enhanced ability to convert brightness to optical depth and surface density due to information from both the lit and unlit sides of the rings. The images contain more complex structure than is predicted by simple models, which we will describe, and for which we will comment on likely explanations. The central moonlet of each propeller (which has never been seen) should be a couple of pixels across, but we cannot confirm whether they are seen in these images or whether they are obscured by stirred-up ring material.

  3. Thiocyanate and chloride as competing substrates for myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, C J; Whitehouse, M W; Winterbourn, C C; Kettle, A J

    1997-01-01

    The neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase uses H2O2 to oxidize chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate to their respective hypohalous acids. Chloride is considered to be the physiological substrate. However, a detailed kinetic study of its substrate preference has not been undertaken. Our aim was to establish whether myeloperoxidase oxidizes thiocyanate in the presence of chloride at physiological concentrations of these substrates. We determined this by measuring the rate of H2O2 loss in reactions catalysed by the enzyme at various concentrations of each substrate. The relative specificity constants for chloride, bromide and thiocyanate were 1:60:730 respectively, indicating that thiocyanate is by far the most favoured substrate for myeloperoxidase. In the presence of 100 mM chloride, myeloperoxidase catalysed the production of hypothiocyanite at concentrations of thiocyanate as low as 25 microM. With 100 microM thiocyanate, about 50% of the H2O2 present was converted into hypothiocyanite, and the rate of hypohalous acid production equalled the sum of the individual rates obtained when each of these anions was present alone. The rate of H2O2 loss catalysed by myeloperoxidase in the presence of 100 mM chloride doubled when 100 microM thiocyanate was added, and was maximal with 1mM thiocyanate. This indicates that at plasma concentrations of thiocyanate and chloride, myeloperoxidase is far from saturated. We conclude that thiocyanate is a major physiological substrate of myeloperoxidase, regardless of where the enzyme acts. As a consequence, more consideration should be given to the oxidation products of thiocyanate and to the role they play in host defence and inflammation. PMID:9359420

  4. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of macrophages using molecularly targeted gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Joshi, Pratixa; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Amirian, James; Litovsky, Silvio H.; Smalling, Richard; Sokolov, Konstantin; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2010-02-01

    Using contrast agents with desired targeting moiety and optical absorption, intravascular photoacoustic imaging may be used to identify various biomarkers expressed during the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. In this paper, we present intravascular photoacoustic imaging of macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesions using bio-conjugated gold nanoparticles as the contrast agent. Atherosclerotic lesions were created in the aorta of a New Zealand white rabbit subjected to a high cholesterol diet and balloon injury. The rabbit was injected with 20 nm spherical gold nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies. The macrophages with internalized gold nanoparticles were imaged by intravascular photoacoustic imaging in the near infrared range; this was possible because of plasmon resonance coupling between closely spaced gold nanoparticles internalized by macrophages. The multi-wavelength intravascular photoacoustic images of the diseased aorta were analyzed to identify the presence and location of macrophages labeled with gold nanoparticles. Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic image showing the distribution of gold nanoparticles was further confirmed by the gold-specific silver staining of the tissue crosssection. The results of our study suggest that molecular intravascular photoacoustic imaging can be used to image macrophages in atherosclerosis.

  5. Stereo vision for small targets in IR image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, Boris; Gabler, Richard; Jaeger, Klaus

    2001-11-01

    Surveillance systems against missile attacks require the automatic detection of targets with low false alarm rate (FAR). Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems offer a passive detection of threats at long ranges. For maximum reaction time and the arrangement of counter measurements, it is necessary to declare the objects as early as possible. For this purpose the detection and tracking algorithms have to deal with point objects. Conventional object features like shape, size and texture are usually unreliable for small objects. More reliable features of point objects are three-dimensional spatial position and velocity. At least two sensors observing the same scene are required for multi-ocular stereo vision. Mainly three steps are relevant for successful stereo image processing. First of all the precise camera calibration (estimating the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters) is necessary to satisfy the demand of high degree of accuracy, especially for long range targets. Secondly the correspondence problem for the detected objects must be solved. Thirdly the three-dimensional location of the potential target has to be determined by projective transformation. For an evaluation a measurement campaign to capture image data was carried out with real targets using two identical IR cameras and additionally synthetic IR image sequences have been generated and processed. In this paper a straightforward solution for stereo analysis based on stationary bin-ocular sensors is presented, the current results are shown suggestions for future work are given.

  6. Aptamer for imaging and therapeutic targeting of brain tumor glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Delač, Mateja; Motaln, Helena; Ulrich, Henning; Lah, Tamara T

    2015-09-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids (RNA or ssDNA), identified by an in vitro selection process, denominated SELEX, from a partially random oligonucleotide library. They bind to a molecular target, a protein or other complex macromolecular structures of interest with high affinity and specificity, comparable to those of antibodies. Recently, aptamer selection protocols were developed for targeting living cells, including tumors. Chemical modifications of the aptamers and modalities of their detection and delivery systems are already available with high selectivity and targeting ability for the desired cancer cell type, making them promising for diagnosis and therapy. Glioblastoma multiformae represents the most malignant and fatal stage of glioma, and is also the most frequent brain tumor. Glioblastoma-specific aptamers were developed by either targeting the whole cell surface or known glioma biomarkers. These aptamers may gain importance for imaging, tumor cell isolation from biopsies and drug delivery. In biomedical imaging techniques, aptamers coupled with radionuclide or fluorescent labels, bioconjugates and nanoparticles offer an advanced, noninvasive manner for defining the glioblastoma tissue border. Though single modality aptamer imaging probes have some limitations, these are overcome by the use of multimodal probes. Due to selectivity and chemical characteristics, aptamers can be coupled to functionalized nanoparticles and loaded with a drug, appeared promising for in vivo targeting of glioblastoma. Finally, aptamers are effective mediators for gene silencing when coupled to small interfering RNA and a viral vector, thus providing a novel tool with enhanced targeting capability in drug delivery, designed for tailored treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  7. Target material collection for High-Energy Imaging Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Maryum F.; Mcnaney, James M.; Vignes, Ryan M.; Smith, Cal A.; Masters, Nathan; Bailey, Chris; Petre, Robert B.

    2014-09-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses the world's largest and most energetic laser system to explore Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy-Density (HED) physics, with the potential of creating pressure and density conditions normally found in the cores of stars or large planets. During NIF experiments, the laser energy is directed to the target, driving the desired physics conditions, and the breakup of the target. During this breakup there is the potential to generate debris fields with both vaporized and solid target material, traveling at extremely high velocities (~10 km/s). For future shots, it is desirable to minimize distribution of the certain target materials within NIF. The High Energy Imaging Diagnostic (HEIDI), which comes within 8 cm of the target, will be modified to minimize the distribution of the ejected material. An external cone will be added to HEIDI which will block a larger angle than the existing hardware. Internal shielding will be added to isolate target material within the front portion of the diagnostic. A thin aluminum bumper will slow low-density vaporized material and contribute to the breakup of high velocity particles, while a thicker wall will block solid chunks. After the shot, an external cover will be installed, to contain any stray material that might be disturbed by regular operations. The target material will be retrieved from the various shielding mechanisms and assayed.

  8. Breast cancer targeting novel microRNA-nanoparticles for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Venugopal, Senthil K.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Zern, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most prevalent small (~22 nucleotide) regulatory RNA classes in animals. These miRNAs constitute nearly one percent of genes in the human genome, making miRNA genes one of the more abundant types of regulatory molecules. MiRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell development, apoptosis, and other fundamental biological processes. MiRNAs exert their influence through complementary base-pairing with specific target mRNAs, leading to degradation or translational repression of the targeted mRNA. We have identified and tested a novel microRNA (miR-491) and demonstrated increased apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and in human breast cancer cells (HBT3477) in vitro. We prepared a novel cancer targeting assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with Quantum dots, miR-491, and MAb-ChL6 coupled through streptavidin/biotin for effective transfection, and to induce apoptosis in specific cancer cells for imaging and targeted therapy. The targeting and apoptosis inducing ability was tested by confocal and electron microscopy. The MAb-GNP-miR491-Qdot construct effectively transfected into the HBT3477 cells and induced apoptosis the confirmation of these results would suggest a new class of molecules for the imaging and therapy of breast cancer.

  9. Target information enhancement using polarized component of infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tiaowen; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jicheng; Yang, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    After a deep study of the principle of infrared polarization imaging detection, the infrared polarization information of target and background is modeled. Considering the partial polarized light can be obtained by the superposition of natural light (unpolarized light) and linearly polarized component while ignoring the component of circularly polarized light, and combing with the degree of polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP), the infrared polarization information is expressed by the multiplying of an intensity factor by a polarization factor. What we have modeled not only can be used to analyze the infrared polarization information visually and profoundly, but also make the extraction of polarized features convenient. Then, faced with different application fields and based on the model, a target information enhancement program is proposed, which is achieved by extracting a linear polarization component in a certain polarized direction. This program greatly improves the contrast between target and background, and can be applied in target detection or identification, especially for camouflage or stealth target. At last, we preliminarily tested the proposed enhancement method exploiting infrared polarization images obtained indoor and outdoor, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the enhancement program.

  10. Psychophysical experiments for evaluating target distinctness in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Anthony C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.; McManamey, James R.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental design has been developed to facilitate collection of data for developing and testing computational models for assessment of the perceptual similarity or difference of texture patterns. This experimental design is based on Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement. To facilitate consistency in presentation of stimuli, collection of data, and computation of psychological scale values, an X-windows testing environment has been developed called the X-based Perceptual Experiment Testbed (XPET). A pilot study was conducted utilizing this experimental design. The study utilized images in which targets and their associated background had uncorrelated Gaussian noise texture patterns. Thus, only first- order image statistics were of significance. Psychological scale values for `target distinctness' obtained using this experimental design were compared to several first-order image metrics. Correlation coefficients as high as 0.9881 were found between the psychological scale values and first-order image metrics. It has been concluded that this experimental design should be adequate for data collection to support development of new second-order image metrics.

  11. Multimodality molecular imaging--from target description to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Schober, O; Rahbar, K; Riemann, B

    2009-02-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations.

  12. Radar target imaging by time-domain inverse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morag, M.

    1981-03-01

    This thesis describes the study and development of a workable inverse scattering method for imaging and identification of radar targets. The space-time integral approach is used for iterative target shape reconstruction. Following an overview of transient electromagnetics, the integral equation is applied for thin-wire transient response computation. The analytical time domain integral equation is derived and solved numerically, for general conducting bodies of revolution. Finally the algorithm for an inverse scattering computer solution is derived and tested under simulation of physical environments.

  13. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for targeted imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Jason R.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have become important tools for the imaging of prevalent diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and others. While first generation nanoparticles were fairly nonspecific, newer generations have been targeted to specific cell types and molecular targets via affinity ligands. Commonly, these ligands emerge from phage or small molecule screens, or are based on antibodies or aptamers. Secondary reporters and combined therapeutic molecules have further opened potential clinical applications of these materials. This review summarizes some of the recent biomedical applications of these newer magnetic nanomaterials. PMID:18508157

  14. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrera, Joseph P.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) systems in color imaging and low light target applications. This paper will discuss first the digital sensors that are utilized in the noted image fusion applications which is a 1900x1086 (high definition format) CMOS imager coupled to a Generation III image intensifier for the visible/near infrared (NIR) digital sensor and 320x240 or 640x480 uncooled microbolometer thermal imager for the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) digital sensor. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented. The digital image fusion (enhanced A+B) process will be presented in context of early fused night vision systems such as the digital image fused system (DIFS) and the digital enhanced night vision goggle and later, the long range digitally fused night vision sighting system. Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Dual color image fusion schemes such as Green/Red, Cyan/Yellow, and White/Blue for image intensifier and thermal infrared sensor color representation, respectively, are discussed. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. The result of this image analysis with enhanced A+B digital image fusion systems is that maximum contrast and spatial resolution is achieved in a digital fusion mode as compared to individual sensor modalities in low light, long distance imaging applications. Paper has been cleared by DoD/OSR for Public Release under Ref: 08-S-2183 on August 8, 2008.

  15. A sensitive and selective assay for chloramine production by myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Dypbukt, Jeannette M; Bishop, Cynthia; Brooks, Wendy M; Thong, Bob; Eriksson, Håkan; Kettle, Anthony J

    2005-12-01

    We describe a new assay for the chlorination activity of myeloperoxidase and detection of chloramines. Chloramines were detected by using iodide to catalyze the oxidation of either 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or dihydrorhodamine to form strongly absorbing or fluorescent products, respectively. With TMB as little as 1 muM taurine chloramine could be detected. The sensitivity of the dihydrorhodamine assay was about 10-fold greater. The chlorination activity of myeloperoxidase was measured by trapping hypochlorous acid with taurine and subsequently using iodide to promote the oxidation reactions of the accumulated taurine chloramine. A similar approach was used to detect hypochlorous acid production by stimulated human neutrophils. Iodide-dependent catalysis distinguished N-chloramines from N-bromamines. This allows for discrimination between heme peroxidases that generate either hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid. The assay has distinct advantages over existing assays for myeloperoxidase with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and its ease and versatility of use.

  16. Mapping social target detection with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dichter, Gabriel S; Felder, Jennifer N; Bodfish, James W; Sikich, Linmarie; Belger, Aysenil

    2009-03-01

    The neural correlates of cognitive control and social processing functions, as well as the characteristic patterns of anomalous brain activation patterns in psychiatric conditions associated with impairment in these functions, have been well characterized. However, these domains have primarily been examined in isolation. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas recruited during a target-detection task designed to evaluate responses to both non-social (i.e. shape) and social (i.e. face) target stimuli. Both shape and face targets activated a similar brain network, including the postcentral gyrus, the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri and the right midfrontal gyrus, whereas face targets additionally activated the thalamus, fusiform and temporooccipital cortex, lingual gyrus and paracingulate gyrus. Comparison of activations to social and non-social target events revealed that a small portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's area 32) and the supracalcarine cortex were preferentially activated to face targets. These findings indicate that non-social and social stimuli embedded within a cognitive control task activate overlapping and distinct brain regions. Clinical cognitive neuroscience research of disorders characterized by cognitive dysfunction and impaired social processing would benefit from the use of tasks that evaluate the combined effects of deficits in these two domains.

  17. Clearance Pathways and Tumor Targeting of Imaging Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mengxiao; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A basic understanding of how imaging nanoparticles are removed from the normal organs/tissues but retained in the tumors is important for their future clinical applications in early cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss current understandings of clearance pathways and tumor targeting of small-molecule- and inorganic-nanoparticle-based imaging probes with an emphasis on molecular nanoprobes, a class of inorganic nanoprobes that can escape reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake and be rapidly eliminated from the normal tissues/organs via kidneys but can still passively target the tumor with high efficiency through the enhanced permeability permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The impact of nanoparticle design (size, shape, and surface chemistry) on their excretion, pharmacokinetics, and passive tumor targeting were quantitatively discussed. Synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and EPR effect offers a promising pathway to design low-toxicity and high-contrast-enhancement imaging nanoparticles that could meet with the clinical translational requirements of regulatory agencies. PMID:26149184

  18. Optoacoustic imaging of gold nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghtedari, Mohammad; Motamedi, Massoud; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2004-07-01

    Optoacoustic Tomography (OAT) is a rapidly growing technology that enables noninvasive deep imaging of biological tissues based on their light absorption. In OAT, the interaction of a pulsed laser with tissue increases the temperature of the absorbing components in a confined volume of tissue. Rapid perturbation of the temperature (<1°C) deep within tissue produces weak acoustic waves that easily travel to the surface of the tissue with minor attenuation. Abnormal angiogenesis in a malignant tumor, that increases its blood content, makes a native contrast for optoacoustic imaging; however, the application of OAT for early detection of malignant tumors requires the enhancement of optoacoustic signals originated from tumor by using an exogenous contrast agent. Due to their strong absorption, we have used gold nanoparticles (NP) as a contrast agent. 40nm spherical gold nanoparticles were attached to monoclonal antibody to target cell surface of breast cancer cells. The targeted cancer cells were implanted at depth of 5-6cm within a gelatinous object that optically resembles human breast. Experimental sensitivity measurements along with theoretical analysis showed that our optoacoustic imaging system is capable of detecting a phantom breast tumor with the volume of 0.15ml, which is composed of 25 million NP-targeted cancer cells, at a depth of 5 centimeters in vitro.

  19. Radiation dose detection by imaging response in biological targets.

    PubMed

    Jakob, B; Durante, M

    2012-04-01

    Imaging was one of the earliest techniques to quantify radiation dose. While films and active fluorescent detectors are still commonly used in physical dosimetry, biological imaging is emerging as a new method to visualize and quantify radiation dose in biological targets. Methods for biological imaging are normally based on molecular fluorescent probes, labeling chromatin-conjugated molecules or specific repair proteins. Examples are chromatin-binding coumarin compounds, which become fluorescent under irradiation, or the H2AX histone, which is rapidly phosphorylated at sites of DNA double-strand breaks and can be visualized by immunostaining. Many other DNA repair proteins can be expressed with fluorescent targets, such as green fluorescent protein, thus becoming visible for dose estimation in vivo. The possibility to visualize radiation damage in living biological targets is particularly important for repair kinetic studies, for estimating individual radiation response, and for remote control of living samples exposed to radiation, for instance in robotic space missions. In vivo dose monitoring in particle therapy exploits the production of positron emitters by nuclear interaction of the incident beam in the patient's body. Positron emission tomography (PET) can then be used to visualize and quantify the particle dose in the patient, and it can in principle also be used for radiotherapy with high-energy X rays. Alternatively, prompt γ rays or scattered secondary particles are under study for in vivo dosimetry of ion beams in therapy.

  20. Molecular imaging and therapy targeting copper metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmann, Jason; Peng, Fangyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Significant efforts have been devoted to identify new biomarkers for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of HCC. Copper is a nutritional metal required for the function of numerous enzymatic molecules in the metabolic pathways of human cells. Emerging evidence suggests that copper plays a role in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Increased accumulation of copper ions was detected in tissue samples of HCC and many other cancers in humans. Altered copper metabolism is a new biomarker for molecular cancer imaging with position emission tomography (PET) using radioactive copper as a tracer. It has been reported that extrahepatic mouse hepatoma or HCC xenografts can be localized with PET using copper-64 chloride as a tracer, suggesting that copper metabolism is a new biomarker for the detection of HCC metastasis in areas of low physiological copper uptake. In addition to copper modulation therapy with copper chelators, short-interference RNA specific for human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) may be used to suppress growth of HCC by blocking increased copper uptake mediated by hCtr1. Furthermore, altered copper metabolism is a promising target for radionuclide therapy of HCC using therapeutic copper radionuclides. Copper metabolism has potential as a new theranostic biomarker for molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of HCC. PMID:26755872

  1. Molecular imaging and therapy targeting copper metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Jason; Peng, Fangyu

    2016-01-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Significant efforts have been devoted to identify new biomarkers for molecular imaging and targeted therapy of HCC. Copper is a nutritional metal required for the function of numerous enzymatic molecules in the metabolic pathways of human cells. Emerging evidence suggests that copper plays a role in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Increased accumulation of copper ions was detected in tissue samples of HCC and many other cancers in humans. Altered copper metabolism is a new biomarker for molecular cancer imaging with position emission tomography (PET) using radioactive copper as a tracer. It has been reported that extrahepatic mouse hepatoma or HCC xenografts can be localized with PET using copper-64 chloride as a tracer, suggesting that copper metabolism is a new biomarker for the detection of HCC metastasis in areas of low physiological copper uptake. In addition to copper modulation therapy with copper chelators, short-interference RNA specific for human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) may be used to suppress growth of HCC by blocking increased copper uptake mediated by hCtr1. Furthermore, altered copper metabolism is a promising target for radionuclide therapy of HCC using therapeutic copper radionuclides. Copper metabolism has potential as a new theranostic biomarker for molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of HCC.

  2. Targeted diagnostic magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, I; Strauss, A; Dobiasch, S; Weis, C; Szanyi, S; Gil-Iceta, L; Alonso, E; González Esparza, M; Gómez-Vallejo, V; Szczupak, B; Plaza-García, S; Mirzaei, S; Israel, L L; Bianchessi, S; Scanziani, E; Lellouche, J-P; Knoll, P; Werner, J; Felix, K; Grenacher, L; Reese, T; Kreuter, J; Jiménez-González, M

    2015-09-28

    Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Target-oriented Marchenko imaging of a North Sea field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravasi, Matteo; Vasconcelos, Ivan; Kritski, Alexander; Curtis, Andrew; Filho, Carlos Alberto da Costa; Meles, Giovanni Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Seismic imaging provides much of our information about the Earth's crustal structure. The principal source of imaging errors derives from simplicistically modeled predictions of the complex, scattered wavefields that interact with each subsurface point to be imaged. A new method of wavefield extrapolation based on inverse scattering theory produces accurate estimates of these subsurface scattered wavefields, while still using relatively little information about the Earth's properties. We use it for the first time to create real target-oriented seismic images of a North Sea field. We synthesize underside illumination from surface reflection data, and use it to reveal subsurface features that are not present in an image from conventional migration of surface data. To reconstruct underside reflections, we rely on the so-called downgoing focusing function, whose coda consists entirely of transmission-born multiple scattering. As such, we provide the first field data example of reconstructing underside reflections with contributions from transmitted multiples, without the need to first locate or image any reflectors in order to reconstruct multiple scattering effects.

  4. Gold-manganese nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi

    2015-11-10

    Imagine the possibility of non-invasive, non-radiation based Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combating cardiac disease. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are developing a process that would use nanotechnology in a novel, targeted approach that would allow MRIs to be more descriptive and brighter, and to target specific organs. Researchers at SRNL have discovered a way to use multifunctional metallic gold-manganese nanoparticles to create a unique, targeted positive contrast agent. SRNL Senior Scientist Dr. Simona Hunyadi Murph says she first thought of using the nanoparticles for cardiac disease applications after learning that people who survive an infarct exhibit up to 15 times higher rate of developing chronic heart failure, arrhythmias and/or sudden death compared to the general population. Without question, nanotechnology will revolutionize the future of technology. The development of functional nanomaterials with multi-detection modalities opens up new avenues for creating multi-purpose technologies for biomedical applications.

  5. Targeting SR-BI for Cancer Diagnostics, Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajora, Maneesha A.; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumors and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents. PMID:27729859

  6. Moving target imaging using sparse and low-rank structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Eric; Yazici, Birsen

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for passive radar detection of ground moving targets using sparsely distributed apertures. We assume the scene is illuminated by a source of opportunity and measure the backscattered signal. We correlate measurements from two different receivers, then form a linear forward model that operates on a rank one, positive semi-definite (PSD) operator, formed by taking the tensor product of the phase-space reflectivity function with its self. Utilizing this structure, image formation and velocity estimation are defined in a constrained optimization framework. Additionally, image formation and velocity estimation are formulated as separate optimization problems, this results in computational savings. Position estimation is posed as a rank one PSD constrained least squares problem. Then, velocity estimation is performed as a cardinality constrained least squares problem, solved using a greedy algorithm. We demonstrate the performance of our method with numerical simulations, demonstrate improvement over back-projection imaging, and evaluate the effect of spatial diversity.

  7. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase-mediated hypochlorous acid production by nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Rees, Martin D; Bottle, Steven E; Fairfull-Smith, Kathryn E; Malle, Ernst; Whitelock, John M; Davies, Michael J

    2009-06-12

    Tissue damage resulting from the extracellular production of HOCl (hypochlorous acid) by the MPO (myeloperoxidase)-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of activated phagocytes is implicated as a key event in the progression of a number of human inflammatory diseases. Consequently, there is considerable interest in the development of therapeutically useful MPO inhibitors. Nitroxides are well established antioxidant compounds of low toxicity that can attenuate oxidative damage in animal models of inflammatory disease. They are believed to exert protective effects principally by acting as superoxide dismutase mimetics or radical scavengers. However, we show here that nitroxides can also potently inhibit MPO-mediated HOCl production, with the nitroxide 4-aminoTEMPO inhibiting HOCl production by MPO and by neutrophils with IC50 values of approx. 1 and 6 microM respectively. Structure-activity relationships were determined for a range of aliphatic and aromatic nitroxides, and inhibition of oxidative damage to two biologically-important protein targets (albumin and perlecan) are demonstrated. Inhibition was shown to involve one-electron oxidation of the nitroxides by the compound I form of MPO and accumulation of compound II. Haem destruction was also observed with some nitroxides. Inhibition of neutrophil HOCl production by nitroxides was antagonized by neutrophil-derived superoxide, with this attributed to superoxide-mediated reduction of compound II. This effect was marginal with 4-aminoTEMPO, probably due to the efficient superoxide dismutase-mimetic activity of this nitroxide. Overall, these data indicate that nitroxides have considerable promise as therapeutic agents for the inhibition of MPO-mediated damage in inflammatory diseases.

  8. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase-mediated hypochlorous acid production by nitroxides

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Martin D.; Bottle, Steven E.; Fairfull-Smith, Kathryn E.; Malle, Ernst; Whitelock, John M.; Davies, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue damage resulting from the extracellular production of HOCl (hypochlorous acid) by the MPO (myeloperoxidase)-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of activated phagocytes is implicated as a key event in the progression of a number of human inflammatory diseases. Consequently, there is considerable interest in the development of therapeutically useful MPO inhibitors. Nitroxides are well established antioxidant compounds of low toxicity that can attenuate oxidative damage in animal models of inflammatory disease. They are believed to exert protective effects principally by acting as superoxide dismutase mimetics or radical scavengers. However, we show here that nitroxides can also potently inhibit MPO-mediated HOCl production, with the nitroxide 4-aminoTEMPO inhibiting HOCl production by MPO and by neutrophils with IC50 values of approx. 1 and 6 μM respectively. Structure–activity relationships were determined for a range of aliphatic and aromatic nitroxides, and inhibition of oxidative damage to two biologically-important protein targets (albumin and perlecan) are demonstrated. Inhibition was shown to involve one-electron oxidation of the nitroxides by the compound I form of MPO and accumulation of compound II. Haem destruction was also observed with some nitroxides. Inhibition of neutrophil HOCl production by nitroxides was antagonized by neutrophil-derived superoxide, with this attributed to superoxide-mediated reduction of compound II. This effect was marginal with 4-aminoTEMPO, probably due to the efficient superoxide dismutase-mimetic activity of this nitroxide. Overall, these data indicate that nitroxides have considerable promise as therapeutic agents for the inhibition of MPO-mediated damage in inflammatory diseases. PMID:19379130

  9. Thresholding in PET images of static and moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremko, Brian; Riauka, Terence; Robinson, Don; Murray, Brad; Alexander, Abraham; McEwan, Alexander; Roa, Wilson

    2005-12-01

    Continued therapeutic gain in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will depend upon our ability to escalate the dose to the primary tumour while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Both these objectives are facilitated by the accurate definition of a target volume that is as small as possible. To this end, both tumour immobilizations via deep inspiratory breath-hold, along with positron emission tomography (PET), have emerged as two promising approaches. Though PET is an excellent means of defining the general location of a tumour focus, its ability to define exactly the geometric extent of such a focus strongly depends upon selection of an appropriate image threshold. However, in clinical practice, the image threshold is typically not chosen according to consistent, well-established criteria. This study explores the relationship between image threshold and the resultant PET-defined volume using a series of F-18 radiotracer-filled hollow spheres of known internal volumes, both static and under oscillatory motion. The effects of both image threshold and tumour motion on the resultant PET image are examined. Imaging data are further collected from a series of simulated gated PET acquisitions in order to test the feasibility of a patient-controlled gating mechanism during deep inspiratory breath-hold. This study illustrates quantitatively considerable variability in resultant PET-defined tumour volumes depending upon numerous factors, including image threshold, size of the lesion, the presence of tumour motion and the scanning protocol. In this regard, when using PET in treatment planning for NSCLC, the radiation oncologist must select the image threshold very carefully to avoid either under-dosing the tumour or overdosing normal tissues.

  10. Infrared patch-image model for small target detection in a single image.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chenqiang; Meng, Deyu; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yongtao; Zhou, Xiaofang; Hauptmann, Alexander G

    2013-12-01

    The robust detection of small targets is one of the key techniques in infrared search and tracking applications. A novel small target detection method in a single infrared image is proposed in this paper. Initially, the traditional infrared image model is generalized to a new infrared patch-image model using local patch construction. Then, because of the non-local self-correlation property of the infrared background image, based on the new model small target detection is formulated as an optimization problem of recovering low-rank and sparse matrices, which is effectively solved using stable principle component pursuit. Finally, a simple adaptive segmentation method is used to segment the target image and the segmentation result can be refined by post-processing. Extensive synthetic and real data experiments show that under different clutter backgrounds the proposed method not only works more stably for different target sizes and signal-to-clutter ratio values, but also has better detection performance compared with conventional baseline methods.

  11. Synthetic aperture radar target detection, feature extraction, and image formation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian

    1994-01-01

    This report presents new algorithms for target detection, feature extraction, and image formation with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. For target detection, we consider target detection with SAR and coherent subtraction. We also study how the image false alarm rates are related to the target template false alarm rates when target templates are used for target detection. For feature extraction from SAR images, we present a computationally efficient eigenstructure-based 2D-MODE algorithm for two-dimensional frequency estimation. For SAR image formation, we present a robust parametric data model for estimating high resolution range signatures of radar targets and for forming high resolution SAR images.

  12. Synthetic aperture radar target detection, feature extraction, and image formation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian

    1994-09-01

    This report presents new algorithms for target detection, feature extraction, and image formation with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. For target detection, we consider target detection with SAR and coherent subtraction. We also study how the image false alarm rates are related to the target template false alarm rates when target templates are used for target detection. For feature extraction from SAR images, we present a computationally efficient eigenstructure-based 2D-MODE algorithm for two-dimensional frequency estimation. For SAR image formation, we present a robust parametric data model for estimating high resolution range signatures of radar targets and for forming high resolution SAR images.

  13. Small Multifunctional Nanoclusters (Nanoroses) for Targeted Cellular Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li Leo; Feldman, Marc D.; Tam, Jasmine M.; Paranjape, Amit S.; Cheruku, Kiran K.; Larson, Timothy A.; Tam, Justina O.; Ingram, Davis R.; Paramita, Vidia; Villard, Joseph W.; Jenkins, James T.; Wang, Tianyi; Clarke, Geoffrey D.; Asmis, Reto; Sokolov, Konstantin; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Milner, Thomas E.; Johnston, Keith P.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of 20–50 nm nanoparticles to target and modulate the biology of specific types of cells will enable major advancements in cellular imaging and therapy in cancer and atherosclerosis. A key challenge is to load an extremely high degree of targeting, imaging, and therapeutic functionality into small, yet stable particles. Herein we report ~30 nm stable uniformly sized near-infrared (NIR) active, superparamagnetic nanoclusters formed by kinetically controlled self-assembly of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The controlled assembly of nanocomposite particles into clusters with small primary particle spacings produces collective responses of the electrons that shift the absorbance into the NIR region. The nanoclusters of ~70 iron oxide primary particles with thin gold coatings display intense NIR (700–850 nm) absorbance with a cross section of ~10−14 m2. Because of the thin gold shells with an average thickness of only 2 nm, the r2 spin–spin magnetic relaxivity is 219 mM−1 s−1, an order of magnitude larger than observed for typical iron oxide particles with thicker gold shells. Despite only 12% by weight polymeric stabilizer, the particle size and NIR absorbance change very little in deionized water over 8 months. High uptake of the nanoclusters by macrophages is facilitated by the dextran coating, producing intense NIR contrast in dark field and hyperspectral microscopy, both in cell culture and an in vivo rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Small nanoclusters with optical, magnetic, and therapeutic functionality, designed by assembly of nanoparticle building blocks, offer broad opportunities for targeted cellular imaging, therapy, and combined imaging and therapy. PMID:19711944

  14. Retrieving and recognizing aircraft targets staying at the airport from the satellite image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yu; Wang, Jingen; Wang, Yanfei; Xu, Jingtao

    2009-10-01

    The paper studies the problem of how to recognize aircraft targets staying at the airport from satellite image database of huge amount in an acceptable processing speed. Without adopting the current method recognizing the target picture by picture from the image database, the paper combines image retrieval with target recognition, and firstly uses image retrieval technology to pick out those images containing airport target from the satellite image database, then utilizes target recognition technology to recognize the aircraft targets staying at the airport from those images. Some new methods or thoughts have been put forward about the airport image retrieval, segmentation and recognition for aircraft targets, and a retrieval and recognition system for aircraft targets staying at the airport in the database of satellite images has been studied and designed. Finally many experiments has been designed and carried out, and the experimental results demonstrate that these methods are feasible and effective.

  15. Polarization imaging enhancement for target vision through haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hai-Ying; Zhang, San-Xi; Li, Jie; LI, Bin; Tang, Zi-li; Liu, Biao; Jia, Wen-Wu

    2016-10-01

    Haze, fog, and smoke are turbid medium in the atmosphere which usually degrade viewing condition of outdoor scenes. The resulted images lose contrast and color fidelity with serious degradation. Due to loss of large detailed information of measured scene, it will usually lead to invalid detection and measurement. The suspended particles in the atmosphere and the scene being measured give rise to polarization changes by their reflection. In the process of reflection, absorption and scattering, the object itself can be determined by its own polarization characteristics. Based on this point, we proposed an approach for target vision through haze. This approach is based on the polarization differences between the scene being measured and the scattering background to move the haze effects. It can realize a great visibility enhancement and enable the scene rendering even if imaged under restricted viewing conditions with low polarization. In this work, the detailed theoretical operation principle is presented. A validating imaging system is established and the corresponding experiment is carried out. We present the experimental results of haze-free image of scene with recovered high contrast. This method also can be used to effectively enhance the imaging performance of any other optical system.

  16. External calibration of polarimetric radar images using distributed targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is presented for calibrating polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images using only the responses from natural distributed targets. The model for polarimetric radars is assumed to be X = cRST where X is the measured scattering matrix corresponding to the target scattering matrix S distorted by the system matrices T and R (in general T does not equal R(sup t)). To allow for the polarimetric calibration using only distributed targets and corner reflectors, van Zyl assumed a reciprocal polarimetric radar model with T = R(sup t); when applied for JPL SAR data, a heuristic symmetrization procedure is used by POLCAL to compensate the phase difference between the measured HV and VH responses and then take the average of both. This heuristic approach causes some non-removable cross-polarization responses for corner reflectors, which can be avoided by a rigorous symmetrization method based on reciprocity. After the radar is made reciprocal, a new algorithm based on the responses from distributed targets with reflection symmetry is developed to estimate the cross-talk parameters. The new algorithm never experiences problems in convergence and is also found to converge faster than the existing routines implemented for POLCAL. When the new technique is implemented for the JPL polarimetric data, symmetrization and cross-talk removal are performed on a line-by-line (azimuth) basis. After the cross-talks are removed from the entire image, phase and amplitude calibrations are carried out by selecting distributed targets either with azimuthal symmetry along the looking direction or with some well-known volume and surface scattering mechanisms to estimate the relative phases and amplitude responses of the horizontal and vertical channels.

  17. Computed tomography imaging-guided radiotherapy by targeting upconversion nanocubes with significant imaging and radiosensitization enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Huaiyong; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Ren, Qingguo; Bu, Wenbo; Ge, Weiqiang; Xiao, Qingfeng; Zhang, Shengjian; Wei, Chenyang; Qu, Haiyun; Wang, Zheng; Hua, Yanqing; Zhou, Liangping; Peng, Weijun; Zhao, Kuaile; Shi, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    The clinical potentials of radiotherapy could not be achieved completely because of the inaccurate positioning and inherent radioresistance of tumours. In this study, a novel active-targeting upconversion theranostic agent (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-labelled BaYbF5: 2% Er3+ nanocube) was developed for the first time to address these clinical demands. Heavy metal-based nanocubes (~10 nm) are potential theranostic agents with bifunctional features: computed tomography (CT) contrast agents for targeted tumour imaging and irradiation dose enhancers in tumours during radiotherapy. Remarkably, they showed low toxicity and excellent performance in active-targeting CT imaging and CT imaging-guided radiosensitizing therapy, which could greatly concentrate and enlarge the irradiation dose deposition in tumours to enhance therapeutic efficacy and minimize the damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:23624542

  18. Multiple targeting in photoacoustic imaging using bioconjugated gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pai-Chi; Wei, Chen-Wei; Liao, Chao-Kang; Chen, Cheng-Dah; Pao, Kuei-Chen; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Wu, Ya-Na; Shieh, Dar-Bin

    2006-02-01

    Cancer cells presented altered surface molecules to encourage their growth and metastasis. Expression of oncogeneic surface molecules also play important roles in the prediction of clinical outcome and treatment response of anti-cancer drugs. It is thus conceivable that imaging of cancer lesions while simultaneously obtaining their pathogenic information at molecular level of as many oncogenic proteins as possible is of great clinical significance. Gold nanoparticles have been used as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging. In addition, gold nanoparticles can be bioconjugated to probe certain molecular processes. An intriguing property of gold nanoparticles is its ability to tailor its optical properties. For example, size effects on the surface plasmon absorption of spherical gold nanoparticles have shown that the peak optical absorption red-shifts with the increasing particle size. In addition, the optical absorption spectrum of cylindrical gold nanoparticles (i.e., gold nanorods) exhibits a strong absorption band that is directly related to the aspect ratio. With these unique characteristics, selective targeting can be achieved in photoacoustic molecular imaging. Specifically, gold nanorods with different aspect ratios can be bioconjugated to different antibodies. Multiple targeting and simultaneous detection can then be achieved by using laser irradiation at the respective peak optical absorption wavelength. In this study, photoacoustic multiple targeting using gold nanorods is experimentally demonstrated. We have chosen Her2 and CXCR4 as our primary target molecule as Her2 expression is associated with growth characteristics and sensitivity to Herceptin chemotherapy. On the other hand, CXCR4 expression predict the organ-specific metastatic potential of the cancer cells for clinical intervention in advance. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Her2/neu was conjugated to nanorods with several different aspect ratios. The agarose gel is suitable for

  19. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Villa, Carlos H; Holland, Jason P; Sprinkle, Shanna R; May, Chad; Lewis, Jason S; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2010-10-05

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) constructs were covalently appended with radiometal-ion chelates (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA] or desferrioxamine B [DFO]) and the tumor neovascular-targeting antibody E4G10. The E4G10 antibody specifically targeted the monomeric vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad) epitope expressed in the tumor angiogenic vessels. The construct specific activity and blood compartment clearance kinetics were significantly improved relative to corresponding antibodyalone constructs. We performed targeted radioimmunotherapy with a SWCNT-([(225)Ac]DOTA) (E4G10) construct directed at the tumor vasculature in a murine xenograft model of human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T). The specific construct reduced tumor volume and improved median survival relative to controls. We also performed positron emission tomographic (PET) radioimmunoimaging of the tumor vessels with a SWCNT-([(89)Zr]DFO)(E4G10) construct in the same murine LS174T xenograft model and compared the results to appropriate controls. Dynamic and longitudinal PET imaging of LS174T tumor-bearing mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance (<1 hour) and specific tumor accumulation of the specific construct. Incorporation of the SWCNT scaffold into the construct design permitted us to amplify the specific activity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio without detrimentally impacting the immunoreactivity of the targeting antibody moiety. Furthermore, we were able to exploit the SWCNT pharmacokinetic (PK) profile to favorably alter the blood clearance and provide an advantage for rapid imaging. Near-infrared three-dimensional fluorescent-mediated tomography was used to image the LS174T tumor model, collect antibody-alone PK data, and calculate the number of copies of VE-cad epitope per cell. All of these studies were performed as a single administration of construct and were found to be safe and well tolerated by the murine model. These data have implications that

  20. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessandro; Villa, Carlos H; Holland, Jason P; Sprinkle, Shanna R; May, Chad; Lewis, Jason S; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) constructs were covalently appended with radiometal-ion chelates (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA] or desferrioxamine B [DFO]) and the tumor neovascular-targeting antibody E4G10. The E4G10 antibody specifically targeted the monomeric vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad) epitope expressed in the tumor angiogenic vessels. The construct specific activity and blood compartment clearance kinetics were significantly improved relative to corresponding antibodyalone constructs. We performed targeted radioimmunotherapy with a SWCNT-([225Ac]DOTA) (E4G10) construct directed at the tumor vasculature in a murine xenograft model of human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T). The specific construct reduced tumor volume and improved median survival relative to controls. We also performed positron emission tomographic (PET) radioimmunoimaging of the tumor vessels with a SWCNT-([89Zr]DFO)(E4G10) construct in the same murine LS174T xenograft model and compared the results to appropriate controls. Dynamic and longitudinal PET imaging of LS174T tumor-bearing mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance (<1 hour) and specific tumor accumulation of the specific construct. Incorporation of the SWCNT scaffold into the construct design permitted us to amplify the specific activity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio without detrimentally impacting the immunoreactivity of the targeting antibody moiety. Furthermore, we were able to exploit the SWCNT pharmacokinetic (PK) profile to favorably alter the blood clearance and provide an advantage for rapid imaging. Near-infrared three-dimensional fluorescent-mediated tomography was used to image the LS174T tumor model, collect antibody-alone PK data, and calculate the number of copies of VE-cad epitope per cell. All of these studies were performed as a single administration of construct and were found to be safe and well tolerated by the murine model. These data have implications that

  1. Contrast agents for preclinical targeted X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Zuber, Guy; Vandamme, Thierry

    2014-09-30

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is an X-ray based instrument that it is specifically designed for biomedical research at a preclinical stage for live imaging of small animals. This imaging modality is cost-effective, fast, and produces remarkable high-resolution images of X-ray opaque skeleton. Administration of biocompatible X-ray opaque contrast agent allows delineation of the blood vessels, and internal organs and even detection of tumor metastases as small as 300 μm. However, the main limitation of micro-CT lies in the poor efficacy or toxicity of the contrast agents. Moreover, contrast agents for micro-CT have to be stealth nanoparticulate systems, i.e. preventing their rapid renal clearance. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties will condition their uptake and elimination pathways, and therefore all the biological fluids, organs, and tissues trough this elimination route of the nanoparticles will be contrasted. Furthermore, several technologies playing on the nanoparticle properties, aim to influence these biological pathways in order to induce their accumulation onto given targeted sites, organs of tumors. In function of the methodologies carried out, taking benefit or not of the action of immune system, of the natural response of the organism like hepatocyte uptake or enhanced permeation and retention effect, or even accumulation due to ligand/receptor interactions, the technologies are called passive or active targeted imaging. The present review presents the most recent advances in the development of specific contrast agents for targeted X-ray imaging micro-CT, discussing the recent advance of in vivo targeting of nanoparticulate contrast agents, and the influence of the formulations, nature of the nanocarrier, nature and concentration of the X-ray contrasting materials, effect of the surface properties, functionalization and bioconjugation. The pharmacokinetic and versatility of nanometric systems appear particularly advantageous

  2. A novel fluorescent probe for the detection of myeloperoxidase activity in atherosclerosis-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joanna; Hilderbrand, Scott A.; Waterman, Peter; Heinecke, Jay W.; Weissleder, Ralph; Libby, Peter

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl−) is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory states. We have synthesized a novel imaging probe, sulfonaphthoaminophenyl fluorescein (SNAPF), that selectively reacts to HOCl. SNAPF detects HOCl produced by stimulated MPO-expressing cells cultured from human whole blood, as well as HOCl from bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages isolated from transgenic mice that express human MPO. Two lines of evidence indicate that SNAPF permits the in vivo imaging of HOCl production. First, we used this approach to demonstrate HOCl production by neutrophils in experimental murine peritonitis. Second, we detected HOCl production by MPO expressing cells in human atherosclerotic arteries. Thus, fluorescence reflectance imaging by SNAPF may provide a valuable non-invasive molecular imaging tool for implicating HOCl and MPO in the damage of inflamed tissues. PMID:18022561

  3. Imaging the inside of a tumour: a review of radionuclide imaging and theranostics targeting intracellular epitopes.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Molecular imaging of tumour tissue focusses mainly on extracellular epitopes such as tumour angiogenesis or signal transduction receptors expressed on the cell membrane. However, most biological processes that define tumour phenotype occur within the cell. In this mini-review, an overview is given of the various techniques to interrogate intracellular events using molecular imaging with radiolabelled compounds. Additionally, similar targeting techniques can be employed for radionuclide therapy using Auger electron emitters, and recent advances in Auger electron therapy are discussed.

  4. Highly selective luminescent nanostructures for mitochondrial imaging and targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, E.; Iacobazzi, R. M.; Laquintana, V.; Valente, G.; Caliandro, G.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cutrignelli, A.; Lopedota, A.; Curri, M. L.; Franco, M.; Depalo, N.; Denora, N.

    2016-02-01

    Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino functionalized luminescent silica coated QD nanoparticles (QD@SiO2 NPs) provides a versatile nanoplatform to anchor a potent and selective TSPO ligand, characterized by a 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamide structure along with a derivatizable carboxylic end group, useful to conjugate the TSPO ligand and achieve TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs by means of a covalent amide bond. The colloidal stability and optical properties of the proposed nanomaterials are comprehensively investigated and their potential as mitochondrial imaging agents is fully assessed. Sub-cellular fractionation, together with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy and co-localization analysis of targeted TSPO-QD@SiO2 NPs in C6 glioma cells overexpressing the TSPO, proves the great potential of these multifunctional nanosystems as in vitro selective mitochondrial imaging agents.Here a luminescent hybrid nanostructure based on functionalized quantum dots (QDs) is used as a fluorescent imaging agent able to target selectively mitochondria thanks to the molecular recognition of the translocator protein (TSPO). The selective targeting of such an 18 kDa protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and overexpressed in several pathological states including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers may provide valuable information for the early diagnosis and therapy of human disorders. In particular, the rational design of amino

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging for target volume definition in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Berberat, Jatta; McNamara, Jane; Remonda, Luca; Bodis, Stephan; Rogers, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MR-based technique that may better detect the peritumoural region than MRI. Our aim was to explore the feasibility of using DTI for target volume delineation in glioblastoma patients. MR tensor tracts and maps of the isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of water diffusion were coregistered with CT in 13 glioblastoma patients. An in-house image processing program was used to analyse water diffusion in each voxel of interest in the region of the tumour. Tumour infiltration was mapped according to validated criteria and contralateral normal brain was used as an internal control. A clinical target volume (CTV) was generated based on the T1-weighted image obtained using contrast agent (T1Gd), tractography and the infiltration map. This was compared to a conventional T2-weighted CTV (T2-w CTV). Definition of a diffusion-based CTV that included the adjacent white matter tracts proved highly feasible. A statistically significant difference was detected between the DTI-CTV and T2-w CTV volumes (p < 0.005, t = 3.480). As the DTI-CTVs were smaller than the T2-w CTVs (tumour plus peritumoural oedema), the pq maps were not simply detecting oedema. Compared to the clinical planning target volume (PTV), the DTI-PTV showed a trend towards volume reduction. These diffusion-based volumes were smaller than conventional volumes, yet still included sites of tumour recurrence. Extending the CTV along the abnormal tensor tracts in order to preserve coverage of the likely routes of dissemination, whilst sparing uninvolved brain, is a rational approach to individualising radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma patients.

  6. Location of planar targets in three space from monocular images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornils, Karin; Goode, Plesent W.

    1987-01-01

    Many pieces of existing and proposed space hardware that would be targets of interest for a telerobot can be represented as planar or near-planar surfaces. Examples include the biostack modules on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, the panels on Solar Max, large diameter struts, and refueling receptacles. Robust and temporally efficient methods for locating such objects with sufficient accuracy are therefore worth developing. Two techniques that derive the orientation and location of an object from its monocular image are discussed and the results of experiments performed to determine translational and rotational accuracy are presented. Both the quadrangle projection and elastic matching techniques extract three-space information using a minimum of four identifiable target points and the principles of the perspective transformation. The selected points must describe a convex polygon whose geometric characteristics are prespecified in a data base. The rotational and translational accuracy of both techniques was tested at various ranges. This experiment is representative of the sensing requirements involved in a typical telerobot target acquisition task. Both techniques determined target location to an accuracy sufficient for consistent and efficient acquisition by the telerobot.

  7. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3)-Targeted Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Mukesh K.; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 <20 nM for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive inhibitors and IC50 <5 μM for non-ATP-competitive inhibitors, were analyzed for structure activity relationships. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of GSK-3 and its possible impact on therapy and imaging are also highlighted. Finally, a rational perspective and possible route to selective and effective GSK-3 inhibitors is discussed. PMID:26941849

  8. Self-induced thermal distortion effects on target image quality.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, F G

    1972-06-01

    Experimental results are reported that show the effects of the self-induced thermal lens due to a high power laser beam on imaging or tracking systems viewing along the same propagation path. The thermal distortion effects of a wind are simulated with a low power ( less, similar 3-W) CO(2) laser beam propagating through a cell of liquid CS(2) moving across the beam. The resulting image distortion includes a warping effect analogous to the deflection of the CO(2) beam, together with a pronounced demagnification of the central portion of the object. An active optical tracker is simulated with a He-Ne laser beam propagating collinearly with the CO(2) beam. The He-Ne beam pattern returned from a specular target is distorted and sharply confined to the outline of the crescent shaped CO(2) beam. Simple ray optics models are used to provide qualitative explanations for the experimental results.

  9. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.

  10. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  11. Advances in target imaging of deep Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Y.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Clouzet, P.

    2015-12-01

    A new generation of global tomographic models (Lekić and Romanowicz, 2011; French et al, 2013, 2014) has emerged with the development of accurate numerical wavefield computations in a 3D earth combined with access to enhanced HPC capabilities. These models have sharpened up mantle images and unveiled relatively small scale structures that were blurred out in previous generation models. Fingerlike structures have been found at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere, and vertically oriented broad low velocity plume conduits extend throughout the lower mantle beneath those major hotspots that are located within the perimeter of the deep mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). While providing new insights into our understanding of mantle dynamics, the detailed morphology of these features, requires further efforts to obtain higher resolution images. The focus of our ongoing effort is to develop advanced tomographic methods to image remote regions of the Earth at fine scales. We have developed an approach in which distant sources (located outside of the target region) are replaced by an equivalent set of local sources located at the border of the computational domain (Masson et al., 2014). A limited number of global simulations in a reference 3D earth model is then required. These simulations are computed prior to the regional inversion, while iterations of the model need to be performed only within the region of interest, potentially allowing us to include shorter periods at limited additional computational cost. Until now, the application was limited to a distribution of receivers inside the target region. This is particularly suitable for studies of upper mantle structure in regions with dense arrays (e.g. see our companion presentation Clouzet et al., this Fall AGU). Here we present our latest development that now can include teleseismic data recorded outside the imaged region. This allows us to perform regional waveform tomography in the situation where

  12. Autoradiography Imaging in Targeted Alpha Therapy with Timepix Detector

    PubMed Central

    AL Darwish, Ruqaya; Staudacher, Alexander Hugo; Bezak, Eva; Brown, Michael Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data related to activity uptake and particle track distribution in targeted alpha therapy. These data are required to estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level as alpha particles have a limited range and traverse only a few cells. Tracking of individual alpha particles is possible using the Timepix semiconductor radiation detector. We investigated the feasibility of imaging alpha particle emissions in tumour sections from mice treated with Thorium-227 (using APOMAB), with and without prior chemotherapy and Timepix detector. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Timepix detector to monitor variations in tumour uptake based on the necrotic tissue volume was also studied. Compartmental analysis model was used, based on the obtained imaging data, to assess the Th-227 uptake. Results show that alpha particle, photon, electron, and muon tracks were detected and resolved by Timepix detector. The current study demonstrated that individual alpha particle emissions, resulting from targeted alpha therapy, can be visualised and quantified using Timepix detector. Furthermore, the variations in the uptake based on the tumour necrotic volume have been observed with four times higher uptake for tumours pretreated with chemotherapy than for those without chemotherapy. PMID:25688285

  13. An automatic target recognition system based on SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinfu; Wang, Jinquan; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Furen; Xu, Xiaojian

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, an automatic target recognition (ATR) system based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is proposed. This ATR system can play an important role in the simulation of up-to-data battlefield environment and be used in ATR research. To establish an integral and available system, the processing of SAR image was divided into four main stages which are de-noise, detection, cluster-discrimination and segment-recognition, respectively. The first three stages are used for searching region of interest (ROI). Once the ROIs are extracted, the recognition stage will be taken to compute the similarity between the ROIs and the templates in the electromagnetic simulation software National Electromagnetic Scattering Code (NESC). Due to the lack of the SAR raw data, the electromagnetic simulated images are added to the measured SAR background to simulate the battlefield environment8. The purpose of the system is to find the ROIs which can be the artificial military targets such as tanks, armored cars and so on and to categorize the ROIs into the right classes according to the existing templates. From the results we can see that the proposed system achieves a satisfactory result.

  14. Autoradiography imaging in targeted alpha therapy with Timepix detector.

    PubMed

    A L Darwish, Ruqaya; Staudacher, Alexander Hugo; Bezak, Eva; Brown, Michael Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data related to activity uptake and particle track distribution in targeted alpha therapy. These data are required to estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level as alpha particles have a limited range and traverse only a few cells. Tracking of individual alpha particles is possible using the Timepix semiconductor radiation detector. We investigated the feasibility of imaging alpha particle emissions in tumour sections from mice treated with Thorium-227 (using APOMAB), with and without prior chemotherapy and Timepix detector. Additionally, the sensitivity of the Timepix detector to monitor variations in tumour uptake based on the necrotic tissue volume was also studied. Compartmental analysis model was used, based on the obtained imaging data, to assess the Th-227 uptake. Results show that alpha particle, photon, electron, and muon tracks were detected and resolved by Timepix detector. The current study demonstrated that individual alpha particle emissions, resulting from targeted alpha therapy, can be visualised and quantified using Timepix detector. Furthermore, the variations in the uptake based on the tumour necrotic volume have been observed with four times higher uptake for tumours pretreated with chemotherapy than for those without chemotherapy.

  15. Biosonar acoustic images for target localization and classification by bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, James A.

    1997-07-01

    Echolocating bats use sonar to guide interception of insects, recognize objects by shape, and even track prey in clutter. Broadcasts of the big brown bat are 0.5 to 20 ms FM signals in the 20-100 kHz ultrasonic band. Insects consist of several reflecting glints, each equivalent in cross- section to a small sphere of 2 mm to 2 cm radius, while clutter is typically composed of numerous glints distributed over a large volume. The bats' signals extend in space for many target lengths, while ka values for each glint are 0.5 to 30 across the broadcast band. Bats perceive acoustic images having echo delay as their primary dimension, and space is perceived in terms of the distribution of target glints in range. Range disparities between the ears provide two 'looks' at each target from slightly different locations as well as information about azimuth. The bats auditory system encodes the FM sweeps of broadcasts and echoes as linear-period spectrograms with integration-times of 300-400 micrometers . Bats nevertheless perceive individual glints in targets for echo-delay separations well inside the integration-time window. Deconvolution is achieved by spectrogram correlation in the time domain and spectral shape transformation in the frequency-domain, with all output evidently being displayed in the time domina. Neural responses in the bat's auditory system seem limited in time precision to 20-50 micrometers at best and 300 microsecond(s) to 3 ms in a broader sample, and stimulus phase is thought to be lost for frequencies above 1-3 kHz. Yet bats perceive echo delay with an accuracy of 10-15 ns and have two-echo resolution of about 2 microsecond(s) . Moreover, bats perceive echo phase-shifts as the correctly corresponding shifts in echo delay. Successive images are subtracted to enhance perception of shape from multiple 'looks', and echo phase is an integral part of this critical process. Utterly novel time-scale magnification appears in the bat's neural responses to

  16. Gold hybrid nanoparticles for targeted phototherapy and cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirui, Dickson K.; Rey, Diego A.; Batt, Carl A.

    2010-03-01

    Gold and iron oxide hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) synthesized by the thermal decomposition technique are bio-functionalized with a single chain antibody, scFv, that binds to the A33 antigen present on colorectal cancer cells. The HNP-scFv conjugates are stable in aqueous solution with a magnetization value of 44 emu g - 1 and exhibit strong optical absorbance at 800 nm. Here we test this material in targeting, imaging and selective thermal killing of colorectal cancer cells. Cellular uptake studies showed that A33-expressing cells take up the A33scFv-conjugated HNPs at a rate five times higher than cells that do not express the A33 antigen. Laser irradiation studies showed that approximately 53% of the A33-expressing cells exposed to targeted HNPs are killed after a six-minute laser treatment at 5.1 W cm - 2 using a 808 nm continuous wave laser diode while < 5% of A33-nonexpressing cells are killed. At a higher intensity, 31.5 W cm - 2, the thermal destruction increases to 99 and 40% for A33-expressing cells and A33 nonexpressing cells, respectively, after 6 min exposure. Flow cytometric analyses of the laser-irradiated A33 antigen-expressing cells show apoptosis-related cell death to be the primary mode of cell death at 5.1 W cm - 2, with increasing necrosis-related cell death at higher laser power. These results suggest that this new class of bio-conjugated hybrid nanoparticles can potentially serve as an effective antigen-targeted photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer treatment as well as a probe for magnetic resonance-based imaging.

  17. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  18. Image Registration for Targeted MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Wells, William M.; Kikinis, Ron; Tempany, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate image registration methodology for automated re-identification of tumor-suspicious foci from pre-procedural MR exams during MR-guided transperineal prostate core biopsy. Materials and Methods A hierarchical approach for automated registration between planning and intra-procedural T2-weighted prostate MRI was developed and evaluated on the images acquired during 10 consecutive MR-guided biopsies. Registration accuracy was quantified at image-based landmarks and by evaluating spatial overlap for the manually segmented prostate and sub-structures. Registration reliability was evaluated by simulating initial mis-registration and analyzing the convergence behavior. Registration precision was characterized at the planned biopsy targets. Results The total computation time was compatible with a clinical setting, being at most 2 minutes. Deformable registration led to a significant improvement in spatial overlap of the prostate and peripheral zone contours compared to both rigid and affine registration. Average in-slice landmark registration error was 1.3±0.5 mm. Experiments simulating initial mis-registration resulted in an estimated average capture range of 6 mm and an average in-slice registration precision of ±0.3 mm. Conclusion Our registration approach requires minimum user interaction and is compatible with the time constraints of our interventional clinical workflow. The initial evaluation shows acceptable accuracy, reliability and consistency of the method. PMID:22645031

  19. Infrared moving small target detection based on saliency extraction and image sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Ren, Kan; Gao, Jin; Li, Chaowei; Gu, Guohua; Wan, Minjie

    2016-10-01

    Moving small target detection in infrared image is a crucial technique of infrared search and tracking system. This paper present a novel small target detection technique based on frequency-domain saliency extraction and image sparse representation. First, we exploit the features of Fourier spectrum image and magnitude spectrum of Fourier transform to make a rough extract of saliency regions and use a threshold segmentation system to classify the regions which look salient from the background, which gives us a binary image as result. Second, a new patch-image model and over-complete dictionary were introduced to the detection system, then the infrared small target detection was converted into a problem solving and optimization process of patch-image information reconstruction based on sparse representation. More specifically, the test image and binary image can be decomposed into some image patches follow certain rules. We select the target potential area according to the binary patch-image which contains salient region information, then exploit the over-complete infrared small target dictionary to reconstruct the test image blocks which may contain targets. The coefficients of target image patch satisfy sparse features. Finally, for image sequence, Euclidean distance was used to reduce false alarm ratio and increase the detection accuracy of moving small targets in infrared images due to the target position correlation between frames.

  20. Characterization of cDNA clones for human myeloperoxidase: predicted amino acid sequence and evidence for multiple mRNA species.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K R; Nauseef, W M; Care, A; Wheelock, M J; Shane, S; Hudson, S; Koeffler, H P; Selsted, M; Miller, C; Rovera, G

    1987-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is a component of the microbicidal network of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The enzyme is a tetramer consisting of two heavy and two light subunits. A large proportion of humans demonstrate genetic deficiencies in the production of myeloperoxidase. As a first step in analyzing these deficiencies in more detail, we have isolated cDNA clones for myeloperoxidase from an expression library of the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Two overlapping plasmids (pMP02 and pMP062) were identified as myeloperoxidase cDNA clones based on the detection with myeloperoxidase antiserum of 70 kDa protein expressed in pMP02-containing bacteria and a 75 kDa polypeptide produced by hybridization selection and translation using pMP062 and HL-60 RNA. Formal identification of the clones was made by matching the predicted amino acid sequences with the amino terminal sequences of the heavy and light subunits. Both subunits are encoded by one mRNA in the following order: pre-pro-sequences--light subunit--heavy subunit. The molecular weight of the predicted primary translation product is 83.7 kDa. Northern blots reveal two size classes of hybridizing RNAs (approximately 3.0-3.3 and 3.5-4.0 kilobases) whose expression is restricted to cells of the granulocytic lineage and parallels the changes in enzymatic activity observed during differentiation. Images PMID:3031585

  1. Optical imaging of irradiated cyclotron target window foils using Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, A. E.; Boschi, F.; Calandrino, R.

    2017-05-01

    Radioisotopes production for PET radiopharmaceuticals is performed using cyclotrons resulting in radio activation of different cyclotron components. It is thus necessary to measure the level of radiation exposure and, if possible, to image the areas where most of the radiations are emitted in particular during maintenance or decommissioning procedures. In this work we present a novel optical imaging approach using Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI). CLI was performed by placing a glass Cerenkov radiator on a target window (Havar foils) and RLI data were obtained by covering the Havar foils with an intensifying screen. CLI or RLI were acquired using a small animal optical imaging system used in bioluminescence mode without the use of any optical filters. The analysis of the normalized radiance line profiles of both CLI and RLI images showed a similar pattern, however the absolute radiance of the RLI signal is several order of magnitude higher with respect to CLI. We conclude that optical imaging with CLI and RLI can be considered a novel method to detect and image activation areas in irradiated samples from a medical cyclotron.

  2. In Vivo Imaging of GLP-1R with a Targeted Bimodal PET/Fluorescence Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate visualization and quantification of β-cell mass is critical for the improved understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and insulinoma. Here, we describe the synthesis of a bimodal imaging probe (PET/fluorescence) for imaging GLP-1R expression in the pancreas and in pancreatic islet cell tumors. The conjugation of a bimodal imaging tag containing a near-infrared fluorescent dye, and the copper chelator sarcophagine to the GLP-1R targeting peptide exendin-4 provided the basis for the bimodal imaging probe. Conjugation was performed via a novel sequential one-pot synthetic procedure including 64Cu radiolabeling and copper-catalyzed click-conjugation. The bimodal imaging agent 64Cu-E4-Fl was synthesized in good radiochemical yield and specific activity (RCY = 36%, specific activity: 141 μCi/μg, >98% radiochemical purity). The agent showed good performance in vivo and ex vivo, visualizing small xenografts (<2 mm) with PET and pancreatic β-cell mass by phosphor autoradiography. Using the fluorescent properties of the probe, we were able to detect individual pancreatic islets, confirming specific binding to GLP-1R and surpassing the sensitivity of the radioactive label. The use of bimodal PET/fluorescent imaging probes is promising for preoperative imaging and fluorescence-assisted analysis of patient tissues. We believe that our procedure could become relevant as a protocol for the development of bimodal imaging agents. PMID:24856928

  3. Myeloperoxidase binds to and kills Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Yépez, J; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Barbosa-Cabrera, E; Rojas Hernández, S; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2011-05-01

    During amebic invasion, neutrophils are a key component in either protecting against invading trophozoites or contributing to tissue damage. Upon degranulating or being lysed, neutrophils release toxic substances that can kill amebas as well as damage host tissue. In a previous study we identified a protein from nonspecifically stimulated peritoneal exudates of hamster that has peroxidase and marked amebicidal activity. In the current study we analyzed the in vitro amebicidal effect of purified hamster myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results demonstrate that MPO must bind directly to the surface of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in order to carry out amebicidal activity by using the H(2) O(2) produced by the amebas themselves. Myeloperoxidase-incubated amebas showed important morphological and ultrastructural alterations that increased with incubation time. Changes included an increase of vacuoles in the cytoplasm, a decrease of glycogen, alterations of nuclear morphology and disturbances in the plasma membrane culminating in complete ameba destruction.

  4. Kinetic studies on the reaction of compound II of myeloperoxidase with ascorbic acid. Role of ascorbic acid in myeloperoxidase function.

    PubMed

    Marquez, L A; Dunford, H B; Van Wart, H

    1990-04-05

    Ascorbic acid is known to stimulate leukocyte functions. In a recent publication it was suggested that the role of ascorbic acid is to reduce compound II of myeloperoxidase back to the native enzyme (Bolscher, B. G. J. M., Zoutberg, G. R., Cuperus, R. A., and Wever, R. (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 784, 189-191). In this paper we report rapid spectral scan and transient state kinetic results on the reaction of three myeloperoxidase compounds II, namely, human neutrophil myeloperoxidase, canine myeloperoxidase, and bovine spleen heme protein with ascorbate. We show by rapid scan spectra that compound II does not pass through any other intermediate when ascorbic acid reduces it back to native form. We also show that the reactions of all three compounds II involve a simple binding interaction before enzyme reduction with an apparent dissociation constant of 6.3 +/- 0.9 x 10(-4) to 2.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(-3)M and a first-order rate constant for reduction of 12.6 +/- 0.6 to 18.8 +/- 1.3 s-1. The optimum pH is 4.5, and at this pH the activation energy for the reaction is 13.2 kJ mol-1. Results of this work lend further evidence that the spleen green heme protein is very similar if not identical to leukocyte myeloperoxidase based on a comparison of spectral scans, pH-rate profiles, and kinetic parameters. We demonstrate that chloride cannot reduce compound II whereas iodide reduces compound II to native enzyme at a rate comparable to that of ascorbate. This explains why ascorbate accelerates chlorination but inhibits iodination. Formation of compound II is a dead end for the generation of hypochlorous acid; ascorbate regenerates more native enzyme to enhance the chlorination reaction namely: myeloperoxidase + peroxide----compound I followed by compound I + chloride----HOCl. On the other hand, ascorbate is a competitor with iodide for both compounds I and II and so inhibits iodination.

  5. Quantum Dot-Based Nanoprobes for In Vivo Targeted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yian; Hong, Hao; Xu, Zhi Ping; Li, Zhen; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention over the last decade. The superior optical properties of QDs over conventional organic dyes make them attractive labels for a wide variety of biomedical applications, whereas their potential toxicity and instability in biological environment has puzzled scientific researchers. Much research effort has been devoted to surface modification and functionalization of QDs to make them versatile probes for biomedical applications, and significant progress has been made over the last several years. This review article aims to describe the current state-of-the-art of the synthesis, modification, bioconjugation, and applications of QDs for in vivo targeted imaging. In addition, QD-based multifunctional nanoprobes are also summarized. PMID:24206136

  6. Polymeric Micelles in Anticancer Therapy: Targeting, Imaging and Triggered Release

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Wouter; Bos, Mariska; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, J. Frank W.; Hennink, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Micelles are colloidal particles with a size around 5–100 nm which are currently under investigation as carriers for hydrophobic drugs in anticancer therapy. Currently, five micellar formulations for anticancer therapy are under clinical evaluation, of which Genexol-PM has been FDA approved for use in patients with breast cancer. Micelle-based drug delivery, however, can be improved in different ways. Targeting ligands can be attached to the micelles which specifically recognize and bind to receptors overexpressed in tumor cells, and chelation or incorporation of imaging moieties enables tracking micelles in vivo for biodistribution studies. Moreover, pH-, thermo-, ultrasound-, or light-sensitive block copolymers allow for controlled micelle dissociation and triggered drug release. The combination of these approaches will further improve specificity and efficacy of micelle-based drug delivery and brings the development of a ‘magic bullet’ a major step forward. PMID:20725771

  7. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies and a Simple Myeloperoxidase-Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Human Myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiong-Zhi; Wu, Heng-Fang; Xu, Jin-Dan; Gu, Chun-Rong; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Yang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a leukocyte hemoprotein released from neutrophils, is thought to be a potential participant in plaque formation and plaque rupture. Therefore, MPO is regarded as an early marker predicting the risk for atherosclerosis, especially for coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome. We generated hybridoma clones 1E3 and 3E8 secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to human MPO. BALB/c mice were immunized with MPO protein purified from human neutrophils. Splenocytes from these mice were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0. Based on isotyping of the mAbs, both clones 1E3 and 3E8 were referred to the IgG1 subclass. The specificities of 1E3 and 3E8 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and only 3E8 was confirmed by western blot. We developed a simple MPO-immunosorbent assay (MPO-ISA) on microplate based on both the immune activity and peroxidase activity of MPO. The mAb secreted by clone 3E8 was chosen as coating antibody to capture the plasma MPO without interfering with the peroxidase activity of MPO. Then, tetramethylbenzidine substrate was added to the microwell directly, catalyzed by captured MPO, and a colored product was formed. The simple MPO-ISA test has a sensitivity of 3.68 ng/mL. The linear concentration of MPO-ISA for commercial MPO standard ranged to 250 ng/mL. The average recovery rate is 101.02%. The imprecision within-day was <10% at three different MPO levels. The imprecision between-day was <10% at low and middle MPO levels and varied to 14.61% at the high MPO level. We found that the established MPO-ISA can detect the plasma MPO from human and cavy, but not from mouse and rat. Compared with the commercial human MPO ELISA assay, the MPO-ISA can be used to detect the natural human MPO protein, but not recombinant MPO polypeptides. The generated mAbs and MPO-ISA test may be useful tools to assess risk for inflammation and cardiac events.

  8. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  9. Hapten-derivatized nanoparticle targeting and imaging of gene expression by multimodality imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C-M; Chu, P-Y; Chuang, K-H; Roffler, S R; Kao, C-H; Tseng, W-L; Shiea, J; Chang, W-D; Su, Y-C; Chen, B-M; Wang, Y-M; Cheng, T-L

    2009-01-01

    Non-invasive gene monitoring is important for most gene therapy applications to ensure selective gene transfer to specific cells or tissues. We developed a non-invasive imaging system to assess the location and persistence of gene expression by anchoring an anti-dansyl (DNS) single-chain antibody (DNS receptor) on the cell surface to trap DNS-derivatized imaging probes. DNS hapten was covalently attached to cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO) to form a 39+/-0.5 nm DNS-CLIO nanoparticle imaging probe. DNS-CLIO specifically bound to DNS receptors but not to a control single-chain antibody receptor. DNS-CLIO (100 microM Fe) was non-toxic to both B16/DNS (DNS receptor positive) and B16/phOx (control receptor positive) cells. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could detect as few as 10% B16/DNS cells in a mixture in vitro. Importantly, DNS-CLIO specifically bound to a B16/DNS tumor, which markedly reduced signal intensity. Similar results were also shown with DNS quantum dots, which specifically targeted CT26/DNS cells but not control CT26/phOx cells both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that DNS nanoparticles can systemically monitor the expression of DNS receptor in vivo by feasible imaging systems. This targeting strategy may provide a valuable tool to estimate the efficacy and specificity of different gene delivery systems and optimize gene therapy protocols in the clinic.

  10. Approach for moving small target detection in infrared image sequence based on reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Qin, Shiyin

    2016-09-01

    Addressing the problems of moving small target detection in infrared image sequence caused by background clutter and target size variation with time, an approach for moving small target detection is proposed under a pipeline framework with an optimization strategy based on reinforcement learning. The pipeline framework is composed by pipeline establishment, target-background images separation, and target confirmation, in which the pipeline is established by designating several successive images with temporal sliding window, target-background images separation is dealt with low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition via robust principal component analysis, and target confirmation is achieved by employing a voting mechanism over more than one separated target images of the same input image. For unremitting optimization of target-background images separation, the weighting parameter of low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition is dynamically regulated by the way of reinforcement learning in consecutive detection, in which the complexity evaluation from sequential infrared images and results assessment of moving small target detection are integrated. The experiment results over four infrared small target image sequences with different cloudy sky backgrounds demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach in both background clutter suppression and small target detection.

  11. Contribution of myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase to pathogenesis of psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Dilek, Aziz Ramazan; Taşkın, Yakup; Erkinüresin, Taşkın; Yalçın, Ömer; Saral, Yunus

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Histological changes of psoriasis include invasion of neutrophils into the epidermis and formation of Munro abscesses in the epidermis. Neutrophils are the predominant white blood cells in circulation when stimulated; they discharge the abundant myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize chloride for killing ingested bacteria. Aim To investigate the contribution of neutrophils to the pathogenesis of psoriasis at the blood and tissue levels through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and MPO. Material and methods A total of 50 adult patients with a chronic plaque form of psoriasis and 25 healthy controls were enrolled to this study. Serum MPO and iNOS levels were measured using ELISA method. Two biopsy specimens were taken in each patient from the center of the lesion and uninvolved skin. Immunohistochemistry was performed for MPO and iNOS on both normal and psoriasis vulgaris biopsies. Results While a significant difference between serum myeloperoxidase levels were detected, a similar statistical difference between participants in the serum iNOS levels was not found. In immunohistochemistry, intensely stained leukocytes with MPO and intensely staining with iNOS in psoriatic skin was observed. Conclusions Neutrophils in psoriasis lesions are actively producing MPO and this indirectly triggers the synthesis of iNOS. Targeting of MPO or synthesis of MPO in the lesion area may contribute to development of a new treatment option. PMID:28035220

  12. Myeloperoxidase-dependent Lipid Peroxidation Promotes the Oxidative Modification of Cytosolic Proteins in Phagocytic Neutrophils*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P.; Magon, Nicholas J.; Harwood, D. Tim; Kettle, Anthony J.; Vissers, Margreet C.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Hampton, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation. PMID:25697357

  13. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation.

  14. Localized Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound Surgery Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired RF signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed in order to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions as compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude. PMID:21683514

  15. Random subspace ensemble for target recognition of ladar range image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Laser detection and ranging (ladar) range images have attracted considerable attention in the field of automatic target recognition. Generally, it is difficult to collect a mass of range images for ladar in real applications. However, with small samples, the Hughes effect may occur when the number of features is larger than the size of the training samples. A random subspace ensemble of support vector machine (RSE-SVM) is applied to solve the problem. Three experiments were performed: (1) the performance comparison among affine moment invariants (AMIs), Zernike moment invariants (ZMIs) and their combined moment invariants (CMIs) based on different size training sets using single SVM; (2) the impact analysis of the different number of features about the RSE-SVM and semi-random subspace ensemble of support vector machine; (3) the performance comparison between the RSE-SVM and the CMIs with SVM ensembles. The experiment's results demonstrate that the RSE-SVM is able to relieve the Hughes effect and perform better than ZMIs with single SVM and CMIs with SVM ensembles.

  16. Localized harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound surgery targeting.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-08-01

    Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired radio-frequency (RF) signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude.

  17. Value of monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO7) for diagnosing acute leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Storr, J; Dolan, G; Coustan-Smith, E; Barnett, D; Reilly, J T

    1990-01-01

    The expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was studied in 100 cases of acute leukaemia (83 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and 17 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) by both a conventional cytochemical method and the immunocytochemical antiperoxidase (APAAP) technique using the monoclonal antibody MPO7. In each case the staining was evaluated by light microscopical examination (percentage of positive cells). Of the 83 cases of AML, 78 (93.9%) were positive for MPO7 compared with 70 (84.3%) by cytochemistry. Antibodies against the myeloid markers CD13 and CD33 were positive in 71 (85.5%) and 70 (84.3%) cases, respectively. Importantly, all cases of ALL were negative for both MPO7 and cytochemical MPO staining even when they were positive for CD13 and CD33. These results indicate that the anti-myeloperoxidase antibody MPO7 is the most sensitive and specific reagent for the diagnosis of AML and should therefore be included in routine immunophenotyping panels. Images PMID:1977771

  18. Evolution of bombesin conjugates for targeted PET imaging of tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanwen; Abiraj, Keelara; Thorek, Daniel L J; Waser, Beatrice; Smith-Jones, Peter M; Honer, Michael; Reubi, Jean Claude; Maecke, Helmut R

    2012-01-01

    Bombesin receptors are under intense investigation as molecular targets since they are overexpressed in several prevalent solid tumors. We rationally designed and synthesized a series of modified bombesin (BN) peptide analogs to study the influence of charge and spacers at the N-terminus, as well as amino acid substitutions, on both receptor binding affinity and pharmacokinetics. This enabled development of a novel (64/67)Cu-labeled BN peptide for PET imaging and targeted radiotherapy of BN receptor-positive tumors. Our results show that N-terminally positively charged peptide ligands had significantly higher affinity to human gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) than negatively charged or uncharged ligands (IC(50): 3.2±0.5 vs 26.3±3.5 vs 41.5±2.5 nM). The replacement of Nle(14) by Met, and deletion of D-Tyr(6), further resulted in 8-fold higher affinity. Contrary to significant changes to human GRPr binding, modifications at the N-terminal and at the 6(th), 11(th), and 14(th) position of BN induced only slight influences on affinity to mouse GRPr. [Cu(II)]-CPTA-[βAla(11)] BN(7-14) ([Cu(II)]-BZH7) showed the highest internalization rate into PC-3 cells with relatively slow efflux because of its subnanomolar affinity to GRPr. Interestingly, [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 also displayed similar affinities to the other 2 human BN receptor subtypes. In vivo studies showed that [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 had a high accumulation in PC-3 xenografts and allowed for clear-cut visualization of the tumor in PET imaging. In addition, a CPTA-glycine derivative, forming a hippurane-type spacer, enhanced kidney clearance of the radiotracer. These data indicate that the species variation of BN receptor plays an important role in screening radiolabeled BN. As well, the positive charge from the metallated complex at the N-terminal significantly increases affinity to human GRPr. Application of these observations enabled the novel ligand [(64/67)Cu]-BZH7 to clearly visualize PC-3 tumors in vivo

  19. Marker based watershed to segment dim infrared target through image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Xie, Yongchun; Jin, Ting

    2008-10-01

    A novel marker based watershed through image enhancement is proposed to segment the dim infrared target. The dim infrared target is firstly enhanced by CB top-hat transformation and image quantization. Then, the accurate marker of the target can be easily obtained through image binarisation and marker filtering. To calculate an efficient gradient image of the dim target for the watershed segmentation, the gradient image is firstly calculated through Sobel operator and then efficiently enhanced through pseudo top-hat transformation and gradient quantization. Because of the enhancement of the dim target and the gradient image, the watershed can efficiently segment the dim infrared image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is much efficient for dim infrared target segmentation.

  20. Three-dimensional interferometric ISAR imaging for target scattering diagnosis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Narayanan, R M

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging has been widely used in target scattering diagnosis, modeling and target identification. A major shortcoming is that a 2-D ISAR image cannot provide information on the relative altitude of each scattering center on the target. In this paper, we present an interferometric inverse synthetic aperture radar (IF-ISAR) image processing technique for three-dimensional (3-D) target altitude image formation. The 2-D ISAR images are obtained from the signature data acquired as a function of frequency and azimuthal angle. A 3-D IF-ISAR altitude image can then be derived from two 2-D images reconstructed from the measurements by antennas at different altitudes. 3-D altitude image formation examples from both indoor and outdoor test range data are demonstrated on complex radar targets.

  1. High Precision Imaging of Microscopic Spread of Glioblastoma with a Targeted Ultrasensitive SERRS Molecular Imaging Probe

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruimin; Harmsen, Stefan; Samii, Jason M.; Karabeber, Hazem; Pitter, Kenneth L.; Holland, Eric C.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-01-01

    The dismal prognosis of patients with malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is attributed mostly to their diffuse growth pattern and early microscopic tumor spread to distant regions of the brain. Because the microscopic tumor foci cannot be visualized with current imaging modalities, it remains impossible to direct treatments optimally. Here we explored the ability of integrin-targeted surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles to depict the true tumor extent in a GBM mouse model that closely mimics the pathology in humans. The recently developed SERRS-nanoparticles have a sensitivity of detection in the femtomolar range. An RGD-peptide-conjugated version for integrin-targeting (RGD-SERRS) was compared directly to its non-targeted RAD-SERRS control in the same mice via Raman multiplexing. Pre-blocking with RGD peptide before injection of RGD-SERRS nanoparticles was used to verify the specificity of integrin-targeting. In contrast to the current belief that the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect results in a baseline uptake of nanoparticles regardless of their surface chemistry, integrin-targeting was shown to be highly specific, with markedly lower accumulation after pre-blocking. While the non-targeted SERRS particles enabled delineation of the main tumor, the RGD-SERRS nanoparticles afforded a major improvement in visualization of the true extent and the diffuse margins of the main tumor. This included the detection of unexpected tumor areas distant to the main tumor, tracks of migrating cells of 2-3 cells in diameter, and even isolated distant tumor cell clusters of less than 5 cells. This Raman spectroscopy-based nanoparticle-imaging technology holds promise to allow high precision visualization of the true extent of malignant brain tumors. PMID:27279902

  2. Real time laser speckle imaging monitoring vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Ruth; Vyacheslav, Kalchenko; Scherz, Avigdor

    2017-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a technique that has been developed to non-invasively monitor in vivo blood flow dynamics and vascular structure, at high spatial and temporal resolution. It can record the full-field spatio-temporal characteristics of microcirculation and has therefore, often been used to study the blood flow in tumors after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Yet, there is a paucity of reports on real-time laser speckle imaging (RTLSI) during PDT. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11, a water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative, achieves tumor ablation through rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature followed by a cascade of events that actively kill the tumor cells. WST11-VTP has been already approved for treatment of early/intermediate prostate cancer at a certain drug dose, time and intensity of illumination. Application to other cancers may require different light dosage. However, incomplete vascular occlusion at lower light dose may result in cancer cell survival and tumor relapse while excessive light dose may lead to toxicity of nearby healthy tissues. Here we provide evidence for the feasibility of concomitant RTLSI of the blood flow dynamics in the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during and after WST11-VTP. Fast decrease in the blood flow is followed by partial mild reperfusion and a complete flow arrest within the tumor by the end of illumination. While the primary occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries and draining veins agrees with previous data published by our group, the late effects underscore the significance of light dose control to minimize normal tissue impairment. In conclusion- RTSLI application should allow to optimize VTP efficacy vs toxicity in both the preclinical and clinical arenas.

  3. Inhibition of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by the myeloperoxidase products, hypochlorous acid and mono-N-chloramine.

    PubMed

    Jeitner, Thomas M; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E

    2005-01-01

    Abstract alpha-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) complex activity is diminished in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and its diminution in Alzheimer Disease (AD) is thought to contribute to the major loss of cerebral energy metabolism that accompanies this disease. The loss of KGDHC activity appears to be predominantly due to post-translation modifications. Thiamine deficiency also results in decreased KGDHC activity and a selective neuronal loss. Recently, myeloperoxidase has been identified in the activated microglia of brains from AD patients and thiamine-deficient animals. Myeloperoxidase produces a powerful oxidant, hypochlorous acid that reacts with amines to form chloramines. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of hypochlorous acid and chloramines to inhibit the activity of KGDHC activity as a first step towards investigating the role of myeloperoxidase in AD. Hypochlorous acid and mono-N-chloramine both inhibited purified and cellular KGDHC and the order of inhibition of the purified complex was hypochlorous acid (1x) > mono-N-chloramine (approximately 50x) > hydrogen peroxide (approximately 1,500). The inhibition of cellular KGDHC occurred with no significant loss of cellular viability at all exposure times that were examined. Thus, hypochlorous acid and chloramines have the potential to inactivate a major target in neurodegeneration.

  4. Evaluation of human detection performance of targets embedded in natural and enhanced infrared images using image metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aviram, Guy; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2000-04-01

    The evaluation of human detection performance of targets embedded in natural IR images is uniquely extended to deal with enhanced images. Various image metrics designed to describe global image clutter and local target-to-background contrast are presented. Agreement between experimental results, as obtained for both natural and enhanced IR images and image metrics, is evaluated by correcting the metric values with target detection results obtained from two psycho-physical experiments, which were designed to record and measure human target detection performance and image quality judgments. Positive correlation values are generally obtained between the metric values and both the target detection (rate and probability) performance and the image quality scale values. More specifically, the local contrast metric is found to be the most suitable to the data recorded from the quality judgments experiment, while the global clutter metric is found to be the most suitable to the data recorded from the detection performance experiments. Further analysis of the relationship between the image metrics and the experimental results yield empirical classification thresholds that can be used to evaluate and predict human detection performance in similar cases. A method to evaluate the classification efficiency, is introduced and used to reconfirm the metrics appropriateness to describe detection performance and quality judgments of targets embedded in both natural and enhanced images.

  5. Validation of the Electromagnetic Code FACETS for Numerical Simulation of Radar Target Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    radar cross - section (stealth) targets. Radar images such as High Range Resolution profiles, and Synthetic Aperture Radar / Inverse Synthetic Aperture...target is a precisely designed and machined engineering test target containing standard radar reflector primitive shapes such as flat plates, dihedrals ...compute radar images of aircraft. The code was developed by Thales Defence Information Systems, UK. FACETS computes the radar cross - section and SAR image

  6. Parameter Estimation of a Ground Moving Target Using Image Sharpness Optimization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Yaan

    2016-06-30

    Motion parameter estimation of a ground moving target is an important issue in synthetic aperture radar ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI) which has significant applications for civilian and military. The SAR image of a moving target may be displaced and defocused due to the radial and along-track velocity components, respectively. The sharpness cost function presents a measure of the degree of focus of the image. In this work, a new ground moving target parameter estimation algorithm based on the sharpness optimization criterion is proposed. The relationships between the quadratic phase errors and the target's velocity components are derived. Using two-dimensional searching of the sharpness cost function, we can obtain the velocity components of the target and the focused target image simultaneously. The proposed moving target parameter estimation method and image sharpness metrics are analyzed in detail. Finally, numerical results illustrate the effective and superior velocity estimation performance of the proposed method when compared to existing algorithms.

  7. A novel method for quantifying target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haichao; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Liang, Xiaogeng

    2015-09-01

    Metrics to measure the difficulty of target tracking on the infrared image sequence were seldom studied. This paper proposes an effective method for quantifying target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence. We first analyze the factors interfering with infrared target tracking, and conclude that the intra-frame image quality and the inter-frame variation will jointly make great effects on infrared target tracking. Furthermore, five metrics concerning target tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence are proposed: intra-frame degree of occlusion (IFDO), intra-frame degree of confusion (IFDC), inter-frame variation degree of target texture (IFVDTT), inter-frame variation degree of target size (IFVDTS) and inter-frame variation degree of target location (IFVDTL). These metrics complement each other and measure the infrared image sequence concerning target tracking difficulty together. An integrated indicator named sequence difficulty degree (SDD) is proposed by combining these five metrics to intuitively represent the sequence-level tracking difficulty of the infrared image sequence. Related experiments are designed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed metrics. Experimental results prove that the proposed metrics are valid to measure infrared image sequences concerning target tracking difficulty, and the performance of the proposed metrics is superior to that of the traditional infrared image sequence metric.

  8. [Targeted magnetic nanoparticles used as probe for magnetic resonance molecular imaging of tumor].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Fang; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Zhong, Ding-Rong

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of in vivo tumor detection using magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging with targeted magnetic nanoparticles as imaging probe. Targeted probe was synthesized by covalently linking the recombinant human gonadotropin releasing hormone analog (the targeting portion) with the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (the imaging portion). The imaging portion served as the control material. The in vitro tumor cell experiment and the in vivo experiment using nude mice bearing tumors were carried out to test the targeting ability of the probe. In the in vitro experiment, the targeting probe and control materials were incubated separately with A549 cells which had high affinity to gonadotropin releasing hormone. Then the cells were taken out and lysed. The resultant solution was then subjected to MR imaging. The T2 value of the solutions was measured and compared. In the in vivo experiment, the targeting probe was administered into nude mice bearing A549 tumors. Dynamic MR imaging was carried out to measure the signal and T2 value of the tumor. The control material was also administered into control group of nude mice, and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed. The T2 value of the tumor in both groups were recorded and compared. Both the in vitro and in vivo experiments proved the targeting ability of targeted probe. Compared with control material, the targeting probe had higher combining ability with tumor cells. MR molecular imaging of tumor can be realized by using targeting magnetic nanoparticles.

  9. Analysis of image quality for real-time target tracking using simultaneous kV-MV imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, W; Yoo, S; Wu, Q J; Wang, Z; Yin, F-F

    2008-12-01

    Real-time tracking can provide high accuracy localization for a moving target and minimize the effect of motion. Simultaneous kV-MV imaging has been proposed as a real-time tracking technique by utilizing the existing kV on-board imager (OBI) and the MV electronic portal device (EPID) mounted on the linear accelerator. The orthogonal pair of kV-MV images acquired simultaneously can provide 3-D localization in real-time. However, the kV and MV beams cross shooting the target interfere with each other with beam scattering, which affects the quality of images. The success of this modality heavily relies on the image quality, especially the visibility of the target, which was investigated in this study. The kV and MV images were acquired for a gold implant marker that was used as a surrogate of the target and placed in an IMRT thorax phantom, a dynamic phantom, and a pelvis phantom to test the image quality in different situations. Contrast-to-noise ration (CNR) was used to quantitatively describe the visibility of the target in the image. CNR can be obtained by statistical calculation from image processing and physics analysis with ion chamber measurement. The difference is described by contrast detection efficiency (CDE). By comparing the ratio (R) of CNR with and without the MV beam on, the MV beam scatter was found to have dramatically reduced the target visibility in the kV images (R=0.47), which was supported by an independent physics analysis that treats beam scatter as a noise. In contrast, the kV scatter effect on the MV images was minor (R=0.93). The effect of tumor motion was visible but tolerable for the target tracking purpose. CNR varied with different tumor sites and was lower for the pelvis than the thorax. Different kV imaging parameters such as kVp, mAs, and exposure time ms were tested for different cases. Considering a threshold of 1.0 CNR as a measure for the target visibility, a range of CNR from 1.3 to 4.2 was reached with appropriate tuning of

  10. [Influence of human body target's spectral characteristics on visual range of low light level image intensifiers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ju; Yang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Lei; Tao, Yuan-Yaun

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on low light level (LLL) image intensifier's distance, based on the spectral characteristics of the night-sky radiation and the spectral reflective coefficients of common clothes, we established a equation of human body target's spectral reflective distribution, and analyzed the spectral reflective characteristics of different human targets wearing the clothes of different color and different material, and from the actual detection equation of LLL image intensifier distance, discussed the detection capability of LLL image intensifier for different human target. The study shows that the effect of different human target's spectral reflective characteristic on LLL image intensifier distance is mainly reflected in the average reflectivity rho(-) and the initial contrast of the target and the background C0. Reflective coefficient and spectral reflection intensity of cotton clothes are higher than polyester clothes, and detection capability of LLL image intensifier is stronger for the human target wearing cotton clothes. Experimental results show that the LLL image intensifiers have longer visual ranges for targets who wear cotton clothes than targets who wear same color but polyester clothes, and have longer visual ranges for targets who wear light-colored clothes than targets who wear dark-colored clothes. And in the full moon illumination conditions, LLL image intensifiers are more sensitive to the clothes' material.

  11. Technology Insight: novel imaging of molecular targets is an emerging area crucial to the development of targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Wolfgang A; Czernin, Johannes; Phelps, Michael E; Herschman, Harvey R

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Targeted drugs hold great promise for the treatment of malignant tumors; however, there are several challenges for efficient evaluation of these drugs in preclinical and clinical studies. These challenges include identifying the ‘correct’, biologically active concentration and dose schedule, selecting the patients likely to benefit from treatment, monitoring inhibition of the target protein or pathway, and assessing the response of the tumor to therapy. Although anatomic imaging will remain important, molecular imaging provides several new opportunities to make the process of drug development more efficient. Various techniques for molecular imaging that enable noninvasive and quantitative imaging are now available in the preclinical and clinical settings, to aid development and evaluation of new drugs for the treatment of cancer. In this Review, we discuss the integration of molecular imaging into the process of drug development and how molecular imaging can address key questions in the preclinical and clinical evaluation of new targeted drugs. Examples include imaging of the expression and inhibition of drug targets, noninvasive tissue pharmacokinetics, and early assessment of the tumor response. PMID:18097456

  12. Effect of Patient Set-up and Respiration motion on Defining Biological Targets for Image-Guided Targeted Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Keisha C.

    Identification and monitoring of sub-tumor targets will be a critical step for optimal design and evaluation of cancer therapies in general and biologically targeted radiotherapy (dose-painting) in particular. Quantitative PET imaging may be an important tool for these applications. Currently radiotherapy planning accounts for tumor motion by applying geometric margins. These margins create a motion envelope to encompass the most probable positions of the tumor, while also maintaining the appropriate tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. This motion envelope is effective for uniform dose prescriptions where the therapeutic dose is conformed to the external margins of the tumor. However, much research is needed to establish the equivalent margins for non-uniform fields, where multiple biological targets are present and each target is prescribed its own dose level. Additionally, the size of the biological targets and close proximity make it impractical to apply planning margins on the sub-tumor level. Also, the extent of high dose regions must be limited to avoid excessive dose to the surrounding tissue. As such, this research project is an investigation of the uncertainty within quantitative PET images of moving and displaced dose-painting targets, and an investigation of the residual errors that remain after motion management. This included characterization of the changes in PET voxel-values as objects are moved relative to the discrete sampling interval of PET imaging systems (SPECIFIC AIM 1). Additionally, the repeatability of PET distributions and the delineating dose-painting targets were measured (SPECIFIC AIM 2). The effect of imaging uncertainty on the dose distributions designed using these images (SPECIFIC AIM 3) has also been investigated. This project also included analysis of methods to minimize motion during PET imaging and reduce the dosimetric impact of motion/position-induced imaging uncertainty (SPECIFIC AIM 4).

  13. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  14. Megavoltage image contrast with low-atomic number target materials and amorphous silicon electronic portal imagers.

    PubMed

    Orton, E J; Robar, J L

    2009-03-07

    Low-atomic number (Z) targets have been shown to improve contrast in megavoltage (MV) images when using film-screen detection systems. This research aims to quantify the effect of low-Z targets on MV image contrast using an amorphous silicon electronic portal image detector (a-Si EPID) through both experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Experimental beams were produced with the linac running in the 6 MeV electron mode and with a 1.0 cm aluminum (Al, Z = 13) target replacing flattening filtration in the carousel, (6 MeV/Al). A 2100EX Varian linac equipped with an aS500 EPID was used with the QC3 MV phantom for the majority of contrast measurements. The BEAMnrc/EGSnrc MC package was used to build a model of the full imaging system including beam generation (linac head), the a-Si detector and the contrast phantom. The model accurately reproduces contrast measurements to within 2.5% for both the standard 6 MV therapy beam and the 6 MeV/Al beam. The contrast advantage of 6 MeV/Al over 6 MV, as quantified with the QC3 phantom, ranged from a factor increase of 1.6 +/- 0.1 to 2.8 +/- 0.2. Only a modest improvement in contrast was seen when the incident electron energy was reduced to 4 MeV (up to factor of 1.2 +/- 0.1 over 6 MeV/Al) or with removal of the copper build-up layer in the detector, (up to factor of 1.2 +/- 0.1 over 6 MeV/Al). Further decreasing the target Z, to beryllium (Be, Z = 4), at 4 MeV showed no significant improvement over 4 MeV/Al. Experimentally, the contrast advantage of 6 MeV/Al over 6 MV was found to decrease with increasing patient thickness, as can be expected due to selective attenuation of low-energy photons. At head and neck-like thicknesses, the low-Z advantage is a factor increase of 1.7 +/- 0.1.

  15. Myeloperoxidase, a catalyst for lipoprotein oxidation, is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, A; Dunn, J L; Rateri, D L; Heinecke, J W

    1994-07-01

    Oxidatively modified lipoproteins have been implicated in atherogenesis, but the mechanisms that promote oxidation in vivo have not been identified. Myeloperoxidase, a heme protein secreted by activated macrophages, generates reactive intermediates that oxidize lipoproteins in vitro. To explore the potential role of myeloperoxidase in the development of atherosclerosis, we determined whether the enzyme was present in surgically excised human vascular tissue. In detergent extracts of atherosclerotic arteries subjected to Western blotting, a rabbit polyclonal antibody monospecific for myeloperoxidase detected a 56-kD protein, the predicted molecular mass of the heavy subunit. Both the immunoreactive protein and authentic myeloperoxidase bound to a lectin-affinity column; after elution with methyl mannoside their apparent molecular masses were indistinguishable by nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography. Peroxidase activity in detergent extracts of atherosclerotic lesions likewise bound to a lectin column and eluted with methyl mannoside. Moreover, eluted peroxidase generated the cytotoxic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), indicating that enzymatically active myeloperoxidase was present in lesions. Patterns of immunostaining of arterial tissue with antihuman myeloperoxidase antibodies were similar to those produced by an antimacrophage antibody, and were especially prominent in the shoulder region of transitional lesions. Intense foci of myeloperoxidase immunostaining also appeared adjacent to cholesterol clefts in lipid-rich regions of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. These findings identify myeloperoxidase as a component of human vascular lesions. Because this heme protein can generate reactive species that damage lipids and proteins, myeloperoxidase may contribute to atherogenesis by catalyzing oxidative reactions in the vascular wall.

  16. Redundant contribution of myeloperoxidase-dependent systems to neutrophil-mediated killing of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, H; Michel, B R

    1997-01-01

    Neutrophil microbicidal activity is a consequence of overlapping antimicrobial systems that vary in prominence according to the conditions of the neutrophil-microbe interaction, the nature of the microbe, and its metabolic state. In this study, normal, myeloperoxidase-deficient, and respiratory burst-deficient (chronic granulomatous disease [CGD]) neutrophils killed Escherichia coli with equivalent, high efficiencies. Killing by CGD and myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils was not augmented by supplements, such as exogenous H2O2 and myeloperoxidase, directed at ameliorating their metabolic defects, suggesting that nonoxidative microbicidal systems were sufficient for a full microbicidal effect. Neutrophils with an intact myeloperoxidase antimicrobial system (normal or appropriately supplemented deficient cells) were capable of rapidly suppressing E. coli DNA synthesis, while unsupplemented CGD or myeloperoxidase-deficient cells were far less effective, indicating that the myeloperoxidase system was active in normal neutrophils. The degree of DNA synthesis inhibition by myeloperoxidase-sufficient neutrophils could account, in a cell-free system, for most of the observed microbicidal activity. While the myeloperoxidase system was active and probably bactericidal, it was not rate limiting for microbicidal activity and appears to have been redundant with other microbicidal systems in the cell. Rapid and extensive inhibition of bacterial DNA synthesis appears to be an indicator of myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils. PMID:9317024

  17. Aircraft target identification based on 2D ISAR images using multiresolution analysis wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Huaitie; Hu, Xiangjiang

    2001-09-01

    The formation of 2D ISAR images for radar target identification hold much promise for additional distinguish- ability between targets. Since an image contains important information is a wide range of scales, and this information is often independent from one scale to another, wavelet analysis provides a method of identifying the spatial frequency content of an image and the local regions within the image where those spatial frequencies exist. In this paper, a multiresolution analysis wavelet method based on 2D ISAR images was proposed for use in aircraft radar target identification under the wide band high range resolution radar background. The proposed method was performed in three steps; first, radar backscatter signals were processed in the form of 2D ISAR images, then, Mallat's wavelet algorithm was used in the decomposition of images, finally, a three layer perceptron neural net was used as classifier. The result of experiments demonstrated that the feasibility of using multiresolution analysis wavelet for target identification.

  18. Multimodality PET/MR imaging agents targeted to activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chuqiao; Ng, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Louie, Angelique Y.

    2013-01-01

    The recent emergence of multimodality imaging, particularly the combination of PET and MRI, has led to excitement over the prospect of improving detection of disease. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have become a popular platform for the fabrication of PET/MRI probes due to their advantages of high MRI detection sensitivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this paper, we report the synthesis of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with the positron emitter 64Cu to generate a PET/MRI probe, and modified with small molecular maleic anhydride to increase negative surface charge. The modified nanoparticulate PET/MRI probe (MDIO-64Cu-DOTA) bears repetitive anionic charges on the surface that facilitate recognition by scavenger receptor type A (SR-A), a ligand-receptor found on activated macrophages but not on normal vessel walls. MDIO-64Cu-DOTA has an average iron oxide core size of 7-8 nm, an average hydrodynamic diameter of 62.7 nm, an r1 relaxivity of 16.8 mM−1·s−1, and an r2 relaxivity of 83.9 mM−1·s−1 (37 °C, 1.4 T). Cell studies confirmed that the probe was nontoxic and was specifically taken up by macrophages via SR-A. In comparison with the non-modified analog, the accumulation of maleylated DIO in macrophages was substantially improved. These characteristics demonstrate the promise of MDIO-64Cu-DOTA for identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VAP) via the targeting of macrophages. PMID:24166283

  19. Imaging of multiple mRNA targets using quantum dot based in situ hybridization and spectral deconvolution in clinical biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Tholouli, Eleni; Hoyland, Judith A.; Di Vizio, Dolores; O'Connell, Fionnuala; MacDermott, Sarah A.; Twomey, David; Levenson, Richard; Yin, John A. Liu; Golub, Todd R.; Loda, Massimo; Byers, Richard . E-mail: r.byers@manchester.ac.uk

    2006-09-22

    Gene expression mapping using microarray analysis has identified useful gene signatures for predicting outcome. However, little of this has been translated into clinically effective diagnostic tools as microarrays require high quality fresh-frozen tissue samples. We describe a methodology of multiplexed in situ hybridization (ISH) using a novel combination of quantum dot (QD)-labeled oligonucleotide probes and spectral imaging analysis in routinely processed, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human biopsies. The conditions for QD-ISH were optimized using a poly d(T) oligonucleotide in decalcified bone marrow samples. Single and multiplex QD-ISH was performed in samples with acute leukemia and follicular lymphoma using oligonucleotide probes for myeloperoxidase, bcl-2, survivin, and XIAP. Spectral imaging was used for post hybridization tissue analysis, enabling separation of spatially colocalized signals. The method allows quantitative characterization of multiple gene expression using non-bleaching fluorochromes. This is expected to facilitate multiplex in situ transcript detection in routinely processed human clinical tissue.

  20. Antioxidant binding of caeruloplasmin to myeloperoxidase: myeloperoxidase is inhibited, but oxidase, peroxidase and immunoreactive properties of caeruloplasmin remain intact.

    PubMed

    Park, Y S; Suzuki, K; Mumby, S; Taniguchi, N; Gutteridge, J M

    2000-09-01

    The neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) purposefully makes hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as part of the cells defence against microbial infections. During cell lysis, however, MPO will be released into the extracellular environment where production of HOCl, a powerful oxidant, will lead to molecular damage. Extracellular MPO binds to the copper-containing protein caeruloplasmin (Cp) and prevents MPO making HOCl. Cp has several important antioxidant functions in extracellular fluids associated with its ability to catalyse oxidation of ferrous ions and to remove peroxides. The binding of MPO to Cp did not inhibit these important extracellular antioxidant activities of Cp, but in so doing it provided additional antioxidant protection against formation of HOCl.

  1. Hand-held optical imager (Gen-2): improved instrumentation and target detectability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jean; Decerce, Joseph; Erickson, Sarah J; Martinez, Sergio L; Nunez, Annie; Roman, Manuela; Traub, Barbara; Flores, Cecilia A; Roberts, Seigbeh M; Hernandez, Estrella; Aguirre, Wenceslao; Kiszonas, Richard; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Hand-held optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards reflectance-based spectroscopic imaging of breast cancer. Recently, a Gen-1 handheld optical imager was developed with capabilities to perform two-dimensional (2-D) spectroscopic as well as three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging studies. However, the imager was bulky with poor surface contact (~30%) along curved tissues, and limited sensitivity to detect targets consistently. Herein, a Gen-2 hand-held optical imager that overcame the above limitations of the Gen-1 imager has been developed and the instrumentation described. The Gen-2 hand-held imager is less bulky, portable, and has improved surface contact (~86%) on curved tissues. Additionally, the forked probe head design is capable of simultaneous bilateral reflectance imaging of both breast tissues, and also transillumination imaging of a single breast tissue. Experimental studies were performed on tissue phantoms to demonstrate the improved sensitivity in detecting targets using the Gen-2 imager. The improved instrumentation of the Gen-2 imager allowed detection of targets independent of their location with respect to the illumination points, unlike in Gen-1 imager. The developed imager has potential for future clinical breast imaging with enhanced sensitivity, via both reflectance and transillumination imaging.

  2. Hand-held optical imager (Gen-2): improved instrumentation and target detectability

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jean; DeCerce, Joseph; Erickson, Sarah J.; Martinez, Sergio L.; Nunez, Annie; Roman, Manuela; Traub, Barbara; Flores, Cecilia A.; Roberts, Seigbeh M.; Hernandez, Estrella; Aguirre, Wenceslao; Kiszonas, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Hand-held optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards reflectance-based spectroscopic imaging of breast cancer. Recently, a Gen-1 handheld optical imager was developed with capabilities to perform two-dimensional (2-D) spectroscopic as well as three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging studies. However, the imager was bulky with poor surface contact (∼30%) along curved tissues, and limited sensitivity to detect targets consistently. Herein, a Gen-2 hand-held optical imager that overcame the above limitations of the Gen-1 imager has been developed and the instrumentation described. The Gen-2 hand-held imager is less bulky, portable, and has improved surface contact (∼86%) on curved tissues. Additionally, the forked probe head design is capable of simultaneous bilateral reflectance imaging of both breast tissues, and also transillumination imaging of a single breast tissue. Experimental studies were performed on tissue phantoms to demonstrate the improved sensitivity in detecting targets using the Gen-2 imager. The improved instrumentation of the Gen-2 imager allowed detection of targets independent of their location with respect to the illumination points, unlike in Gen-1 imager. The developed imager has potential for future clinical breast imaging with enhanced sensitivity, via both reflectance and transillumination imaging. PMID:23224163

  3. Fecal Myeloperoxidase as a Biomarker for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hansberry, David R; Shah, Kush; Agarwal, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition involving the inflammation of the colon and small intestine. IBD affects as many as 1.4 million people in the U.S. alone and costs the health care industry over $1.7 billion annually. Managing IBD normally requires invasive and often discomforting diagnostic tests. In an effort to alleviate the painful and costly nature of traditional diagnosis, there has been increasing research initiative focused on noninvasive biomarkers. PubMed, provided by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health, was utilized with the following search terms: 1) myeloperoxidase (MPO) 2), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 3) neutrophils. The following terms were used interchangeably with search terms 1-3: 4) costs, 5) biomarkers, 6) review, and 7) etiology. In the context of IBD, myeloperoxidase (MPO), a lysosomal protein found in neutrophils, may serve as a viable biomarker for assessing disease status. Several studies demonstrated increased levels of neutrophils in patients with active IBD. Furthermore, studies have found significantly higher levels of MPO in patients with active IBD compared to patients without IBD as well as patients with inactive IBD. MPO is also expressed in higher concentrations in patients with more severe forms of IBD. When measuring treatment efficacy, MPO levels are indicative of the quality of response. MPO may serve as an important diagnostic and prognostic tool in assessing IBD status.  PMID:28286723

  4. The effects of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Boopathy, Raghavendiran; Kunjithapatham, Bhuvana; Sukumar, Prabakar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan

    2010-01-01

    To study the impact of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging. To simulate the respiratory movement, dynamic phantom was programmed to move in three-dimension with a period of four seconds and of two different amplitudes (PA1 and PA2). The targets of well defined geometries (cylinder, sphere, solid triangle, U-shaped and dumbbell) were made using wax. The static targets were CT imaged (reference image). Using CBCT, the targets in static and dynamic modes were imaged under full-fan beam. The line profiles along cranio-caudal direction, influence of target's initial moving phase and volume estimation using auto-contouring tool were used to analyze the effects of target motion on CBCT imaging. Comparing the line profiles of targets in CBCT with CT, the length of average HU spread was reduced by 42.54±1.85%, except the cylindrical target which is by 19.35% for PA1. The percentage difference in reconstructed volume of static targets imaged using CBCT and CT (HU WW -500 to 0) ranges from -1.32% to -5.94%. The volume losses for targets imaged in dynamic mode PA1 ranges from 14.35% to 30.95% and for PA2 it was 21.29% to 43.80%. The solid triangle and cylindrical targets suffered the maximum and minimum volume losses respectively. Non-gated CBCT imaging of the moving targets encounters significant loss of volumetric information, due to scatter artifacts. These may result in a systematic error in re-contouring when CBCT images are used for the re-planning work.

  5. PSMA-targeted contrast agents for intraoperative imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kai; Lee, Jeong Heon; Kang, Homan; Park, G Kate; El Fakhri, Georges; Choi, Hak Soo

    2017-02-04

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can serve as a molecular cell surface target for the detection and treatment of prostate cancer. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging enables highly sensitive, rapid, and non-radioactive imaging of PSMA, though specific targeting still remains a challenge because no optimized contrast agents exist.

  6. Evaluation of a targeted nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent for potential tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfang; Shen, Chunxu; Liu, Haijuan; Wu, Kaizhi; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2015-03-01

    Targeted nanobubbles have been reported to improve the contrast effect of ultrasound imaging due to the enhanced permeation and retention effects at tumor vascular leaks. In this work, the contrast enhancement abilities and the tumor targeting potential of a self-made VEGFR2-targeted nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent was evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Size distribution and zeta potential were assessed. Then the contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the VEGFR2 targeted nanobubbles were evaluated with a custom-made experimental apparatus and in normal Wistar rats. Finally, the in-vivo tumor-targeting ability was evaluated on nude mice with subcutaneous tumor. The results showed that the target nanobubbles had uniform distribution with the average diameter of 208.1 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.411, and zeta potential of -13.21 mV. Significant contrast enhancement was observed in both in-vitro and in-vivo ultrasound imaging, demonstrating that the self-made target nanobubbles can enhance the contrast effect of ultrasound imaging efficiently. Targeted tumor imaging showed less promising result, due to the fact that the targeted nanobubbles arriving and permeating through tumor vessels were not many enough to produce significant enhancement. Future work will focus on exploring new imaging algorithm which is sensitive to targeted nanobubbles, so as to correctly detect the contrast agent, particularly at a low bubble concentration.

  7. Application of SAR fundamental angles to ISAR and moving target imaging problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medl, Tom; Hughen, James H.

    2004-09-01

    In Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach, the authors describe three fundamental angles of SAR imaging: grazing, tilt, and slope. This paper extends the concept of fundamental angles used in SAR ground-mapping and apply it to the problem of imaging a moving target. A method for projecting target scattering centers of a moving target in range-doppler image coordinates will be shown. This ability should naturally result in increased performance by a model-based ATR system. Concepts are demonstrated using both a simulated array of targets and XPATCH scattering centers.

  8. Time-reversal imaging with multiple signal classification considering multiple scattering between the targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Fred K.; Marengo, Edwin A.; Devaney, Anthony J.

    2004-06-01

    The time-reversal imaging with multiple signal classification method for the location of point targets developed within the framework of the Born approximation in Lehman and Devaney [``Transmission mode time-reversal super-resolution imaging,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2742-2753 (2003)] is generalized to incorporate multiple scattering between the targets. It is shown how the same method can be used in the location of point targets even if there is multiple scattering between them. On the other hand, both the conventional images and the calculated values of the target scattering amplitudes are scattering model-dependent.

  9. Potential Role of Plasma Myeloperoxidase Level in Predicting Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ±11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase >68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ±12 ng/mL; P=0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P=0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-mye-loperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625–6.563; P=0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. PMID:22949765

  10. Target feature-enhanced of SAR image based on regularization of lk norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiong-liang; Wang, Zheng-ming; Wang, Chun-ling

    2005-11-01

    Target feature-enhanced processing of SAR image is meaningful to SAR ATR. One regularization method based on lk norm used for target feature-enhanced of SAR image is discussed in this paper. This method exploits the useful sparse prior information which is well consistent to the statistically property of SAR image, makes up the additional constraint condition, turns the problem of target feature-enhanced processing of SAR image into the simple-formed optimization problem. A fast iterative algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. The Simulation results and computational results of measured data prove its validity.

  11. A targeted illumination optical fiber probe for high resolution fluorescence imaging and optical switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-04-01

    An optical imaging probe with targeted multispectral and spatiotemporal illumination features has applications in many diagnostic biomedical studies. However, these systems are mostly adapted in conventional microscopes, limiting their use for in vitro applications. We present a variable resolution imaging probe using a digital micromirror device (DMD) with an achievable maximum lateral resolution of 2.7 μm and an axial resolution of 5.5 μm, along with precise shape selective targeted illumination ability. We have demonstrated switching of different wavelengths to image multiple regions in the field of view. Moreover, the targeted illumination feature allows enhanced image contrast by time averaged imaging of selected regions with different optical exposure. The region specific multidirectional scanning feature of this probe has facilitated high speed targeted confocal imaging.

  12. Target detection from SAR images based on wavelet transform de-noise and improved CFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Li; Zhou, Xiao Yang; He, Xin Yi; Tan, Shu Run; Lin, Hai; Cui, Tie Jun

    2009-10-01

    Target detection is an important part of an automatic target recognition (ATR) system. There would be many false alarms if using constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm directly on complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images with tremendous speckle. Usually, the speckle should be reduced previously before CFAR. In this paper, a wavelet transform de-noise and an improved CFAR algorithm have been combined to detect military targets from SAR image. Different threshold methods were used in the wavelet domain when dealing with the detail information and non-detail information in the image to receive the edge information and reduce the speckle. Then a three-stage CFAR algorithm was used to detect the de-noised image. This algorithm contains global CFAR, local CFAR and count filters. Good results are obtained when the method is used to process high-resolution, HH polarization SAR images. Such algorithms could be arranged in the SAR image based automatic target recognition system.

  13. A targeted illumination optical fiber probe for high resolution fluorescence imaging and optical switching.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-04-03

    An optical imaging probe with targeted multispectral and spatiotemporal illumination features has applications in many diagnostic biomedical studies. However, these systems are mostly adapted in conventional microscopes, limiting their use for in vitro applications. We present a variable resolution imaging probe using a digital micromirror device (DMD) with an achievable maximum lateral resolution of 2.7 μm and an axial resolution of 5.5 μm, along with precise shape selective targeted illumination ability. We have demonstrated switching of different wavelengths to image multiple regions in the field of view. Moreover, the targeted illumination feature allows enhanced image contrast by time averaged imaging of selected regions with different optical exposure. The region specific multidirectional scanning feature of this probe has facilitated high speed targeted confocal imaging.

  14. A targeted illumination optical fiber probe for high resolution fluorescence imaging and optical switching

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-01-01

    An optical imaging probe with targeted multispectral and spatiotemporal illumination features has applications in many diagnostic biomedical studies. However, these systems are mostly adapted in conventional microscopes, limiting their use for in vitro applications. We present a variable resolution imaging probe using a digital micromirror device (DMD) with an achievable maximum lateral resolution of 2.7 μm and an axial resolution of 5.5 μm, along with precise shape selective targeted illumination ability. We have demonstrated switching of different wavelengths to image multiple regions in the field of view. Moreover, the targeted illumination feature allows enhanced image contrast by time averaged imaging of selected regions with different optical exposure. The region specific multidirectional scanning feature of this probe has facilitated high speed targeted confocal imaging. PMID:28368033

  15. Targeted Molecular Imaging in Oncology: Focus on Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Ford, Eric C.; Wong, John W.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomically based technologies (CT, MR, etc.) are in routine use in radiotherapy for planning and assessment purposes. Even with improvements in imaging, however, radiotherapy is still limited in efficacy and toxicity in certain applications. Further advances may be provided by technologies that image the molecular activities of tumors and normal tissues. Possible uses for molecular imaging include better localization of tumor regions and early assay for the radiation response of tumors and normal tissues. Critical to the success of this approach is the identification and validation of molecular probes that are suitable in the radiotherapy context. Recent developments in molecular imaging probes and integration of functional imaging with radiotherapy are promising. This review focuses on recent advances in molecular imaging strategies and probes that may aid in improving the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:18314068

  16. The effects of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Sriram; Boopathy, Raghavendiran; Kunjithapatham, Bhuvana; Sukumar, Prabakar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: To study the impact of target motion in kV-CBCT imaging. Material/Methods: To simulate the respiratory movement, dynamic phantom was programmed to move in three-dimension with a period of four seconds and of two different amplitudes (PA1 and PA2). The targets of well defined geometries (cylinder, sphere, solid triangle, U-shaped and dumbbell) were made using wax. The static targets were CT imaged (reference image). Using CBCT, the targets in static and dynamic modes were imaged under full-fan beam. The line profiles along cranio-caudal direction, influence of target’s initial moving phase and volume estimation using auto-contouring tool were used to analyze the effects of target motion on CBCT imaging. Results: Comparing the line profiles of targets in CBCT with CT, the length of average HU spread was reduced by 42.54±1.85%, except the cylindrical target which is by 19.35% for PA1. The percentage difference in reconstructed volume of static targets imaged using CBCT and CT (HU WW −500 to 0) ranges from −1.32% to −5.94%. The volume losses for targets imaged in dynamic mode PA1 ranges from 14.35% to 30.95% and for PA2 it was 21.29% to 43.80%. The solid triangle and cylindrical targets suffered the maximum and minimum volume losses respectively. Conclusions: Non-gated CBCT imaging of the moving targets encounters significant loss of volumetric information, due to scatter artifacts. These may result in a systematic error in re-contouring when CBCT images are used for the re-planning work. PMID:22802763

  17. Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Electron Heated Targets in Petawatt Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T; MacPhee, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Mackinnon, A; Chen, C; Barbee, T; Freeman, R; King, J; Link, A; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Stephens, R; VanWoerkom, L; Zhang, B; Beg, F

    2007-11-29

    The study of the transport of electrons, and the flow of energy into a solid target or dense plasma, is instrumental in the development of fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. An extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging diagnostic at 256 eV and 68 eV provides information about heating and energy deposition within petawatt laser-irradiated targets. XUV images of several irradiated solid targets are presented.

  18. Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and Hepsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Youngjoo Byun, Ph. D. CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Hetero-bivalent Imaging Agents for Simultaneous Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen ( PSMA ) and Hepsin 5b...prostate cancer by targeting simultaneously PSMA and hepsin, which are highly expressed in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. In Year 3, we

  19. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    resolution required to detect ovarian cancer in an early curable stage, specific imaging probes are not currently available and are urgently needed...resolution required to detect ovarian cancer in an early, curable stage, specific imaging probes are not currently available and are urgently needed...10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL

  20. Target azimuth estimation for automatic tracking in range-gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan

    2012-11-01

    Target tracking is of great importance in imaging system, which can be applied in surveillance, as well as salvage and rescue where 3D spatial coordinates are used to locate the target. Range-gated imaging system is capable of acquiring range information of targets. However, azimuth is also necessary to provide the spatial coordinates to achieve target tracking. This paper presents a target azimuth estimation method for range-gated imaging system, aiming at obtaining essential information for vision-based automatic tracking. Due to the noise and low contrast of range-gated image, median filter and histogram equalization are used. Then the Otsu method is performed to make the segmentation of target and background. After segmentation, morphologic transformation methods will be taken in order to delete false targets. With pixels of target extracted from the image, the centoid will be derived. Next the pinhole camera model is applied to work out the azimuth coordinate. Since the focus length of camera is needed in the formula, an NC (Numerical Control) zoom module is developed. In this module, a sliding potentiometer is connected to the focus motor in camera, which serves as a feedback of the focus. To read the focus length and control the focus motor, an MCU (with AD converter) is used. Once the target azimuth information is obtained, the pan-tilt control unit can track the target bit by bit automatically.

  1. Spectral imaging of neurosurgical target tissues through operation microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antikainen, Jukka; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Orava, Joni; Jaaskelainen, Juha E.; Hauta-Kasari, Markku

    2011-11-01

    It has been noticed that spectral information can be used for analyzing and separating different biological tissues. However, most of the studies for spectral image acquisitions are mainly done in vitro. Usually the main restrictions for in vivo measurements are the size or the weight of the spectral camera. If the camera weights too much, the surgery microscope cannot be stabilized. If the size of the camera is too big, it will disturb the surgeon or even risk the safety of the patient. The main goal of this study was to develop an independent spectral imaging device which can be used for collecting spectral information from the neurosurgeries without any previously described restrictions. Size of the imaging system is small enough not to disturb the surgeon during the surgery. The developed spectral imaging system is used for collecting a spectral database which can be used for the future imaging systems.

  2. Passive synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging of ground moving targets--Part 1: image formation and velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Wacks, Steven; Yazici, Birsen

    2014-06-01

    In the Part 1 of this two-part study, we present a method of imaging and velocity estimation of ground moving targets using passive synthetic aperture radar. Such a system uses a network of small, mobile receivers that collect scattered waves due to transmitters of opportunity, such as commercial television, radio, and cell phone towers. Therefore, passive imaging systems have significant cost, manufacturing, and stealth advantages over active systems. We describe a novel generalized Radon transform-type forward model and a corresponding filtered-backprojection-type image formation and velocity estimation method. We form a stack of position images over a range of hypothesized velocities, and show that the targets can be reconstructed at the correct position whenever the hypothesized velocity is equal to the true velocity of targets. We then use entropy to determine the most accurate velocity and image pair for each moving target. We present extensive numerical simulations to verify the reconstruction method. Our method does not require a priori knowledge of transmitter locations and transmitted waveforms. It can determine the location and velocity of multiple targets moving at different velocities. Furthermore, it can accommodate arbitrary imaging geometries. In Part 2, we present the resolution analysis and analysis of positioning errors in passive SAR images due to erroneous velocity estimation.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide utilization in myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes: a possible microbicidal control mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Seymour J.; Pincus, Stephanie H.

    1971-01-01

    Phagocytosis-induced formate and glucose C-1 oxidation by the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a patient with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency was considerably greater than normal. The addition of catalase to the leukocyte suspension was required for optimum formate oxidation. Azide and cyanide increased glucose C-1 oxidation by normal leukocytes but had little or no effect on myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes suggesting that these agents normally stimulate glucose C-1 oxidation, in part, by inhibition of myeloperoxidase. It is suggested that the inhibition or absence of myeloperoxidase results in an increased utilization of H2O2 in nonmyeloperoxidase-mediated H2O2-dependent reactions such as formate oxidation and hexose monophosphate pathway activation. The possibility of a microbicidal control mechanism in which a decrease in the microbicidal activity of myeloperoxidase is offset, in part, by an increase in the nonenzymatic microbicidal activity of H2O2 is considered. PMID:5116211

  4. Spmk and Grabcut Based Target Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weihong; Wang, Guofeng; Feng, Chenyi; Zheng, Yiwei; Li, Jonathan; Zhang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Target detection and extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a basic and wide needed application. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of image interpretation, we propose a detection and segmentation combined method to realize semi-automatic target extraction. We introduce the dense transform color scale invariant feature transform (TC-SIFT) descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) & HSV descriptor to characterize the spatial structure and color information of the targets. With the k-means cluster method, we get the bag of visual words, and then, we adopt three levels' spatial pyramid (SP) to represent the target patch. After gathering lots of different kinds of target image patches from many high resolution UAV images, and using the TC-SIFT-SP and the multi-scale HOG & HSV feature, we constructed the SVM classifier to detect the target. In this paper, we take buildings as the targets. Experiment results show that the target detection accuracy of buildings can reach to above 90%. Based on the detection results which are a series of rectangle regions of the targets. We select the rectangle regions as candidates for foreground and adopt the GrabCut based and boundary regularized semi-auto interactive segmentation algorithm to get the accurate boundary of the target. Experiment results show its accuracy and efficiency. It can be an effective way for some special targets extraction.

  5. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure.

  6. Thioxo-dihydroquinazolin-one Compounds as Novel Inhibitors of Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a key antimicrobial enzyme, playing a normal role in host defense, but also contributing to inflammatory conditions including neuroinflammatory diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. We synthesized and characterized more than 50 quinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives and showed that this class of compounds inhibits MPO with IC50 values as low as 100 nM. Representative compounds showed partially reversible inhibition that was competitive with respect to Amplex Red substrate and did not result in the accumulation of MPO Compound II. Members of this group show promise for therapeutic development for the treatment of diseases in which inflammation plays a pathogenic role. PMID:26487910

  7. Role of Myeloperoxidase in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kisic, Bojana; Miric, Dijana; Dragojevic, Ilija; Rasic, Julijana; Popovic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Patients with CKD have a number of disorders in the organism, and the presence of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in these patients is the subject of numerous studies. Chronic inflammation joined with oxidative stress contributes to the development of numerous complications: accelerated atherosclerosis process and cardiovascular disease, emergence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, development of malnutrition, anaemia, hyperparathyroidism, and so forth, affecting the prognosis and quality of life of patients with CKD. In this review we presented the potential role of the myeloperoxidase enzyme in the production of reactive/chlorinating intermediates and their role in oxidative damage to biomolecules in the body of patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. In addition, we discussed the role of modified lipoprotein particles under the influence of prooxidant MPO intermediates in the development of endothelial changes and cardiovascular complications in renal failure. PMID:27127544

  8. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  9. Automatic detection of small moving targets in a five-ocular composite optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, You-Shan; Fan, Xue-Wu; Li, Yan; Li, Ying-cai

    2009-10-01

    It is quite difficult to realize the automatic detection and determination of the small moving targets by the images data captured from a mono-aperture imaging system. Therefore a five-ocular composite optical imaging system is designed. The system is constituted by an infrared imaging system in the center and four visible imaging subsystems around the center subsystem. According to the inner feature of the overlapping field of view in the five-ocular composite optical imaging system, the automatic detection and recognition algorithm of the small moving targets for this system is built up. The algorithm is divided into four steps: the first step is preprocessing to get rid of low frequency background pixels, the second step is detecting the candidates of the small moving targets in the high frequency images remained by preprocessing, the third step is determining the true small moving targets from the candidates, and the last step is combining the detecting results of the visible subsystems into the detecting results of the infrared subsystem to determine the small moving targets are "live" or "dead", because the "dead" targets with lower temperature are not observed in the infrared subsystem. The test result in the experimental system indicated that the designed detection and recognition algorithm increased the detecting probability of the small moving targets, and decreased the probability of false alarms. The detection and recognition method was proved to be feasible and effective.

  10. Non-Cooperative Target Imaging and Parameter Estimation with Narrowband Radar Echoes

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chun-mao; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Yao-bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the rotating target imaging and parameter estimation with narrowband radar echoes, which is essential for radar target recognition. First, a two-dimensional (2D) imaging model with narrowband echoes is established in this paper, and two images of the target are formed on the velocity-acceleration plane at two neighboring coherent processing intervals (CPIs). Then, the rotating velocity (RV) is proposed to be estimated by utilizing the relationship between the positions of the scattering centers among two images. Finally, the target image is rescaled to the range-cross-range plane with the estimated rotational parameter. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed using numerical simulations. PMID:26805836

  11. Matrix Pre-Coated Targets for Direct Lipid Analysis and Imaging of Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed targets pre-coated with matrix for imaging lipids in tissues using MALDI-MS. Thin tissue sections (rat kidney and mouse or rat brains) were placed onto 2,5-diaminonaphthalene pre-coated targets (prepared beforehand by a protocol utilizing sublimation) and were washed with ammonium formate solution. After a brief drying period, the target slides were imaged by MALDI MS. The resulting images from these sections were of equivalent quality to those obtained using the usual post-coating approach such as sublimation and spraying in term of the sharpness of substructures in the images demonstrated by imaging at spatial resolutions of 100, 10 and 5 μm. Matrix pre-coated targets have a shelf-life more than 6 months when kept in a dark, non-humid environment such as a non-transparent desiccator. PMID:23418860

  12. Targeted ultrasound imaging of cancer: an emerging technology on its way to clinics.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Fabian; Bzyl, Jessica; Fokong, Stanley; Siepmann, Monica; Schmitz, Georg; Palmowski, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound is one of the workhorses in clinical cancer diagnosis. In particular, it is routinely used to characterize lesions in liver, urogenital tract, head and neck and soft tissues. During the last years image quality steadily improved, which, among others, can be attributed to the development of harmonic image analysis. Microbubbles were introduced as intravascular contrast agents and can be detected with superb sensitivity and specificity using contrast specific imaging modes. By aid of these unspecific contrast agents tissues can be characterised regarding their vascularity. Antibodies, peptides and other targeting moieties were bound to microbubbles to target sites of angiogenesis and inflammation intending to get more disease-specific information. Indeed, many preclinical studies proved the high potential of targeted ultrasound imaging to better characterize tumors and to more sensitively monitor therapy response. Recently, first targeted microbubbles had been developed that meet the pharmacological demands of a clinical contrast agent. This review articles gives an overview on the history and current status of targeted ultrasound imaging of cancer. Different imaging concepts and contrast agent designs are introduced ranging from the use of experimental nanodroplets to agents undergoing clinical evaluation. Although it is clear that targeted ultrasound imaging works reliably, its broad acceptance is hindered by the user dependency of ultrasound imaging in general. Automated 3D-scanning techniques-like being used for breast diagnosis - and novel 3D transducers will help to make this fascinating method clinical reality.

  13. Accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Hirofumi; Araki, Fujio; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Ishihara, Terunobu; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Kanetake, Nagisa; Sakata, Junichi; Iwashita, Yuki

    2014-12-21

    This study investigated the accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple off-isocenter targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). A phantom with nine circular targets was created to evaluate both accuracies. First, the central point of the isocenter target was positioned with a combination of an ExacTrac x-ray (ETX) and a 6D couch. The positioning accuracy was determined from the deviations of coordinates of the central point in each target obtained from the kV-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) for IGRT and the planning CT. Similarly, the irradiation targeting accuracy was evaluated from the deviations of the coordinates between the central point of each target and the central point of each multi-leaf collimator (MLC) field for multiple targets. Secondly, the 6D couch was intentionally rotated together with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1° at the isocenter and similarly the deviations were evaluated. The positioning accuracy for all targets was less than 1 mm after 6D positioning corrections. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 1.3 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction for a target 87 mm away from isocenter. For the 6D couch rotations with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1°, the positioning accuracy was up to 1.0 mm and 2.3 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 2.1 mm and 2.6 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The off-isocenter irradiation targeting accuracy became worse than the positioning accuracy. Both off-isocenter accuracies worsened in proportion to rotation angles and the distance from the isocenter to the targets. It is necessary to examine the set-up margin for off-isocenter multiple targets at each institution because irradiation targeting accuracy is peculiar to the linac machine.

  14. Accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Hirofumi; Araki, Fujio; Shimohigashi, Yoshinobu; Ishihara, Terunobu; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Kanetake, Nagisa; Sakata, Junichi; Iwashita, Yuki

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of positioning and irradiation targeting for multiple off-isocenter targets in intracranial image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). A phantom with nine circular targets was created to evaluate both accuracies. First, the central point of the isocenter target was positioned with a combination of an ExacTrac x-ray (ETX) and a 6D couch. The positioning accuracy was determined from the deviations of coordinates of the central point in each target obtained from the kV-cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) for IGRT and the planning CT. Similarly, the irradiation targeting accuracy was evaluated from the deviations of the coordinates between the central point of each target and the central point of each multi-leaf collimator (MLC) field for multiple targets. Secondly, the 6D couch was intentionally rotated together with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1° at the isocenter and similarly the deviations were evaluated. The positioning accuracy for all targets was less than 1 mm after 6D positioning corrections. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 1.3 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction for a target 87 mm away from isocenter. For the 6D couch rotations with both roll and pitch angles of 0.5° and 1°, the positioning accuracy was up to 1.0 mm and 2.3 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The irradiation targeting accuracy was up to 2.1 mm and 2.6 mm in the AP direction for the target 87 mm away from the isocenter, respectively. The off-isocenter irradiation targeting accuracy became worse than the positioning accuracy. Both off-isocenter accuracies worsened in proportion to rotation angles and the distance from the isocenter to the targets. It is necessary to examine the set-up margin for off-isocenter multiple targets at each institution because irradiation targeting accuracy is peculiar to the linac machine.

  15. Investigations on the usefulness of CEACAMs as potential imaging targets for molecular imaging purposes.

    PubMed

    Heine, Markus; Nollau, Peter; Masslo, Christoph; Nielsen, Peter; Freund, Barbara; Bruns, Oliver T; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Peldschus, Kersten; Ittrich, Harald; Schumacher, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Members of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) family are the prototype of tumour markers. Classically they are used as serum markers, however, CEACAMs could serve as targets for molecular imaging as well.In order to test the anti CEACAM monoclonal antibody T84.1 for imaging purposes, CEACAM expression was analysed using this antibody. Twelve human cancer cell lines from different entities were screened for their CEACAM expression using qPCR, Western Blot and FACS analysis. In addition, CEACAM expression was analyzed in primary tumour xenografts of these cells. Nine of 12 tumour cell lines expressed CEACAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines showed the highest expression levels with good correlation of mRNA and protein level. However, when grown in vivo, the CEACAM expression was generally downregulated except for the melanoma cell lines. As the CEACAM expression showed pronounced expression in FemX-1 primary tumours, this model system was used for further experiments. As the accessibility of the antibody after i.v. application is critical for its use in molecular imaging, the binding of the T84.1 monoclonal antibody was assessed after i.v. injection into SCID mice harbouring a FemX-1 primary tumour. When applied i.v., the CEACAM specific T84.1 antibody bound to tumour cells in the vicinity of blood vessels. This binding pattern was particularly pronounced in the periphery of the tumour xenograft, however, some antibody binding was also observed in the central areas of the tumour around blood vessels. Still, a general penetration of the tumour by i.v. application of the anti CEACAM antibody could not be achieved despite homogenous CEACAM expression of all melanoma cells when analysed in tissue sections. This lack of penetration is probably due to the increased interstitial fluid pressure in tumours caused by the absence of functional lymphatic vessels.

  16. Nanomedicine strategies for molecular targets with MRI and optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Caruthers, Shelton D; Chen, Junjie; Winter, Patrick M; SenPan, Angana; Schmieder, Anne H; Wickline, Samuel A

    2010-01-01

    The science of ‘theranostics’ plays a crucial role in personalized medicine, which represents the future of patient management. Over the last decade an increasing research effort has focused on the development of nanoparticle-based molecular-imaging and drug-delivery approaches, emerging as a multidisciplinary field that shows promise in understanding the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The potential of nanometer-sized agents for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases is extraordinary. They have found applications in almost all clinically relevant biomedical imaging modality. In this review, a number of these approaches will be presented with a particular emphasis on MRI and optical imaging-based techniques. We have discussed both established molecular-imaging approaches and recently developed innovative strategies, highlighting the seminal studies and a number of successful examples of theranostic nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cardiovascular and cancer therapy. PMID:20485473

  17. Synthetic Aperture Imaging of Surface Laid Targets by Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Joseph F.; Judge, John A.; Good, Chelsea E.; Bishop, Steven S.; Gugino, Peter M.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a synthetic aperture acoustic imaging system for investigating solid objects in an outdoor environment. Measurement results are reported for a setup consisting of a rail-mounted transceiver, digital data acquisition and control system, and local storage with data post processing capabilities. This imaging system works much like typical sonar and RF synthetic aperture radar technologies but operates above ground and uses acoustic waves in air for its interrogation.

  18. Complete automatic target cuer/recognition system for tactical forward-looking infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernisse, Brian E.; Rogers, Steven K.; DeSimio, Martin P.; Raines, Richard A.

    1997-09-01

    A complete forward-looking IR (FLIR) automatic target cuer/recognizer (ATC/R) is presented. The data used for development and testing of this ATC/R are first generation FLIR images collected using a F-15E. The database contains thousands of images with various mission profiles and target arrangements. The specific target of interest is a mobile missile launcher, the primary target. The goal is to locate all vehicles (secondary targets) within a scene and identify the primary targets. The system developed and tested includes an image segmenter, region cluster algorithm, feature extractor, and classifier. Conventional image processing algorithms in conjunction with neural network techniques are used to form a complete ATC/R system. The conventional techniques include hit/miss filtering, difference of Gaussian filtering, and region clustering. A neural network (multilayer perceptron) is used for classification. These algorithms are developed, tested and then combined into a functional ATC/R system. Overall primary target detection rate (cuer) is 84% with a 69% primary target identification (recognizer) rate at ranges relevant to munitions release. Furthermore, the false alarm rate (a nontarget cued as a target) in only 2.3 per scene. The research is being completed with a 10 flight test profile using third generation FLIR images.

  19. A single reporter for targeted multimodal in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Niers, Johanna M; Chen, John W; Lewandrowski, Grant; Kerami, Mariam; Garanger, Elisabeth; Wojtkiewicz, Greg; Waterman, Peter; Keliher, Edmund; Weissleder, Ralph; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a multifaceted highly specific reporter for multimodal in vivo imaging and applied it for detection of brain tumors. A metabolically biotinylated, membrane-bound form of Gaussia luciferase was synthesized, termed mbGluc-biotin. We engineered glioma cells to express this reporter and showed that brain tumor formation can be temporally imaged by bioluminescence following systemic administration of coelenterazine. Brain tumors expressing this reporter had high sensitivity for detection by magnetic resonance and fluorescence tomographic imaging upon injection of streptavidin conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles or fluorophore, respectively. Moreover, single photon emission computed tomography showed enhanced imaging of these tumors upon injection with streptavidin complexed to 111In-DTPA-biotin. This work shows for the first time a single small reporter ( 40 kDa) which can be monitored with most available molecular imaging modalities and can be extended for single cell imaging using intravital microscopy, allowing real-time tracking of any cell expressing it in vivo. PMID:22397453

  20. Preliminary Quantification of Image Color Gradient on Genesis Concentrator Silicon Carbine Target 60001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft concentrator was a device to focus solar wind ions onto a 6-cm diameter target area, thus concentrating the solar wind by 20X [1]. The target area was comprised of 4 quadrants held in place by a gold-coated stainless steel "cross" (Fig. 1). To date, two SiC and one chemical vapor deposited (CVD) quadrants have been imaged at 5X using a Leica DM-6000M in autoscan mode. Complete imaging of SiC sample 60001 required 1036 images. The mosaic of images is shown in Fig. 2 and position of analyzed areas in Fig. 3. This mosaic imaging is part of the curatorial documentation of surface condition and mapping of contamination. Higher magnification (50X) images of selected areas of the target and individual contaminant particles are compiled into reports which may be requested from the Genesis Curator [2].

  1. Occluded target viewing and identification high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Dippel, George F.; Cecchetti, Kristen D.; Wikman, John C.; Drouin, David P.; Egbert, Paul I.

    2007-09-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has developed a high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar (LADAR) system that has proven its ability to detect and identify hard targets in occluded environments, through battlefield obscurants, and through naturally occurring image-degrading atmospheres. Limitations of passive infrared imaging for target identification using medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) atmospheric windows are well known. Of particular concern is that as wavelength is increased the aperture must be increased to maintain resolution, hence, driving apertures to be very larger for long-range identification; impractical because of size, weight, and optics cost. Conversely, at smaller apertures and with large f-numbers images may become photon starved with long integration times. Here, images are most susceptible to distortion from atmospheric turbulence, platform vibration, or both. Additionally, long-range identification using passive thermal imaging is clutter limited arising from objects in close proximity to the target object.

  2. Survey of evaluation methods in image complexity of target and background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Duan, Jin; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Yanqin; Li, Guangming

    2015-10-01

    In the domain of target recognition, the image complexity of target and background is used to describe the difficult degree of extracting and recognizing target from complex background, which has important guiding significance and widely application prospect in a lot of domains such as biological medical, information encrypt, image compression, meteorological analysis, automatic target recognition. This paper comprehensively took the innate characteristics of target and the target local background characteristic into consideration, which affected the algorithm performance of target extraction and recognition, then made generalizations of three classes of evaluation methods: methods based on the target characteristic, including the target shape characteristic, the gray standard deviation of target pixels, the target Local background entropy difference, etc; methods based on the target similitude, including the edge profile and structural characteristic similitude between target and phony target; methods based on the background characteristic, including texture characteristic edge ratio, etc. And on this basis, we made research on the relationship of structural features and evaluation parameters, and analyzed the foundation and properties of each method by contrast. Thoughts and foresights of this field are given at the end of this paper.

  3. Adaptive multispectral image processing for the detection of targets in terrain clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Zeidler, James R.; Yerkes, Christopher R.

    1992-08-01

    In passive detection of small infrared targets in image data, we are faced with the difficult task of enhancing some characteristic of the target or signal while suppressing the clutter or background image noise. We reported that an effective means by which targets may be identified is to exploit characteristics which exist between scenes measured in different bands in the long wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These methods are broadly termed multispectral techniques. In this paper we present a method by which a two- dimensional least-mean square adaptive filter is used to distinguish between target and clutter using multispectral techniques.

  4. High resolution spatial map imaging of a gaseous target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stei, Martin; von Vangerow, Johannes; Otto, Rico; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Carrascosa, Eduardo; Best, Thorsten; Wester, Roland

    2013-06-01

    Electrostatic ion imaging with the velocity map imaging mode is a widely used method in atomic and molecular physics and physical chemistry. In contrast, the spatial map imaging (SMI) mode has received very little attention, despite the fact that it has been proposed earlier [A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3477 (1997)], 10.1063/1.1148310. Here, we present a detailed parametric characterization of SMI both by simulation and experiment. One-, two- and three-dimensional imaging modes are described. The influence of different parameters on the imaging process is described by means of a Taylor expansion. To experimentally quantify elements of the Taylor expansion and to infer the spatial resolution of our spectrometer, photoionization of toluene with a focused laser beam has been carried out. A spatial resolution of better than 4 μm out of a focal volume of several mm in diameter has been achieved. Our results will be useful for applications of SMI to the characterization of laser beams, the overlap control of multiple particle or light beams, and the determination of absolute collision cross sections.

  5. Joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haichao; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Yanning

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel joint sparse representation based automatic target recognition (ATR) method using multiple views, which can not only handle multi-view ATR without knowing the pose but also has the advantage of exploiting the correlations among the multiple views for a single joint recognition decision. We cast the problem as a multi-variate regression model and recover the sparse representations for the multiple views simultaneously. The recognition is accomplished via classifying the target to the class which gives the minimum total reconstruction error accumulated across all the views. Extensive experiments have been carried out on Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public database to evaluate the proposed method compared with several state-of-the-art methods such as linear Support Vector Machine (SVM), kernel SVM as well as a sparse representation based classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that the effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed joint sparse representation ATR method.

  6. A system for the real-time display of radar and video images of targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W. W.; Burnside, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is a software and hardware system for the real-time display of radar and video images for use in a measurement range. The main purpose is to give the reader a clear idea of the software and hardware design and its functions. This system is designed around a Tektronix XD88-30 graphics workstation, used to display radar images superimposed on video images of the actual target. The system's purpose is to provide a platform for tha analysis and documentation of radar images and their associated targets in a menu-driven, user oriented environment.

  7. A fast 3D image simulation algorithm of moving target for scanning laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicheng; Shi, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Dong

    2014-10-01

    Scanning Laser Radar has been widely used in many military and civil areas. Usually there are relative movements between the target and the radar, so the moving target image modeling and simulation is an important research content in the field of signal processing and system design of scan-imaging laser radar. In order to improve the simulation speed and hold the accuracy of the image simulation simultaneously, a novel fast simulation algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, for moving target or varying scene, an inequation that can judge the intersection relations between the pixel and target bins is obtained by deriving the projection of target motion trajectories on the image plane. Then, by utilizing the time subdivision and approximate treatments, the potential intersection relations of pixel and target bins are determined. Finally, the goal of reducing the number of intersection operations could be achieved by testing all the potential relations and finding which of them is real intersection. To test the method's performance, we perform computer simulations of both the new proposed algorithm and a literature's algorithm for six targets. The simulation results show that the two algorithm yield the same imaging result, whereas the number of intersection operations of former is equivalent to only 1% of the latter, and the calculation efficiency increases a hundredfold. The novel simulation acceleration idea can be applied extensively in other more complex application environments and provide equally acceleration effect. It is very suitable for the case to produce a great large number of laser radar images.

  8. Noise suppression in reconstruction of low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jing; Robar, James; Guan Huaiqun

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To improve the image contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratio for low-Z target megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) using a statistical projection noise suppression algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Methods: Projection images of a contrast phantom, a CatPhan{sup Registered-Sign} 600 phantom and a head phantom were acquired by a Varian 2100EX LINAC with a low-Z (Al) target and low energy x-ray beam (2.5 MeV) at a low-dose level and at a high-dose level. The projections were then processed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The weighted least square (WLS) term models the noise of measured projection and the penalty term enforces the smoothing constraints of the projection image. The variance of projection data was chosen as the weight for the PWLS objective function and it determined the contribution of each measurement. An anisotropic quadratic form penalty that incorporates the gradient information of projection image was used to preserve edges during noise reduction. Low-Z target MV CBCT images were reconstructed by the FDK algorithm after each projection was processed by the PWLS smoothing. Results: Noise in low-Z target MV CBCT images were greatly suppressed after the PWLS projection smoothing, without noticeable sacrifice of the spatial resolution. Depending on the choice of smoothing parameter, the CNR of selected regions of interest in the PWLS processed low-dose low-Z target MV CBCT image can be higher than the corresponding high-dose image.Conclusion: The CNR of low-Z target MV CBCT images was substantially improved by using PWLS projection smoothing. The PWLS projection smoothing algorithm allows the reconstruction of high contrast low-Z target MV CBCT image with a total dose of as low as 2.3 cGy.

  9. Lead sulfide near-infrared quantum dot bioconjugates for targeted molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiantang; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Fu, Kun; Lewinski, Nastassja; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the use of lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) bioconjugates as near infrared (NIR) contrast agents for targeted molecular imaging with expanded emission wavelengths beyond 1000 nm. The red-shifted emission band, coupled with the small particle size, which will facilitate clearance, both afford PbS QDs unique properties for noninvasive, high resolution in vivo NIR imaging applications. We have performed imaging experiments at the molecular level using surface-modified PbS NIR QDs, together with our lab-built NIR imaging system. This novel instrumentation and fluorescent contrast agent have enabled us to study the relatively unexplored NIR biomedical imaging spectral region of 900–1200 nm. Preliminary experimental results indicate that PbS-QD/antibody bioconjugates are promising candidates for targeted NIR molecular imaging and future in vivo NIR tissue imaging applications. PMID:17722551

  10. A New SAR Image Segmentation Algorithm for the Detection of Target and Shadow Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiqi; Huang, Wenzhun; Zhang, Ting

    2016-12-01

    The most distinctive characteristic of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that it can acquire data under all weather conditions and at all times. However, its coherent imaging mechanism introduces a great deal of speckle noise into SAR images, which makes the segmentation of target and shadow regions in SAR images very difficult. This paper proposes a new SAR image segmentation method based on wavelet decomposition and a constant false alarm rate (WD-CFAR). The WD-CFAR algorithm not only is insensitive to the speckle noise in SAR images but also can segment target and shadow regions simultaneously, and it is also able to effectively segment SAR images with a low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Experiments were performed to assess the performance of the new algorithm on various SAR images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible and possesses good characteristics for general application.

  11. A New SAR Image Segmentation Algorithm for the Detection of Target and Shadow Regions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiqi; Huang, Wenzhun; Zhang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The most distinctive characteristic of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that it can acquire data under all weather conditions and at all times. However, its coherent imaging mechanism introduces a great deal of speckle noise into SAR images, which makes the segmentation of target and shadow regions in SAR images very difficult. This paper proposes a new SAR image segmentation method based on wavelet decomposition and a constant false alarm rate (WD-CFAR). The WD-CFAR algorithm not only is insensitive to the speckle noise in SAR images but also can segment target and shadow regions simultaneously, and it is also able to effectively segment SAR images with a low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Experiments were performed to assess the performance of the new algorithm on various SAR images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible and possesses good characteristics for general application. PMID:27924935

  12. A New SAR Image Segmentation Algorithm for the Detection of Target and Shadow Regions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiqi; Huang, Wenzhun; Zhang, Ting

    2016-12-07

    The most distinctive characteristic of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that it can acquire data under all weather conditions and at all times. However, its coherent imaging mechanism introduces a great deal of speckle noise into SAR images, which makes the segmentation of target and shadow regions in SAR images very difficult. This paper proposes a new SAR image segmentation method based on wavelet decomposition and a constant false alarm rate (WD-CFAR). The WD-CFAR algorithm not only is insensitive to the speckle noise in SAR images but also can segment target and shadow regions simultaneously, and it is also able to effectively segment SAR images with a low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Experiments were performed to assess the performance of the new algorithm on various SAR images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible and possesses good characteristics for general application.

  13. Synthetic Aperture Sonar Imaging of Simple Finite Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    simulations include estimates of reverberation from the rough seafloor, the subcritical penetration through the seafloor, scattering from a target, and...the simulations include estimates of reverberation from the rough seafloor, the subcritical penetration through the seafloor, scattering from a...of the underlying assumptions and approximations. The origin of the coordinate geometry for the reverberation and penetration models lies in the mean

  14. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  15. Functionalized Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Tumor Vasculature Targeting and PET Image-Guided Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Hong, Hao; Chen, Feng; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Development of multifunctional and well-dispersed hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for tumor vasculature targeted drug delivery and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Materials and Methods Amine functionalized HMSNs (150–250 nm) were conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, NOTA, PEGylated and loaded with anti-angiogenesis drug, Sunitinib. Cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys) (cRGDyK) peptide was attached to the nanoconjugate and radiolabeled with 64Cu for PET imaging. Results 64Cu-NOTA-HMSN-PEG-cRGDyK exhibited integrin specific uptake both in vitro and in vivo. PET results indicated ~ 8 %ID/g uptake of targeted nanoconjugates in U87MG tumors, which correlated well with ex vivo and histological analyses. Enhanced tumor targeted delivery of sunitinib was also observed. Conclusions We successfully developed tumor vasculature targeted HMSNs for PET imaging and image guided drug delivery. PMID:25955122

  16. First Image from a Mars Rover Choosing a Target, False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-23

    This image is the result of the first observation of a target selected autonomously by NASA Opportunity using newly developed and uploaded software called AEGIS. The false color makes some differences between materials easier to see.

  17. In Search for Optimal Targets for Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging of Peritoneal Metastasis From Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoogstins, Charlotte Es; Weixler, Benjamin; Boogerd, Leonora Sf; Hoppener, Diederik J; Prevoo, Hendrica Ajm; Sier, Cornelis Fm; Burger, Jacobus Wa; Verhoef, Cornelis; Bhairosingh, Shadvhi; Farina Sarasqueta, Arantza; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis (PM) occurs in about 10% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Fluorescence imaging can enhance contrast between cancerous and benign tissue, enabling the surgeon to clearly visualize PM during cytoreductive surgery. This study assessed the suitability of different biomarkers as potential targets for tumor-targeted imaging of PM of CRC. Tissue samples from primary tumor and PM from patients with CRC were obtained from the pathology archives and immunohistochemical stainings were performed. Overexpression of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was seen in 100% of PM samples and the expression was strong in >70% of samples. Tyrosine-kinase Met (C-Met) and folate receptor α overexpression was seen in 20% of PM samples. For successful application of tumor-targeted intraoperative fluorescence imaging of PM, biomarkers need to be identified. We demonstrated that both EpCAM and CEA are suitable targets for fluorescence imaging of PM in patients with CRC.

  18. Extraction of Target Scatterings from Received Transients on Target Detection Trial of Ambient Noise Imaging with Acoustic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    We have already designed and fabricated an aspherical lens with an aperture diameter of 1.0 m to develop a prototype system for ambient noise imaging (ANI). It has also been verified that this acoustic lens realizes a directional resolution, which is a beam width of 1° at the center frequency of 120 kHz over the field of view from -7 to +7°. In this study, a sea trial of silent target detection using the prototype ANI system was conducted under only natural ocean ambient noise at Uchiura Bay, in November of 2010. There were many transients in the received sound. These transients were classified roughly into directly received noises and target scatterings. We proposed a classification method to extract transients of only target scatterings. By analyzing transients extracted as target scatterings, it was verified that the power spectrum density levels of the on-target directions were greater than those of the off-target directions in the higher frequency band over 60 kHz. These results showed that the targets are successfully detected under natural ocean ambient noise, mainly generated by snapping shrimps.

  19. Adaptive target detection in foliage-penetrating SAR images using alpha-stable models.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Burlina, P; Chellappa, R

    1999-01-01

    Detecting targets occluded by foliage in foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) images is an important and challenging problem. Given the different nature of target returns in foliage and nonfoliage regions and very low signal-to-clutter ratio in UWB imagery, conventional detection algorithms fail to yield robust target detection results. A new target detection algorithm is proposed that (1) incorporates symmetric alpha-stable (SalphaS) distributions for accurate clutter modeling, (2) constructs a two-dimensional (2-D) site model for deriving local context, and (3) exploits the site model for region-adaptive target detection. Theoretical and empirical evidence is given to support the use of the SalphaS model for image segmentation and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. Results of our algorithm on real FOPEN images collected by the Army Research Laboratory are provided.

  20. Selective modification of apoB-100 in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins by myeloperoxidase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Gu, Z W; Yang, M; Lin, S N; Garcia-Prats, A J; Rogers, L K; Welty, S E; Smith, C V

    1999-04-01

    Oxidative modification of LDL may be important in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanisms through which low density lipoprotein (LDL) is oxidized are unknown. Recently, evidence for the existence of HOCl-oxidized LDL in human atherosclerotic lesions has been reported, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is thought to act through production of HOCl, has been identified in human atherosclerotic lesions. In the present report we describe the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-reactive modifications in the apolipoprotein (apo) by exposure of LDL to myeloperoxidase in vitro. In contrast with the complex mixture of peptides from oxidation of LDL with reagent HOCl, oxidation with MPO in vitro produced a major tryptic peptide showing absorbance at 365 nm. This peptide was isolated and characterized as VELEVPQL(*C)SFILK..., corresponding to amino acid residues 53-66...on apoB-100. Mass spectrometric analyses of two tryptic peptides from oxidation of LDL by HOCl indicated formation of the corresponding methionine sulfoxide (M=O), cysteinyl azo (*C), RS -N= N-DNP, derivatives of EEL(*C)T(M=O)FIR and LNDLNS VLV(M=O)PTFHVPFTDLQVPS(*C)K, which suggest oxidation to the corresponding sulfinic acids (RSO2H) by HOCl. The present results demonstrate that DNPH-reactive modifications other than aldehydes and ketones can be formed in the oxidation of proteins and illustrate how characterization of specific products of protein oxidation can be useful in assessing the relative contributions of different and unexpected mechanisms to the oxidation of LDL and other target substrates. The data also suggest a direct interaction of the LDL particle with the active site on myeloperoxidase and indicate that effects of the protein microenvironment can greatly influence product formation and stability.

  1. A model for forming airborne synthetic aperture radar images of underground targets

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from an airborne platform has been proposed for imaging targets beneath the earth`s surface. The propagation of the radar`s energy within the ground, however, is much different than in the earth`s atmosphere. The result is signal refraction, echo delay, propagation losses, dispersion, and volumetric scattering. These all combine to make SAR image formation from an airborne platform much more challenging than a surface imaging counterpart. This report treats the ground as a lossy dispersive half-space, and presents a model for the radar echo based on measurable parameters. The model is then used to explore various imaging schemes, and image properties. Dynamic range is discussed, as is the impact of loss on dynamic range. Modified window functions are proposed to mitigate effects of sidelobes of shallow targets overwhelming deeper targets.

  2. The study of target damage assessment system based on image change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Fan; Feng, Xinxi

    2009-10-01

    Target Damage Assessment (TDA) system is an important component of the intelligent command and control system. The method of building TDA based on Image Change Detection can greatly improve the system efficiency and accuracy, thus get a fast and precise assessment results. This paper firstly analyzes the structure of TDA system. Then studies the key technology in this system. Finally, gives an evaluation criteria based on image change detection of the target damage assessment system.

  3. Synthesis of a Targeted Biarsenical Cy3-Cy5 Affinity Probe for Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Na; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-11-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent probes capable of the targeted labeling of tagged proteins are of significant interest due to their ability to enable in situ imaging of protein complexes within native biomolecular assemblies. Here we describe the synthesis of a fluorescent probe (AsCy3Cy5), and demonstrate the targeted labeling and super-resolution imaging of a tagged protein within a supramolecular protein complex.

  4. Neutrophil-derived microparticles induce myeloperoxidase-mediated damage of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Upon activation neutrophil releases microparticles - small plasma membrane vesicles that contain cell surface proteins and cytoplasmic matter, with biological activities. In this study we investigated the potential role of myeloperoxidase in the endothelial cell injury caused by neutrophil-derived microparticles. Results Microparticles were produced by activating human neutrophils with a calcium ionophore and characterized by flow cytometry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Neutrophil microparticles-induced injuries and morphological alterations in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Neutrophil microparticles were characterized as structures bounded by lipid bilayers and were less than 1 μm in diameter. The microparticles also expressed CD66b, CD62L and myeloperoxidase, which are all commonly expressed on the surface of neutrophils, as well as exposition of phosphatidylserine. The activity of the myeloperoxidase present on the microparticles was confirmed by hypochlorous acid detection. This compound is only catalyzed by myeloperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion. The addition of sodium azide or taurine inhibited and reduced enzymatic activity, respectively. Exposure of HUVEC to neutrophil microparticles induced a loss of cell membrane integrity and morphological changes. The addition of sodium azide or myeloperoxidase-specific inhibitor-I consistently reduced the injury to the endothelial cells. Taurine addition reduced HUVEC morphological changes. Conclusions We have demonstrated the presence of active myeloperoxidase in neutrophil microparticles and that the microparticle-associated myeloperoxidase cause injury to endothelial cells. Hence, the microparticle-associated myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system may contribute to widespread endothelial cell damage

  5. Inactivation of transferrin iron binding capacity by the neutrophil myeloperoxidase system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Pearson, D.W.

    1989-06-05

    Human serum apotransferrin was exposed to the isolated myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system or to phorbol ester-activated human neutrophils. Such treatment resulted in a marked loss in transferrin iron binding capacity as well as concomitant iodination of transferrin. Each component of the cell-free system (myeloperoxidase, H2O2, iodide) or neutrophil system (neutrophils, phorbol ester, iodide) was required in order to observe these changes. In the cell-free system, the H2O2 requirement was fulfilled by either reagent H2O2 or the peroxide-generating system glucose oxidase plus glucose. Both loss of iron binding capacity and transferrin iodination by either the myeloperoxidase system or activated neutrophils were blocked by azide or catalase. The isolated peroxidase system had an acidic pH optimum, whereas the intact cell system was more efficient at neutral pH. The kinetics of changes in iron binding capacity and iodination closely paralleled one another, exhibiting t1/2 values of less than 1 min for the myeloperoxidase-H2O2 system, 3-4 min for the myeloperoxidase-glucose oxidase system, and 8 min for the neutrophil system. That the occupied binding site is protected from the myeloperoxidase system was suggested by (1) a failure to mobilize iron from iron-loaded transferrin, (2) an inverse correlation between initial iron saturation and myeloperoxidase-mediated loss of iron binding capacity, and (3) decreased myeloperoxidase-mediated iodination of iron-loaded versus apotransferrin. Since as little as 1 atom of iodide bound per molecule of transferrin was associated with substantial losses in iron binding capacity, there appears to be a high specificity of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed iodination for residues at or near the iron binding sites. Amino acid analysis of iodinated transferrin (approximately 2 atoms/molecule) demonstrated that iodotyrosine was the predominant iodinated species.

  6. Automatic small target detection in synthetic infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardımcı, Ozan; Ulusoy, Ä.°lkay

    2017-05-01

    Automatic detection of targets from far distances is a very challenging problem. Background clutter and small target size are the main difficulties which should be solved while reaching a high detection performance as well as a low computational load. The pre-processing, detection and post-processing approaches are very effective on the final results. In this study, first of all, various methods in the literature were evaluated separately for each of these stages using the simulated test scenarios. Then, a full system of detection was constructed among available solutions which resulted in the best performance in terms of detection. However, although a precision rate as 100% was reached, the recall values stayed low around 25-45%. Finally, a post-processing method was proposed which increased the recall value while keeping the precision at 100%. The proposed post-processing method, which is based on local operations, increased the recall value to 65-95% in all test scenarios.

  7. Fluorescent non-conjugated polymer dots for targeted cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bin; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Yibo; Tang, Qi; Zhu, Shoujun; Yang, Bai; Sun, Hongchen

    2016-05-01

    Through the chemical crosslinking of the sub-fluorophore, linear non-conjugated polymers can possess strong photoluminescence (PL), which is a very important fluorescence behavior and the non-conjugated polymer dots (PDs) are efficient bio-fluorophores for bio-based applications. Herein, the new type of non-conjugated polyethyleneimine (PEI) PDs was further modified by targeting molecules (folic acid) for a new generation of bio-fluorophores. The free folic acid can quench the PL of PDs by energy transfer, while the conjugated folic acid@PDs (FA@PDs) can still maintain their PL properties to a certain degree. The FA@PDs also possess lower toxicity compared with free PDs, which is possibly due to blocking of the amino groups. Moreover, we investigated the targeted bioimaging applications of the FA@PDs, which gave a very important direction for application of these types of materials.Through the chemical crosslinking of the sub-fluorophore, linear non-conjugated polymers can possess strong photoluminescence (PL), which is a very important fluorescence behavior and the non-conjugated polymer dots (PDs) are efficient bio-fluorophores for bio-based applications. Herein, the new type of non-conjugated polyethyleneimine (PEI) PDs was further modified by targeting molecules (folic acid) for a new generation of bio-fluorophores. The free folic acid can quench the PL of PDs by energy transfer, while the conjugated folic acid@PDs (FA@PDs) can still maintain their PL properties to a certain degree. The FA@PDs also possess lower toxicity compared with free PDs, which is possibly due to blocking of the amino groups. Moreover, we investigated the targeted bioimaging applications of the FA@PDs, which gave a very important direction for application of these types of materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01909a

  8. Sparsity-Inspired Recognition of Targets in Infrared Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for automatic target...Sparsity-based methods have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of...have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for

  9. Multiscale target extraction using a spectral saliency map for a hyperspectral image.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Geng, Wenhao; Zhuo, Li; Tian, Qi; Cao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of the capabilities for hyperspectral imagery acquisition, how to efficiently find the significant target in hyperspectral imagery has become a fundamental task for remote-sensing applications. Existing target extraction methods mainly separate targets from background with a threshold based on pixels and single-scale image information extraction. However, due to the high dimensional characteristics and the complex background of hyperspectral imagery, it is difficult to obtain good extraction results with existing methods. Saliency detection has been a promising topic because saliency features can quickly locate saliency regions from complex backgrounds. Considering the spatial and spectral characteristics of a hyperspectral image, a multiscale target extraction method using a spectral saliency map is proposed for a hyperspectral image, which includes: (1) a spectral saliency model is constructed for detecting spectral saliency map in a hyperspectral image; (2) focus of attention (FOA) as the seed point is competed in the spectral saliency map by the winner-take-all (WTA) network; (3) the multiscale image is segmented by region growing based on the minimum-heterogeneity rule after calculating the heterogeneity of the seed point with its surrounding pixels; (4) the salient target is detected and segmented under the constraint of the spectral saliency map. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of target extraction for hyperspectral images.

  10. Target recognition and phase acquisition by using incoherent digital holographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Munseob; Lee, Byung-Tak

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we proposed the Incoherent Digital Holographic Imaging (IDHI) for recognition and phase information of dedicated target. Although recent development of a number of target recognition techniques such as LIDAR, there have limited success in target discrimination, in part due to low-resolution, low scanning speed, and computation power. In the paper, the proposed system consists of the incoherent light source, such as LED, Michelson interferometer, and digital CCD for acquisition of four phase shifting image. First of all, to compare with relative coherence, we used a source as laser and LED, respectively. Through numerical reconstruction by using the four phase shifting method and Fresnel diffraction method, we recovered the intensity and phase image of USAF resolution target apart from about 1.0m distance. In this experiment, we show 1.2 times improvement in resolution compared to conventional imaging. Finally, to confirm the recognition result of camouflaged targets with the same color from background, we carry out to test holographic imaging in incoherent light. In this result, we showed the possibility of a target detection and recognition that used three dimensional shape and size signatures, numerical distance from phase information of obtained holographic image.

  11. Real-time image fusion and target learning and detection on a laptop attached processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, David; Ilardi, Paul; Sheldon, Nathan; Grau, Daniel; Biehl, Robert; Waxman, Allen

    2005-05-01

    The theory of opponent-sensor image fusion is based on neural circuit models of adaptive contrast enhancement and opponent-color interaction, as developed and previously presented by Waxman, Fay et al. This approach can directly fuse 2, 3, 4, and 5 imaging sensors, e.g., VNIR, SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR for fused night vision. The opponent-sensor images also provide input to a point-and-click fast learning approach for target fingerprinting (pattern learning and salient feature discovery) and subsequent target search. We have recently developed a real-time implementation of multi-sensor image fusion and target learning & search on a single board attached processor for a laptop computer. In this paper we will review our approach to image fusion and target learning, and demonstrate fusion and target detection using an array of VNIR, SWIR and LWIR imagers. We will also show results from night data collections in the field. This opens the way to digital fused night vision goggles, weapon sights and turrets that fuse multiple sensors and learn to find targets designated by the operator.

  12. Functionalized Gold Nanorods for Tumor Imaging and Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Chen; Cui, Da-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanorods, as an emerging noble metal nanomaterial with unique properties, have become the new exciting focus of theoretical and experimental studies in the past few years. The structure and function of gold nanorods, especially their biocompatibility, optical property, and photothermal effects, have been attracting more and more attention. Gold nanorods exhibit great potential in applications such as tumor molecular imaging and photothermal therapy. In this article, we review some of the main advances made over the past few years in the application of gold nanorods in surface functionalization, molecular imaging, and photothermal therapy. We also explore other prospective applications and discuss the corresponding concepts, issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating broader interest in gold nanorod-based nanotechnology and improving its practical application. PMID:23691482

  13. Detection of sea-surface small targets in infrared images based on multilevel filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhen C.; Zhang, Tianxu

    1998-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the research work about small target detection in heavy noise background infrared images. In the studied sea surface infrared images, ship objects are rather dim in dark sea background. There also exist scan line disturbance and clutter noises which increase the difficulties of exact detection. On one hand, dim objects must be detected from dark background. On the other hand, the small targets must be distinguished from clutters. Through the analysis of the targets and background features, we find the targets are more continuous then clutters and have sharper edges. Their sizes are larger too. These indicate that their frequency features are different from clutters. In frequency domain, the targets mainly lie in the low and middle frequency region compared with clutters. We apply low pass filters (LPF) to the images. The space sizes of LPF are carefully chosen according to the target sizes. To obtain good result, multi-level filters are considered. We subtract the filtered image from the original image, then use a contrast-based method to detect the objects. Our experiments show that the algorithm is excellent for target detection and robust to noises.

  14. Target-oriented retrieval of subsurface wave fields - Pushing the resolution limits in seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Ivan; Ozmen, Neslihan; van der Neut, Joost; Cui, Tianci

    2017-04-01

    Travelling wide-bandwidth seismic waves have long been used as a primary tool in exploration seismology because they can probe the subsurface over large distances, while retaining relatively high spatial resolution. The well-known Born resolution limit often seems to be the lower bound on spatial imaging resolution in real life examples. In practice, data acquisition cost, time constraints and other factors can worsen the resolution achieved by wavefield imaging. Could we obtain images whose resolution beats the Born limits? Would it be practical to achieve it, and what are we missing today to achieve this? In this talk, we will cover aspects of linear and nonlinear seismic imaging to understand elements that play a role in obtaining "super-resolved" seismic images. New redatuming techniques, such as the Marchenko method, enable the retrieval of subsurface fields that include multiple scattering interactions, while requiring relatively little knowledge of model parameters. Together with new concepts in imaging, such as Target-Enclosing Extended Images, these new redatuming methods enable new targeted imaging frameworks. We will make a case as to why target-oriented approaches to reconstructing subsurface-domain wavefields from surface data may help in increasing the resolving power of seismic imaging, and in pushing the limits on parameter estimation. We will illustrate this using a field data example. Finally, we will draw connections between seismic and other imaging modalities, and discuss how this framework could be put to use in other applications

  15. [Extracting target from blurred midwave infrared image based on immune template clustering].

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao; Tong, He-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Extracting targets from a blurred midwave infrared image is a challenging task due to the fuzziness of the image. Inspired by the coordination mechanism between biological innate immunity and adaptive immunity, an immune template clustering targets extraction method is proposed, which based on imaging mechanism and template statistical property of midwave image. Firstly, by learning from the recognition function of innate immunity and maximizing the between-cluster variance, a midwave blurred infrared image is segmented into a target pixel set, a background pixel set and a blurred pixel set. Secondly, according to the presentation function of innate immunity, the frequency domain template features of pixels in midwave blurred infrared image are extracted. Finally, adaptive immune clustering is completed for the blurred pixel set based on frequency domain template feature, in order to divide each blurred pixel into target pixel or background pixel. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can extract targets from a midwave blurred infrared image efficiently. Compared with classical edge template and conventional region template methods, the immune template clustering method has better extraction efficiency, absolute error rate and coincidence degree with ground truth.

  16. In vivo photoacoustic imaging with multiple selective targeting using bioconjugated gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chen-Wei; Liao, Chao-Kang; Chen, Ying-Yi; Wang, Churng-Ren Chris; Ding, Ann-Ann; Shiehd, Dar-Bin; Li, Pai-Chi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, photoacoustic imaging is utilized to probe information from oncogene surface molecules of cancer cell with the aid of specific targeting. The ultimate goal is to provide prediction of clinical outcome and treatment response of anti-cancer drugs. Different from single targeting in most research, we accomplished multiple targeting to obtain a molecular profile potentially representing tumor characteristics or to locate the heterogeneous population in one lesion. By conjugating different antibodies to gold nanorods corresponding to different peak absorption bands, multiple targeting and simultaneous detection with photoacoustic imaging can be achieved with laser irradiation at the respective peak optical absorption wavelength. Her2 and EGFR were chosen as our primary target molecules. The targeting complex was evaluated in two types of oral cancer cells, OECM1 and Cal27. The OECM1 cell line overexpresses Her2 but has low expression of EGFR, while Cal27 cell line expresses both antibodies. Also, the targeting efficacy to OECM1 can be further improved by using mixed nanoprobes. The cancer cells were induced on the back of the mice by subcutaneous injection. The captured images show that both cancer cells exhibit a higher photoacoustic response (maximum 3 dB) than control groups with specific targeting, thus demonstrating the feasibility of multiple selective targeting with bioconjugated gold nanorods. Images of multiple targeting with mixed nanoprobes of OECM1 cells also reveal further enhancement of targeting (4 dB). The results showed potential of in vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging, providing a better guidance for diagnosis and treatment of cancer.

  17. Target extraction from blurred trace infrared images with a superstring galaxy template algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Fu, Dongmei

    2014-05-01

    Accurate and efficient targets extraction from blurred trace infrared images has very important meaning for latent trace evidence collection in crime scene. Based on the superstring theory, a superstring galaxy template extraction algorithm for infrared trace target is presented. First, all of the pixels are divided into three classes: target pixels, background pixels and blurred pixels. Next, the superstring template characteristics for every pixel in a blurred infrared image are calculated as the features of each pixel. Finally, a galaxy covering algorithm is proposed, target pixels and background pixels are used for training the galaxy covering domain of every galaxy classifiers, and these classifiers will divide each blurred pixel into two classes: a target pixel or a background pixel. Experimental results indicate that the superstring galaxy template algorithm can improve the target extraction rate and reduce the extraction error rate.

  18. A long-term target detection approach in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    An automatic target detection method used in long term infrared (IR) image sequence from a moving platform is proposed. Firstly, based on POME(the principle of maximum entropy), target candidates are iteratively segmented. Then the real target is captured via two different selection approaches. At the beginning of image sequence, the genuine target with litter texture is discriminated from other candidates by using contrast-based confidence measure. On the other hand, when the target becomes larger, we apply online EM method to estimate and update the distributions of target's size and position based on the prior detection results, and then recognize the genuine one which satisfies both the constraints of size and position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented method is accurate, robust and efficient.

  19. Imaging of Moving Targets With Multi-Static SAR Using an Overcomplete Dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Ivana; Karl, William Clem

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging of moving targets using multi-static SAR by treating the problem as one of spatial reflectivity signal inversion over an overcomplete dictionary of target velocities. Since SAR sensor returns can be related to the spatial frequency domain projections of the scattering field, we exploit insights from compressed sensing theory to show that moving targets can be effectively imaged with transmitters and receivers randomly dispersed in a multi-static geometry within a narrow forward cone around the scene of interest. Existing approaches to dealing with moving targets in SAR solve a coupled non-linear problem of target scattering and motion estimation typically through matched filtering. In contrast, by using an overcomplete dictionary approach we effectively linearize the forward model and solve the moving target problem as a larger, unified regularized inversion problem subject to sparsity constraints.

  20. A long-term target detection approach in infrared image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    An automatic target detection method used in long term infrared (IR) image sequence from a moving platform is proposed. Firstly, based on non-linear histogram equalization, target candidates are coarse-to-fine segmented by using two self-adapt thresholds generated in the intensity space. Then the real target is captured via two different selection approaches. At the beginning of image sequence, the genuine target with litter texture is discriminated from other candidates by using contrast-based confidence measure. On the other hand, when the target becomes larger, we apply online EM method to iteratively estimate and update the distributions of target's size and position based on the prior detection results, and then recognize the genuine one which satisfies both the constraints of size and position. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented method is accurate, robust and efficient.

  1. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M; Kelly, Kimberly A

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  2. Molecular Targeted Therapy in Modern Oncology: Imaging Assessment of Treatment Response and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Shinagare, Atul B.

    2017-01-01

    Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with a shift toward personalized cancer treatment. The use of therapies targeted to the molecular features of individual tumors and the tumor microenvironment has become much more common. In this review, anti-angiogenic and other molecular targeted therapies are discussed, with a focus on typical and atypical response patterns and imaging manifestations of drug toxicities. PMID:28096716

  3. M13-templated magnetic nanoparticles for targeted in vivo imaging of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Lee, Youjin; Thomas, Stephanie; Kohli, Aditya G.; Yun, Dong Soo; Belcher, Angela M.; Kelly, Kimberly A.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular imaging allows clinicians to visualize the progression of tumours and obtain relevant information for patient diagnosis and treatment. Owing to their intrinsic optical, electrical and magnetic properties, nanoparticles are promising contrast agents for imaging dynamic molecular and cellular processes such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity or gene expression. Until now, nanoparticles have been engineered with targeting ligands such as antibodies and peptides to improve tumour specificity and uptake. However, excessive loading of ligands can reduce the targeting capabilities of the ligand and reduce the ability of the nanoparticle to bind to a finite number of receptors on cells. Increasing the number of nanoparticles delivered to cells by each targeting molecule would lead to higher signal-to-noise ratios and would improve image contrast. Here, we show that M13 filamentous bacteriophage can be used as a scaffold to display targeting ligands and multiple nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells and tumours in mice. Monodisperse iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles assemble along the M13 coat, and its distal end is engineered to display a peptide that targets SPARC glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in various cancers. Compared with nanoparticles that are directly functionalized with targeting peptides, our approach improves contrast because each SPARC-targeting molecule delivers a large number of nanoparticles into the cells. Moreover, the targeting ligand and nanoparticles could be easily exchanged for others, making this platform attractive for in vivo high-throughput screening and molecular detection.

  4. New detection algorithm for dim point moving target in IR-image sequence based on an image frames transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. A.; Li, Hongzuo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we follow the concept of the track before detect (TBD) category in order to perform a simple, fast and adaptive detection and tracking processes of dim pixel size moving targets in IR images sequence. We present two new algorithms based on an image frames transformation, the first algorithm is a recursive algorithm to measure the image background Baseline which help in assigning an adaptive threshold, while the second is an adaptive recursive statistical spatio-temporal algorithm for detecting and tracking the target. The results of applying the proposed algorithms on a set of frames having a simple single pixel target performing a linear motion shows a high efficiency and validity in the detecting of the motion, and the measurement of the background baseline.

  5. The roles of myeloperoxidase in coronary artery disease and its potential implication in plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Teng, Nathaniel; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Talib, Jihan; Rashid, Imran; Lau, Antony K; Stocker, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque. As such, detection, quantification and imaging of MPO mass and activity have become useful in cardiac risk stratification, both for disease assessment and in the identification of patients at risk of plaque rupture. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of MPO in CAD with a focus on its possible roles in plaque rupture and recent advances to quantify and image MPO in plasma and atherosclerotic plaques.

  6. Registration free automatic identification of gold fiducial markers in MRI target delineation images for prostate radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Christian; Korhonen, Juha; Persson, Emilia; Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Nyholm, Tufve; Olsson, Lars E

    2017-08-13

    The superior soft tissue contrast of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared to computed tomography (CT) has urged the integration of MRI and elimination of CT in radiotherapy treatment (RT) for prostate. An intraprostatic gold fiducial marker (GFM) appears hyperintense on CT. On T2-weighted (T2w) MRI target delineation images, the GFM appear as a small signal void similar to calcifications and post biopsy fibrosis. It can therefore be difficult to identify the markers without CT. Detectability of GFMs can be improved using additional MR images, which are manually registered to target delineation images. This task requires manual labor, and is associated with interoperator differences and image registration errors. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an automatic method for identification of GFMs directly in the target delineation images without the need for image registration. T2w images, intended for target delineation, and multiecho gradient echo (MEGRE) images intended for GFM identification, were acquired for prostate cancer patients. Signal voids in the target delineation images were identified as GFM candidates. The GFM appeared as round, symmetric, signal void with increasing area for increasing echo time in the MEGRE images. These image features were exploited for automatic identification of GFMs in a MATLAB model using a patient training dataset (n = 20). The model was validated on an independent patient dataset (n = 40). The distances between the identified GFM in the target delineation images and the GFM in CT images were measured. A human observatory study was conducted to validate the use of MEGRE images. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the automatic method and the observatory study was 84%, 74%, 81% and 98%, 94%, 97%, respectively. The mean absolute difference in the GFM distances for the automatic method and observatory study was 1.28 ± 1.25 mm and 1.14 ± 1.06 mm, respectively. Multiecho gradient echo images were shown

  7. Study on non-target area of LLL image statistical characteristics under different illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Hu, Qing-ping

    2016-10-01

    Low light level (LLL) imaging mainly relies on to detect weak night sky of targets reflecting, and environmental illumination is one of the important factors affecting the LLL image features. Germany's third-generation image intensifiers, Toshiba Terry company CS8620Ci types of CCD device as the main core to build LLL image acquisition experimental system, and LLL images are collected in a dark room with different illumination. This paper analyzes relationship between the statistical properties of the LLL image non-target area and environmental illumination, studies the laws between the mean, variance, autocorrelation, variance of sum and environmental illumination. And these laws based on experimental data were fitted to obtained specific mathematical expressions.

  8. Feasibility of Image-Based Simulation to Estimate Ablation Target in Human Ventricular Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Arevalo, Hermenegild; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Blake, Robert C.; Bayer, Jason D.; Nazarian, Saman; Zviman, M. Muz; Tandri, Harikrishna; Berger, Ronald D.; Calkins, Hugh; Herzka, Daniel A.; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Halperin, Henry R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that MRI with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) may identify slowly conducting tissues in scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT). Objective We tested the feasibility of image-based simulation based on LGE to estimate ablation targets in VT. Methods We conducted a retrospective study in 13 patients who had pre-ablation MRI for scar-related VT ablation. We used image-based simulation to induce VT and estimate target regions according to the simulated VT circuit. The estimated target regions were co-registered with the LGE scar map and the ablation sites from the electroanatomical map in the standard ablation approach. Results In image-based simulation, VT was inducible in 12 patients (92.3%). All VTs showed macro-reentrant propagation patterns, and the narrowest width of estimated target region that an ablation line should span to prevent VT recurrence was 5.0 ± 3.4 mm. Out of 11 patients who underwent ablation, the results of image-based simulation and the standard approach were consistent in 9 patients (82%), where ablation within the estimated target region was associated with acute success (n=8) and ablation outside the estimated target region was associated with failure (n=1). In one case (9%), the results of image-based simulation and the standard approach were inconsistent, where ablation outside the estimated target region was associated with acute success. Conclusions The image-based simulation can be used to estimate potential ablation targets of scar-related VT. The image-based simulation may be a powerful noninvasive tool for pre-procedural planning of ablation procedures to potentially reduce the procedure time and complication rates. PMID:23608593

  9. Measurement of polarization parameters of the targets in synthetic aperture imaging LADAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Wei; Hou, Peipei; Ma, Xiaoping; Lu, Zhiyong; Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Liren

    2015-09-01

    In Synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL), the polarization state change of the backscattered light will affect the imaging. Polarization state of the reflected field is always determined by the interaction of the light and the materials on the target plane. The Stokes parameters, which can provide the information on both light intensity and polarization state, are the ideal quantities for characterizing the above features. In this paper, a measurement system of the polarization characteristic for the SAIL target materials is designed. The measurement results are expected to be useful in target identification and recognition.

  10. PHIND: an analytic model to predict target acquisition distance with image intensifiers.

    PubMed

    Vos, J J; van Meeteren, A

    1991-03-10

    An earlier developed calculation scheme to predict the visual range with image intensifiers is further elaborated and quantified. On the basis of the physical characteristics of the image intensifier and the observation conditions (target size and contrast and the meteorological visual range), the recognition distance for any value of the vertical illuminance can be calculated. The predictions were verified with a sizable experimental data set. The recognition distance for widely varying targets could be described on the basis of realistic physical target contrasts with respect to background and of a characteristic size which may be related to typical background clutter. PHIND FORTRAN and pocket calculator programs are available on request.

  11. An enzymatically activated fluorescence probe for targeted tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Mako; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hama, Yukihiro; Koyama, Yoshinori; Bernardo, Marcelino; Nagano, Tetsuo; Choyke, Peter L.; Urano, Yasuteru

    2008-01-01

    β-Galactosidase is a widely used reporter enzyme, but although several substrates are available for in vitro detection, its application for in vivo optical imaging remains a challenge. To obtain a probe suitable for in vivo use, we modified our previously developed activatable fluorescence probe, TG-βGal (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 4888-4894), on the basis of photochemical and photophysical experiments. The new probe, AM-TG-βGal, provides a dramatic fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with β-galactosidase, and further hydrolysis of the ester moiety by ubiquitous intracellular esterases affords a hydrophilic product that is well retained within the cells without loss of fluorescence. We used a mouse tumor model to assess the practical utility of AM-TG-βGal, after confirming that tumors in the model could be labeled with avidin-β-galactosidase conjugate. This conjugate was administered to the mice in vivo, followed by AM-TG-βGal, and subsequent ex vivo fluorescence imaging clearly visualized intraperitoneal tumors as small as 200 μm. This strategy has potential clinical application, for example in video-assisted laparoscopic tumor resection. PMID:17352471

  12. A navigation system using projection images of laparoscopic instruments and a surgical target with improved image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koishi, Takeshi; Ushiki, Suguru; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Hayashi, Hideki; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2008-03-01

    We propose a new projector-based augmented reality (PBAR) system which can project the image of forceps and a surgical target simultaneously for support of laparoscopic surgery. A compensation method of an error arisen from motion of a body is also proposed to improve the quality of the projection images. It is shown that the system is significant for the forceps insertion by the experiments using the dry-box.

  13. Target recognition of log-polar ladar range images using moment invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenze; Han, Shaokun; Cao, Jie; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-01-01

    The ladar range image has received considerable attentions in the automatic target recognition field. However, previous research does not cover target recognition using log-polar ladar range images. Therefore, we construct a target recognition system based on log-polar ladar range images in this paper. In this system combined moment invariants and backpropagation neural network are selected as shape descriptor and shape classifier, respectively. In order to fully analyze the effect of log-polar sampling pattern on recognition result, several comparative experiments based on simulated and real range images are carried out. Eventually, several important conclusions are drawn: (i) if combined moments are computed directly by log-polar range images, translation, rotation and scaling invariant properties of combined moments will be invalid (ii) when object is located in the center of field of view, recognition rate of log-polar range images is less sensitive to the changing of field of view (iii) as object position changes from center to edge of field of view, recognition performance of log-polar range images will decline dramatically (iv) log-polar range images has a better noise robustness than Cartesian range images. Finally, we give a suggestion that it is better to divide field of view into recognition area and searching area in the real application.

  14. Target Detection in SAR Images Based on a Level Set Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Regis C.P.; Medeiros, Fatima N.S.; Ushizima, Daniela M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for point target detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We focus on the task of locating reflective small regions using alevel set based algorithm. Unlike most of the approaches in image segmentation, we address an algorithm which incorporates speckle statistics instead of empirical parameters and also discards speckle filtering. The curve evolves according to speckle statistics, initially propagating with a maximum upward velocity in homogeneous areas. Our approach is validated by a series of tests on synthetic and real SAR images and compared with three other segmentation algorithms, demonstrating that it configures a novel and efficient method for target detection purpose.

  15. Proteinase 3-ANCA Vasculitis versus Myeloperoxidase-ANCA Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Marc; van Paassen, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In patients with GN or vasculitis, ANCAs are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO). The differences between PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and MPO-AAV described in the past have been supplemented during the last decade. In this review, we discuss the differences between these two small-vessel vasculitides, focusing especially on possible etiologic and pathophysiologic differences. PR3-AAV is more common in northern parts of the world, whereas MPO-AAV is more common in southern regions of Europe, Asia, and the Pacific, with the exception of New Zealand and Australia. A genetic contribution has been extensively studied, and there is a high prevalence of the HLA-DPB1*04:01 allele in patients with PR3-AAV as opposed to patients with MPO-AAV and/or healthy controls. Histologically, MPO-AAV and PR3-AAV are similar but show qualitative differences when analyzed carefully. Clinically, both serotypes are difficult to distinguish, but quantitative differences are present. More organs are affected in PR3-AAV, whereas renal limited vasculitis occurs more often in patients with MPO-AAV. For future clinical trials, we advocate classifying patients by ANCA serotype as opposed to the traditional disease type classification. PMID:25956510

  16. Kinetic evidence for rapid oxidation of (-)-epicatechin by human myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Spalteholz, Holger; Furtmueller, Paul Georg; Jakopitsch, Christa; Obinger, Christian; Schewe, Tankred; Sies, Helmut; Arnhold, Juergen

    2008-07-11

    Apocynin has been reported to require dimerization by myeloperoxidase (MPO) to inhibit leukocyte NADPH oxidase. (-)-Epicatechin, a dietary flavan-3-ol, has been identified as a 'prodrug' of apocynin-like metabolites that inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and elevate the cellular level of nitric oxide. Since (-)-epicatechin has tentatively been identified as substrate of MPO, we studied the one-electron oxidation of (-)-epicatechin by MPO. By using multi-mixing stopped-flow technique, we demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin is one of the most efficient electron donors for heme peroxidases investigated so far. Second order rate constants for the (-)-epicatechin-mediated conversion of MPO-compound I to compound II and compound II to resting enzyme were estimated to be 1.9 x 10{sup 7} and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively (pH 7, 25 deg. C). The data indicate that (-)-epicatechin is capable of undergoing fast MPO-mediated one-electron oxidation.

  17. Mast Cell Stabilization Ameliorates Autoimmune Anti-Myeloperoxidase Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Poh-Yi; O’Sullivan, Kim M.; Ooi, Joshua D.; Alikhan, Maliha A.; Odobasic, Dragana; Summers, Shaun A.; Kitching, A. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Observations in experimental murine myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) show mast cells degranulate, thus enhancing injury as well as producing immunomodulatory IL-10. Here we report that, compared with biopsy specimens from control patients, renal biopsy specimens from 44 patients with acute AAV had more mast cells in the interstitium, which correlated with the severity of tubulointerstitial injury. Furthermore, most of the mast cells were degranulated and spindle-shaped in patients with acute AAV, indicating an activated phenotype. We hypothesized that the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate would attenuate mast cell degranulation without affecting IL-10 production. We induced anti-MPO GN by immunizing mice with MPO and a low dose of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. When administered before or after induction of MPO autoimmunity in these mice, disodium cromoglycate attenuated mast cell degranulation, development of autoimmunity, and development of GN, without diminishing IL-10 production. In contrast, administration of disodium cromoglycate to mast cell-deficient mice had no effect on the development of MPO autoimmunity or GN. MPO-specific CD4+ effector T cell proliferation was enhanced by co-culture with mast cells, but in the presence of disodium cromoglycate, proliferation was inhibited and IL-10 production was enhanced. These results indicate that disodium cromoglycate blocks injurious mast cell degranulation specifically without affecting the immunomodulatory role of these cells. Thus as a therapeutic, disodium cromoglycate may substantially enhance the regulatory role of mast cells in MPO-AAV. PMID:26374606

  18. Myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1, and HDL form a functional ternary complex

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Zhiping; Riwanto, Meliana; Gao, Shengqiang; Levison, Bruce S.; Gu, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoming; Wagner, Matthew A.; Besler, Christian; Gerstenecker, Gary; Zhang, Renliang; Li, Xin-Min; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Gogonea, Valentin; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Smith, Jonathan D.; Plow, Edward F.; Fox, Paul L.; Shih, Diana M.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Fisher, Edward A.; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Landmesser, Ulf; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein–associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other’s function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function. PMID:23908111

  19. Myeloperoxidase: expressing inflammation and oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Bouras, Georgios; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Tsounis, Dimitrios; Angelidis, Christos; Kaoukis, Andreas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein released by leukocytes, is one of the most widely studied during the last decades molecule that plays a crucial role in inflammation and oxidative stress in the cellular level. It has become increasingly recognized that MPO performs a very important role as part of the innate immune system through the formation of microbicidal reactive oxidants, whilst it affects the arterial endothelium with a number of mechanisms that include modification of net cellular cholesterol flux and impairment of Nitric Oxide (NO)-induced vascular relaxation. In that way, MPO is implicated into both the formation and propagation of atheromatosis and there is substantial evidence that it also promotes ischemia through destabilization of the vulnerable plaque. Numerous studies have added information on the notion that MPO and its oxidant products are part of the inflammatory cascade initiated by endothelial injury and they are significantly overproduced at the site of arterial inflammation. Subsequent studies achieved quantification of this observation showing significant elevations of the systemic levels of MPO in a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease scenarios with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure being the most studied. This review highlights key-aspects of MPO's pathophysiological properties and summarizes the role of MPO as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for a number of cardiovascular pathologies.

  20. Myeloperoxidase-positive acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena M T; Smith, Sionagh H; Schwartz, Anita M; Milne, Elspeth M

    2011-12-01

    A 16-month-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was referred to the University of Edinburgh for exercise intolerance, inappetence, and severe anemia. A CBC showed severe nonregenerative anemia and moderate numbers of atypical cells with morphologic features most consistent with megakaryoblastic origin. Similar cells were identified in a bone marrow aspirate and accounted for 23% of all nucleated cells. Atypical promegakaryocytes and megakaryocytes were also noted. Myelodysplastic syndrome affecting the megakaryocytic lineage was suspected. Cytologic examination of a fine-needle aspirate of the spleen revealed rare megakaryoblasts similar to those in blood and bone marrow. At necropsy, the bone marrow consisted of atypical megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes that were also infiltrating spleen, liver, lymph nodes, renal perihilar tissue, and visceral adipose tissue, consistent with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Immunohistochemical analysis of splenic sections confirmed megakaryoblastic origin (immunoreactive for CD61 and von Willebrand factor). Some leukemic cells were also immunoreactive for myeloperoxidase (MPO). This aberrant immunophenotype suggested both megakaryocytic and granulocytic/monocytic differentiation of the leukemic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MPO-positive acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in a dog.

  1. Myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1, and HDL form a functional ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Zhiping; Riwanto, Meliana; Gao, Shengqiang; Levison, Bruce S; Gu, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoming; Wagner, Matthew A; Besler, Christian; Gerstenecker, Gary; Zhang, Renliang; Li, Xin-Min; DiDonato, Anthony J; Gogonea, Valentin; Tang, W H Wilson; Smith, Jonathan D; Plow, Edward F; Fox, Paul L; Shih, Diana M; Lusis, Aldons J; Fisher, Edward A; DiDonato, Joseph A; Landmesser, Ulf; Hazen, Stanley L

    2013-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein-associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other's function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function.

  2. Cyanate-mediated inhibition of neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, M; Eaton, J W; Wolff, S P

    1997-01-01

    Cyanate (CNO-) forms spontaneously in solutions containing urea, and is present in urine and the body fluids of uraemic patients. We have explored the possibility that CNO- might be one of the unknown substances responsible for the reported impairment, by urine and uraemic plasma, of neutrophil oxidative metabolism (especially as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence). Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence generated by human neutrophils derives predominantly from the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) which produces hypochlorous acid from H2O2 and Cl-. We hypothesized that CNO- (which resembles the 'pseudohalide' thiocyanate, an alternative substrate for MPO) might somehow interfere with the activity of MPO. In support of this, we find: (i) CNO- inhibits both peroxidative and halogenating activities of MPO and also inhibits the enzyme within intact human neutrophils; (ii) the inhibition is H2O2-dependent, irreversible, accompanied by covalent addition of [14C]CNO- (or a carbon-containing fragment thereof) to the enzyme; (iii) CNO- also inhibits Cl-/H2O2/MPO-mediated bacterial killing. Impairment of this arm of neutrophil bactericidal activity by CNO- formed from urea may be one factor in the risk of urinary-tract infection associated with urinary stasis and perhaps in the generalized increase in susceptibility to infection in uraemic patients. PMID:9337863

  3. Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloroacetonitrile to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Mohamadin, Ahmed M

    2004-02-02

    Chloroacetonitrile (CAN) is a disinfection by-product of chlorination of drinking water. Epidemiological studies indicate that it might present a potential hazard to human health. The present work provides an evidence for CAN activation to cyanide (CN-) by myeloperoxidase (MPO)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/chloride (Cl-) system in vitro. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of CAN to CN- were characterized with respect to pH, temperature and time of incubation as well as CAN, MPO, H2O2 and KCl concentrations in incubation mixtures. The kinetic parameters governing the reaction; maximum velocity (Vmax) and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) were assessed. Oxidation of CAN to CN- by NaOCl alone was shown. Addition of the MPO inhibitors; sodium azide (NaN3), 4-amino benzoic acid hydrazine (ABAH) or indomethacin to the reaction mixtures resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of CAN oxidation. Inclusion of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) in the incubation mixtures resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of CAN oxidation and CN- formation. Addition of the sulfhydryl compounds; glutathione (GSH), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), L-cysteine or D-penicillamine significantly enhanced the rate of CN- release. In conclusion, MPO/H2O2/Cl- system has the ability of oxidizing CAN to CN-. The present results represent a novel pathway for CAN activation and might be important in explaining CAN-induced toxicity.

  4. In vitro activation of dibromoacetonitrile to cyanide by myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-08-01

    Dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) is a disinfection by-product classified as a potential human and animal carcinogen. This study aimed at investigating the ability of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to oxidize DBAN to cyanide (CN(-)) in vitro Detection of CN(-) served as a marker for the possible generation of free radical intermediates implicated in DBAN-induced toxicity. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of DBAN to CN(-) were characterized with respect to pH, temperature, and time of incubation as well as DBAN, MPO, potassium chloride, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in incubation mixtures. Maximum reaction velocity and Michaelis-Menten constant were assessed. Addition of sodium hypochlorite to the reaction mixtures significantly enhanced the rate of the reaction. Addition of the MPO inhibitors, sodium azide, 4-amino benzoic acid hydrazine, or indomethacin to the reaction mixtures significantly decreased the rate of DBAN oxidation. Inclusion of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase in the incubation mixtures significantly decreased the rate of reaction. Inclusion of the sulfhydryl compounds as reduced glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, d-penicillamine, or l-cysteine enhanced the rate of DBAN oxidation. These results demonstrate the ability of MPO/H2O2/chloride ion system to oxidize DBAN to CN(-) and provide insight for the elucidation of DBAN chronic toxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Ethylene formation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Role of myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Ethylene formation from the thioethers, beta-methylthiopropionaldehyde (methional) and 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was found to be largely dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Conversion was less than 10% of normal when MPO-deficient PMNs were employed; formation by normal PMNs was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide, and cyanide, and a model system consisting of MPO, H2O2, chloride (or bromide) and EDTA was found which shared many of the properties of the predominant PMN system. MPO-independent mechanisms of ethylene formation were also identified. Ethylene formation from methional by phagocytosing eosinophils and by H2O2 in the presence or absence of catalase was stimulated by azide. The presence of MPO-independent, azide-stimulable systems in the PMN preparations was suggested by the azide stimulation of ethylene formation from methional when MPO-deficient leukocytes were employed. Ethylene formation by dye-sensitized photooxidation was also demonstrated and evidence obtained for the involvement of singlet oxygen (1O2). These findings are discussed in relation to the participation of H2O2, hydroxyl radicals, the superoxide anion and 1O2 in the formation of ethylene by PMNs and by the MPO model system. PMID:212502

  6. The reactivity of myeloperoxidase compound I formed with hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Furtmüller, P G; Burner, U; Jantschko, W; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    The reaction of human myeloperoxidase (MPO) with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was investigated by conventional stopped-flow spectroscopy at pH 5, 7, and 9. In the reaction of MPO with HOCl, compound I is formed. Its formation is strongly dependent on pH. HOCl (rather than OCl-) reacts with the unprotonated enzyme in its ferric state. Apparent second-order rate constants were determined to be 8.1 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1) (pH 5), 2.0 x 10(8) M(-1)s(-1) (pH 7) and 2.0 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) (pH 9) at 15 degrees C. Furthermore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of halides and thiocyanate and of physiologically relevant one-electron donors (ascorbate, nitrite, tyrosine and hydrogen peroxide) with this compound I were investigated using the sequential-mixing technique. The results show conclusively that the redox intermediates formed upon addition of either hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorous acid to native MPO exhibit the same spectral features and reactivities and thus are identical. In stopped-flow investigations, the MPO/HOCl system has some advantage since: (i) in contrast to H2O2, HOCl cannot function as a one-electron donor of compound I; and (ii) MPO can easily be prevented from cycling by addition of methionine as HOCl scavenger. As a consequence, the observed absorbance changes are bigger and errors in data analysis are smaller.

  7. Blind-velocity SAR/ISAR imaging of a moving target in a stationary background.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Soumekh, M

    1993-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radio/inverse synthetic aperture radar (SAR/ISAR) coherent system model and inversion to image a target moving with an unknown constant velocity in a stationary background are presented. The approach is based on a recently developed system modelling and inversion principle for SAR/ISAR imaging that utilizes the spatial Fourier decomposition of SAR data in the synthetic aperture domain to convert the SAR system model's nonlinear phase functions into linear phase functions suitable for a computationally manageable inversion. It is shown that SAR/ISAR imaging of a moving target can be converted into imaging the target in a stationary squint-mode SAR problem where the parameters of the squint-mode geometry depend on the target's velocity. A method for estimating the moving target's velocity that utilizes a spatial Doppler analysis of the SAR data within overlapping subapertures is presented. The spatial Doppler technique does not require the radar signal to be narrowband, so the reconstructed image's resolution is not sacrificed to improve the target's velocity estimator.

  8. Biodegradable nanoparticles for targeted ultrasound imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Rosol, Thomas J.; Pan, Xueliang; Voorhees, Jeffrey L.

    2007-08-01

    Disease-specific enhanced imaging through a targeted agent promises to improve the specificity of medical ultrasound. Nanoparticles may provide unique advantages for targeted ultrasound imaging due to their novel physical and surface properties. In this study, we examined a nanoparticle agent developed from a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA). The nanoparticles (mean diameter = 250 nm) were surface conjugated to an anti-Her2 antibody (i.e., Herceptin) for specific binding to breast cancer cells that overexpress Her2 receptors. We examined the targeting specificity and the resultant ultrasound enhancement in Her2-positive and negative cells. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging were used to assess the nanoparticle-cell binding. Her2-positive cells demonstrated substantial staining after incubation with nanoparticle/antibody conjugates, while minimal staining was found in Her2-negative cells, indicating receptor-specific binding of the conjugated PLA nanoparticles. In high-resolution ultrasound B-mode images, the average gray scale of the Her2-positive cells was consistently and significantly higher after nanoparticle treatment (133 ± 4 in treated cells versus 109 ± 4 in control, p < 0.001, n = 5), while no difference was detected in the cells that did not overexpress the receptors (117 ± 3 in treated cells versus 118 ± 5 in control). In conclusion, the feasibility of using targeted nanoparticles to enhance ultrasonic images was demonstrated in vitro. This may be a promising approach to target cancer biomarkers for site-specific ultrasound imaging.

  9. Adapting high-resolution speckle imaging to moving targets and platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J; Brase, J M

    2004-02-05

    High-resolution surveillance imaging with apertures greater than a few inches over horizontal or slant paths at optical or infrared wavelengths will typically be limited by atmospheric aberrations. With static targets and static platforms, we have previously demonstrated near-diffraction limited imaging of various targets including personnel and vehicles over horizontal and slant paths ranging from less than a kilometer to many tens of kilometers using adaptations to bispectral speckle imaging techniques. Nominally, these image processing methods require the target to be static with respect to its background during the data acquisition since multiple frames are required. To obtain a sufficient number of frames and also to allow the atmosphere to decorrelate between frames, data acquisition times on the order of one second are needed. Modifications to the original imaging algorithm will be needed to deal with situations where there is relative target to background motion. In this paper, we present an extension of these imaging techniques to accommodate mobile platforms and moving targets.

  10. Target recognition of ladar range images using even-order Zernike moments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Xia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qi

    2012-11-01

    Ladar range images have attracted considerable attention in automatic target recognition fields. In this paper, Zernike moments (ZMs) are applied to classify the target of the range image from an arbitrary azimuth angle. However, ZMs suffer from high computational costs. To improve the performance of target recognition based on small samples, even-order ZMs with serial-parallel backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) are applied to recognize the target of the range image. It is found that the rotation invariance and classified performance of the even-order ZMs are both better than for odd-order moments and for moments compressed by principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that combining the even-order ZMs with serial-parallel BPNNs can significantly improve the recognition rate for small samples.

  11. Non-imaging distinction of target shapes using a rotating shaped beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukesh, Gordon W.; Chandler, Susan M.; Sjogren, Jon A.

    2005-05-01

    Automatic target recognition, or target discrimination, is an ever-increasing need in both tactical and strategic engagements. Complex imaging systems, such as those based on adaptive optics compensation, are proven but expensive. This paper addresses a specific problem amenable to non-imaging distinction of targets, specifically symmetric and oblong. The approach is to illuminate a target with a rotating oblong beam, either in the near field (tactical) or far field (strategic). The returns from a symmetric object in the absence of pointing errors will be constant while returns from an oblong object will produce a sinusoidal signal, thus distinguishing the objects without imaging. This paper addresses the result of illumination with an oblong beam, starting with a pure beam, a beam corrupted by atmospheric effects and a beam affected by pointing errors referred to as jitter and boresight.

  12. Moving target detection in foliage using along track monopulse synthetic aperture radar imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting moving targets embedded in foliage from the monostatic and bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data obtained via two airborne radars. The two radars, which are mounted on the same aircraft, have different coordinates in the along track (cross-range) domain. However, unlike the interferometric SAR systems used for topographic mapping, the two radars possess a common range and altitude (i.e., slant range). The resultant monopulse SAR images are used to construct difference and interferometric images for moving target detection. It is shown that the signatures of the stationary targets are weakened in these images. Methods for estimating a moving target's motion parameters are discussed. Results for an ultrawideband UHF SAR system are presented.

  13. Eccentric Target Sign in Cerebral Toxoplasmosis – neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature

    PubMed Central

    Sharath Kumar, GG; Mahadevan, A; Guruprasad, AS; Kovoor, Jerry ME; Satishchandra, P; Nath, Avindra; Kumar, Ranga Uday; Shankar, SK

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis is a challenge as on cranial imaging, it closely mimics central nervous system lymphoma, primary and metastatic CNS tumors or other intracranial infections like tuberculoma or abscesses. An MR imaging feature on post contrast T1 weighted sequences considered pathognomonic of toxoplasmosis is the ‘eccentric target sign’. The pathological correlate of this imaging sign has been speculative. Herein we correlate the underlying histopathology to the MR feature of ‘eccentric target sign’ in a patient with autopsy proven HIV/AIDS related cerebral toxoplasmosis. The central enhancing core of the target seen on MR imaging was produced by a leash of inflamed vessels extending down the length of sulcus that was surrounded by concentric zones of necrosis and a wall composed of histiocytes and proliferating blood vessels with impaired permeability producing the peripheral enhancing rim. PMID:20512900

  14. Simulation of synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) for three-dimensional target model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ning; Wu, Zhen-Sen

    2010-11-01

    In conventional imaging laser radar, the resolution of target is constrained by the diffraction-limited, which includes the beamwidth of the laser in the target plane and the telescope's aperture. Synthetic aperture imaging Ladar (SAIL) is an imaging technique which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar, the resolution is determined by the total frequency spread of the source and is independent of range, so can achieve fine resolution in long range. Ray tracing is utilized here to obtain two-dimensional scattering properties from three-dimensional geometric model of actual target, and range-doppler algorithm is used for synthetic aperture process in laser image simulation. The results show that the SAIL can support better resolution.

  15. Design and fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Omid; Gunn, Jonathan; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents that have been developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These MNPs have traditionally been used for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances have opened the door to cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery, and multi-modal imaging by these nanoparticles. As more elaborate MNPs are envisioned, adherence to proper design criteria (e.g. size, coating, molecular functionalization) becomes even more essential. This review summarizes the design parameters that affect MNP performance in vivo, including the physicochemical properties and nanoparticle surface modifications, such as MNP coating and targeting ligand functionalizations that can enhance MNP management of biological barriers. A careful review of the chemistries used to modify the surfaces of MNPs is also given, with attention paid to optimizing the activity of bound ligands while maintaining favorable physicochemical properties. PMID:19909778

  16. Analysis and exploitation of multipath ghosts in radar target image classification.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme E; Mobasseri, Bijan G

    2014-04-01

    An analysis of the relationship between multipath ghosts and the direct target image for radar imaging is presented. A multipath point spread function (PSF) is defined that allows for specular reflections in the local environment and can allow the ghost images to be localized. Analysis of the multipath PSF shows that certain ghosts can only be focused for the far field synthetic aperture radar case and not the full array case. Importantly, the ghosts are shown to be equivalent to direct target images taken from different observation angles. This equivalence suggests that exploiting the ghosts would improve target classification performance, and this improvement is demonstrated using experimental data and a naïve Bayesian classifer. The maximum performance gain achieved is 32%.

  17. Polarimetric imaging and retrieval of target polarization characteristics in underwater environment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yalong; Carrizo, Carlos; Gilerson, Alexander A; Brady, Parrish C; Cummings, Molly E; Twardowski, Michael S; Sullivan, James M; Ibrahim, Amir I; Kattawar, George W

    2016-01-20

    Polarized light fields contain more information than simple irradiance and such capabilities provide an advanced tool for underwater imaging. The concept of the beam spread function (BSF) for analysis of scalar underwater imaging was extended to a polarized BSF which considers polarization. The following studies of the polarized BSF in an underwater environment through Monte Carlo simulations and experiments led to a simplified underwater polarimetric imaging model. With the knowledge acquired in the analysis of the polarimetric imaging formation process of a manmade underwater target with known polarization properties, a method to extract the inherent optical properties of the water and to retrieve polarization characteristics of the target was explored. The proposed method for retrieval of underwater target polarization characteristics should contribute to future efforts to reveal the underlying mechanism of polarization camouflage possessed by marine animals and finally to generalize guidelines for creating engineered surfaces capable of similar polarization camouflage abilities in an underwater environment.

  18. Genetically Targeted Fluorogenic Macromolecules for Subcellular Imaging and Cellular Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Magenau, Andrew J. D.; Saurabh, Saumya; Andreko, Susan K.; Telmer, Cheryl A.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of cellular functions by anchoring macromolecules to specified organelles may reveal a new area of therapeutic potential and clinical treatment. In this work, a unique phenotype was evoked by influencing cellular behavior through the modification of subcellular structures with genetically targetable macromolecules. These fluorogen-functionalized polymers, prepared via controlled radical polymerization, were capable of exclusively decorating actin, cytoplasmic, or nuclear compartments of living cells expressing localized fluorgen-activating proteins. The macromolecular fluorogens were optimized by establishing critical polymer architecture-biophysical property relationships which impacted binding rates, binding affinities, and the level of internalization. Specific labeling of subcellular structures was realized at nanomolar concentrations of polymer, in the absence of membrane permeabilization or transduction domains, and fluorogen-modified polymers were found to bind to protein intact after delivery to the cytosol. Cellular motility was found to be dependent on binding of macromolecular fluorogens to actin structures causing rapid cellular ruffling without migration. PMID:26183934

  19. Target detection using radar images of an airport surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Hayden B.; Wyschogrod, Daniel; Harman, William H.; Sasiela, Richard J.; Bush, Richard W.

    1994-07-01

    Automation aids which increase the efficiency of the controller and enhance safety are being sought by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This paper describes the target detection algorithms developed by the MIT Lincoln Laboratory as part of the airport surface traffic automation (ASTA) and runway surface safety light system (RSLS) programs sponsored by the FAA that were demonstrated at Logan International Airport in Boston, Mass. from September 1992 through December 1993. A companion paper to this conference describes the ASTA and RSLS system demonstration. Another companion paper describes the tracking algorithms. Real-time, parallel processing implementations of these surveillance algorithms are written in C++ on a Silicon Graphics Inc. Unix multiprocessor. The heavy reliance on commercial hardware, standard operating systems, object oriented design, and high-level computer languages allows a rapid transition from a research environment to a production environment.

  20. An innovative pre-targeting strategy for tumor cell specific imaging and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Si-Yong; Peng, Meng-Yun; Rong, Lei; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Chen, Si; Cheng, Si-Xue; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-08-01

    A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the ``biotin-avidin'' interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging and therapeutic agents for tumor treatments.A programmed pre-targeting system for tumor cell imaging and targeting therapy was established based on the ``biotin-avidin'' interaction. In this programmed functional system, transferrin-biotin can be actively captured by tumor cells with the overexpression of transferrin receptors, thus achieving the pre-targeting modality. Depending upon avidin-biotin recognition, the attachment of multivalent FITC-avidin to biotinylated tumor cells not only offered the rapid fluorescence labelling, but also endowed the pre-targeted cells with targeting sites for the specifically designed biotinylated peptide nano-drug. Owing to the successful pre-targeting, tumorous HepG2 and HeLa cells were effectively distinguished from the normal 3T3 cells via fluorescence imaging. In addition, the self-assembled peptide nano-drug resulted in enhanced cell apoptosis in the observed HepG2 cells. The tumor cell specific pre-targeting strategy is applicable for a variety of different imaging

  1. Parameter Estimation of a Ground Moving Target Using Image Sharpness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Li, Yaan

    2016-01-01

    Motion parameter estimation of a ground moving target is an important issue in synthetic aperture radar ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI) which has significant applications for civilian and military. The SAR image of a moving target may be displaced and defocused due to the radial and along-track velocity components, respectively. The sharpness cost function presents a measure of the degree of focus of the image. In this work, a new ground moving target parameter estimation algorithm based on the sharpness optimization criterion is proposed. The relationships between the quadratic phase errors and the target’s velocity components are derived. Using two-dimensional searching of the sharpness cost function, we can obtain the velocity components of the target and the focused target image simultaneously. The proposed moving target parameter estimation method and image sharpness metrics are analyzed in detail. Finally, numerical results illustrate the effective and superior velocity estimation performance of the proposed method when compared to existing algorithms. PMID:27376294

  2. An automated target recognition technique for image segmentation and scene analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, C.W.; Ciarcia, C.A.

    1994-02-01

    Automated target recognition software has been designed to perform image segmentation and scene analysis. Specifically, this software was developed as a package for the Army`s Minefield and Reconnaissance and Detector (MIRADOR) program. MIRADOR is an on/off road, remote control, multi-sensor system designed to detect buried and surface-emplaced metallic and non-metallic anti-tank mines. The basic requirements for this ATR software were: (1) an ability to separate target objects from the background in low S/N conditions; (2) an ability to handle a relatively high dynamic range in imaging light levels; (3) the ability to compensate for or remove light source effects such as shadows; and (4) the ability to identify target objects as mines. The image segmentation and target evaluation was performed utilizing an integrated and parallel processing approach. Three basic techniques (texture analysis, edge enhancement, and contrast enhancement) were used collectively to extract all potential mine target shapes from the basic image. Target evaluation was then performed using a combination of size, geometrical, and fractal characteristics which resulted in a calculated probability for each target shape. Overall results with this algorithm were quite good, though there is a trade-off between detection confidence and the number of false alarms. This technology also has applications in the areas of hazardous waste site remediation, archaeology, and law enforcement.

  3. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  4. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-06

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  5. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  6. Frequency-spatial cues based sea-surface salient target detection from UAV image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yu, Qifeng; Liu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for salient target detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) sea surface image using frequency and spatial cues. The algorithm is consisted of three parts: background suppression in the frequency domain, adaptive smoothing of the background suppressed image and salient target detection via adaptive thresholding, region growth and cluster. The sea surface background in UAV image is modeled as non-salient components which correspond to the spikes of the amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. The background suppression is achieved by removing the spikes using a low pass Gaussian kernel of proper scale. In order to eliminate the negative effects brought by the complex textures, a Gaussian blur kernel is introduced to process the background suppressed image and its scale is determined by the entropy of the background suppressed image. The salient target is detected using adaptive thresholding, region growth and cluster performed on the blurred background suppressed image. Experiments on a large number of images indicate that the algorithm proposed in this paper can detected the sea surface salient target accurately and efficiently.

  7. Tumor targeting and imaging with dual-peptide conjugated multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rangger, Christine; Helbok, Anna; Sosabowski, Jane; Kremser, Christian; Koehler, Gottfried; Prassl, Ruth; Andreae, Fritz; Virgolini, Irene J; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Background The significant progress in nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of nanosized material for various applications, including tumor targeting and molecular imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles for targeting approaches and detection of tumors using different imaging modalities. The concept of dual-targeting was tested in vitro and in vivo using liposomes derivatized with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide binding to αvβ3 integrin receptors and a substance P peptide binding to neurokinin-1 receptors. Methods For liposome preparation, lipids, polyethylene glycol building blocks, DTPA-derivatized lipids for radiolabeling, lipid-based RGD and substance P building blocks and imaging labels were combined in defined molar ratios. Liposomes were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements, and in vitro binding properties were tested using fluorescence microscopy. Standardized protocols for radiolabeling were developed to perform biodistribution and micro-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) studies in nude mice bearing glioblastoma and/or melanoma tumor xenografts. Additionally, an initial magnetic resonance imaging study was performed. Results Liposomes were radiolabeled with high radiochemical yields. Fluorescence microscopy showed specific cellular interactions with RGD-liposomes and substance P-liposomes. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging of 111In-labeled liposomal nanoparticles revealed low tumor uptake, but in a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study with a single-targeted RGD-liposome, uptake in the tumor xenografts could be visualized. Conclusion The present study shows the potential of liposomes as multifunctional targeted vehicles for imaging of tumors combining radioactive, fluorescent, and magnetic resonance signaling. Specific in vitro tumor targeting by fluorescence microscopy and radioactivity was

  8. Folate Receptor-Targeted Multimodality Imaging of Ovarian Cancer in a Novel Syngeneic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new transplantable ovarian tumor model is presented using a novel folate receptor (FR) positive, murine ovarian cancer cell line that emulates the human disease and induces widespread intraperitoneal (i.p.) tumors in immunocompetent mice within 4–8 weeks of implantation. Tumor development was monitored using a new positron emission tomography (PET) FR-targeting reporter with PET/computerized tomography (PET/CT) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) using a commercial FR-targeting reporter. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed. Adult female C57BL/6 mice were injected i.p. with 6 × 106 MKP-L FR+ cells. Imaging was performed weekly beginning 2 weeks after tumor induction. The albumin-binding, FR-targeting ligand cm09 was radiolabeled with the positron emitter 68Ga and used to image the tumors with a small animal PET/CT. The FR-reporter FolateRSense 680 (PerkinElmer) was used for FMT and flow cytometry. Preclinical MRI (7 T) without FR-targeting was compared with the PET and FMT molecular imaging. Tumors were visible by all three imaging modalities. PET/CT had the highest imaging sensitivity at 3–3.5 h postadministration (mean %IA/g mean > 6) and visualized tumors earlier than the other two modalities with lower kidney uptake (mean %IA/g mean < 17) than previously reported FR-targeting agents in late stage disease. FMT showed relatively low FR-targeted agent in the bladder and kidneys, but yielded the lowest anatomical image resolution. MRI produced the highest resolution images, but it was difficult to distinguish tumors from abdominal organs during early progression since a FR-targeting MRI reporter was not used. Nevertheless, there was good correlation of imaging biomarkers between the three modalities. Tumors in the mouse ovarian cancer model could be detected using FR-targeted imaging as early as 2 weeks post i.p. injection of tumor cells. An imaging protocol should combine one or more of the modalities, e

  9. Sulfite-Mediated Oxidation of Myeloperoxidase to a Free Radical: Immuno-Spin Trapping Detection in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Lardinois, Olivier M.; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Steinckwich, Natacha; Deterding, Leesa J.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Mason, Ronald P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies focused on catalyzed oxidation of (bi)sulfite, leading to the formation of reactive sulfur trioxide (•SO3−), peroxymonosulfate (−O3SOO•) and sulfate (SO4•−) anion radicals, which can damage target proteins and oxidize them to protein radicals. It is known that these very reactive sulfur- and oxygen-centered radicals can be formed by oxidation of (bi)sulfite by peroxidases. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme protein secreted from activated neutrophils that play a central role in host defense mechanisms, allergic reactions and asthma, is a likely candidate for initiating the respiratory damage caused by sulfur dioxide. The objective of the present study is to examine the oxidative damage caused by (bi)sulfite-derived free radicals in human neutrophils through formation of protein radicals. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study the protein oxidations driven by sulfite-derived radicals. We found that the presence of sulfite can cause MPO-catalyzed oxidation of MPO to a protein radical in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. We trapped the MPO-derived radicals in situ using the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and detected them immunologically as nitrone adducts in cells. Our present study demonstrates that myeloperoxidase initiates (bi)sulfite oxidation leading to MPO radical damage possibly leading to (bi)sulfite-exacerbated allergic reactions. PMID:23376232

  10. Characterization of a diffuse target for on-board calibration of space multiwavelength imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Pavel A.; Morozova, Svetlana P.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Sapritsky, Victor I.; Tarnopolsky, Vladimir I.; Carsenty, Uri

    1995-06-01

    A diffuse target illuminated by the sun radiation is used for on-board calibration of a new stereo-spectral-imaging system ARGUS developed in the frame of the International project for MARS 94/96 missions. The target manufacturing technique is described. The experimental procedure used for getting the spectral and angular responses of target reflectivity is presented. The diffuse target was tested for the spectral properties at angle illumination -70 degree(s) (relative to the normal of the target) and angle of viewing +20 degree(s). A brief description of the setup for measurements of the spectral and angular responses of the target reflectivity is given. Results of the diffuse target calibration in the spectral range from 320 nm to 5200 nm are presented.

  11. Research on probability of target acquirement of infrared imaging seeker under different search laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-fang; Lin, Hai

    2009-07-01

    To study the probability of target acquirement of infrared imaging seeker under three typical types of search law of parallel search law, cone search law and one-dimension visual effect search law, the model of target doing random weaving maneuver is built and experiment based on Monte Carlo simulation is designed to try to simulate much possible situation of missile searching target. In the experiment such factors are considered as initial distance between missile and target, measure error of target's velocity and time interval of missile getting target information. Simulation results show that the probability of target acquirement under cone search law are the most, probability under one-dimension visual effect search law is the least and probability under parallel search law are between them, which is very helpful for choice of search law and overall design of missile.

  12. The ARIC carotid MRI study of blood cellular markers: an inverse association of monocyte myeloperoxidase content with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Matijevic, Nena; Wu, Kenneth K; Nidkarni, Nivedita; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the association of blood monocyte and platelet activation markers with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a multicenter study of atherosclerosis among African American and Caucasian patients. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells was performed in 1791 participants (209 cases with PAD and 1582 noncases) from the cross-sectional Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging ([MRI] ARIC Carotid MRI) Study to assess platelet glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, monocyte lipopolysaccharide receptor, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and myeloperoxidase. Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the association of cellular markers with the risk of PAD. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, platelet CD40L, and monocyte myeloperoxidase (mMPO) levels were significantly lower (P < .001), and monocyte TLR-4 levels were higher (P = .03) in patients with PAD. With additional adjustments for conventional risk factors, mMPO remained inversely and independently associated with the risk of PAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P = .01).

  13. The ARIC Carotid MRI Study of Blood Cellular Markers: An Inverse Association of Monocyte Myeloperoxidase Content With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic (Aleksic), Nena; Wu, Kenneth K.; Nidkarni, Nivedita; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association of blood monocyte and platelet activation markers with the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in a multicenter study of atherosclerosis among African American and Caucasian patients. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells was performed in 1791 participants (209 cases with PAD and 1582 noncases) from the cross-sectional Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging ([MRI] ARIC Carotid MRI) Study to assess platelet glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, platelet–leukocyte aggregates, monocyte lipopolysaccharide receptor, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and myeloperoxidase. Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the association of cellular markers with the risk of PAD. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, platelet CD40L, and monocyte myeloperoxidase (mMPO) levels were significantly lower (P < .001), and monocyte TLR-4 levels were higher (P = .03) in patients with PAD. With additional adjustments for conventional risk factors, mMPO remained inversely and independently associated with the risk of PAD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P = .01). PMID:21406422

  14. Targeted systemic gene therapy and molecular imaging of cancer contribution of the vascular-targeted AAVP vector.

    PubMed

    Hajitou, Amin

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy and molecular-genetic imaging have faced a major problem: the lack of an efficient systemic gene delivery vector. Unquestionably, eukaryotic viruses have been the vectors of choice for gene delivery to mammalian cells; however, they have had limited success in systemic gene therapy. This is mainly due to undesired uptake by the liver and reticuloendothelial system, broad tropism for mammalian cells causing toxicity, and their immunogenicity. On the other hand, prokaryotic viruses such as bacteriophage (phage) have no tropism for mammalian cells, but can be engineered to deliver genes to these cells. However, phage-based vectors have inherently been considered poor vectors for mammalian cells. We have reported a new generation of vascular-targeted systemic hybrid prokaryotic-eukaryotic vectors as chimeras between an adeno-associated virus (AAV) and targeted bacteriophage (termed AAV/phage; AAVP). In this hybrid vector, the targeted bacteriophage serves as a shuttle to deliver the AAV transgene cassette inserted in an intergenomic region of the phage DNA genome. As a proof of concept, we assessed the in vivo efficacy of vector in animal models of cancer by displaying on the phage capsid the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD-4C) ligand that binds to alphav integrin receptors specifically expressed on the angiogenic blood vessels of tumors. The ligand-directed vector was able to specifically deliver imaging and therapeutic transgenes to tumors in mice, rats, and dogs while sparing the normal organs. This chapter reviews some gene transfer strategies and the potential of the vascular-targeted AAVP vector for enhancing the effectiveness of existing systemic gene delivery and genetic-imaging technologies.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of a targeted nanoglobular dual-modal imaging agent for MR imaging and image-guided surgery of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingqian; Ye, Zhen; Lindner, Daniel; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2014-06-01

    To synthesize and evaluate a peptide targeted nanoglobular dual modal imaging agent specific to a cancer biomarker in tumor stroma for MRI and fluorescence visualization of prostate tumor in image-guided surgery. A peptide (CGLIIQKNEC, CLT1) targeted generation 2 nanoglobular (polylysine dendrimer with a silsesquioxane core) dual modal imaging agent, CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA-MA)-Cy5, was synthesized by stepwise conjugation of Gd-DOTA-MA, Cy5 and peptide to the dendrimer. Contrast enhanced MR imaging of the targeted dual imaging agent was evaluated on a Bruker 7T animal scanner with male athymic nude mice bearing orthotopic PC3-GFP prostate tumor. Fluorescence tumor imaging of the agent was carried out on a Maestro fluorescence imaging system. The targeted agent CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA-MA)-Cy5 produced greater contrast enhancement in the tumor tissue than the control agent KAREC-G2-(Gd-DOTA-MA)-Cy5 at a dose of 30 μmol-Gd/kg in the MR images of the tumor bearing mice. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA-MA)-Cy5 in the tumor tissue was approximately 2 fold of that of the control agent in the first 15 min post-injection. The targeted agent also resulted in bright fluorescence signals in the tumor tissue. The CLT1 peptide targeted nanoglobular dual-imaging agent CLT1-G2-(Gd-DOTA-MA)-Cy5 has a potential for MRI and fluorescence visualization of prostate tumor.

  16. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jibin; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2017-01-01

    For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD) technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs) after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF). The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm. PMID:28273800

  17. ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Based on an Integrated Cubic Phase Bilinear Autocorrelation Function.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jibin; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2017-03-03

    For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of a ship target moving with ocean waves, the image constructed with the standard range-Doppler (RD) technique is blurred and the range-instantaneous-Doppler (RID) technique has to be used to improve the image quality. In this paper, azimuth echoes in a range cell of the ship target are modeled as noisy multicomponent cubic phase signals (CPSs) after the motion compensation and a RID ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed based on the integrated cubic phase bilinear autocorrelation function (ICPBAF). The ICPBAF is bilinear and based on the two-dimensionally coherent energy accumulation. Compared to five other estimation algorithms, the ICPBAF can acquire higher cross term suppression and anti-noise performance with a reasonable computational cost. Through simulations and analyses with the synthetic model and real radar data, we verify the effectiveness of the ICPBAF and corresponding RID ISAR imaging algorithm.

  18. Glycosaminoglycan-targeted iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging of liver carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Fu, Chao-Ping; Li, Nan-Nan; Wang, Li; Xu, Xiang-Dong; Yang, Ding-Yan; Fang, Jin-Zhi; Jiang, Xin-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2014-12-01

    To develop an efficient probe for targeted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of liver carcinoma, the surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was carried out by conjugating a naturally-occurring glycosaminoglycan with specific biological recognition to human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. These modified SPIOs have good water dispersibility, superparamagnetic property, cytocompatibility and high magnetic relaxivity for MR imaging. When incubated with HepG2 cells, they demonstrated significant cellular uptake and specific accumulation, as confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal microscopy. The in vitro MR imaging of HepG2 cells and in vivo MR imaging of HepG2 tumors confirmed their effectiveness for targeted MR imaging of liver carcinoma.

  19. Glypican-3-targeted 89Zr PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sham, Jonathan G; Kievit, Forrest M; Grierson, John R; Miyaoka, Robert S; Yeh, Matthew M; Zhang, Miqin; Yeung, Raymond S; Minoshima, Satoshi; Park, James O

    2014-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a devastating malignancy in which imperfect imaging plays a primary role in diagnosis. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an HCC-specific cell surface proteoglycan overexpressed in most HCCs. This paper presents the use of (89)Zr-conjugated monoclonal antibody against GPC3 ((89)Zr-αGPC3) for intrahepatic tumor localization using PET. Polymerase chain reaction confirmed relative GPC3 expression in cell lines. In vitro binding, in vivo biodistribution, and small-animal PET studies were performed on GPC3-expressing HepG2 and non-GPC3-expressing HLF and RH7777 cells and orthotopic xenografts. (89)Zr-αGPC3 demonstrated antibody-dependent, antigen-specific tumor binding. HepG2 liver tumors exhibited high peak uptake (836.6 ± 86.6 percentage injected dose [%ID]/g) compared with background liver (27.5 ± 1.6 %ID/g). Tumor-to-liver contrast ratio was high and peaked at 32.5. The smallest HepG2 tumor (<1 mm) showed lower peak uptake (42.5 ± 6.4 %ID/g) and tumor-to-liver contrast (1.57) but was still clearly visible on PET. Day 7 tissue activity was still substantial in HepG2 tumors (466.4 ± 87.6 %ID/g) compared with control RH7777 tumors (3.9 ± 1.3 %ID/g, P < 0.01), indicating antigen specificity by (89)Zr-αGPC3. HepG2 tumor treated with unlabeled αGPC3 or heat-denatured (89)Zr-αGPC3 demonstrated tumor activity (2.1 %ID/g) comparable to that of control xenografts, confirming antibody dependency. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using (89)Zr-αGPC3 to image HCC in the liver, as well as the qualitative determination of GPC3 expression via small-animal PET. The ability to clarify the identity of small liver lesions with an HCC-specific PET probe would provide clinicians with vital information that could significantly alter patient management, warranting further investigation for clinical translation.

  20. Tank target recognition used in infrared imaging fuze based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Ke-yong; Song, Cheng-tian; Jiang, Yi-Ming

    2009-07-01

    Infrared imaging fuze is invulnerable to the electromagnetic interference, and it has the ability to recognize the local image of the target. At present, the infrared imaging fuze technology has become one of the key technologies which perform the target detection and the ignition of the warhead in the complex tactical environment. According to the scanning mechanism of the infrared imaging fuze, based on the analysis of features of the infrared image of tank target, this paper presents a feature extraction method based on knowledge to recognize infrared gray image. The geometric features and gray level features are extracted. The geometric features include the corner features and angular features. The corners of the image are extracted through the SUSAN corner detection principle,the angular feature is extracted by Freeman chain code. The hot-zone gray feature is extracted by the template matching and image binarization principle. In order to realize real-time recognition, this paper uses FPGA technology to achieve recognition circuit. The experiments show that the recognition method has a certain anti-interference ability.

  1. Research on spatial-variant property of bistatic ISAR imaging plane of space target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Feng; Wang, Jun-Ling; Gao, Mei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    The imaging plane of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) is the projection plane of the target. When taking an image using the range-Doppler theory, the imaging plane may have a spatial-variant property, which causes the change of scatter’s projection position and results in migration through resolution cells. In this study, we focus on the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane of a three-axis-stabilized space target. The innovative contributions are as follows. 1) The target motion model in orbit is provided based on a two-body model. 2) The instantaneous imaging plane is determined by the method of vector analysis. 3) Three Euler angles are introduced to describe the spatial-variant property of the imaging plane, and the image quality is analyzed. The simulation results confirm the analysis of the spatial-variant property. The research in this study is significant for the selection of the imaging segment, and provides the evidence for the following data processing and compensation algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401024), the Shanghai Aerospace Science and Technology Innovation Foundation, China (Grant No. SAST201240), and the Basic Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology (Grant No. 20140542001).

  2. Software requirements and support for image-algebraic analysis, detection, and recognition of small targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Forsman, Robert H.; Yang, Chyuan-Huei T.; Hu, Wen-Chen; Porter, Ryan A.; McTaggart, Gary; Hranicky, James F.; Davis, James F.

    1995-06-01

    The detection of hazardous targets frequently requires a multispectral approach to image acquisition and analysis, which we have implemented in a software system called MATRE (multispectral automated target recognition and enhancement). MATRE provides capabilities of image enhancement, image database management, spectral signature extraction and visualization, statistical analysis of greyscale imagery, as well as 2D and 3D image processing operations. Our system is based upon a client-server architecture that is amenable to distributed implementation. In this paper, we discuss salient issues and requirements for multispectral recognition of hazardous targets, and show that our software fulfills or exceeds such requirements. MATRE's capabilities, as well as statistical and morphological analysis results, are exemplified with emphasis upon computational cost, ease of installation, and maintenance on various Unix platforms. Additionally, MATRE's image processing functions can be coded in vector-parallel form, for ease of implementation of SIMD-parallel processors. Our algorithms are expressed in terms of image algebra, a concise, rigorous notation that unifies linear and nonlinear mathematics in the image domain. An image algebra class library for the C + + language has been incorporated into the our system, which facilitates fast algorithm prototyping without the numerous drawbacks of descrete coding.

  3. Multimodal formyl peptide receptor 1 targeted inflammation imaging probe: cFLFLF-MHI-DOTA.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Chordia, Mahendra D; Wu, Hua; Shao, Li; Pan, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) targeting multimodal probe cFLFLFK-MHI-DOTA for leukocyte based inflammation imaging is described. The compound consists of three domains, (a) cFLFLF peptide for FPR1 recognition and binding for activated leukocyte, (b) heptamethine cyanine dye (MHI) for near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) detection and imaging, and (c) metal chelator DOTA ligand that could form complex with a radiometal for nuclear (PET/SPECT) imaging or with a paramagnetic metal for MRI imaging. Detailed synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation are reported. The availability of dual mode inflammation imaging probe would allow in vivo gross level imaging of inflammation foci as well as ex vivo microscopic level cellular imaging for role played by innate immune cells in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Genetically targeted fluorogenic macromolecules for subcellular imaging and cellular perturbation.

    PubMed

    Magenau, Andrew J D; Saurabh, Saumya; Andreko, Susan K; Telmer, Cheryl A; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Waggoner, Alan S; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2015-10-01

    The alteration of cellular functions by anchoring macromolecules to specified organelles may reveal a new area of therapeutic potential and clinical treatment. In this work, a unique phenotype was evoked by influencing cellular behavior through the modification of subcellular structures with genetically targetable macromolecules. These fluorogen-functionalized polymers, prepared via controlled radical polymerization, were capable of exclusively decorating actin, cytoplasmic, or nuclear compartments of living cells expressing localized fluorgen-activating proteins. The macromolecular fluorogens were optimized by establishing critical polymer architecture-biophysical property relationships which impacted binding rates, binding affinities, and the level of internalization. Specific labeling of subcellular structures was realized at nanomolar concentrations of polymer, in the absence of membrane permeabilization or transduction domains, and fluorogen-modified polymers were found to bind to protein intact after delivery to the cytosol. Cellular motility was found to be dependent on binding of macromolecular fluorogens to actin structures causing rapid cellular ruffling without migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ordered Cleavage of Myeloperoxidase Ester Bonds Releases Active site Heme Leading to Inactivation of Myeloperoxidase by Benzoic Acid Hydrazide Analogs*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiansheng; Smith, Forrest; Panizzi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and the formation of the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid. We present the application of the fluorogenic peroxidase substrate 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (ADHP) in steady-state and transient kinetic studies of MPO function. Using initial kinetic parameters for the MPO system, we characterized under the same conditions a number of gold standards for MPO inhibition, namely 4-amino benzoic acid hydrazide (4-ABAH), isoniazid and NaN3 before expanding our focus to isomers of 4-ABAH and benzoic acid hydrazide analogs. We determined that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide that 4-ABAH and its isomer 2-ABAH are both slow-tight binding inhibitors of MPO requiring at least two steps, whereas NaN3 and isoniazid-based inhibition has a single observable step. We also determined that MPO inhibition by benzoic acid hydrazide and 4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid hydrazide was due to hydrolysis of the ester bond between MPO heavy chain Glu 242 residue and the heme pyrrole A ring, freeing the light chain and heme b fragment from the larger remaining MPO heavy chain. This new mechanism would essentially indicate that the benzoic acid hydrazide analogs impart inhibition through initial ejection of the heme catalytic moiety without prior loss of the active site iron. PMID:24632143

  6. Myeloperoxidase reduces the opsonizing activity of immunoglobulin G and complement component C3b.

    PubMed

    Coble, B I; Dahlgren, C; Hed, J; Stendahl, O

    1984-12-20

    The effect of myeloperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a halide (Cl) on the opsonizing molecules in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and complement factor C3b was assayed. At concentrations of the enzyme (1 microgram/ml) that can be found in the extracellular fluid during inflammation, the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl system inhibited the opsonizing effect of IgG and C3b measured as phagocytic uptake and superoxide generation. The effect was related to the enzymatic peroxidative activity of the protein. The presence of albumin (10 mg/ml) reduced the effect of myeloperoxidase with 10-20%. Taurine, which in the presence of myeloperoxidase-H2O2-Cl forms hydrophilic chloramines, and D-penicillamine, which scavenges HOCl, neutralize the inhibitory effect of myeloperoxidase. This suggests that either hypochlorous acid or lipophilic chloramines may exert its effect by oxidizing free sulphydryl groups exposed on the opsonizing ligands. Since the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system also affects chemotactic factors, leukotrienes, proteinases and membrane receptors, the system may in several ways affect the development of the inflammatory response.

  7. Endothelial cell targeted molecular imaging in tumor angiogenesis: strategies and current status.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Zeng, Yun; Liu, Yanhong; Liu, Gang; Ai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays crucial roles in tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of tumor neovasculature is a fundamental prerequisite for effective therapeutic intervention, particularly anti-angiogenic treatment regimens. Emerging molecular imaging techniques now allow recognition of cellular/molecular processes before gross pathological changes, leading to better understanding of fundamental biological processes of tumor angiogenesis. In this review, we will summarize recent progresses on molecular imaging of attractive biochemical epitopes in tumor angiogenesis, especially the endothelial cell targets-based imaging probes.

  8. Ultrasonic Backscatter Imaging by Shear-Wave-Induced Echo Phase Encoding of Target Locations

    PubMed Central

    McAleavey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for ultrasound backscatter image formation wherein lateral resolution of the target is obtained by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of targets in the phase of the received echo. We demonstrate that the phase modulation as a function of shear wavenumber can be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform of the lateral component of the target echogenicity. The inverse transform, obtained by measurements of the phase modulation over a range of shear wave spatial frequencies, yields the lateral scatterer distribution. Range data are recovered from time of flight as in conventional ultrasound, yielding a B-mode-like image. In contrast to conventional ultrasound imaging, where mechanical or electronic focusing is used and lateral resolution is determined by aperture size and wavelength, we demonstrate that lateral resolution using the proposed method is independent of the properties of the aperture. Lateral resolution of the target is achieved using a stationary, unfocused, single-element transducer. We present simulated images of targets of uniform and non-uniform shear modulus. Compounding for speckle reduction is demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrate image formation with an unfocused transducer in gelatin phantoms of uniform shear modulus. PMID:21244978

  9. The Effect of Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Resolution on Target Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzuoli, Andrew; McGowan, John; Gustafson, Steven; Jackson, Julie; Martin, Richard

    This research details the effect of spatial resolution on target discrimination in Synthetic Aper-ture Radar (SAR) images. Multiple SAR image chips containing targets and non-targets are used to test a baseline Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system with reduced spatial reso-lution obtained by lowering the pixel count or synthesizing a degraded image. The pixel count is lowered by averaging groups of adjoining pixels to form a new single value. The degraded image is synthesized by low-pass filtering the image frequency space and then lowering the pixel count. A two parameter Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector is tested, and three different types of feature spaces; size, contrast, and texture; are used to train a linear classifier. The results are scored using the Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (AUROC) curve. The CFAR detector is shown to perform better at lower resolution. All three feature sets together performed well with the degradation of resolution; separately the sets had different performances. The texture features performed best because they do not rely on the number of pixels on the target, while the size features performed worst for the same reason. The contrast features yielded improved performance when the resolution was slightly reduced. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

  10. The effect of synthetic aperture radar image resolution on target discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, John E.; Gustafson, Steven C.; Jackson, Julie A.; Terzuoli, Andrew J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This paper details the effect of spatial resolution on target discrimination in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Multiple SAR image chips, containing targets and non-targets, are used to test a baseline Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) system with reduced spatial resolution obtained by lowering the pixel count or synthesizing a degraded image. The pixel count is lowered by averaging groups of adjoining pixels to form a new single value. The degraded image is synthesized by low-pass-filtering the image frequency space and then lowering the pixel count. To train a linear classifier, a two-parameter Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector is tested, and three different types of feature spaces, are used: size, contrast, and texture. The results are scored using the Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (AUROC) curve. The CFAR detector is shown to perform better at lower resolution. All three feature sets together performed well with the degradation of resolution; separately the sets had different performances. The texture features performed best because they do not rely on the number of pixels on the target, while the size features performed the worst for the same reason. The contrast features yielded improved performance when the resolution was slightly reduced.

  11. Radionuclide imaging of drug delivery for patient selection in targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Heskamp, Sandra; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Oyen, Wim J G; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-02-01

    During the last decade, numerous antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. However, only a limited number of these agents have been shown to significantly improve survival of patients. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to identify the subset of patients who benefit from targeted therapy. Biomarkers can play an important role in selecting the right drug for the right patient. In this review, the potential role of molecular imaging of drug delivery for patient selection in targeted therapy will be discussed. The advantages and limitations of molecular imaging will be compared to those of conventional biomarkers. Moreover, we will address the factors that affect imaging of drug delivery, such as target expression, type of drug, in vivo accessibility of the receptor (e.g., vascular density, vascular permeability, interstitial pressure), enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, receptor internalization, tracer protein dose and timing of imaging. Molecular imaging of drug delivery clearly has potential for patient selection for targeted therapy. The main advantage of this technique is that not only can antigen expression be measured noninvasively but also target accessibility is taken into account. However, up to now, most of these studies have been performed in preclinical models. Therefore, future research should focus on bringing promising tracers to the clinic, preferable in an early stage of drug development in order to test their potential role as a biomarker.

  12. Adaptive sparse reconstruction with joint parametric estimation for high-speed uniformly moving targets in coincidence imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Yang, Zhaocheng; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-04-01

    As a complementary imaging technology, coincidence imaging radar (CIR) achieves high resolution for stationary or low-speed targets under the assumption of ignoring the influence of the original position mismatching. As to high-speed moving targets moving from the original imaging cell to other imaging cells during imaging, it is inaccurate to reconstruct the target using the previous imaging plane. We focus on the recovery problem for high-speed moving targets in the CIR system based on the intrapulse frequency random modulation signal in a single pulse. The effects induced by the motion on the imaging performance are analyzed. Because the basis matrix in the CIR imaging equation is determined by the unknown velocity parameter of the moving target, both the target images and basis matrix should be estimated jointly. We propose an adaptive joint parametric estimation recovery algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularization method to update the target velocity and basis matrix adaptively and recover the target images synchronously. Finally, the target velocity and target images are obtained in an iterative manner. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  13. In vivo inflammation imaging using a CB2R-targeted near infrared fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojuan; Shao, Pin; Ling, Xiaoxi; Yang, Ling; Hou, Weizhou; Thorne, Steve H; Beaino, Wissam; Anderson, Carolyn J; Ding, Ying; Bai, Mingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered as a critical cause of a host of disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases, although the exact mechanism is yet to be explored. Imaging tools that can specifically target inflammation are therefore important to help reveal the role of inflammation in disease progression, and allows for developing new therapeutic strategies to ultimately improve patient care. The purpose of this study was to develop a new in vivo inflammation imaging approach by targeting the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R), an emerging inflammation biomarker, using a unique near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe. Herein, we report the first in vivo CB2R-targeted NIR inflammation imaging study using a synthetic fluorescent probe developed in our laboratory, NIR760-mbc94. In vitro binding assay and fluorescence microscopy study indicate NIR760-mbc94 specifically binds towards CB2R in mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Furthermore, in vivo imaging was performed using a Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation mouse model. NIR760-mbc94 successfully identified inflamed tissues and the probe uptake was blocked by a CB2R ligand, SR144528. Additionally, immunofluorescence staining in cryosectioned tissues validated the NIR760-mbc94 uptake in inflamed tissues. In conclusion, this study reports the first in vivo CB2R-targeted inflammation imaging using an NIR fluorescent probe. Specific targeting of NIR760-mbc94 has been demonstrated in macrophage cells, as well as a CFA-induced inflammation mouse model. The combined evidence indicates that NIR760-mbc94 is a promising inflammation imaging probe. Moreover, in vivo CB2R-targeted fluorescence imaging may have potential in the study of inflammation-related diseases.

  14. Image-based characterization of microfocus x-ray target failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Vance S.; Raber, Thomas; Ross, William R.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray targets in microfocus x-ray tubes fail primarily due to sublimation and evaporation of tungsten while exposed to the electron beam. The temperature at the point of impact of the electron beam depends on the beam energy (200-300 kV), the beam current (<10 mA), the cross section (<1 mm) and the intensity profile. In order to preserve the target for a reasonable lifetime, temperatures at the spot do not typically exceed 2500 C. As tungsten evaporates from the surface of the target, the surface starts to pit and this can affect the x-ray production in multiple ways: the photon flux decreases, the heel effect is enhanced, the effective spot size changes shape and/or size. Indirectly, the target damage incurred over time or due to intense use will undermine the image quality by reducing image contrast, changing the resolution or degrading the signal to noise ratio. A detailed description of how x-ray target damage is incurred and the potential impact on image quality is reviewed in detail. Experimental results showing the target damage and associated loss of image quality are discussed.

  15. Endothelial targeting of polymeric nanoparticles stably labeled with the PET imaging radioisotope iodine-124.

    PubMed

    Simone, Eric A; Zern, Blaine J; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Blankemeyer, Eric R; Muro, Silvia; Stan, Radu V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2012-07-01

    Targeting of therapeutics or imaging agents to the endothelium has the potential to improve specificity and effectiveness of treatment for many diseases. One strategy to achieve this goal is the use of nanoparticles (NPs) targeted to the endothelium by ligands of protein determinants present on this tissue, including cell adhesion molecules, peptidases, and cell receptors. However, detachment of the radiolabel probes from NPs poses a significant problem. In this study, we devised polymeric NPs directly labeled with radioiodine isotopes including the positron emission tomography (PET) isotope (124)I, and characterized their targeting to specific endothelial determinants. This approach provided sizable, targetable probes for specific detection of endothelial surface determinants non-invasively in live animals. Direct conjugation of radiolabel to NPs allowed for stable longitudinal tracking of tissue distribution without label detachment even in an aggressive proteolytic environment. Further, this approach permits tracking of NP pharmacokinetics in real-time and non-invasive imaging of the lung in mice using micro-PET imaging. The use of this strategy will considerably improve investigation of NP interactions with target cells and PET imaging in small animals, which ultimately can aid in the optimization of targeted drug delivery.

  16. Endothelial Targeting of Polymeric Nanoparticles Stably Labeled with the PET Imaging Radiosotope Iodine-124

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Eric; Zern, Blaine J.; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L.; Blankemeyer, Eric; Muro, Silvia; Stan, Radu V.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeting of therapeutics or imaging agents to the endothelium has the potential to improve specificity and effectiveness of treatment for many diseases. One strategy to achieve this goal is the use of nanoparticles (NPs) targeted to the endothelium by ligands of protein determinants present on this tissue, including cell adhesion molecules, peptidases, and cell receptors. However, detachment of the radiolabel probes from NPs poses a significant problem. In this study, we devised polymeric NPs directly labeled with radioiodine isotopes including the position emission tomography (PET) isotope 124I, and characterized their targeting to specific endothelial determinants. This approach provided sizable, targetable probes for specific detection of endothelial surface determinants non-invasively in live animals. Direct conjugation of radiolabel to NPs allowed for stable longitudinal tracking of tissue distribution without label detachment even in an aggressive proteolytic environment. Further, this approach permits tracking of NP pharmacokinetics in real-time and non-invasive imaging of the lung in mice using micro-PET imaging. The use of this strategy will considerably improve investigation of NP interactions with target cells and PET imaging in small animals, which ultimately can aid in the optimization of targeted drug delivery. PMID:22560201

  17. Potent inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of epicatechins.

    PubMed

    Dickerhof, Nina; Magon, Nicholas J; Tyndall, Joel D A; Kettle, Anthony J; Hampton, Mark B

    2014-09-01

    MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) plays a central role in the promotion and maintenance of the inflammatory response. It is implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases including sepsis, arthritis and colitis, and in diseases with an inflammatory component, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. MIF has an unusual N-terminal proline with catalytic activity, and targeting of this residue by small-molecule inhibitors has been shown to interfere with the biological activity of MIF. The objective of the present study was to determine if MIF was susceptible to modification by epicatechins, a group of dietary flavonoids with known anti-inflammatory properties. Epicatechins are substrates for peroxidases including neutrophil-derived MPO (myeloperoxidase). In the present study we show that oxidation of the catechol moiety of epicatechins to an ο-quinone by MPO generates potent MIF inhibitors. Near complete inhibition of MIF by the MPO/H2O2/epicatechin system was achieved at equimolar concentrations of epicatechin and MIF, even in the presence of other MPO substrates. We have characterized the modification introduced by oxidized (-)-epicatechin on MIF by LC-MS (liquid chromatography MS) and found it to occur at the N-terminal proline. We propose that MIF inhibition by oxidized epicatechins contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds.

  18. EVALUATION OF THIOL-BASED ANTIOXIDANT THERAPEUTICS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS SPUTUM: FOCUS ON MYELOPEROXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Vihas T.; De Cruz, Sharon J.; Houghton, Jessica S.; Hayakawa, Keri A.; Morrissey, Brian M.; Cross, Carroll E.; Eiserich, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil-dependent reactions catalyzed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) are thought to play important roles in the pulmonary pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF). Aerosolized thiol antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are currently being utilized as therapeutics to modify CF respiratory tract oxidative processes. We hypothesized that MPO in CF airway lining fluids may be a target of such therapeutics. MPO activity in sputum from 21 adult CF patients was found to be inversely associated with lung function (FEV1). In contrast, systemic inflammation (assessed by plasma C-reactive protein) was not correlated with lung function. Ex vivo studies revealed that GSH and NAC effectively scavenged N-chloramines in sputum, and inhibited sputum MPO activity with potency exquisitely dependent upon MPO activity levels. Detailed kinetic analyses revealed that NAC and GSH inhibit MPO by distinct mechanisms. Activation of the key proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in cultured HBE1 cells was inhibited by GSH. Our findings reveal that MPO activity and its reactive products represent useful predictors of the doses of inhaled thiol antioxidants required to ameliorate airway oxidative stress and inflammation in CF patients, and provides mechanistic insight into the antioxidative/anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of GSH and NAC when administered into the CF lung. PMID:20954832

  19. In Vivo Targeted MR Imaging of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Duan, Xiaohui; Lu, Liejing; Zhang, Xiang; Zhong, Xiaomei; Mao, Jiaji; Chen, Meiwei; Shen, Jun

    2016-08-29

    Acute ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability. Endogenous neurogenesis enhanced via activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) could be a promising method for stroke treatment. In vivo targeted tracking is highly desirable for monitoring the dynamics of endogenous NSCs in stroke. Previously, we have successfully realized in vivo targeted MR imaging of endogenous NSCs in normal adult mice brains by using anti-CD15 antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (anti-CD15-SPIONs) as the molecular probe. Herein, we explore the performance of this molecular probe in targeted in vivo tracking of activated endogenous NSCs in ischemic stroke. Our study showed that intraventricular injection of anti-CD15-SPIONs could label activated endogenous NSCs in situ seven days after ischemic stroke, which were detected as enlarged areas of hypo-intense signals on MR imaging at 7.0 T. The treatment of cytosine arabinosine could inhibit the activation of endogenous NSCs, which was featured by the disappearance of areas of hypo-intense signals on MR imaging. Using anti-CD15-SPIONs as imaging probes, the dynamic process of activation of endogenous NSCs could be readily monitored by in vivo MR imaging. This targeted imaging strategy would be of great benefit to develop a new therapeutic strategy utilizing endogenous NSCs for ischemic stroke.

  20. Altered visual experience and acute visual deprivation affect predatory targeting by infrared-imaging Boid snakes.

    PubMed

    Grace, M S; Woodward, O M

    2001-11-23

    Boid and Crotaline snakes use both their eyes and infrared-imaging facial pit organs to target homeothermic prey. These snakes can target in complete darkness, but the eyes can also effectively direct predatory strikes. We investigated the behavioral correlates of boid snakes' simultaneous use of two imaging systems by testing whether congenital unilateral visual deprivation affects targeting performance. Normally sighted Burmese pythons exhibited average targeting angle of zero (on the midline axis of the head), but three unilaterally anophthalmic Burmese pythons targeted preferentially on the sighted side. A unilaterally anophthalmic amethystine python also targeted on the sighted side, and a unilaterally anophthalmic Brazilian rainbow boa tended to target on the sighted side, though its mean targeting angle was not significantly different from zero. When unilaterally anophthalmic Burmese pythons were temporarily blinded, mean strike angle changed to that of normally sighted snakes. These results show that while infrared-imaging snakes can shift between visual and infrared information under acute experimental conditions, loss of part of the visual field during development results in abnormal predatory targeting behavior. In contrast, normally sighted snakes subjected to temporary unilateral blinding do not target preferentially on the sighted side. Therefore, while loss of part of the visual field may be compensated for by infrared input in normal snakes, partial absence of visual input during development may alter central organization of visual information. Conversely, absence of half the visual field during development does not alter targeting performance based upon infrared input alone, suggesting that organization of the central infrared map does not depend upon normal organization of visual input.

  1. A uniform method for analytically modeling mulit-target acquisition with independent networked imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Melvin

    2014-05-01

    The problem solved in this paper is easily stated: for a scenario with 𝑛 networked and moving imaging sensors, 𝑚 moving targets and 𝑘 independent observers searching imagery produced by the 𝑛 moving sensors, analytically model system target acquisition probability for each target as a function of time. Information input into the model is the time dependence of 𝘗∞ and 𝜏, two parameters that describe observer-sensor-atmosphere-range-target properties of the target acquisition system for the case where neither the sensor nor target is moving. The parameter 𝘗∞ can be calculated by the NV-IPM model and 𝜏 is estimated empirically from 𝘗∞. In this model 𝑛, 𝑚 and 𝑘 are integers and 𝑘 can be less than, equal to or greater than 𝑛. Increasing 𝑛 and 𝑘 results in a substantial increase in target acquisition probabilities. Because the sensors are networked, a target is said to be detected the moment the first of the 𝑘 observers declares the target. The model applies to time-limited or time-unlimited search, and applies to any imaging sensors operating in any wavelength band provided each sensor can be described by 𝘗∞ and 𝜏 parameters.

  2. Bioactivation of myelotoxic xenobiotics by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Many environmental pollutants and drugs are toxic to the bone marrow. Some of these xenobiotics may initiate toxicity after undergoing bioactivation to free radicals and/or other reactive electrophiles. Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the one-electron oxidative bioactivation of a variety of xenobiotics in vitro. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidative enzyme found in very high concentration in the neutrophils of human bone marrow. In this study, human MPO was evaluated to determine its ability to catalyze the in vitro bioactivation of known bone marrow toxicants that contain the aromatic hydroxyl (Ar-OH), aromatic amine (Ar-N-R{sub 2}), or heterocyclic tertiary amine ({double bond}N-R) moieties. The formation of free radical metabolites during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene metabolites), mitoxantrone and ametantrone (antitumor drugs), and chlorpromazine and promazine (antipsychotic drugs) was demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the products formed during the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of ({sup 14}C)hydroquinone and ({sup 14}C)catechol was shown by their covalent binding to protein and DNA in vitro. The covalently binding metabolite in each case is postulated to be the quinone form of the xenobiotic. In addition, both GSH and NADH were oxidized by the reactive intermediate(s) formed during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of many of the bone marrow toxicants tested. It was also shown that p,p-biphenol stimulated the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of both hydroquinone and catechol, while p-cresol stimulated the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of catechol.

  3. Red blood cells serve as intravascular carriers of myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Adam, Matti; Gajdova, Silvie; Kolarova, Hana; Kubala, Lukas; Lau, Denise; Geisler, Anne; Ravekes, Thorben; Rudolph, Volker; Tsao, Philip S; Blankenberg, Stefan; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme enzyme abundantly expressed in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. MPO is enzymatically capable of catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consumption of nitric oxide (NO). Thus MPO has both potent microbicidal and, upon binding to the vessel wall, pro-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, MPO - a highly cationic protein - has been shown to bind to both endothelial cells and leukocyte membranes. Given the anionic surface charge of red blood cells, we investigated binding of MPO to erythrocytes. Red blood cells (RBCs) derived from patients with elevated MPO plasma levels showed significantly higher amounts of MPO by flow cytometry and ELISA than healthy controls. Heparin-induced MPO-release from patient-derived RBCs was significantly increased compared to controls. Ex vivo experiments revealed dose and time dependency for MPO-RBC binding, and immunofluorescence staining as well as confocal microscopy localized MPO-RBC interaction to the erythrocyte plasma membrane. NO-consumption by RBC-membrane fragments (erythrocyte "ghosts") increased with incrementally greater concentrations of MPO during incubation, indicating preserved catalytic MPO activity. In vivo infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into C57BL/6J mice increased local MPO tissue concentrations in liver, spleen, lung, and heart tissue as well as within the cardiac vasculature. Further, NO-dependent relaxation of aortic rings was altered by RBC bound-MPO and systemic vascular resistance significantly increased after infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into mice. In summary, we find that MPO binds to RBC membranes in vitro and in vivo, is transported by RBCs to remote sites in mice, and affects endothelial function as well as systemic vascular resistance. RBCs may avidly bind circulating MPO, and act as carriers of this leukocyte-derived enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The molecular mechanism for interaction of ceruloplasmin and myeloperoxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhautdin, Bakytzhan; Bakhautdin, Esen Göksöy

    2016-04-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-containing ferroxidase with potent antioxidant activity. Cp is expressed by hepatocytes and activated macrophages and has been known as physiologic inhibitor of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Enzymatic activity of MPO produces anti-microbial agents and strong prooxidants such as hypochlorous acid and has a potential to damage host tissue at the sites of inflammation and infection. Thus Cp-MPO interaction and inhibition of MPO has previously been suggested as an important control mechanism of excessive MPO activity. Our aim in this study was to identify minimal Cp domain or peptide that interacts with MPO. We first confirmed Cp-MPO interaction by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR analysis of the interaction yielded 30 nM affinity between Cp and MPO. We then designed and synthesized 87 overlapping peptides spanning the entire amino acid sequence of Cp. Each of the peptides was tested whether it binds to MPO by direct binding ELISA. Two of the 87 peptides, P18 and P76 strongly interacted with MPO. Amino acid sequence analysis of identified peptides revealed high sequence and structural homology between them. Further structural analysis of Cp's crystal structure by PyMOL software unfolded that both peptides represent surface-exposed sites of Cp and face nearly the same direction. To confirm our finding we raised anti-P18 antisera in rabbit and demonstrated that this antisera disrupts Cp-MPO binding and rescues MPO activity. Collectively, our results confirm Cp-MPO interaction and identify two nearly identical sites on Cp that specifically bind MPO. We propose that inhibition of MPO by Cp requires two nearly identical sites on Cp to bind homodimeric MPO simultaneously and at an angle of at least 120 degrees, which, in turn, exerts tension on MPO and results in conformational change.

  5. Myeloperoxidase deficiency attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced skin injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The pathologic mechanisms of skin injuries, following the acute inflammatory response induced by vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) exposure, are poorly understood. Neutrophils which accumulate at the site of injury, abundantly express myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein that is implicated in oxidant-related antimicrobial and cytotoxic responses. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) or NM results in an inflammatory response including increased neutrophilic infiltration and MPO activity. To further define the role of neutrophil-derived MPO in NM-induced skin injury, here we used a genetic approach and examined the effect of NM exposure (12 h and 24 h) on previously established injury endpoints in C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and B6.129X1-MPOtm1Lus/J mice (MPO KO), homozygous null for MPO gene. NM exposure caused a significant increase in skin bi-fold thickness, epidermal thickness, microvesication, DNA damage and apoptosis in WT mice compared to MPO KO mice. MPO KO mice showed relatively insignificant effect. Similarly, NM-induced increases in the expression of inflammatory and proteolytic mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and MMP-9 in WT mice, while having a significantly lower effect in MPO KO mice. Collectively, these results show that MPO, which generates microbicidal oxidants, plays an important role in NM-induced skin injuries. This suggests the development of mechanism-based treatments against NM- and SM-induced skin injuries that inhibit MPO activity and attenuate MPO-derived oxidants. PMID:24631667

  6. Myeloperoxidase deficiency attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced skin injuries.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-06-05

    The pathologic mechanisms of skin injuries, following the acute inflammatory response induced by vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) exposure, are poorly understood. Neutrophils which accumulate at the site of injury, abundantly express myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein that is implicated in oxidant-related antimicrobial and cytotoxic responses. Our previous studies have shown that exposure to SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) or NM results in an inflammatory response including increased neutrophilic infiltration and MPO activity. To further define the role of neutrophil-derived MPO in NM-induced skin injury, here we used a genetic approach and examined the effect of NM exposure (12h and 24h) on previously established injury endpoints in C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and B6.129X1-MPOtm1Lus/J mice (MPO KO), homozygous null for MPO gene. NM exposure caused a significant increase in skin bi-fold thickness, epidermal thickness, microvesication, DNA damage and apoptosis in WT mice compared to MPO KO mice. MPO KO mice showed relatively insignificant effect. Similarly, NM induced increases in the expression of inflammatory and proteolytic mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and MMP-9 in WT mice, while having a significantly lower effect in MPO KO mice. Collectively, these results show that MPO, which generates microbicidal oxidants, plays an important role in NM-induced skin injuries. This suggests the development of mechanism-based treatments against NM- and SM-induced skin injuries that inhibit MPO activity and attenuate MPO-derived oxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CO binding and ligand discrimination in human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Emma J; Maréchal, Amandine; Segal, Anthony W; Rich, Peter R

    2010-03-16

    Despite the fact that ferrous myeloperoxidase (MPO) can bind both O(2) and NO, its ability to bind CO has been questioned. UV/visible spectroscopy was used to confirm that CO induces small spectral shifts in ferrous MPO, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy showed definitively that these arose from formation of a heme ferrous-CO compound. Recombination rates after CO photolysis were monitored at 618 and 645 nm as a function of CO concentration and pH. At pH 6.3, k(on) and k(off) were 0.14 mM(-1) x s(-1) and 0.23 s(-1), respectively, yielding an unusually high K(D) of 1.6 mM. This affinity of MPO for CO is 10 times weaker than its affinity for O(2). The observed rate constant for CO binding increased with increasing pH and was governed by a single protonatable group with a pK(a) of 7.8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed two different conformations of bound CO with frequencies at 1927 and 1942 cm(-1). Their recombination rate constants were identical, indicative of two forms of bound CO that are in rapid thermal equilibrium rather than two distinct protein populations with different binding sites. The ratio of bound states was pH-dependent (pK(a) approximately 7.4) with the 1927 cm(-1) form favored at high pH. Structural factors that account for the ligand-binding properties of MPO are identified by comparisons with published data on a range of other ligand-binding heme proteins, and support is given to the recent suggestion that the proximal His336 in MPO is in a true imidazolate state.

  8. Effects of residual target motion for image-tracked spine radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Cynthia; Sahgal, Arjun; Lee, Letitia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Verhey, Lynn; Ma Lijun

    2007-11-15

    A quality assurance method was developed to investigate the effects of residual target motion for hypofractionated spine radiosurgery. The residual target motion (target movement between successive image-guided corrections) was measured on-line via dual x-ray imagers for patients treated with CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), a robotic linear accelerator with intrafractional image-tracking capability. The six degree-of-freedom characteristics of the residual target motion were analyzed, the effects of such motion on patient treatment delivery were investigated by incorporating the probability distribution of the residual motion into the treatment planning dose calculations, and deviations of the doses from those originally planned were calculated. Measurements using a programmable motion phantom were also carried out and compared with the static treatment plan calculations. It was found that the residual target motions were patient specific and typically on the order of 2 mm. The measured dose distributions incorporating the residual target motion also exhibited 2.0 mm discrepancy at the prescription isodose level when compared with the static treatment plan calculations. For certain patients, residual errors introduced significant uncertainties ({approx}1 Gy) for the dose delivered to the spinal cord, especially at the high dose levels covering a small volume of the spinal cord (e.g., 0.1 cc). In such cases, stringent cord constraints and frequent monitoring of the target position should be implemented.

  9. Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase Activity in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum by Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1)

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Sass, Laura A.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is the major peroxidase enzyme in neutrophil granules and implicated in contributing to inflammatory lung damage in cystic fibrosis. Free myeloperoxidase is present in cystic fibrosis lung fluid and generates hypochlorous acid. Here we report a new inhibitor of myeloperoxidase activity, Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). Using TMB as the oxidizing substrate, PIC1 inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in cystic fibrosis sputum soluble fractions by an average of a 3.4-fold decrease (P = 0.02). PIC1 also dose-dependently inhibited myeloperoxidase activity in a neutrophil lysate or purified myeloperoxidase by up to 28-fold (P < 0.001). PIC1 inhibited myeloperoxidase activity similarly, on a molar basis, as the specific myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) for various oxidizing substrates. PIC1 was able to protect the heme ring of myeloperoxidase from destruction by NaOCl, assayed by spectral analysis. PIC1 incubated with oxidized TMB reversed the oxidation state of TMB, as measured by absorbance at 450 nm, with a 20-fold reduction in oxidized TMB (P = 0.02). This result was consistent with an antioxidant mechanism for PIC1. In summary, PIC1 inhibits the peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase in CF sputum likely via an antioxidant mechanism. PMID:28135312

  10. Targeting of deep-brain structures in nonhuman primates using MR and CT Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Hines, Catherine; Dogdas, Belma; Bone, Ashleigh; Lodge, Kenneth; O'Malley, Stacey; Connolly, Brett; Winkelmann, Christopher T.; Bagchi, Ansuman; Lubbers, Laura S.; Uslaner, Jason M.; Johnson, Colena; Renger, John; Zariwala, Hatim A.

    2015-03-01

    In vivo gene delivery in central nervous systems of nonhuman primates (NHP) is an important approach for gene therapy and animal model development of human disease. To achieve a more accurate delivery of genetic probes, precise stereotactic targeting of brain structures is required. However, even with assistance from multi-modality 3D imaging techniques (e.g. MR and CT), the precision of targeting is often challenging due to difficulties in identification of deep brain structures, e.g. the striatum which consists of multiple substructures, and the nucleus basalis of meynert (NBM), which often lack clear boundaries to supporting anatomical landmarks. Here we demonstrate a 3D-image-based intracranial stereotactic approach applied toward reproducible intracranial targeting of bilateral NBM and striatum of rhesus. For the targeting we discuss the feasibility of an atlas-based automatic approach. Delineated originally on a high resolution 3D histology-MR atlas set, the NBM and the striatum could be located on the MR image of a rhesus subject through affine and nonrigid registrations. The atlas-based targeting of NBM was compared with the targeting conducted manually by an experienced neuroscientist. Based on the targeting, the trajectories and entry points for delivering the genetic probes to the targets could be established on the CT images of the subject after rigid registration. The accuracy of the targeting was assessed quantitatively by comparison between NBM locations obtained automatically and manually, and finally demonstrated qualitatively via post mortem analysis of slices that had been labelled via Evan Blue infusion and immunohistochemistry.

  11. Real-time automatic target location by template matching on blurred images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Downs, Justin, III; Peterson, Michael L.

    1996-11-01

    High precision manufacturing is dependent on the accurate positioning of the part prior to each processing step. The part is typically held in a transfer fixture which may be used either simply as a part holder or as an alignment reference. A typical application is explored in this work, grinding of slots in a thick ceramic wafer mounted on a part fixture. A 1 micron slot is located with a position tolerance of 10 microns in the nickel-zinc-ferrite wafer. Part location is determined by means of a 50.8 by 1 micron target deposited onto the ceramic during an earlier process. In the current process, the target is magnified by a 250X vision system and the machine operator manually aligns the part using a set of cross hairs overlaid on the image. A high precision x-y stage is used to adjust the pat location. However, the use of a fixed focal distance camera combined with part mounting variation results in an unfocused image for the operator. Manual alignment of the unfocused image leads to target location error during centering of the target in the cross hairs. The misalignment, in turn, results in process variation. The location of the slots varies based on alignment and reduces the process capability. To reduce process variation, an automated target location algorithm has been applied. The algorithm uses template matching to detect the target. This simple algorithm has been shown to locate the target within the required tolerance in spite of image blur. Using low cost processing, the system is able to determine the target location in real-time. For real-time control, the algorithm must determine the x-y coordinate of the target in 10 seconds or less. This effort shows the potential for a simple location algorithm to be implemented in a manner which can significantly decrease process variation in a precision fabrication process.

  12. Real-time automatic target location by template matching on blurred images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Downs, Justin, III; Peterson, Michael L.

    1996-11-01

    High precision manufacturing is dependent on the accurate positioning of the part prior to each processing step. The part is typically held in a transfer fixture which may be used either simply as a part holder or as an alignment reference. A typical application is explored in this work, grinding of slots in a thick ceramic wafer mounted on a part fixture. A 1 micron slot is located with a position tolerance of 10 microns in the nickel-zinc-ferrite wafer. Part location is determined by means of a 50.8 by 1 micron target deposited onto the ceramic during an earlier process. In the current process, the target is magnified by a 250X vision system and the machine operator manually aligns the part using a set of cross hairs overlaid on the image. A high precision x-y stage is used to adjust the part location. However, the use of a fixed focal distance camera combined with part mounting variation results in an unfocused image for the operator. Manual alignment of the unfocused image leads to target location error during centering of the target in the cross hairs. The misalignment, in turn, results in process variation. The location of the slots varies based on alignment and reduces the process capability. To reduce process variation, an automated target location algorithm has been applied. The algorithm uses template matching to detect the target. This simple algorithm has been shown to locate the target within the required tolerance in spite of image blur. Using low cost processing, the system is able to determine the target location in real-time. For real-time control, the algorithm must determine the x-y coordinate of the target in 10 seconds or less. This effort shows the potential for a simple location algorithm to be implemented in a manner which can significantly decrease process variation in a precision fabrication process.

  13. Study of image matching algorithm and sub-pixel fitting algorithm in target tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-dong; Jia, Jianjun; Qiang, Jia; Wang, Jian-yu

    2015-03-01

    Image correlation matching is a tracking method that searched a region most approximate to the target template based on the correlation measure between two images. Because there is no need to segment the image, and the computation of this method is little. Image correlation matching is a basic method of target tracking. This paper mainly studies the image matching algorithm of gray scale image, which precision is at sub-pixel level. The matching algorithm used in this paper is SAD (Sum of Absolute Difference) method. This method excels in real-time systems because of its low computation complexity. The SAD method is introduced firstly and the most frequently used sub-pixel fitting algorithms are introduced at the meantime. These fitting algorithms can't be used in real-time systems because they are too complex. However, target tracking often requires high real-time performance, we put forward a fitting algorithm named paraboloidal fitting algorithm based on the consideration above, this algorithm is simple and realized easily in real-time system. The result of this algorithm is compared with that of surface fitting algorithm through image matching simulation. By comparison, the precision difference between these two algorithms is little, it's less than 0.01pixel. In order to research the influence of target rotation on precision of image matching, the experiment of camera rotation was carried on. The detector used in the camera is a CMOS detector. It is fixed to an arc pendulum table, take pictures when the camera rotated different angles. Choose a subarea in the original picture as the template, and search the best matching spot using image matching algorithm mentioned above. The result shows that the matching error is bigger when the target rotation angle is larger. It's an approximate linear relation. Finally, the influence of noise on matching precision was researched. Gaussian noise and pepper and salt noise were added in the image respectively, and the image

  14. A nucleolin-targeted multimodal nanoparticle imaging probe for tracking cancer cells using an aptamer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Ko, Hae Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kang, Hyungu; Ryu, Sung Ho; Song, In Chan; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Soonhag

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular imaging techniques, using cancer-targeting nanoparticle probes, provide noninvasive tracking information on cancer cells in living subjects. Here, we report a multimodal cancer-targeted imaging system capable of concurrent fluorescence imaging, radionuclide imaging, and MRI in vivo. A cobalt-ferrite nanoparticle surrounded by fluorescent rhodamine (designated MF) within a silica shell matrix was synthesized with the AS1411 aptamer (MF-AS1411) that targets nucleolin (a cellular membrane protein highly expressed in cancer) using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC). This purified MF-AS1411 particle was bound with 2-(p-isothio-cyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclonane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-bn-NOTA) chelating agent and further labeled with (67)Ga-citrate (MFR-AS1411). The shape and size distribution of MFR-AS1411 were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The cellular distribution of the nucleolin protein using the MFR-AS1411 nanoparticle was detected by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Phantom MR images were obtained as the concentration of MFR-AS1411 increased, using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. In vivo (67)Ga radionuclide imaging and MRI were performed using a gamma-camera and a 1.5-T MR imager, respectively. TEM imaging revealed MF and MFR-AS1411 to be spheric and well dispersed. The purified MFR-AS1411 nanoparticle showed specific fluorescence signals in nucleolin-expressing C6 cells, compared with MFR-AS1411 mutant (MFR-AS1411mt)-treated C6 cells. The rhodamine fluorescence intensity and (67)Ga activity of MFR-AS1411 were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner as the concentration of MFR-AS1411 was increased. The (67)Ga radionuclide was detected in both thighs of the mice injected with MFR-AS1411, whereas the MFR-AS1411 mutant (MFR-AS1411mt) administration revealed rapid clearance via the bloodstream, demonstrating that MFR-AS1411 specifically targeted cancer cells. Bioluminescence images in the C6 cells

  15. Target Definition in Salvage Radiotherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer: The Role of Advanced Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Amzalag, Gaël; Rager, Olivier; Tabouret-Viaud, Claire; Wissmeyer, Michael; Sfakianaki, Electra; de Perrot, Thomas; Ratib, Osman; Miralbell, Raymond; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Garibotto, Valentina; Zilli, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) represents the main treatment option for relapsing prostate cancer in patients after radical prostatectomy. Several open questions remain unanswered in terms of target volumes definition and delivered doses for SRT: the effective dose necessary to achieve biochemical control in the SRT setting may be different if the tumor recurrence is micro- or macroscopic. At the same time, irradiation of only the prostatic bed or of the whole pelvis will depend on the localization of the recurrence, local or locoregional. In the "theragnostic imaging" era, molecular imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) constitutes a useful tool for clinicians to define the site of the recurrence, the extent of disease, and individualize salvage treatments. The best option currently available in clinical routine is the combination of radiolabeled choline PET imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), associating the nodal and distant metastases identification based on PET with the local assessment by MRI. A new generation of targeted tracers, namely, prostate-specific membrane antigen, show promising results, with a contrast superior to choline imaging and a higher detection rate even for low prostate-specific antigen levels; validation studies are ongoing. Finally, imaging targeting bone remodeling, using whole-body SPECT-CT, is a relevant complement to molecular/metabolic PET imaging when bone involvement is suspected.

  16. Eccentric target sign in cerebral toxoplasmosis: neuropathological correlate to the imaging feature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G G Sharath; Mahadevan, A; Guruprasad, A S; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Satishchandra, P; Nath, Avindra; Ranga, Udaykumar; Shankar, S K

    2010-06-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis remains one of the most common focal brain lesions in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis is a challenge because on cranial imaging it closely mimics central nervous system lymphoma, primary and metastatic central nervous system (CNS) tumors, or other intracranial infections like tuberculoma or abscesses. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature on postcontrast T1-weighted sequences considered pathognomonic of toxoplasmosis is the "eccentric target sign." The pathological correlate of this imaging sign has been speculative. Herein we correlate the underlying histopathology to the MR feature of eccentric target sign in a patient with autopsy-proven HIV/AIDS-related cerebral toxoplasmosis. The central enhancing core of the target seen on MRI was produced by a leash of inflamed vessels extending down the length of the sulcus that was surrounded by concentric zones of necrosis and a wall composed of histiocytes and proliferating blood vessels, with impaired permeability producing the peripheral enhancing rim.

  17. IR image generation of space target based on OpenGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tongsheng; Guo, Ming; Wang, Chenggang

    2007-11-01

    IR Scene simulation has been an important way to design and assess the IR sensor, and the key of simulation is the generation of IR scene image. Based on OpenGL, the method of IR image generation is proposed. The geometry model is constructed with professional CAD software, and the observer location is determined after scene transformation. The full infrared model of space target is built based on infrared physics and heat transfer, which includes the radiation, convection, conduction between different parts of the space target, and which also includes the radiation, convection of environment. Radiance of space target is converted to gray value, and properties of scene are defined according to the gray level. After a series of processing, dynamic IR images are generated with the technology of double buffering.

  18. Ultrasound molecular imaging of ovarian cancer with CA-125 targeted nanobubble contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Hernandez, Christopher; Yuan, Hai-Xia; Lilly, Jacob; Kota, Pavan; Zhou, Haoyan; Wu, Hanping; Exner, Agata A

    2017-06-09

    Ultrasound is frequently utilized in diagnosis of gynecologic malignancies such as ovarian cancer. Because epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is often characterized by overexpression of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), ultrasound contrast agents able to target this molecular signature could be a promising complementary strategy. In this work, we demonstrate application of CA-125-targeted echogenic lipid and surfactant-stabilized nanobubbles imaged with standard clinical contrast harmonic ultrasound for imaging of CA-125 positive OVCAR-3 tumors in mice. Surface functionalization of the nanobubbles with a CA-125 antibody achieved rapid significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced tumor accumulation, higher peak ultrasound signal intensity and slower wash out rates in OVCAR-3 tumors compared to CA-125 negative SKOV-3 tumors. Targeted nanobubbles also exhibited increased tumor retention and prolonged echogenicity compared to untargeted nanobubbles. Data suggest that ultrasound molecular imaging using CA-125 antibody-conjugated nanobubbles may contribute to improved diagnosis of EOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An assessment of independent component analysis for detection of military targets from hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, K. C.; Arora, M. K.; Singh, D.

    2011-10-01

    Hyperspectral data acquired over hundreds of narrow contiguous wavelength bands are extremely suitable for target detection due to their high spectral resolution. Though spectral response of every material is expected to be unique, but in practice, it exhibits variations, which is known as spectral variability. Most target detection algorithms depend on spectral modelling using a priori available target spectra In practice, target spectra is, however, seldom available a priori. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a new evolving technique that aims at finding out components which are statistically independent or as independent as possible. The technique therefore has the potential of being used for target detection applications. A assessment of target detection from hyperspectral images using ICA and other algorithms based on spectral modelling may be of immense interest, since ICA does not require a priori target information. The aim of this paper is, thus, to assess the potential of ICA based algorithm vis a vis other prevailing algorithms for military target detection. Four spectral matching algorithms namely Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP), Constrained Energy Minimisation (CEM), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and four anomaly detection algorithms namely OSP anomaly detector (OSPAD), Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector (RXD), Uniform Target Detector (UTD) and a combination of Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector and Uniform Target Detector (RXD-UTD) were considered. The experiments were conducted using a set of synthetic and AVIRIS hyperspectral images containing aircrafts as military targets. A comparison of true positive and false positive rates of target detections obtained from ICA and other algorithms plotted on a receiver operating curves (ROC) space indicates the superior performance of the ICA over other algorithms.

  20. Low-Z target optimization for spatial resolution improvement in megavoltage imaging.

    PubMed

    Connell, Tanner; Robar, James L

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several authors have shown contrast improvements in megavoltage portal imaging and cone-beam computed tomography using low atomic number (Z) targets. This work compliments previous studies by investigating the effects of varying different beam production parameters including target atomic number, target thickness, and incident electron energy on spatial resolution. Target materials of beryllium, aluminum, and tungsten were investigated over a range of thicknesses between 10% and 100% of the continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. Incident electron kinetic energies of 4.5 and 7.0 MeV were used, in conjunction with custom targets installed above the carousel of a modern radiotherapy linear accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations of the accelerator were constructed and compared to the experimental results. The results showed that thinner targets, as well higher incident electron energies, generally produce more favorable modulation transfer function (MTF) curves. Due to an MTF dependence of the detector system on the photon energy, the experimental results showed that low-Z targets produced superior MTF curves. Simulations showed 14.5% and 21.5% increases in f50 for the 7.0 and 4.5 MeV targets (A1; 60% R% CSDA), respectively, when moved from the carousel to the location of the clinical target. f50 values for the custom targets were compared to the clinical 6 MV beam and were found to be between 10.4% lower (4.5 MeV/W) and 15.5% higher (7.0 MeV/Be). Integration of low-Z external targets into the treatment head of a medical linear was achieved with only minor modifications. It was shown that reasonably high resolution images on par or better than those acquired with the clinical 6 MV beam can be achieved using external low-Z targets.

  1. Ground target detection based on discrete cosine transform and Rényi entropy for imaging ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuannan; Chen, Weili; Li, Junwei; Dong, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) due to its excellent properties that the images can be represented in spatial/spatial-frequency domains, has been applied in sequence data analysis and image fusion. For intensity and range images of ladar, through the DCT using one dimension window, the statistical property of Rényi entropy for images is studied. We also analyzed the change of Rényi entropy's statistical property in the ladar intensity and range images when the man-made objects appear. From this foundation, a novel method for generating saliency map based on DCT and Rényi entropy is proposed. After that, ground target detection is completed when the saliency map is segmented using a simple and convenient threshold method. For the ladar intensity and range images, experimental results show the proposed method can effectively detect the military vehicles from complex earth background with low false alarm.

  2. Microbubble contrast agents: targeted ultrasound imaging and ultrasound-assisted drug-delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Klibanov, Alexander L

    2006-03-01

    The use of microbubble contrast agents for general tissue delineation and perfusion enjoys steady interest in ultrasound imaging. Microbubbles as contrast materials require a small dosage and show excellent detection sensitivity. Targeting ligands on the surface of microbubbles permit the selective accumulation of these particles in the areas of interest, which show an up-regulated level of receptor molecules on vascular endothelium. Selective contrast imaging of inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and thrombosis has been achieved in animal models. Ultrasound-assisted drug delivery and activation, performed by combining microbubble agent containing drug substances or coadministered with pharmaceutical agents (including plasmid DNA for transfection), has been achieved in multiple model systems in vitro and in vivo. Ultrasound and microbubbles-based targeted acceleration of the thrombolytic enzyme action already have reached clinical trials. Overall, microbubble targeting and ultrasound-assisted microbubble-based drug-delivery systems will offer a step toward the application of targeted personalized diagnostics and therapy.

  3. Imaging and target detection with a heterodyne-reception optical radar.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J H; Capron, B A; Harney, R C

    1981-10-01

    A mathematical system model for a compact heterodyne-reception infrared radar is developed. This model incorporates the statistical effects of propagation through atmospheric turbulence, target speckle and glint, and heterodyne-reception shot noise. It is used to find the image signal-to-noise ratio of a matched-filter envelope-detector receiver and the target detection probability of the optimum likelihood ratio processor. For realistic parameter values it is shown that turbulence-induced beam spreading and coherence loss may be neglected. Target speckle and atmospheric scintillation, however, present serious limitations on single-frame imaging and target-detection performance. Experimental turbulence strength measurements are reviewed, and selected results are used in sample performance calculations for a realistic infrared radar.

  4. Early recognition of lung cancer by integrin targeted imaging in K-ras mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Aichler, Michaela; Kayser, Gian; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by slow progression and high heterogeneity of tumors. Integrins play an important role in lung cancer development and metastasis and were suggested as a tumor marker; however their role in anticancer therapy remains controversial. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of integrin-targeted imaging to recognize early lesions in transgenic mouse model of lung cancer based on spontaneous introduction of mutated human gene bearing K-ras mutation. We conducted ex vivo and fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography (FMT-XCT) in vivo imaging and analysis for specific targeting of early lung lesions and tumors in rodent preclinical model for lung cancer. The lesions and tumors were characterized by histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using a panel of cancer markers. Ex vivo, the integrin-targeted fluorescent signal significantly differed between wild type lung tissue and K-ras pulmonary lesions (PL) at all ages studied. The panel of immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that PL, which only partially show cancer cell features were detected by αvβ3-integrin targeted imaging. Human patient material analysis confirmed the specificity of target localization in different lung cancer types. Most importantly, small tumors in the lungs of 4-week-old animals could be noninvasively detected in vivo on the fluorescence channel of FMT-XCT. Our findings demonstrated αvβ3-integrin targeted fluorescent imaging to specifically detect premalignant pleural lesions in K-ras mice. Integrin targeted imaging may find application areas in preclinical research and clinical practice, such as early lung cancer diagnostics, intraoperative assistance or therapy monitoring.

  5. Mueller matrix imaging of targets under an air-sea interface.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Peng-Wang; Kattawar, George W; Yang, Ping

    2009-01-10

    The Mueller matrix imaging method is a powerful tool for target detection. In this study, the effect of the air-sea interface on the detection of underwater objects is studied. A backward Monte Carlo code has been developed to study this effect. The main result is that the reflection of the diffuse sky light by the interface reduces the Mueller image contrast. If the air-sea interface is ruffled by wind, the distinction between different regions of the underwater target is smoothed out. The effect of the finite size of an active light source is also studied. The image contrast is found to be relatively insensitive to the size of the light source. The volume scattering function plays an important role on the underwater object detection. Generally, a smaller asymmetry parameter decreases the contrast of the polarimetry images.

  6. Imaging of targeted lipid microbubbles to detect cancer cells using third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Baker, Robert Dawson; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Mehravar, Soroush; Vagner, Josef; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-01-01

    The use of receptor-targeted lipid microbubbles imaged by ultrasound is an innovative method of detecting and localizing disease. However, since ultrasound requires a medium between the transducer and the object being imaged, it is impractical to apply to an exposed surface in a surgical setting where sterile fields need be maintained and ultrasound gel may cause the bubbles to collapse. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an emerging tool for accurate, label-free imaging of tissues and cells with high resolution and contrast. We have recently determined a novel application of MPM to be used for detecting targeted microbubble adherence to the upregulated plectin-receptor on pancreatic tumor cells. Specifically, the third-harmonic generation response can be used to detect bound microbubbles to various cell types presenting MPM as an alternative and useful imaging method. This is an interesting technique that can potentially be translated as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer and inflammatory disorders. PMID:27446711

  7. Atherosclerotic plaque targeting mechanism of long-circulating nanoparticles established by multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Lobatto, Mark E; Calcagno, Claudia; Millon, Antoine; Senders, Max L; Fay, Francois; Robson, Philip M; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Binderup, Tina; Paridaans, Maarten P M; Sensarn, Steven; Rogalla, Stephan; Gordon, Ronald E; Cardoso, Luis; Storm, Gert; Metselaar, Josbert M; Contag, Christopher H; Stroes, Erik S G; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-02-24

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality that could benefit from novel targeted therapeutics. Recent studies have shown efficient and local drug delivery with nanoparticles, although the nanoparticle targeting mechanism for atherosclerosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we used in vivo and ex vivo multimodal imaging to examine permeability of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation of fluorescently labeled liposomal nanoparticles in a rabbit model. We found a strong correlation between permeability as established by in vivo dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and nanoparticle plaque accumulation with subsequent nanoparticle distribution throughout the vessel wall. These key observations will enable the development of nanotherapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

  8. Novel Image Guidance Techniques for Portal Vein Targeting During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Khashayar; Kaufman, John A

    2016-03-01

    The most challenging part of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is arguably the transvenous access from the hepatic vein to the portal vein. As experience and technology have evolved, the image guidance aspect of this critical step in the procedure has become more robust. Improved means to target the portal vein include both direct and indirect methods of portal vein opacification, cross-sectional imaging for both targeting and access, and novel use of transabdominal and intravascular ultrasound guidance. These techniques are described herein.

  9. Matrix Pre-coated Targets for High Throughput MALDI Imaging of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junhai; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed matrix pre-coated targets for imaging proteins in thin tissue sections by MALDI MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry). Gold covered microscope slides were coated with sinapinic acid (SA) in batches in advance and were shown to be stable for over 6 months when kept in the dark. The sample preparation protocol using these SA pre-coated targets involves treatment with diisopropylethylamine (DIEA)-H2O vapor, transforming the matrix layer to a viscous ionic liquid. This SA-DIEA ionic liquid layer extracts proteins and other analytes from tissue sections that are thaw mounted to this target. DIEA is removed by immersion of the target into diluted acetic acid (AcOH), allowing SA to co-crystallizes with extracted analytes directly on the target. Ion images (3–70 kDa) of sections of mouse brain and rat kidney at spatial resolution down to 10 μm were obtained. Use of pre-coated slides greatly reduces sample preparation time for MALDI imaging while providing high throughput, low cost, and high spatial resolution images. PMID:24809903

  10. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared – non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents. PMID:27147293

  11. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared – non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  12. Parameterized Pseudo-Localization for Accurate and Efficient Moving Targets Imaging in Synthetic Aperture Radar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuepan; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Xuejing

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and efficient moving target imaging is an important challenge for targets recognition in current synthetic aperture radar (SAR) combined with a ground moving target indication (GMTI) system. As the key but unknown parameter, the Doppler rates are estimated conventionally by searching any possible values for moving targets imaging. However, this conventional estimation method suffers from low accuracy or low efficiency due to the searching procedure. Focusing on these, we present a method to efficiently image the moving targets without the Doppler rate by Doppler delayed interferometry, and the imaged localization, which is parameterized pseudo-localization, is used to estimate the Doppler rate. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, an improved method based on the Newton method of approximation is proposed by exploiting the unused amplitude information. Compared with the conventional methods, the proposed improved method capable of high accuracy and low computation complexity simultaneously can meet the accurate and efficient requirements in the practical applications. Comparison simulations and real data processing results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. HER2 Targeted Molecular MR Imaging Using a De Novo Designed Protein Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jingjuan; Li, Shunyi; Wei, Lixia; Jiang, Jie; Long, Robert; Mao, Hui; Wei, Ling; Wang, Liya; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Liu, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Jenny J.

    2011-01-01

    The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively assess disease biomarkers has been hampered by the lack of desired contrast agents with high relaxivity, targeting capability, and optimized pharmacokinetics. We have developed a novel MR imaging probe targeting to HER2, a biomarker for various cancer types and a drug target for anti-cancer therapies. This multimodal HER20targeted MR imaging probe integrates a de novo designed protein contrast agent with a high affinity HER2 affibody and a near IR fluorescent dye. Our probe can differentially monitor tumors with different expression levels of HER2 in both human cell lines and xenograft mice models. In addition to its 100-fold higher dose efficiency compared to clinically approved non-targeting contrast agent DTPA, our developed agent also exhibits advantages in crossing the endothelial boundary, tissue distribution, and tumor tissue retention over reported contrast agents as demonstrated by even distribution of the imaging probe across the entire tumor mass. This contrast agent will provide a powerful tool for quantitative assessment of molecular markers, and improved resolution for diagnosis, prognosis and drug discovery. PMID:21455310

  14. Mid-infrared imaging system based on polarizers for detecting marine targets covered in sun glint.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Xiaofeng; Song, Pengfei; Li, Yansong

    2016-07-25

    When a marine target is detected by a mid-infrared detector on a sunny day, the target's information could be lost if it is located in sun glint. Therefore, we developed a new mid-infrared imaging system capable of effectively detecting marine targets in regions of strong sun glint, which is presented in this report. Firstly, the theory of the analysis methods employed in different detection scenarios is briefly described to establish whether one or two polarizers should be utilized to suppress further the p-polarized component of sun glint. Secondly, for the case in which a second polarizer is employed, the formula for the optimum angle between the two polarizers is given. Then, the results of our field experiment are presented, demonstrating that the developed system can significantly reduce sun glint and can enhance the contrast of target images. A commonly used image processing algorithm proved capable of identifying a target in sun glint, confirming the effectiveness of our proposed mid-infrared polarization imaging system.

  15. Post-Prostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy: The Invisible Target Concept.

    PubMed

    Vilotte, Florent; Antoine, Mickael; Bobin, Maxime; Latorzeff, Igor; Supiot, Stéphane; Richaud, Pierre; Thomas, Laurence; Leduc, Nicolas; Guérif, Stephane; Iriondo-Alberdi, Jone; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Sargos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) appears crucial to control dose delivery and to promote dose escalation while allowing healthy tissue sparing. The place of IGRT following radical prostatectomy is poorly described in the literature. This review aims to highlight some key points on the different IGRT techniques applicable to prostatic bed radiotherapy. Furthermore, methods used to evaluate target motion and to reduce planning target volume margins will also be explored.

  16. Direct targeting of proteins to lipid droplets demonstrated by time-lapse live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Torahiko; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kazufumi; Makishima, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    A protein that specifically targets lipid droplets (LDs) was created by connecting two domains of nonstructural protein 4B containing amphipathic helices from hepatitis C virus. We demonstrated its direct targeting and accumulation to the LD surface by time-lapse live cell imaging, comparable to those observed with adipose differentiation-related protein. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-Prostatectomy Image-Guided Radiotherapy: The Invisible Target Concept

    PubMed Central

    Vilotte, Florent; Antoine, Mickael; Bobin, Maxime; Latorzeff, Igor; Supiot, Stéphane; Richaud, Pierre; Thomas, Laurence; Leduc, Nicolas; Guérif, Stephane; Iriondo-Alberdi, Jone; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Sargos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) appears crucial to control dose delivery and to promote dose escalation while allowing healthy tissue sparing. The place of IGRT following radical prostatectomy is poorly described in the literature. This review aims to highlight some key points on the different IGRT techniques applicable to prostatic bed radiotherapy. Furthermore, methods used to evaluate target motion and to reduce planning target volume margins will also be explored. PMID:28337425

  18. Tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for small target detection in infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Jingzhuo; Yang, Huizhen; Gong, Chenglong; Zhou, Yuanshen; Liu, Lipeng; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Shuli

    2016-09-01

    Infrared small targets detection plays a crucial role in warning and tracking systems. Some novel methods based on pattern recognition technology catch much attention from researchers. However, those classic methods must reshape images into vectors with the high dimensionality. Moreover, vectorizing breaks the natural structure and correlations in the image data. Image representation based on tensor treats images as matrices and can hold the natural structure and correlation information. So tensor algorithms have better classification performance than vector algorithms. Fukunaga-Koontz transform is one of classification algorithms and it is a vector version method with the disadvantage of all vector algorithms. In this paper, we first extended the Fukunaga-Koontz transform into its tensor version, tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform. Then we designed a method based on tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform for detecting targets and used it to detect small targets in infrared images. The experimental results, comparison through signal-to-clutter, signal-to-clutter gain and background suppression factor, have validated the advantage of the target detection based on the tensor Fukunaga-Koontz transform over that based on the Fukunaga-Koontz transform.

  19. Axis consistency testing method based on image processing technology for non-cooperative target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Dongxi

    2016-09-01

    The multi-axis consistency among optical sensors is the basic guarantee to ensure the normal operation of the entire optical equipment. In the paper the new method which is image processing technology for non-cooperative target is provided to solve the axis consistency testing question. In detail, firstly an observing object is chosen as non-cooperative target in scene in front of inspected equipment. Secondly the target is observed by the optical sensor and the central location of crosshair in image is recorded. Thirdly the same target is observed again using another optical sensor and the central location of crosshair in image is record. At last, the testing result of two optical sensors can be obtained by the position deviation of crosshair central comparing two images. The axis consistency of mechanical axis and the optical axis is detected by the CCD imaging systems, which held on the mechanical axis of the measured object. Not only the proposed method is suitable to different working band, but also it is very small, not limited by field condition and convenient for carry. Furthermore experimental results show the proposed method has high inspecting accuracy, which explain the feasibility and potential applications.

  20. The potentiation of myeloperoxidase activity by the glycosaminoglycan-dependent binding of myeloperoxidase to proteins of the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kubala, Lukáš; Kolářová, Hana; Víteček, Jan; Kremserová, Silvie; Klinke, Anna; Lau, Denise; Chapman, Anna L P; Baldus, Stephan; Eiserich, Jason P

    2013-10-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant hemoprotein expressed by neutrophil granulocytes that is recognized to play an important role in the development of vascular diseases. Upon degranulation from circulating neutrophil granulocytes, MPO binds to the surface of endothelial cells in an electrostatic-dependent manner and undergoes transcytotic migration to the underlying extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the mechanisms governing the binding of MPO to subendothelial ECM proteins, and whether this binding modulates its enzymatic functions are not well understood. We investigated MPO binding to ECM derived from aortic endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts, and to purified ECM proteins, and the modulation of these associations by glycosaminoglycans. The oxidizing and chlorinating potential of MPO upon binding to ECM proteins was tested. MPO binds to the ECM proteins collagen IV and fibronectin, and this association is enhanced by the pre-incubation of these proteins with glycosaminoglycans. Correspondingly, an excess of glycosaminoglycans in solution during incubation inhibits the binding of MPO to collagen IV and fibronectin. These observations were confirmed with cell-derived ECM. The oxidizing and chlorinating potential of MPO was preserved upon binding to collagen IV and fibronectin; even the potentiation of MPO activity in the presence of collagen IV and fibronectin was observed. Collectively, the data reveal that MPO binds to ECM proteins on the basis of electrostatic interactions, and MPO chlorinating and oxidizing activity is potentiated upon association with these proteins. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of MPO with ECM proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tomographic diffractive microscopy with agile illuminations for imaging targets in a noisy background.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Godavarthi, C; Chaumet, P C; Maire, G; Giovannini, H; Talneau, A; Prada, C; Sentenac, A; Belkebir, K

    2015-02-15

    Tomographic diffractive microscopy is a marker-free optical digital imaging technique in which three-dimensional samples are reconstructed from a set of holograms recorded under different angles of incidence. We show experimentally that, by processing the holograms with singular value decomposition, it is possible to image objects in a noisy background that are invisible with classical wide-field microscopy and conventional tomographic reconstruction procedure. The targets can be further characterized with a selective quantitative inversion.

  2. Early detection of ovarian cancer by serum marker and targeted ultrasound imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ABSTRACT We propose to test the validity and specificity of our targeted ultrasound imaging probes in detecting early stage ovarian cancer (OVCA) by transvaginal ultrasound imaging (TVUS). We then test the predictive validity of these probes in a longitudinal study using the laying hen ? the only widely available animal model of spontaneous OVCA. OVCA is a fatal gynecological malignancy of women. An effective early detection test could reduce high mortality rate due to OVCA and morbidity associated with exploratory surgeries significantly. |

  3. Fluorescence microscopy studies of a peripheral-benzodiazepine-receptor-targeted molecular probe for brain tumor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura; Vernier, P. Thomas; Manning, H. Charles; Salemi, Sarah; Li, Aimin; Craft, Cheryl M.; Gundersen, Martin A.; Bornhop, Darryl J.

    2003-10-01

    This study investigates the potential of a new multi-modal lanthanide chelate complex for specifically targeting brain tumor cells. We report here results from ongoing studies of up-take, sub-cellular localization and binding specificity of this new molecular imaging probe. Fluorescence microscopy investigations in living rat C6 glioma tumor cells demonstrate that the new imaging agent has affinity for glioma cells and binds to mitochondria.

  4. Detection and Imaging of Moving Targets with LiMIT SAR Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-03

    movers by applying a set of possible motion corrections to the image, and use a novel matched filter to detect the movers in this space . We can then image...include space time adaptive processing (STAP) or displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) [4]–[7]. Page et al. combined constant acceleration target...motion focusing with space -time adaptive processing (STAP), and included the refocusing parameters in the STAP steering vector. Due to inhomogenous

  5. The emerging role of molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Andrew J; Brechbiel, Martin W; Choyke, Peter L

    2007-07-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a common and often fatal late-stage complication of many gastrointestinal and gynecologic malignancies. This review discusses the ongoing evolution of diagnostic and treatment strategies for peritoneal carcinomatosis and the role that molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy may play in improving patient survival. An overview of recent developments in targeted imaging and therapeutics for peritoneal carcinomatosis, as well as the authors' opinions as to future developments in this field is also provided.

  6. Toward prediction of hyperspectral target detection performance after lossy image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Jason R.; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Dill, Jeffrey C.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imagery (HSI) offers numerous advantages over traditional sensing modalities with its high spectral content that allows for classification, anomaly detection, target discrimination, and change detection. However, this imaging modality produces a huge amount of data, which requires transmission, processing, and storage resources; hyperspectral compression is a viable solution to these challenges. It is well known that lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery can impact hyperspectral target detection. Here we examine lossy compressed hyperspectral imagery from data-centric and target-centric perspectives. The compression ratio (CR), root mean square error (RMSE), the signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the correlation coefficient are computed directly from the imagery and provide insight to how the imagery has been affected by the lossy compression process. With targets present in the imagery, we perform target detection with the spectral angle mapper (SAM) and adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) and evaluate the change in target detection performance by examining receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the target signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). Finally, we observe relationships between the data- and target-centric metrics for selected visible/near-infrared to shortwave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) HSI data, targets, and backgrounds that motivate potential prediction of change in target detection performance as a function of compression ratio.

  7. Supervised target detection in hyperspectral images using one-class Fukunaga-Koontz Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binol, Hamidullah; Bal, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    A novel hyperspectral target detection technique based on Fukunaga-Koontz transform (FKT) is presented. FKT offers significant properties for feature selection and ordering. However, it can only be used to solve multi-pattern classification problems. Target detection may be considered as a two-class classification problem, i.e., target versus background clutter. Nevertheless, background clutter typically contains different types of materials. That's why; target detection techniques are different than classification methods by way of modeling clutter. To avoid the modeling of the background clutter, we have improved one-class FKT (OC-FKT) for target detection. The statistical properties of target training samples are used to define tunnel-like boundary of the target class. Non-target samples are then created synthetically as to be outside of the boundary. Thus, only limited target samples become adequate for training of FKT. The hyperspectral image experiments confirm that the proposed OC-FKT technique provides an effective means for target detection.

  8. Range-Doppler imaging of moving target with chirped AM ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-bo; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Yanjie; Han, Xiang'e.

    2011-06-01

    As the result of the synthetic aperture radar technique applied to laser band, SAIL (synthetic aperture imaging ladar) can provide range-Doppler image of targets with much more high-resolution than its counterpart in microwave band. However, the complicated structure of coherent heterodyne detection and the significant impacts of laser atmospheric effect, target depolarization, phase error arising from platform vibration on heterodyne detection efficiency degrades its performance. In this paper, an APD and semiconductor laser based range-Doppler imaging ladar is presented. The ladar combines the (inverse) synthetic aperture technique and direct detection and can obtain the high-resolution image at a relative low cost and complexity. In the meanwhile, owing to the poor coherence of semiconductor laser, the impact of atmospheric effect on laser pattern can be released to some extent. Firstly, the system diagram is presented and the components are briefly introduced; Secondly, the operation principle and performance are formulated detailedly; and then the parameters determination of the chirped AM waveform is analyzed considering the extraction of the range and velocity and the fine resolution. Finally, the 1-D range and 2-D range-Doppler imaging procedure are numerically simulated based on the given target model, which shows that the proposed imaging ladar is effective and feasible.

  9. Ultra wide band millimeter wave holographic ``3-D`` imaging of concealed targets on mannequins

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1994-08-01

    Ultra wide band (chirp frequency) millimeter wave ``3-D`` holography is a unique technique for imaging concealed targets on human subjects with extremely high lateral and depth resolution. Recent ``3-D`` holographic images of full size mannequins with concealed weapons illustrate the efficacy of this technique for airport security. A chirp frequency (24 GHz to 40 GHz) holographic system was used to construct extremely high resolution images (optical quality) using polyrod antenna in a bi-static configuration using an x-y scanner. Millimeter wave chirp frequency holography can be simply described as a multi-frequency detection and imaging technique where the target`s reflected signals are decomposed into discrete frequency holograms and reconstructed into a single composite ``3-D`` image. The implementation of this technology for security at airports, government installations, etc., will require real-time (video rate) data acquisition and computer image reconstruction of large volumetric data sets. This implies rapid scanning techniques or large, complex ``2-D`` arrays and high speed computing for successful commercialization of this technology.

  10. iRGD-decorated red shift emissive carbon nanodots for tumor targeting fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xuefeng; Liao, Guochao; Liu, Xiqiang; Chen, Qiling; Li, Hongmei; Lu, Ling; Zhao, Peng; Yu, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-06

    Carbon nanodots (CDs) have been exhibiting increasing applications owing to their luminescence properties and biocompatibility as imaging probes in diagnosis. However, poor tumor targeting and penetration of CDs is still the biggest challenge limiting their tumor imaging efficacy. To improve the tumor targeting and penetration efficiency of CDs, we developed an active tumor targeting imaging system by simply fabricating a tumor-homing penetration peptide iRGD (CRGDKGPDC) to red shift emissive CDs (iRGD-CDs) with a physical method. Particularly, iRGD-CDs showed a small size and red shift fluorescence signals as CDs, which made iRGD-CDs suitable for in vivo fluorescence imaging. iRGD-CDs showed higher cellular uptake in vitro, while presented higher penetration and accumulation in tumor tissue in vivo, leading to better tumor imaging efficacy. In conclusion, decoration with iRGD could significantly increase the permeability of CDs in tumor vessels and tumor tissue, generating more CDs leaking out from tumor vasculature, consequently improving the sensitivity of tumor imaging. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  12. Smart Cancer Cell Targeting Imaging and Drug Delivery System by Systematically Engineering Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Nan; Tian, Ying; Tian, Wei; Huang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Tang, Yuxia; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Shouju; Su, Yunyan; Zhang, Yunlei; Pan, Jing; Teng, Zhaogang; Lu, Guangming

    2016-02-10

    The integration of diagnosis and therapy into one nanoplatform, known as theranostics, has attracted increasing attention in the biomedical areas. Herein, we first present a cancer cell targeting imaging and drug delivery system based on engineered thioether-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (PMOs). The PMOs are stably and selectively conjugated with near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye Cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5) and anti-Her2 affibody on the outer surfaces to endow them with excellent NIRF imaging and cancer targeting properties. Also, taking the advantage of the thioether-group-incorporated mesopores, the release of chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) loaded in the PMOs is responsive to the tumor-related molecule glutathione (GSH). The drug release percentage reaches 84.8% in 10 mM of GSH solution within 24 h, which is more than 2-fold higher than that without GSH. In addition, the drug release also exhibits pH-responsive, which reaches 53.6% at pH 5 and 31.7% at pH 7.4 within 24 h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry analysis demonstrate that the PMOs-based theranostic platforms can efficiently target to and enter Her2 positive tumor cells. Thus, the smart imaging and drug delivery nanoplatforms induce high tumor cell growth inhibition. Meanwhile, the Cy5.5 conjugated PMOs perform great NIRF imaging ability, which could monitor the intracellular distribution, delivery and release of the chemotherapy drug. In addition, cell viability and histological assessments show the engineered PMOs have good biocompatibility, further encouraging the following biomedical applications. Over all, the systemically engineered PMOs can serve as a novel cancer cell targeting imaging and drug delivery platform with NIRF imaging, GSH and pH dual-responsive drug release, and high tumor cell targeting ability.

  13. Smart magnetic nanoparticle-aptamer probe for targeted imaging and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pilapong, Chalermchai; Sitthichai, Sudarat; Thongtem, Somchai; Thongtem, Titipun

    2014-10-01

    We report herein the development of a smart magnetic nanoparticle-aptamer probe, or theranostic nanoprobe, which can be used for targeted imaging and as a drug carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. The theranostic nanoprobe combines the delivery potential of a non-toxic cellulose derivative polymer, specific capability of cancer-specific molecule (DNA-based EpCAM aptamer) and the imaging capability of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Our proof-of-concept design demonstrates efficient in vitro MR imaging of the cancer cells, and enhanced delivery of an anticancer drug into the cancer cells with comparable treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.