Kathiravan, P; Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Mishra, B P; Singh, G; Deb, S M; Sadana, D K; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S
In the present study, we report the distribution of true to type and atypical Nili-Ravi buffalo, a vulnerable dairy type riverine breed of North India and its underlying genetic structure. Out of total investigated buffaloes 73.5% had bilateral wall eyes while 5.4% had unilateral wall eyes and 21.1% had no wall eyes. 41.15% of Nili-Ravi buffaloes maintained in the breeding farm were having typical true to the type characteristics (both eyes walled, white markings in forehead, muzzle/chin, all the four legs and tail) while only 28.5% of Nili-Ravi buffaloes were true to the type under field conditions. Genotypic data were generated in four groups of Nili-Ravi buffalo (FMTNR--Typical Nili-Ravi from farm; FMANR--Atypical Nili-Ravi from farm; FDTNR--Typical Nili-Ravi from field; FDANR--Atypical Nili-Ravi from field) at 16 microsatellite loci. Comparative genetic analysis of various groups of Nili-Ravi buffaloes with Murrah revealed significant between group differences with an estimated global F(ST) of 0.063. Pair-wise F(ST) values ranged from 0.003 (between FDTNR and FDANR) to 0.112 (between FMTNR and FDTNR). Phylogenetic analysis and multi-dimensional scaling revealed clustering of FDTNR and FDANR together while FMTNR and FMANR clustered separately with Murrah in between farm and field Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Based on the results, the paper also proposes three pronged strategy for conservation and sustainable genetic improvement of Nili-Ravi buffalo in India.
Kumar, M N V Ravi
M. N. V. Ravi Kumar is interviewed by Stella Bennett, Commissioning Editor. He is the Professor at Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center in College Station. His research in drug delivery has won him numerous awards including the British Pharmaceutical Conference Science Medal, UK (2009), Tom Gibson Memorial Award by British Society of Plastic Surgeons and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, UK (2008), Indian National Science Academy (INSA) Medal for Young Scientist, India (2007). He was awarded Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship, Germany (2002). He was appointed to Guest Professor/Distinguished Foreign Professor at Seoul National University (South Korea); University of Navarra (Spain); University of Torino (Italy) and Shandong University, (China). Since 2003, he supervised about 41 students that include MS: 20; PhD: 7; Postdocs: 10 and Visitors: 4.
Akhtar, M Saleem; Farooq, Abdul Asim; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Lodhi, Laeeq Akbar; Hayat, C Sikandar; Aziz, M Mushtaq
The aim of present study was to determine the changes of sodium, potassium, chloride, copper, and zinc in serum of Nili-Ravi buffalo during pregnancy and lactation. The study was carried out on 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes during March 2008 to February 2009 at Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki, District Kasur. Blood samples were taken from each buffalo during early pregnancy (Phase EP), i.e., between 1 and 3 months gestation, mid pregnancy (Phase MP), i.e., between 4 and 6 months gestation, late pregnancy (Phase LP), i.e., between 7 and 10 months gestation, and during lactation (Phase LT). Serum sodium, potassium, and chloride were determined on a clinical chemistry analyzer whereas copper and zinc were determined on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean serum sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations varied non-significantly (P > 0.05) during pregnancy and lactation. With advancing pregnancy, copper increased and was significantly high (P < 0.05) during late pregnancy whereas during lactation copper concentrations dropped significantly (P < 0.05). The zinc concentrations increased non-significantly during early and mid pregnancy. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in zinc concentrations during lactation compared with late pregnancy. This study demonstrates that concentrations of serum sodium, potassium, and chloride remain unchanged during pregnancy and lactation whereas serum copper concentrations increased and zinc concentrations decreased with advancing pregnancy because of the demand of the fetus at different periods of pregnancy.
Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul
Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.
Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair
The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g(-1) for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.
Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair
The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148
Shahid, Beenish; Jalali, Samina; Khan, Muhamad Ijaz; Shami, Sa
The objective of the present study was to investigate the cumulus expansions of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes during cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 2 μg/ml oestradiol (E(2)), 0.05 IU/ml recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH), 2IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and 0.12 IU/ml insulin (I). The cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were collected from 2-8mm follicles from local abattoir ovaries. Supplementation of medium with single hormones showed significant (P<0.0001) increase in mean diameter of COCs with rhFSH except E(2), hCG and insulin after 24 hours compared to the increase in the mean diameter of COCs matured in TCM-199 without any hormonal supplementation. With rhFSH even at 8th hour, significant increase (P<0.001) in cumulus expansion was observed. In combination of hormones the significant (P<0.0001) cumulus expansion was achieved in E(2)+rhFSH treatment group. The non significant (P>0.05) cumulus expansion was observed in treatment groups viz. E(2)+hCG, E(2)+Insulin, rhFSH+hCG, rhFSH+Insulin, hCG+Insulin, E(2)+rhFSH+hCG and E(2)+rhFSH+hCG+Insulin after 24 hours. In conclusion, supplementation of rhFSH alone and in combination with E(2)in TCM-199 has highly significant effect on cumulus expansion.
Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo
Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures.
Iqbal, Sajid; Andrabi, Syed Murtaza Hassan; Riaz, Amjad; Durrani, Aneela Zameer; Ahmad, Nasim
Our objectives were to study the effect of trehalose in extender on (1) antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation (after dilution, before freezing, and after thawing), (2) in vitro quality (after thawing), and (3) in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa. Semen samples (n = 20) from four buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15, 30, and 45 mM of trehalose as compared to control. Although profiles of superoxide dismutase (U/mL) and total glutathione (μM) were higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15 and 30 mM of trehalose as compared to control. At prefreezing, sperm catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total glutathione profiles were higher (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups as compared to control. At post thawing, the profiles of catalase and total glutathione were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. Whereas, profile of superoxide dismutase was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 30, 45, and 60 mM of trehalose as compared to control and 15mM group. Post thaw total sperm motility (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30-mM trehalose as compared to control and 15 and 60-mM groups. Although sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight line velocity (μm/s), curvilinear velocity (μm/s), plasma membrane (structural and functional, %), acrosome (%), and DNA (%) integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. The fertility rates (61% vs. 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is
Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael
Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years. PMID:24626233
Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael
Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years.
Paul, S S; Deb, S M; Dey, A; Somvanshi, S P S; Singh, D; Rathore, R; Stiverson, J
The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was investigated using 16S rDNA gene library prepared from the rumen contents of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Microbial genomic DNA was isolated from four adult male fistulated buffaloes and PCR conditions were set up using specific primers. Amplified product was cloned into a suitable vector, and the inserts of positive clones were sequenced. A total of 142 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 46 species level (0.01 distance) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty six OTUs comprising 89 clones (63% of the total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanobacterium genus and the majority of them had highest percent identity with Methanobacterium flexile among cultured methanogens. Five OTUs comprising 27 clones (19% of total clones) were taxonomically assigned to Methanomicrobium genus and these clones showed highest sequence identity with Methanomicrobium mobile. Only two OTUs comprising 6 clones (4% of total clones) were assigned to Methanobrevibacter genus. A total of 17 clones belonging to 10 species level OTUs showed highest percent identity (ranging from 85 to 95%) with Methanomassilicoccus luminyensis and were taxonomically classified as Methanomassiliicocaceae. Out of the 142 rDNA clones, 112 clones, which constitute 79% of the total clones representing 42 OTUs, had less than 98.5% sequence identity with any of the cultured strains of methanogens and represent novel species of methanogens. This study has revealed the largest assortment of hydrogenotrophic methanogen phylotypes ever identified from the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffaloes. The study indicates that Methanobacterium is the most dominant methanogen in the rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo. This is also the first report on the presence of methanogens phylogenetically close to M. luminyensis, an H2 dependent methylotrophic methanogen, in the rumen of buffaloes at such a high level of abundance.
Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Channa, Aijaz Ali; Ahmad, Nasim
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oestrous synchronization methods on oestrous behaviour, timing of ovulation and pregnancy rate during the breeding and low breeding seasons in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. In Experiment 1, oestrous behaviour and timing of ovulation were determined from (n=34) oestruses. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) time of ovulation after the onset of standing oestrus was greater (P<0.05) in PGF(2alpha)-induced luteolysis (30.6+/-1.5h) compared to Ovsynch buffaloes (15.0+/-0.8h). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rates were compared between two methods of synchronization (detected oestrus and Ovsynch protocol) during the breeding and low breeding seasons. Pregnancy rates of buffaloes bred at detected oestrus (62.5%) or by the Ovsynch protocol (36.3%) during the breeding season did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from those which were inseminated during the low breeding season (55.5%) and (30.4%), respectively. This study demonstrates clearly that (1) timing of ovulation in Nili-Ravi buffalo is about 30h after the onset of standing oestrus and (2) buffaloes can be successfully synchronized with optimum fertility using either PGF(2alpha) alone (detected oestrus) or using (Ovsynch protocol) during low breeding season, to calve during the period when milk availability is short.
Iqbal, S; Riaz, A; Andrabi, S M H; Shahzad, Q; Durrani, A Z; Ahmad, N
The effects of l-cysteine in extender on antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation, post-thaw quality parameters and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa were studied. Semen samples from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of l-cysteine (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) and frozen in 0.5-ml French straws. The antioxidative enzymes [catalase, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione (peroxidase and reductase)] were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at pre-freezing and post-thawing in extender containing 2.0 mm l-cysteine as compared to other groups. Post-thaw total motility (%), progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm s(-1) ), straight line velocity (μm s(-1) ), curvilinear velocity (μm s(-1) ), beat cross frequency (Hz), viable spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma (%), acrosome and DNA integrity (%) were higher with the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine as compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The fertility rates (59 versus 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with doses containing 2.0 mm of l-cysteine than in the control. In conclusion, the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine in extender improved the antioxidant enzymes profile, post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa.
Shahzad, F.; Abdullah, M.; Chaudhry, A. S.; Bhatti, J. A.; Jabbar, M. A.; Ahmed, F.; Mehmood, T.; Asim, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kamran, Z.; Irshad, I.; Tahir, M. N.
The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves. PMID:26950866
Shahzad, F; Abdullah, M; Chaudhry, A S; Bhatti, J A; Jabbar, M A; Ahmed, F; Mehmood, T; Asim, M; Ahmed, S; Kamran, Z; Irshad, I; Tahir, M N
The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.
Akhtar, M S; Lodhi, L A; Ahmad, I; Qureshi, Z I; Muhammad, G
The present study was conducted during 2005 and 2006 on 200 Nili-Ravi buffaloes kept in two agroecological zones (irrigated [zone 1] and rain-fed [zone-2]) of Punjab, Pakistan, with the objective to determine the level of trace minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Se) in serum of the buffaloes suffering from vaginal prolapse and to compare them with their healthy counterparts. In each zone 50 buffaloes suffering from prepartum vaginal prolapse during their seventh month of gestation were identified through survey. Vaginal prolapse-affected buffaloes belonging to zone 1 were identified as group VPB1 (N = 50), whereas buffaloes belonging to zone 2 were recognized as VPB2 (N = 50). The buffaloes of control group in zone 1 and zone 2 were identified as NCB1 and NCB2, respectively. The blood samples in all four groups of buffaloes were collected three times, i.e., first when these animals were in the eighth month of gestation, second during the eighth to ninth month of gestation, and finally when these animals were in the ninth or later month of gestation. The mean serum copper concentrations in buffaloes of group VPB1 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2, whereas there were nonsignificant differences (P > 0.05) in copper concentrations between VPB1 and VPB2. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) of iron concentration in VPB1 compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, VPB2 also had significantly lower (P < 0.05) iron concentrations compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in animals of the VPB1 group when compared with NCB1 and NCB2. Similarly, lower zinc concentrations were observed in VPB2 in comparison with NCB1 and NCB2. There was significantly lower (P < 0.05) zinc concentration in affected buffaloes (VPB1 and VPB2) from the ninth month of gestation to term when compared with those in the eighth to ninth mo of gestation, and with those not yet in the eighth month of gestation. Serum selenium
Nagina, G.; Asima, A.; Nemat, U.; Shamim, A.
This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, and 1000 μM melatonin for 22-24 hours in CO2 incubator at 38.5°C with 5% CO2 and at 95% relative humidity. The maturation rate did not differ in media supplemented with melatonin at 250 μM, 500 μM, 1000 μM and control (0 μM). In experiment II, the matured oocytes were fertilized in 50 μl droplets of Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium having 10 ug/ml heparin for sperm (2 million/ml) capacitation. The fertilization droplets were then kept for incubation at 5% CO2, 39°C and at 95% relative humidity for 18 hours. The fertilization rate was assessed by sperm penetration and pronuclear formation. Fertilization rate was improved when maturation medium was supplemented with 250 μM melatonin compared to control. In conclusion, melatonin supplementation to serum free maturation media at 250 μM improved the fertilization rate of buffalo oocytes. PMID:27540514
Shahzad, Qaisar; Mehmood, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Hamayun; ul Husna, Asma; Qadeer, Saima; Azam, Asima; Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Safdar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly (RJ) on post-thaw sperm quality, in vitro and in vivo fertility rate of cryopreserved buffalo bull sperm. The semen was collected from three mature regular donor buffalo bulls, ejaculates were pooled and semen evaluated initially. In Experiment 1, the ejaculates were extended in tris-citric acid diluter supplemented with different RJ concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4%). The diluted semen was cooled to 4°C, packaged into 0.5 mL straws and frozen using standard procedure. The straws were thawed and assessed for sperm progressive motility, viability, plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin integrity. The results indicated that sperm progressive motility was significantly greater (P<0.05) in 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% RJ than 0.4% RJ supplemented and control groups. The sperm viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity were significantly improved (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ supplemented group the compared to other treatment groups. In Experiment 2, cryopreserved sperm with 0.1% RJ supplementation and control (without RJ supplementation) were used to observe the in vitro fertilizing potential and in vivo fertility. In vitro fertilization method was applied to assess the cleavage rate; whereas, AI was performed in buffalo during in vivo fertility trial. The buffaloes were inseminated 12h after standing estrus and pregnancy diagnosis was performed through ultrasonography. The results revealed that the cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) in 0.1% RJ as compared to control group. However, the pregnancy rate was similar (P>0.05) between 0.1% RJ supplemented and control groups. It is concluded that supplementation of RJ in freezing extender can improve the cryosurvival rate and in vitro fertilizing capacity of buffalo bull sperm.
Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C.; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N.
Objective To assess the visual outcomes after cataract surgery among urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in which 7800 subjects were sampled from two rural and one urban location. Visual Acuity was assessed and eye examination were performed by trained personnel. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information, and history of cataract surgery. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (MVI) was defined as presenting VA <6/60 and <6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye respectively. Results In total, 7378 (94.6%) were examined. Of these, 1228 eyes of 870 individuals were operated for cataract. The mean age of operated subjects was 63.7 years (SD: 10.7 years). Overall, 56.3% of those operated were women, 76% were illiterate and 42% of them were using spectacles after cataract surgery. Even after surgery, 12.2% of the operated eyes had MVI and blindness was seen in 14.7% of the eyes. A significantly higher proportion of subjects in urban area had good outcome as compared to those in the rural area (p = 0.01). Uncorrected refractive error (58.7%) was the leading cause of MVI, and posterior segment disease (34.3%) was the leading cause of blindness. On applying multiple logistic regression, risk factors for poor outcomes were age ≥ 70 years (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–2.8), rural residence (OR: 1.3, 95% CI:1.0–1.8) and presence of aphakia (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 5.7–13.8). Conclusions Post cataract surgery, refractive errors remain an important correctable cause of MVI, in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The correction of refractive errors is required to provide good visual recovery and achieve the benefit of cataract surgery. PMID:27918589
Aquifer and Shallow San Andreas Fault Permeabilities Inferred from Poroelastic Modeling of InSAR Measurements of Land Surface Deformation in Coachella Valley, California. Ravi Appana and Martin O. Saar
Appana, R.; Saar, M. O.
Coachella Valley, in southern California, is located in a region where the southern San Andreas Fault system, comprising three main faults, cuts through the valley aquifer dividing it into many sub-basins. Satellite interferometry (InSAR) has revealed differential uplift of the land surface across the Banning Strand - San Andreas Fault (BSF) and the Garnet Hill Fault (GHF) in the upper Coachella Valley. This uplift is suggested to be caused by the elastic response of the aquifer to artificial groundwater recharge and the tectonic stresses acting in this region. However, the differential uplift appears to be mainly caused by the semi-permeable faults which partially restrict pore-fluid pressure diffusion and related groundwater flow. Hence, by employing numerical models of coupled groundwater flow and poroelastic deformation of the aquifer sediments, the land surface uplift can be utilized to constrain a large-scale hydrologic model of the region that includes hydraulic representations of the faults and the sub-basins. Such a regional model can aide in developing better groundwater management strategies that aim at uniform restorations of ground surface elevations and groundwater table levels and would better constrain fault permeabilities with implications for research related to earthquake dynamics and estimates of potential slip along segments of the southern San Andreas Fault system. Studies have suggested that these segments have reached the end of the inter-seismic strain accumulation period posing the biggest risk to seismic hazards in California. InSAR data showing regional land surface uplift and well data of water table elevations, collected in this region, are used to constrain the model yielding hydraulic parameters. Specifically, our results suggest that the horizontal permeability, kxWWB, of the White Water sub-basin (WWB) and its permeability anisotropy, aWWB = (kz/kx)WWB, are on the order of 0.20x10-11 m2 ≤ kxWWB ≤ 1.2x10-11 m2 and 0.04 ≤ aWWB ≤ 0.085, respectively. Furthermore, the model suggests permeabilities of the GHF and the BSF of 1.0x10-15 m2 ≤kxGHF≤ 3.0x10-14 m2 and kxBSF ≤ 2.0x10-16 m2, respectively. These results suggest a contrast in the permeability structure, i.e.,
Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunkunu, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N
Objective To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) among a rural population aged 40 years and older in the state of Telangana in India. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Districts of Adilabad and Mahbubnagar in south Indian state of Telangana, India. Participants A sample of 6150 people was selected using cluster random sampling methodology. A team comprising a trained vision technician and a field worker visited the households and conducted the eye examination. Presenting, pinhole and aided visual acuity were assessed. Anterior segment was examined using a torchlight. Lens was examined using distant direct ophthalmoscopy in a semidark room. In all, 5881 (95.6%) participants were examined from 123 study clusters. Among those examined, 2723 (46.3%) were men, 4824 (82%) had no education, 2974 (50.6%) were from Adilabad district and 1694 (28.8%) of them were using spectacles at the time of eye examination. Primary outcome measure VI was defined as presenting visual acuity <6/18 in the better eye and it included moderate VI (<6/18 to 6/60) and blindness (<6/60). Results The age-adjusted and gender-adjusted prevalence of VI was 15.0% (95% CI 14.1% to 15.9%). On applying binary logistic regression analysis, VI was associated with older age groups. The odds of having VI were higher among women (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). Having any education (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.6) and current use of glasses (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2) were protective. VI was also higher in Mahbubnagar (OR 1.0 to 1.5) district. Cataract (54.7%) was the leading cause of VI followed by uncorrected refractive errors (38.6%). Conclusions VI continues to remain a challenge in rural Telangana. As over 90% of the VI is avoidable, massive eye care programmes are required to address the burden of VI in Telangana. PMID:27979835
... Patient Page Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Ravi V. Shah , Allison B. Goldfine Download ... initiation in at-risk patients. Can Statins Cause Diabetes Mellitus? Careful review of findings from many trials ...
ultrasound imaging Ravi Shankar Vaidyanathan*a, Matthew A. Lewis*a, Gaik Ambartsoumianb, Tuncay Aktosunb aGraduate Program in Biomedical Engineering...using a three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, 7, 918-923, (2001).  Oraevsky A.A., Andreev V.A...EXTERIOR SPHERICAL RADON TRANSFORM- BASED ULTRASOUND IMAGING Ravi Shankar Vaidyanathan, Matthew A. Lewis, Advanced Radiological Sciences UT Southwestern
Ivanov, Alexander; Mohamed, Ambreen; Asfour, Ahmed; Ho, Jean; Khan, Saadat A.; Chen, Onn; Klem, Igor; Ramasubbu, Kumudha; Brener, Sorin J.; Heitner, John F.
Background Right Atrial Volume Index (RAVI) measured by echocardiography is an independent predictor of morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of RAVI assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for all-cause mortality in patients with HFrEF and to assess its additive contribution to the validated Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic heart failure (MAGGIC) score. Methods and results We identified 243 patients (mean age 60 ± 15; 33% women) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35% measured by CMR. Right atrial volume was calculated based on area in two- and four -chamber views using validated equation, followed by indexing to body surface area. MAGGIC score was calculated using online calculator. During mean period of 2.4 years 33 patients (14%) died. The mean RAVI was 53 ± 26 ml/m2; significantly larger in patients with than without an event (78.7±29 ml/m2 vs. 48±22 ml/m2, p<0.001). RAVI (per ml/m2) was an independent predictor of mortality [HR = 1.03 (1.01–1.04), p = 0.001]. RAVI has a greater discriminatory ability than LVEF, left atrial volume index and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) (C-statistic 0.8±0.08 vs 0.55±0.1, 0.62±0.11, 0.68±0.11, respectively, all p<0.02). The addition of RAVI to the MAGGIC score significantly improves risk stratification (integrated discrimination improvement 13%, and category-free net reclassification improvement 73%, both p<0.001). Conclusion RAVI by CMR is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with HFrEF. The addition of RAVI to MAGGIC score improves mortality risk stratification. PMID:28369148
Saif, Rashid; Wasim, Muhammad; Babar, Masroor Ellahi
Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is considered to be one of the best markers for breed characterization as well as studying the ancestry in the vertebrates due to its exclusive maternal inheritance. DNA fingerprinting by single nucleotide polymorphism is most reliable and widely used molecular technique in modern forensics and is being considered in this study. Partial sequencing of 1,061 bp of aforementioned gene from 14580 to 15643 was conducted in two famous Pakistani buffalo breeds named Nili-Ravi and Kundi. In which we explore seven haplotypes within earlier and none in the latter breed. Nili-Ravi is polymorphic at four codons of this gene, and the protein translation is also different from the reference sample while monomorphic at three codons with no amino acid replacement. Haplotypes frequency distribution of these four haplotypes named NR3, NR4, NR5, NR7 revealed that the prevalence of each haplotype is 0.04 % in the Pakistani buffalo population of this Nili-Ravi breed while complete homoplasmy was observed in the Kundi breed population. Nili-Ravi breed of buffalo is genetically more variable than the Kundi breed as far as the gene in subject is concerned. It means later breed has spent more time to propagate its wild type haplotype which make this breed more ancestral as compare to Nili-Ravi. Secondly both breeds share their common ancestors with regional water buffalo rather than the swamp one.
measures 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b . ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF PAGES...137 Appendix B Key Rifle Marksmanship Facts ................................................ 169...and David Brill, Farzad Saadat , Ravi Sinha, and Matthew Zhang for programming and technical support. 2 CSE Deliverable beyond examination of shooting
... permits to re-export and re-import six captive-born tigers (Panthera tigris) and an additional nine tigers and one Bengal tiger (P.t. altaica) to worldwide locations for the purpose of enhancement of the...; 058665, Jasmine; 058666, Kiki; 058668, Vijay; 058736, Ravi; Bengal tiger--182594, Sissy; and...
252-261-4432 email: email@example.com Dr. Ravi Sinha Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Elizabeth City State University 1704...Weeksville Rd, Elizabeth City , NC 27909 phone: 252-335-3375; fax: 252-335-3465; email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Kossi Edoh Department of...Mathematics and Computer Science Elizabeth City State University 1704 Weeksville Rd, Elizabeth City , NC 27909 phone: 252-335-3664; fax: 252-335-3487
2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W56HZV-08- C -0236 W56HZV-08- C - 0236 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Ravi Thyagarajan a. REPORT Unlimited b. ABSTRACT Unlimited c . THIS PAGE...Chris Hoppel, WMRD, US Army Research Lab Mr. Jeff Jaster, Deputy Associate Director, TARDEC/GSS Mr. Steve Knott , Deputy Executive Director
Dempsey, J.P., and Wei, Y. (1989). Fracture toughness K,and fractography of SI type freshwater ice. Advances in Fracture Research, (K. Salama , K. Ravi...188-200. Perez , J., Mai, C., Tatibouet, J. and Vassoille, R. (1980). Dynamic Behaviour of Dislocations in HF-Doped Ice Ih. Journal of Glaciology, vol...Denmark, pp. 351-362. Tatibouet, J., Perez , J. and Vassoille, R. (1987). Study of Grain Boundaries in Ice by Internal Friction. J. Phys. Colloq. C1
H. Olsen, J. Olson, F. Ponce, F. Rosenberger, L Schneemeyer, D. Shaw, G. Sloan, G. Stringfellow, A. Witt. LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS: A.L Gentile F.P. Doty, H...Olsen, L Rothrock, R.R. Monchamp B. Wechsler. INDUSTRIAL EXHIBIT: L Colombo S. Samuelson FINANCE: T. Kuech PROCEEDINGS EDITORS: J.B. Mullin Subject...E. Monberg, P. Morris, D. Nason, M. Pusey, K Ravi, R. Reynolds, F. Rosenberger, H. Schaake, L Schneemeyer, F. Szofran CORPORATE SPONSORSHIP: F.A
Ravi S Thyagarajan 5e. TASK NUMBER WD0037 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Miss State Univ 200 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759...and ground surface. The early validation effort provided confidence in the HEP model and its subsequent application for TSM development. 3.0 ONE
interaction between optical and acoustic modes using a combination of material , geometry and optical pump characteristics. While the choice of material and...interaction, making it the material of choice for chip-scale SBS. SBS was characterized in a 7 cm long As2S3 rib waveguide using the backscattered...2011). 3. Ravi Pant, Adam Byrnes , Christopher G. Poulton, Enbang Li, Duk-Yong Choi, Stephen J. Madden, Barry Luther-Davies, and Benjamin J
Postdoctoral Fellow Mr. Ravi Komatireddy, Undergraduate Biochemistry Major Ms. Lara McKee, Undergraduate Biochemistry Major Ms. Donna Whitner, Senior...Libraries Natalia G. Karasseva, Vladislav V. Glinsky, Ning X. Chen, Ravichandra Komatireddy, and Thomas P. Quinn*. Department of Biochemistry , University of...libraries have yielded putative disulfide constrained sequences ( Devlin et al., 1990, Kay et al., 1993). Most of the reported disulfide-containing 10
permanent partitioning of the Indus River system—India winning unfettered ownership of the waters of the three eastern rivers (Ravi, Beas, Sutlej ), and...SPOTLIGHT ON INDUS RIVER DIPLOMACY: INDIA, PAKISTAN, AND THE BAGLIHAR DAM DISPUTE Robert G. Wirsing and Christopher Jasparro Asia...DATES COVERED 00-05-2006 to 00-05-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spotlight on Indus River Diplomacy: India, Pakistan, and the Baglihar Dam Dispute 5a
Alicia M. Cheak, Joanne K. Michiuye, Farzad Saadat , William L. Bewley, and Eva L. 5e. TASK NUMBER Baker 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...TOOL AUTHORING SYSTEM Gregory K. W. K. Chung, Ravi Sinha, Adriana A. de Souza e Silva, Alicia M. Cheak, Joanne K. Michiuye, Farzad Saadat , William L...Transactions on Education, 44, 390-398. Chung, G. K. W. K., Michiuye, J. K., Brill, D. G., Sinha, R., Saadat , F., de Vries, L. F., Delacruz, G. C., Bewley, W
abstract entered In Block 20, I difmt from Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Master of Military Art ...College In partial Sful f01 mint o: t".e requirements for’m the MASTER OF MtLITARY ART AND SCIENCE by ’RAVI INDEk SINGH KAHLON, LTC, INDIA Graduate...oc’m-n "must be referred to: HQ TRADOC, Attn: ATCS-D, Fort Monroe, VA 23651. A- A Master of Military Art and Science thesis presented to the faculty of
Biazar, J.; Eslami, M.
In this article differential transform method (DTM) is considered to solve Telegraph equation. This method is a powerful tool for solving large amount of problems (Zhou (1986) , Chen and Ho (1999) , Jang et al. (2001) , Kangalgil and Ayaz (2009) , Ravi Kanth and Aruna (2009) , Arikoglu and Ozkol (2007) ). Using differential transform method, it is possible to find the exact solution or a closed approximate solution of an equation. To illustrate the ability and reliability of the method some examples are provided. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple.
Moore, Ar- jit Singh, Jure Leskovec, Stano Funiak, Andreas Krause, Gaurav Veda, John Lang - ford, R. Ravi, Peter Lee, Srinath Sridhar, Virginia Vassilevska...based on ²-cover size, e.g., Benedek et al.. The idea here is that suppose we have a known distribution D and we identify some hypothesis h that has...examples. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 7:2399–2434, 2006. 2.1.2, 5.1.2  G.M. Benedek and A. Itai. Learnability with respect to a fixed
1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 10–8 M menadione. The hFOB 1.19 line was conditionally immortalized by transfection with a gene encoding for the...2007) 24:385. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the Metastasis Research Society. Krishnan V1, Ravi D2 , Vogler EA1,2, and A.M...buffered medium containing various nutrients (e.g., amino acids, glucose, serum proteins, vitamins ). As cells grow, nutrients are depleted, waste
Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.
Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563
Miao, YongWang; Wu, GuiSheng; Wang, Lei; Li, DaLin; Tang, ShouKun; Liang, JianPing; Mao, HuaMing; Luo, HuaiRong; Zhang, YaPing
Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) plays a major role in pigmentation in many species. To investigate if the MC1R gene is associated with coat color in water buffalo, the coding region of MC1R gene of 216 buffalo samples was sequenced, which included 49 black river buffalo (Murrah and Nili-Ravi), 136 swamp buffalo (Dehong, Diandongnan, Dechang, Guizhou, and Xilin) with white and gray body, and 31 hybrid offspring of river buffalo Nili-Ravi (or Murrah) and swamp buffalo. Among the three variation sites found, SNP684 was synonymous, while SNP310 and SNP384 were nonsynonymous, leading to p.S104G and p.I128M changes, respectively. Only Individuals carrying homozygote E(BR)/E(BR) were black. The genotype and phenotype analysis of the hybrid offspring of black river buffalo and gray swamp buffalo further revealed that the river buffalo type allele E(BR) or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was important for the full function of MC1R. The in silico functional analysis showed that the amino acid substitutions p.G104S and p.M128I had significant impact on the function of MC1R. Above results indicate that the allele E(BR) or the allele carrying the amino acid p.104S was associated with the black coat color in buffalo.
ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939
A workshop on `Compact Stars and Accretion Disks' was held on 11-12 August 1997 at the Australian National University. The workshop was opened by Professor Jeremy Mould, the Director of Mount Stromlo Observatory. The workshop was organised to coincide with visits to the ANU Astrophysical Theory Centre by Professor Ron Webbink from the University of Illinois, Professor Rainer Wehrse from the University of Heidelberg and Dr Chris Tout from the University of Cambridge. The workshop attracted over 25 participants nationwide. Participants included members of the Special Research Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Sydney, led by Professor Don Melrose, Professor Dick Manchester from the ATNF, Professor Ravi Sood from ADFA, Dr John Greenhill from the University of Tasmania and Dr Rosemary Mardling from Monash University. Dr Helen Johnston from AAO and Dr Kurt Liffman from AFDL also attended the workshop. The abstracts of twelve of the workshop papers are presented in this summary.
Rahul, Vishwakarma, S. R.; Verma, Aneet Kumar; Tripathi, Ravishankar Nath
Indium Antimonide (InSb) is a promising materials for mid and long wavelength infrared & high speed devices applications because of its small band gap. The Indium Antimonide (InSb) thin films have been deposited onto well cleaned glass substrate at different substrate temperatures (300 K, 323 K, 373 K) by electron beam evaporation technique in the high vacuum chamber at vacuum pressure ˜10 -5 torr using prepared non-stoichiometric InSb powder using formula In 1- x Sb x (0.2< x <0.4) as a source materials. The characteristics of the films such as structural and electrical properties were investigated in terms of substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction studies of thin films confirmed the polycrystalline and show preferential orientation along the (111) plane. The particle size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ɛ) were evaluated. The particle size increases with increase of substrate temperature while dislocation density and strain are decreases. Hall measurements indicate that the films were n-type, having carrier concentration ˜10 14 cm -3 and mobility ˜10 3 cm 2 / Vs for the film thickness of 300 nm. It is also observed that the carrier concentration (N) decreases and the Hall mobility (μ) increases with the increase of substrate temperature. At the request of all authors, Rahul, S. R. Vishwakarma, Aneet Kumar Verma, and Ravi Shankar Nath Tripathi, and due to errors in the article, the paper is retracted from the scientific record. At the request of all authors, Rahul, S. R. Vishwakarma, Aneet Kumar Verma, and Ravi Shankar Nath Tripathi, and due to errors in the article, the paper is retracted from the scientific record.
Li, Shanshan; Li, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Liu, Jianxin; Ren, Daxi
Understanding the milk protein expression profile in different buffalo breeds plays an important role in improving hybrid selection and determining the effects on milk protein synthesis. The aim of this research is to compare the differences in milk protein content, composition and distribution between River buffalo and their crossbreeds for hybrid screening. Four groups of milk samples that included Nili-Ravi (N), Murrah (M), a Nili-Ravi-Murrah crossbreed (M-N), and a crossbreed of river buffalo with local swamp buffalo (C) were collected. The protein composition of the buffalo milk was determined by RP-HPLC. A gel-based proteomic approach consisting of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was utilised for the detailed protein characterisation of milk from different breeds. The results of this analysis showed that the river/swamp buffalo crossbreed (C) displayed the highest content of total protein (4·46%) and κ-casein (11·14%) but the lowest content of α-lactalbumin (6·79%). By selecting 23 different protein spots among the four types of milk that contained the most spots corresponding to κ-casein, β-casein and αs1-casein, correlations between the crossbreeds, protein polymorphism and phosphorylation could be made. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding a swamp buffalo with a river buffalo has a notable effect on the protein content and composition that may be exploited for producing high-quality raw milk in food technology applications and dairy food production.
Betts, Bruce H.; Murray, Bruce C.
The Termoskan instrument on board the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest spatial resolution thermal infrared emission data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images 2 km/pixel, midday observations of several major channel and valley systems including significant portions of Shalbatana, Ravi, Al-Qahira, and Ma'adim Valles, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broadband visible reflectance data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher thermal inertias than their surroundings, consistent with previous thermal studies. We show for the first time that the thermal inertia boundaries closely match flat channel floor boundaries. Also, buttes within channels have inertias similiar to the plains surrounding the channels, suggesting the buttes are remnants of a contiguous plains surface. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K) (352 to 523 in SI units of J m(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)/K). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 SI). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the observed channel inertia enhancements. We favor nonaeolian explanations of the overall channel inertia enhancements based primarily upon the channel floors' thermal homogeneity and the strong correlation of thermal boundaries with floor boundaries. However, localized, dark regions within some channels are likely aeolian in nature as reported previously. Most channels with increased inertias have fretted morphologies such as flat floors with steep walls. Eastern Ravi and southern Ares Valles, the only major channel sections observed that have obvious
Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit
Purpose To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA <3/60and <6/18 in the better eye, respectively. Descriptive statistics were computed along with multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associated factors for visual impairment. Results Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR= 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p<0.001). Illiterate participants were more likely to have VI [OR= 1.5 (95% C.I.: 1.1,2.1)] when compared to educated participants. Conclusions The first implementation of the RAVI methodology in a North Indian population revealed that the burden of visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region. PMID:25915659
My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!
Titles in this section include: 1) Giant Lowland Polygons: Relics of an Ancient Martian Ocean? 2) Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features; 3) Complex Evolution of Paleolacustrine Systems on Mars: An Example from the Holden Crater; 4) Geomorphology and Hydraulics of Ma'adim Vallis, Mars, During a Noachian/Hesperian Boundary Paleoflood; 5) Geologic Evolution of Dao Vallis, Mars; 6) Advances in Reconstructing the Geologic History of the Chryse Region Outflow Channels on Mars; 7) Ravi Vallis, Mars - Paleoflood Origin and Genesis of Secondary Chaos Zones; 8) Walla Walla Vallis and Wallula Crater: Two Recently Discovered Martian Features Record Aqueous History; 9) Tharsis Recharge: a Source of Groundwater for Martian Outflow Channels; 10) Factors Controlling Water Volumes and Release Rates in Martian Outflow Channels; 11) Significance of Confined Cavernous Systems for Outflow Channel Water Sources, Reactivation Mechanisms and Chaos Formation; 12) Systematic Differences in Topography of Martian and Terrestrial Drainage Basins; 13) Waves on Seas of Mars and Titan: Wind-Tunnel Experiments on Wind-Wave Generation in Extraterrestrial Atmospheres.
Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals.
The titles in this section include: 1) Analysis of Orientation Dependence of Martian Gullies; 2) A Preliminary Relationship between the Depth of Martian Gullies and the Abundance of Hydrogen on Near-Surface Mars; 3) Water Indicators in Sirenum Terra and around the Argyre Impact Basin, Mars; 4) The Distribution of Gullies and Tounge-shaped Ridges and Their Role in the Degradation of Martian Craters; 5) A Critical Evaluation of Crater Lake Systems in Memnonia Quadrangle, Mars; 6) Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at Gusev Crater: Implications for the Spirit Mission; 7) Characterization of the Distributary Fan in Holden NE Crater using Stereo Analysis; 8) Computational Analysis of Drainage Basins on Mars: Appraising the Drainage Density; 9) Hypsometric Analyses of Martian Basins: A Comparison to Terrestrial, Lunar, and Venusian Hypsometry; 10) Morphologic Development of Harmakhis Vallis, Mars; 11) Mangala Valles, Mars: Investigations of the source of Flood Water and Early Stages of Flooding; 12) The Formation of Aromatum Chaos and the Water Discharge Rate at Ravi Vallis; 13) Inferring Hydraulics from Geomorphology for Athabasca Valles, Mars; 14) The Origin and Evolution of Dao Vallis: Formation and Modification of Martian Channels by Structural Collapse and Glaciation; 15) Snowmelt and the Formation of Valley Networks on Martian Volcanoes; 16) Extent of Floating Ice in an Ancient Echus Chasma/Kasei Valley System, Mars.
Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.
Quade, B.; Ravi, S.; Huxman, T. E.
William Quade1, Sujith Ravi2, Ashley Weide2, Greg Barron-Gafford2, Katerina Dontsova2 and Travis E Huxman2 1Carthage College, WI 2 B2 Earthscience & UA Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Tucson. Abstract Climate change, anthropogenic disturbances and lack of proper management practices have rendered many arid regions susceptible to invasions by exotic grasses with consequent ecohydrological, biogeochemical and socio economic implications. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes driving these large-scale vegetation shifts in drylands, in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Using the Biosphere 2 facility to maintain distinct temperature treatments of ambient and predicted warmer conditions (+ 4o C) inside, we compared the physiological (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, biomass) responses of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tanglehead) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffelgrass) growing in single and mixed communities. The results indicate that Buffelgrass can assimilate more CO2 per unit leaf area under current conditions, though warming seems to inhibit the performance when looking at biomass, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Under similar moisture regimes Buffelgrass performed better than Tangle head in mixed communities regardless of the temperature. Both grasses had decrease in stomatal conductance with warmer conditions, however the Buffel grass did not have the same decrease of conductance when planted in a mixed communities. Key words: Buffelgrass, Tanglehead, Biosphere 2, stomatal conductance, climate change
Bhupathi, P Arun
Informed consent in research, clinical trial, and practice is a process in which a patient/participant consents to participate or undergo the proposed procedures after being informed of its procedures, risks, and benefits. Ideally, the patient/participant is expected to give his consent only after fully comprehending the information about the procedures, benefits, and risks involved in research/clinical trial/practice. Thus, many ethical issues are entwined in the process of obtaining a proper informed consent. Certain untoward events in the past led to propose guidelines to prevent exploitations and unhealthy practices in the field of life science. Eventually, the practice of obtaining informed consent was emphasized to make sure that a participant’s rights were not in jeopardy. Yet, there are flaws in the practical application of obtaining consent due to lack of understanding, barriers in communication, culture, custom, and various other factors. The present article highlights the need for a complete and comprehensive format of recording informed consent without compromising the rights of an individual and the standards of research or practice on ethical and moral grounds. How to cite this article Bhupathi PA, Ravi GR. Comprehensive Format of Informed Consent in Research and Practice: A Tool to uphold the Ethical and Moral Standards. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):73-81. PMID:28377660
ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586
Jabbar, Abdul; Arshed, Waheed; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem; Ahmad, Syed Salman; Akhter, Perveen; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Anjum, Muhammad Iftikhar
Rechna interfluvial region is one of the main regions of Punjab, Pakistan. It is the area which is lying between River Ravi and River Chenab, alluvial-filled. Radioactivity levels in soil samples, collected from southern Rechna interfluvial region, Pakistan, have been estimated by using gamma-ray spectrometric technique. (226)Ra, (232)Th, the primordial radionuclide (40)K, and the artificial radionuclide (137)Cs have been measured in the soil of the study area. The mean radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs were found to be 50.6 +/- 1.7, 62.3 +/- 3.2, 662.2 +/- 32.1, and 3.1 +/- 0.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), outdoor radiation hazard index (H(out)), indoor radiation hazard index (H(in)), and terrestrial absorbed dose rate for the area under study were determined as 190.8 +/- 8.7 Bq kg(-1), 0.52, 0.65, and 69.8 nGy h(-1), respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found to be 0.43 mSv. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv for general public as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and are found to be safe for the public and the environment.
Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun
Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo.
Deng, Tingxian; Pang, Chunying; Ma, Xiaoya; Lu, Xingrong; Duan, Anqin; Zhu, Peng; Liang, Xianwei
Insulin-induced genes (INSIGs), including INSIG1 and INSIG2, are important mediators that play a pivotal role in the lipid metabolism and could cause the retention of the SCAP/SREBP complex. Therefore, the objective of this study is to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of buffalo INSIG2 gene and evaluate their associations with milk production traits in Chinese buffaloes. A total of four SNPs (g.621272A > G, g.621364A > C, g.632543G > A, and g.632684C > T) were identified using DNA pooled sequencing, and the SNP genotyping for the identified SNPs was performed by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method from 264 individuals. The results showed that four SNPs were significantly associated with 305-day milk yield or protein percentage in Murrah and crossbred breeds (P < 0.05), but they had no significant effect on milk production traits in Nili-Ravi buffaloes (P > 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed that one haplotype block was successfully constructed, of which the diplotype H1H1 showed significant association with 305-day milk yield in Murrah buffaloes (P < 0.05). Our findings provide evidence that polymorphisms in buffalo INSIG2 gene are associated with milk production traits, and could be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding program.
Berger, Seth I.; Iyengar, Ravi
Systems pharmacology is an emerging area of pharmacology which utilizes network analysis of drug action as one of its approaches. By considering drug actions and side effects in the context of the regulatory networks within which the drug targets and disease gene products function, network analysis promises to greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology can provide new approaches for drug discovery for complex diseases. The integrated approach used in systems pharmacology can allow for drug action to be considered in the context of the whole genome. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the relationships between drug action and disease susceptibility genes. This review discusses how analysis of biological networks has contributed to the genesis of systems pharmacology and how these studies have improved global understanding of drug targets, suggested new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provided a deeper understanding of the effects of drugs. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of existing medications. Contact: email@example.com PMID:19648136
Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Taojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lee, Sue J.; Chansamouth, Vilada; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major cause of encephalitis in Asia. We estimated the diagnostic accuracy of two anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Panbio and XCyton JEVCheX) compared with a reference standard (AFRIMS JEV MAC ELISA) in a prospective study of the causes of central nervous system infections in Laos. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; 515 patients) and serum samples (182 patients) from those admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, were tested. The CSF from 14.5% of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) patients and 10.1% from those with AES and meningitis were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the reference ELISA. The sensitivities for CSF were 65.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 51–78) (Xcyton), 69.2% (95% CI = 55–81) (Panbio), however 96.2% (95% CI = 87–100) with Panbio Ravi criteria. Specificities were 89–100%. For admission sera from AES patients, sensitivities and specificities of the Panbio ELISA were 85.7% (95% CI = 42–100%) and 92.9% (95% CI = 83–98%), respectively. PMID:22764310
Manchanda, R.; Sreenivasan, S.; Subbarao, J.; Kumar, P.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC BALLOONING IN INDIA R. K. Manchanda1, S. Sreenivasan2, J. V. Subbarao2, P. R. Kumar2 1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Colaba, Mumbai-400 005, India. 2. TIFR Balloon Facility, PO Box 5, ECIL Post Office, Hyderabad-500 762, India firstname.lastname@example.org/FAX: +91-22-2152110 National Balloon facility operated by TIFR in Hyderabad, India is the only one of its kind in the world, which combines both, the in-house balloon production and a complete flight support for scientific ballooning. In the past few years we executed a major programme of upgradation of different components of balloon production, telemetry and telecommand hardware and various support facilities. This paper focuses on our increased capability of balloon production of large sizes up to 780,000 m3 using Antrix film, development of high strength balloon load tapes with the breaking strength of 182 kg, and the recent introduction of S-band telemetry and a commandable timer cut-off unit in the flight hardware. A summary of the various flights conducted in recent years and the results of the test flight conducted to qualify new sub systems will be presented.
Siddiqui, Z.; Farooq, M.; Shah, S.
Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are information technologies that furnish a broad range of tools to assist in preparing for the next flood and for obtaining vital information about the flood plain. This type of information is used to improve flood forecasting and preparedness, monitoring flood conditions, assess flood damage, relief efforts, flood control etc. Severe floods of varied magnitudes have occurred in the river Indus and its tributaries viz; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej during the past three decades covering the Indus flood plain from Cheshma Barrage in the province of Punjab to downstream of Kotri Barrage in the souh of Sindh province of Pakistan. Digital mapping of different floods in the Indus Basin was carried out using both MSS and TM data of Landsat yielding flood maps. These maps depict flood extent and other relevant information in the flood plain. In order to create comprehensive GIS database, various hydrologic information such as rainfall, river discharge, canal withdrawal, embankment, breach etc. were incorporated. Flood database provide comprehensive information both in separate layer and combination of multiple layers pertaining to floods that occurred in the past three decades . GIS database on flood provides easy access to updated in-situ geographic information to planners and irrigation engineers concerned with overall river Indus operation and management system. GIS database of Indus floods can als o be used to improve the efficiency of decision making and management by collecting, organizing and integrating geographic, environmental and socio-economic spatial data and information.
Campbell, D. K.; Clay, R. Torsten; Ramasesha, S.; Mazumdar, S.
Within conventional theories of spatial broken symmetries, CDW and SDW with same periodicities do not coexist. Recent X-ray scattering experiments on (TMTTF)_2Br and (TMTSF)_2PF6 have, however, determined that the 2kF SDWs in these systems are accompanied by 2kF CDWs (J.P. Pouget and S. Ravy, Synth. Metals 85, 1523 (1997)). Similar CDW-SDW coexistence has also been claimed in the α-(BEDT-TTF)_2MHg(SCN)4 (K. Miyagawa et al., Phys. Rev. B (1997)). We present a microscopic theory of coexisting CDW-SDW in these materials. We show that a complete understanding of the unconventional natures of the insulating phases in these materials is obtained only upon explicit inclusion of the strong Coulomb interactions between the holes on the organic molecules, the proper band-filling, lattice discreteness, and the anisotropic two-dimensional nature of the lattice within the starting Hamiltonian. Detailed exact and quantum Monte Carlo results are presented.
Singh Ladhar, Satnam
The State of Punjab in India, with a total geographical area of only 50,362 sq.kms, has a special significance for its contributions of foodgrains towards the central pool. The name Punjab, which included part of western Punjab, now in Pakistan, was derived from its five rivers namely Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlam. Now only Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers pass through the State and serves as its lifelines. Its rich soils and good irrigation system linked with hardworking farmers have made the country foodgrain surplus. Green revolution is the word linked to this state. Ancient agriculture had been mostly dependant on the rain water or surface waters available in rivers, streams, ponds, open wells, etc. Thus role of rivers, streams and manmade wetlands occupying just 23000 ha area cannot be ignored while appreciating the technological advancements in agricultural production. But recently tubewell systems have replaced the earlier systems of irrigation. This has also changed the view of farmers for surface water sources particularly seasonal rivulets and natural wetlands, which are thus being ruthlessly reclaimed creating serious imbalances in StateSs ground water table and sustainability of agro-economy. While the natural wetlands have suffered the most, the large man made riverine reservoirs made for water supplies, are also shrinking due to encroachments and upstream diversion. The overall water scenario in the State has undergone a tremendous change from earlier surplus to the scarcity and thus the bio-ecological dynamics has shown significant alterations over the time. Harike and Ropar Wetlands came into formation in 1952 with the construction of ma- jestic barrages over river Sutlej. Harike Wetland with original water storage capacity of 67,900 acre feet, receives 25 million acre feet of water through rivers Sutlej and Beas and diverts 29,984 cusecs (cubic feet per second) through three canals for ir- rigation and drinking water supplies in south western
One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently
Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.
The Termoskan instrument onboard the Phobos '88 spacecraft acquired the highest-spatial-resolution thermal data ever obtained for Mars. Included in the thermal images are 2 km/pixel midday observations of several major channel and valley systems, including significant portions of Shalbatana Vallis, Ravi Vallis, Al-Qahira Vallis, Ma'adim Vallis, the channel connecting Valles Marineris with Hydraotes Chaos, and channel material in Eos Chasma. Termoskan also observed small portions of the southern beginnings of Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles and some channel material in Gangis Chasma. Simultaneous broad band visible data were obtained for all but Ma'adim Vallis. We find that most of the channels and valleys have higher inertias than their surroundings, consistent with Viking IRTM-based thermal studies of Martian channels. We see for the first time that thermal inertia boundaries closely match all flat channel floor boundaries. Combining Termoskan thermal data, relative observations from Termoskan visible channel data, Viking absolute bolometric albedos, and a thermal model of the Mars surface, we have derived lower bounds on channel thermal inertias. Lower bounds on typical channel thermal inertias range from 8.4 to 12.5 (10(exp -3) cal cm(exp -2) s(exp -1/2)K(exp -1)) (352 to 523 in SI units). Lower bounds on inertia differences with the surrounding heavily cratered plains range from 1.1 to 3.5 (46 to 147 in SI units). Atmospheric and geometric effects are not sufficient to cause the inertia enhancements. We agree with previous researchers that localized, dark, high inertia areas within channels are likely eolian in nature. However, the Temloskan data show that eolian deposits do not fill the channels, nor are they responsible for the overall thermal inertia enhancement. Thermal homogeneity and strong correlation of thermal boundaries with the channel floor boundaries lead us to favor noneolian overall explanations.
Akhtar, M. M.; Zhonghua, T.; Sissou, Z.; Mohamadi, B.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Arsenic causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in portable water. The major sources of arsenic pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of arsenic containing minerals and anthropogenic activities. Lahore is groundwater dependent city, arsenic contamination is a major issue of portable water and has recently been most environmental health management issue especially in the plain region, where population density is very high. GIS was used in this study for visualizing distribution of arsenic groundwater concentration through geostatistics analysis technique, and exposure risk zones for two years (2010 and 2012). Town's data was compared and concentration variation evaluated. ANOVA test was also applied to compare concentration between cities and years. Arsenic concentrations widely range 7.3-67.8 and 5.2-69.3 μg L-1 in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Over 71% area is represented arsenic concentration range from 20 to 30 μg L-1 in both analyzed years. However, in 2012 arsenic concentration over 40 μg L-1 has covered 7.6% area of Data Gunjbuksh and 8.1% of Ravi Town, while over 90% area of Allama Iqbal, Aziz Bhatti and Samanabad Town contain arsenic concentration between 20-30 μg L-1. ANOVA test depicts concentration probability less than 0.05, while differences were detected among towns. In light of current results, it needs urgent step to ensure groundwater protection and preservation for future.
Britt, Anne B; Kuppu, Sundaram
True-breeding lines are required for the development and production of crop varieties. In a classical breeding approach these lines are obtained through inbreeding, and often 7-9 generations of inbreeding is performed to achieve the desired level of homozygosity, over a period of several years. In contrast, the chromosomes of haploids can be doubled to produce true-breeding lines in a single generation. Over the last century, scientists have developed a variety of techniques to induce haploids and doubled haploids, though these techniques apply only to particular crop varieties. Ravi and Chan (2010) discovered that haploids could be obtained in Arabidopsis through the manipulation of the centromere-specific histone 3 variant, CENH3. Their approach, which involved extensive modifications to a transgenic CENH3, held promise of being translated to crop species, and has been successfully employed in maize (see Kelliher et al., 2016). Refinements of this technology have since been developed which indicate that non-transgenic modifications to CENH3 will also induce haploids. The complementation of a cenh3 null by CENH3 from closely related plant species can result in plants that are fertile but haploid-inducing on crossing by CENH3 wt plants- suggesting that introgression of alien CENH3 may produce non-transgenic haploid inducers. Similarly, a remarkably wide variety of point mutations in CENH3, inducible by chemical agents, have recently been shown to result in haploid induction on crossing by wild-type CENH3 plants. These CENH3-variant plants grow normally, are fully fertile on self-pollination, and may be present in existing mutagenized collections.
Khan, Khalid; Khalid, Muhammad Rizwan; Jabbar, Abdul; Akhter, Perveen
Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity of sand and water samples collected from the four big rivers of Punjab province, Pakistan, was measured using a high-purity germanium detector coupled with a high resolution multichannel analyser. The average concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in all the sand samples from the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Indus was found to be 22±0.6, 36±1 and 287±10 Bq kg (-1), respectively, while the concentration of the anthropogenic radionuclide (137)Cs was found to be below the minimum detectable activity, i.e. ~1.2 Bq kg (-1). All the sand samples have Ra(eq) concentrations lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg (-1). Indoor (H (in)) and outdoor (H (out)) radiation hazard indices were calculated for the samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of this sand in construction, and were found to be less than unity in the study area. Calculated values of the absorbed dose rate were less than the typical world average value of 59 nGy h (-1), and the annual effective dose rate was also less than the typical world value of 70 μSv, except in the Indus river, in which it is slightly higher then the world average. Results show that the measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements. None of the studied riverbeds was considered a radiological hazard, and their sand can be safely used in construction.
Liang, X W; Lu, Y Q; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Lu, S S; Zhang, M; Pang, C Y; Huang, F X; Lu, K H
The objective was to explore the use of sexed sperm and OPU-derived oocytes in an IVP system to produce sex-preselected bubaline embryos. Oocytes were recovered from 20 fertile Murrah and Nili-Ravi buffalo cows by repeated (twice weekly) ultrasound-guided transvaginal ovum pick up (OPU), or by aspiration of abbatoir-derived bubaline ovaries, and subjected to IVF, using frozen-thawed sexed or unsexed bubaline semen. On average, 4.6 oocytes were retrieved per buffalo per session (70.9% were Grades A or B). Following IVF with sexed sperm, oocytes derived from OPU had similar developmental competence as those from abattoir-derived ovaries, in terms of cleavage rate (57.6 vs. 50.4%, P=0.357) and blastocyst development rate (16.0 vs. 23.9%, P=0.237). Furthermore, using frozen-thawed sexed versus unsexed semen did not affect rates of cleavage (50.5 vs. 50.9%, P=0.978) or blastocyst development (15.3 vs. 19.1%, P=0.291) after IVF using OPU-derived oocytes. Of the embryos produced in an OPU-IVP system, 9 of 34 sexed fresh embryos (26.5%) and 5 of 43 sexed frozen embryos (11.6%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies, whereas 7 of 26 unsexed fresh embryos (26.9%) and 6 out of 39 unsexed frozen embryos (15.4%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies. Eleven sex-preselected buffalo calves (10 females and one male) and 10 sexed buffalo calves (six females and four males) were born following embryo transfer. In the present study, OPU, sperm sexing technology, IVP, and embryo transfer, were used to produce sex-preselected buffalo calves. This study provided proof of concept for further research and wider field application of these technologies in buffalo.
Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan
Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P < 0.01), respectively. Also, significant variations were seen in pregnancy rates from inseminations performed in different seasons (P < 0.01) and by different technicians (P < 0.01). In contrast to Holsteins, no difference was seen in the pregnancy rate between heifers and parous buffalo cows, and buffalo cows with different genetic backgrounds (swamp type, crossbred F1 and F2) showed similar fertility after insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds.
Nadeem, A; Maryam, J
Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection.
Britt, Anne B.; Kuppu, Sundaram
True-breeding lines are required for the development and production of crop varieties. In a classical breeding approach these lines are obtained through inbreeding, and often 7–9 generations of inbreeding is performed to achieve the desired level of homozygosity, over a period of several years. In contrast, the chromosomes of haploids can be doubled to produce true-breeding lines in a single generation. Over the last century, scientists have developed a variety of techniques to induce haploids and doubled haploids, though these techniques apply only to particular crop varieties. Ravi and Chan (2010) discovered that haploids could be obtained in Arabidopsis through the manipulation of the centromere-specific histone 3 variant, CENH3. Their approach, which involved extensive modifications to a transgenic CENH3, held promise of being translated to crop species, and has been successfully employed in maize (see Kelliher et al., 2016). Refinements of this technology have since been developed which indicate that non-transgenic modifications to CENH3 will also induce haploids. The complementation of a cenh3 null by CENH3 from closely related plant species can result in plants that are fertile but haploid-inducing on crossing by CENH3 wt plants- suggesting that introgression of alien CENH3 may produce non-transgenic haploid inducers. Similarly, a remarkably wide variety of point mutations in CENH3, inducible by chemical agents, have recently been shown to result in haploid induction on crossing by wild-type CENH3 plants. These CENH3-variant plants grow normally, are fully fertile on self-pollination, and may be present in existing mutagenized collections. PMID:27148276
Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J
Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively.
Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of
I describe how to create an astronomy program for thousands of people at outdoor concerts based on my $308,000 NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013), and the Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM, 10,000 people/yr).MAUS reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and at the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. AFNM was started in 2010 with co-sponsorship by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. MAUS and AFMN combine solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners; hands-on activities, imaging with a cell phone mount; citizen science activities; hand-outs; and teacher info packet. Representatives from scientific institutions participated. Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel made guest appearances.MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). MAUS is effective in promoting science education!Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks, concert organizers, and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use social media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multiple targets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to
My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they
Lubowich, Donald A.
My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith
Ganesh, S; Gujjari, Anil Kumar; S, Shylesh Kumar B; B, Ravi M; S, Sowmya; S, Meenakshi
this article: Ganesh S, Gujjari A K, Shylesh K B S, Ravi M B, Sowmya S, Meenakshi S.Comparative Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Various Disinfectants on two Microorganisms and the effect of same on Flexural Strength of Acrylic Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):55-62. PMID:24155603
Alizai, Anwar; Carter, Andrew; Clift, Peter D.; VanLaningham, Sam; Williams, Jeremy C.; Kumar, Ravindra
We present new major and trace element data, together with U-Pb ages for zircon sand grains from the major tributaries of the Indus River, as well as the adjacent Ghaggar and Yamuna Rivers and from bedrocks within the Sutlej Valley, in order to constrain the origin of the sediment reaching the Arabian Sea. Zircon grains from the upper Indus are generally younger than 200 Ma and contrast with those from the eastern tributaries eroded from Himalayan sources. Grains younger than 15 Ma, which typify the Nanga Parbat Massif, comprise no more than 1-2% of the total, even in the upper Indus, showing that this terrain is not a major sediment producer, in contrast with the Namche Barwe Massif in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers in particular are very rich in Lesser Himalayan-derived 1500-2300 Ma zircons, while the Chenab is dominated by 750-1250 Ma zircons, mostly eroded from the Greater Himalaya. The upper Indus, Chenab and Ravi yield zircon populations broadly consistent with the outcrop areas, but the Jhelum and the Sutlej contain many more 1500-2300 Ma zircons than would be predicted from the area of Lesser Himalayan rock within their drainages. A significant population of grains younger than 200 Ma in the sands of the Thar Desert indicates preferential eolian, monsoon-related transport from the Indus lower reaches, rather than reworking from the local rivers. Modelling of observed zircon ages close to the delta contrasts with modern water discharge. The delta is rich in zircons dating 1500-2300 Ma, while discharge from modern rivers carrying such grains is low. The modest size of the Sutlej, the richest source of these materials in the modern system, raises the possibility that the compositionally similar Yamuna used to flow westwards in the recent past. Our data indicate a non-steady state river with zircon transport times of 5-10 k.y. inferred from earlier zircon dating of delta sands. The modern delta zircons image an earlier, likely
SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. email@example.com/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.
The dynamics of dilute solutions of DNA flowing in a scaled clown roll-knife free surface coating flow are investigated on multiple scales. The flow is generated between a rotating roll and a stationary glass knife. Extension of fluorescently stained DNA molecules is measured at the minimum gap at low roll speeds. The macroscopic flow is computed and microscopic predictions are obtained by simulating the DNA by Brownian dynamics combined with successive fine-graining (Sunthar and Ravi Prakash 2005). The simulations predict that the DNA should stretch almost to full extension near the roll surface in the region of minimum gap; this does not agree with experimental measurements. The assumption of linear velocity across the chains fails near free surfaces and is the likely cause of the discrepancy. At high roll speed two separation surfaces arise in the coating bead. The distribution of DNA extension is measured at the separation surface upstream of minimum gap. Slow nodular recirculations are present under the upstream and downstream free surfaces; unexpectedly, DNA molecules are stretched axially in these regions. Individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous suspension are visualized directly by fluorescence video-microscopy. The fluorescent tagging is simple, biocompatible, and allows observation of the dynamics of SWNTs in water. The rotational diffusion coefficient in confinement is measured and the critical concentration at which SWNTs in suspensions start interacting is determined. By analyzing the fluctuating shape of SWNTs, the persistence length of SWNTs is found to range between 32 and 174 mum, in agreement with theoretical estimates; thus, common SWNTs in liquids can be considered as rigid Brownian rods in the absence of imposed external fields. Drying microscopic drops of a suspension of individual SWNTs in aqueous solution of F68 pluronic surfactant exhibit complex dynamics. The drops dry on glass substrates forming a "crust" at the free
Lubowich, Donald A.
Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events; 28parks). MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; live image projection; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe and Visions of the Universe); videos; and hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs(with info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith, Tony Orlando, and Ronan Tynan performed at these concerts. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Lessons learned: plan early; create partnerships with parks and astronomy clubs; test equipment; have backup equipment; create professional displays; select the best location to obtain a largest number of participants; use media/www sites to promote the events; use many telescopes for multipletargets; project a live image or video; select equipment that is easy to use, store, set-up, and take down; use hands-on astronomy activities; position the displays for maximum visibility (they became teachable moments); and have educator hand-outs. While < 50% of the participants attended a science museum or took part in astronomy programs in the previous year (based on our survey), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn
Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Penzkofer, T; Schmidt, E; Pan, L; Gilson, W; Seethamraju, R
radiation, with the potential to enable dosimetric guidance of catheter placement. We gratefully acknowledge support from the American Heart Association SDG 10SDG2610139, NIH 1R21CA158987-01A1, U41-RR019703, and R21 CA 167800, as well as a BWH Department of Radiation Oncology post-doctoral fellowship support. Li Pan and Wesley Gilson are employees of Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology. Ravi Seethamraju is an employee of Siemens Healthcare.
Ge, X Y; Shao, L; Zheng, Z L
Objective: To evaluate right atrial function in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with normal pulmonary pressure by using two dimensional-speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI) and real-time three-dimensional echocardiography(RT-3DE). Methods: A totoal of 40 patients with SLE and 40 control subjects were collected between December 2011 and May 2014 from Ningbo Medical Treatment Center Lihuili Hospital. Right atrial global longitudinal strain (RAGLS) and all kinds of right atrium volume index (RAVI) were detected. Relationship between tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion(TAPSE), tricuspid annulus systolic peak velocity (S'), right ventricular myocardial performance index (RVMPI), ETV/e'TV and the right atrium parameters were analyzed. Results: SLE group's right atrium maximal volume index(RAVImax)(33.5±11.1) ml/m(2,) right atrium minimal volume index (RAVImin)(13.2±4.5) ml/m(2,) right atrium presystolic volume index (RAVIpre) (2.57±10.2) ml/m(2,) right atrium total emptying volume index(RAVIt)(20.2±8.1)ml/m(2,) right atrium active emptying volume index (RAVIa)(12.5±7.5) ml/m(2)) were increased .But right atrium passive emptying volume index(RAVIp)( 7.8±2.7) ml/m(2) and right atrial global longitudinal strain (RAGLS) (38.2%±7.7% ) were decreased (both P<0.05). RAGLS was positive correlated with S' and TAPSE, the r value were 0.565 and 0.445 respectively (both P<0.01). ETV/e'TV was positive correlated with RAVIpre, RAVIa, the r value were 0.469 and 0.481 respectively (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Detecting right atrial function by 2D-STI and RT-3DE could diagnose right atrial dysfunction in early stage of SLE patients with normal pulmonary pressure. The method is simple, has significant clinical value.
Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.
Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media
Usmani, R H; Ahmad, N; Shafiq, P; Mirza, M A
Nili-Ravi buffaloes (n=29) that calved normally between August and November and did not develop any clinical reproductive disorder after calving were studied for the incidence of sub-clinical bacterial infection of the uterus and its effects on postpartum reproductive efficiency. The incidence of subclinical uterine infection was 24% (7/29). Involution of the cervix and uterus was slower (P < 0.01) in the infected group than in the normal group (45.6 vs 31.1 days and 46.3 vs 35.8 days), respectively. The mean diameters of cervix and gravid horn on Day 12 post partum and on completion of involution did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. However, the rate of involution of the cervix and the gravid horn was lower in buffaloes of the infected group (2.2 vs. 2.7 mm/day and 2.6 vs. 3.2 mm/day). The mean interval to first post partum ovulation was similar in buffaloes in the infected (35.5 days) and the normal group (33.8 days). The life span of corpus luteum formed after first ovulation was shorter (11 days) in buffaloes of both groups than that of a normal estrous cycle (15 to 17 days). The incidence of silent ovulation was apparently higher in buffaloes of the infected group (83 vs. 60%) but the difference was not significant. For the first four months after calving, the mean interval to first postpartum estrus was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (73.0 vs. 47.7 days; P < 0.01). Similarly, the average service period was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (91.0 vs. 64.8 days; P < 0.05). The overall pregnancy rate for the first four months after calving did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. We conclude that subclinical bacterial infection of the postpartum uterus delays the cervical and uterine involution which can, in turn, delay the occurrence of first postpartum estrus and prolong the service period in buffaloes.
Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi
, 2010 and Tenerife, 2012 (the next meeting will be held in Barcelona in 2014). In addition, several contributions, courses and workshops have been celebrated in Spanish or international forums as the EGU General Assembly, the International Meeting of Fire Effects on Soil Properties (FESP2011 and forthcoming FESP2013) and the International Conference on Geomorphology have been also sponsored. Other activities include the publication of book series (two volumes have been published: Cerdá and Jordán, 2010; Cerdà and Mataix-Solera, 2009. The third one is currently in preparation), books of abstracts (Díaz-Raviña et al., 2010; Jordán et al., 2009), a series of technical reports (in preparation) and special issues in international journals (in, for example, Catena, Geoderma, Environmental Research or the International Journal of Wildland Fire). A four-monthly journal (FLAMMA; http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/flamma) is published regularly since 2010 with an increasing audience and issues scheduled until 2014. Also, the network has promoted voluntary environmental actions and educational activities. 4. MAIN CHALLENGES The next challenges are to continue promoting the interaction between scientists, decision makers, forest management staff and end-users and to establish new connections with European institutions and research groups. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" was supported between 2007 and 2009 by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-28764-E 2007-2008 and CGL2008-01632-E 2009). REFERENCES Cerdà, A. Jordán, A. (Eds.). 2010. Actualización de Métodos y Técnicas para el Estudio de los Suelos Afectados por Incendios Forestales [Updated methods and techniques for the study of soils affected by wildfires; in Spanish]. Cátedra de Divulgació de la Ciència, Universitat de València, FUEGORED 2010. Valencia. 521 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (Eds). 2009. Efectos de los
velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasma induces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at about 24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed. [4pt]  Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Dogariu A., Miles R.B. and Keidar M. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2010) 96, 171502.[0pt]  Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Keidar M. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 (2012) 034006.[0pt] . M. Keidar, R. Walk, A. Shashurin, P. Srinivasan, A. Sandler, S. Dasgupta , R. Ravi, R. Guerrero-Preston, B. Trink, British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1295-1301, 2011
Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.
comparing shallow (0-200 feet) with deep (200-400 feet} tubewell development, it is concluded that long-term response of the water table is the same, whether many shallow wells of small capacity or fewer deeper wells of large capacity pump the same total volume of water in the same area. Moreover, it is concluded that there is no definite advantage for either type of pumping regime with respect to water quality. Utilization of the Punjab aquifer could be greatly enhanced by recharge of high-quality water diverted from the Chenab and Jhelum Rivers to the Ravi and Sutlej Rivers by way of the link and irrigation canals during periods of surplus flow. Recharge to the aquifer could also be improved by diversion of high-quality water from the Chenab and the Jhelum to natural nalas and other surface drainageways during periods of surplus flow. Such recharge would be of much better quality than water leaching downward from irrigated fields. Continued monitoring of the hydrologic system and research on problems engendered by reclamation are essential to the viability of the SCARP program and related water-resources development in the Indus River Basin.
Sangewar, C. V.
error which is duly reflected in the estimation of glacier recession/mass balance especially as in the case of Shaune garang glacier(Mukherjee &Sangewar,1997),Panchi Nala I(Patiseo),II(Shukla et al.2010) Gangotri glacier(Sangewar,1997). Glacier inventory of Himalayan glacier, mainly based on field data(Sangewar&Shukla,2009) and on remote sensed data(SAC/ISRO,2011) shows a wide variations in the number of glaciers(Gl no.) as well as glacierised area(sq km) viz. Chenab basin-Gl no.1278(GSI)/1569(SAC), Glacierised area 3058.99(GSI)/4016.91(SAC),Beas basin-Gl no.277(GSI)/335(SAC),Gl area-599.06(GSI)/698.06(SAC),Ravi basin-Gl no.172(GSI)/253(SAC),Gl area-192.75(GSI)/319.16(SAC),Bhagirathi basin-Gl no.238(GSI)/172(SAC),Gl area-755.43(GSI)/992.67(SAC) etc. Considering, wide variations in studies based on field based techniques and remote sensing method an approach is recommended as part of "Report of the Study Group on Himalayan Glaciers-2011" wherein over a selected glacier(s) integrated studies for glacier recession and mass balance by field and remote sensing techniques proposed. Thus the 'evolved model' can be extrapolated to other glaciers in a basin and on regional scale.
Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah
the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256
Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon
Williams, H M Quiney, A G Peele and K A Nugent Imaging of complex density in silver nanocubes by coherent x-ray diffraction R Harder, M Liang, Y Sun, Y Xia and I K Robinson Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction N Vaxelaire, H Proudhon, S Labat, C Kirchlechner, J Keckes, V Jacques, S Ravy, S Forest and O Thomas Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging of weakly scattering specimens Martin Dierolf, Pierre Thibault, Andreas Menzel, Cameron M Kewish, Konstantins Jefimovs, Ilme Schlichting, Konstanze von König, Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer Dose requirements for resolving a given feature in an object by coherent x-ray diffraction imaging Andreas Schropp and Christian G Schroer FLASH: new opportunities for (time-resolved) coherent imaging of nanostructures R Treusch and J Feldhaus Structure of a single particle from scattering by many particles randomly oriented about an axis: toward structure solution without crystallization? D K Saldin, V L Shneerson, M R Howells, S Marchesini, H N Chapman, M Bogan, D Shapiro, R A Kirian, U Weierstall, K E Schmidt and J C H Spence Analysis of strain and stacking faults in single nanowires using Bragg coherent diffraction imaging V Favre-Nicolin, F Mastropietro, J Eymery, D Camacho, Y M Niquet, B M Borg, M E Messing, L-E Wernersson, R E Algra, E P A M Bakkers, T H Metzger, R Harder and I K Robinson Coherent science at the SwissFEL x-ray laser B D Patterson, R Abela, H-H Braun, U Flechsig, R Ganter, Y Kim, E Kirk, A Oppelt, M Pedrozzi, S Reiche, L Rivkin, Th Schmidt, B Schmitt, V N Strocov, S Tsujino and A F Wrulich Energy recovery linac (ERL) coherent hard x-ray sources Donald H Bilderback, Joel D Brock, Darren S Dale, Kenneth D Finkelstein, Mark A Pfeifer and Sol M Gruner Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers E L Saldin, E A Schneidmiller and M V Yurkov Microscopic return point memory in Co
Carilli, this year's winners of the prestigious Max Planck Research Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Menten and Carilli have collaborated on research in this area for years, and Kanekar has pioneered the OH molecular technique. Kanekar, Carilli and Menten worked with Glen Langston of NRAO, Graca Rocha of the Cavendish Laboratory in the UK, Francoise Combes of the Paris Observatory, Ravi Subrahmanyan of the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), John Stocke of the University of Colorado, Frank Briggs of the ATNF and the Australian National University, and Tommy Wiklind of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Sweden. The scientists reported their findings in the December 31 edition of the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Musiol, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.
Introduction The outflow channels Dao and Niger Valles are located at the eastern rim of the 2000-km diameter Hellas Planitia impact basin, in a transition zone with ancient cratered terrain and the volcanoes Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Patera (Hesperia Planum) on the one hand and fluvial, mass-wasting and aeolian deposits on the other hand . Dao and Niger have alcove-shaped source regions similar to the chaotic terrains found in the Margaritifer Terra region, with flat floors, landslide morphologies and small, chaotically distributed isolated mounds. As  pointed out, the intrusion of volcanic material could be responsible for the release of pressurized water that can carry loose material away. This process could than have created a depression and an associated outflow channel. In contrast to  who made their calculations for Aromatum Chaos and Ravi Vallis, we have focused on Dao and Niger Valles for investigation, since they are spatially related to the nearby Hadriaca Patera. Heat-triggered outflow events seem likely. We follow the generally accepted assumption that water was the main erosional agent . Furthermore we take into account that multiple floods with different volumes are more likely than a single event because of repressurization of an aquifer . Background Hadriaca Patera Hadriaca Patera is among the oldest central-vent volcanoes on Mars, a low-relief volcano with a central caldera complex which consists predominantly of pyroclastic material. The erosional structure of degraded valleys on its flanks is indicative of dissection by a combination of groundwater sapping and surface runoff, attributed to a hydromagmatic eruption scenario . Dao Vallis Dao Vallis is interpreted as collapse region of volcanic and sedimentary plains that have been eroded by surface and subsurface flow . The approximately radial alignment to Hellas is interpreted as following deep-seated structural weakness zones generated by the impact. Small grabens and fractures
González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi
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