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Sample records for immature mouse uterotrophic

  1. Positive control study for the intact immature Swiss-Webster mouse uterotrophic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisjahbana, Arlisa; Yusuf, Ayda T.

    2014-03-01

    significantly from controls. Based on the results, the immature mouse uterotrophic assay can be used as a test for estrogenicity except for the cell number parameter.

  2. Testing the Uterotrophic Activity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in the Immature CD-1 Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uterotrophic assay is an in vivo screening tool used to determine the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic potential of an exogenously administered compound. Recent studies reported that PFOA increased activity of estrogen-responsive genes in fish, some in association with liver tum...

  3. Testing the Uterotrophic Activity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in the Immature CD-1 Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uterotrophic assay is an in vivo screening tool used to determine the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic potential of an exogenously administered compound. Recent studies reported that PFOA increased activity of estrogen-responsive genes in fish, some in association with liver tum...

  4. Uterotrophic assay of percutaneous lavender oil in immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; McGinty, Danielle; Lewis, Elise M; Hoberman, Alan M; Christian, Mildred S; Diener, Robert M; Api, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The estrogenic potential of lavender oil was evaluated in a percutaneous uterotrophic bioassay in immature female rats. Four groups of 10 immature female rats each were randomly selected on postpartum day (PPD) 16. During the 3-day treatment period (PPDs 19-21), the immature rats were separated from the dams, caged in groups of 5 in a litter box for 6 hours, and administered the vehicle control article (corn oil) or lavender oil at 20 or 100 mg/kg per day. All dosages were administered as a 5 mL/kg volume in a Hilltop Chamber (25 mm diameter; absorbent material removed) placed on the shaved back of each immature rat, and secured with micropore tape and Vetrap. A positive control group was gavaged twice daily with 2.5 μg/kg per day of 17α-ethinyl estradiol. Daily observations included viability, clinical signs, body weights, and body weight gains. All rats were euthanized 24 hours after the third and final treatment, the uteri and ovaries were removed, and the paired ovaries and wet and blotted uterine weights were recorded. No unscheduled deaths occurred. No skin reactions were observed. Both dosages of lavender oil significantly reduced body weight gains after the third day of treatment, but terminal body weights and mean absolute and relative uterine weights did not differ significantly from vehicle control values. Positive controls showed significant increases in body weight and increased mean absolute and relative uterine weights as expected. Based on these data, lavender oil, at dosages of 20 or 100 mg/kg, was not active in the rat uterotrophic assay and gave no evidence of estrogenic activity.

  5. Confirmation of uterotrophic activity of 3-(4-methylbenzylidine)camphor in the immature rat.

    PubMed Central

    Tinwell, Helen; Lefevre, Paul A; Moffat, Graeme J; Burns, A; Odum, Jenny; Spurway, T D; Orphanides, George; Ashby, John

    2002-01-01

    In this study we found that the ultraviolet sunscreen component 3-(4-methylbenzylidine)camphor (4MBC) is uterotrophic in immature rats when administered by either subcutaneous injection or oral gavage. These data confirm earlier reports of uterotrophic activity for this agent when administered to immature rats in the diet or by whole-body immersion; however, they are in contrast to negative unpublished immature rat uterotrophic assay results. Data also indicate that 4MBC binds to isolated rat uterine estrogen receptors and shows activity in a human estrogen receptor yeast transactivation assay; however, we considered both of these effects equivocal. In this study, we confirmed the original observation that 4MBC was active as a mitogen to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We evaluated and discounted the possibility that the estrogenic activity of 4MBC is related to its bulky camphor group, which is of similar molecular dimensions to that of the weak estrogen kepone. Uncertainty remains regarding the mechanism of the uterotrophic activity of 4MBC. PMID:12003759

  6. The estrogenic effects of benzylparaben at low doses based on uterotrophic assay in immature SD rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Qingchun; Jiao, Jian; Li, Jun; Qi, Mingwen

    2013-03-01

    Benzylparaben (BzP), a type of parabens being used as a preservative agent in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products, may be ingested by humans. In this study, we performed an immature uterotrophic assay using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration to determine the estrogenic effects of BzP and found significant increases in uterine weight with doses of 0.16 mg/kg body weight and higher (P<0.05). The in vivo estrogenicity of BzP was supported by in vitro results from the human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in silico molecular docking analysis performed in this study. The in vitro estrogenic activity of BzP can be observed at concentrations of 1.0×10(-8) M and higher. Molecular docking analysis showed that BzP fits well into the agonist pocket of hERα. The lowest observed effect dose (LOED) (0.16 mg/kg/day) of BzP is much lower than the documented LOEDs of other parabens. Actual risk may exist for people who consume a diet high in BzP or use BzP-laden cosmetics. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of Wistar rats to 17β-estradiol by immature uterotrophic assay, and no obvious uterotrophic response was observed in the rats given doses up to 100 μg/kg body weight.

  7. Evaluation of estrogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorinated pesticides using immature rat uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Uslu, U; Sandal, S; Cumbul, A; Yildiz, S; Aydin, M; Yilmaz, B

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides on the serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and weights and histomorphometry of uterine tissue in immature female rats using uterotrophic assay. A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 per group) as control, oestradiol (E2, 100 μg/kg), PCB 180, Aroclor 1221, endosulfan and mirex at 10 mg/kg dosage. After 3 days of injections (subcutaneous), animals were decapitated and blood samples were collected. Uteri were dissected, weighed out and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde. They were processed for histomorphometry. The serum levels of LH and FSH were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Uterine weight was significantly increased by E2 and reduced by mirex (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Total volume of uterus was significantly raised by E2, Aroclor 1221 and endosulfan compared with that of the control group (p < 0.01). The ratio of epithelium was significantly increased by E2, PCBs and pesticides (p < 0.01). The uterine cavity ratio was decreased by aroclor (p < 0.01), PCB 180 and mirex (p < 0.05). The serum levels of LH did not significantly differ among the groups but the levels of FSH were decreased by PCB 180 and endosulfan (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that PCB 180, Aroclor 1221 and endosulfan may be estrogenic in immature uterotrophic assay.

  8. Comparison of the estrogenic potencies of standardized soy extracts by immature rat uterotrophic bioassay.

    PubMed

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Duarte, Rodrigo Ferreira; Campos, Ligia Maria Moreira; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, isoflavones, are a primary class of plant-based estrogen alternatives being sold over the counter nowadays. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the major isoflavones found in soybeans, as aglycones and glycosides. Each isoflavone shows distinctive estrogenic activity and pharmacokinetics. Soy dry extracts, employed as pharmaceutical raw material for manufacturing isoflavone supplements, are standardized to contain 40% of total isoflavones, but the amount of each isoflavone is highly diverse. The influence of these compositional differences on the estrogenic potency of soy extracts was evaluated by uterotrophic bioassay. Five commercial samples of standardized soy dry extract, homogeneously suspended in arachis oil, were administered per os in serial doses (125-4150 mg/kg bw/day) to immature female rats for 3 days. Soy extract samples with considerable diversity in isoflavone composition revealed different estrogenic potencies. Our results indicate a need of standardization of the individual isoflavone content in soy extracts.

  9. Evaluation of escitalopram, sertraline, and methylphenidate in the immature rat uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Bortolan, Simone; dos Santos, Bárbara Daiane; Moreno, Ana Paula; Camin, Nathália de Azevedo; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello

    2013-01-01

    Psychotropics are among the most prescribed medications. There are indications in the literature that fluoxetine (FLX; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] antidepressant) and methylphenidate (MPH) could have a hormonal mode of action. This study was designed to evaluate the immature rat uterotrophic assay Substitute by (1) if sertraline (SER) and escitalopram (ESC) 2 other SSRI antidepressants would share the estrogenicity described for FLX and (2) MPH for estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity. The 18-day-old Wistar rats with were divided into olive oil, estradiol (0.3 mg/kg), estradiol + tamoxifen (10 mg/kg), SER (5, 15, or 45 mg/kg), ESC (2, 6, or 18 mg/kg), MPH (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and estradiol + MPH groups. As expected, estradiol increased the weight of uterus, and this effect was counterbalanced by concomitant treatment with tamoxifen. The SER, ESC, and MPH had no effect on the uterus weight. The results suggest that ESC and SER do not share the estrogenicity described for FLX and that MPH does not disrupt estrogenic signaling.

  10. Histopathologic Changes in the Uterus, Cervix and Vagina of Immature CD-1 Mice Exposed to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Uterotrophic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Darlene; Reed, Casey E.; Moore, Alicia B.; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene A.; Hines, Erin P.; Wallace, Elizabeth A.; Stanko, Jason P.; Lu, Yi; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Newbold, Retha R.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was assessed using an immature mouse uterotrophic assay and by histologic evaluation of the uterus, cervix and vagina following treatment. Female offspring of CD-1 dams were weaned at 18 days old and assigned to groups of equal weight, and received 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg PFOA/kg BW/d by gavage with or without 17-β estradiol (E2, 500 μg/kg/d) from PND18-20 (n=8/treatment/block). At 24 hr after the third dose (PND 21), uteri were removed and weighed. Absolute and relative uterine weights were significantly increased in the 0.01 mg/kg PFOA only group. Characteristic estrogenic changes were present in all E2-treated mice; however, they were minimally visible in the 0.01 PFOA only mice. These data suggest that at a low dose PFOA produces minimal histopathologic changes in the reproductive tract of immature female mice, and does not antagonize the cellular effects of E2. PMID:22146484

  11. Use of the immature rat uterotrophic assay for specific measurements of chorionic gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormones in vivo bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, F; Harbeby, E; Cahoreau, C; Klett, D; Combarnous, Y

    2010-09-15

    The uterine weight growth stimulation by equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG) was found to occur at much lower eCG concentrations than ovarian growth. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) which has only LH activity, was found to be as active as eCG in the uterotrophic assay whereas equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH) which has dual LH+FSH activities like eCG, exhibited a much lower potency. In contrast to hCG, porcine and ovine LH as well as pFSH and oFSH exhibited no uterotrophic activity indicating that only gonadotropins with both LH activity and long half-lives are active alone in this assay. The FSH preparations were nevertheless found to trigger a dose-dependent response, but only in the presence of a subactive dose of hCG. The uterotrophic activity of hCG was found to be suppressed in ovariectomized immature rats and to be diminished after injection of GnRH antagonist suggesting an indirect pathway implicating the hypothalamo-pituitary complex. The data in this report together with the analysis of literature suggest that choriogonadotropins exert their stimulatory role on uterine growth by an indirect mechanism involving an increase in ovarian FSH receptors and FSH release by the pituitary. At the lowest concentrations of hCG, the increase in ovarian FSH receptors without endogenous FSH release is thought to be responsible for the sensitivity of the uterotrophic assay to exogenous FSHs. In conclusion, the immature rat uterotrophic assay is a sensitive and convenient assay for eCG and hCG as well as for FSHs in the presence of a sub-active dose of hCG.

  12. A Curated Database of Rodent Uterotrophic Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole C.; Ceger, Patricia C.; Allen, David G.; Strickland, Judy; Chang, Xiaoqing; Hamm, Jonathan T.; Casey, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Novel in vitro methods are being developed to identify chemicals that may interfere with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, but the results are difficult to put into biological context because of reliance on reference chemicals established using results from other in vitro assays and because of the lack of high-quality in vivo reference data. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-validated rodent uterotrophic bioassay is considered the “gold standard” for identifying potential ER agonists. Objectives: We performed a comprehensive literature review to identify and evaluate data from uterotrophic studies and to analyze study variability. Methods: We reviewed 670 articles with results from 2,615 uterotrophic bioassays using 235 unique chemicals. Study descriptors, such as species/strain, route of administration, dosing regimen, lowest effect level, and test outcome, were captured in a database of uterotrophic results. Studies were assessed for adherence to six criteria that were based on uterotrophic regulatory test guidelines. Studies meeting all six criteria (458 bioassays on 118 unique chemicals) were considered guideline-like (GL) and were subsequently analyzed. Results: The immature rat model was used for 76% of the GL studies. Active outcomes were more prevalent across rat models (74% active) than across mouse models (36% active). Of the 70 chemicals with at least two GL studies, 18 (26%) had discordant outcomes and were classified as both active and inactive. Many discordant results were attributable to differences in study design (e.g., injection vs. oral dosing). Conclusions: This uterotrophic database provides a valuable resource for understanding in vivo outcome variability and for evaluating the performance of in vitro assays that measure estrogenic activity. Citation: Kleinstreuer NC, Ceger PC, Allen DG, Strickland J, Chang X, Hamm JT, Casey WM. 2016. A curated database of rodent uterotrophic bioactivity. Environ

  13. The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

    2014-04-07

    Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in

  14. Uterotrophic assay of two concentrations of migrates from each of 23 polystyrenes administered orally (by gavage) to immature female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, S; Hellwig, J; Jäckh, R; Christian, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Styrene Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) sponsored this work to address any concern that styrene dimers and trimers that might migrate from polystyrene containers into food could possess some estrogenic activity and thus possibly affect human health. All phases of the study were conducted in conformance with GLP regulations and without knowledge of the oligomer migrates tested. All activities were managed and audited under a third-party contract between the SSC and Argus International. Low and high doses of the styrene oligomer migrates of 23 polystyrene samples [i.e. 9 general purpose polystyrenes (GPPS), 8 high impact polystyrenes (HIPS) and 6 expandable polystyrenes (EPS)] were tested for estrogenicity in an in vivo uterotrophic assay (immature female rat model). This model is considered to be the "gold standard" for use in screening for estrogenic effects because it evaluates both direct and indirect potential effects. The two concentrations of migrates of each of the 23 polystyrenes tested were selected to simulate daily human consumption of a low and high amount of food. Representative dimer and trimer concentrations were obtained in conformance with EEC Council Directives and calculated to be at levels simulating human consumption of 0.5 or 5 kg of food for the GPPS and the HIPS samples and of 0.5 or 3.15 kg of food for the EPS samples, respectively. The study was conducted in a series of three blocks. Each block included concurrent untreated control (negative control), vehicle control (25% ethanol, 20 ml/kg/day) and positive control (diethylstilbestrol-dipropionate, DES-DP, 5 micrograms/kg/day) groups, and low and high doses of each of 7 (1 block) or 8 (2 blocks) polystyrene oligomer migrates. Each group in each block consisted of 10 immature Wistar (Chbb: THOM-SPF) female rats. Beginning when the rats were 22 +/- 1 days of age, each rat was appropriately handled (untreated control group) or administered twice

  15. Lack of binding to isolated estrogen or androgen receptors, and inactivity in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, of the ultraviolet sunscreen filters Tinosorb M-active and Tinosorb S.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H; Plautz, J; Twomey, K; Lefevre, P A

    2001-12-01

    The presence of structurally diverse chemicals as contaminants in the environment has led to concerns regarding their possible endocrine disturbing effects. Recently, some ultraviolet absorbing components of sunscreen preparations have given positive responses in assays monitoring estrogen-like activity both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, two recently developed sunscreen components, Tinosorb M-active and Tinosorb S, were evaluated using the in vitro estrogen and androgen receptor competitive binding assays. Neither compound gave a positive response in either of the assays, consistent with the large molecular dimensions of each chemical disfavoring binding to the hormone receptors. Both of the chemicals were inactive in immature rat uterotrophic assays conducted using the subcutaneous route of administration. It is concluded that neither of these agents possess intrinsic estrogenic/antiestrogenic or androgenic/antiandrogenic activity. The several positive control chemicals evaluated gave the expected positive responses in the assays used.

  16. Diosgenin does not express estrogenic activity: a uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Medigović, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Živanović, Jasmina; Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Milošević, Verica; Nestorović, Nataša

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of diosgenin on estrogenic activity using a uterotrophic assay. Immature female rats received diosgenin orally at doses of 200, 100, or 20 mg/kg body mass; and 17α ethynylestradiol at doses of 1 or 0.3 μg/kg, daily, for 3 consecutive days from day 19 to day 21. Controls were distributed among 2 groups: an intact control group and a vehicle control group. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last application of diosgenin, estradiol, or vehicle (22nd day of life). Uterine wet weight, stereological and histomorphometrical changes, immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), and the expression of lactoferrin (LF) were examined. Diosgenin did not affect the uterine wet weight, epithelium height, volume densities of endometrium, endometrial epithelia, number of endometrial glands, or histological appearance of vaginal epithelia. ERα, PR, and LF immunostaining intensity were not altered in the animals that received diosgenin. High-potency reference ER agonist 17α-ethynylestradiol induced a significant increase in all of the measured parameters, and as expected, decreased ERα immunostaining intensity. Based on these data, it can be concluded that diosgenin, at doses of 20-200 mg/kg, did not act as an estrogen agonist in the immature rat uterotrophic assay.

  17. Most regions of mouse epididymis are able to phagocytose immature germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Ibeas, P; Pericuesta, E; Fernández-González, R; Ramírez, M A; Gutierrez-Adan, A

    2013-01-01

    The role of the epididymis as a quality control organ in preventing infertile gametes entering the ejaculate has been extensively explored, and it has been suggested that a specific region of mammalian epididymis is able to phagocytose abnormal germ cells. This study examines whether the epithelium of certain zones of the mouse epididymis can act as a selection barrier by removing immature germ cells from the lumen by phagocytosis. To detect the presence of immature germ cells in the epididymis, we generated transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the deleted in azoospermia-like (mDazl) promoter to easily identify immature germ cells under fluorescence microscopy. Using this technique, we observed that during the first stage of spermatogenesis in prepuberal mice, a wave of immature germ cells is released into the epididymis and that the immature epididymis is not able to react to this abnormal situation. By contrast, when immature germ cells were artificially released into the epididymis in adult mice, a phagocytic response was observed. Phagosomes appeared inside principal cells of the epididymal epithelium and were observed to contain immature germ cells at different degradation stages in different zones of the epididymis, following the main wave of immature germ cells. In this paper, we describe how the epididymal epithelium controls sperm quality by clearing immature germ cells in response to their artificially induced massive shedding into the epididymal lumen. Our observations indicate that this phenomenon is not restricted to a given epididymis region and that phagocytic capacity is gradually acquired during epididymal development.

  18. Germ cell differentiation in cryopreserved, immature, Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) testes xenografted onto mice.

    PubMed

    Pothana, Lavanya; Makala, Himesh; Devi, Lalitha; Varma, Vivek Phani; Goel, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Death of immature animals is one of the reasons for the loss of genetic diversity of rare and endangered species. Because sperm cannot be collected from immature males, cryobanking of testicular tissue combined with testis xenografting is a potential option for conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the establishment of spermatogenesis in cryopreserved immature testicular tissues from Indian spotted mouse deer (Moschiola indica) after ectopic xenografting onto immunodeficient nude mice. Results showed that testis tissues that were frozen in cryomedia containing either 10% DMSO with 80% fetal bovine serum (D10S80) or 20% DMSO with 20% fetal bovine serum (D20S20) had significantly more (P < 0.01) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeled positive interstitial cells when compared with fresh testis tissues (46.3 ± 3.4 and 51.9 ± 4.0 vs. 22.8 ± 2.0). Xenografted testicular tissues showed degenerated seminiferous tubules 24 weeks after grafting in testes that had been cryopreserved in D20S20; alternatively, pachytene spermatocytes were the most advanced germ cells in testes that were cryopreserved in D10S80. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining confirmed the proliferative status of spermatocytes, and the increases in tubular and lumen diameters indicated testicular maturation in xenografts. However, persistent anti-Müllerian hormone staining in Sertoli cells of xenografts revealed incomplete testicular maturation. This study reports that cryopreserved testis tissue that had been xenografted from endangered animals onto mice resulted in the establishment of spermatogenesis with initiation of meiosis. These findings are encouraging for cryobanking of testicular tissues from immature endangered animals to conserve their germplasm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  20. Key learnings from the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 rodent uterotrophic and Hershberger assays.

    PubMed

    Marty, M Sue; O'Connor, John C

    2014-02-01

    In 2009, companies began screening compounds using the US Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). EDSP has two tiers: Tier 1 includes 11 assays to identify compounds with potential endocrine activity. This article describes two laboratories' experiences conducting Tier 1 uterotrophic and Hershberger assays. The uterotrophic assay detects estrogen receptor agonists through increases in uterine weight. The advantages of the uterotrophic rat models (immature vs. adult ovariectomized) and exposure routes are discussed. Across 29 studies, relative differences in uterine weights in the vehicle control group and 17α-ethynylestradiol-positive control group were reasonably reproducible. The Hershberger assay detects androgen receptor (AR) agonists, antagonists, and 5α-reductase inhibitors through changes in accessory sex tissue (AST) weights. Across 23 studies, AST weights were relatively reproducible for the vehicle groups (baseline), testosterone propionate (TP) groups (androgenic response), and flutamide + TP groups (antiandrogenic response). In one laboratory, one and four compounds were positive in the androgenic and antiandrogenic portions of the assay, respectively. Each compound was also positive for AR binding. In the other laboratory, three compounds showed potential antiandrogenic activity, but each compound was negative for AR binding and did not fit the profile for 5α-reductase inhibition. These compounds induced hepatic enzymes that enhanced testosterone metabolism/clearance, resulting in lower testosterone and decreased capacity to maintain AST weights. The Hershberger androgenic and antiandrogenic performance criteria were generally attainable. Overall, the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays were easily adopted and function as described for EDSP screening, although the mode of action for positive results may not be easily determined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Key Learnings from the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 Rodent Uterotrophic and Hershberger Assays

    PubMed Central

    Marty, M Sue; O'Connor, John C

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, companies began screening compounds using the US Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). EDSP has two tiers: Tier 1 includes 11 assays to identify compounds with potential endocrine activity. This article describes two laboratories' experiences conducting Tier 1 uterotrophic and Hershberger assays. The uterotrophic assay detects estrogen receptor agonists through increases in uterine weight. The advantages of the uterotrophic rat models (immature vs. adult ovariectomized) and exposure routes are discussed. Across 29 studies, relative differences in uterine weights in the vehicle control group and 17α-ethynylestradiol–positive control group were reasonably reproducible. The Hershberger assay detects androgen receptor (AR) agonists, antagonists, and 5α-reductase inhibitors through changes in accessory sex tissue (AST) weights. Across 23 studies, AST weights were relatively reproducible for the vehicle groups (baseline), testosterone propionate (TP) groups (androgenic response), and flutamide + TP groups (antiandrogenic response). In one laboratory, one and four compounds were positive in the androgenic and antiandrogenic portions of the assay, respectively. Each compound was also positive for AR binding. In the other laboratory, three compounds showed potential antiandrogenic activity, but each compound was negative for AR binding and did not fit the profile for 5α-reductase inhibition. These compounds induced hepatic enzymes that enhanced testosterone metabolism/clearance, resulting in lower testosterone and decreased capacity to maintain AST weights. The Hershberger androgenic and antiandrogenic performance criteria were generally attainable. Overall, the uterotrophic and Hershberger assays were easily adopted and function as described for EDSP screening, although the mode of action for positive results may not be easily determined. PMID:24515841

  2. Immature monocytes recruited to the ischemic mouse brain differentiate into macrophages with features of alternative activation.

    PubMed

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Pérez-de-Puig, Isabel; Ferrer-Ferrer, Maura; Urra, Xabier; Justicia, Carles; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Acute stroke induces a local inflammatory reaction causing leukocyte infiltration. Circulating monocytes are recruited to the ischemic brain and become tissue macrophages morphologically indistinguishable from reactive microglia. However, monocytes are a heterogeneous population of cells with different functions. Herein, we investigated the infiltration and fate of the monocyte subsets in a mouse model of focal brain ischemia by permanent occlusion of the distal portion of the middle cerebral artery. We separated two main subtypes of CD11b(hi) monocytes according to their expression of the surface markers Ly6C and CD43. Using adoptive transfer of reporter monocytes and monocyte depletion, we identified the pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi)CD43(lo)CCR2(+) subset as the predominant monocytes recruited to the ischemic tissue. Monocytes were seen in the leptomeninges from where they entered the cortex along the penetrating arterioles. Four days post-ischemia, they had invaded the infarcted core, where they were often located adjacent to blood vessels. At this time, Iba-1(-) and Iba-1(+) cells in the ischemic tissue incorporated BrdU, but BrdU incorporation was rare in the reporter monocytes. The monocyte phenotype progressively changed by down-regulating Ly6C, up-regulating F4/80, expressing low or intermediate levels of Iba-1, and developing macrophage morphology. Moreover, monocytes progressively acquired the expression of typical markers of alternatively activated macrophages, like arginase-1 and YM-1. Collectively, the results show that stroke mobilized immature pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi)CD43(lo) monocytes that acutely infiltrated the ischemic tissue reaching the core of the lesion. Monocytes differentiated to macrophages with features of alternative activation suggesting possible roles in tissue repair during the sub-acute phase of stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The beneficial effect of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and development ability of immature mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kalehoei, Eshrat; Azadbakht, Mehri

    2017-08-01

    Repaglinide is a hypoglycemic drug, causing depolarization of the cell membrane, opening the voltage-gated calcium channels, and then increasing intracellular calcium in the pancreatic B cells by inhibition of the K-ATP-sensitive channels. Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is influenced by different factors such as calcium signaling. In this study, we examined the effects of repaglinide on in vitro maturation and fertilization ability of mouse oocyte. Immature oocytes were isolated from female Naval Medical Research Institute mice which are 6-8 wk old mechanically and then cultured in 30 μl droplets of T6 medium with different concentrations of repaglinide. The control group did not receive repaglinide (R0). Treatment groups received different concentrations (5, 10, and 100 nM and 1 and 10 μM) of repaglinide (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, respectively). Oocyte in vitro maturation rate was assessed after 24 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using metaphase II oocytes obtained from R0 and R4 treatments. Embryo cleavage rate was calculated at 48 h post-IVF. Chi-square test was used for evaluating difference between control and treatment groups (p < 0.05). Oocyte maturation rate after 24 h in treatment groups R2, R3, R4, and R5 was significantly higher than that in the control (p < 0.05). Supplementation of medium with 1 μM of repaglinide (R4) during IVM significantly improved outcome of embryo cleavage rate than control at 48 h post-IVF (p < 0.05). In conclusion, repaglinide can be considered as an effective agent for in vitro oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage.

  4. Critical review and evaluation of the uterotrophic bioassay for the identification of possible estrogen agonists and antagonists: in support of the validation of the OECD uterotrophic protocols for the laboratory rodent. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

    PubMed

    Owens, J William; Ashby, John

    2002-01-01

    A current issue for regulatory agencies is endocrine-related modes of action such as those mediated by the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid nuclear receptors. At the national and international levels, the consensus recommendation for the assessment of such modes of action is a tiered series of in vitro and in vivo protocols. The tiered framework begins with screens for structural alerts and then moves to rapid, mechanistic in vitro screening assays, and then to in vivo screening bioassays. The objective of these screens is to identify substances that may warrant testing for endocrine-mediated adverse effects. The final framework tier as needed is to test these substances in long-term bioassays for adverse endocrine-mediated reproductive and/or developmental effects. The subject of this review, the rodent uterotrophic bioassay, is intended to be a rapid in vivo screening bioassay for possible estrogen agonists and based on the response of the estrogen-sensitive uterus. The central metric of bioassay is a statistically significant increase in the weight of the uterus after 3 consecutive days of test substance administration. The extensive background literature is summarized in this review on the mode of action underlying the bioassay and the uterine response to estrogens. The review includes the bioassay's history of development and how its employment has changed and evolved over time. The review describes two major uterotrophic bioassay versions, the intact, immature female and the mature, ovariectomized female, and the protocol factors likely to influence relevance, reproducibility, and reliability of bioassay. The emphasis of the review is the ability of the uterotrophic bioassay to identify the substances of current interest: weak estrogen agonists with binding affinities relative to the natural 17beta-estradiol in the log 0 to log -3 range. Using selected model substances having RBAs in this target range, the bioassay's performance in a hierarchical, tiered

  5. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  6. Distinct kainate receptor phenotypes in immature and mature mouse cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T Caitlin; Wang, Lu-Yang; Howe, James R

    1999-01-01

    Although glutamate receptors have been shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, a developmental role for kainate-type receptors has not been described. In addition, the single-channel properties of native kainate receptors have not been studied in situ. We have characterized the electrophysiological properties of native kainate receptors of granule cell neurons at two distinct stages in postnatal development, using whole-cell and outside-out patch-clamp recordings in acute cerebellar slices. Kainate-type currents were detected in both immature and mature granule cells. However, noise analysis showed that the apparent unitary conductance of kainate-type channels is significantly higher in proliferating than post-migratory granule cells. The conductance and rectification behaviour of the channels in immature granule cells indicate that they contain unedited GluR5 and GluR6 subunits and are likely to be calcium permeable. Single-channel kainate-type currents were observed in outside-out patches from proliferating granule cells in the external germinal layer. The kinetic behaviour of kainate receptors in immature cells was complex. Openings to multiple conductance levels were observed, although our analysis indicates that the channels spend most of their open time in a 4 pS state. PMID:10226148

  7. Detection of alpha-L fucose containing carbohydrates in mouse immature olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ducray, A; Propper, A; Kastner, A

    1999-10-15

    The cellular location of alpha-L fucose was studied in mice olfactory epithelium (OE) using the Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Tetragonolobus purpureas agglutinin (TPA). In adult mice, UEA-I and TPA revealed a layer of cells that mostly correspond to immature olfactory neurons. Moreover, autoradiographic studies after 3H-T incorporation showed that UEA-I cell labelling occurred during the week following the division of neural cell precursors. In newborn animals, active neurogenesis process is associated with a higher number of UEA-I labelled cells. Olfactory neurogenesis may thus involve a transient event of protein fucosylation, preceding axonal growth.

  8. Stimulation of immature lung macrophages with intranasal interferon gamma in a novel neonatal mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Empey, Kerry M; Orend, Jacob G; Peebles, R Stokes; Egaña, Loreto; Norris, Karen A; Oury, Tim D; Kolls, Jay K

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and viral death in infants. Reduced CD8 T-cells and negligible interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the airway are associated with severe infant RSV disease, yet there is an abundance of alveolar macrophages (AM) and neutrophils. However, it is unclear, based on our current understanding of macrophage functional heterogeneity, if immature AM improve viral clearance or contribute to inflammation and airway obstruction in the IFNγ-deficient neonatal lung environment. The aim of the current study was to define the age-dependent AM phenotype during neonatal RSV infection and investigate their differentiation to classically activated macrophages (CAM) using i.n. IFNγ in the context of improving viral clearance. Neonatal and adult BALB/cJ mice were infected with 1×10(6) plaque forming units (PFU)/gram (g) RSV line 19 and their AM responses compared. Adult mice showed a rapid and robust CAM response, indicated by increases in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), CD86, CCR7, and a reduction in mannose receptor (MR). Neonatal mice showed a delayed and reduced CAM response, likely due to undetectable IFNγ production. Intranasal (i.n.) treatment with recombinant mouse IFNγ (rIFNγ) increased the expression of CAM markers on neonatal AM, reduced viral lung titers, and improved weight gain compared to untreated controls with no detectable increase in CD4 or CD8 T-cell infiltration. In vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with RSV induced an alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) phenotype however, when macrophages were first primed with IFNγ, a CAM phenotype was induced and RSV spread to adjacent Hep-2 cells was reduced. These studies demonstrate that the neonatal AM response to RSV infection is abundant and immature, but can be exogenously stimulated to express the antimicrobial phenotype, CAM, with i.n. rIFNγ.

  9. Light microscopic identification of immature glial cells in semithin sections of the developing mouse corpus callosum.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, R R

    1976-01-01

    Four distinct types of glial cell were recognized in the corpus callosum of young postnatal mice: the early glioblast; the small glioblast; the large glioblast; and the young astrocyte. As well as these, mature microglia could be recognized from birth. In semithin, toluidine blue stained sections early glioblasts had large, fair to moderately stained nuclei, and a thin rim of pale cytoplasm; small glioblasts had small, dark nuclei and a rim of darkly stained cytoplasm; large glioblasts had moderately unevenly stained nuclei and a thin rim of moderately stained cytoplasm; and young astrocytes had fairly small nuclei, moderately stained cytoplasm, and one or more processes, which could usually be seen extending for 5 mum or more from the perikaryon. Differential glial counts using the criteria described above, in conjunction with electron microscopic analysis, suggested that early glioblasts gave rise to small glioblasts and large glioblasts; that small glioblasts gave rise directly to astrocytes, large glioblasts, oligodendrocytes and possibly microglia; that large glioblasts formed oligodendrocytes only, and might be immature light oligodendrocytes; and that part of the microglial population might arise from vascular pericytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:795801

  10. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    PubMed

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

  11. Sildenafil Enhances Quantity of Immature Neurons and Promotes Functional Recovery in the Developing Ischemic Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Engels, Jonas; Elting, Natalie; Braun, Lisa; Bendix, Ivo; Herz, Josephine; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Dzietko, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting. Sildenafil as a specific phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor leads to increased levels of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis after ischemic injury to the adult brain. Here, we investigated the effect of sildenafil treatment on activation of intracellular signaling pathways, histological and neurogenic response including functional recovery after an ischemic insult to the developing brain. Nine-day-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected either to sham operation or underwent ligation of the right common carotid artery followed by hypoxia (8%) for 60 min. Animals were either administered sildenafil (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 2 h after hypoxia. A subgroup of animals received multiple injections of 10 mg/kg daily on 5 consecutive days. Pups were either perfusion fixed at postnatal days 14 or 47 for immunohistochemical analysis, or brains were dissected 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after the end of hypoxia and analyzed for cGMP, pAkt, pGSK-3β, and β-catenin by means of ELISA or immunoblotting. In addition, behavioral studies using the wire hang test and elevated plus maze were conducted 21 and 38 days after HI injury. Based on cresyl violet staining, single or multiple sildenafil injections did not reveal any differences in injury scoring compared to sham animals. However, cerebral levels of cGMP were altered after sildenafil therapy. Treatment significantly increased numbers of immature neurons, as indicated by doublecortin immunoreactivity in the

  12. Effects of neuregulin-1 administration on neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus, and characterization of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis

    PubMed Central

    Mahar, Ian; MacIsaac, Angus; Kim, John Junghan; Qiang, Calvin; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with learning and affective behavioural regulation. Its diverse functionality is segregated along the septotemporal axis from the dorsal to ventral hippocampus. However, features distinguishing immature neurons in these regions have yet to be characterized. Additionally, although we have shown that administration of the neurotrophic factor neuregulin-1 (NRG1) selectively increases proliferation and overall neurogenesis in the mouse ventral dentate gyrus (DG), likely through ErbB3, NRG1’s effects on intermediate neurogenic stages in immature neurons are unknown. We examined whether NRG1 administration increases DG ErbB3 phosphorylation. We labeled adultborn cells using BrdU, then administered NRG1 to examine in vivo neurogenic effects on immature neurons with respect to cell survival, morphology, and synaptogenesis. We also characterized features of immature neurons along the septotemporal axis. We found that neurogenic effects of NRG1 are temporally and subregionally specific to proliferation in the ventral DG. Particular morphological features differentiate immature neurons in the dorsal and ventral DG, and cytogenesis differed between these regions. Finally, we identified synaptic heterogeneity surrounding the granule cell layer. These results indicate neurogenic involvement of NRG1-induced antidepressant-like behaviour is particularly associated with increased ventral DG cell proliferation, and identify novel distinctions between dorsal and ventral hippocampal neurogenic development. PMID:27469430

  13. Combination radiation-adriamycin therapy: renoprival growth, functional and structural effects in the immature mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, S.S.; Moskowitz, P.S.; Canty, E.L.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1980-07-01

    The normal tissue effects of radiation-adriamycin combination therapy were studied in the renoprival weanling mouse in an attempt to determine whether compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation and chemotherapy could be associated with structural or functional abnormalities. Weanling BLc/sub Fl/ mice underwent unilateral nephrectomy, then single fraction renal irradiation, LD 1/21 doses of adriamycin in 5 daily doses, or combination therapy with radiation and adriamycin. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 12, and 24 weeks. Compensatory renal growth, body growth, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal morphology by light microscopy were evaluated. Significant compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy exceeded that produced by adriamycin alone and radiation alone, at all time periods (p < 0.005). Body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy or adriamycin alone significantly exceeded that produced by radiation alone (p < 0.005). Kidney and body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy was proportionately severe. Kidney growth inhibition proportionately exceeded body growth inhibition with radiation alone; body growth inhibition proportionately exceeded kidney growth inhibition with adriamycin alone. Comparable azotemia developed by 24 weeks in both the radiation alone (p < .005) and radiation-adriamycin animals (p < 0.005), but not in the adriamycin only animals. Morphologic alterations consisting of increased glomerular density, tubular atrophy, and stromal fibrosis occurred with greater severity in the radiation-adriamycin animals than in the radiation only animals by 24 weeks; no alterations were seen in the adriamycin only animals. Using histologic criteria 750 rad plus adriamycin produced comparable injury as seen with 1000 rad alone, thus adriamycin produced an apparent dose-modifying factor of 1.33.

  14. Infection of mouse bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells with classical swine fever virus C-strain promotes cells maturation and lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fu-Ying; Qiu, Chang-Qing; Jia, Huai-Jie; Chen, Guo-Hua; Zeng, Shuang; He, Xiao-Bing; Fang, Yong-Xiang; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Jing, Zhi-Zhong

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the interactions of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain with mouse bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (BM-imDCs) were investigated for the first time. Both the C-strain and the virulent GSLZ strain could effectively infect and replicate in mouse BM-imDCs. C-strain-infected BM-imDCs showed a greatly enhanced degree of maturation, and could effectively promote the expansion and proliferation of allogeneic naive T cells. The C-strain induced a stronger Th1 response. Infection with the virulent GSLZ strain had no obvious influence on cell maturation or lymphocyte proliferation, and failed to induce any obvious immune response. The results of this study provided initial information for research of the immunologic mechanisms of CSFV using mouse DCs as the model cells.

  15. A new genus and species of demodecid mites from the tongue of a house mouse Mus musculus: description of adult and immature stages with data on parasitism.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, J N; Rolbiecki, L

    2016-06-01

    The study of the parasitofauna of the house mouse Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) Linnaeus is particularly important owing to its multiple relationships with humans - as a cosmopolitan, synanthropic rodent, bred for pets, food for other animals or laboratory animal. This article proposes and describes a new genus and species of the parasitic mite based on adult and immature stages from the house mouse. Glossicodex musculi gen. n., sp. n. is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages on average 199 µm in length) found in mouse tissue of the tongue. It is characterized by two large, hooked claws on each tarsus of the legs; the legs are relatively massive, consisting of large, non-overlapping segments. The palps consist of three slender, clearly separated, relatively narrow segments, wherein their coxal segments are also quite narrow and spaced. Also, segments of the palps of larva and nymphs are clearly isolated, and on the terminal segment, trident claws that resemble legs' claws can be found. On the ventral side, in immature stages, triangular scuta, topped with sclerotized spur, can be also observed. Glossicodex musculi was noted in 10.8% of mice with a mean infection intensity of 2.2 parasites per host.

  16. The OECD program to validate the rat uterotrophic bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo estrogenic responses: phase 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, J; Onyon, L; Haseman, J; Fenner-Crisp, P; Ashby, J; Owens, W

    2001-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help prioritize positive compounds for further testing. Using draft protocols, we tested and compared two model systems, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat. Data from 19 participating laboratories using a high-potency reference agonist, ethinyl estradiol (EE), and an antagonist, ZM 189,154, indicate no substantive performance differences between models. All laboratories and all protocols successfully detected increases in uterine weights using EE in phase 1. These significant uterine weight increases were achieved under a variety of experimental conditions (e.g., strain, diet, housing protocol, bedding, vehicle). For each protocol, there was generally good agreement among laboratories with regard to the actual EE doses both in producing the first significant increase in uterine weights and achieving the maximum uterine response. Furthermore, the Hill equation appears to model the dose response satisfactorily and indicates general agreement based on calculated effective dose (ED)(10) and ED(50) within and among laboratories. The feasibility of an antagonist assay was also successfully demonstrated. Therefore, both models appear robust, reproducible, and transferable across laboratories for high-potency estrogen agonists such as EE. For the next phase of the OECD validation program, both models will be tested against a battery of weak, partial estrogen agonists. PMID:11564613

  17. Novel progestogenic activity of environmental endocrine disruptors in the upregulation of calbindin-D9k in an immature mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong-Woo; Hong, Eui-Ju; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a major global health concern in the industrialized world. The induction of uterine calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), which belongs to a large family of intracellular calcium binding proteins, was used to assess the exposure of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in an immature mouse model. Sex steroid hormones have been demonstrated to regulate uterine CaBP-9k expression in the uterus of rats and mice. In particular, the mouse CaBP-9k gene was predominantly regulated by progesterone (P4), whereas rat CaBP-9k was mainly induced by 17-beta-estradiol (E2) in the uterus. In the present study, immature (14-day-old) female mice were injected with 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), E2, or P4 to determine their effects on uterine CaBP-9k mRNA and protein expression. In addition, to specify estrogenic or progestogenic activity of EDs in the regulation of CaBP-9k, the mice were co-treated with ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, or RU486, a progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist,. Treatments with OP, NP, or BPA resulted in an increase in CaBP-9k mRNA and protein in the uterus of immature mice in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The EDs-induced expression of CaBP-9k mRNA and protein was reversed or abolished by pretreatment with RU486 or ICI 182,780, suggesting that these synthetic chemicals may have both progestogenic and estrogenic properties by acting through PR or ER in the induction of uterine CaBP-9k mRNA and protein in this model. These results describe a novel in vivo model for detection of both estrogenic and progestogenic activities of EDs in the induction of CaBP-9k mRNA and protein in the uterus of immature mice.

  18. An immature B cell population from peripheral blood serves as surrogate marker for monitoring tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fagiani, Ernesta; Bill, Ruben; Pisarsky, Laura; Ivanek, Robert; Rüegg, Curzio; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Tumor growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels (tumor angiogenesis) either from preexisting vessels or by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Despite encouraging results obtained with preclinical cancer models, the therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis has thus far failed to deliver an enduring clinical response in cancer patients. One major obstacle for improving anti-angiogenic therapy is the lack of validated biomarkers, which allow patient stratification for suitable treatment and a rapid assessment of therapy response. Toward these goals, we have employed several mouse models of tumor angiogenesis to identify cell populations circulating in their blood that correlated with the extent of tumor angiogenesis and therapy response. Flow cytometry analyses of different combinations of cell surface markers that define subsets of bone marrow-derived cells were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor-bearing and healthy mice. We identified one cell population, CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low), that was increased in levels during active tumor angiogenesis in a variety of transgenic and syngeneic transplantation mouse models of cancer. Treatment with various anti-angiogenic drugs did not affect CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells in healthy mice, whereas in tumor-bearing mice, a consistent reduction in their levels was observed. Gene expression profiling of CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells characterized these cells as an immature B cell population. These immature B cells were then directly validated as surrogate marker for tumor angiogenesis and of pharmacologic responses to anti-angiogenic therapies in various mouse models of cancer.

  19. Deleterious Effects of Minocycline after in vivo Target Deprivation of Thalamocortical Neurons in the Immature, Metallothionein-Deficient Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Emily G.; Cheng, Ying; Natale, JoAnne E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to adults, immature metallothionein I & II knockout (MT−/−) mice incur greater neuronal loss and a more rapid rate of microglia accumulation following target deprivation-induced injury. Since minocycline has been proposed to inhibit microglial activation and associated production of neuroinflammatory factors, we investigated its ability to promote neuronal survival in the immature, metallothionein-deficient brain. Following ablation of the visual cortex, 10-day-old MT−/− mice were treated with minocycline or saline and sacrificed 24 or 48 hours after injury. Using stereological methods, the number of microglia and neurons were estimated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by an investigator blinded to the treatment. No effect on neuronal survival was observed at 24 hours, but 48 hours after injury an unanticipated but significant minocycline-mediated increase in neuronal loss was detected. Further, while failing to inhibit microglial accumulation, minocycline treatment increased the proportion of amoeboid microglia in the ipsilateral dLGN. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this neurotoxic response, we identified minocycline-mediated changes in the expression of three potentially pro-apoptotic/ inflammatory genes: growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 45γ (GADD45γ); interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1) and cytokine induced growth factor (CTGF). We also observed increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 phosphorylation with minocycline treatment. Although minocycline inhibited calpain activity at 12 hours post-injury, this effect was not sustained at 24 hours. Together, these results help to explain how minocycline has a deleterious effect on neuronal survival in this injury model. PMID:19115404

  20. Early Gelatinase Activity Is Not a Determinant of Long-Term Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Immature Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Bridgette D.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.; Gooyit, Major; Tercovich, Kayleen G.; Peng, Zhihong; Nguyen, Trung T.; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Suckow, Mark A.; Chang, Mayland; Raber, Jacob; Trivedi, Alpa

    2015-01-01

    The gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, are thought to be key mediators of secondary damage in adult animal models of brain injury. Moreover, an acute increase in these proteases in plasma and brain extracellular fluid of adult patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and mortality. Nonetheless, their involvement after TBI in the pediatric brain remains understudied. Using a murine model of TBI at postnatal day 21 (p21), approximating a toddler-aged child, we saw upregulation of active and pro-MMP-9 and MMP-2 by gelatin zymography at 48 h post-injury. We therefore investigated the role of gelatinases on long-term structural and behavioral outcomes after injury after acute inhibition with a selective gelatinase inhibitor, p-OH SB-3CT. After systemic administration, p-OH SB-3CT crossed the blood-brain barrier at therapeutically-relevant concentrations. TBI at p21 induced hyperactivity, deficits in spatial learning and memory, and reduced sociability when mice were assessed at adulthood, alongside pronounced tissue loss in key neuroanatomical regions. Acute and short-term post-injury treatment with p-OH SB-3CT did not ameliorate these long-term behavioral, cognitive, or neuropathological deficits as compared to vehicle-treated controls, suggesting that these deficits were independent of MMP-9 and MMP-2 upregulation. These findings emphasize the vulnerability of the immature brain to the consequences of traumatic injuries. However, early upregulation of gelatinases do not appear to be key determinants of long-term recovery after an early-life injury. PMID:26588471

  1. Immature chemodifferentiation of Purkinje cell synapses revealed by 5'-nucleotidase ecto-enzyme activity in the cerebellum of the reeler mouse.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Y J; Schoen, S W; Mariani, J; Kreutzberg, G W; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N

    1998-07-01

    During postnatal development of the rodent cerebellum, a transient enzyme activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase has been shown in the asymmetrical synapses of Purkinje cells. The alterations of the afferent circuitry and microenvironment of the ectopic Purkinje cells present in the cerebellum of the reeler mutant mouse could enlighten parameters that influence the synaptic 5'-nucleotidase activity of these cells. Ecto-enzyme cytochemistry reveals intense 5'-nucleotidase activity in 43% of synapses of the Purkinje cells throughout the cortex and the core of the reeler cerebellar vermis, although the molecular layer displays large areas with less than 1% of labelled synapses. However, enzymatic labelling is found in considerably more Purkinje cells synapses (73%) throughout the granular layer and the subcortical mass. Climbing fiber synapses of monoinnervated Purkinje cells are labelled by 5'-nucleotidase activity in the molecular layer, as well as asymmetrical synapses made on the subjacent ectopic Purkinje cells by the multiple climbing fibers and by the heterologous afferences. The non-innervated dendritic spines of these cells are also labelled, suggesting that 5'-nucleotidase activity at postsynaptic sites of reeler Purkinje cells does not depend on the presynaptic innervation. Rather, 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity is enhanced at theses sites when the Purkinje cells have not achieved chemodifferentiation but have conserved immature wiring, i.e., low parallel fiber and multiple climbing fiber inputs.

  2. A Mouse Variable Gene Fragment Binds to DNA Independently of the BCR Context: A Possible Role for Immature B-Cell Repertoire Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz; Costa, Maria Beatriz Walter; Guedes, Leonardo; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Raiol, Tainá; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation occurs in several steps and requires constant stimulus for its continuing development. From the emergence of the pre-B-cell receptor, signal transduction stimulates and supports B-cell development. Current viewpoints indicate that both positive selection pressure for autoantigens and tonic signaling constitutively stimulate B-cell maturation. In this work, we tested for the presence of a putative DNA binding site in a variable gene segment in a germline configuration, independently of VDJ recombination. After a survey of the public antibody databases, we chose a single mouse heavy variable gene segment that is highly represented in anti-nucleic acid antibodies and tested it for ssDNA binding. A phage display approach was used to search for intrinsic binding to oligo deoxythymidine. The results revealed that binding to an antigen can be influenced by the use of a specific DNA binding V gene segment. Our data support the idea that some variable genes have intrinsic reactivity towards specific types of endogenous autoantigens, and this property may contribute to the establishment of the immature B-cell repertoire. PMID:24023756

  3. Effects of retinoic acid on maturation of immature mouse oocytes in the presence and absence of a granulosa cell co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Eimani, Hussein; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fathi, Rouhollah

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of the all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) effects on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of immature mouse oocytes in the presence and absence of granulosa cell monolayer. Denuded oocytes isolated from mice ovaries and matured in IVM medium alone (Control I), IVM medium in the presence of granulosa cells (Control II), IVM medium with t-RA (Experimental I) and IVM medium simultaneously with t-RA and granulosa cells (Experimental II). After 24 h, matured oocytes were fertilized in T6 medium and their development was followed until the blastocyst stage. Metaphase II oocytes ploidy were evaluated by chromosome counting. The t-RA group compared to the control groups showed no obvious abnormalities. Additionally maturation and embryo development rates significantly increased in the t-RA treated granulosa cell co-culture system. In conclusion, association of t-RA with granulosa cell co-culture during in vitro maturation increases meiosis resumption, formation of metaphase II oocytes, as well as 2-cell and blastocyst stage embryos.

  4. Frequency of acute myeloid leukaemia-associated mouse chromosome 2 deletions in X-ray exposed immature haematopoietic progenitors and stem cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Olme, C.-H.; Brown, N.; Finnon, R.; Bouffler, S.D.; Badie, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation can lead to an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukaemia. In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML), a partial hemizygous deletion of mouse chromosome 2 is a common feature in several susceptible strains. The deletion is an early event detectable 24 h after exposure in bone marrow cells using cytogenetic techniques. Expanding clones of bone marrow cells with chromosome 2 deletions can be detected less than a year after exposure to ionising radiation in around half of the irradiated mice. Ultimately, 15–25% of exposed animals develop AML. It is generally assumed that leukaemia originates in an early progenitor cell or haematopoietic stem cell, but it is unknown whether the original chromosome damage occurs at a similar frequency in committed progenitors and stem cells. In this study, we monitored the frequency of chromosome 2 deletions in immature bone marrow cells (Lin−) and haematopoietic stem cells/multipotent progenitor cells (LSK) by several techniques, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and through use of a reporter gene model, flow cytometry and colony forming units in spleen (CFU-S) following ex vivo or in vivo exposure. We showed that partial chromosome 2 deletions are present in the LSK subpopulation, but cannot be detected in Lin− cells and CFU-S12 cells. Furthermore, we transplanted irradiated Lin− or LSK cells into host animals to determine whether specific irradiated cell populations acquire an increased proliferative advantage compared to unirradiated cells. Interestingly, the irradiated LSK subpopulation containing cells carrying chromosome 2 deletions does not appear to repopulate as well as the unirradiated population, suggesting that the chromosomal deletion does not provide an advantage for growth and in vivo repopulation, at least at early stages following occurrence. PMID:23665297

  5. D-003 does not possess oestrogenic potential in-vivo: findings of the uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Noa, Miriam; Mendoza, Sarahí; Mas, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Valle, Maikel; Pardo, Balia; Gutiérrez, Ariadne; Mendoza, Nilda

    2007-10-01

    D-003 is a mixture of long-chain fatty acids purified from sugarcane wax that inhibits both cholesterol synthesis prior to mevalonate formation, and lipid peroxidation. D-003 has been shown to prevent bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, and significantly improves bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. As hormone-replacement therapy, D-003 displays cholesterol-lowering and anti-resorptive effects. We have studied its potential oestrogenic activity in-vivo using the uterotrophic assay. Rats were randomly distributed into five groups: a sham-operated group and four groups of ovariectomized rats, one treated with vehicle, one with D-003 (50 mg kg(-1)), one with oestradiol benzoate (30 microg kg(-1)) and one with D-003 (50 mg kg(-1)) plus oestradiol benzoate (30 microg kg(-1)). Treatments were administered for 14 days. Ovariectomy decreased the values of relative uterus weight, epithelium cell height and endometrial thickness compared with sham-operated rats, and these effects were all significantly reduced with oestradiol benzoate, but not with D-003. Concurrent administration of D-003 and oestradiol benzoate had statistically similar effects on all variables as oestradiol benzoate alone. In conclusions, D-003 orally given at 50 mg kg(-1), a dose that prevents bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, did not display oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic activity in-vivo, as assessed in the uterotrophic assay.

  6. Immature myeloid cells and cancer-associated immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2002-08-01

    Impaired balance between mature and immature myeloid cells is one of the hallmarks of cancer. In cancer patients as well as in mouse models there is increasing evidence that progressive tumor growth is associated with an accumulation of immature myeloid cells, monocytes/macrophages, and with a decreased number and function of dendritic cells (DC). This review examines recent findings on the contribution of immature myeloid cells (ImC) to cancer-induced immune suppression.

  7. The constitutively active Ah receptor (CA-AhR) mouse as a model for dioxin exposure - effects in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Brunnberg, Sara; Andersson, Patrik; Poellinger, Lorenz; Hanberg, Annika

    2011-12-01

    The dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates most toxic effects of dioxins. In utero/lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) impairs fetal/neonatal development and the developing male reproductive tract are among the most sensitive tissues. TCDD causes antiestrogenic responses in rodent mammary gland and uterus and in human breast cancer cell lines in the presence of estrogen. Also, more recently an estrogen-like effect of TCDD/AhR has been suggested in the absence of estrogen. A transgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active AhR (CA-AhR) was developed as a model mimicking a situation of constant exposure to AhR agonists. Male and female reproductive tissues of CA-AhR mice were characterized for some of the effects commonly seen after dioxin exposure. Sexually mature CA-AhR female mice showed decreased uterus weight, while an uterotrophic assay in immature CA-AhR mice resulted in increased uterus weight. In immature mice, both TCDD-exposure and CA-AhR increased the expression of the estrogen receptor target gene Cathepsin D. When co-treated with 17β-estradiol no increase in Cathepsin D levels occurred in either TCDD-exposed or CA-AhR mice. In sexually mature male CA-AhR mice the weights of testis and ventral prostate were decreased and the epididymal sperm reserve was reduced. The results of the present study are in accordance with previous studies on dioxin-exposed rodents in that an activated AhR (here CA-AhR) leads to antiestrogenic effects in the presence of estrogen, but to estrogenic effects in the absence of estrogen. These results suggest the CA-AhR mouse model as a useful tool for studies of continuous low activity of the AhR from early development, resembling the human exposure situation.

  8. Bone marrow transplantation generates immature oocytes and rescues long-term fertility in a preclinical mouse model of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Joon; Selesniemi, Kaisa; Niikura, Yuichi; Niikura, Teruko; Klein, Rachael; Dombkowski, David M; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2007-08-01

    Although early menopause frequently occurs in female cancer patients after chemotherapy (CTx), bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) has been linked to an unexplained return of ovarian function and fertility in some survivors. Studies modeling this in mice have shown that BMT generates donor-derived oocytes in CTx-treated recipients. However, a subsequent report claimed that ovulated eggs are not derived from BM and that BM-derived oocytes reported previously are misidentified immune cells. This study was conducted to further clarify the impact of BMT on female reproductive function after CTx using a preclinical mouse model. Female mice were administered CTx followed by BMT using coat color-mismatched female donors. After housing with males, the number of pregnancies and offspring genotype were recorded. For cell tracking, BM from germline-specific green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice was transplanted into CTx-treated wild-type recipients. Immune cells were sorted from blood and analyzed for germline markers. BMT rescued long-term fertility in CTx-treated females, but all offspring were derived from the recipient germline. Cell tracking showed that donor-derived oocytes were generated in ovaries of recipients after BMT, and two lines of evidence dispelled the claim that these oocytes are misidentified immune cells. These data from a preclinical mouse model validate a testable clinical strategy for preserving or resurrecting ovarian function and fertility in female cancer patients after CTx, thus aligning with recommendations of the 2005 National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Progress Review Group and President's Cancer Panel to prioritize research efforts aimed at improving the quality of life in cancer survivors.

  9. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1−/− mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0–P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner’s membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1−/− mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss. PMID:26084842

  10. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1(-/-) mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0-P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner's membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1(-/-) mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss.

  11. Uterotrophic effects of benzophenone derivatives and a p-hydroxybenzoate used in ultraviolet screens.

    PubMed

    Koda, Tomoko; Umezu, Toyoshi; Kamata, Ryo; Morohoshi, Kaori; Ohta, Toshiko; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) sunscreen products are popular because of concerns about UV radiation and skin cancer. Unfortunately, some of these products contain agents with estrogenic activity. We used an ovariectomized rat uterotrophic assay to measure the estrogenic activities of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (2,4-DHBP), 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (2,2',4,4'-THBP), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl ester (isobutyl-paraben), which are agents in UV sunscreens, and ethynyl estradiol (EE) and bisphenol A (BPA), which are positive controls. All chemicals increased rat uterine weights. The 10% effective doses (ED10, mg/kg/day) of EE, BPA, 2,4-DHBP, 2,2',4,4'-THBP, and isobutyl-paraben, as determined by Hill equation analysis, where 5E-5, 41.1, 544.6, 33.0, and 230.9, respectively, and their relative potencies against EE were about 1/800,000, 1/10,000,000, 1/600,000, and 1/4,000,000, respectively. Our findings indicated that UV screens contain weak estrogenic compounds.

  12. The effect of triclosan on the uterotrophic response to extended doses of ethinyl estradiol in the weanling rat.

    PubMed

    Louis, Gwendolyn W; Hallinger, Daniel R; Stoker, Tammy E

    2013-04-01

    Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor in the rat. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in rats exposed to EE and TCS in the uterotrophic assay, whereas TCS alone had no effect. To further characterize this potentiation, we evaluated the effect of co-exposure with lower doses of EE that are comparable to the concentrations in hormone replacement regimens and began to assess the mechanisms by which this potentiation occurs. Changes in uterine weight, epithelial cell growth, and estrogen-sensitive gene expression were assessed. TCS expectedly enhanced the uterotrophic response to EE, however at significantly lower doses of EE. Similarly, TCS increased the EE-induced stimulation of epithelial cell height following cotreatment. Cotreatment also enhanced the estrogen-induced change in gene expression, which was reversed with an ER antagonist. Furthermore, the TCS-induced potentiation was independent of ER activation, as no effects were observed in the ER TA assay.

  13. Relationship between the results of in vitro receptor binding assay to human estrogen receptor alpha and in vivo uterotrophic assay: comparative study with 65 selected chemicals.

    PubMed

    Akahori, Yumi; Nakai, Makoto; Yamasaki, Kanji; Takatsuki, Mineo; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Ohtaki, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    For screening chemicals possessing endocrine disrupting potencies, the uterotrophic assay has been placed in a higher level in the OECD testing framework than the ER binding assay to detect ER-mediated activities. However, there are no studies that can demonstrate a clear relationship between these assays. In order to clarify the relationship between the in vitro ER binding and in vivo uterotrophic assays and to determine meaningful binding potency from the ER binding assay, we compared the results from these assays for 65 chemicals spanning a variety of chemicals classes. Under the quantitative comparison between logRBAs (relative binding affinities) and logLEDs (lowest effective doses), the log RBA was well correlated with both logLEDs of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic compounds at r(2)=0.67 (n=28) and 0.79 (n=23), respectively. The RBA of 0.00233% was found to be the lowest ER binding potency to elicit estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in the uterotrophic assay, accordingly this value is considered as the detection limit of estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activities in the uterotrophic assay. The usage of this value as cutoff provided the best concordance rate (82%). These findings are useful in a tiered approach for identifying chemicals that have potential to induce ER-mediated effects in vivo.

  14. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the rat uterotrophic assay.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies in the juvenile rat indicated that the biocide triclosan may alter steroid hormone levels. Here, we hypothesize that triclosan possesses estrogenic activity. In the first study, we evaluated the potential estrogenicity of triclosan using the immature rat uter...

  15. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the rat uterotrophic assay.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies in the juvenile rat indicated that the biocide triclosan may alter steroid hormone levels. Here, we hypothesize that triclosan possesses estrogenic activity. In the first study, we evaluated the potential estrogenicity of triclosan using the immature rat uter...

  16. Estrogenicity of outer scales of onion on uteri of immature mice.

    PubMed

    Alrefaie, Zienab A; Amin, Hanan A; Elgayed, Sabah H

    2011-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the estrogen-like activities of the outer scales of onion and garlic on the uteri of immature mice. This work compared the estrogenic effects induced by estradiol with the effects of plant extract (onion, garlic) in models of immature mice (n = 72). The animals were divided into 6 groups, with 12 animals in each group, as follows: Group I (control group), Group II (estradiol-treated group), Group III (onion extract treated group), Group IV (onion extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors), Group V (garlic extract treated group), and Group VI (garlic extract treated group after blockage of estrogen receptors). Uterine wet weight/body mass ratios were determined. Uterotrophic bioassay, immunohistochemical assay for estrogen receptor and proliferative marker Ki67, uterine contractility, and serum estrogen levels were investigated. Onion extract induced proliferative changes in the uterus, it also increased the uterine mass and epithelial cell height. Also, the frequency and amplitude of myometrial contractility were significantly increased in the group treated with onion extract. This estrogenic activity could be attributed to the quercetin and daidzein content, and activation of estrogenic receptors, as these effects disappeared after blockage of E2 receptors. Our results support the possible estrogenic properties of the onion extract, which could be attributed to quercetin and daidzein, but not that of garlic extract.

  17. Mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation on immature rat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Kamiguchi, Yujiroh; Kamiya, Kenji; Nakamura, Nori

    2014-10-01

    Estimates of genetic risks from radiation delivered to humans are derived largely from mouse studies. In males, the target is spermatogonia and a large amount of information is available. In contrast, in females, immature oocytes are the target, but extrapolations from mice to humans are not very definitive because immature mouse oocytes are highly sensitive to radiation and die by apoptosis, which is not the case in humans. Since mouse offspring derived from surviving immature oocytes have to date not shown any signs of mutation induction, two alternative hypotheses are proposed: 1. Apoptotic death effectively eliminates damaged oocytes in mice and therefore human immature oocytes may be highly mutable; and 2. Immature oocytes are inherently resistant to mutation induction and apoptotic death is not relevant to mutagenesis. To test these hypotheses, rat immature oocytes, which are not as sensitive as those in mice to radiation-induced apoptosis were exposed to 2.5 Gy of gamma rays and the offspring were examined using a two-dimensional DNA analysis method. Screening of a total of 2.26 million DNA fragments, we identified 32 and 18 mutations in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Of these, in the two groups, 29 and 14 mutations were microsatellite mutations, two and one were base changes, and one and three were deletions. Among the four deletions most relevant to radiation exposure, only one was possibly derived from the irradiated dam (but not determined) and three were paternal in origin. Although the number of mutations was small, the results appear to support the second hypothesis and indicate that immature oocytes are generally less sensitive than mature oocytes to mutation induction.

  18. Newborn Physiological Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Fabrellas-Padrés, Núria; Delgado-Hito, Pilar; Hurtado-Pardos, Bárbara; Martí-Cavallé, Montserrat; Gironès-Nogué, Marta; García-Berman, Rosa-Maria; Alonso-Fernandez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most standardized nursing care plans for healthy neonates include multiple nursing diagnoses to reflect nurses' judgments on the infant's status; however scientific literature concerning this issue is scarce. Newborn physiological immaturity is a concept in the ATIC terminology (architecture, terminology, interface, information, nursing [infermeria], and knowledge [coneixement]) to represent the natural status of vulnerability of the healthy neonate. Purpose: To identify the essential attributes of the concept and provide its conceptual and operational definition, using the Wilsonian approach. Findings: The concept under analysis embeds a natural cluster of vulnerabilities and environmental interactions that enhance the evolving maturation process. Implications for Practice: The use of this diagnosis may simplify the process of charting the nursing care plans and reduce time needed for documentation while maintaining the integrity of the information. Implications for Research: Consistent development and use of nursing concepts is essential for knowledge building. Studies on the actual use of nursing diagnoses are needed to inform decision making. PMID:25822514

  19. Treating immature stands for wildlife

    Treesearch

    William M. Healy; Garry F. Houf

    1989-01-01

    Immature stands include those up to 60 years old or in the sapling, pole, and small sawtimber size-class. Immature stands, particularly in the sapling or pole stage, present a challenge to the wildlife manager. Compared to either younger regenerating stands or more mature stands, pole-size trees do not provide much mast or forage beneficial for wildlife (fig. 1).

  20. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.

  1. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGES

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; ...

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  2. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  3. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Cristina V; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B; Kuo, Chay T; Wadiche, Jacques I; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.

  4. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine.

  5. Silvicultural treatments in immature stands

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Schlesinger

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments for immature central hardwood stands include precommercial and commercial thinnings, lateral branch pruning, fertilization, cull tree deadening, and vine removal. The specifics of these treatments are discussed elsewhere in these Notes. This Note discusses some basic concepts in the selection and application of silvicultural treatments for...

  6. Immature embryo rescue and culture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiuli; Gmitter, Fred G; Grosser, Jude W

    2011-01-01

    Embryo culture techniques have many significant applications in plant breeding, as well as basic studies in physiology and biochemistry. Immature embryo rescue and culture is a particularly attractive technique for recovering plants from sexual crosses where the majority of embryos cannot survive in vivo or become dormant for long periods of time. Overcoming embryo inviability is the most common reason for the application of embryo rescue techniques. Recently, fruit breeding programs have greatly increased the interest in exploiting interploid hybridization to combine desirable genetic traits of complementary parents at the triploid level for the purpose of developing improved seedless fruits. However, the success of this approach has only been reported in limited number of species due to various crossing barriers and embryo abortion at very early stages. Thus, immature embryo rescue provides an alternative means to recover triploid hybrids, which usually fail to completely develop in vivo. This chapter will provide a brief discussion of the utilization of interploid crosses between a monoembryonic diploid female with an allotetraploid male in a citrus cultivar improvement program, featuring a clear and comprehensive illustration of successful protocols for immature embryo rescue and culture. The protocols will cover the complete process from embryo excision to recovered plant in the greenhouse and can easily be adapted to other plant commodities. Factors affecting the success and failure of immature embryo rescue to recover triploid progeny from interploid crosses will be discussed.

  7. Human iPSC-derived Immature Astroglia Promote Oligodendrogenesis by increased TIMP-1 Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Pleasure, David E.; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Astrocytes, once considered passive support cells, are increasingly appreciated as dynamic regulators of neuronal development and function, in part via secreted factors. The extent to which they similarly regulate oligodendrocytes, or proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is less well understood. Here, we generated astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-Astros) and demonstrate that immature astrocytes - as opposed to mature - promoted oligodendrogenesis in vitro. In the PVL mouse model of neonatal hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy, associated with cerebral palsy in humans, transplanted immature hiPSC-Astros promote myelinogenesis and behavioral outcome. We further identified TIMP-1 as a selectively upregulated component secreted from immature hiPSC-Astros. Accordingly, in the rat PVL model, intranasal administration of conditioned medium from immature hiPSC-Astros promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in a TIMP-1 dependent manner. Our findings suggest stage-specific developmental interactions between astroglia and oligodendroglia, with important therapeutic implications for promoting myelinogenesis. PMID:27134175

  8. The estrogenicity of methylparaben and ethylparaben at doses close to the acceptable daily intake in immature Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Libei; Yu, Tong; Guo, Jilong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Xiao, Xuan; Sun, Yingli; Xiao, Han; Li, Junyu; Zhu, Desheng; Sai, Linlin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The estrogenicity of parabens at human exposure levels has become a focus of concern due to the debate over whether the estrogenicity of parabens is strong enough to play a role in the increased incidence of breast cancer. In this study, the uterotrophic activities of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) at doses close to the acceptable daily intake as allocated by JECFA were demonstrated in immature Sprague-Dawley rats by intragastric administration, and up-regulations of estrogen-responsive biomarker genes were found in uteri of the rats by quantitative real-time RT–PCR (Q-RT-PCR). At the same time, the urinary concentrations of MP and EP, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in rats that received the same doses of MP and EP, were found to be near the high urinary levels reported in human populations in recent years. These results show the in vivo estrogenicity of MP and EP at human exposure levels, and indicate that populations exposed to large amounts of MP and EP may have a high burden of estrogenicity-related diseases. In addition, a molecular docking simulation showed interaction between the parabens and the agonist-binding pocket of human estrogen receptor α (hERα). PMID:27121550

  9. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Na; Jeong, Si-Yeon; Bae, Gyu-Un; Chang, Minsun; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Xiyuan; Pei, Yihua; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Yun Seon

    2014-01-01

    Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for hERα and hERβ with IC50 values of 1.20 ×10−7 g/ml and 1.00×10−7 g/ml, respectively. LNE induced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on hER α and β than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for hERβ than hERα, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause. PMID:25143815

  10. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  11. Antibodies against the Envelope Glycoprotein Promote Infectivity of Immature Dengue Virus Serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Voorham, Júlia M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda Vanesa; Colpitts, Tonya M.; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Fikrig, Erol; Diamond, Michael S.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV) antibodies directed against the envelope (E) and precursor membrane (prM) proteins are believed to contribute to the development of severe dengue disease by facilitating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. We and others recently demonstrated that anti-prM antibodies render essentially non-infectious immature DENV infectious in Fcγ-receptor-expressing cells. Immature DENV particles are abundantly present in standard (st) virus preparations due to inefficient processing of prM to M during virus maturation. Structural analysis has revealed that the E protein is exposed in immature particles and this prompted us to investigate whether antibodies to E render immature particles infectious. To this end, we analyzed the enhancing properties of 27 anti-E antibodies directed against distinct structural domains. Of these, 23 bound to immature particles, and 15 enhanced infectivity of immature DENV in a furin-dependent manner. The significance of these findings was subsequently tested in vivo using the well-established West Nile virus (WNV) mouse model. Remarkably, mice injected with immature WNV opsonized with anti-E mAbs or immune serum produced a lethal infection in a dose-dependent manner, whereas in the absence of antibody immature WNV virions caused no morbidity or mortality. Furthermore, enhancement infection studies with standard (st) DENV preparations opsonized with anti-E mAbs in the presence or absence of furin inhibitor revealed that prM-containing particles present within st virus preparations contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Taken together, our results support the notion that antibodies against the structural proteins prM and E both can promote pathogenesis by enhancing infectivity of prM-containing immature and partially mature flavivirus particles. PMID:22431958

  12. Assessment of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one as a potential endocrine disrupting chemical in rats using the Hershberger and uterotrophic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M J; Bannon, D I; Jackovitz, A M; Hanna, T L; Shiflett, A A; Johnson, M S

    2014-01-01

    The explosive 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) is an insensitive formulation developed to replace high energetics that are susceptible to accidental detonation from heat, shock, and impact. Although studies have shown NTO to be nontoxic at acute exposures, recent subacute and subchronic tests have demonstrated effects on testes and subsequent sperm production in rats. This study assessed endocrine disruption as a potential mechanism for these reproductive effects via the Hershberger and uterotrophic bioassays. These assays are 2 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's tier 1 in vivo screens for the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program that measure differences in androgen- and estrogen-sensitive tissue weights in castrated and ovariectomized rats. The gonadectomized rats were orally exposed to NTO in a corn oil vehicle at doses of 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d for 10 and 3 days for the Hershberger and uterotrophic assays, respectively, according to standard protocols. Male rats also received testosterone (0.2 mg/kg/d, subcutaneous) and antiandrogenic flutamide (3mg/kg/d, oral) as negative and positive controls, and females received 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (0.3 µg/d, subcutaneous) as positive controls. 3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one caused neither a decrease in androgen-sensitive male reproductive selected tissue (seminal vesicles with fluid/without fluid, glans penis, Cowper gland, ventral prostrate, and levator ani-bulbocavernosus) weights nor a change in uterine weights. The results of this study provide no evidence to suggest that NTO acts like an estrogenic or antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor in rats at these doses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Peer review of validation studies: an assessment of the role of the OECD by reference to the validation of the uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peer-review process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.

  14. Genomics of Mature and Immature Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Melissa D.; Breheny, Patrick; Stromberg, Arnold J.; McClintock, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous replacement of neurons in the olfactory epithelium provides an advantageous model for investigating neuronal differentiation and maturation. By calculating the relative enrichment of every mRNA detected in samples of mature mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), immature OSNs, and the residual population of neighboring cell types, and then comparing these ratios against the known expression patterns of >300 genes, enrichment criteria that accurately predicted the OSN expression patterns of nearly all genes were determined. We identified 847 immature OSN-specific and 691 mature OSN-specific genes. The control of gene expression by chromatin modification and transcription factors, and neurite growth, protein transport, RNA processing, cholesterol biosynthesis, and apoptosis via death domain receptors, were overrepresented biological processes in immature OSNs. Ion transport (ion channels), presynaptic functions, and cilia-specific processes were overrepresented in mature OSNs. Processes overrepresented among the genes expressed by all OSNs were protein and ion transport, ER overload response, protein catabolism, and the electron transport chain. To more accurately represent gradations in mRNA abundance and identify all genes expressed in each cell type, classification methods were used to produce probabilities of expression in each cell type for every gene. These probabilities, which identified 9,300 genes expressed in OSNs, were 96% accurate at identifying genes expressed in OSNs and 86% accurate at discriminating genes specific to mature and immature OSNs. This OSN gene database not only predicts the genes responsible for the major biological processes active in OSNs, but also identifies thousands of never before studied genes that support OSN phenotypes. PMID:22252456

  15. Transcriptomic immaturity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in patients with alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Murano, Tomoyuki; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hagihara, Hideo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Alcoholism, which is defined as the recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences, has a lifetime prevalence of 17.8%. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption disrupts various brain functions and behaviours. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie alcoholism are currently unclear. Recently, we discovered “pseudo-immature” brain cell states of the dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in mouse models of psychotic disorders and epileptic seizure. Similar pseudo-immaturity has been observed in patients with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Patients with alcoholism occasionally exhibit similar psychological symptoms, implying shared molecular and cellular mechanisms between these diseases. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to compare microarray data from the hippocampi/PFCs of the patients with alcoholism to data from these regions in developing human brains and mouse developmental data for specific cell types. We identified immature-like gene expression patterns in post-mortem hippocampi/PFCs of alcoholic patients and the dominant contributions of fast-spiking (FS) neurons to their pseudo-immaturity. These results suggested that FS neuron dysfunction and the subsequent imbalance between excitation and inhibition can be associated with pseudo-immaturity in alcoholism. These immaturities in the hippocampi/PFCs and the underlying mechanisms may explain the psychotic symptom generation and pathophysiology of alcoholism. PMID:28295046

  16. Experimental characterization of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuji; Toujima, Saori; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Yukawa, Kazunori; Umesaki, Naohiko

    2008-07-01

    Minimal optimal surgery without chemotherapy is often performed for patients with ovarian immature teratoma, which frequently occurs in young women who hope for future pregnancies. If tumors recur after the operation, anticancer drug chemotherapy is often administered, although few studies have highlighted differences between the recurrent and the primary tumor cells. Therefore, we have established experimental animal models of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery and characterized the anticancer drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the recurrent tumors. Surgically-excised tumor cells of a grade II ovarian immature teratoma were cultured in vitro and transplanted into nude mice to establish stable cell lines. Differential drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the tumor cells were compared between the primary and the nude mouse tumors. Nude mouse tumor cells showed a normal 46XX karyotype. Cultured primary cells showed a remarkably high sensitivity to paclitaxel, docetaxel, adriamycin and pirarubicin, compared to peritoneal cancer cells obtained from a patient with ovarian adenocarcinomatous peritonitis. The drug sensitivity of teratoma cells to 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin or peplomycin was also significantly higher. However, there was no significant difference in sensitivity to platinum drugs between the primary teratoma and the peritoneal adenocarcinoma cells. As for nude mouse tumor cells, sensitivity to 12 anticancer drugs was significantly lower than that of the primary tumor cells, while there was little difference in sensitivity to carboplatin or peplomycin between the primary and nude mouse tumor cells. Flow cytometry showed that the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) significantly decreased in nude mouse tumor cells when compared to cultured primary cells. In conclusion, ovarian immature teratomas with normal karyotypes have a malignant potential to recur after minimal surgery. During nude mouse transplantation, SMA

  17. Hyperoxia and the Immature Brain.

    PubMed

    Reich, Bettina; Hoeber, Daniela; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula

    2017-02-03

    Despite major advances in obstetrics and neonatal intensive care, preterm infants frequently suffer from neurological impairments in later life. Preterm and also full-term neonates are generally susceptible to injury caused by reactive oxygen species due to the immaturity of endogenous radical scavenging systems. It is well known that high oxygen levels experienced during the critical phase of maturation can profoundly influence developmental processes. Supraphysiological oxygen concentrations used for resuscitation or in the care of critically ill infants are known to have deleterious effects on the developing lung and retina, contributing to the pathophysiology of neonatal diseases like bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity. Moreover, experimental work from the last decade suggests that hyperoxia also leads to neuronal and glial cell death, contributing to the injury of white and grey matter observed in preterm infants. During the critical phase of brain maturation, hyperoxia can alter developmental processes, resulting in the disruption of neural plasticity and myelination. However, oxygen therapy can often not be avoided in neonatal intensive care. Therefore, in situations requiring oxygen supplementation, in addition to the development of appropriate monitoring systems, protective and/or regenerative strategies are highly warranted. Here, we summarise the clinical and experimental evidence as well as potential therapeutic strategies, providing an overview of the pathophysiology of oxygen exposure on the developing central nervous system and its impact on neonatal brain injury.

  18. Phaseolus immature embryo rescue technology.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Pascal; Toussaint, André; Mergeai, Guy; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Predominant among the production constraints of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris are infestation of Ascochyta blight, Bean Golden Mosaic virus (BGMV), and Bean Fly. Interbreeding with Phaseolus -coccineus L. and/or Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm has been shown to provide P. vulgaris with greater resistance to these diseases. For interspecific crosses to be successful, it is important to use P. coccineus and P. polyanthus as female parents; this prevents rapid reversal to the recurrent parent P. vulgaris. Although incompatibility barriers are post-zygotic, early hybrid embryo abortion limits the success of F1 crosses. While rescue techniques for globular and early heart-shaped embryos have improved in recent years, -success in hybridization remains very low. In this study, we describe six steps that allowed us to rescue 2-day-old P. vulgaris embryos using a pod culture technique. Our methods consisted of (i) pod culture, (ii) extraction and culture of immature embryos, (iii) dehydration of embryos, (iv) germination of embryos, (v) rooting of developed shoots, and (vi) hardening of plantlets.

  19. "Young at heart": Regenerative potential linked to immature cardiac phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Renata S M; Skroblin, Philipp; Munster, Alex B; Tomlins, Hannah; Langley, Sarah R; Zampetaki, Anna; Yin, Xiaoke; Wardle, Fiona C; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The adult human myocardium is incapable of regeneration; yet, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can regenerate damaged myocardium. Similar to the zebrafish heart, hearts of neonatal, but not adult mice are capable of myocardial regeneration. We performed a proteomics analysis of adult zebrafish hearts and compared their protein expression profile to hearts from neonatal and adult mice. Using difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), there was little overlap between the proteome from adult mouse (>8weeks old) and adult zebrafish (18months old) hearts. Similarly, there was a significant degree of mismatch between the protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse hearts. Enrichment analysis of the selected proteins revealed over-expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins in the cardiac proteome of the adult zebrafish heart similar to neonatal and 4days old mice, whereas in hearts of adult mice there was a mitochondria-related predominance in protein expression. Importantly, we noted pronounced differences in the myofilament composition: the adult zebrafish heart lacks many of the myofilament proteins of differentiated adult cardiomyocytes such as the ventricular isoforms of myosin light chains and nebulette. Instead, troponin I and myozenin 1 were expressed as skeletal isoforms rather than cardiac isoforms. The relative immaturity of the adult zebrafish heart was further supported by cardiac microRNA data. Our assessment of zebrafish and mammalian hearts challenges the assertions on the translational potential of cardiac regeneration in the zebrafish model. The immature myofilament composition of the fish heart may explain why adult mouse and human cardiomyocytes lack this endogenous repair mechanism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Placental immaturity, endocardial fibroelastosis and fetal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marie-Hélène; Boulos, Tatiana; Stucki, Pascal; Cotting, Jacques; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Di Bernardo, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We describe a term newborn who, after a normal gestational course, presented at birth with absent cardiac activity and no spontaneous breathing. Death occurred within 30 h. Autopsy revealed placental villous immaturity, multiple acute hypoxic lesions, but also chronic hypoxic lesions like endocardial fibroelastosis. This striking association of endocardial fibroelastosis and placental villous immaturity is reviewed and correlated with 2 other cases of placental villous immaturity that led to in utero death at 39 and 41 weeks of gestation. Placental villous immaturity must be suspected and looked for by both pediatricians and obstetricians in every case of stillbirth or perinatal asphyxia of unclear origin. In order to minimize the risk of recurrence in further pregnancies, elective cesarean section may be considered.

  1. Immature doublecortin-positive hippocampal neurons are important for learning but not for remembering.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Jana; Borlikova, Gilyana G; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Robinson, Gregory J; Sullivan, Robert K P; Walker, Tara L; Bartlett, Perry F

    2013-04-10

    It is now widely accepted that hippocampal neurogenesis underpins critical cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. To assess the behavioral importance of adult-born neurons, we developed a novel knock-in mouse model that allowed us to specifically and reversibly ablate hippocampal neurons at an immature stage. In these mice, the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is expressed under control of the doublecortin (DCX) promoter, which allows for specific ablation of immature DCX-expressing neurons after administration of diphtheria toxin while leaving the neural precursor pool intact. Using a spatially challenging behavioral test (a modified version of the active place avoidance test), we present direct evidence that immature DCX-expressing neurons are required for successful acquisition of spatial learning, as well as reversal learning, but are not necessary for the retrieval of stored long-term memories. Importantly, the observed learning deficits were rescued as newly generated immature neurons repopulated the granule cell layer upon termination of the toxin treatment. Repeat (or cyclic) depletion of immature neurons reinstated behavioral deficits if the mice were challenged with a novel task. Together, these findings highlight the potential of stimulating neurogenesis as a means to enhance learning.

  2. Detoxification and function of immature tomato.

    PubMed

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Onoda, Eri

    2016-10-15

    α-Tomatine and chlorophyll (a and b) decreased, and β-carotene and lycopene increased with ripening of tomatoes. α-Tomatine was localised in peel of immature green tomatoes. The dose-response curve of α-tomatine determined by WST-1 (water soluble tetrazolium) assay was the same as that by LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assay, suggesting that the cytotoxicity of α-tomatine depends on the destruction of plasma membrane. Immature green tomatoes had little cytotoxic effect after one month-incubation with 25% ethanol or 4.5% acetate at 7°C, and α-tomatine was decomposed by crude enzymes extracted from immature green tomatoes. Immature green tomatoes incubated with 4.5% acetic acid inhibited the accumulation of lipid in adipocytes. From the above facts the detoxification and the anti-obesity effect of immature green tomatoes are expected to be controlled by the removal of peel, the enzymatic decomposition or the incubation with 4.5% acetate or 25% ethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Male Care, Provided to Immature Individuals, Influence Immature Fitness in Rhesus Macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Among many mammals, maternal care strongly impacts infant survival; however, less is known about whether adult males also affect infant fitness. Paternal care is expected when providing care enhances offspring survival and reproduction, which likewise increases fathers’ fitness. Males might also care for unrelated immature individuals to increase their mating probability with the immature individuals’ mothers. Studies in multimale primate groups showed that sires enhance food access for offspring and provide protection in conflicts. Furthermore, fathers’ presence during infancy has been suggested to accelerate offspring sexual maturation. However, no study has yet directly linked the degree of father-offspring bonds to offspring fitness in primates. We previously reported father-offspring affiliation in rhesus macaques, pronounced during early infancy and independent of mothers’ presence. The present study aims at investigating whether affiliation with fathers or other males affects proxies of immature fitness (body mass gain, body fat and testis size). First, we combined behavioral, genetic and morphometric data from 55 subjects of one group. Second, using demographic and genetic data, we investigated for 92 individuals of the population whether mother- and father-offspring co-residence during immaturity influenced offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Our results show that focal rank and higher amounts of affiliation with high-ranking males during infancy tend to positively impact body mass gain of female, but not male focal animals. In contrast, body mass gain of male focal individuals, but not females’, appeared to be higher when affiliation of male immature individuals was evenly distributed across their adult male partners. Moreover, we found mothers’, but not fathers’, presence during immaturity to predict offspring LRS. Our results suggest that male-immature affiliation, but not father-offspring co-residence, potentially impacts

  4. Cryopreservation of immature embryos of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Pence, V C

    1991-06-01

    Immature, white zygotic embryos of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao) retained the ability to produce callus and to undergo somatic embryogenesis after slow hydrated freezing and desiccated fast freezing in liquid nitrogen. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis occurred in embryos which were precultured on a medium containing 3% sucrose, frozen slowly with cryoprotectants before exposure to liquid nitrogen, and recovered on a medium containing 3 mg/liter NAA. Embryos precultured on media containing sucrose increasing to 21% had a higher rate of survival but were less embryogenic after freezing. These results suggest that immature embryos might be used for long-term germplasm storage of T. cacao germplasm.

  5. Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, J K; Lee, M K; Yun, Y P; Kim, Y; Kim, J S; Kim, Y S; Kim, K; Han, S S; Lee, C K

    2001-07-01

    Acemannan, a major carbohydrate fraction of Aloe vera gel, has been known to have antiviral and antitumoral activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. The present study was set out to define the immunomodulatory activity of acemannan on dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most important accessory cells for the initiation of primary immune responses. Immature DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells by culturing in a medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4, and then stimulated with acemannan, sulfated acemannan, and LPS, respectively. The resultant DCs were examined for phenotypic and functional properties. Phenotypic analysis for the expression of class II MHC molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1, B7-2, CD40 and CD54 confirmed that acemannan could induce maturation of immature DCs. Functional maturation of immature DCs was supported by increased allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and IL-12 production. The differentiation-inducing activity of acemannan was almost completely abolished by chemical sulfation. Based on these results, we propose that the adjuvant activity of acemannan is at least in part due to its capacity to promote differentiation of immature DCs.

  6. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  7. Structure and uncoating of immature adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Berná, Ana J.; Marabini, Roberto; Scheres, Sjors H. W.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Curiel, David T.; Mangel, Walter F.; Flint, S. Jane; Martín, Carmen San

    2009-01-01

    Summary Maturation via proteolytical processing is a common trait in the viral world, and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins, but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion; and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytical processing are not infectious. We present the 3D structure of immature adenovirus particles, as represented by the thermosensitive mutant Ad2 ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions, and compare it with the mature capsid. Our 3DEM maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the location of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help to define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged. PMID:19563809

  8. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.; Scheres, S. H. W., Menendez-Conejero, R.; Dmitriev, I. P.; Curiel, D. T.; Flint, S. J.; San Martin, C.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particles as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of intracranial immature teratoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is toexplore the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of intracranial immature teratomas. The clinical data, serum levels of tumor markers, treatment regimens and prognosis of 15 patients with intracranial immature teratomas were reviewed retrospectively. In patients whose plasma alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) were determined, AFP and beta-HCG were elevated in 57.1 and 16.7% of the cases, respectively. All patients received surgical treatment. The tumor was totally removed in 12 cases, subtotally in 2, and partially in 1 case. After surgery, of the 15 patients, 9 received radiotherapy, 4 gamma knife surgery and 7 chemotherapy. Thirteen patients were followed up. Compared to the common 5-year survival rate of 40%, in patients who received gamma knife surgery, the 5-year survival rate after surgery was 100%, which is better than the 5-year survival rate of patients who did not receive gamma knife surgery (p = 0.0049). Postoperative radiotherapy and chemical therapy had no significant impact on the 5-year survival rate (p > 0.05). The prognosis of intracranial immature teratomas is poor. The detection of their clinical manifestation, the analysis of imaging features and the serum levels of tumor markers are helpful in diagnosing intracranial teratomas. The total removal of the tumor is important to cure the disease. We did not see a difference in outcome between patients who received postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy and those who did not. Regular follow-up MRI examinations are necessary so that the conditions of the patients can be closely monitored. If a patient has residual or recurrent tumor after surgery, gamma knife surgery can be effective. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  11. Molecular differentiation of metastriate tick immatures.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer M; Ammerman, Nicole C; Norris, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    Hard ticks, family Ixodidae, are divided into two groups, the Metastriata and the Prostriata, based on morphological differences. In the United States, there are four medically important genera of the Ixodidae: Ixodes, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, and Rhipicephalus. Ixodes is the only genus in and representative of the Prostriata, whereas the latter three genera are members of the Metastriata. All developmental stages of the Prostriata can be easily differentiated from the Metastriata using morphology. Similarly, the three Metastriate genera are highly identifiable as adults, yet as immatures, the discriminating characteristics can be difficult to use for differentiation, especially if the specimens are damaged or engorged with blood. All three Metastriate genera represent medically important vectors, thus accurate differentiation is necessary. To this end, we have developed a multiplexed-PCR diagnostic assay that, when combined with RFLP analysis will differentiate between the Metastriate genera--Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Haemaphysalis based on the length of the PCR amplicon and subsequent restriction digestion profile. The intended use for this diagnostic is to verify morphological identifications, especially of immatures, as well as to identify samples destroyed for molecular analysis, which will lead to more accurate field data as well as implication of vectors in disease transmission.

  12. Fibroadenoma with "immature-like" type of usual ductal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bezić, Joško; Karaman, Ivana; Kunac, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of the breast fibroadenoma with foci of so-called immature variant of the conventional ductal hyperplasia. This type of usual ductal hyperplasia is histologically characterised by encircling intraductal proliferation of large cells with pale to amphophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei which vary in shape and in staining quality of the chromatin. We showed here, using the cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, that the proliferating cells were not of immature but rather mature immunohistochemical phenotype. Because of the presented discordance between immature histology and mature immunohistological profile we suggest that this rare type of usual ductal hyperplasia should be called "immature-like".

  13. Prenatally Diagnosed Aggressive Intracranial Immature Teratoma-Clinicopathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Hiroki; Price, Dana E; Jada, Ajit; Weintraub, Lauren; Weidenheim, Karen M; Gomes, William A; Levy, Adam S; Abbott, Rick; Malbari, Fatema

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinicopathological correlation of congenital intracranial immature teratoma. A retrospective case analysis from a tertiary medical center. We report a case of an intracranial immature teratoma detected prenatally at 35 weeks of gestation. The tumor showed rapid growth, causing acute hydrocephalus requiring subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Resective surgery was performed within 2 weeks after birth. The infant died at day of life 29. Histological examination revealed an immature teratoma, with high MIB1/Ki-67 proliferation index. Intracranial immature teratoma with high MIB1/Ki-67 proliferation index may serve as an independent poor prognostic factor.

  14. Ras activation of Erk restores impaired tonic BCR signaling and rescues immature B cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Sarah L.; DePersis, Corinne L.; Torres, Raul M.

    2010-01-01

    B cell receptors (BCRs) generate tonic signals critical for B cell survival and early B cell development. To determine whether these signals also mediate the development of transitional and mature B cells, we examined B cell development using a mouse strain in which nonautoreactive immunoglobulin heavy and light chain–targeted B cells express low surface BCR levels. We found that reduced BCR expression translated into diminished tonic BCR signals that strongly impaired the development of transitional and mature B cells. Constitutive expression of Bcl-2 did not rescue the differentiation of BCR-low B cells, suggesting that this defect was not related to decreased cell survival. In contrast, activation of the Ras pathway rescued the differentiation of BCR-low immature B cells both in vitro and in vivo, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) inhibition impaired the differentiation of normal immature B cells. These results strongly suggest that tonic BCR signaling mediates the differentiation of immature into transitional and mature B cells via activation of Erk, likely through a pathway requiring Ras. PMID:20176802

  15. HID-1 is required for homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules during maturation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen; Zhou, Maoge; Zhao, Wei; Cheng, Dongwan; Wang, Lifen; Lu, Jingze; Song, Eli; Feng, Wei; Xue, Yanhong; Xu, Pingyong; Xu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Secretory granules, also known as dense core vesicles, are generated at the trans-Golgi network and undergo several maturation steps, including homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules (ISGs) and processing of prehormones to yield active peptides. The molecular mechanisms governing secretory granule maturation are largely unknown. Here, we investigate a highly conserved protein named HID-1 in a mouse model. A conditional knockout of HID-1 in pancreatic β cells leads to glucose intolerance and a remarkable increase in the serum proinsulin/insulin ratio caused by defective proinsulin processing. Large volume three-dimensional electron microscopy and immunofluorescence imaging reveal that ISGs are much more abundant in the absence of HID-1. We further demonstrate that HID-1 deficiency prevented secretory granule maturation by blocking homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules. Our data identify a novel player during the early maturation of immature secretory granules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18134.001 PMID:27751232

  16. Poststroke neurogenesis: emerging principles of migration and localization of immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohab, J J; Carmichael, S T

    2008-08-01

    Stroke induces proliferation of newly born neurons in the subventricular zone, migration of these immature neurons away from the SVZ, and localization within peri-infarct tissues. These 3 processes of proliferation, migration, and localization constitute distinct spatial and temporal zones within poststroke neurogenesis with distinct molecular and cell-cell signaling environments. Immature neurons migrate after stroke in close association with blood vessels and astrocytic processes, in a process that involves matrix metalloproteinases. This poststroke migration shares similar features with normal neuroblast migration in the rostral migratory stream. Immature neurons localize in the peri-infarct cortex in a neurovascular niche where neurogenesis is causally linked to angiogenesis through the vascular factors SDF-1 and angiopoietin-1. Other vascular and neuronal growth factors have also been linked to poststroke neuroblast localization in peri-infarct tissue, including erythropoietin. Most data on poststroke neurogenesis derive from laboratory rodents, which may have an abnormal or blunted degree of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity compared to normal, wild rodents. This will likely affect translational application of the principles of poststroke neurogenesis from mouse to man.

  17. Hand motor control: maturing an immature science.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kelly J

    2015-04-01

    In the target article Mark Latash has argued that there is but a single bona-fide theory for hand motor control (referent configuration theory). If this is true, and research is often phenomenological, then we must admit that the science of hand motor control is immature. While describing observations under varying conditions is a crucial (but early) stage of the science of any field, it is also true that the key to maturing any science is to vigorously subject extant theories and budding laws to critical experimentation. If competing theories are absent at the present time is it time for scientists to focus their efforts on maturing the science of hand motor control through critical testing of this long-standing theory (and related collections of knowledge such as the uncontrolled manifold)?

  18. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S.; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography. PMID:26752847

  19. Pulp revascularization of immature maxillary first premolar.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Nuha S; Al-Nazhan, Saad

    2015-01-01

    An immature maxillary first premolar in an 8-year-old female was treated using a regenerative approach. The root canal was gently irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite without instrumentation under aseptic conditions and then medicated with calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) for 3 weeks. The Ca(OH)2 was removed, and bleeding was initiated mechanically using a hand file to form an intracanal blood clot. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed over the blood clot, and the access cavity was sealed with a double filling. Increases in root length and width were radiographically evident, at the 6-month follow-up exam. The case was followed for 3 years. The development of 3 roots with complete apical closure was confirmed using cone beam computed tomography.

  20. Extended protection capabilities of an immature dendritic-cell targeting malaria sporozoite vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kun; Zavala, Fidel; Gordy, James; Zhang, Hong; Markham, Richard B

    2017-03-22

    Mouse studies evaluating candidate malaria vaccines have typically examined protective efficacy over the relatively short time frames of several weeks after the final of multiple immunizations. The current study examines the protective ability in a mouse model system of a novel protein vaccine construct in which the adjuvant polyinosinic polycytidilic acid (poly(I:C)) is used in combination with a vaccine in which the immature dendritic cell targeting chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP3α), is fused to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Two vaccinations, three weeks apart, elicited extraordinarily high, MIP3α-dependent antibody responses. MIP3α was able to target the vaccine to the CCR6 receptor found predominantly on immature dendritic cells and significantly enhanced the cellular influx at the vaccination site. At three and 23 weeks after the final of two immunizations, mice were challenged by intravenous injection of 5×10(3) transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing P. falciparum CSP, a challenge dose approximately one order of magnitude greater than that which is encountered after mosquito bite in the clinical setting. A ninety-seven percent reduction in liver sporozoite load was observed at both time points, 23 weeks being the last time point tested.

  1. Immune tolerance of mice allogenic tooth transplantation induced by immature dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenying; Deng, Feng; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ce; Wang, Yurong

    2015-01-01

    As a common procedure in dentistry for replacing a missing tooth, allogenic tooth transplantation has encountered many difficulties in the clinical application because of immunological rejection. It is hypothesized that immature dendritic cell injection might be a potential alternative method to avoid or alleviate immunological rejection in allogenic tooth transplantation. To test this hypothesis, a mouse model of allogenic and autogeneic tooth transplantation was to established test the immunosuppressive effect of immature dendritic cells (imDCs) derived from donor bone marrows on transplant rejection in allogenic tooth transplantation. 2 × 106 imDCs generated with 50 U/ml GM-CSF were injected to each recipient mouse by two ways: tail vein injection 7 days before transplantation or regional dermal injection at day 0 and day 3 after transplantation. Groups of autogeneic tooth transplantation and allogenic tooth transplantation without any treatment were set as control groups. The effects were evaluated with histopathology and immunohistochemistry. We found there was no obvious rejection in autogeneic tooth transplantation group; tail intravenous injection group showed obviously alleviated rejection while local injection group and none-treatment allogenic tooth transplantation group both showed severe rejection. Our results suggested that the rejection of allogenic tooth transplantation could be alleviated by tail vein injection of donor bone marrow-derived imDCs though it could not be completely eliminated. The clinical application of imDCs in allogenic tooth transplantation still needs further deep research. PMID:26131099

  2. Cytotoxicity of gamma-ray in rat immature hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Miyoung; Song, Myoung-Sub; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Joong-Sun; Shin, Taekyun

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the detrimental effect of acute gamma (γ)-irradiation on rat immature hippocampal neurons. Rat immature hippocampal neurons (0.5 day in vitro) were irradiated with 0~4 Gy γ-rays. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a lactate dehydrogenase release assay at 24 h after γ-irradiation. Radiation-induced cytotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons increased in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatments of pro-apoptotic caspase inhibitors and anti-oxidative substances significantly blocked γ-irradiation-induced cytotoxicity in immature hippocampal neurons. The results suggest that the caspase-dependent cytotoxicity of γ-rays in immature hippocampal cultured neurons may be caused by oxidative stress. PMID:21897091

  3. ETV6 mutations in early immature human T cell leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Haydu, J. Erika; Rigo, Isaura; Hadler, Michael; Tosello, Valeria; Della Gatta, Giusy; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H.; Luger, Selina M.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Rue, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Early immature T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) account for ∼5–10% of pediatric T-ALLs and are associated with poor prognosis. However, the genetic defects that drive the biology of these tumors remain largely unknown. In this study, analysis of microarray gene expression signatures in adult T-ALL demonstrated a high prevalence of early immature leukemias and revealed a close relationship between these tumors and myeloid leukemias. Many adult immature T-ALLs harbored mutations in myeloid-specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors including IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, FLT3, and NRAS. Moreover, we identified ETV6 mutations as a novel genetic lesion uniquely present in immature adult T-ALL. Our results demonstrate that early immature adult T-ALL represents a heterogeneous category of leukemias characterized by the presence of overlapping myeloid and T-ALL characteristics, and highlight the potential role of ETV6 mutations in these tumors. PMID:22162831

  4. Conditional overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and restores immature neuron dendritic processes after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Shaun W; Madathil, Sindhu K; Sama, Diana M; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jinhui; Saatman, Kathryn E

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with neuronal damage or neuronal death in the hippocampus, a region critical for cognitive function. Immature neurons within the hippocampal neurogenic niche are particularly susceptible to TBI. Therapeutic strategies that protect immature hippocampal neurons or enhance posttraumatic neurogenesis may be advantageous for promoting functional recovery after TBI. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes neurogenesis in the adult brain, but its effects on neurogenesis after TBI are unknown. We used an astrocyte-specific conditional IGF-1-overexpressing mouse model to supplement IGF-1 in regions of neuronal damage and reactive astrocytosis after controlled cortical impact injury. Although early loss of immature neurons was not significantly attenuated, overexpression of IGF-1 resulted in a marked increase in immature neuron density in the subgranular zone at 10 days after injury. This delayed increase seemed to be driven by enhanced neuron differentiation rather than by increased cellular proliferation. In wild-type mice, dendrites of immature neurons exhibited significant decreases in total length and number of bifurcations at 10 days after injury versus neurons in sham-injured mice. In contrast, the morphology of immature neuron dendrites in brain-injured IGF-1-overexpressing mice was equivalent to that in sham controls. These data provide compelling evidence that IGF-1 promotes neurogenesis after TBI.

  5. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides I.; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, J. Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. Purpose: To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Results: Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm2; P < .001), femoral tunnel angles (32.1° vs 72.8°; P < .001), and medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 vs 36.1 mm from lateral cortex; P = .001), respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of distal femoral physeal disruption (r = –0.8255, P = .003). Conclusion: Femoral tunnels created with an independent tunnel drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. Clinical Relevance: As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel

  6. Characteristics and genesis of immature oil in Jiyang Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Zhihua; Yang Shenbiao

    1996-12-31

    Immature oil is distributed widely in the Jiyang Depression. There are various types of accumulations (most of them within the Tertiary at depths of less than 2000 meters). Most of geochemical index (such as OEP, Pr/Ph, C{sub 29}.{alpha}.{alpha}.{alpha} 20s/(20s+20r) etc.) of the immature oils are characterized by low maturation. According to the relative abundance of C{sub 27} C{sub 28} C{sub 29} steranes, gammacerane content and the pristane to phytane ratio, the immature oils can be divided into three types in this depression. The oil/rock correlation results show that the hydrocarbon source beds of these three types of immature oil are respectively from immature hydrocarbon source rocks in E{sub s1} E{sub s3} and E{sub s4} members of Shahejie Formation. The author discusses the genesis mechanism of immature oil based on the comprehensive study of the paleontologic assembly, paleoclimate and depositional environment of source rocks combined with the data of simulated tests. It is concluded that immature oil was generated from organic matter during early low-temperature evolution. It was the saline, strongly reducing environment which resulted in an oil source bed rich in lower planktonic algae that favored the generation of low maturity oil.

  7. Characteristics and genesis of immature oil in Jiyang Depression

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Zhihua; Yang Shenbiao )

    1996-01-01

    Immature oil is distributed widely in the Jiyang Depression. There are various types of accumulations (most of them within the Tertiary at depths of less than 2000 meters). Most of geochemical index (such as OEP, Pr/Ph, C[sub 29].[alpha].[alpha].[alpha] 20s/(20s+20r) etc.) of the immature oils are characterized by low maturation. According to the relative abundance of C[sub 27] C[sub 28] C[sub 29] steranes, gammacerane content and the pristane to phytane ratio, the immature oils can be divided into three types in this depression. The oil/rock correlation results show that the hydrocarbon source beds of these three types of immature oil are respectively from immature hydrocarbon source rocks in E[sub s1] E[sub s3] and E[sub s4] members of Shahejie Formation. The author discusses the genesis mechanism of immature oil based on the comprehensive study of the paleontologic assembly, paleoclimate and depositional environment of source rocks combined with the data of simulated tests. It is concluded that immature oil was generated from organic matter during early low-temperature evolution. It was the saline, strongly reducing environment which resulted in an oil source bed rich in lower planktonic algae that favored the generation of low maturity oil.

  8. Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, L.C.; Cox, T.M.

    1988-05-15

    Heme formation in reticulocytes from rabbits and rodents is subject to end produce negative feedback regulation: intracellular free heme has been shown to control acquisition of transferrin iron for heme synthesis. To identify the site of control of heme biosynthesis in the human erythron, immature erythroid cells were obtained from peripheral blood and aspirated bone marrow. After incubation with human /sup 59/Fe transferrin, 2-(/sup 14/C)glycine, or 4-(/sup 14/C)delta-aminolevulinate, isotopic incorporation into extracted heme was determined. Addition of cycloheximide to increase endogenous free heme, reduced incorporation of labeled glycine and iron but not delta-aminolevulinate into cell heme. Incorporation of glycine and iron was also sensitive to inhibition by exogenous hematin. Hematin treatment rapidly diminished incorporation of intracellular /sup 59/Fe into heme by human erythroid cells but assimilation of 4-(/sup 14/C)delta-aminolevulinate into heme was insensitive to inhibition by hematin. In human erythroid cells (but not rabbit reticulocytes) pre-incubation with unlabeled delta-aminolevulinate or protoporphyrin IX greatly stimulated utilization of cell /sup 59/Fe for heme synthesis and also attenuated end product inhibition. In human erythroid cells heme biosynthesis is thus primarily regulated by feedback inhibition at one or more steps which lead to delta-aminolevulinate formation. Hence in man the regulatory process affects generation of the first committed precursor of porphyrin biosynthesis by delta-aminolevulinate synthetase, whereas in the rabbit separate regulatory mechanisms exist which control the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin IX.

  9. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children

    PubMed Central

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system. PMID:26924975

  10. Revascularization/Regeneration performed in immature molars: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, I S; Akbay Oba, A; Erkmen Almaz, M

    2013-01-01

    These 3 case reports the outcome of revascularization treatment in necrotic immature molars. During treatment, a tri antibiotic mix was used to disinfect the pulp for 2 weeks. Then a blood clot was created in the canal, over which mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. After 24 months, the immature molars showed continuation of root development. The patients were asymptomatic, no sinus tracts were evident and apical periodontitis was resolved Results from these cases show that revascularization/regeneration using 3Mix-MP method could be effective for managing immature permanent molar teeth with pulpal necrosis.

  11. “Young at heart”: Regenerative potential linked to immature cardiac phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Renata S.M.; Skroblin, Philipp; Munster, Alex B.; Tomlins, Hannah; Langley, Sarah R.; Zampetaki, Anna; Yin, Xiaoke; Wardle, Fiona C.; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The adult human myocardium is incapable of regeneration; yet, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can regenerate damaged myocardium. Similar to the zebrafish heart, hearts of neonatal, but not adult mice are capable of myocardial regeneration. We performed a proteomics analysis of adult zebrafish hearts and compared their protein expression profile to hearts from neonatal and adult mice. Using difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), there was little overlap between the proteome from adult mouse (> 8 weeks old) and adult zebrafish (18 months old) hearts. Similarly, there was a significant degree of mismatch between the protein expression in neonatal and adult mouse hearts. Enrichment analysis of the selected proteins revealed over-expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins in the cardiac proteome of the adult zebrafish heart similar to neonatal and 4 days old mice, whereas in hearts of adult mice there was a mitochondria-related predominance in protein expression. Importantly, we noted pronounced differences in the myofilament composition: the adult zebrafish heart lacks many of the myofilament proteins of differentiated adult cardiomyocytes such as the ventricular isoforms of myosin light chains and nebulette. Instead, troponin I and myozenin 1 were expressed as skeletal isoforms rather than cardiac isoforms. The relative immaturity of the adult zebrafish heart was further supported by cardiac microRNA data. Our assessment of zebrafish and mammalian hearts challenges the assertions on the translational potential of cardiac regeneration in the zebrafish model. The immature myofilament composition of the fish heart may explain why adult mouse and human cardiomyocytes lack this endogenous repair mechanism. PMID:26827899

  12. Pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Richard; Park, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Immature permanent teeth damaged by caries or trauma can present a challenge to dentistry. Currently, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline is used to attempt revascularization in necrotic immature teeth. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to present a case of pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth. An 8-year-old male presented with trauma to the permanent maxillary left and right central incisors. Upon clinical and radiographic examination, the left central incisor was deemed necrotic. Revascularization therapy was performed over multiple visits. At 11 months follow-up, healing of the periapical area and apexogenesis were found to be complete. With an increasing breadth of clinical evidence and practitioner acceptance, regenerative techniques may become a standard technique in treating immature necrotic permanent teeth.

  13. Immature Stages of the Neotropical Cracker Butterfly, Hamadryas epinome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Carneiro, Eduardo; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The external morphology of the immature stages of Hamadryas epinome (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867) (Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae : Biblidinae) is described, including drawings, photos and scanning electron micrographs. PMID:23414072

  14. [Immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) (Nymphalidae: Morphinae: Brassolini)].

    PubMed

    Specht, Maria J S; Paluch, Márlon

    2009-01-01

    The biology and external morphology of the immature stages of Caligo illioneus illioneus (Cramer) are described from ovipositions collected on leaves of Heliconia velloziana (Heliconiaceae) in the Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco state, Brazil.

  15. Immature mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of high fat diet on cancellous bone in the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Inzana, Jason A; Kung, Ming; Shu, Lei; Hamada, Daisuke; Xing, Lian Ping; Zuscik, Michael J; Awad, Hani A; Mooney, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents, it is imperative to understand the implications of early diet-induced obesity on bone health. We hypothesized that cancellous bone of skeletally immature mice is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of a high fat diet (HFD) than mature mice, and that removing excess dietary fat will reverse these adverse effects. Skeletally immature (5weeks old) and mature (20weeks old) male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a HFD (60% kcal fat) or low fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal fat) for 12weeks, at which point, the trabecular bone structure in the distal femoral metaphysis and third lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The compressive strength of the vertebrae was also measured. In general, the HFD led to deteriorations in cancellous bone structure and compressive biomechanical properties in both age groups. The HFD-fed immature mice had a greater decrease in trabecular bone volume fraction (BVF) in the femoral metaphysis, compared to mature mice (p=0.017 by 2-way ANOVA). In the vertebrae, however, the HFD led to similar reductions in BVF and compressive strength in the two age groups. When mice on the HFD were switched to a LFD (HFD:LFD) for an additional 12weeks, the femoral metaphyseal BVF in immature mice showed no improvements, whereas the mature mice recovered their femoral metaphyseal BVF to that of age-matched lean controls. The vertebral BVF and compressive strength of HFD:LFD mouse bones, following diet correction, were equivalent to those of LFD:LFD mice in both age groups. These data suggest that femoral cancellous metaphyseal bone is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD before skeletal maturity and is less able to recover after correcting the diet. Negative effects of HFD on vertebrae are less severe and can renormalize with LFD:LFD mice after diet correction, in both skeletally immature and mature animals.

  16. A protein called immaturin controlling sexual immaturity in Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Haga, N; Hiwatashi, K

    1981-01-15

    As in many metazoans, clones of some species of Paramecium have, after conjugation, a period of immaturity during which the cells cannot mate. The duration of immaturity is measured by the number of cell generations, which remains fairly constant, although duration in time varies with rate of cell reproduction. Genic involvement is shown by mutants with reduced periods of immaturity. In three different groups of Paramecium species, the cytoplasm of immature cells apparently contains the same substance which represses mating activity when injected into sexually mature cells. The immaturity-inducing substance seems to be absent from sexually mature cells, as brei made not only from mature cells in the stationary phase (mating-reactive cells), but also from those in the log phase (mating-non-reactive cells), does not repress mating activity when injected into mature cells. Variations in the amount of the substance during immaturity suggest that it controls the duration of the period. We have isolated and partially characterized the substance-a single protein called immaturin. The activity of immaturin is dose dependent and associated with a heat-labile protein of molecular weight (MW) 10,000.

  17. Rit GTPase Signaling Promotes Immature Hippocampal Neuronal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weikang; Carlson, Shaun W.; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Mannon, Catherine E.; Moncman, Carole L.; Saatman, Kathryn E.; Andres, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing the spontaneous recovery seen following brain injury remain elusive, but recent studies indicate that injury-induced stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to the repair process. The therapeutic potential of endogenous neurogenesis is tempered by the demonstration that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in the selective death of adult-born immature neurons, compromising the cell population poised to compensate for trauma-induced neuronal loss. Here, we identify the Ras-related GTPase, Rit, as a critical player in the survival of immature hippocampal neurons following brain injury. While Rit knockout (Rit−/−) did not alter hippocampal development, hippocampal neural cultures derived from Rit−/− mice display increased cell death and blunted MAPK cascade activation in response to oxidative stress, without affecting BDNF-dependent signaling. When compared to wild-type hippocampal cultures, Rit loss rendered immature (Dcx+) neurons susceptible to oxidative damage, without altering the survival of neural progenitor (Nestin+) cells. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to neuronal cell death following brain injury. Consistent with the enhanced vulnerability of cultured Rit−/− immature neurons, Rit−/− mice exhibited a significantly greater loss of adult-born immature neurons within the dentate gyrus after TBI. In addition, post-TBI neuronal remodeling was blunted. Taken together, these data identify a new and unexpected role for Rit in injury-induced neurogenesis, functioning as a selective survival mechanism for immature hippocampal neurons within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus following TBI. PMID:22815504

  18. Meiosis in autologous ectopic transplants of immature testicular tissue grafted to Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Wesselmann, Ramona; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    Grafting of immature testicular tissue provides a tool to examine testicular development and may offer a perspective for preservation of fertility in prepubertal patients. Successful xenografting in mice, resulting in mature spermatids, has been performed in several species but has failed with testicular tissues from the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Previous data indicate that the hormonal milieu provided by the mouse host might cause this failure. We conducted autologous ectopic transplantation of testicular fragments under the back skin in newborn marmoset monkeys. Seventeen months after transplantation, we found viable transplants in 2 out of the 4 grafted animals. In the transplants, tubules developed up to a state intermediate between the pregraft situation and adult controls. Dividing spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were present. Boule-like positivity and CDC25A negativity indicated that spermatogenesis was arrested at early meiosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal maturation of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular cells. Serum testosterone values were not restored to the normal range and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin levels increased to castrate levels. Meiotic arrest could have occurred in the grafts because of lack of sufficient testosterone or because of hyperthermia caused by the ectopic position of the grafts. We conclude that autologous transplants of immature testicular tissues in the marmoset can mature up to meiosis but that normal serum testosterone levels are not restored. Further studies have to be performed to overcome the meiotic arrest to explore the model further and to develop therapeutic options.

  19. Gonadal status of male recipient mice influences germ cell development in immature buffalo testis tissue xenograft.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Niranjan; Mahla, Ranjeet Singh; Thathi, Revanth; Suman, Sanjay Kumar; Jose, Jedy; Goel, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development of immature testis xenograft from various domestic mammals has been shown in mouse recipients; however, buffalo testis xenografts have not been reported to date. In this study, small fragments of testis tissue from 8-week-old buffalo calves were implanted subcutaneously onto the back of immunodeficient male mouse recipients, which were either castrated or left intact (non-castrated). The xenografts were retrieved and analyzed 12 and 24 weeks later. The grafted tissue survived and grew in both types of recipient with a significant increase in weight and seminiferous tubule diameter. Recovery of grafts from intact recipients 24 weeks post-grafting was significantly lower than that from the castrated recipients. Seminal vesicle indices and serum testosterone levels were lower in castrated recipients at both collection time points in comparison to the intact recipients and non-grafted intact mouse controls. Pachytene spermatocytes were the most advanced germ cells observed in grafts recovered from castrated recipients 24 weeks post-grafting. Complete spermatogenesis, as indicated by the presence of elongated spermatids, was present only in grafts from intact recipients collected 24 weeks post-grafting. However, significant number of germ cells with DNA damage was also detected in these grafts as indicated by TUNEL assay. The complete germ cell differentiation in xenografts from intact recipients may be attributed to efficient Sertoli cell maturation. These results suggest that germ cell differentiation in buffalo testis xenograft can be completed by altering the recipient gonadal status.

  20. Mechanisms and effects of seizures in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Nardou, Romain; Ferrari, Diana C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2013-08-01

    The developing immature brain is not simply a small adult brain but rather possesses unique physiological properties. These include neuronal ionic currents that differ markedly from those in the adult brain, typically being longer-lasting and less selective. This enables immature heterogeneous neurons to connect and fire together but at the same time, along with other features may contribute to the enhanced propensity of the developing brain to become epileptic. Indeed, immature neurons tend to readily synchronize and thus generate seizures. Here, we review the differences between the immature and adult brain, with particular focus on the developmental sequence of γ-aminobutyric acid that excites immature neurons while being inhibitory in the normal adult brain. We review the mechanisms underlying the developmental changes to intracellular chloride levels, as well as how epileptiform activity can drive pathologic changes to chloride balance in the brain. We show that regulation of intracellular chloride is one important factor that underlies both the ease with which seizures can be generated and the facilitation of further seizures. We stress in particular the importance of understanding normal developmental sequences and how they are interrupted by seizures and other insults, and how this knowledge has led to the identification of potential novel treatments for conditions such as neonatal seizures.

  1. Immature hematopoietic stem cells undergo maturation in the fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Kieusseian, Aurelie; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Burlen-Defranoux, Odile; Godin, Isabelle; Cumano, Ana

    2012-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are defined by their capacity to reconstitute adult conventional mice, are first found in the dorsal aorta after 10.5 days post coitus (dpc) and in the fetal liver at 11 dpc. However, lympho-myeloid hematopoietic progenitors are detected in the dorsal aorta from 9 dpc, raising the issue of their role in establishing adult hematopoiesis. Here, we show that these progenitors are endowed with long-term reconstitution capacity, but only engraft natural killer (NK)-deficient Rag2γc(-/-) mice. This novel population, called here immature HSCs, evolves in culture with thrombopoietin and stromal cells, into HSCs, defined by acquisition of CD45 and MHC-1 expression and by the capacity to reconstitute NK-competent mice. This evolution occurs during ontogeny, as early colonization of fetal liver by immature HSCs precedes that of HSCs. Moreover, organ culture experiments show that immature HSCs acquire, in this environment, the features of HSCs.

  2. Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hudgens, Joshua L.; Dahm, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of ACL tears is rising in the pediatric and adolescent populations as these individuals succumb to traumatic and nontraumatic athletic injuries. Management of this condition in the skeletally immature patient poses a challenge and is controversial. Operative reconstruction carries the concern for damage to the physis with resultant limb length inequality and angular joint deformity but provides stability to the knee and allows return of function in most patients. On the other hand, nonoperative treatment has been shown to carry an increased risk of meniscal and articular cartilage damage and is difficult from a compliance standpoint in this demographic. For the majority of skeletally immature patients, operative treatment is recommended as it has shown good clinical and functional results with minimal risk of growth disturbance. This paper aims to address the natural course of ACL injuries in the skeletally immature patient, treatment options with associated complications, and current preventative strategies. PMID:22315624

  3. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S.; Costa, Magdaline; Ghahremani, Morvarid Farhang; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J. Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S.; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P.; Lock, Richard B.; Curtis, David J.; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J.

    2015-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model. PMID:25565005

  4. ZEB2 drives immature T-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia development via enhanced tumour-initiating potential and IL-7 receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Steven; Radaelli, Enrico; Blanchet, Odile; Durinck, Kaat; Van der Meulen, Joni; Peirs, Sofie; Taghon, Tom; Tremblay, Cedric S; Costa, Magdaline; Farhang Ghahremani, Morvarid; De Medts, Jelle; Bartunkova, Sonia; Haigh, Katharina; Schwab, Claire; Farla, Natalie; Pieters, Tim; Matthijssens, Filip; Van Roy, Nadine; Best, J Adam; Deswarte, Kim; Bogaert, Pieter; Carmichael, Catherine; Rickard, Adam; Suryani, Santi; Bracken, Lauryn S; Alserihi, Raed; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Rondou, Pieter; Slowicka, Karolina; Huylebroeck, Danny; Goldrath, Ananda W; Janzen, Viktor; McCormack, Matthew P; Lock, Richard B; Curtis, David J; Harrison, Christine; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; Meijerink, Jules P P; Soulier, Jean; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Haigh, Jody J

    2015-01-07

    Early T-cell precursor leukaemia (ETP-ALL) is a high-risk subtype of human leukaemia that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report translocations targeting the zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor ZEB2 as a recurrent genetic lesion in immature/ETP-ALL. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we demonstrate that sustained Zeb2 expression initiates T-cell leukaemia. Moreover, Zeb2-driven mouse leukaemia exhibit some features of the human immature/ETP-ALL gene expression signature, as well as an enhanced leukaemia-initiation potential and activated Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling through transcriptional activation of IL7R. This study reveals ZEB2 as an oncogene in the biology of immature/ETP-ALL and paves the way towards pre-clinical studies of novel compounds for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of human T-ALL using our Zeb2-driven mouse model.

  5. Oldest Known Objects May Be Surprisingly Immature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    the end of their evolution. However, Chandra data along with theoretical work suggest this may not be the case. When single and double stars interact in the crowded centers of globular clusters, double stars can form that transfer mass and give off X-rays. Since such double stars are expected to mostly be formed in the middle of a globular cluster’s evolution and then lost in old age, the relative number of X-ray sources gives clues about the stage of evolution the cluster is in. A new study by Fregeau of 13 globular clusters in the Milky Way shows that three of them have unusually large number of X-ray sources, or X- ray binaries, suggesting the clusters are middle-aged. Previously, these globular clusters had been classified as being in old age because they had very tight concentrations of stars in their centers, another litmus test of age used by astronomers. The implication is that most globular clusters, including the other ten studied by Fregeau, are not in the middle age of their evolution, as previously thought, but are actually in adolescence. "It’s remarkable that these objects, which are thought to be some of the oldest in the Universe, may really be very immature in their development," said Fregeau whose paper appears in The Astrophysical Journal. "This would represent a major change in thinking about the current evolutionary status of globular clusters." If confirmed, this result would help reconcile other observations with recent theoretical work that suggest the tightness of the central concentration of stars in the most evolved globular clusters is consistent with them being in a middle, rather than an advanced phase of evolution. Other theoretical studies have suggested it can take longer than the current age of the Universe for globular clusters to reach old age. Besides improving the understanding of the basic evolution of globular clusters, this result has implications for understanding stellar interactions in dense environments. It also

  6. In vitro maturation of immature human oocytes for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Chian, Ri-Cheng; Cao, Yun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic progression in the oocyte is defined as oocyte maturation from reinitiation of the first meiotic division from the germinal vesicle (GV) stage to the metaphase-II (M-II) stage (Fig. 1), (Cha and Chian, Hum Reprod Update 4:103-120, 1998). Priming with FSH or HCG prior to immature oocyte retrieval improves oocyte maturation and pregnancy rates. The size of follicles may be an important feature for IVM treatment. The combination of natural-cycle IVF with immature oocyte retrieval followed by IVM is an attractive treatment for young women with all types of infertility without recourse to ovarian stimulation with an acceptable pregnancy rate.

  7. Revitalization of traumatized immature tooth with platelet-rich fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Faizuddin, Umrana; Solomon, Raji Viola; Mattapathi, Jayadev; Guniganti, Sushma Shravani

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic treatment options for immature, nonvital teeth conventionally include surgical endodontics, apexification with calcium hydroxide, or single visit mineral trioxide aggregate plug. Regeneration is a new concept which is been introduced in the treatment of traumatized open apex tooth. Regeneration of pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible if the canal is effectively disinfected. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative, endodontic therapy by using platelet-rich fibrin for revitalization of immature nonvital tooth. PMID:26681870

  8. 76 FR 44571 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Edible Flowers of Izote, Immature Inflorescences of Pacaya, Immature Inflorescences of Chufle, and Fresh... the importation into the continental United States of fresh edible flowers of izote, immature... weeds via the importation of fresh edible flowers of izote, immature inflorescences of pacaya, immature...

  9. Proceedings: guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H Clay Smith; Maxine C. Eye

    1986-01-01

    How to do it, that is what this workshop is all about. This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands. We all have dozens of questions and concerns and though several of these will be answered, some will not. Basically, guidelines are "guides" and...

  10. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Wen; Lou, Shyi-Neng; Chiu, E-Mean; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-02-15

    The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  13. Diagnostic Significance of Cellular Neuroglial Tissue in Ovarian Immature Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yun; Woo, Chang Gok; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, Chong Jai; Khang, Shin Kwang; Kim, Jiyoon; Park, In Ah; Kim, Eun Na; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2017-01-01

    Background Immature teratoma (IT) is a tumor containing immature neuroectodermal tissue, primarily in the form of neuroepithelial tubules. However, the diagnosis of tumors containing only cellular neuroglial tissue (CNT) without distinct neuroepithelial tubules is often difficult, since the histological characteristics of immature neuroectodermal tissues remain unclear. Here, we examined the significance of CNT and tried to define immature neuroectodermal tissues by comparing the histological features of neuroglial tissues between mature teratoma (MT) and IT. Methods The histological features of neuroglial tissue, including the cellularity, border between the neuroglial and adjacent tissues, cellular composition, mitotic index, Ki-67 proliferation rate, presence or absence of tissue necrosis, vascularity, and endothelial hyperplasia, were compared between 91 MT and 35 IT cases. Results CNTs with a cellularity grade of ≥ 2 were observed in 96% of IT cases and 4% of MT cases (p < .001); however, CNT with a cellularity grade of 3 in MT cases was confined to the histologically distinct granular layer of mature cerebellar tissue. Moreover, CNT in IT exhibited significantly higher rates of Ki-67 proliferation, mitoses, and necrosis than those in MT (p < .001). Furthermore, an infiltrative border of neuroglial tissue and glomeruloid endothelial hyperplasia were significantly more frequent in IT cases than in MT cases (p < .001). Conclusions Our results suggest that if CNT with a cellularity grade of ≥ 2 is not a component of cerebellar tissue, such cases should be diagnosed as IT containing immature neuroectodermal tissue, particularly if they exhibit an infiltrative border, mitoses, necrosis, and increased Ki-67 proliferation. PMID:27737528

  14. Description of immatures of the South American dictyopharid Taosa (C) longula (Hemiptera Fulgoroidea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immature stages of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Dictyopharidae) are described and a key for their differentiation is provided. The descriptions and biological observations of immature stages were made on specimens collected on Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) ...

  15. Association of acute myeloid leukemia’s most immature phenotype with risk groups and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Jonathan M.; Zeidner, Joshua F.; Morse, Sarah; Blackford, Amanda L.; Perkins, Brandy; Yanagisawa, Breann; Zhang, Hao; Morsberger, Laura; Karp, Judith; Ning, Yi; Gocke, Christopher D.; Rosner, Gary L.; Smith, B. Douglas; Jones, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The precise phenotype and biology of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells remain controversial, in part because the “gold standard” immunodeficient mouse engraftment assay fails in a significant fraction of patients and identifies multiple cell-types in others. We sought to analyze the clinical utility of a novel assay for putative leukemia stem cells in a large prospective cohort. The leukemic clone’s most primitive hematopoietic cellular phenotype was prospectively identified in 109 newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients, and analyzed against clinical risk groups and outcomes. Most (80/109) patients harbored CD34+CD38− leukemia cells. The CD34+CD38− leukemia cells in 47 of the 80 patients displayed intermediate aldehyde dehydrogenase expression, while normal CD34+CD38− hematopoietic stem cells expressed high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase. In the other 33/80 patients, the CD34+CD38− leukemia cells exhibited high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and most (28/33, 85%) harbored poor-risk cytogenetics or FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem translocations. No CD34+ leukemia cells could be detected in 28/109 patients, including 14/21 patients with nucleophosmin-1 mutations and 6/7 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. The patients with CD34+CD38− leukemia cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity manifested a significantly lower complete remission rate, as well as poorer event-free and overall survivals. The leukemic clone’s most immature phenotype was heterogeneous with respect to CD34, CD38, and ALDH expression, but correlated with acute myeloid leukemia risk groups and outcomes. The strong clinical correlations suggest that the most immature phenotype detectable in the leukemia might serve as a biomarker for “clinically-relevant” leukemia stem cells. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01349972. PMID:26819054

  16. Association of acute myeloid leukemia's most immature phenotype with risk groups and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jonathan M; Zeidner, Joshua F; Morse, Sarah; Blackford, Amanda L; Perkins, Brandy; Yanagisawa, Breann; Zhang, Hao; Morsberger, Laura; Karp, Judith; Ning, Yi; Gocke, Christopher D; Rosner, Gary L; Smith, B Douglas; Jones, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    The precise phenotype and biology of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells remain controversial, in part because the "gold standard" immunodeficient mouse engraftment assay fails in a significant fraction of patients and identifies multiple cell-types in others. We sought to analyze the clinical utility of a novel assay for putative leukemia stem cells in a large prospective cohort. The leukemic clone's most primitive hematopoietic cellular phenotype was prospectively identified in 109 newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients, and analyzed against clinical risk groups and outcomes. Most (80/109) patients harbored CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells. The CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells in 47 of the 80 patients displayed intermediate aldehyde dehydrogenase expression, while normal CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem cells expressed high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase. In the other 33/80 patients, the CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells exhibited high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and most (28/33, 85%) harbored poor-risk cytogenetics or FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem translocations. No CD34(+) leukemia cells could be detected in 28/109 patients, including 14/21 patients with nucleophosmin-1 mutations and 6/7 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. The patients with CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity manifested a significantly lower complete remission rate, as well as poorer event-free and overall survivals. The leukemic clone's most immature phenotype was heterogeneous with respect to CD34, CD38, and ALDH expression, but correlated with acute myeloid leukemia risk groups and outcomes. The strong clinical correlations suggest that the most immature phenotype detectable in the leukemia might serve as a biomarker for "clinically-relevant" leukemia stem cells. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01349972. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Comparison of blastocyst and Sage media for in vitro maturation of human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pongsuthirak, Pallop; Songveeratham, Sorramon; Vutyavanich, Teraporn

    2015-03-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an attractive alternative to conventional assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment, as it involves no or minimal ovarian stimulation. Currently, commercialized media specifically designed for IVM are often used. These media are expensive, have limited shelf life, and must be ordered in advance. If standard culture media can be used in place of the specialized IVM media, it would simplify management and make IVM more feasible and more widely employed in ART centers around the world, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. This study was, therefore, conducted to test the hypothesis that blastocyst medium was as good as commercial IVM medium to support maturation and developmental competence of human immature oocytes as previously shown in the mouse system. Immature oocytes were obtained by needle aspiration from 89 pregnant women during cesarean deliveries between April 2012 and February 2013. Sibling oocytes were allocated to Sage IVM media (512 oocytes) or blastocyst medium (520 oocytes) and assessed for maturation 36 hours later. Mature oocytes were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and cultured up to 144 hours. There was no difference in maturation rate (65.0% vs 68.7%; P = .218) or fertilization rate (66.9% vs 66.4%; P = .872) of oocytes matured in vitro in both media. There was also no difference in the formation of good-quality blastocysts (46.6% vs 45.9%; P = .889) in the 2 groups. Further study should be done to ascertain implantation and pregnancy potential of these embryos.

  18. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra when immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.

  19. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates.

  20. Effects of extracorporeal shock waves on immature rabbit femurs.

    PubMed

    Saisu, Takashi; Takahashi, Kenji; Kamegaya, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Shigeru; Wada, Yuichi; Moriya, Hideshige

    2004-05-01

    We hypothesized that extracorporeal shock waves induce overgrowth and local increases in bone mineral content (BMC) in immature long bones. Immature male rabbits (n=14; 9 weeks old) were randomized equally between group I, which received 1000 100 MPa shock waves on the femoral shaft and group II, which received 5000. Unexposed femurs were used as controls. No fractures occurred in group I; three occurred in group II. Six weeks after exposure, the length and width were significantly larger (1.0 and 14.9%, respectively), and the BMC was significantly higher (22.8%) than those of control femurs in group I. These results of differences in width and BMC might be clinically useful.

  1. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  2. Ketamine selectively suppresses synchronized afterdischarges in immature hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Brady, R J; Swann, J W

    1986-08-29

    The role of excitatory amino acid neurotransmission in epileptogenesis was investigated in the developing hippocampus. Bath application of ketamine blocked penicillin-induced, synchronized afterdischarges in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurons. Ketamine also decreased the duration of the preceding intracellularly recorded depolarization shift but had no measurable effect on the resting membrane potential or input impedance of pyramidal cells. Concentrations of ketamine that blocked afterdischarge generation dramatically depressed intracellular depolarizations produced by iontophoretic application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) but not quisqualate. The effects of the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid on epileptiform discharges were identical to those of ketamine. These results suggest that an endogenous excitatory amino acid acting on an NMDA receptor plays a key role in the pronounced capacity of immature hippocampus for seizures.

  3. Jefferson fractures of the immature spine. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    AuYong, Nicholas; Piatt, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Jefferson fractures of the immature spine have received little attention in the study of pediatric spinal trauma. Fractures through synchondroses are a possibility in the immature spine, in addition to fractures through osseous portions of the vertebral ring, and they create opportunities for misinterpretation of diagnostic imaging. The authors describe 3 examples of Jefferson fractures in young children. All 3 cases featured fractures through an anterior synchondrosis in association with persistence of the posterior synchondrosis or a fracture of the posterior arch. The possibility of a Jefferson fracture should be considered for any child presenting with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm, or torticollis following a head injury, despite a seemingly normal cervical spine study. Jefferson fractures in young children are probably much more common than previously recognized.

  4. Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-12-01

    The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control.

  5. Distribution of mitochondria in reconstructed mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Fulka, Helena

    2004-02-01

    It has been suggested that nucleus replacement (transfer) may be used as an efficient oocyte therapy in order to prevent transmission of mutated mitochondrial DNA from mother to offspring in humans. The essential and not yet answered question is how mitochondria surrounding the karyoplast will be distributed in the newly reconstructed oocytes. In our model experiments, we have evaluated the distribution of mitochondria in reconstructed immature mouse oocytes when germinal vesicle karyoplasts, with labeled mitochondria, were fused to unlabeled cytoplasts. The penetration of mitochondria from karyoplasts into cytoplasts can be detected almost immediately after the beginning of fusion. In immature reconstructed oocytes, mitochondria are first located in the oocyte center but they are homogeneously distributed within the whole cytoplasm before the completion of maturation. Fusion of oocytes at different stages of maturation suggests that the speed of mitochondria distribution is cell cycle dependent.

  6. Enigmatic central canal contacting cells: immature neurons in "standby mode"?

    PubMed

    Marichal, Nicolás; García, Gabriela; Radmilovich, Milka; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E

    2009-08-12

    The region that surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord derives from the neural tube and retains a substantial degree of plasticity. In turtles, this region is a neurogenic niche where newborn neurons coexist with precursors, a fact that may be related with the endogenous repair capabilities of low vertebrates. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests that the ependyma of the mammalian spinal cord may contain cells with similar properties, but their actual nature remains unsolved. Here, we combined immunohistochemistry for cell-specific markers with patch-clamp recordings to test the hypothesis that the ependyma of neonatal rats contains immature neurons similar to those in low vertebrates. We found that a subclass of cells expressed HuC/D neuronal proteins, doublecortin, and PSA-NCAM (polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule) but did not express NeuN (anti-neuronal nuclei). These immature neurons displayed electrophysiological properties ranging from slow Ca(2+)-mediated responses to fast repetitive Na(+) spikes, suggesting different stages of maturation. These cells originated in the embryo, because we found colocalization of neuronal markers with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine when injected during embryonic day 7-17 but not in postnatal day 0-5. Our findings represent the first evidence that the ependyma of the rat spinal cord contains cells with molecular and functional features similar to immature neurons in adult neurogenic niches. The fact that these cells retain the expression of molecules that participate in migration and neuronal differentiation raises the possibility that the ependyma of the rat spinal cord is a reservoir of immature neurons in "standby mode," which under some circumstances (e.g., injury) may complete their maturation to integrate spinal circuits.

  7. [Postnatal corticosteroids in preterm infants with immature lung disease].

    PubMed

    Hinriksdottir, Erna; Brynjarsson, Hrolfur; Thorkelsson, Thordur

    2016-05-01

    Corticosteroids have been used in preterm infants with immature lungs to decrease their need for supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Whether the benefits of the treatment outweigh possible adverse effects remains controversial. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of intravenous and inhalation corticosteroids on preterm infants' need for supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation and potential adverse effects. This was a retrospective cohort study on preterm infants at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Children's Hospital Iceland, born between 2000-2014 and treated with intravenous (n=28) or inhalation (n=30) corticosteroids for immature lung disease. For each infant receiving steriods one infant who did not receive steriods was selected as control, matched on gestational age. There was a significant decrease in the need for supplemental oxygen following intravenous and inhalation corticosteroids administration, and a significant decrease in the need for mechanical ventilation following intravenous corticosteroids administration, but not in controls. Infants receiving intravenous corticosteroids gained significantly less weight than controls during treatment, but no significant difference in weight between groups was found at 35 weeks postmenstrual age, or in other possible adverse effects such as the prevalence of cerebral palsy. Intravenous and inhalation corticosteroids decrease the need for supplemental oxygen in preterm infants with immature lung disease and intravenous steriods facilitate earlier weaning from mechanical ventilation, without significant adverse effects. Therefore, it seems justifiable in selected cases to use corticosteroids in treatment of preterm infants with severe immature lung disease. Corticosteroids, preterm infants, chronic lung disease, mechanical ventilation. Correspondence: Thorður Thorkelsson, thordth@landspitali.is.

  8. Rotationplasty in skeletally immature patients. Long-term followup results.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, M; Krajbich, J I

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-one skeletally immature patients with a Grade IIB osteosarcoma about the knee were treated with a modified Van Nes rotationplasty. Fourteen patients were followed up for 4 to 10.5 years (mean followup, 8 years). Functional assessment using Enneking's method showed all had good or excellent results. No patient thought that the reconstruction affected their ability to achieve recreational, sporting, or career goals. The reconstruction is durable and is not associated with an increase in late complications.

  9. GABAergic Mechanism of Propofol Toxicity in Immature Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Sibel; Zup, Susan L.; McCarthy, Margaret M.; Fiskum, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Certain anesthetics exhibit neurotoxicity in the brains of immature but not mature animals. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, is excitatory on immature neurons via its action at the GABAA receptor, due to a reversed transmembrane chloride gradient. GABAA receptor activation in immature neurons is sufficient to open L-type voltage gated calcium channels. As propofol is a GABAA agonist, we hypothesized that it and more specific GABAA modulators would increase intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), resulting in the death of neonatal rat hippocampal neurons. Neuronal [Ca2+]i was monitored using Fura2-AM fluorescence imaging. Cell death was assessed by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 at 1 h (acute) and 48 h (delayed) after 5 h exposure of neurons to propofol or the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, in the presence and absence of the GABA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, or the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine. Fluorescent measurements of caspase-3,-7 activities were performed at 1 h after exposure. Both muscimol and propofol induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i in day in vitro (DIV) 4, but not in DIV 8 neurons, that was inhibited by nifedipine and bicuculline. Caspase-3,-7 activities and cell death increased significantly in DIV 4 but not DIV 8 hippocampal neuronal cultures 1 h after a 5 h exposure to propofol, but not muscimol, and were inhibited by the presence of bicuculline or nifedipine. We conclude that an increase in [Ca2+]i, due to activation of GABAA receptors and opening of L-type calcium channels, is necessary for propofol-induced death of immature rat hippocampal neurons but that additional mechanisms not elicited by GABAA activation alone also contribute to cell death. PMID:18812886

  10. Immature Stages of the Neotropical Butterfly, Dynamine agacles agacles

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luis Anderson Ribeiro; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Freitas, André Victor Lucci

    2012-01-01

    The external morphology of the immature stages of Dynamine agacles agacles (Dalman, 1823) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) is described, including photos, drawings, and scanning electron micrographs. Data on the adult and larval behavior are given based on observations in the host plant Dalechampia triphylla Lam. (Malpighiales : Euphorbiaceae). The results are compared and discussed with other described species of Biblidinae, allowing to make further observations on the natural history and evolution of Dynamine. PMID:22943467

  11. Salvage of Immature Arteriovenous Fistulas with Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo Choo, Sung Wook; Lieu, Wei Chiang; Choo, In-Wook

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the salvage of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that fail to mature. From November 1998 to February 2003, 19 patients who were treated with PTA due to immature forearm AVFs were selected. Fistulography and PTA were performed via a retrograde transvenous approach after direct puncture of the fistular vein. Technical success was defined as less than a 30% residual stenosis, whereas clinical success was defined as the ability to perform at least one session of normal hemodialysis after PTA. Findings of fistulograms, success rates of PTA, and patency rates were evaluated. On initial fistulograms, stenoses were observed in all cases and 68% (13/19) of the stenoses were located in the perianastomotic area of these immature AVFs. The initial technical success rate was 84% (16/19). Technical failures comprised two patients with diffuse narrowing and segmental thrombosis of the cephalic veins and one case of elastic recoil of the anastomotic site stenosis after PTA. Two patients were immediately lost on follow-up. The remaining 14 cases underwent successful hemodialysis 0 to 33 (mean = 15) days after PTA, showing 74% (14/19) clinical success. Although accessory branch veins were noted in most cases (74%, 14/19), leaving them alone did not affect the maturation of AVFs following PTA. There was no significant procedural or late complication. Primary and secondary patency rates at 1 year were 61 and 82%, respectively. For those AVFs that failed to mature, there were stenoses along their vascular courses as underlying causes. For the percutaneous procedure, the retrograde transvenous approach was a reasonable one. As PTA is effective and quick for the salvation of immature AVFs, it can be considered a primary method for salvaging these immature AVFs.

  12. Isolated Diaphyseal Fractures of the Radius in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Van Dijk, Niek C.; Raaymakers, Ernst L.

    2009-01-01

    Diaphyseal radius fractures without associated ulna fracture or radioulnar dislocation (isolated fracture of the radius) are recognized in adults but are rarely described in skeletally immature patients. A search of our database (1974–2002) identified 17 pediatric patients that had an isolated fracture of the radius. Among the 13 patients with at least 1 year follow-up, ten were treated with manipulative reduction and immobilization in an above elbow cast and three had initial operative treatment with plate and screw fixation. These 13 patients were evaluated for an average of 18 months (range, 12 to 45 months) after injury using the system of Price and colleagues. The incidence of isolated diaphyseal radius fractures in skeletally immature patients was 0.56 per year in our database and represented 27% of the 63 patients with a diaphyseal forearm fracture. All 13 patients, with at least 1 year follow-up, regained full elbow flexion and extension and full forearm rotation. According to the classification system of Price, all 13 patients (100%) had an excellent result. As in adults, isolated radius fractures seem to occur in children more frequently than previously appreciated. Treatment of isolated radius fractures in skeletally immature patients has a low complication rate, and excellent functional outcomes are the rule. PMID:19859772

  13. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  14. Is mesangial hypercellularity with glomerular immaturity a variant of glomerulosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Zachwieja, Jacek; Nowicki, Michal; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Witt, Martin

    2007-05-01

    Our aim was to correlate an immunohistochemical pattern of selected podocyte cytoskeleton-associated proteins in children diagnosed with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diffuse mesangial proliferation accompanied by glomerular immaturity (Im-DMP) with the clinical courses of both diseases. The material included 33 renal biopsies obtained from children diagnosed with DMP with or without signs of glomerular immaturity (ten and 15 participants, respectively) or FSGS (eight patients). Ezrin, podocalyxin, synaptopodin and nephrin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical assay. A positive reaction for ezrin, podocalyxin, synaptopodin and nephrin was observed in the most superficial, continuous 'layer' of podocytes in Im-DMP patients. This distribution closely mimicked the immunohistochemical pattern observed in FSGS. The severe initial course of Im-DMP was transient. Resistance to steroids (six children) and renal insufficiency (two patients) in these subjects subsided, whilst, in the FSGS patients, the resistance to steroids recognized in all the children and the renal insufficiency diagnosed in three of them were still present. Mimicry between the immunohistochemical pattern of glomerular immaturity in DMP and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis might explain the severe initial course of this nephrotic syndrome in children. The transient clinical character of the former may also indicate that it is not a variant of FSGS.

  15. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-07-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  16. Pulp revascularization of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Blayne; Teixeira, Fabricio; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Caplan, Daniel J; Trope, Martin

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the ability of a collagen solution to aid revascularization of necrotic-infected root canals in immature dog teeth. Sixty immature teeth from 6 dogs were infected, disinfected, and randomized into experimental groups: 1: no further treatment; 2: blood in canal; 3: collagen solution in canal, 4: collagen solution + blood, and 5: negative controls (left for natural development). Uncorrected chi-square analysis of radiographic results showed no statistical differences (p >or= 0.05) between experimental groups regarding healing of radiolucencies but a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.058) for group 1 versus group 4 for radicular thickening. Group 2 showed significantly more apical closure than group 1 (p = 0.03) and a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051) for group 3 versus group 1. Uncorrected chi-square analysis revealed that there were no statistical differences between experimental groups for histological results. However, some roots in each of groups 1 to 4 (previously infected) showed positive histologic outcomes (thickened walls in 43.9%, apical closure in 54.9%, and new luminal tissue in 29.3%). Revascularization of disinfected immature dog root canal systems is possible.

  17. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-01-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-Year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 Months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  18. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in skeletal immature children.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ole Gade; Faunø, Peter; Christiansen, Svend Erik; Lind, Martin

    2017-02-10

    Rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is a rare knee injury in children with open growth plates. The follow-up results of six patients with open physes treated with PCL reconstruction are presented. The objective is to evaluate the clinical outcomes of PCL reconstruction for six skeletally immature patients. Between 2006 and 2010, six skeletally immature patients were treated with PCL reconstruction. At the time of surgery, the median age was 9 years (range 6-14). The median follow-up time after surgery was 50 months (range 41-90). Outcomes were evaluated by KOOS and Tegner scores, instrumented knee laxity, and radiologic long-axis leg length measurements. The median KOOS score at follow-up was 88 (range 26-98). The median Tegner score was 6 (range 4-7). The median side-to-side difference in laxity according to KT-1000 was 2 mm (range 1-5) at 25° of flexion and 3 mm (range 3-6) at 70° of flexion. A median side-to-side difference in flexion of 8° was found. All but one patient had returned to playing sports at follow-up. One patient's index leg had a length discrepancy of 16 mm. PCL reconstruction resulted in fair to good clinical outcomes for skeletally immature children. Clinically relevant leg length discrepancy was found in one of the six patients examined in this study. Level IV.

  19. Hyaluronan-related limited concentration by the immature kidney.

    PubMed

    Sulyok, E; Nyúl, Z

    2005-01-01

    The limited renal concentration performance by the immature kidney traditionally is thought to be attributed to blunted renal response to arginine vasopressin (AVP) and medullary hypotonicity. The diminished AVP-dependent osmotic water permeability of the collecting duct is the result of decreased AVP binding and adenylate cyclase activation, and low expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) mRNA and low levels of AQP2 protein. Moreover, the immature kidney fails to establish deep cortico-papillary osmotic gradient because of structural immaturity, limited solute transport and increased medullary blood flow. Based on indirect clinical and experimental evidences this article puts forward a hypothesis that during perinatal period the abundant hyaluronan (HA) content in the renomedullary interstitium has a primary role in antagonizing water reabsorption and limiting concentration performance. Hydration-related alterations in renal HA appears to be mediated by antidiuretic hormone. The concept of HA-mediated renal water transport may imply that interfering selectively with renal HA metabolism may provide a new therapeutic approach to promote diuresis or antidiuresis, respectively, according to the elevation or reduction in renomedullary HA.

  20. Effects of genistein on gonadotropic cells in immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Medigović, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica; Zikić, Dragan; Nestorović, Nataša

    2012-05-01

    The effects of genistein on pituitary gonadotropic cells of immature female rats were examined and compared to actions of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol. Immature female rats received 50mg/kg/bw of genistein in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) subcutaneously (s.c.) daily for 3 days at 18, 19 and 20 days of age. A second group was injected with 1μg/kg of 17α-ethynylestradiol in olive oil in the same schedule. The genistein control group received DMSO only, while 17α-ethynylestradiol controls were given sterile olive oil only. Changes in cell number per mm(2), cell volume and volume density of follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) immunolabeled cells were evaluated by morphometry and stereology. Genistein induced significant increases in the number of FSH cells (by 21%) and LH cells (by 20%) per mm(2) compared to corresponding controls. Volumes of FSH and LH cells were significantly increased by 19.7% and 20% and their volume densities by 20% and 20.2%, respectively. Estradiol markedly affected gonadotropes in the same manner, but to a greater extent. It can be concluded that genistein acted as an estrogenic agonist in the pituitaries of immature female rats, and as such, stimulated gonadotropic cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Treating Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the current evidence for conservative and surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in skeletally immature patients. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, CCTR, and CDSR was performed for surgical and/or conservative treatment of complete ACL tears in immature individuals. Studies with less than six months of follow-up were excluded. Study quality was assessed and data were collected on clinical outcome, growth disturbance, and secondary joint damage. Results We identified 48 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Conservative treatment was found to result in poor clinical outcomes and a high incidence of secondary defects, including meniscal and cartilage injury. Surgical treatment had only very weak evidence for growth disturbance, yet strong evidence of good postoperative stability and function. No specific surgical treatment showed clearly superior outcomes, yet the studies using physeal-sparing techniques had no reported growth disturbances at all. Conclusions The current best evidence suggests that surgical stabilization should be considered the preferred treatment in immature patients with complete ACL tears. While physeal-sparing techniques are not associated with a risk of growth disturbance, transphyseal reconstruction is an alternative with a beneficial safety profile and a minimal risk of growth disturbance. Conservative treatment commonly leads to meniscal damage and cartilage destruction and should be considered a last resort. Level of Evidence Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV studies. PMID:21552340

  2. Immature mice are more susceptible than adult mice to acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces acute liver injury. The aim of the present study was to analyze the difference of susceptibility between immature and adult mice to APAP-induced acute liver injury. Weanling immature and adult mice were injected with APAP (300 mg/kg). As expected, immature mice were more susceptible than adult mice to APAP-induced acute liver injury. APAP-evoked hepatic c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation was stronger in immature mice than in adult mice. Hepatic receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1 was obviously activated at APAP-exposed immature and adult mice. Interestingly, hepatic RIP3 activation was more obvious in APAP-treated immature mice than adult mice. Although there was no difference on hepatic GSH metabolic enzymes between immature and adult mice, immature mice were more susceptible than adult mice to APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion. Of interest, immature mice expressed a much higher level of hepatic Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a11 mRNAs than adult mice. Correspondingly, immature mice expressed a higher level of hepatic CYP2E1, the key drug metabolic enzyme that metabolized APAP into the reactive metabolite NAPQI. These results suggest that a higher level of hepatic drug metabolic enzymes in immature mice than adult mice might contribute to the difference of susceptibility to APAP-induced acute liver injury. PMID:28205631

  3. Assessing estrogenic activity and reproductive toxicity of organic extracts in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Cao, Jun; Xing, Chuanhong; Wang, Zhijin; Cui, Liuxin

    2015-03-01

    Trace level organic contaminants might not be completely removed from the municipal wastewater and the safety incurred by them had become a concern. These organic pollutants were extracted from water samples and detected by GC-MS. The estrogenic activity of the organic was tested using Yeast Estrogen Screen to detect the transcriptional activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) and immature mouse uterotrophic bioassays to study reproductive toxicity. The results of GC-MS demonstrated the organic extracts in the municipal wastewater and the WWTP effluents Included two major categories, benzenes and Phthalates. The estrogenic activity of organic extracts from the secondary effluent (SE) and tertiary effluent (TE) was below that of the raw wastewater (RW). Results of uterotrophic bioassay demonstrated that SE would bring some potential hazards on animals while TE was relatively safe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of ezrin as a target of gastrin in immature mouse gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Pagliocca, Adelina; Hegyi, Peter; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Khan, Zara; Burdyga, Galina; Wang, Timothy C; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2008-11-01

    The gastric acid-secreting parietal cell exhibits profound morphological changes on stimulation. Studies in gastrin null (Gas-KO) mice indicate that maturation of parietal cell function depends on the hormone gastrin acting at the G-protein-coupled cholecystokinin 2 receptor. The relevant cellular mechanisms are unknown. The application of differential mRNA display to samples of the gastric corpus of wild-type (C57BL/6) and Gas-KO mice identified the cytoskeletal linker protein, ezrin, as a previously unsuspected target of gastrin. Gastrin administered in vivo or added to gastric glands in vitro increased ezrin abundance in Gas-KO parietal cells. In parietal cells of cultured gastric glands from wild-type mice treated with gastrin, histamine or carbachol, ezrin was localized to vesicular structures resembling secretory canaliculi. In contrast, in cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice, ezrin was typically distributed in the cytosol, and this did not change after incubation with gastrin, histamine or carbachol. However, priming with gastrin for approximately 24 h, either in vivo prior to cell culture or by addition to cultured gastric glands, induced the capacity for secretagogue-stimulated localization of ezrin to large vesicular structures in Gas-KO mice. Similarly, in a functional assay based on measurement of intracellular pH, cultured parietal cells from Gas-KO mice were refractory to gastrin unless primed. The priming effect of gastrin was not attributable to the paracrine mediator histamine, but was prevented by inhibitors of protein kinase C and transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We conclude that in gastrin null mice there is reduced ezrin expression and a defect in ezrin subcellular distribution in gastric parietal cells, and that both can be reversed by priming with gastrin.

  5. Galeazzi semitendinosus tenodesis for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients.

    PubMed

    Grannatt, Kathryn; Heyworth, Benton E; Ogunwole, Olabode; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2012-09-01

    Numerous surgical treatments have been described to address subluxation or dislocation of the patella, but many are not suitable for the skeletally immature patient, as they risk injury to the proximal tibial physis or tibial tubercle apophysis. The Galeazzi semitendinosus tenodesis is a soft-tissue reconstruction technique designed to stabilize the patella without altering the femoral or the bony structures about the knee. We sought to determine if this semitendinosus tenodesis is a safe and effective treatment for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients. We retrospectively analyzed the records of a population of skeletally immature patients who underwent semitendinosus tenodesis for patellofemoral instability at our institution from 1990 to 2006. Condition-specific outcome and function were prospectively collected, including the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Kujala Score, and Marx Activity Scale. Recurrent instability was defined as patient-reported postoperative subluxation, dislocation, or both. Twenty-eight patients (34 total knees) were included in the study. Average follow-up was 70 months (range, 27 to 217 mo). Patients reported recurrent instability in 28 of the 34 knees (82%). Overall, 41% of patients had IKDC scores <70. Twelve knees (35%) were symptomatic enough to undergo subsequent surgery, but had similar mean IKDC (63), Kujala (81), and Marx Activity Scores (7.5) at long-term follow-up to those (IKDC 64, Kujala 79, Marx 8.2) who did not undergo additional surgeries (P=0.73, 0.88, 0.76, respectively). Complications included 1 superficial wound infection and 1 mild wound dehiscence. Patellofemoral instability remains a challenging clinical problem, particularly in patients with open physes. The Galeazzi semitendinosus tenodesis is a safe procedure for patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature patients, but our long-term data suggest it may not be as successful as previously reported. Approximately

  6. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Xue-Fei; Peng, Yan; Cao, Zhen; Ge, Bi-Ying; Wang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jin-Tao; Zhang, Wan-Qin; Li, Shao; Zhao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP) is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN)-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM)-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB) in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) but not nerve growth factor (NGF) or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values of SVHRP.

  7. Dynamic regulation of CD24 expression and release of CD24-containing microvesicles in immature B cells in response to CD24 engagement

    PubMed Central

    Ayre, D Craig; Elstner, Marcus; Smith, Nicole C; Moores, Emily S; Hogan, Andrew M; Christian, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    The glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface receptor CD24 (also called heat-stable antigen) promotes the apoptosis of progenitor and precursor B-lymphocytes. However, the immediate proximal events that occur after engagement of CD24 in B cells are not precisely understood. Using a bioinformatics analysis of mouse (Mus musculus) gene expression data from the Immunological Genome Project, we found that known vesicle trafficking and cellular organization genes have similar expression patterns to CD24 during B-cell development in the bone marrow. We therefore hypothesized that CD24 regulates vesicle trafficking. We first validated that antibody-mediated engagement of CD24 induces apoptosis in the mouse WEHI-231 cell line and mouse primary bone marrow-derived B cells. We next found that CD24 surface protein expression is rapidly and dynamically regulated in both WEHI-231 cells and primary immature B cells in response to engagement of CD24. The change in surface expression was not mediated by classical endocytosis or exocytosis. However, we found that CD24-bearing plasma membrane-derived extracellular microvesicles were released in response to CD24 engagement. Furthermore, in response to CD24 engagement we observed a clear exchange of CD24 between different populations of B cells. Hence, we show that engagement of CD24 in immature B cells results in a dynamic regulation of surface CD24 protein and a redistribution of CD24 within the population. PMID:26059947

  8. TRPV1 promotes repetitive febrile seizures by pro-inflammatory cytokines in immature brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Xian; Yu, Fang; Sanchez, Russell M; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Min, Jia-Wei; Hu, Jiang-Jian; Bsoul, Najeeb Bassam; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder in children, and children with FS are regarded as a high risk for the eventual development of epilepsy. Brain inflammation may be implicated in the mechanism of FS. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is believed to act as a monitor and regulator of body temperature. The role of inflammation in synaptic plasticity mediation indicates that TRPV1 is relevant to several nervous system diseases, such as epilepsy. Here, we report a critical role for TRPV1 in a febrile seizure mouse model and reveal increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the immature brain. Animals were subjected to hyperthermia for 30 min, which generates seizures lasting approximately 20 min, and then were used for experiments. To invoke frequently repetitive febrile seizures, mice are exposed to hyperthermia for three times daily at an interval of 4h between every time induced seizure, and a total of 4 days to induce. Behavioral testing for febrile seizures revealed that a TRPV1 knock-out mouse model demonstrated a prolonged onset latency and a shortened duration and seizure grade of febrile seizure when compared with wild type (WT) mice. The expression levels of both TRPV1 mRNA and protein increased after a hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure in WT mice. Notably, TRPV1 activation resulted in a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1) in the hippocampus and cortex. These data indicate that the reduction of TRPV1 expression parallels a decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures. Thus, preventative strategies might be developed for use during febrile seizures.

  9. Accumulation of MFG-E8/lactadherin on exosomes from immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Véron, Philippe; Segura, Elodie; Sugano, Gaël; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde

    2005-01-01

    Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin secreted spontaneously by dendritic cells (DCs). We have shown previously that exosomes can transfer antigen or MHC-peptide complexes between DCs, thus potentially amplifying the immune response. We had also identified milk fat globule EGF/factor VIII (MFG-E8), also called lactadherin, as one of the major exosomal proteins. MFG-E8 has two domains: an Arg-Gly-Asp sequence that binds integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 (expressed by human DCs and macrophages) and a phosphatidyl-serine (PS) binding sequence through which it associates to PS-containing membranes (among which exosomes). MFG-E8 is thus a good candidate molecule to address exosomes to DCs. Here, we show that MFG-E8 is expressed by immature bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and secreted in association with exosomes in vitro. We have generated mice expressing an inactive form of MFG-E8, fused to beta-galactosidase. Analyzing these mice, we demonstrate that MFG-E8 is expressed in vivo in splenic DCs. In a mouse DC-dependent, antigen-specific, CD4 T cell-stimulation assay, exosomes produced by MFG-E8-deficient BMDCs were barely less efficient than exosomes bearing MFG-E8. We conclude that MFG-E8 is efficiently targeted to exosomes but is not essential to address exosomes to mouse BMDCs. Involvement of MFG-E8/lactadherin in exosome targeting to other DC subpopulations, or to human DCs, is still possible.

  10. The sensitivity of an immature vestibular system to altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Martin; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Frey, Herbert; Horn, Eberhard R

    2012-07-01

    Stimulus deprivation or stimulus augmentation can induce long-lasting modifications to sensory and motor systems. If deprivation is effective only during a limited period of life this phase is called "critical period." A critical period was described for the development of the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) of Xenopus laevis using spaceflights. Spaceflight durations and basic conditions of Xenopus' development did not make it possible to answer the question whether exposure of the immature vestibular organ to weightlessness affects rVOR development. The embryonic development of Pleurodeles waltl is slow enough to solve this problem because the rVOR cannot be induced before 15 dpf. Stage 20-21 embryos (4 dpf) were exposed to microgravity during a 10-day spaceflight, or to 3g hypergravity following the same time schedule. After termination of altered gravity, the rVOR was recorded twice in most animals. The main observations were as follows: (1) after the first rVOR appearance at stage 37 (16 dpf), both rVOR gain and amplitude increased steadily up to saturation levels of 0.22 and 20°, respectively. (2) Three days after termination of microgravity, flight and ground larvae showed no rVOR; 1 day later, the rVOR could be induced only in ground larvae. Differences disappeared after 3 weeks. (3) For 10 days after 3g exposure, rVOR development was similar to that of 1g-controls but 3 weeks later, 3g-larvae showed a larger rVOR than 1g-controls. These observations indicate that the immature vestibular system is transiently sensitive to microgravity exposure and that exposure of the immature vestibular system to hypergravity leads to a slowly growing vestibular sensitization.

  11. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  12. Persistent gut microbiota immaturity in malnourished Bangladeshi children.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F; Muegge, Brian D; Barratt, Michael J; VanArendonk, Laura G; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A; Petri, William A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-19

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S ribosomal RNA data sets generated from monthly faecal samples obtained from birth onwards in a cohort of children living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a 'relative microbiota maturity index' and 'microbiota-for-age Z-score' that compare postnatal assembly (defined here as maturation) of a child's faecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors, including diarrhoea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical

  13. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Bogdan A.; Chen, Rongqing; Sun, Haiyan; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (postnatal days 2–4). In 46% of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 μM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) by 744.3 ± 93.8% (n = 120 cells). This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX), 1 μM strychnine or 3 μM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (±) R(-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials (APs) in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate APs in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors. PMID:24550782

  14. Endodontic regeneration and tooth revitalization in immature infected sheep teeth.

    PubMed

    Altaii, M; Cathro, P; Broberg, M; Richards, L

    2017-05-01

    To examine the response of immature sheep teeth with infected root canal systems to a commonly used pulp regeneration/revitalization protocol. Immature mandibular right first incisors in four sheep were mechanically exposed and the pulps infected. The mandibular left first incisors remained intact as controls. Five weeks later, the experimental root canals were chemo-mechanically cleaned and dressed with a triple-antibiotic paste for 4 weeks, before bleeding was induced inside the canal by mechanically irritating the periapical tissues. A collagen dressing was packed coronally onto the blood clot and the canal orifice sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement. Six months later, the mandibles were collected and the teeth with associated periapical tissues were analysed radiographically, with CT scanning, and by histology. The changes in root length, dentine thickness in the apical third (mesially and distally), and apical diameter were analysed using Student's t-test. Radiographs revealed significant increases in root length, root wall thickness and narrowing of the apical diameter of the canals after treatment (P < 0.05), with no significant differences in root diameters found between the experimental and the control teeth (P > 0.05) on both radiographic and CT results. Root maturation and thickening of the walls due to hard tissue deposition was confirmed by histology in all experimental teeth. Hard tissues in the apical portion of the root were more developed than in the coronal portion. Endodontic regeneration and tooth revitalization procedures in immature infected sheep teeth showed positive outcomes with similar increases in root length and development to the control teeth. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impairment in natural killer cells editing of immature dendritic cells by infection with a virulent Trypanosoma cruzi population.

    PubMed

    Batalla, Estela I; Pino Martínez, Agustina M; Poncini, Carolina V; Duffy, Tomás; Schijman, Alejandro G; González Cappa, Stella M; Alba Soto, Catalina D

    2013-01-01

    Early interactions between natural killer (NK) and dendritic cells (DC) shape the immune response at the frontier of innate and adaptive immunity. Activated NK cells participate in maturation or deletion of DCs that remain immature. We previously demonstrated that infection with a high virulence (HV) population of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi downmodulates DC maturation and T-cell activation capacity. Here, we evaluated the role of NK cells in regulating the maturation level of DCs. Shortly after infection with HV T. cruzi, DCs in poor maturation status begin to accumulate in mouse spleen. Although infection induces NK cell cytotoxicity and cytokine production, NK cells from mice infected with HV T. cruzi exhibit reduced ability to lyse and fail to induce maturation of bone marrow-derived immature DCs (iDCs). NK-mediated lysis of iDCs is restored by in vitro blockade of the IL-10 receptor during NK-DC interaction or when NK cells are obtained from T. cruzi-infected IL-10 knockout mice. These results suggest that infection with a virulent T. cruzi strain alters NK cell-mediated regulation of the adaptive immune response induced by DCs. This regulatory circuit where IL-10 appears to participate might lead to parasite persistence but can also limit the induction of a vigorous tissue-damaging T-cell response.

  16. Immature and mature megakaryocytes enhance osteoblast proliferation and inhibit osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Ciovacco, Wendy A; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C; Kacena, Melissa A

    2010-03-01

    Recent data suggest that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC formation that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Linking adults and immatures of South African marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Connell, Allan D; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-11-01

    The early life-history stages of fishes are poorly known, impeding acquisition of the identifications needed to monitor larval recruitment and year-class strength. A comprehensive database of COI sequences, linked to authoritatively identified voucher specimens, promises to change this situation, representing a significant advance for fisheries science. Barcode records were obtained from 2526 early larvae and pelagic eggs of fishes collected on the inshore shelf within 5 km of the KwaZulu-Natal coast, about 50 km south of Durban, South Africa. Barcodes were also obtained from 3215 adults, representing 946 South African fish species. Using the COI reference library on BOLD based on adults, 89% of the immature fishes could be identified to a species level; they represented 450 species. Most of the uncertain sequences could be assigned to a genus, family, or order; only 92 specimens (4%) were unassigned. Accumulation curves based on inference of phylogenetic diversity indicate near-completeness of the collecting effort. The entire set of adult and larval fishes included 1006 species, representing 43% of all fish species known from South African waters. However, this total included 189 species not previously recorded from this region. The fact that almost 90% of the immatures gained a species identification demonstrates the power and completeness of the DNA barcode reference library for fishes generated during the 10 years of FishBOL.

  18. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a /sup 14/C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism.

  19. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  20. Reinforcement of immature roots with a new resin filling material.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Charles H; Schwartz, Scott A; Beeson, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcement and strengthening ability of Resilon, gutta-percha, and a self-curing composite resin (Bisfil 2B) in endodontically treated roots of immature teeth. Sixty single rooted teeth were divided into five groups of 12 teeth each. Teeth in all groups except the negative controls were prepared with a #5 Peeso (1.5 mm) through the apex (simulating immature roots) and root ends were filled with a 4 mm barrier of MTA. After smear layer removal, canals in the three experimental groups were backfilled with gutta-percha, Resilon, or Bisfil 2B. The remaining canal space in the positive control group was left unfilled. Negative controls received no treatment. A horizontal fracture was created in the root of each specimen using an Instron and the mean peak loads to fracture were recorded. ANOVA revealed no significant difference between any of the treatment groups. Based on the results of this study, canal wall reinforcement of teeth with a canal diameter of 1.5 mm or less may not be necessary.

  1. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support.

  2. Nuclear status of immature and mature stallion spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dias, G M; Retamal, C A; Tobella, L; Arnholdt, A C V; López, M L

    2006-07-15

    'The highly packed chromatin of mature spermatozoa results from replacement of somatic-like histones by highly basic arginine- and cysteine-rich protamines during spermatogenesis, with additional conformational changes in chromatin structure during epididymal transit. The objective of the present study was to compare the nuclear characteristics of immature and mature epididymal stallion spermatozoa, using a variety of experimental approaches. Resistance to in vitro decondensation of chromatin, following exposure to SDS-DTT and alkaline thioglycolate, increased significantly in mature spermatozoa. Evaluation of the thiol-disulfide status (monobromobimane labeling) demonstrated that immature cells obtained from ductulli efferentes contained mostly thiol groups, whereas these groups were oxidized in mature cells collected from the cauda epididymidis. Based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry, maturation of stallion spermatozoa was accompanied by a 60% reduction in the Zn(2+) content of sperm cells, concomitant with increased concentrations of this ion in epididymal fluid. Furthermore, the degree of disulfide bonding was inversely correlated with susceptibility of chromatin to acid denaturation (SCSA). Collectively, these data were consistent with the hypothesis that maturation of stallion spermatozoa involves oxidation of sulphydryl groups to form intra- and intermolecular disulfide links between adjacent protamines, with loss of zinc as an integral feature. These changes endow mechanical and chemical resistance to the nucleus, ensuring efficient transmission of the paternal genome at fertilization.

  3. Fear Erasure Facilitated by Immature Inhibitory Neuron Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu-Zhou; Liu, Ting-Ting; Cao, Jun-Wei; Chen, Xuan-Fu; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Min; Su, Xin; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Qiu, Bin-Long; Hu, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Lin-Yun; Ma, Lan; Yu, Yong-Chun

    2016-12-21

    Transplantation of embryonic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons has been shown to modify disease phenotypes in rodent models of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. However, whether transplanted interneurons modulate fear memory remains largely unclear. Here, we report that transplantation of embryonic interneurons into the amygdala does not alter host fear memory formation. Yet approximately 2 weeks after transplantation, but not earlier or later, extinction training produces a marked reduction in spontaneous recovery and renewal of fear response. Further analyses reveal that transplanted interneurons robustly form functional synapses with neurons of the host amygdala and exhibit similar developmental maturation in electrophysiological properties as native amygdala interneurons. Importantly, transplanted immature interneurons reduce the expression of perineuronal nets, promote long-term synaptic plasticity, and modulate both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmissions of the host circuits. Our findings demonstrate that transplanted immature interneurons modify amygdala circuitry and suggest a previously unknown strategy for the prevention of extinction-resistant pathological fear.

  4. Mouse phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physeal Disruption During ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aristides Ignacio; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D.; Lawrence, John Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling techniques following ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. Methods: A retrospective, matched comparative cohort study was performed of skeletally immature patients who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction between January 1, 2008 and March 31, 2011. All skeletally immature patients between ten and fifteen years old who underwent independent femoral tunnel drilling and had adequate baseline and post-operative radiographs were analyzed. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Demographic characteristics and peri-operative metrics were collected. Radiographic measurements were recorded from pre-operative MRI and post-operative plain radiographs. Results: Twenty patients were analyzed. Between groups, there were significant differences between independent tunnel drilling and transtibial tunnel drilling in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 cm2 vs. 0.74 cm2, P<0.001), femoral (32.1º vs. 72.8º, P<0.001) and tibial (50.1º vs. 60.5º, P=0.003) tunnel angles, medial/lateral location of the femoral tunnel (24.2 mm vs. 36.1 mm from lateral cortex, P=0.001), and distance from the lateral aspect of the distal femoral physis and the femoral tunnel exit (4.7 mm vs. 26.7 mm from the perichondrial ring, P<0.001), respectively. All patients who underwent femoral tunnel drilling at an angle of less than 25º from the transverse axis experienced a greater than 6% disruption of physeal area. There was a significant inverse correlation between femoral tunnel angle and estimated area of femoral physeal involvement (r=-0.8255, P=0.003). Conclusion: With femoral tunnel drilling techniques that create more oblique tunnels, the area of distal femoral physeal damage is larger, more eccentric and closer to the perichondrial ring. Since most

  6. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Lewandowski, Albert H; Skowronek, Anthony J

    2007-03-01

    An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure-like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft tissue tumor of humans, and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals.

  7. Immature ovarian teratoma with hyponatremia and low serum vasopressin level.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Yuji; Saga, Yasushi; Machida, Shizuo; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hyponatremia is often caused by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Hypersecretion of vasopressin from malignant tumors can be considered a cause of SIADH. Most of these ectopic productions of vasopressin are complications of small cell lung cancer. Cases concomitant with ovarian tumors are very rare, and a specific causative substance from the ovary is often unknown. A 16-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor. She developed hyponatremia that was resistant to medical treatment, but immediately improved after surgical resection of the tumor. Her diagnosis was SIADH caused by an ovarian tumor; however, her serum vasopressin level was normal. It is possible that a vasopressin-like substance causing SIADH was secreted by either nervous system tissue within an immature teratoma or small cell lung cancer. We should be cautious when SIADH is a complication of an ovarian tumor.

  8. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is one of the most efficient and simple gene delivery systems for genetic improvement and biology studies in maize. This system has become more widely used by both public and private laboratories. However, transformation efficiencies vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for the same genotype. Here, we illustrate our advanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method in Hi-II maize using simple binary vectors. The protocol utilizes immature embryos as starting explants and the bar gene as a selectable marker coupled with bialaphos as a selective agent. The protocol offers efficient transformation results with high reproducibility, provided that some experimental conditions are well controlled. This transformation method, with minor modifications, can be also employed to transform certain maize inbreds.

  10. Immature seeds and embryos of Medicago truncatula cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ochatt, Sergio J

    2011-01-01

    Legumes are an important source of proteins and lipids for food and feed. In addition, they are -environmentally friendly because of their capacity to fix nitrogen through a symbiosis with Rhizobium that permits them to produce abundant proteins even in the absence of nitrogen fertilization. Seed development in plants follows three chronological steps (1) seed coat differentiation, embryo morphogenesis and endosperm development; (2) embryo maturation with storage accumulation and (3) dehydration and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Finally, germination occurs when the environmental conditions become favourable. Working with the model legume Medicago truncatula, an in vitro protocol was developed for the culture of immature embryos that permits their development in a way comparable to that observed in plants.In this chapter, the usefulness of this system for investigating embryo development in legumes is outlined.

  11. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    PubMed Central

    Fudulu, Daniel; Angelini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients. PMID:27123154

  12. Engineering insect flight metabolics using immature stage implanted microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Aram J; Erickson, David

    2009-03-07

    Small-scale insect inspired aircraft represent a promising approach to downscaling traditional aircraft designs. Despite advancements in microfabrication, however, it has proven difficult to fully replicate the mechanical complexities that enable these natural systems. As an alternative, recent efforts have used implanted electrical, optical or acoustic microsystems to exert direct control over insect flight. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a method of directly and reversibly engineering insect flight metabolics using immature stage implanted microfluidics. We present our technique and device for on-command modulation of the internal levels of l-glutamic and l-aspartate acids and quantify the resulting changes in metabolic activity by monitoring respiratory CO(2) output. Microfluidic devices implanted 1 to 2 days prior to insects' emergence achieved survivability and flight-capable rates of 96% and 36%, respectively. Behavior ranging from retarded motion to complete, reversible paralysis, over timescales ranging from minutes to hours is demonstrated.

  13. Morphological Description of the Immatures of the Ant, Monomorium floricola

    PubMed Central

    Russ Solis, Daniel; Gonçalves Paterson Fox, Eduardo; Mayumi Kato, Luciane; Massuretti de jesus, Carlos; Teruyoshi Yabuki, Antonio; Eugênia de Carvalho Campos, Ana; Correa Bueno, Odair

    2010-01-01

    Some ant species of the genus Monomorium Mayr occur worldwide and are considered important urban pests. The larvae of only a few species of this genus have been described, and these descriptions are either superficial or incomplete. This study aimed to determine the number of larval instars and describe the immature stages of the ant Monomorium floricola Jerdon (Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Specimens were analyzed and measured using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three larval instars were found, and all larvae had pheidoloid bodies with ectatommoid mandibles, consistent with other Monomorium species described previously. Five types of body hairs were described, and their distribution was instar-specific. Body and mandible dimensions of the larvae also were constant for each instar. Like other Myrmicinae, the larvae did not create a cocoon. Some of differences among the hair types and sensilla were observed by comparing the samples with larvae of other species in the genus, and these differences may have taxonomic utility. PMID:20575746

  14. Small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Fourie, L J; Braack, L E O

    2005-09-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. Scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis, and Cape hares, Lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. In Free State Province Namaqua rock mice, Aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, Rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae, while in Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces red veld rats, Aethomys chrysophilus, Namaqua rock mice and Natal multimammate mice, Mastomys natalensis were good hosts of H. leachi and Rhipicephalus simus. Haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick recovered from animals in all three provinces.

  15. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  16. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL.

  17. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.0001), and IG% (p=0.0299). In the adjusted model, only elevated CRP (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.40-8.54) and presence of left shift (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.09-6.46) were significant predictors of perforated appendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  18. Radiation combined with thermal injury induces immature myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, April Elizabeth; Neely, Crystal Judith; Charles, Anthony G; Kartchner, Laurel Briane; Brickey, Willie June; Khoury, Amal Lina; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ting, Jenny P Y; Cairns, Bruce A; Maile, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The continued development of nuclear weapons and the potential for thermonuclear injury necessitates the further understanding of the immune consequences after radiation combined with injury (RCI). We hypothesized that sublethal ionization radiation exposure combined with a full-thickness thermal injury would result in the production of immature myeloid cells. Mice underwent either a full-thickness contact burn of 20% total body surface area or sham procedure followed by a single whole-body dose of 5-Gy radiation. Serum, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes were harvested at 3 and 14 days after injury. Flow cytometry was performed to identify and characterize adaptive and innate cell compartments. Elevated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory serum cytokines and profound leukopenia were observed after RCI. A population of cells with dual expression of the cell surface markers Gr-1 and CD11b were identified in all experimental groups, but were significantly elevated after burn alone and RCI at 14 days after injury. In contrast to the T-cell-suppressive nature of myeloid-derived suppressor cells found after trauma and sepsis, myeloid cells after RCI augmented T-cell proliferation and were associated with a weak but significant increase in interferon γ and a decrease in interleukin 10. This is consistent with previous work in burn injury indicating that a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like population increases innate immunity. Radiation combined injury results in the increase in distinct populations of Gr-1CD11b cells within the secondary lymphoid organs, and we propose these immature inflammatory myeloid cells provide innate immunity to the severely injured and immunocompromised host.

  19. Generation of precursor, immature, and mature murine B1-cell lines from c-myc/bcl-xL-overexpressing pre-BI cells.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Inge; Bouquet, Corinne; Naumann, Friederike; Melchers, Fritz

    2017-05-01

    Deregulated expression of c-myc and bcl-xL is long known to generate transformed B cells in humans and mice. We overexpressed these genes to induce in vitro and in vivo differentiation of fetal liver-derived mouse pre-BI cells to B1-lineage pre-BII-like, immature and mature B-cell lines, and to Ig-secreting cells. In vitro, doxycycline-controlled c-myc/bcl-xL-overexpressing CD19(+) CD93(+) c-kikt(+) IgM(-) pre-BI cells differentiate to and survive as CD19(+) CD93(+) c-kit(-) IgM(+) immature B1 cells. Timed CpG stimulation of these oncogene-overexpressing pre-B or immature B1 cells generates either CD19(+) CD93(low) c-kit(-) IgM(-) SLC(-) pre-BII-like or IgM(+) MHCII(+) CD73(+) CD80(+) CD40(+) mature B1-cell lines and IgM-secreting B1 cells in vitro and fixes their state of differentiation. All cell lines are clonable, but a majority of immature and mature B1-cell clones eventually reach a nonproliferating, surviving G0 -state. Transplanted in vivo, c-myc/bcl-xL-overexpressing pre-B cells expand to mature B1 cells, and to IgM- and IgA-secreting plasmablasts and plasma cells. Within 2 months, plasmablasts have expanded most prominently in BM and spleen, indicating that the host selectively expanded development of these transformed plasma cells. The sIgM(+) B1-cell lines and clones offer the possibility to study their roles in the development of B1-Ab repertoires, of B1-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases and of B1-cell malignancies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparative X-ray and conformational analysis of a new crystal of 13α,21-dihydroeurycomanone with eurycomanone from Eurycoma longifolia and their anti-estrogenic activity using the uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Teh, Chin-Hoe; Abdulghani, Mahfoudh; Morita, Hiroshi; Shiro, Motoo; Hussin, Abas Hj; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2011-01-01

    13 α,21-Dihydroeurycomanone (1), a known quassinoid of Eurycoma longifolia Jack was recrystallized from chloroform into a novel crystal structure in space group P2 (1). Its X-ray data were compared with those of eurycomanone ( 2). Following intraperioneal injections at similar doses of 2.44 µmol/kg/day for 3 consecutive days, 2 displayed comparable potency with tamoxifen but was more potent than 1 in the anti-estrogenic effect against 17 α-ethynylestradiol (EE)-induced uterotrophy of immature rats.

  1. Gamma-ray susceptibility of immature and mature hippocampal cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Myoung-Sub; Kim, Joong-Sun; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Park, Soo Hyun; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2010-05-01

    Ionizing radiation suppresses neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. This in vitro study compared the detrimental effect of acute gamma-irradiation on immature hippocampal cells with mature cells. Both rat immature (0.5 day in vitro (DIV)) and mature hippocampal cells (14 DIV) were irradiated with 0-4 Gy gamma-rays. Cell viability was analyzed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. DNA fragmentation study was performed by extracting intracellular DNA. Morphological features of apoptosis were characterized by 4',6-diamidine-2'-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. MTT assay revealed that the survival rate of immature hippocampal cells declined in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied, but was not changed in mature cells. Intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a ladder like pattern was dose-dependently increased in immature cells, but not in mature cells. The number of apoptotic nuclei in immature cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied. Active caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expressions in immature hippocampal cells at 6 hr after 2 Gy exposure were markedly higher than control levels. The significantly greater radiosensitivity of immature hippocampal cells than that of the mature cells, indicates that the susceptibility of such hippocampal cells depends on their maturation. In addition, gamma-irradiation may induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in immature hippocampal cells.

  2. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  3. SDF-1/CXCL12 modulates mitochondrial respiration of immature blood cells in a bi-phasic manner.

    PubMed

    Messina-Graham, Steven; Broxmeyer, Hal

    2016-05-01

    SDF-1/CXCL12 is a potent chemokine required for the homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Previous data from our group has shown that in an SDF-1/CXCL12 transgenic mouse model, lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) (LSK) bone marrow cells have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential versus wild-type. These results suggested that SDF-1/CXCL12 may function to keep mitochondrial respiration low in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Low mitochondrial metabolism helps to maintain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can influence differentiation. To test whether SDF-1/CXCL12 regulates mitochondrial metabolism, we employed the human leukemia cell line HL-60, that expresses high levels of the SDF-1/CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, as a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We treated HL-60 cells with SDF-1/CXCL12 for 2 and 24h. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR), mitochondrial-associated ATP production, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potential of HL-60 cells were significantly reduced at 2h and increased at 24h as compared to untreated control cells. These biphasic effects of SDF-1/CXCL12 were reproduced with lineage negative primary mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting a novel function of SDF-1/CXCL12 in modulating mitochondrial respiration by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production and mitochondrial content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immature Blood Vessels in Rheumatoid Synovium Are Selectively Depleted in Response to Anti-TNF Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Celis, Raquel; Santiago, Begoña; Usategui, Alicia; Sanmartí, Raimon; del Rey, Manuel J.; Pablos, José L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) where it has been proposed as a therapeutic target. In other settings, active angiogenesis is characterized by pathologic, immature vessels that lack periendothelial cells. We searched for the presence of immature vessels in RA synovium and analyzed the dynamics of synovial vasculature along the course of the disease, particularly after therapeutic response to TNF antagonists. Methodology/Principal Findings Synovial arthroscopic biopsies from RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls were analyzed by double labeling of endothelium and pericytes/smooth muscle mural cells to identify and quantify mature/immature blood vessels. To analyze clinicopathological correlations, a cross-sectional study on 82 synovial biopsies from RA patients with variable disease duration and severity was performed. A longitudinal analysis was performed in 25 patients with active disease rebiopsied after anti-TNF-α therapy. We found that most RA synovial tissues contained a significant fraction of immature blood vessels lacking periendothelial coverage, whereas they were rare in OA, and inexistent in normal synovial tissues. Immature vessels were observed from the earliest phases of the disease but their presence or density was significantly increased in patients with longer disease duration, higher activity and severity, and stronger inflammatory cell infiltration. In patients that responded to anti-TNF-α therapy, immature vessels were selectively depleted. The mature vasculature was similarly expanded in early or late disease and unchanged by therapy. Conclusion/Significance RA synovium contains a significant fraction of neoangiogenic, immature blood vessels. Progression of the disease increases the presence and density of immature but not mature vessels and only immature vessels are depleted in response to anti-TNFα therapy. The different dynamics of the mature and immature

  5. Doublecortin in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Jenna J.; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions. There is growing evidence that OPCs are also involved in activity-driven de novo myelination of previously unmyelinated axons and myelin remodeling in adulthood. Considering these roles in the adult brain, OPCs are likely mobile cells that can migrate on some distances before they differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. A number of studies have noted that OPCs express doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in neural precursor cells and in migrating immature neurons. Here we describe the distribution of DCX in OPCs. We found that almost all OPCs express DCX, but the level of expression appears to be much lower than what is found in neural precursor. We found that DCX is downregulated when OPCs start expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers and is absent in myelinating oligodendrocytes. DCX does not appear to signal an immature neuronal phenotype in OPCs in the adult mouse brain. Rather, it could be involved either in cell migration, or as a marker of an immature oligodendroglial cell phenotype. PMID:28400715

  6. Systematic Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs in Immature and Mature Porcine Testes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Maoliang; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi; Wu, Maisheng; Liu, Xiaochun; He, Changqing; Zhang, Shanwen; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-04-01

    Thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mouse, rat, and human testes, some of which play important roles in testis development and spermatogenesis. However, systematic analysis of lncRNAs expressed in postnatal pig testes has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we present the expression and characterization of lncRNAs in immature (30-day-old [D30]) and mature (180-day-old [D180]) pig testes. A total of 90 440 168 (85.75%) and 97 001 700 (95.35%) 150-base-pair paired-end clean reads were generated in D30 and D180 cDNA libraries, respectively, using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform; 36 727 transcripts were assembled in those two libraries, 777 lncRNA transcripts from 752 lncRNA gene loci were identified using the highly stringent pipeline, and 101 of those lncRNA transcripts were significantly differentially expressed. Those lncRNAs shared some characteristics with other mammals, including fewer exons, shorter length and exon length, and lower expression level compared with those of protein-coding genes; 402 protein-coding genes (<10 kb) were found as nearest neighbors of 294 out of 752 lncRNA genes, and gene ontology enrichment showed that they were enriched in transcription- and development-related processes. Fifteen differentially expressed and 10 novel lncRNAs were randomly selected and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. In addition, one of the 10 novel lncRNAs was further confirmed using RACE clone technology. This study provides a catalog of porcine testes lncRNAs for further understanding their regulation roles in pig testis development and spermatogenesis. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Recognition of Immaturity and Emotional Expressions in Blended Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of facial immaturity and emotional expression by children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and non-disabled controls was studied in two experiments. Children identified immaturity and expression in upright and inverted faces. The autism group identified fewer immature faces and expressions than control (Exp. 1 &…

  8. Recognition of Immaturity and Emotional Expressions in Blended Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of facial immaturity and emotional expression by children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and non-disabled controls was studied in two experiments. Children identified immaturity and expression in upright and inverted faces. The autism group identified fewer immature faces and expressions than control (Exp. 1 &…

  9. Improvements in oocyte competence in superovulated mice following treatment with cilostazol: Ovulation of immature oocytes with high developmental rates.

    PubMed

    Taiyeb, Ahmed M; Muhsen-Alanssari, Saeeda A; Dees, William L; Hiney, Jill; Kjelland, Michael E; Kraemer, Duane C; Ridha-Albarzanchi, Mundhir T

    2017-08-01

    Exogenous administration of superovulatory hormones negatively affects oocyte competence in mammals. Phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitors were found to improve competence of oocytes matured in vitro in several species, including humans. This study was therefore designed to define oocyte maturation synchronization and competence, in vivo, using superovulated mice treated with cilostazol, a selective phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitor. Swiss Webster mice were superovulated and treated orally with 7.5mg cilostazol once or twice to result in ovulation of immature oocytes at the metaphase I (MI) or germinal vesicle (GV) stage, respectively. Control immature oocytes were recovered from preovulatory follicles of superovulated mice not treated with cilostazol. Treated GV oocytes had significantly higher rates of synchronized and advanced chromatin configuration and cortical granule distribution than did control GV oocytes. Treated GV oocytes had a moderate increase in cAMP levels and consequently higher rates of meiotic maturation, IVF, and blastocyst formation than did control GV oocytes (P<0.0001). Treated MI oocytes had higher rates of normal spindles and chromosomes aligned at the metaphase plate than did control MI oocytes (P<0.003). Treated mice ovulating MI oocytes produced litter sizes larger than those observed in control mice ovulating mature oocytes (P<0.002). This study reveals that synchronization of oocyte maturation in superovulated mice improves oocyte development and competence. The capability of cilostazol, a clinically approved medication, to improve mouse oocyte competence suggests the potential benefit of including this compound in ovarian hyperstimulation programs to improve in vitro fertilization outcomes in infertile women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Lööv, Camilla; Fernqvist, Maria; Walmsley, Adrian; Marklund, Niklas; Erlandsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Identifying external factors that can be used to control neural stem cells division and their differentiation to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes is of high scientific and clinical interest. Here we show that the Nogo-66 receptor interacting protein LINGO-1 is a potent regulator of neural stem cell maturation to neurons. LINGO-1 is expressed by cortical neural stem cells from E14 mouse embryos and inhibition of LINGO-1 during the first days of neural stem cell differentiation results in decreased neuronal maturation. Compared to neurons in control cultures, which after 6 days of differentiation have long extending neurites, neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies retain an immature, round phenotype with only very short processes. Furthermore, neutralization of LINGO-1 results in a threefold increase in βIII tubulin-positive cells compared to untreated control cultures. By using BrdU incorporation assays we show that the immature neurons in LINGO-1 neutralized cultures are dividing neuroblasts. In contrast to control cultures, in which no cells were double positive for βIII tubulin and BrdU, 36% of the neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies were proliferating after three days of differentiation. TUNEL assays revealed that the amount of cells going through apoptosis during the early phase of differentiation was significantly decreased in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies compared to untreated control cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for LINGO-1 in neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and suggest a possibility to use LINGO-1 inhibitors to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the injured brain.

  11. In vivo gene targeting of IL-3 into immature hematopoietic cells through CD117 receptor mediated antibody gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Alain; Deas, Olivier; Bensidhoum, Morad; François, Sabine; Mouiseddine, Moubarak; Poncet, Pascal; Dürrbach, Antoine; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Gorin, Norbert C; Hirsch, François; Thierry, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Background Targeted gene transfection remains a crucial issue to permit the real development of genetic therapy. As such, in vivo targeted transfection of specific subsets of hematopoietic stem cells might help to sustain hematopoietic recovery from bone marrow aplasia by providing local production of growth factors. Methods Balb/C mice were injected intravenously, with an anti-mouse c-kit (CD117) monoclonal antibody chemically coupled to a human IL-3 gene-containing plasmid DNA. Mice were sacrificed for tissue analyses at various days after injection of the conjugates. Results By ELISA, the production of human IL-3 was evidenced in the sera of animals 5 days after treatment. Cytofluorometric analysis after in vivo transfection of a reporter gene eGFP demonstrated transfection of CD117+/Sca1+ hematopoietic immature cells. By PCR analysis of genomic DNA and RNA using primer specific pIL3 sequences, presence and expression of the human IL-3-transgene were detected in the bone marrow up to 10 days in transfected mice but not in control animals. Conclusions These data clearly indicate that antibody-mediated endocytosis gene transfer allows the expression of the IL-3 transgene into hematopoietic immature cells, in vivo. While availability of marketed recombinant growth factors is restricted, this targeting strategy should permit delivery of therapeutic genes to tissues of interest through systemic delivery. In particular, the ability to specifically target growth factor expression into repopulating hematopoietic stem cells may create new opportunities for the treatment of primary or radiation-induced marrow failures. PMID:15509303

  12. [Nutritional quality of pigeon pea protein, immature and ripe, and its supplementary value for cereals].

    PubMed

    Bressani, R; Gómez-Brenes, R A; Elías, L G

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine the differences which could exist between immature and mature pigeon pea in gross chemical composition and protein quality, raw and cooked, as well as their respective supplementary value to rice, and to mature and immature corn and sorghum. The chemical composition data showed only small differences in proximate composition between the mature and immature grain. The cooking process did not affect chemical composition. Based on the FAO/WHO amino acid reference pattern, immature pigeon pea was more deficient in threonine than mature pigeon pea, which was limiting in valine. Both grains were limiting in sulfur amino acids. The protein quality of the immature grain was higher than that of the mature grain, and both responded positively to cooking, suggesting the presence of antiphysiological substances in both. Amino acid supplementation studies demonstrated that both the immature and mature grain responded to methionine addition, the first limiting amino acid, and to tryptophan, the second limiting amino acid. The effects were more marked when samples were cooked. Both types of grains were good supplements to rice, when added in amounts of 10-20%. Mature pigeon peas supplemented relatively well the proteins of sorghum, immature and mature corn, at the 20, 30 and 20% levels, respectively. The differences found could be explained on the basis of the amino acids limiting cereal grains and pigeon peas protein.

  13. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    PubMed

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Morphology of immature stages of Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Dian-Xing, Feng; Guang-Chun, Liu

    2012-09-01

    In addition to causing myiasis in humans, Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz has also been reported as a forensically important fly. In this study, we presented the morphology of all larval instars and puparium of M. spiracularis using scanning electron microscopy. The first instar larva was composed of 12 segments. Antennae and maxillary palp complex were visible. Two spiracular slits could be seen at the posterior spiracle. The branch of posterior spiracular hairs was approximately equal to the palm-formed base in length. Second and third larval instars were very similar to first instar, except for the presence of anterior spiracle. The labium of the second instar larva was triangular and ventrally curved, whereas it was a bilobed structure and the tip forked in the first instar. The bubble membrance comprised of ≈40 globules presented at the third instar larvae. Puparia showed a retracted cephalic region and a pair of pupal respiratory horns on the dorsum. A comparison of the morphological features between immature stages of M. spiracularis and M. scalaris, a forensically important fly indoors in Germany, Malaysia, and China, was discussed.

  15. Clinical Associations with Immature Breathing in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manisha; Mohr, Mary; Lake, Douglas; Delos, John; Moorman, J. Randall; Sinkin, Robert A.; Kattwinkel, John; Fairchild, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodic breathing (PB) is a normal immature breathing pattern in neonates that, if extreme, may be associated with pathologic conditions. Methods We used our automated PB detection system to analyze all bedside monitor chest impedance data on all infants <35 weeks’ gestation in the University of Virginia Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2009-2014 (n=1211). Percent time spent in PB was calculated hourly (>50 infant-years’ data). Extreme PB was identified as a 12h period with PB >6 standard deviations above the mean for gestational age (GA) and post-menstrual age (PMA) and >10% time in PB. Results PB increased with GA, with the highest amount in infants 30-33 weeks’ GA at about 2 weeks’ chronologic age. Extreme PB was identified in 76 infants and in 45% was temporally associated with clinical events including infection or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), immunizations, or caffeine discontinuation. In 8/28 cases of septicemia and 10/21 cases of NEC there was a >2-fold increase in %PB over baseline in the day prior to diagnosis. Conclusion Infants <35 weeks GA spend, on average, <6% of the time in PB. An acute increase in PB may reflect illness or physiological stressors or may occur without any apparent clinical event. PMID:27002984

  16. Immature Dentate Gyrus: An Endophenotype of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Noah M.; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Adequate maturation of neurons and their integration into the hippocampal circuit is crucial for normal cognitive function and emotional behavior, and disruption of this process could cause disturbances in mental health. Previous reports have shown that mice heterozygous for a null mutation in α-CaMKII, which encodes a key synaptic plasticity molecule, display abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In these mutants, almost all neurons in the dentate gyrus are arrested at a pseudoimmature state at the molecular and electrophysiological levels, a phenomenon defined as “immature dentate gyrus (iDG).” To date, the iDG phenotype and shared behavioral abnormalities (including working memory deficit and hyperlocomotor activity) have been discovered in Schnurri-2 knockout, mutant SNAP-25 knock-in, and forebrain-specific calcineurin knockout mice. In addition, both chronic fluoxetine treatment and pilocarpine-induced seizures reverse the neuronal maturation, resulting in the iDG phenotype in wild-type mice. Importantly, an iDG-like phenomenon was observed in post-mortem analysis of brains from patients with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. Based on these observations, we proposed that the iDG is a potential endophenotype shared by certain types of neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes recent data describing this phenotype and discusses the data's potential implication in elucidating the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23840971

  17. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    PubMed

    Hogsette, J A; Urech, R; Green, P E; Skerman, A; Elson-Harris, M M; Bright, R L; Brown, G W

    2012-03-01

    Species composition, seasonality and distribution of immature fly populations on a southern Queensland feedlot during 2001-2003 were determined. Similar data were collected on feedlots in central New South Wales and central Queensland. The fly species recovered in the highest numbers were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and Physiphora clausa Macquart (Diptera: Ulidiidae). Houseflies were the dominant species at all feedlots. Houseflies preferred the warmer months from October to June, but stable flies preferred the cooler months and peaked in spring (September-November) and autumn (March-May). Larval abundance ratings recorded in the feedlot and numbers of larvae extracted in the laboratory from corresponding samples followed similar trends. Larvae of M. domestica were most abundant in the hospital and induction area and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of M. domestica were abundant in the hospital and induction area and drains, but least abundant in horse stables and yards. Larvae of S. calcitrans were most abundant in drains and least abundant in horse stables and yards. Pupae of S. calcitrans were most numerous in drains and least numerous in old cattle pens. Feedlot design and management had little effect on fly reduction.

  18. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; Del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-02-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25-45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18-33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes.

  19. Protective effect of carnosine on febrile seizures in immature mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Wu, Deng-Chang; Feng, Bo; Hou, Wei-wei; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-Wei

    2015-02-19

    Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common type of convulsions in childhood and complex FSs represent an increased risk for development of temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the anticonvulsant effects of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide composed of alanine and histidine, on hyperthermia induced seizure in immature mice. Injection of carnosine significantly increased the latency and decreased the duration of FSs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histidine had similar effects on FSs as carnosine. The protective effect of carnosine or histidine was completely abolished by α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, or in histidine decarboxylase deficient (HDC-KO) mice. Peripheral carnosine administration increased the level of carnosine, histidine and histamine in the cortex and hippocampus of mice pups, but decreased glutamate contents in the cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that carnosine can protect against FSs in mice pups through its conversion to histamine, suggesting that it may serve as an efficient anti-FSs drug in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-meiotic chromosome instability in human immature oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Gemma; Ramos, Laia; Rius, Mariona; Obradors, Albert; del Rey, Javier; Giralt, Magda; Campillo, Mercedes; Velilla, Esther; Pujol, Aïda; Martinez-Pasarell, Olga; Benet, Jordi; Navarro, Joaquima

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy has been a major issue in human gametes and is closely related to fertility problems, as it is known to be present in cleavage stage embryos and gestational losses. Pre-meiotic chromosome abnormalities in women have been previously described. The aim of this study is to assess the whole-chromosome complement in immature oocytes to find those abnormalities caused by mitotic instability. For this purpose, a total of 157 oocytes at the germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, and discarded from IVF cycles, were analysed by CGH. Fifty-six women, between 18 and 45 years old (mean 32.5 years), including 32 IVF patients (25–45 years of age) and 24 IVF oocyte donors (18–33 years of age), were included in the study. A total of 25/157 (15.9%) of the oocytes analysed, obtained from three IVF clinics, contained chromosome abnormalities, including both aneuploidy (24/157) and structural aberrations (9/157). Independently of the maternal age, the incidence of abnormal oocytes which originated before meiosis is 15.9%, and these imbalances were found in 33.9% of the females studied. This work sheds light on the relevance of mitotic instability responsible for the generation of the abnormalities present in human oocytes. PMID:23695274

  1. Notch1 signaling stimulates proliferation of immature cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Collesi, Chiara; Zentilin, Lorena; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Giacca, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The identification of the molecular mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation during the embryonic, fetal, and early neonatal life appears of paramount interest in regard to exploiting this information to promote cardiac regeneration. Here, we show that the proliferative potential of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes is powerfully stimulated by the sustained activation of the Notch pathway. We found that Notch1 is expressed in proliferating ventricular immature cardiac myocytes (ICMs) both in vitro and in vivo, and that the number of Notch1-positive cells in the heart declines with age. Notch1 expression in ICMs paralleled the expression of its Jagged1 ligand on non-myocyte supporting cells. The inhibition of Notch signaling in ICMs blocked their proliferation and induced apoptosis; in contrast, its activation by Jagged1 or by the constitutive expression of its activated form using an adeno-associated virus markedly stimulated proliferative signaling and promoted ICM expansion. Maintenance or reactivation of Notch signaling in cardiac myocytes might represent an interesting target for innovative regenerative therapy. PMID:18824567

  2. Radiographic evaluation of the anconeal process in skeletally immature dogs.

    PubMed

    Frazho, Jean K; Graham, John; Peck, Jeffrey N; De Haan, Jacek J

    2010-10-01

    To determine if a secondary center of ossification (SCO) of the anconeal process is present in skeletally immature dogs that do not develop an ununited anconeal process (UAP). Case series. Dogs 77-154 days of age with conditions other than developmental disease of the elbow (n=78 dogs; total elbows=100). Mediolateral radiographic projections of the elbow were reviewed for presence or absence of a SCO of the anconeal process. A SCO was radiographically evident in 16% of elbows from breeds that have been reported to be affected by UAP. The appearance of the SCO was different to an UAP fragment. None of the elbows with SCO of the anconeal process developed UAP. A SCO was not present in any small breed dogs. A SCO of the anconeal process is uncommon in medium and large breed dogs and the presence of a SCO does not indicate that UAP will develop. Because radiographic diagnosis of a SCO of the anconeal process and UAP lesions have distinct appearances, an earlier diagnosis of UAP is possible. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Description of the immatures of Linepithema humile Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Solis, Daniel R; Fox, Eduardo G P; Rossi, Mônica L; Bueno, Odair C

    2010-01-01

    Linepithema humile Mayr is an ant species originally native to South America that has been spread accidently throughout the globe through international trade. It is a serious urban and crop pest. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the larvae of this species apart from a brief description based on a few specimens. The present investigation is aimed at describing every immature stage of L. humile. Three larval instars were determined through the frequency distribution of the maximum width of head capsules from a sample of 525 larvae. The morphological descriptions were based on 150 eggs, 70 larvae, and 90 pupae examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Some morphological characteristics reported to be typical of Linepithema Mayr larvae were confirmed--dolichoderoid body shape, presence of dorsal protuberance, sparse simple body hairs, presence of nine pairs of spiracles and dolichoderoid mandibles. We concluded that an earlier published description was based on queen larvae, and that the protuberance is only present in worker larvae. The information provided in this study may aid ant systematics and phylogenetics, as well provide a better understanding of the biology of this species.

  4. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested.

  5. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after internal bleaching procedures.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Eymirli, Ayhan; Uyanik, Mehmet Özgür; Nagas, Emre; Çehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after internal bleaching. The teeth were assigned as follows (n = 12/group); Group-1: The pulp chamber was filled with ProRootMTA and bleached intracoronally with sodium perborate mixed with 37% carbamide peroxide gel; Group-2: The pulp chamber was filled with ProRootMTA without bleaching; Group-3: The pulp chamber was filled with Biodentine and bleached intracoronally as Group-1; Group-4: The pulp chamber was filled with Biodentine without bleaching; and Group-5: Teeth received no intervention (control). The specimens were loaded vertically until root fracture occurred. The data were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. There was no significant difference between the fracture resistances of the experimental groups (P > 0.05). However, all experimental groups had significantly lower fracture resistance than the control group (P < 0.05). Neither the tested calcium silicate cements nor the bleaching procedures had a significant impact on fracture resistance values. © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  6. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  7. Frequent homozygosity in both mature and immature ovarian teratomas: a shared genetic basis of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Snir, Olivia L; DeJoseph, Maura; Wong, Serena; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2017-06-30

    Although homozygosity is well documented in mature teratomas, the genetic zygosity of ovarian immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors is less well studied. Ten cases of mature cystic teratomas, eleven cases of grade 2 or 3 immature teratomas, and seven cases of mixed germ cell tumors with an immature teratoma component were investigated by short tandem repeat genotyping to interrogate their genetic zygosity. DNA genotyping was informative in eight mature teratomas, seven immature teratomas and six cases of mixed germ cell tumors. Out of the eight mature teratomas, five cases showed partial or complete homozygosity (63%) with two cases demonstrating complete homozygosity (25%). Of the immature teratomas, six cases showed partial or complete homozygosity (86%) with two cases demonstrating complete homozygosity (29%). For the mixed germ cell tumors, two cases showed partial homozygosity (33%) and none displayed complete homozygosity. Long-term clinical follow-up was available for five immature teratomas (mean follow-up 110 months) and five mixed germ cell tumors (mean follow-up 66 months). None of the five patients with pure immature teratoma had a recurrence; in contrast, four out of five mixed ovarian germ cell tumors recurred between 4 months to 8 years (P=0.048). In conclusion, both immature and mature teratomas harbor frequent genetic homozygosity suggesting a common cellular origin involving germ cells at the same developmental stage. The difference in the rate of homozygosity and tumor recurrence between pure immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors suggests that the two entities may involve different pathogenetic pathways and likely pursue different biological behaviors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 30 June 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.66.

  8. prM-antibody renders immature West Nile virus infectious in vivo.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Moesker, Bastiaan; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Smit, Jolanda M

    2011-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the family Flaviviridae and is a neurotropic pathogen responsible for severe human disease. Flavivirus-infected cells release virus particles that contain variable numbers of precursor membrane (prM) protein molecules at the viral surface. Consequently, antibodies are produced against the prM protein. These antibodies have been shown to activate the infectious potential of fully immature flavivirus particles in vitro. Here, we provide in vivo proof that prM antibodies render immature WNV infectious. Infection with antibody-opsonized immature WNV particles caused disease and death of mice, and infectious WNV was found in the brains and sera.

  9. Reducing stand densities in immature and mature stands, applegate watershed, southwest Oregon. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Main, M.L.; Amaranthus, M.P.

    1996-02-01

    In the study the authors examined conditions following density management treatments in two adjacent but dissimilar stands in Applegate Watershed, Oregon. An immature stand received a unique density reduction treatment retaining both hardwoods and conifers to encourage long-term survival and growth of its coniferous component. The mature stand density reduction treatment focused on removal of the competitive influence from overstocked, surpressed understory trees and maintaining existing large-diameter conifers. Precommercial thinning greatly reduced stand density and increased quadratic mean diameters in the immature stand. In the immature stand the combination of commercial and precommercial thinnings produced a reduced stand density designed to improve overall stand vigor.

  10. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  11. GABA mediated excitation in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, E; Rovira, C; Gaiarsa, J L; Corradetti, R; Ben Ari, Y

    1990-01-01

    Intracellular recordings from rat hippocampal neurons in vitro during the first postnatal week revealed the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). These were generated by the synchronous discharge of a population of neurons. GDPs reversed polarity at -27 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl or K-methylsulphate filled electrodes, respectively. GDPs were blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (10 microM). Iontophoretic or bath applications of GABA (10-300 microM) in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM), induced a membrane depolarization or in voltage clamp experiments an inward current which reversed polarity at the same potential as GDPs. The response to GABA was blocked in a non-competitive manner by bicuculline (10 microM) and did not desensitize. GABA mediated GDPs were presynaptically modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors. Their frequency was reduced or blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists and by the rather specific non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). The frequency of GDPs was enhanced by glycine and D-serine (10-30 microM) in a strychnine insensitive manner. This effect was blocked by AP-5, suggesting that it was mediated by the allosteric modulatory site of the NMDA receptor. These observations suggest that most of the 'excitatory' drive in immature neurons is mediated by GABA acting on GABAA receptors; furthermore excitatory amino acids modulate the release of GABA by a presynaptic action on GABAergic interneurons.

  12. Temporal Coding at the Immature Depolarizing GABAergic Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Valeeva, Guzel; Abdullin, Azat; Tyzio, Roman; Skorinkin, Andrei; Nikolski, Evgeny; Ben-Ari, Yehezkiel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2010-01-01

    In the developing hippocampus, GABA exerts depolarizing and excitatory actions and contributes to the generation of neuronal network driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Here, we studied spike time coding at immature GABAergic synapses and its impact on synchronization of the neuronal network during GDPs in the neonatal (postnatal days P2–6) rat hippocampal slices. Using extracellular recordings, we found that the delays of action potentials (APs) evoked by synaptic activation of GABA(A) receptors are long (mean, 65 ms) and variable (within a time window of 10–200 ms). During patch-clamp recordings, depolarizing GABAergic responses were mainly subthreshold and their amplification by persistent sodium conductance was required to trigger APs. AP delays at GABAergic synapses shortened and their variability reduced with an increase in intracellular chloride concentration during whole-cell recordings. Negative shift of the GABA reversal potential (EGABA) with low concentrations of bumetanide, or potentiation of GABA(A) receptors with diazepam reduced GDPs amplitude, desynchronized neuronal firing during GDPs and slowed down GDPs propagation. Partial blockade of GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline increased neuronal synchronization and accelerated GDPs propagation. We propose that spike timing at depolarizing GABA synapses is determined by intracellular chloride concentration. At physiological levels of intracellular chloride GABAergic depolarization does not reach the action potential threshold and amplification of GABAergic responses by non-inactivating sodium conductance is required for postsynaptic AP initiation. Slow and variable excitation at GABAergic synapse determines the level of neuronal synchrony and the rate of GDPs propagation in the developing hippocampus. PMID:20725525

  13. Temporal coding at the immature depolarizing GABAergic synapse.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, Guzel; Abdullin, Azat; Tyzio, Roman; Skorinkin, Andrei; Nikolski, Evgeny; Ben-Ari, Yehezkiel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2010-01-01

    In the developing hippocampus, GABA exerts depolarizing and excitatory actions and contributes to the generation of neuronal network driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Here, we studied spike time coding at immature GABAergic synapses and its impact on synchronization of the neuronal network during GDPs in the neonatal (postnatal days P2-6) rat hippocampal slices. Using extracellular recordings, we found that the delays of action potentials (APs) evoked by synaptic activation of GABA(A) receptors are long (mean, 65 ms) and variable (within a time window of 10-200 ms). During patch-clamp recordings, depolarizing GABAergic responses were mainly subthreshold and their amplification by persistent sodium conductance was required to trigger APs. AP delays at GABAergic synapses shortened and their variability reduced with an increase in intracellular chloride concentration during whole-cell recordings. Negative shift of the GABA reversal potential (E(GABA)) with low concentrations of bumetanide, or potentiation of GABA(A) receptors with diazepam reduced GDPs amplitude, desynchronized neuronal firing during GDPs and slowed down GDPs propagation. Partial blockade of GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline increased neuronal synchronization and accelerated GDPs propagation. We propose that spike timing at depolarizing GABA synapses is determined by intracellular chloride concentration. At physiological levels of intracellular chloride GABAergic depolarization does not reach the action potential threshold and amplification of GABAergic responses by non-inactivating sodium conductance is required for postsynaptic AP initiation. Slow and variable excitation at GABAergic synapse determines the level of neuronal synchrony and the rate of GDPs propagation in the developing hippocampus.

  14. Minocycline protects the immature white matter against hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Thomas; Krabbe, Grietje; Weikert, Georg; Scheuer, Till; Matheus, Friederike; Wang, Yan; Mueller, Susanne; Kettenmann, Helmut; Matyash, Vitali; Bührer, Christoph; Endesfelder, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Poor neurological outcome in preterm infants is associated with periventricular white matter damage and hypomyelination, often caused by perinatal inflammation, hypoxia-ischemia, and hyperoxia. Minocycline has been demonstrated in animal models to protect the immature brain against inflammation and hypoxia-ischemia by microglial inhibition. Here we studied the effect of minocycline on white matter damage caused by hyperoxia. To mimic the 3- to 4-fold increase of oxygen tension caused by preterm birth, we have used the hyperoxia model in neonatal rats providing 24h exposure to 4-fold increased oxygen concentration (80% instead of 21% O2) from P6 to P7. We analyzed whether minocycline prevents activation of microglia and damage of oligodendroglial precursor cell development, and whether acute treatment of hyperoxia-exposed rats with minocycline improves long term white matter integrity. Minocycline administration during exposure to hyperoxia resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and in improved proliferation and maturation of oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC). Minocycline blocked changes in microglial morphology and IL-1β release induced by hyperoxia. In primary microglial cell cultures, minocycline inhibited cytokine release while in mono-cultures of OPCs, it improved survival and proliferation. Long term impairment of white matter diffusivity in MRI/DTI in P30 and P60 animals after neonatal hyperoxia was attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline protects white matter development against oxygen toxicity through direct protection of oligodendroglia and by microglial inhibition. This study moreover demonstrates long term benefits of minocycline on white matter integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  16. Selective calcium sensitivity in immature glioma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wee, Shimei; Niklasson, Maria; Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Segerman, Anna; Schmidt, Linnéa; Hermansson, Annika; Dirks, Peter; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Westermark, Bengt; Uhrbom, Lene; Linnarsson, Sten; Nelander, Sven; Andäng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells.

  17. Are mature female voles more susceptible than immature ones to avian predation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivunen, Vesa; Korpimäki, Erkki; Hakkarainen, Harri

    1998-08-01

    It is well known that a number of activities related to reproduction can increase the predation risk for individuals. Both in the aviary and in the field, we studied whether maturity of female field voles ( Microtus agrestis) affected their behaviour and consequently their risk of predation by Tengmalm's owls ( Aegolius funereus). In an aviary, we recorded the behaviour of mature and immature voles in control (owl absent) and predator (owl present) treatments, but did not find obvious differences in behaviour or vulnerability between mature and immature female voles. In the field, we compared maturity status of female field voles snap-trapped in owl territories with those caught by breeding owls in 1992 and 1994. In accordance with the results from an aviary experiment, there were no obvious differences in vulnerability to Tengmalm's owls between mature and immature individuals. This suggests that mature and immature female field voles are equally exposed to avian predation.

  18. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in immature teeth: Long-term case report

    PubMed Central

    Subay, Rustem Kemal; Ilhan, Banu; Ulukapi, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    This case report aimed to present the long-term clinical performance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomies in immature permanent teeth. Four patients with complicated crown fractures of five maxillary immature central incisor teeth were treated with pulpotomy using gray MTA. An immature mandibular first molar showing signs of reversible pulpitis that was exposed mechanically during cavity preparation was also treated with MTA pulpotomy. Four of the 6 immature teeth were diagnosed vitally with complete root maturation and with the presence of dentin bridges after 55 months (mean time of follow-ups). MTA pulpotomy was assessed unsuccessfully in two fractured central incisors. Severe discoloration in the crowns was present in all 6 cases. MTA may induce pulp healing with dentin bridge formation and prevent necrosis at long-term periods in most of the pulpotomy cases. However, discoloration following MTA pulpotomy is a significant clinical complication. PMID:23408174

  19. [Rearing immature horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Rafael, José A

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rearing immature horse flies by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand is described and the advantages of such substrate for maintenance of species with long development periods are discussed.

  20. Automatic detection of immature platelets for decision making regarding platelet transfusion indications for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Saigo, Katsuyasu; Sakota, Yasuyuki; Masuda, Yukako; Matsunaga, Kyoko; Takenokuchi, Mariko; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Sakurai, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Makoto; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Tsutomu; Kubota, Yoshitsugu; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2008-04-01

    Immature or reticulated platelets are known as a clinical marker of thrombopoiesis. Recently, an automatic method was established to detect reticulated platelets as immature platelet fraction (IPF) by means of hematology analyzer XE-2100. We assessed the effects of IPF detection after chemotherapy for various pediatric malignant disorders of 16 patients. Our results indicate that IPF should be considered a useful marker of imminent platelet recovery so that unnecessary platelet transfusion can be avoided.

  1. Copulation with immature females increases male fitness in cannibalistic widow spiders.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, M Daniela; Sandomirsky, Iara; Lubin, Yael; Harari, Ally R; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2016-09-01

    Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females. This is an adaptive male tactic because immature mating increases insemination success relative to adult mating (which predicts higher paternity) and moreover, rarely ends in cannibalism, so males can mate again. Although successful only during a brief period before the female's final moult, males may employ this tactic when they associate with final-instar females in nature. Consistent with this, one-third of L. hasselti females collected as immatures in nature were already mated. Immature mating alters sexual selection on these otherwise monogynous males, and may explain male traits allowing facultative polygyny in Latrodectus Since male cohabitation with immature females is common among invertebrates, immature mating may be a widespread, previously unrecognized mating tactic, particularly when unmated females are of high reproductive value. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Generation of Live Piglets for the First Time Using Sperm Retrieved from Immature Testicular Tissue Cryopreserved and Grafted into Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Michiko; Somfai, Tamas; Noguchi, Junko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues is essential for increasing the possibilities of offspring generation by testicular xenografting for agricultural or medical purposes. However, successful production of offspring from the sperm involved has never been reported previously. In the present study, therefore, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we examined whether xenogeneic sperm obtained from immature pig testicular tissue after cryopreservation would have the capacity to produce live piglets. Testicular fragments from 9- to 11-day-old piglets were vitrified after 10- or 20-min immersion in vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol (EG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and trehalose as cryoprotectants, and then stored in liquid nitrogen for more than 140 days. Thirty nude mice were assigned to each immersion-time group. Testicular fragments were transplanted under the back skin of castrated mice immediately after warming and removal of the cryoprotectants. Blood and testicular grafts were then recovered from the recipient mice on days 60, 120, 180 and 230−350 (day 0 =  grafting). Histological assessment of the testicular grafts and analyses of inhibin and testosterone production revealed no significant differences between the two immersion-time groups, indicating equal growth activity of the cryopreserved tissues. A single sperm obtained from a mouse in each group on day 230−350 was injected into an in vitro-matured porcine oocyte, and then the ICSI oocytes were transferred to the oviducts of estrus-synchronized recipient gilts. One out of 4 gilts that had received oocytes fertilized using sperm from the 10-min immersion group delivered 2 live piglets, and one of another 4 gilts from the 20-min group delivered 4 live piglets. Thus, we have successfully generated porcine offspring utilizing sperm from immature testicular tissues after cryopreservation and transplantation into nude mice. The present model using pigs will be

  3. Pure Immature Teratoma of the Ovary in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Alwazzan, Ahmad Bakr; Popowich, Shaundra; Dean, Erin; Robinson, Christine; Lotocki, Robert; Altman, Alon D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment outcome, and reproductive function in women diagnosed with ovarian immature teratoma (IT). Our standard chemotherapy regime is currently etoposide/cisplatin (EP), creating a unique opportunity to evaluate this protocol in ovarian ITs. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis. Twenty-seven women older than 18 years with ovarian IT stages IA to IIIC were identified and included in this study. Patients were treated at 1 institution, Health Sciences Center, Women’s Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, between 1983 and 2013. Results The median age at diagnosis was 27.0 years (range, 18–36 years). Twenty-two (82%) presented with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I disease, 3 (11%) had stage II, and 2 patients (7%) had stage III disease. The histologic grade distribution was grade I in 9 patients (33%), grade II in 3 patients (11%), and grade III in 15 patients (56%). Initial management was surgical for all patients: 3 (11%) hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 1 (4%) cystectomy only, and 23 (85%) unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Twenty-one patients (78%) received adjuvant therapy. The median follow-up was 60 months (range, 36–72 months). One patient recurred (histological grade III) 6 months after surgery and had a complete clinical response to 4 cycles of EP chemotherapy. Twelve patients reported an attempt to conceive resulting in 10 pregnancies (8 after chemotherapy). Conclusions Ovarian IT is a curable disease. Fertility-sparing surgery should be offered. Adjuvant treatment with cisplatinum-based chemotherapy, typically with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, is still considered the standard in stages greater than stage IA grade I. Etoposide/cisplatin as a primary chemotherapy regime for early- or advanced-stage disease is an effective treatment with minimal adverse effects and high tolerability. This is

  4. Posterior sternoclavicular joint injuries in skeletally immature patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jared T; Nasreddine, Adam Y; Black, Eric M; Bae, Donald S; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-06-01

    Posterior injuries to the sternoclavicular (SC) joint are uncommon. In the skeletally immature (SI) population, these injuries have been described as either dislocations of the SC joint or fractures of the medial clavicular physis. The current literature and standardized test questions state that a posterior SC injury, in a SI patient, is more likely a physeal fracture than a SC joint dislocation. However, this injury characterization is based on case reports or small case series. The purpose of this study is to characterize posterior SC injuries in SI patients in terms of the prevalence of dislocation versus medial clavicle physeal fracture. A retrospective review was performed of 48 SI patients treated for posterior SC joint injuries over a 20-year period with a mean age of 15.4 years (range, 13 to 18 y). Forty patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation as their definitive treatment and 8 patients were treated exclusively with closed reduction. Patients treated operatively were utilized in determining the prevalence of SC joint dislocation versus physeal fracture. All patients treated operatively underwent primary repair without reconstruction. Twenty (50%), of the 40 patients treated operatively had a true SC joint dislocation and 20 patients (50%) had a medial clavicle physeal fracture. Twenty-two (46%) of the 48 total patients had an attempted closed reduction of which only 8 (36%) were successful. Among the 14 unsuccessful closed reductions, 12 (86%) were true dislocations (P<0.001). All successful closed reductions occurred in patients within 24 hours from injury. Eleven of the 48 (23%) patients' injuries were missed on initial presentation. Posterior SC joint dislocation and medial clavicular physeal fracture both occur with roughly equivalent prevalence in patients with an open medial physis. An attempted closed reduction may be more successful if performed within 24 hours after injury. Patients who fail attempts at closed reduction are more

  5. Severity of Asynchronous Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses in Skeletally Immature Versus More Skeletally Mature Patients.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Philip D; Silva, Selina; Toelle, Lisa; Strohmeyer, Greg; Wahlquist, Trevor; Li, Ying; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S

    2017-01-01

    Routine prophylactic screw fixation for skeletally immature patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) continues to be debated. The purpose of this study was to assess the slip severity of a second SCFE in skeletally immature versus more mature patients and determine necessity of contralateral hip prophylactic screw fixation. All patients treated for SCFE at 3 pediatric hospitals over a 10-year time period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011) were evaluated. Patients were included if they had a unilateral SCFE and a contralateral asynchronous SCFE, and were divided into immature (Oxford triradiate score 1) versus more mature (Oxford triradiate score 2 and 3) groups. Data evaluation included age, time between slips, body mass index, Southwick angles of first then second SCFEs, and follow-up duration. There were a total of 45 patients: 16 patients in the skeletally immature and 29 patients in the more mature group. Average age at first SCFE in immature patients was 10.9 years and in more mature patients 12.1 years (P=0.70). Age at second SCFE in immature patients was 11.5 years and in more mature patients 13.0 years (P=0.023). Average time between SCFEs was 6.6 months for immature and 11.4 months for more mature patients (P=0.093). Southwick angles for immature patient first and second SCFEs were 25 and 12.9 degrees, respectively, and for more mature patient first and second SCFEs were 31 and 21 degrees, respectively. Southwick angles were higher at first and second slips in the more mature group, significant only at the second slip (P=0.032). SCFE severity at initial event was predictive of severity of second SCFE regardless of maturity (P=0.043). Regression analysis of slip severity against multiple patient factors demonstrated triradiate score was not a factor assessing subsequent SCFE magnitude (P=0.099). There was no significant difference between first and second SCFEs regardless of skeletal maturity but severity of initial SCFE did correlate with

  6. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora

    2017-01-01

    Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918

  7. Estrogen agonist/antagonist properties of dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) based on in vitro and in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Ying; Zhao, Liang; Li, Jun; Bai, Huicheng; Zhu, Desheng; Hu, Jianying

    2011-11-10

    The most commonly used phthalates have been banned or restricted for use as plasticizers in toys in some countries because of their endocrine-disrupting properties. Dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) has been proposed as a possible alternative for the banned/restricted phthalates. In this study, the estrogen agonist/antagonist properties of DBzP were predicted by molecular docking and confirmed by yeast estrogen screen (YES) and immature mouse uterotrophic assays. The YES assay results showed a dose-dependent increase in DBzP estrogen agonist activity from 10⁻⁶ to 10⁻⁴ M, and at concentrations from 1.95×10⁻⁶ M to higher, DBzP significantly inhibited the agonist activity of 10⁻⁹ M 17β-estradiol (E₂), inhibiting 10⁻⁹ M E₂ by 74.5% at its maximum effectiveness. The in vivo estrogen agonist/antagonist activities of DBzP were demonstrated in immature mouse uterotrophic assays. The antagonist activity of DBzP inhibited E₂-induced uterine growth promoted at 40 and 400 μg/kg bw (body weight) (P<0.05). In addition, we also analyzed the estrogen agonist/antagonist potentials of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) by YES, and found both were weaker than those of DBzP, suggesting DBzP would be more toxic than BBP and should not be used as an alternative plasticizer.

  8. Hypoxia alters gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells toward an immature and neural crest-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jögi, Annika; Øra, Ingrid; Nilsson, Helén; Lindeheim, Asa; Makino, Yuichi; Poellinger, Lorenz; Axelson, Håkan; Påhlman, Sven

    2002-05-14

    Insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply often restrain solid tumor growth, and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) 1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha are key transcription regulators of phenotypic adaptation to low oxygen levels. Moreover, mouse gene disruption studies have implicated HIF-2 alpha in embryonic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, a hallmark gene of the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma tumors originate from immature sympathetic cells, and therefore we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation status of human neuroblastoma cells. Hypoxia stabilized HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha proteins and activated the expression of known hypoxia-induced genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and tyrosine hydroxylase. These changes in gene expression also occurred in hypoxic regions of experimental neuroblastoma xenografts grown in mice. In contrast, hypoxia decreased the expression of several neuronal/neuroendocrine marker genes but induced genes expressed in neural crest sympathetic progenitors, for instance c-kit and Notch-1. Thus, hypoxia apparently causes dedifferentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for selection of highly malignant tumor cells with stem-cell characteristics.

  9. Hypoxia alters gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells toward an immature and neural crest-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jögi, Annika; Øra, Ingrid; Nilsson, Helén; Lindeheim, Åsa; Makino, Yuichi; Poellinger, Lorenz; Axelson, Håkan; Påhlman, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply often restrain solid tumor growth, and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) 1α and HIF-2α are key transcription regulators of phenotypic adaptation to low oxygen levels. Moreover, mouse gene disruption studies have implicated HIF-2α in embryonic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, a hallmark gene of the sympathetic nervous system. Neuroblastoma tumors originate from immature sympathetic cells, and therefore we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation status of human neuroblastoma cells. Hypoxia stabilized HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins and activated the expression of known hypoxia-induced genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and tyrosine hydroxylase. These changes in gene expression also occurred in hypoxic regions of experimental neuroblastoma xenografts grown in mice. In contrast, hypoxia decreased the expression of several neuronal/neuroendocrine marker genes but induced genes expressed in neural crest sympathetic progenitors, for instance c-kit and Notch-1. Thus, hypoxia apparently causes dedifferentiation both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for selection of highly malignant tumor cells with stem-cell characteristics. PMID:12011461

  10. Feeding preferences of the immature stages of three western north American ixodid ticks (Acari) for avian, reptilian, or rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Ted J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Larval and nymphal Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, I. (Ixodes) jellisoni Cooley and Kohls, and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were tested for host preference when simultaneously presented with a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner), California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus Merriam), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard), and California towhee (Pipilo crissalis Vigors) in an experimental apparatus. Differences were observed in the preferences among the three species and between life stages. More larvae of all species approached and contacted hosts than did nymphs. Subadult I. pacificus entered all host-containing chambers in the highest numbers and remained on lizards most often after contact. Subadult I. jellisoni entered and remained in the chambers containing kangaroo rats, while rejecting mice, lizards, and birds as hosts. Subadult D. occidentalis most frequently entered rodent-containing chambers and contacted these hosts. After overnight exposure to all nonavian hosts, only I. pacificus parasitized and fed successfully on all three animals. I. jellisoni fed only on kangaroo rats and D. occidentalis fed only on rodents. Molting success ranged from approximately 66 to 95% among tick species and stages. We concluded that, under laboratory conditions, I. pacificus larvae and nymphs prefer western fence lizards, but also will parasitize rodents. Dermacentor occidentalis immatures use deer mice and kangaroo rats similarly, whereas I. jellisoni subadults exclusively parasitize kangaroo rats. California towhees are considerably less attractive as hosts for these three ticks. These host preferences are consistent with what is known about the natural feeding habits of all three ticks.

  11. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Methods A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. Results The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). Conclusion In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26473112

  12. Pregnancy and fertilization potential of immature oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Duck Sung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Dong-Wook; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature (metaphase I or germinal vesicle stage) oocytes retrieved in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1,871 couples with infertility underwent 2,984 ICSI cycles. Cycles in which three or fewer oocytes were retrieved were included in this study in order to evaluate the pregnancy potential of immature oocytes. Cycles were divided into five groups (group I-V), according to the maturation status of the oocytes at the time of cumulus cell removal and ICSI. The fertilization and pregnancy rates after ICSI were analyzed and compared among the study groups based on the maturation status of the retrieved oocytes. The retrieval of only immature oocytes was associated with a significant decrease in the fertilization rate (76.1%±37.3% vs. 49.0%±49.1%, 66.7%±48.7%; group I vs. group II, group III, respectively) and the average number of transferred embryos (1.5±0.7 vs. 1.1±0.4, 1.1±0.6). The cycle cancellation rate was significantly higher when only immature oocytes were retrieved. The clinical pregnancy rate decreased significantly when the transferred embryos had originated from immature oocytes (16.9% vs. 10.3%, 1.2%). In ICSI cycles, the fertilization potential and pregnancy potential of the immature oocytes retrieved in ICSI cycles were inferior to those of mature oocytes. Therefore, increasing the number of injectable oocytes and transferrable embryos by using immature oocytes after their spontaneous in vitro maturation does not necessarily improve pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Axon Growth and Guidance Genes Identify Nascent, Immature, and Mature Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Titlow, William B.; McClintock, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis of projection neurons requires that axons be initiated, extended, and connected. Differences in the expression of axon growth and guidance genes must drive these events, but comprehensively characterizing these differences in a single neuronal type has not been accomplished. Guided by a catalog of gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that Cxcr4 and Dbn1, two axon initiation genes, marked the developmental transition from basal progenitor cells to immature OSNs in the olfactory epithelium. The CXCR4 immunoreactivity of these nascent OSNs overlapped partially with markers of proliferation of basal progenitor cells and partially with immunoreactivity for GAP43, the canonical marker of immature OSNs. Intracellular guidance cue signaling transcripts Ablim1, Crmp1, Dypsl2, Dpysl3, Dpysl5, Gap43, Marcskl1, and Stmn1–4 were specific to, or much more abundant in, the immature OSN layer. Receptors that mediate axonal inhibition or repulsion tended to be expressed in both immature and mature OSNs (Plxna1, Plxna4, Nrp2, Efna5) or specifically in mature OSNs (Plxna3, Unc5b, Efna3, Epha5, Epha7), although some were specific to immature OSNs (Plxnb1, Plxnb2, Plxdc2, Nrp1). Cell adhesion molecules were expressed either by both immature and mature OSNs (Dscam, Ncam1, Ncam2, Nrxn1) or solely by immature OSNs (Chl1, Nfasc1, Dscaml1). Given the loss of intracellular signaling protein expression, the continued expression of guidance cue receptors in mature OSNs is consistent with a change in the role of these receptors, perhaps to sending signals back to the cell body and nucleus. PMID:20882566

  14. Murine peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived NK cells.

    PubMed

    Pinhas, Nissim; Sternberg-Simon, Michal; Chiossone, Laura; Shahaf, Gitit; Walzer, Thierry; Vivier, Eric; Mehr, Ramit

    2016-05-01

    Murine NK cells can be divided by the expression of two cell surface markers, CD27 and Mac-1 (a.k.a. CD11b), into four separate subsets. These subsets suggest a linear development model: CD27(-) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(-) → CD27(+) Mac-1(+) → CD27(-) Mac-1(+) . Here, we used a combination of BrdU labeling experiments and mathematical modeling to gain insights regarding NK-cell development in mouse bone marrow (BM), spleen and liver. The modeling results that best fit the experimental data show that the majority of NK cells already express CD27 upon entering the NK-cell developmental pathway. Additionally, only a small fraction of NK cells exit the BM to other sites, suggesting that peripheral NK-cell populations originate from site-specific immature NK cells more than from BM-derived mature NK cells.

  15. A Limonoid Kihadanin B from Immature Citrus unshiu Peels Suppresses Adipogenesis through Repression of the Akt-FOXO1-PPARγ Axis in Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shizuka; Ueno, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Reiko; Fujimori, Ko

    2016-12-28

    Citrus limonoids are secondary metabolites and exhibit a variety of biological activities. In this study, we elucidated the suppression of adipogenesis by a Citrus limonoid kihadanin B and determined its molecular mechanism in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kihadanin B was purified from the peels of immature Citrus unshiu by HPLC, and its chemical structure was determined by NMR and mass spectrometry. Kihadanin B reduced the lipid accumulation with the reduction of the expression levels of the adipogenic and lipogenic genes, but did not affect lipolysis in adipocytes. Phosphorylation levels of Akt and a forkhead transcriptional factor, FOXO1, a repressor of PPARγ, were lowered by kihadanin B. Furthermore, kihadanin B increased the binding level of FOXO1 to the PPARγ gene promoter in adipocytes. These results indicate that a Citrus limonoid kihadanin B repressed the adipogenesis by decreasing lipid accumulation through the suppression of the Akt-FOXO1-PPARγ axis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  16. Investigating the Role of FIP200 in Mammary Carcinogenesis Using a Transgenic Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    the mammary gland of virgin mice however, lactating mice have severe lobulo-alveolar hypoplasia in the mammary gland. After completing the analysis... hypoplasia which renders the dams unable to lactate). In the 1B mating scheme a female mouse with FAKFlox/Flox genotype was mated to a male MMTV...Epithelial-Specific Deletion of the Focal Adhesion Kinase Gene Leads to Severe Lobulo-Alveolar Hypoplasia and Secretory Immaturity of the Murine Mammary

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Skeletally Immature

    PubMed Central

    Kercher, Jim; Xerogeanes, John; Tannenbaum, Allen; Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Black, James C.; Zhao, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has proven to be a reliable method to restore knee stability. However, the risk of physeal arrest with transphyseal tunnel placement in skeletally immature patients has raised concern regarding this technique. Conservative nonoperative management also has its limitations resulting in meniscal and chondral damage that may lead to degenerative joint disease and poor return to sport. Researchers have used animal models to study the threshold of physeal damage producing growth deformity. The purpose of this study was to examine the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes and determine the damage produced by drilling transphyseal tunnels. In addition, we attempted to find a reproducible angle at which to drill the tibial tunnel for safe interference screw placement. To do this, we used a custom software module. Methods A custom software package designed by our team was used: Module for Adolescent ACL Reconstructive Surgery (MAARS). This module created a 3-dimensional model of the distal femur and proximal tibia. The data required for MAARS were sagittal and coronal T1 magnetic resonance imagings of at least 1.5T. Thirty-one knee magnetic resonance imaging studies from patients aged 10 to 15 years old were used. The physes were segmented out to obtain volumetric measurements. Transphyseal tunnels were simulated based on the anatomic trajectory of the native ACL. The module calculated volume of physis was removed with the use of an 8-mm tunnel and the optimum angle for trajectory. Results Average volume of the tibial and femoral physis was 12,683.1 μL and 14,708.3 μL, respectively. The volume increased linearly with age. Average volume removed from the tibial and femoral physis was 318.4 μL and 306.29 μL, respectively. This represented 2.4% of the distal femoral physis and 2.5% of the proximal tibial physis. The volume percent removed decreased linearly with age. Manipulation of the variables

  18. Relative utilization of reptiles and rodents as hosts by immature Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the coastal plain of North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Apperson, C S; Levine, J F; Evans, T L; Braswell, A; Heller, J

    1993-10-01

    The interaction of immature black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, with reptiles and rodents was investigated in various woodland habitats in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Reptiles were sampled from April 1 to September 30, 1991. No ticks were found on 95 specimens representing 16 species of snakes. Ticks were found on 54 (36.7%) of 147 lizards. I. scapularis was the only tick recovered from lizards. Some lizards were collected in drift fence traps each month of the study except August. Capture rates averaged one lizard per 16 trap-days. Larvae and nymphs of I. scapularis were removed from the southeastern five-lined skink (Eumeces inexpectatus), the ground skink (Scincella lateralis), the broad-headed skink (E. laticeps) and the eastern glass lizard (Ophisaurus ventralis), but ticks were not found on three other lizard species. Tick infestation rates and loads for parasitized species are presented. Ticks were almost exclusively attached at the base or in the axils of forelimbs of skinks and in the lateral grooves of eastern glass lizards. Rodents were live-trapped at sites where lizards were sampled and at other sites from 1 July, 1990 to 30 January, 1992. Capture rates averaged one rodent per 47 trap-nights. Ticks were found on 23 (17.8%) of 129 animals inspected. Five species of rodents were examined but only four species were found to be tick-infested. In contrast to lizards, few I. scapularis were collected. Rodents, principally the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and cotton mouse (P. gossypinus) were most frequently infested with immature American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, during winter and early spring months. Burdens of D. variabilis on these rodents averaged 0.3 ticks per rodent. Effects of the diversion of ticks from feeding on Peromyscus mice on the transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete are discussed.

  19. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A paradigm shift in endodontic management of immature teeth: conservation of stem cells for regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, George T-J

    2008-06-01

    This article will review the new concept of regenerative endodontics in the management of immature permanent teeth. The potential role of stem cells to regenerate immature permanent teeth after conservative treatment will be discussed. Two sets of data source are focused in this review: (i) the characterization of various dental stem cells discovered since 2000 and (ii) recent clinical case reports showing that after conservative treatment, severely infected immature teeth with periradicular periodontitis and abscess can undergo healing and apexogenesis or maturogenesis. A new protocol of treating endodontically involved immature permanent teeth based on published articles to date is summarized in the review. The key procedures of the protocol are (1) minimal or no instrumentation of the canal while relying on a gentle but thorough irrigation of the canal system, (2) the disinfection is augmented with intra-canal medication of a triple-antibiotic paste between appointments, and (3) the treated tooth is sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and glass ionomer/resin cement at the completion of the treatment. Periodical follow-ups will take place to observe any continued maturation of the root. While more clinical research is needed, regenerative endodontics promotes a paradigm shift in treating endodontically involved immature permanent teeth from performing apexification procedures to conserving any dental stem cells that might remain in the disinfected viable tissues to allow tissue regeneration and repair to achieve apexogenesis/maturogenesis.

  1. The Occurrence of Postconflict Skills in Captive Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Samina H; Koyama, Nicola F

    Conflict management strategies can reduce costs of aggressive competition in group-living animals. Postconflict behaviors such as reconciliation and third-party postconflict affiliation are widely accepted as social skills in primates and have been demonstrated in many species. Although immature primates possess a repertoire of species-specific behaviors, it is thought that they gradually develop appropriate social skills throughout prolonged juvenility to establish and maintain complex social relationships within their group. We examined the occurrence of postconflict skills in five immature chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) over 15 mo, focusing on interactions that were not with the subject's mother. We observed reconciliation, with conciliatory tendencies comparable to adults, and provide the first evidence that captive immature chimpanzees commonly reconciled using social play. However, immatures were not more likely to reconcile valuable than nonvaluable relationships. We also observed third party postconflict affiliation although at a lower level than reported for adults. Our results provide evidence for postconflict skills in immature chimpanzees but the lack of higher conciliatory tendency with valuable partners and low occurrence of third-party affiliation indicates extended juvenility may be required refine these skills. Further work is needed to investigate whether these behaviors have the same function and effectiveness as those found in adults.

  2. Immature stages and larval chaetotaxy of Notofairchildia stenygros (Quate & Alexander) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Bruchomyiinae).

    PubMed

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; Barrett, Toby Vincent; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    2016-09-21

    Some authors have hypothesized that Bruchomyiinae is "the most plesiomorphic subfamily of Psychodidae" and its members "are among the most primitive living Diptera". Although Bruchomyiinae is of no medical importance, it is of great evolutionary significance, having long been placed as the sister group of Phlebotominae. In general, species of this subfamily are rarely collected in their natural environment; therefore, adults and, even more so, the immature stages of these flies are poorly known. We describe the egg, larvae and pupae of Notofairchildia stenygros and provide nomenclatural notes on larval chaetotaxy based on analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optic microscopy. The morphology of immature Nt. stenygros is compared with other Bruchomyiinae and Psychodidae species, especially with species of Phlebotominae that are superficially similar to Bruchomyiinae. Results of this study revealed striking morphological differences between the immature stages of Bruchomyiinae and Phlebotominae; the former are lacking abdominal pseudopods and microtrichia on the cephalic integument, both of which are present in the larvae of Phlebotominae. These morphological differences observed in the immature stages between members of the two subfamilies support the findings of recent molecular studies indicating that Bruchomyiinae and Phlebtominae are evolutionarily not closely related. Notofairchildia stenygros is now the fourth species of Bruchomyiinae for which the immature stages are described.

  3. Deproteinization treatment on bond strengths of primary, mature and immature permanent tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Aras, S; Küçükeşmen, C; Küçükeşmen, H C; Sönmez, I Saroğlu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pre-post deproteinization treatment with 5% sodium hypochloride on shear bond strength (sbs) of adhesive resin to primary, immature and mature permanent teeth enamel. 30 teeth were used for each of primary, immature and mature permanent teeth groups. (totally 90). In control groups, enamel was etched for 60s with 37% phosphoric acid (3M) and rinsed for 10s (Procedure A). In experimental groups, deproteinization was applied with 5% NaOCI solution for 120s before (Procedure D+A) and after acid-etching (Procedure A+D). Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) and Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer) composite resin were applied to etched enamel surfaces. Data were determined with Two-Way ANOVA and LSD Multiple Comparison Test (p < 0.05). SBS was significantly lower in primary and immature permanent teeth than mature permanent teeth (p < 0.05). "Procedure A+D" statistically increased sbs values in primary and immature permanent teeth (p < 0.05). Deproteinization after acid etching significantly enhanced the shear bond strength values in primary and immature permanent teeth.

  4. Differential sensitivity of immature and mature ventral mesencephalic neurons to rotenone induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Satish Bollimpelli, V; Kondapi, Anand K

    2015-12-25

    Rotenone induced neuronal toxicity in ventral mesencephalic (VM) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in culture is widely accepted as an important model for the investigation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about developmental stage dependent toxic effects of rotenone on VM neurons in vitro. The objective of present study is to investigate the effect of rotenone on developing VM neurons at immature versus mature stages. Primary VM neurons were cultured in the absence of glial cells. Exposure of VM neurons to rotenone for 2 days induced cell death in both immature and mature neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, but to a greater extent in mature neurons. While rotenone-treated mature VM neurons showed α-synuclein aggregation and sensitivity to DA neurons, immature VM neurons exhibited only DA neuronal sensitivity but not α-synuclein aggregation. In addition, on rotenone treatment, enhancement of caspase-3 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were higher in mature VM neurons than in immature neurons. These results suggest that even though both mature and immature VM neurons are sensitive to rotenone, their manifestations differ from each other, with only mature VM neurons exhibiting Parkinsonian conditions.

  5. Fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after apexification with calcium silicate-based materials

    PubMed Central

    Evren, OK; Altunsoy, Mustafa; Tanriver, Mehmet; Capar, Ismail Davut; Kalkan, Abdussamed; Gok, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth filled with an apical barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine, and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were used. For standardization, the teeth were sectioned 6 mm above and 9 mm below the cementoenamel junction to simulate immature apex. Simulations of roots into immature apices were carried out using 1.5 mm diameter drills. The specimens were then randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 13) and one control group (n = 13). In experimental groups, MTA, Biodentine, and CEM were placed to apical 4 mm of the simulated immature roots. The samples were stored at 37° C and 100% humidity for 1 week. A load was applied on the crown of all teeth at 135° to their long axis until fracture. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: No statistically significant differences were found among MTA, CEM, and Biodentine (P > 0.05), and these groups demonstrated higher fracture resistance than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using any of the MTA, Biodentine, and CEM as an apical plug and restoring with fiber post and composite resin increases the fracture resistance of immature teeth. PMID:27095894

  6. TNFR1-JNK signaling is the shared pathway of neuroinflammation and neurovascular damage after LPS-sensitized hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Wan; Chang, Ying-Chao; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Tseng, Chien-Hang; Tu, Yi-Fang; Liao, Nan-Shih; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung

    2014-12-24

    Hypoxic-ischemia (HI) and inflammation are the two major pathogenic mechanisms of brain injury in very preterm infants. The neurovascular unit is the major target of HI injury in the immature brain. Systemic inflammation may worsen HI by up-regulating neuroinflammation and disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Since neurons and oligodendrocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, and microglia may closely interact with each other, there may be a common signaling pathway leading to neuroinflammation and neurovascular damage after injury in the immature brain. TNF-α is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that acts through the TNF receptor (TNFR), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are important stress-responsive kinases. To determine if TNFR1-JNK signaling is a shared pathway underlying neuroinflammation and neurovascular injury after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized HI in the immature brain. Postpartum (P) day-5 mice received LPS or normal saline (NS) injection before HI. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and TNFR1- and TNFR2-knockout mouse pups were used to determine neuroinflammation, BBB damage, TNF-α expression, JNK activation, and cell apoptosis. The cellular distribution of p-JNK, TNFR1/TNFR2 and cleaved caspase-3 were examined using immunofluorescent staining. The LPS + HI group had significantly greater up-regulation of activated microglia, TNF-α and TNFR1 expression, and increases of BBB disruption and cleaved caspase-3 levels at 24 hours post-insult, and showed more cortical and white matter injury on P17 than the control and NS + HI groups. Cleaved caspase-3 was highly expressed in microvascular endothelial cells, neurons, and oligodendroglial precursor cells. LPS-sensitized HI also induced JNK activation and up-regulation of TNFR1 but not TNFR2 expression in the microglia, endothelial cells, neurons, and oligodendrocyte progenitors, and most of the TNFR1-positive cells co-expressed p-JNK. Etanercept (a TNF-α inhibitor) and AS601245 (a

  7. Selective ablation of immature blood vessels in established human tumors follows vascular endothelial growth factor withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, L E; Golijanin, D; Itin, A; Pode, D; Keshet, E

    1999-01-01

    Features that distinguish tumor vasculatures from normal blood vessels are sought to enable the destruction of preformed tumor vessels. We show that blood vessels in both a xenografted tumor and primary human tumors contain a sizable fraction of immature blood vessels that have not yet recruited periendothelial cells. These immature vessels are selectively obliterated as a consequence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) withdrawal. In a xenografted glioma, the selective vulnerability of immature vessels to VEGF loss was demonstrated by downregulating VEGF transgene expression using a tetracycline-regulated expression system. In human prostate cancer, the constitutive production of VEGF by the glandular epithelium was suppressed as a consequence of androgen-ablation therapy. VEGF loss led, in turn, to selective apoptosis of endothelial cells in vessels devoid of periendothelial cells. These results suggest that the unique dependence on VEGF of blood vessels lacking periendothelial cells can be exploited to reduce an existing tumor vasculature.

  8. Nonsurgical management of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved. PMID:26180425

  9. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth.

  10. Massive cell death of immature hematopoietic cells and neurons in Bcl-x-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, N; Wang, F; Roth, K A; Sawa, H; Nakayama, K; Nakayama, K; Negishi, I; Senju, S; Zhang, Q; Fujii, S

    1995-03-10

    bcl-x is a member of the bcl-2 gene family, which may regulate programmed cell death. Mice were generated that lacked Bcl-x. The Bcl-x-deficient mice died around embryonic day 13. Extensive apoptotic cell death was evident in postmitotic immature neurons of the developing brain, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia. Hematopoietic cells in the liver were also apoptotic. Analyses of bcl-x double-knockout chimeric mice showed that the maturation of Bcl-x-deficient lymphocytes was diminished. The life-span of immature lymphocytes, but not mature lymphocytes, was shortened. Thus, Bcl-x functions to support the viability of immature cells during the development of the nervous and hematopoietic systems.

  11. Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Suprasellar Immature Teratoma : Mutation of Exon 4 P53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Udin, Nujaimin; Ahmad, Ku Asmarina Ku; Ahmad, Farizan; Omar, Effat; Aziz, Mohd Ezanee; Kumar, Raj; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2008-01-01

    We described an intracranial immature teratoma in a 13 year old Malay boy who presented with history of chronic headache and blurring of vision. Physical findings revealed bilateral papilloedema but no other localizing sign. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain revealed a suprasellar well defined lobulated midline heterogenous mass which was intraoperatively described as mainly solid tumour with multiple small cystic component filled with yellowish jelly like material. Histopathological finding confirmed the case as immature teratoma. Molecular genetic analysis of p53 and p27 genes revealed substitution of nucleotide G to C at location nucleotide 12139, exon 4 of gene p53. No alteration was detected at exon 5–6 and 8 of p53 gene and exon 1 and 2 of p27 gene. This is the first case report of an intracranial immature teratoma with genetic mutation occuring in a Malay boy. PMID:22589625

  12. Ovarian Mature and Immature Teratomas in Monozygotic Twins: A Case Report of Simultaneous Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Naoki; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is one of the most common kinds of ovarian tumor, and immature teratoma is a rare tumor, representing less than 1% of all ovarian teratomas. Although there are some reports about familial occurrences of ovarian tumors, literature concerning the clinical cases of monozygotic twins is rare. We report the 5-year clinical courses of a 12-year-old Japanese girl with a recurrent bilateral ovarian mature teratoma and her monozygotic twin with a unilateral ovarian mature teratoma and contralateral ovarian immature teratoma. This is the first clinical report on mature and immature teratomas of the ovary in monozygotic twins. Our cases support future clarification of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of teratoma. PMID:28293443

  13. Solventless extraction methods for immature fruits: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Katayama, Shigeru; Mitani, Takakazu; Ong, Eng Shi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2017-04-15

    In this study, extraction of immature fruits using an environmentally friendly pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) method was compared with the traditional reflux method. Extracts were tested for their polyphenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The highest amount of polyphenol was extracted from grape (stem) using PHWE at 100°C, or reflux extraction. This was followed by reflux extraction of grape (fruit). The results were similar for the ORAC assay. All samples extracted using PHWE at 100°C showed cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. This study demonstrated that beneficial compounds can be extracted from immature fruits without the use of organic solvents. The utilization of beneficial compounds present in immature fruits can also contribute to the reduction in agriculture waste generated.

  14. Immature embryoid teratoma of the gall bladder: case of a primary primitive neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents diagnostic histopathological features of a primary embryoid teratomatous neoplasm in the gall bladder of a 60-year-old woman, and also discusses its pathogenesis. Sections revealed immature and typical embryoid bodies and dispersed syncytial trophoblasts along with mature and immature neuroectodermal and mesodermal elements. The residual endothelial lining of the gall bladder showed in situ and proliferative changes characteristic of an endodermal tumour. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the rest of the abdominal and pelvic organs appeared normal. Results show that the mature adult gall bladder is susceptible to primary neoplasms of a primitive nature ranging from immature embryoma and teratoma to neuroectodermal tumour. Such primitive neoplasms in adult organs where benign neuroectodermal elements are present may evolve from a constituent cell of an adult organ acquired during embryogenesis from a morula that differentiated into trophoblastic (outer) and embryoblastic (inner) cells, and existing dormant cells at rest until reactivation during oncogenesis.

  15. Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Maghsoudlou, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth. PMID:24010086

  16. Vital Pulp Therapy of a Symptomatic Immature Permanent Molar with Long-Term Success

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is the preferred conservative treatment for preservation of symptomatic pulps in immature permanent teeth. The present case report summarizes VPT of an immature permanent molar with irreversible pulpitis associated with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old boy. Cervical pulpotomy was performed and radicular pulp stumps were covered with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement; the tooth was then restored with stainless steel crown. After a 50-month follow-up period, the pulpotomized molar was clinically functional and asymptomatic. Moreover, radiographic evaluation revealed evidence of complete root development as well as normal periodontal ligament around the roots. The successful outcome achieved through VPT using CEM biomaterial in the reported case suggests that this method may produce favorable outcome for vital immature permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis and periapical disease. PMID:27790270

  17. Nonsurgical management of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Immature nonvital teeth can often be associated with periapical lesions. Presence of external inflammatory resorption can complicate the treatment plan. A 21-year-old female patient presented with a large periapical lesion in relation to teeth 11 and 12. Tooth 11 was an immature tooth undergoing external inflammatory resorption. Aspiration through the root canal was carried out to evacuate the purulent fluid in the periapical lesion. Triple antibiotic paste was then placed as an intracanal medicament for a period of 2 weeks, followed by calcium hydroxide therapy for a period of 2 months. Mineral trioxide aggregate was then placed as an apical barrier to a thickness of about 4 mm. Obturation of the remainder of the canal space was done after 48 h. Complete periapical healing was evident after 1 year and 6 months. Nonsurgical healing of a large periapical lesion associated with an immature tooth displaying external inflammatory resorption can be successfully achieved.

  18. The development of wild immature Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) at Ketambe.

    PubMed

    van Adrichem, Gijsbertus G J; Utami, Sri Suci; Wich, Serge A; van Hooff, Jan A R A M; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2006-10-01

    Orangutans have the longest immature period and inter-birth interval of all ape species. This may be explained by a slow life history, the need to develop skills or by their relatively solitary lifestyle, which prevents a mother from associating with two offspring. This study of wild immature orangutans at the Ketambe Research Station, Indonesia, describes, with partly cross-sectional, partly longitudinal data, their development to independence. The study subjects ranged from 1 to 11 years of age. Data on their activity budget, diet, mother-offspring proximity and maintenance of proximity, association with conspecifics and play behavior were collected. The results indicate that immature orangutans can provide for their own food and transport, and therefore were independent of direct maternal care, at an age of possibly 3 but more clearly 6 years. This is similar to chimpanzees, and refutes the slow life history hypothesis. Immature orangutans remain within their mother's vicinity until the age of 8 years, indicating a dependence on indirect maternal care, and this coincides with the period during which the mother does not produce another offspring. A female orangutan seems unable to associate with an older immature while caring for a new infant. This is consistent with the solitary-lifestyle hypothesis and corroborates the results obtained with the Sumatran orangutan population at Suaq Balimbing. However, why an immature depends indirectly on its mother for such a long period remains unclear. It is possible that it needs to develop ecological or social skills or needs the protection of its mother. Unfortunately, no data were available to distinguish between these possibilities.

  19. The mechanism of excessive intestinal inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis: an immature innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Nanthakumar, Nanda; Meng, Di; Goldstein, Allan M; Zhu, Weishu; Lu, Lei; Uauy, Ricardo; Llanos, Adolfo; Claud, Erika C; Walker, W Allan

    2011-03-21

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal intestinal inflammatory disease, occurring primarily in premature infants, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of NEC is associated with an excessive inflammatory IL-8 response. In this study, we hypothesized that this excessive inflammatory response is related to an immature expression of innate immune response genes. To address this hypothesis, intestinal RNA expression analysis of innate immune response genes was performed after laser capture microdissection of resected ileal epithelium from fetuses, NEC patients and children and confirmed in ex vivo human intestinal xenografts. Changes in mRNA levels of toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and -4, their signaling molecules and transcription factors (MyD88, TRAF-6 and NFκB1) and negative regulators (SIGIRR, IRAK-M, A-20 and TOLLIP) and the effector IL-8 were characterized by qRT-PCR. The expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TRAF-6, NFκB1 and IL-8 mRNA was increased while SIGIRR, IRAK-M, A-20 and TOLLIP mRNA were decreased in fetal vs. mature human enterocytes and further altered in NEC enterocytes. Similar changes in mRNA expression were observed in immature, but not mature, human intestinal xenografts. Confirmation of gene expression was also validated with selective protein measurements and with suggested evidence that immature TRL4 enterocyte surface expression was internalized in mature enterocytes. Cortisone, an intestinal maturation factor, treatment corrected the mRNA differences only in the immature intestinal xenograft. Using specific siRNA to attenuate expression of primary fetal enterocyte cultures, both TOLLIP and A-20 were confirmed to be important when knocked down by exhibiting the same excessive inflammatory response seen in the NEC intestine. We conclude that the excessive inflammatory response of the immature intestine, a hallmark of NEC, is due to a developmental immaturity in innate immune response genes.

  20. Mating scars reveal mate size in immature female blue shark Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    Calich, H J; Campana, S E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and maturity status of the male blue sharks Prionace glauca attempting to mate with small, immature females in the north-west Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between male curved fork length (LFC ) and jaw gape was used in conjunction with the diameter of the mating scar to estimate the LFC and infer the maturity status of the male shark that produced the mating scar. The results indicate that mature males with a mean ± s.d. LFC of 218 cm ± 23 cm were attempting to mate with sexually immature females.

  1. Vital Pulp Therapy with Three Different Pulpotomy Agents in Immature Molars: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, Azadeh; Forghani, Maryam; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes apexogenesis treatment of three molar teeth of an 8-year-old boy using three different pulpotomy agents. Methods Pulpotomy was performed on decayed immature molar teeth with established irreversible pulpitis and the remaining pulp was capped with either zinc oxide eugenol, ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Results Eighteen months clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed successful preservation of pulpal vitality with continued root development in all treated teeth. Conclusion Based on this case report, CEM cement may be an alternative option for pulpotomy treatment of immature permanent molars. PMID:23922578

  2. Immature mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a eutrophic landfill tank from State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio Reinaldo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2013-01-01

    To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.

  3. Lung hypoplasia and surfactant system immaturity induced in the fetal rat by prenatal exposure to nitrofen.

    PubMed

    Alfanso, L F; Arnaiz, A; Alvarez, F J; Qi, B; Diez-Pardo, J A; Vallis-i-Soler, A; Tovar, J A

    1996-01-01

    We studied the biochemical maturity of the lungs of fetuses born to rats exposed to nitrofen on day 9.5 of gestation. In comparison with controls, nitrofen-treated fetuses had pulmonary hypoplasia (decreased lung/body weight), lung hypocellularity (low DNA content) and cellular atrophy (low protein/DNA and phospholipid/DNA) on gestational days 19 and 21. Treated animals with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) also had cell atrophy and surfactant immaturity (decreased disaturated phosphatidylcholine/DNA) near term. Our data demonstrate that nitrofen causes lung hypoplasia and some degree of surfactant system immaturity that is particularly prominent in fetuses with CDH.

  4. Dysfunctions in the migratory phenotype and properties of circulating immature transitional B cells during HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Amu, Sylvie; Fievez, Virginie; Nozza, Silvia; Lopalco, Lucia; Chiodi, Francesca

    2016-09-10

    The frequency of immature transitional B cells is increased in blood of HIV-1-infected individuals. We investigated whether HIV-1 infection affects expression and function of chemokine receptors important for egress of immature transitional B cells from bone marrow and migration to lymphoid organs. This is a cross-sectional study analysing the migratory phenotype and function of immature transitional B cells in HIV-1-infected individuals, in relation to antiretroviral treatment and age. Frequency of blood immature transitional B cells and their phenotypic characteristics, including chemokine receptors and a maturation marker, were determined by immunostainings. Migratory capacities were studied in a migration assay. The increased frequency of immature transitional B cells in untreated HIV-1 infection was normalized in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment; in our cohorts, age did not have an impact on the frequency of circulating immature transitional B cells. Immature transitional B cells from nontreated patients expressed low levels of CD21 molecule. We found an elevated frequency of CXCR3 and CXCR4 expressing immature transitional B cells in treated and nontreated patients. CXCR4 receptor was unresponsive to CXCL12 ligand in in-vitro migration and internalization assays. In addition, CXCR5 expression was downregulated on immature transitional B cells from infected patients, and these cells migrated poorly in response to CXCR5 ligand. Circulating immature transitional B cells from HIV-1-infected patients are not fully mature, probably due to premature egress from bone marrow; these cells showed a phenotype which could impair entry into secondary lymphoid organs. Changes in migratory capacity of immature transitional B cells may affect B-cell maturation during HIV-1 infection.

  5. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Collagen Crosslinks and Corresponding Tensile Mechanical Properties in Mouse Cervical Tissue during Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Jiang, Hongfeng; Kim, MiJung; Vink, Joy; Cremers, Serge; Paik, David; Wapner, Ronald; Mahendroo, Mala; Myers, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the mechanical integrity of the cervix during pregnancy have implications for a successful delivery. Cervical collagens are known to remodel extensively in mice with progressing gestation leading to a soft cervix at term. During this process, mature crosslinked collagens are hypothesized to be replaced with immature less crosslinked collagens to facilitate cervical softening and ripening. To determine the mechanical role of collagen crosslinks during normal mouse cervical remodeling, tensile load-to-break tests were conducted for the following time points: nonpregnant (NP), gestation day (d) 6, 12, 15, 18 and 24 hr postpartum (PP) of the 19-day gestation period. Immature crosslinks (HLNL and DHLNL) and mature crosslinks (DPD and PYD) were measured using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). There were no significant changes in the total immature crosslink density (HLNL+DHLNL mol per collagen mol) throughout normal mouse gestation (range: 0.31–0.49). Total mature crosslink density (PYD+DPD mol per collagen mol) decreased significantly in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.17, d12: 0.097, d15: 0.026) and did not decrease with further gestation. The maturity ratio (total mature to total immature crosslinks) significantly decreased in early softening from d6 to d15 (d6: 0.2, d15: 0.074). All of the measured crosslinks correlated significantly with a measure of tissue stiffness and strength, with the exception of the immature crosslink HLNL. This data provides quantitative evidence to support the hypothesis that as mature crosslinked collagens decline, they are replaced by immature collagens to facilitate increased tissue compliance in the early softening period from d6 to d15. PMID:25397407

  7. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  8. Building a Brainier Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a genetic engineering project to build an intelligent mouse. Cites understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory as a very important step. Concludes that while science will never create a genius mouse that plays the stock market, it can turn a mouse into a quick learner with a better memory. (YDS)

  9. A Mouse Model of Endocardial Fibroelastosis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Elizabeth S.; Pepper, Victoria K.; Best, Cameron; Onwuka, Ekene; Yi, Tai; Tara, Shuhei; Cianciolo, Rachel; Baker, Peter; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocardial Fibroelastosis (EFE) is a pathologic condition of abnormal deposition of collagen and elastin within the endocardium of the heart. It is seen in conjunction with a variety of diseases including hypoplastic left heart syndrome and viral endocarditis. While an experimental model using heterotopic heart transplant in rats has been described, we sought to fully describe a mouse model that can be used to further elucidate the potential mechanisms of and treatments for EFE. Materials and Methods The hearts of 2-day-old C57BL/6 mice were transplanted into the abdomen of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice. At 2 weeks, the hearts were harvested and histologic analysis performed using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s Trichrome, Russell-Movat’s Pentachrome, Picrosirius Red, Hart’s, Verhoeff-Van Gieson, and Weigert’s Resorcin-Fuschin stains. Additionally, one heart was analysed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Specimens demonstrated abnormal accumulation of both collagen and elastin within the endocardium with occasional expansion in to the myocardium. Heterogeneity in extracellular matrix deposition was noted in the histologic specimens. In addition, TEM demonstrated the presence of excess collagen within the endocardium. Conclusions The heterotopic transplantation of an immature heart into a mouse results in changes consistent with EFE. This model is appropriate to investigate the etiology and treatment of endocardial fibroelastosis. PMID:26363814

  10. Specific roles of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in photosynthetic regulation in immature and mature leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) is essential for photosynthesis in mature leaves. However, the physiological roles of CEF in immature leaves are little known. Here, we measured the PSI and PSII activities, light response changes in PSI and PSII energy quenching for immature and mature leaves of Erythrophleum guineense grown under full sunlight. Comparing with the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), the immature leaves had much lower values of the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) than the mature leaves, suggesting the unsynchronized development of PSI and PSII activities. Furthermore, the immature leaves displayed significantly lower capacities for the photosynthetic electron flow through PSII (ETRII) and CEF. However, when exposed to high light, the immature leaves displayed higher levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and P700 oxidation ration [Y(ND)] than mature leaves. Under high light, the similar NPQ values were accompanied with much lower CEF activity in the immature leaves. These results suggest that, in immature leaves, CEF primarily contributes to photoprotection for PSI and PSII via acidification of thylakoid lumen. By comparison, in mature leaves, a large fraction of CEF-dependent generation of ΔpH contributes to ATP synthesis and a relative small proportion favors photoprotection via lumen acidification. These findings highlight the specific roles of CEF in photosynthetic regulation in immature and mature leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central U...

  12. Remote sensing studies of immature soils on the Moon (Reiner-gamma formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.

    1993-01-01

    On the base of laboratory results and telescopic data it is shown that the spectropolarization ratio P(sub max(sup B))/P(sub max(sup R)) for blue and red spectral regions is a remote sensing parameter of lunar soil maturity. It correlates with value of maturity index derived from morphological or ferromagnetic methods of exposure age determination. This parameter is equal to 0.315 for Reiner-gamma formation. So Reiner-gamma area is covered by immature soil. An extensive spectral mapping of the Reiner-gamma formation with high spatial resolution (0.2 km/pixel) was produced. This result was obtained at the 2-meter aperture telescope of Pic-du-Midi (France). The data sets consist in repeated runs comprising 10 selected narrow-band images (from 0.4 to 1.05 micron). The analysis of these data suggests that such a type of immature material includes not more than 28% of agglutinattes. We find the model grain size of fine fraction to be 40 micrometers grain size, of more immature soil 400-500 micrometers, and of the formation soil 120-150 micrometers. The exposure age of the Reiner-gamma immature soil is equal about 10 x 10(exp 6) years.

  13. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  14. In Vitro Manganese Exposure Disrupts MAPK Signaling Pathways in Striatal and Hippocampal Slices from Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Pedro, Daniela Zótico; de Cordova, Fabiano Mendes; Lopes, Mark William; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Mendes-de-Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel; Walz, Roger; Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms mediating manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity, particularly in the immature central nervous system, have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) could represent potential targets of Mn in striatal and hippocampal slices obtained from immature rats (14 days old). The aim of this study was to evaluate if the MAPK pathways are modulated after subtoxic Mn exposure, which do not significantly affect cell viability. The concentrations of manganese chloride (MnCl2; 10–1,000 μM) caused no change in cell viability in slices exposed for 3 or 6 hours. However, Mn exposure significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2/3 phosphorylation at both 3 and 6 hours incubations, in both brain structures. Furthermore, Mn exposure did not change the total content or phosphorylation of TH at the serine 40 site in striatal slices. Thus, Mn at concentrations that do not disrupt cell viability causes activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3) in immature hippocampal and striatal slices. These findings suggest that altered intracellular MAPKs signaling pathways may represent an early event concerning the effects of Mn in the immature brain. PMID:24324973

  15. Reducing stand densities in immature and mature stands, Applegate Watershed, Southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Marty L. Main; Michael P. Amaranthus

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Throughout the Applegate watershed, dense, overstocked, immature stands of mixed conifers and hardwoods and declining stands of mature conifers present significant and complex silvicultural problems. Stand stagnation is common, as is loss of large-diameter conifers from insects and wildfire. Treatments designed to maintain or encourage development of large-...

  16. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  17. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  18. Modeling the influence of Peromyscus leucopus body mass, sex, and habitat on immature Dermacentor variabilis burden.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad A; Foré, Stephanie A; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2012-12-01

    Immature (larvae and nymph) tick burden on rodents is an important determinant of adult tick population size and understanding infectious disease dynamics. The objective of this research was to build a descriptive model for immature Dermacentor variabilis burden on Peromyscus leucopus. Mice were live-trapped on two permanent grids in an old field and an early successional forest every other month between April and October, 2006-2009. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the association between immature D. variabilis burden and the host related variables of host habitat, body mass, and/or sex. The model containing all three variables had the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), corrected AIC (AICc), and greatest AICc weight. Immature D. variabilis burden was positively associated with mice with higher body mass, male mice, and those captured in the field habitat. These data are consistent with studies from other tick-rodent systems and suggest that single factor models do not describe host burden. Variables other than those that are related to the host may also be important in describing the tick burden on rodents. The next step is to examine variables that affect tick development rate and questing behavior. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Effects of Pyriproxyfen and Buprofezin on Immature Development and Reproduction in the Stable Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most significant biting flies affecting cattle. Use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only limited success due to the insect’s unique feeding behaviors and immature development sites. A laboratory study...

  20. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  1. A standardized novel method to measure radiographic root changes following endodontic therapy in immature teeth

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Natasha M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.; Diogenes, Anibal; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Khan, Asma A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Outcome studies of endodontic treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth rely on radiographic measures as surrogates of whether the treatment achieved regeneration/revascularization/revitalization. An increase in radiographic root length and/or width is thought to result in a better long-term prognosis for the tooth. In this study a method to measure radiographic outcomes of endodontic therapies on immature teeth was developed and validated. Methods A standardized protocol was developed for measuring the entire area of the root of immature teeth. The “Radiographic Root Area” (RRA) measurement accounts for the entire surface area of the root as observed on a periapical radiograph. Reviewers were given instructions on how to measure RRA and they completed measurements on a set of standardized radiographs. Results The intra class correlation (ICC) between the four reviewers was 0.9945, suggesting high concordance among reviewers. There was no effect of reviewer on the measured RRA values. High concordance was also observed when one rater repeated the measurements, with an ICC value of 0.9995. There was no significant difference in RRA values measured at the two sessions by the same rater. Furthermore, significant differences in RRA were detectable between clinical cases that demonstrated obvious continued root development and cases that did not demonstrate discernible root development. Conclusions These results suggest that RRA is a valid measure to assess radiographic outcomes in endodontically treated immature teeth, and RRA should be useful in future clinical studies of regenerative endodontic outcomes. PMID:24331990

  2. Relative Immaturity and ADHD: Findings from Nationwide Registers, Parent- and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halldner, Linda; Tillander, Annika; Lundholm, Cecilia; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: We addressed if immaturity relative to peers reflected in birth month increases the likelihood of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We linked nationwide Patient and Prescribed Drug Registers and used prospective cohort and nested case-control designs to study 6-69 year-old individuals in Sweden from July 2005 to December 2009…

  3. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  4. Unusually aggressive immature neo-intimal hyperplasia causing in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Keir; Triantafyllis, Andreas S; Bennett, Johan; Adriaenssens, Tom

    2017-10-10

    This image illustrates a very unusual pattern of early and aggressive immature neo-intimal hyperplasia in a 52-year-old man with unstable angina, two months after deployment of a drug-eluting stent in the proximal left anterior descending artery.

  5. Relative Immaturity and ADHD: Findings from Nationwide Registers, Parent- and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halldner, Linda; Tillander, Annika; Lundholm, Cecilia; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: We addressed if immaturity relative to peers reflected in birth month increases the likelihood of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We linked nationwide Patient and Prescribed Drug Registers and used prospective cohort and nested case-control designs to study 6-69 year-old individuals in Sweden from July 2005 to December 2009…

  6. Early Relations between Lexical and Grammatical Development in Very Immature Italian Preterms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Giovanelli, Giuliana; Salvioli, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate early lexical and grammatical development and their relations in a sample of very immature healthy preterms, in order to assess whether their linguistic development was typical, at risk or atypical. The effects of biological factors and parental level of education on preterms' linguistic development were also…

  7. Immatures of the New World Treehopper Tribe Amastrini (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Smiliinae) with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immatures stages of 9 of the 11 genera (Amastris Stål, Bajulata Ball, Erosne Stål, Harmonides Kirkaldy, Idioderma Van Duzee, Lallemandia Funkhouser, Neotynelia Creão-Duarte & Sakakibara, Tynelia Stål, and Vanduzea Goding) of the tribe Amastrini are described for the first time long with brief di...

  8. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness.

  9. Remote sensing studies of immature soils on the Moon (Reiner-gamma formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.

    1993-01-01

    On the base of laboratory results and telescopic data it is shown that the spectropolarization ratio P(sub max(sup B))/P(sub max(sup R)) for blue and red spectral regions is a remote sensing parameter of lunar soil maturity. It correlates with value of maturity index derived from morphological or ferromagnetic methods of exposure age determination. This parameter is equal to 0.315 for Reiner-gamma formation. So Reiner-gamma area is covered by immature soil. An extensive spectral mapping of the Reiner-gamma formation with high spatial resolution (0.2 km/pixel) was produced. This result was obtained at the 2-meter aperture telescope of Pic-du-Midi (France). The data sets consist in repeated runs comprising 10 selected narrow-band images (from 0.4 to 1.05 micron). The analysis of these data suggests that such a type of immature material includes not more than 28% of agglutinattes. We find the model grain size of fine fraction to be 40 micrometers grain size, of more immature soil 400-500 micrometers, and of the formation soil 120-150 micrometers. The exposure age of the Reiner-gamma immature soil is equal about 10 x 10(exp 6) years.

  10. Aggression, Hyperactivity, and Inattention-Immaturity: Behavior Dimensions Associated with Peer Rejection in Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alice W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Defined peer-rated, narrow-band dimensions of undercontrolled behavior of 362 third through sixth grade boys that was associated with peer rejection. Results revealed three narrow-band dimensions in the peer perceptions of grade school boys: (1) aggression; (2) hyperactivity; and (3) inattention-immaturity. (SH)

  11. New Glabretal Triterpenes from the Immature Fruits of Poncirus trifoliata and Their Selective Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Ran; Lee, In-Kyoung; Woo, E-Eum; Kwon, Jin-Won; Yun, Bong-Sik; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Two new glabretal triterpenes, pancastatins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including one- and two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells under low-glucose stress conditions.

  12. PATHOLOGY OR IMMATURITY--AN EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN FORM COPYING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FAUST, MARGARET; FAUST, WILLIAM L.

    THE ASSUMPTION THAT READING DISABILITY CAN RESULT FROM A GAP BETWEEN THE DEVELOPMENTAL MATURITY OF CHILDREN AND THE DEMANDS OF A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM CARRIES WITH IT THE PROBLEM OF ASSESSING DEVELOPMENTAL STATUS. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY CONDUCTED TO DERIVE A METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING SIGNS OF IMMATURITY RELATED TO LATER READING DIFFICULTIES USED…

  13. Endodontic treatment including apexification in a chow chow with a necrotic immature mandibular canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Hennet, P

    1998-03-01

    A necrotic immature mandibular, canine tooth in a two year-old, male, intact Chow Chow was endodontically treated. This tooth had an open apex, wide root canal, thin dentinal walls, and there was periapical bone resorption. An apexification procedure was used to induce apical closure by calcified tissue formation, with resolution of the periapical inflammation.

  14. Induction of ultra-morphological features of apoptosis in mature and immature sperm.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Sonja; Fitzl, Guenther; Springsguth, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    There is a fundamental body of evidence suggesting that activated apoptosis signaling in ejaculated human sperm negatively influences their fertilization potential. However, it is still controversial whether this apoptotic signaling is a relic of an abortive apoptosis related to spermatogenesis or if it should be regarded as a functional preformed pathway in mature sperm leading to stereotypical morphological changes reflecting nuclear disassembly. To address this question, apoptosis was induced using betulinic acid in mature and immature ejaculated human sperm enriched by density gradient centrifugation. Execution of apoptosis was monitored by observing ultra-morphological changes via transmission electron microscopy. Typical morphological signs of apoptosis in somatic cells include plasma membrane blebbing with the formation of apoptotic bodies, impaired mitochondrial integrity, defects of the nuclear envelope, and nuclear fragmentation; these morphologies have also been observed in human sperm. In addition, these apoptotic characteristics were more frequent in immature sperm compared to mature sperm. Following betulinic acid treatment, apoptosis-related morphological changes were induced in mature sperm from healthy donors. This effect was much less pronounced in immature sperm. Moreover, in both fractions, the betulinic acid treatment increased the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. The results of our ultra-morphological study prove the functional competence of apoptosis in mature ejaculated human sperm. The theory of a sole abortive process may be valid only for immature sperm. The induction of the acrosome reaction by stimulating apoptosis might shed light on the biological relevance of sperm apoptosis.

  15. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-06-10

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  17. Immature dendritic cell-derived exosomes: a promise subcellular vaccine for autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weifan; Ouyang, Song; Li, Yi; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Huan

    2013-02-01

    Exosomes, 60-90-nm-sized vesicles, are produced by a large number of cell types, including tumor cells, neurons, astrocytes, hemocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, and so on. Dendritic cell (DC), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cell in the immune system, produces exosomes in the course of maturation. Mature DCs produce exosomes with the ability to elicit potent immunoactivation, resulting in tumor eradication and bacterial or virus elimination. Given the notion that exosomes are stable and easy to be modified artificially, autologous mature DC-derived exosomes have been vaccinated into patients with malignant diseases. In clinical trials utilizing exosomes as therapeutic approaches, researchers observed considerable curative effect with little side effect. However, immature or suppressive DC-derived exosomes harbor anti-inflammatory properties distinct from mature DC-derived exosomes. In murine models of autoimmune disease and transplantation, immature DC-derived exosomes reduced T cell-dependent immunoactivation, relieved clinical manifestation of autoimmune disease, and prolonged survival time of transplantation. Although the exact mechanism of how immature DC-derived exosomes function in vivo is still unclear, and there are no clinical trials regarding application of exosome vaccine into patients with autoimmune disease, we will analyze the promise of immature DC-derived exosomes as a subcellular vaccine in autoimmunity in this review.

  18. Comparison of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Feiyue; Wang, Jiongkun; Hu, Mingqian; Yu, Yu; Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Jing

    2011-07-01

    A comparative study of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was first performed through an atomic force microscope (AFM) to clarify differences of their nanostructure and adhesion force. AFM images revealed that the immature BMDCs treated by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor plus IL-4 mainly appeared round with smooth surface, whereas the mature BMDCs induced by lipopolysaccharide displayed an irregular shape with numerous pseudopodia or lamellapodia and ruffles on the cell membrane besides becoming larger, flatter, and longer. AFM quantitative analysis further showed that the surface roughness of the mature BMDCs greatly increased and that the adhesion force of them was fourfold more than that of the immature BMDCs. The nano-features of the mature BMDCs were supported by a high level of IL-12 produced from the mature BMDCs and high expression of MHC-II on the surface of them. These findings provide a new insight into the nanostructure of the immature and mature BMDCs.

  19. Productive container types for Aedes aegypti immatures in Mérida, México.

    PubMed

    García-Rejón, Julian E; López-Uribe, Mildred P; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Del Najera-Vazquez, Maria Rosario; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2011-05-01

    During 2007-2010, we examined which container types in Mérida, México, are most productive for Aedes aegypti (L.) immatures. Surveys for mosquito immatures followed routine surveillance methodology and container type classifications used by Servicios de Salud de Yucatán. Our main findings were that (1) small and larger discarded containers that serve no particular purpose and therefore can be removed from the environment contribute strongly to larval and pupal production in Mérida, and (2) the importance of different container types can vary among sets of residential premises as well as between dry and wet periods. These results may help to guide future implementation in Mérida of control efforts that target the most productive container types for Ae. aegypti immatures. Furthermore, if the Patio Limpio cleanup campaign that currently is ongoing in Mérida proves successful in removing discarded containers as important immature development sites, then we should see dramatic changes in the most productive container types in the future as the mosquito is forced to switch to other container types, which perhaps also will be easier to include in highly targeted mosquito control interventions.

  20. Mouse ChemR23 is expressed in dendritic cell subsets and macrophages, and mediates an anti-inflammatory activity of chemerin in a lung disease model.

    PubMed

    Luangsay, Souphalone; Wittamer, Valérie; Bondue, Benjamin; De Henau, Olivier; Rouger, Laurie; Brait, Maryse; Franssen, Jean-Denis; de Nadai, Patricia; Huaux, François; Parmentier, Marc

    2009-11-15

    Chemerin is the ligand of the ChemR23 receptor and a chemoattractant factor for human immature dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and NK cells. In this study, we characterized the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system in terms of pharmacology, structure-function, distribution, and in vivo biological properties. Mouse chemerin is synthesized as an inactive precursor (prochemerin) requiring, as in human, the precise processing of its C terminus for generating an agonist of ChemR23. Mouse ChemR23 is highly expressed in immature plasmacytoid DCs and at lower levels in myeloid DCs, macrophages, and NK cells. Mouse prochemerin is expressed in most epithelial cells acting as barriers for pathogens but not in leukocytes. Chemerin promotes calcium mobilization and chemotaxis on DCs and macrophages and these functional responses were abrogated in ChemR23 knockout mice. In a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by LPS, chemerin displayed potent anti-inflammatory properties, reducing neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory cytokine release in a ChemR23-dependent manner. ChemR23 knockout mice were unresponsive to chemerin and displayed an increased neutrophil infiltrate following LPS challenge. Altogether, the mouse chemerin/ChemR23 system is structurally and functionally conserved between human and mouse, and mouse can therefore be considered as a good model for studying the anti-inflammatory role of this system in the regulation of immune responses and inflammatory diseases.

  1. Histological observations of pulpal replacement tissue in immature dog teeth after revascularization of infected pulps.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Aly, Hanaa Mohamed; Okazaki, Katsushi; Rosenberg, Paul A; Lin, Louis M

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined the nature of tissue formed in the canals of immature necrotic teeth, following revascularization in animals and humans. While speculations have been made that regeneration of the pulp tissue might take place in the canal, the tissue has been found to be cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like. The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the tissue in the root canals in immature dog teeth that had been artificially infected and then revascularized. Two 4- to 5-month-old mongrel dogs with immature teeth were used in the study. In one dog, four maxillary and four mandibular anterior teeth, and in another dog, four maxillary and five mandibular anterior teeth were used in the experiment. Pulp infection was artificially induced in the immature teeth. Revascularization was performed on all teeth by disinfecting the root canals with sodium hypochlorite irrigation and triple antibiotic intracanal dressing, completed with induction of intracanal bleeding, and sealed with an MTA plug. The access cavity was restored with silver amalgam. The animals were sacrificed 3 months after revascularization procedures. The revascularized teeth and surrounding periodontal tissues were removed and prepared for histological examination. Besides cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like tissues formed in the canals, residual remaining pulp tissue was observed in two revascularized teeth. In four teeth, ingrowth of alveolar bone into the canals was seen; presence of bone in the root canals has the potential for ankylosis. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that residual pulp tissue can remain in the canals after revascularization procedures of immature teeth with artificially induced pulp infection. This can lead to the misinterpretation that true pulpal regeneration has occurred. Ingrowth of apical bone into the root canals undergoing revascularization can interfere with normal tooth eruption if

  2. Vertical root fracture resistance of simulated immature permanent teeth filled with MTA using different vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Askerbeyli-Örs, Sevinc; Deniz-Sungur, Derya

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to evaluate the resistance vertical root fracture (VRF) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filled-immature permanent roots by using three different vehicles. Material and Methods Forty-extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and the root length was standardized to the length of 9 mm. For simulation of immature tooth apices, peeso reamers were introduced into the root canals and the prepared roots were assigned into three experimental groups according the used vehicle (distilled water-DW, prophylene glycol-PG, chlorhexidine-CHX) and control group (n=10). To simulate a periodontal membrane, the apical 7 mm of all roots was covered with wax to obtain a 0.2- to 0.3-mm-thick layer before embedding the roots into acrylic cylinders. A vertical force was applied (1mm/min) using a universal testing machine and the maximum load (F-max) that fracture occurred and the fracture mode (splint or comminuted) was recorded. Data were presented as mean and standard deviations. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U Test was used for multiple comparisons. Results There were significant differences between fracture strength of experimental groups with that of control group (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found amongst the fracture strength values of the experimental groups (p>0.05). In all groups, split fracture was the most common fracture mode. Conclusions MTA increases resistance of immature permanent teeth to VRF. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that mixing MTA with CHX or PG as the vehicle do not alter VRF resistance of simulated immature permanent roots. Key words:Immature teeth, MTA, vehicle, vertical root fracture. PMID:28210431

  3. Mesocyclops longisetus effects on survivorship of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Delfín-González, H; Parra Tabla, V

    1998-10-01

    The effect of the introduction of the entomophagous copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Acuacultura F.C.B. strain) on the survival of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres was evaluated under semi-natural conditions in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Life tables were constructed for the immature stages of the mosquito in the presence and absence of M. longisetus, and the survival data were compared using log-linear models. The data set was adjusted using the GLIM statistical package and the quality of adjustment was evaluated with a chi-squared test. Survivorship curves were constructed for each treatment. In the absence of M. longisetus, the survivorship of Ae. aegypti immature stages averaged 9%. The highest mortality rate was observed during the fourth larval instar (54%) and the resulting survival pattern corresponded to a type II survivorship curve. The mortality rate of Ae. aegypti first-instar larvae (fifty per tyre) increased more than 200-fold in the presence of M. longisetus (twenty per tyre) and the highest mortality was during the first two larval instars, where it reached 98.9%, with a resulting survivorship of 0.2%. Overall mortality was sixfold greater in the presence of the copepod than in its absence. The survival pattern of immature stages of Ae. aegypti in the presence of the copepod corresponded to a type III survivorship curve. As M. longisetus was so effective against Ae. aegypti immature stages in tyres under seminatural conditions, its long-term effectiveness should be evaluated under socially and ecologically realistic field conditions in Mexico.

  4. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  5. Expression of claudin-1 and -11 in immature and mature pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) testes.

    PubMed

    Park, C J; Lee, J E; Oh, Y S; Shim, S; Nah, W H; Choi, K J; Gye, M C

    2011-02-01

    The expression of claudin-1 and -11, tight junctions (TJs) proteins was examined in immature and adult pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) testes. Claudin-1 and -11 cDNA were highly similar to those of human, mice, and chicken. Claudin-1 mRNA and protein (21 kDa) levels in immature testes were higher than those of adult testis. In immature testes until 6 weeks of age, Claudin-1 was found at contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells and between Sertoli cells and germ cells. In adult testis, Claudin-1 was found in early spermatocytes migrating the blood testis barrier (BTB). Blood vessels were positive for claudin-1. Claudin-11 mRNA and protein (21 kDa) increased during adulthood development of testis. In immature testis, Claudin-11 was found in apicolateral contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells, indicating its involvement in cell adhesion in immature testis. In adult testis, strong wavy Claudin-11 immunoreactivity was parallel to basal lamina at the basal part of seminiferous epithelium, indicating that Claudin-11 at the inter-Sertoli TJs may act as a structural element of the BTB. Weak Claudin-1 and -11 immunoreactivity at contacts between Sertoli cells to elongating/elongated spermatids, meiotic germ cells, and basal lamina suggests that they also participate in the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion in pheasant testis. Testosterone increased claudin-11 mRNA in testis organ culture and Sertoli cell primary culture, suggesting positive regulation of claudin-11 gene by androgen in Sertoli cells of pheasant testis. This is the first report on the claudins expression at BTB in avian testis.

  6. Mature and immature teratoma: A report from the second Italian pediatric study.

    PubMed

    Terenziani, Monica; D'Angelo, Paolo; Inserra, Alessandro; Boldrini, Renata; Bisogno, Gianni; Babbo, Gian Luca; Conte, Massimo; Dall' Igna, Patrizia; De Pasquale, Maria Debora; Indolfi, Paolo; Piva, Luigi; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna; Siracusa, Fortunato; Spreafico, Filippo; Tamaro, Paolo; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Teratomas demonstrate a benign clinical behavior, however they may recur with malignant components or as teratoma, and in a small group of patients prognosis could be fatal. After the first Italian study, we collected cases of teratoma, alongside the protocol for malignant germ cell tumors. Patients with teratoma were collected from 2004 to 2014. Teratomas were classified according to the WHO classifications, as mature and immature. Patients with pathological aFP and/or bHCG, and those with a malignant germ cell component were not included. The study enrolled 219 patients (150 mature, 69 immature teratomas) with a median age at diagnosis of 42 months. The primary sites involved were: 118 gonadal and 101 extragonadal teratomas. Two females with ovarian teratoma had a positive family history. Complete and incomplete surgeries were performed in 85% and 9% of cases. Seventeen events occurred: six females had a second metachronous tumor (5 contralateral ovarian teratoma, 1 adrenal neuroblastoma) and 11 teratomas relapsed/progressed (3 mature, 8 immature teratomas). Two patients died, one of progressive immature teratoma and one of surgical complications. At a median follow up of 68 months, the event-free, relapse-free, and overall survival rates were 90.6%, 94.3%, 98.6%, respectively. Teratomas show a good prognosis, especially the mature ones: surgery and follow-up remain the standard approach. Incomplete surgery in immature teratoma is the group at greatest risk of relapse. Bilateral ovarian tumors are a possibility, and the rare family predisposition to ovarian mature teratoma warrants further analyses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  8. Estimating the distribution of probable age-at-death from dental remains of immature human fossils.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Laura L; Stinespring Harris, Ashley E; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2012-02-01

    In two historic longitudinal growth studies, Moorrees et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 21 (1963) 99-108; J Dent Res 42 (1963) 1490-1502) presented the "mean attainment age" for stages of tooth development for 10 permanent tooth types and three deciduous tooth types. These findings were presented graphically to assess the rate of tooth formation in living children and to age immature skeletal remains. Despite being widely cited, these graphical data are difficult to implement because there are no accompanying numerical values for the parameters underlying the growth data. This analysis generates numerical parameters from the data reported by Moorrees et al. by digitizing 358 points from these tooth formation graphs using DataThief III, version 1.5. Following the original methods, the digitized points for each age transition were conception-corrected and converted to the logarithmic scale to determine a median attainment age for each dental formation stage. These values are subsequently used to estimate age-at-death distributions for immature individuals using a single tooth or multiple teeth, including estimates for 41 immature early modern humans and 25 immature Neandertals. Within-tooth variance is calculated for each age estimate based on a single tooth, and a between-tooth component of variance is calculated for age estimates based on two or more teeth to account for the increase in precision that comes from using additional teeth. Finally, we calculate the relative probability of observing a particular dental formation sequence given known-age reference information and demonstrate its value in estimating age for immature fossil specimens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid Pretreatment Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in the Immature Hearts of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haibo; Liu, Si; Liu, Xuewen; Yang, Jinjing; Wang, Fang; Cong, Xiangfeng; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The cardioprotection of the immature heart during cardiac surgery remains controversial due to the differences between the adult heart and the newborn heart. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small bioactive molecule with diverse functions including cell proliferation and survival via its receptor: LPA1–LPA6. We previously reported that the expressions of LPA1 and LPA3 in rat hearts were much higher in immature hearts and then declined rapidly with age. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether LPA signaling plays a potential protective role in immature hearts which had experienced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The results showed that in Langendorff-perfused immature rat hearts (2 weeks), compared to I/R group, LPA pretreatment significantly enhanced the cardiac function, attenuated myocardial infarct size and CK-MB release, decreased myocardial apoptosis and increased the expression of pro-survival signaling molecules. All these effects could be abolished by Ki16425, an antagonist to LPA1 and LPA3. Similarly, LPA pretreatment protected H9C2 from hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis and necrosis in vitro. The mechanisms underlying the anti-apoptosis effects were related to activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinas B (AKT) signaling pathways as well as phosphorylation of the downstream effector of AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), through LPA1 and/or LPA3. What's more, we found that LPA preconditioning increased glucose uptake of H9C2 subjected to H/R by the activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) but not the translocation of GLUT4. In conclusion, our study indicates that LPA is a potent survival factor for immature hearts against I/R injuries and has the potential therapeutic function as a cardioplegia additive for infantile cardiac surgery. PMID:28377726

  10. Maturation Stages of Mouse Dendritic Cells in Growth Factor–dependent Long-Term Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Winzler, Claudia; Rovere, Patrizia; Rescigno, Maria; Granucci, Francesca; Penna, Giuseppe; Adorini, Luciano; Zimmermann, Valerie S.; Davoust, Jean; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    1997-01-01

    The signals controlling the checkpoints of dendritic cells (DC) maturation and the correlation between phenotypical and functional maturational stages were investigated in a defined model system of growth factor–dependent immature mouse DC. Three sequential stages of DC maturation (immature, mature, and apoptotic) were defined and characterized. Immature DC (stage 1) had low expression of costimulatory molecules, highly organized cytoskeleton, focal adhesion plaques, and slow motility; accordingly, they were very efficient in antigen uptake and processing of soluble proteins. Further, at this stage most of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules were within cytoplasmic compartments consistent with a poor allostimulatory capacity. Bacteria or cytokines were very efficient in inducing progression from stage 1 towards stage 2 (mature). Morphological changes were observed by confocal analysis including depolymerization of F-actin and loss of vinculin containing adhesive structures which correlates with acquisition of high motility. Antigen uptake and presentation of native protein antigen was reduced. In contrast, presentation of immunogenic peptides and allostimulatory activity became very efficient and secretion of IL-12 p75 was detectable after antigen presentation. This functional DC maturation ended by apoptotic cell death, and no reversion to the immature phenotype was observed. PMID:9016880

  11. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Takikita, Shoichi; Takano, Tomoyuki; Narita, Tsutomu; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A). In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene) is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes). This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism.

  12. Increased apoptosis and hypomyelination in cerebral white matter of macular mutant mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Takikita, Shoichi; Takano, Tomoyuki; Narita, Tsutomu; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Hypomyelination in developing brain is often accompanied by congenital metabolic disorders. Menkes kinky hair disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease of impaired copper transport, resulting from a mutation of the Menkes disease gene, a transmembrane copper-transporting p-type ATPase gene (ATP7A). In a macular mutant mouse model, the murine ortholog of Menkes gene (mottled gene) is mutated, and widespread neurodegeneration and subsequent death are observed. Although some biochemical analysis of myelin protein in macular mouse has been reported, detailed histological study of myelination in this mouse model is currently lacking. Since myelin abnormality is one of the neuropathologic findings of human Menkes disease, in this study early myelination in macular mouse brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Two-week-old macular mice and normal littermates were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded and vibratome sections was performed using antibodies against either CNPase, cleaved caspase-3 or O4 (marker of immature oligodendrocytes). This staining showed that cerebral myelination in macular mouse was generally hypoplastic and that hypomyelination was remarkable in internal capsule, corpus callosum, and cingulate cortex. In addition, an increased number of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells were observed in corpus callosum and internal capsule. Copper deficiency induced by low copper diet has been reported to induce oligodendrocyte dysfunction and leads to hypomyelination in this mouse model. Taken together, hypomyelination observed in this study in a mouse model of Menkes disease is assumed to be induced by increased apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes in developing cerebrum, through deficient intracellular copper metabolism. PMID:26937406

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. Material/Methods We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro® 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. Results The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (p<0.01). Conclusions The immature brainstem is a rate-dependent material in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the

  14. Haematopoietic cell lines capable of colonizing the thymus following in vivo transfer expressed T-cell receptor gamma-gene immature mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, M; Oku, M; Ohta, S; Yamagata, T

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism by which progenitor T (pro-T) cells recognize and enter the thymus, an attempt was made to produce haematopoietic cell lines by the fusion of BALB/c nude mouse bone marrow or foetal liver cells (gestation 14 and 15 days) with AKR thymoma BW5147, thereby immortalizing cells with potency to colonize the thymus, a characteristic of pro-T cells rarely found in adult bone marrow or foetal liver. The hybridomas thus produced were classified according to the phenotype of surface markers, T-cell receptor (TcR) gene configuration and expression. All hybridomas were negative in the surface expression of T-cell markers such as TcR alpha beta, TcR gamma delta, CD3, CD4 and CD8. They had TcR beta-, gamma- and delta-genes, each with a different status with respect to configuration and transcription. Some possessed partially rearranged TcR genes and others expressed immature TcR mRNA. The cell lines were examined for their capacity to colonize the thymus following intravenous injection into recipient mice. It was found that the cells with capacity of colonizing the thymus expressed immature TcR delta mRNA, while the cell lines lacking TcR delta-genes did not home to the thymus. These findings imply that the potency for migrating to thymus is closely associated with the particular stage of prethymic cell differentiation which could be estimated by the analysis of TcR genes, and that some cell lines with the expression of TcR delta-gene mRNA and the ability to colonize the thymus are derived from pro-T cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1478683

  15. Calves born after direct transfer of vitrified bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts derived from vitrified immature oocytes.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2008-06-01

    Vitrification has been the method of choice for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes, as rapid cooling decreases chilling sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo survival and the viability of immature oocytes vitrified using super-cooled liquid nitrogen. Immature oocytes were randomly allocated to three groups: (i) non-vitrified control group, (ii) vitrified in normal (-196 degrees C) liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and (iii) vitrified in super-cooled LN(2) (< or =-200 degrees C). Open-pulled glass micropipettes were used as vitrification containers. Immature oocytes were in vitro-matured, fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage. In vitro viability was assessed by cleavage and blastocyst rates on days 2 and 7 of culture respectively. Vitrified blastocysts derived from the immature vitrified oocytes were directly transferred to synchronous recipients. The in vitro embryo development of vitrified immature oocytes was not influenced by the LN(2) state. After direct transfer (one embryo per recipient) of 16 embryos obtained from immature vitrified oocytes (eight from each vitrified group), two healthy calves were born in each group. These results indicated that vitrification of immature bovine oocytes using glass micropipettes under normal or super-cooled LN(2), resulted in viable blastocysts and live calves following in vitro embryo production.

  16. The Knockout Mouse Project

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christopher P; Battey, James F; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T; Grieder, Franziska B; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra; Koller, Beverly H; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; Moore, Mark W; Nagy, Andras; Pollock, Jonathan D; Roses, Allen D; Sands, Arthur T; Seed, Brian; Skarnes, William C; Snoddy, Jay; Soriano, Philippe; Stewart, David J; Stewart, Francis; Stillman, Bruce; Varmus, Harold; Varticovski, Lyuba; Verma, Inder M; Vogt, Thomas F; von Melchner, Harald; Witkowski, Jan; Woychik, Richard P; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yancopoulos, George D; Young, Stephen G; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain. PMID:15340423

  17. Description of the natural history and immature stages of Postplatyptilia caribica Gielis in Puerto Rico (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    PubMed

    Matthews, Deborah L; Pérez, Mervin E

    2014-06-23

    Observations of the life history of a plume moth, Postplatyptilia caribica Gielis are presented along with an adult diagnosis and descriptions of the final instar larva and pupa. The species was previously known only from two female specimens. Illustrations are provided for the adults and immatures, including both male and female genitalia. Morphological characters of the adults and immatures are discussed and compared with other members of the tribe Platyptiliini. Identification of adults and immatures is especially important because one of the larval hostplants, Gesneria pauciflora Urb., is a threatened endemic species of Puerto Rico. The plant family Gesneriaceae is a new addition to the known plant families used by Pterophoridae.

  18. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    PubMed

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  19. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  20. Changes in geometrical and biomechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Hou, Jack C.-H.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Nishimoto, Mitchell; Patel, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    The differences in the geometry and mechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibiae were detailed in order to provide comparative data for spaceflight, exercise, or disease experiments that use immature rats as an animal model. The experiment focuses on the particularly rapid period of growth that occurs in the Sprague-Dawley rat between 40 and 60 d of age. Tibial length and middiaphysical cross-sectional data were analyzed for eight different groups of rats according to age and sex, and tibial mechanical properties were obtained via three-point bending tests to failure. Results indicate that, during the 15 d period of rapid growth, changes in rat tibial geometry are more important than changes in bone material properties for influencing the mechanical properties of the tibia. Male tibiae changed primarily in structural properties, while in the female rats major changes in mechanical properties of the tibia were only attributable to changes in the structural properties of the bone.

  1. Delay equation models for populations that experience competition at immature life stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong

    2015-09-01

    We consider stage-structured population models of intra- and inter-specific competition at immature life stages. A prototype delay model is derived for a single species that experiences larval competition. Its solutions are bounded for any birth function. Other ways of modelling the birth rate can lead to nonlinear integral equations. In some situations the technique of reducing an age-structured model to a system of delay equations applies. In the case of immature competition the delay equations cannot always be written down explicitly because their right hand sides depend on the solutions of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations that arise when one solves the nonlinear age-structured equations that determine the maturation rates in terms of the birth rates. This situation arises in the case of competition between two strains or species. However, in our two-strain competition model, vital properties of those right hand sides can be indirectly inferred using monotone systems theory.

  2. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541

  3. Description of the Immature Stages of the Planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Lenicov, A. M. Marino de Remes

    2014-01-01

    The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass (Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages, including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. PMID:25199992

  4. Vitrification with glutamine improves maturation rate of vitrified / warmed immature bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, C; Feitosa, W B; Simões, R; Nicacio, A C; Mendes, C M; Assumpção, M E O A; Visintin, J A

    2011-02-01

    The current study examined the protective effects of l-glutamine and cytochalasin B during vitrification of immature bovine oocytes. Oocyte vitrification solution (PBS supplemented with 10% FCS, 25% EG, 25% DMSO and 0.5 m trehalose) was the vitrification control. Treatments were the addition of 7 μg/ml cytochalasin B, 80 mm glutamine or both cytochalasin and glutaminine for 30 s. After warming, oocytes were matured in vitro for 24 h, fixed and stained with Hoechst (33342) for nuclear maturation evaluation. L-glutamine improved the vitrified/warmed immature bovine oocytes viability (32.8%), increasing the nuclear maturation rates compared to other treatments and the no treatment vitrified control (17.4%). There was, however, no effect of cytochalasin B on in vitro maturation (14.4%).

  5. Aedes aegypti immature forms distribution according to type of breeding site.

    PubMed

    Medronho, Roberto A; Macrini, Leonardo; Novellino, Daniele M; Lagrotta, Marcos T F; Câmara, Volney M; Pedreira, Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    More than 2.5 billion people, in more than 100 countries, are estimated to live in risk areas for the transmission of dengue. We investigated the production of Aedes aegypti immature forms in different types of containers. Larvae and pupae presence were inspected in 747 containers in 300 dwellings in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The statistical significance of the differences of immature forms was calculated for different groups of recipients and classified according to the type of use, volume, and material. Containers used to store water and those classified as garbage enclosed 90.2% of the larvae and 88.9% of the pupae. We concluded that a wider covering of more regular water supply, as well as regular garbage collection, are decisive factors for an effective control of dengue vector.

  6. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop.

  7. Gut bacteria that rescue growth impairments transmitted by immature microbiota from undernourished children

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Laura V.; Charbonneau, Mark R.; Salih, Tarek; Barratt, Michael J.; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Ilkaveya, Olga; Subramanian, Sathish; Manary, Mark J.; Trehan, Indi; Jorgensen, Josh M.; Fan, Yue-mei; Henrissat, Bernard; Leyn, Semen A.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Gordon, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Undernourished children exhibit impaired gut microbiota development. Transplanting microbiota from 6- and 18-month old healthy or undernourished Malawian donors into young germ-free mice fed a Malawian diet revealed that immature microbiota from undernourished infants/children transmit impaired growth phenotypes. The representation of several age-discriminatory taxa in recipient animals correlated with lean body mass gain, liver, muscle, and brain metabolism, plus bone morphology. Co-housing mice shortly after receiving microbiota from healthy (H) or severely stunted/underweight (Un) infants demonstrated that invasion of age-/growth-discriminatory taxa from H to Un cagemates’ microbiota ameliorates growth faltering. Adding two invasive species, Ruminococcus gnavus and Clostridium symbiosum, to the Un microbiota also ameliorated growth and metabolic abnormalities. These results provide evidence that microbiota immaturity is causally related to undernutrition, and reveal potential therapeutic targets and agents. PMID:26912898

  8. Subthreshold membrane-potential oscillations in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed

    Psarropoulou, C; Avoli, M

    1995-12-15

    Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs) were recorded intracellularly in 31 of 43 (>70%) immature CA3 hippocampal neurones (from 3-17 days postnatally). MPOs (3-5 mV, 3-15 Hz) occurred at resting membrane potential (RMP) in 20 of 31 neurones, or following depolarization (11 of 31 neurones); with sufficient depolarization spontaneous action potentials (APs) were generated from the positive-going phase of MPOs. In all cells, MPOs were blocked by steady membrane hyperpolarization. Tetrodotoxin abolished MPOs (n = 4); Co(2+) markedly reduced them (n = 3), and tetraethylammonium, added in the presence of TTX, revealed lower frequency oscillatory activity (n = 2). We conclude that subthreshold MPOs in immature hippocampus, possibly linked to theta rhythm generation and memory acquisition, depend on voltage-dependent Na+ electrogenesis and they might be additionally controlled by Ca(2+) and K+ conductances.

  9. Case report: pulp revascularization of a necrotic, infected, immature, permanent tooth.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Blayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the case of a patient wherein revascularization of the necrotic infected pulp space of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor tooth was induced in vivo by stimulation of a blood clot from the periapical tissues into the canal space. This was achieved after disinfecting the canal space with a topical antibiotic paste followed by inducing a blood clot scaffold from the periapical tissues. This treatment approach offers great potential to avoid the need for traditional apexification with calcium hydroxide or the need to achieve an artificial apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate. Furthermore, this treatment approach can help rescue infected immature teeth by physiologically strengthening the root walls.

  10. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown–root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Zahedpasha, Samir; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Mehrani-Sabet, Javad

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth. PMID:23087746

  11. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep K.; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

  12. Radiation sensitivity of small oocytes in immature mice. effect of gonadotropin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bager, S.

    1982-02-01

    The effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin on the survival of small oocytes of acutely irradiated immature mice was assessed by counting occytes on serial sections under the light microscope. Twenth-four hours after irradiation with 40 R the number of small oocytes was reduced to a few percent of that in unirradiated controls. The number of oocytes was a little higher in animals injected with gonadotropin before radiation exposure than in animals that were only irradiated. One week after radiation exposure very few small oocytes were seen in any of the irradiated ovaries regardless of treatment. Thus pregnant mare serum gonadotropin had no protective effect on the small oocytes of irradiated immature mice.

  13. Structure of the Immature Dengue Virus at Low pH Primes Proteolytic Maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, I-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Holdaway, Heather A.; Li, Long; Kostyuchenko, Victor A.; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.; Chen, Jue

    2008-09-17

    Intracellular cleavage of immature flaviviruses is a critical step in assembly that generates the membrane fusion potential of the E glycoprotein. With cryo-electron microscopy we show that the immature dengue particles undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that renders them accessible to furin cleavage. At a pH of 6.0, the E proteins are arranged in a herringbone pattern with the pr peptides docked onto the fusion loops, a configuration similar to that of the mature virion. After cleavage, the dissociation of pr is pH-dependent, suggesting that in the acidic environment of the trans-Golgi network pr is retained on the virion to prevent membrane fusion. These results suggest a mechanism by which flaviviruses are processed and stabilized in the host cell secretory pathway.

  14. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Zahedpasha, Samir; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Mehrani-Sabet, Javad

    2012-05-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  15. [Morphofunctional immaturity of the urinary tract and vesicoureteral reflux in young children].

    PubMed

    Salov, P P; Zaharova, N S

    1991-08-01

    On the basis of rich clinical experience--593 patients and 916 renoureteral units (RUU) with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in infants the authors showed that early recognition of VUR is necessary, which is ensured by adequate organization of service to infants of the "risk group". Complex examination of children by functional diagnostic methods conducted under general anesthesia makes it possible to undertake some methods of examination for the detection and control of morphofunctional immaturity, while early application of purposeful rehabilitation measures in the stages inpatient treatment--outpatient treatment--treatment in the family produces a "positive dynamics" of the course of the pathological process in most patients (up to 82.1%). All this in complex confirms that morphofunctional immaturity of the urinary tract is the main cause of VUR in infants.

  16. Role of C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP in early adipogenic differentiation of human white adipose-derived progenitors and at later stages in immature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Zwerschke, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of the major isoforms of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP, in adipogenesis of human white adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASC). C/EBPβ gene expression was transiently induced early in adipogenesis. At later stages, in immature adipocytes, the C/EBPβ mRNA and protein levels declined. The C/EBPβ-LIP protein steady-state level decreased considerably stronger than the C/EBPβ-LAP level and the C/EBPβ-LIP half-life was significantly shorter than the C/EBPβ-LAP half-life. The turn-over of both C/EBPβ-isoforms was regulated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation. These data suggest that the protein stability of the C/EBPβ-isoforms is differentially regulated in the course of adipogenesis and in immature adipocytes. Constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LIP had antiadipogenic activity in human ASC. C/EBPβ-LAP, which promotes adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by directly activating expression of the adipogenic keyregulator PPARγ2, induced the expression of PPARγ2 and of the adipocyte differentiation gene product FABP4 in confluent ASC in the absence of adipogenic hormones. At later stages after hormone cocktail-induced adipogenesis, in immature adipocytes, constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP led to reduced expression of PPARγ2 and FABP4, C/EBPα expression was downregulated and the expression of the adipocyte differentiation gene products adiponectin and leptin was impaired. These findings suggest that constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP induces adipogenesis in human ASC and negatively regulates the expression of adipogenic regulators and certain adipocyte differentiation gene products in immature adipocytes. We conclude the regulation of both C/EBPβ gene expression and C/EBPβ-LIP and C/EBPβ-LAP protein turn-over plays an important role for the expression of adipogenic regulators and/or adipocyte differentiation genes in early adipogenic differentiation of

  17. Somatic embryogenesis in immature cotyledons of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from immature cotyledon explants that were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and vitamins with 5.4 uM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.2 uM thidiazuron (TDZ) plus a 4x4 factorial combination of 0,9.8, 34.6, or 49.2 uM indole-3-butyric acid ...

  18. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Results Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Conclusion Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer. PMID:24079909

  19. Participation of Vaccinia Virus L2 Protein in the Formation of Crescent Membranes and Immature Virions▿

    PubMed Central

    Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Domi, Arban; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of vaccinia virus begins with the appearance of crescent-shaped membrane precursors of immature virions in cytoplasmic factories. During the initial characterization of the product of the L2R reading frame, we discovered that it plays an important role in crescent formation. The L2 protein was expressed early in infection and was associated with the detergent-soluble membrane fraction of mature virions, consistent with two potential membrane-spanning domains. All chordopoxviruses have L2 homologs, suggesting an important function. Indeed, we were unable to isolate an infectious L2R deletion mutant. Consequently, we constructed an inducible mutant with a conditional lethal phenotype. When L2 expression was repressed, proteolytic processing of the major core proteins and the A17 protein, which is an essential component of the immature virion membrane, failed to occur, suggesting an early block in viral morphogenesis. At 8 h after infection in the presence of inducer, immature and mature virions were abundantly seen by electron microscopy. In contrast, those structures were rare in the absence of inducer and were replaced by large, dense aggregates of viroplasm. A minority of these aggregates had short spicule-coated membranes, which resembled the beginnings of crescent formation, at their periphery. These short membrane segments at the edge of the dense viroplasm increased in number at later times, and some immature virions were seen. Although the L2 protein was not detected under nonpermissive conditions, minute amounts could account for stunted and delayed viral membrane formation. These findings suggested that L2 is required for the formation or elongation of crescent membranes. PMID:21228235

  20. Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Ko, Ko; Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by <30% in comparison with the control, and were thus ranked as harmless. Although insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Description of the immature stages of four species of Macrodactylini (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae).

    PubMed

    Neita-Moreno, J C; Morón, M A; Zuluaga-Correa, C A

    2012-04-01

    The third instar of the genera Ceraspis, Clavipalpus, Isonychus and Manopus (Melolonthidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) are described for the first time. Descriptions are based on the larvae of Ceraspis innotata (Blanchard), Clavipalpus ursinus Blanchard, Isonychus maculatus Waterhouse and Manopus biguttatus Laporte. The pupae of C. ursinus, I. maculatus and M. biguttatus are also described. A key to the larvae of nine genera of Macrodactylini and a list of the species with immature descriptions are provided.

  2. Wolbachia infections that reduce immature insect survival: Predicted impacts on population replacement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evolutionary success of Wolbachia bacteria, infections of which are widespread in invertebrates, is largely attributed to an ability to manipulate host reproduction without imposing substantial fitness costs. Here, we describe a stage-structured model with deterministic immature lifestages and a stochastic adult female lifestage. Simulations were conducted to better understand Wolbachia invasions into uninfected host populations. The model includes conventional Wolbachia parameters (the level of cytoplasmic incompatibility, maternal inheritance, the relative fecundity of infected females, and the initial Wolbachia infection frequency) and a new parameter termed relative larval viability (RLV), which is the survival of infected larvae relative to uninfected larvae. Results The results predict the RLV parameter to be the most important determinant for Wolbachia invasion and establishment. Specifically, the fitness of infected immature hosts must be close to equal to that of uninfected hosts before population replacement can occur. Furthermore, minute decreases in RLV inhibit the invasion of Wolbachia despite high levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, maternal inheritance, and low adult fitness costs. Conclusions The model described here takes a novel approach to understanding the spread of Wolbachia through a population with explicit dynamics. By combining a stochastic female adult lifestage and deterministic immature/adult male lifestages, the model predicts that even those Wolbachia infections that cause minor decreases in immature survival are unlikely to invade and spread within the host population. The results are discussed in relation to recent theoretical and empirical studies of natural population replacement events and proposed applied research, which would use Wolbachia as a tool to manipulate insect populations. PMID:21975225

  3. Fracture resistance of simulated immature tooth roots reinforced with MTA or restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Karapinar-Kazandag, Meric; Basrani, Bettina; Tom-Kun Yamagishi, Valerie; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Friedman, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    Immature endodontically treated teeth may require reinforcing to reduce the risk of root fracture. This study assessed the fracture resistance of simulated immature tooth roots reinforced with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or two composite resin (CR) materials. One hundred extracted roots of mature human maxillary incisors were decoronated and sectioned 9 mm further apically from the decoronation line and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). In Group 1 (negative control), roots received no treatment. In groups 2-5, canals were enlarged to 2.1 mm diameter to simulate immature roots, dressed with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) and incubated for 7 days. After removal of Ca(OH)2 , canals in Group 2 (positive control) were left unfilled. Canals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were filled with MTA, BisFil 2B flowable CR or BisFil II posterior CR, respectively. After further incubation for 30 days, specimens were embedded in acrylic cylinders and horizontally loaded in a universal testing machine at cross head speed of 5 mm min(-1) until fracture occurred. Load (N) at and pattern of fracture were recorded. Load at fracture was significantly lower (t-test, P = 0.003) in Group 2 (630 ± 199.12) than in Group 1 (896.98 ± 311.79). It did not differ significantly among groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 (anova, P > 0.07). Pattern of fracture did not differ among the groups either. Within the limitations of this study, root canal filling with MTA and two CR materials affected reinforcement of simulated immature roots to levels comparable with intact roots. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Navin; Narang, Isha; Mittal, Neelam

    2013-07-01

    Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) utilizing Choukroun's method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA) was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.

  5. Root canal disinfection of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis: Comparison of three different protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Benítez, Soledad; Stambolsky Guelfand, Carlos; Martín-Jiménez, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present in vivo study was designed to assess the efficacy of 3 root canal disinfection protocols in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis (AP). Material and Methods: Forty immature premolars with pulp necrosis and AP of five Beagle dogs were used. Three experimental disinfection protocols were established. After irrigation with 40 ml 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using the Endovac system, in Group 1 canals were flushed with QMix solution; in Group 2, canals were flushed with QMix solution and 2% chlorhexidine gel dressing was placed for two weeks; and in Group 3, triantibiotic paste dressing was placed for two weeks. Canals were sampled after periapical lesions were radiographically visible (S1), after the first disinfection session (S2) and, in groups 2 and 3, after dressing (S3). Results: After the first session of the disinfection protocol (S2), there was significant (p < 0.05) bacterial reduction in the three experimental groups. Microorganisms were absent in 100% of S2 samples in groups 1 and 2, and in 75% of group 3 (p > 0.05). After dressing, 87.5% of the S3 samples showed increased bacterial count: in group 2, CFU counts (median = 891) were significantly higher than in group 3 (median = 18) (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In immature dog teeth with AP, root canal irrigation using QMix solution, with or without chlorhexidine gel dressing, or a triantibiotic paste dressing, provides the same level of disinfection than irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite alone in only one session. Key words:Apical periodontitis, chlorhexidine, Endovac, immature teeth, QMix solution, root canal disinfection, triantibiotic paste. PMID:25593656

  6. The impact of different ale brewer's yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer.

    PubMed

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-09-30

    It is well known that brewer's yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer's yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer's yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer.

  7. Longitudinal Cohort Study of Regenerative Endodontic Treatment for Immature Necrotic Permanent Teeth.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edwin Ka Meng; Desmeules, Mia; Cielecki, Margaret; Dabbagh, Basma; Ferraz Dos Santos, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of immature necrotic permanent teeth presents several clinical challenges in endodontics. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) permit root development, increased canal wall thickness, and apical closure. This longitudinal cohort study aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of REPs of immature necrotic permanent teeth over a 30-month period. This study was performed at the Division of Dentistry of the Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Twenty-eight immature necrotic permanent teeth from 22 patients were included in this study. All teeth were treated with a standardized REP protocol. Patients had follow-up appointments at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months. At each appointment, signs and symptoms were evaluated. Radiographic evaluation was also performed by a calibrated endodontist in order to analyze different parameters. Our results show a high survival rate (96.4%), clinical success (92.8%), and resolution of apical pathology (100%). Significant increases in the average root length (8.1%, P < .0001) and root thickness area (11.6%, P = .03) were observed after 30 months. In the study period, a significant decrease in the apical diameter was also noted, with 30.8% of the cases showing complete apical closure. Teeth with more immature stages of root development had a higher percentage of change in root thickness, length, and apical diameter; however, these results were not statistically significant. Teeth treated with REPs presented resolution of symptoms. Although clinical meaningful change was not achieved in all cases, increased root thickness, root length, and apical closure were observed at 30 months. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced tolerance of immature renal tubules to anoxia by HSF-1 decoy.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Rajasree; Riordan, Michael; Wang, Shirley; Thulin, Gunilla; Kashgarian, Michael; Siegel, Norman J

    2005-02-01

    Immature animals demonstrate an amplified heat shock response following a variety of insults compared with that seen in mature animals (M). The potential role of the heat shock response in modulating immature tolerance to injury was compared between rat pups, 10 postnatal days of age (P10), and M. Baseline levels of the heat shock transcription factor (HSF-1) were substantially elevated in P10 compared with M animals. In uninjured P10 pups, HSF-1 level was comparable to that of M animals subjected to 45 min of ischemia. As anticipated, the integrity of suspensions of tubules exposed to anoxia was preserved in P10 animals (23% LDH release) compared with M (40%), P < 0.01. The effect of targeted inhibition of HSF-1 on tubular integrity was studied using a cyclic oligonucleotide decoy. The HSF-1 decoy increased the severity of anoxic injury in P10 pups to a level comparable with M animals. LDH release was 33% in decoy-treated P10 tubules compared with 40% in M. When P10 tubules were treated with scrambled decoy, resistance to anoxia remained intact (24%). The increased vulnerability of the tubular suspension to injury was specific to the HSF-1 decoy and proportional to the dose of decoy applied. This study demonstrates maturation in the abundance of HSF-1 in the immature rat kidney. The loss of resistance of immature tubules to anoxia with specific inhibition of HSF-1 may be due to its effect on the heat shock response or other signaling pathways of critical pathobiological importance in renal cell injury.

  9. Multicentric GCT of tarsal bones in an immature skeleton: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Atul; Rao, Harish; Sadh, Raghvendra

    2010-01-01

    Multicentric giant cell tumor of the foot is rare. Multicentric giant cell tumor of the tarsal bones in an immature skeleton is unheard of. We report a case of synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor involving the talus and calcaneum in a 14-year-old boy with open epiphyseal plate for its rarity and successful treatment by curettage and synthetic bone graft. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  11. Task Control Signals in Pediatric Tourette Syndrome Show Evidence of Immature and Anomalous Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jessica A.; Wenger, Kristin K.; Dosenbach, Nico U. F.; Miezin, Francis M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2009-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008). A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e., correlations outside the typical developmental range) limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009). The present study used functional MRI (fMRI) to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals), and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set). Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue) activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”). Second, group differences found in task-maintenance (i.e., sustained) activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task-maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS

  12. A CONTROLLED SAFETY STUDY OF DIINDOLYLMETHANE IN THE IMMATURE RAT MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Elackattu, Alphi P.; Feng, Lining; Wang, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diindolylmethane, a natural product from cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to be a dietary component that has inhibitory effects on some tumors (e.g., laryngeal papilloma). However, current evidence to support its safety is based on adult humans or mature animals. There is little to show its safety in children. This study is designed to asses safety in the young rat model STUDY DESIGN Prospective Controlled Animal Study. METHODS 40 rats were separated into 4 treatment groups of 10 rats each, based on the amount of study drug they received in their daily food: 1. Immature rats fed low dose DIM, which is our proposed treatment dose (2.0mg/kg/day). 2. Immature rats fed high dose DIM (20.0mg/kg/day). 3. Immature rats fed no DIM (control). 4. Adult rats fed high dose DIM (20.0mg/kg/day). At the conclusion of the study we collected blood to compare serum chemistries and vitamin D levels, and harvest organs to observe for any gross or histological changes between the groups. Statistical methods involved one-way ANOVA and pairwise comparisons with Tukey’s multiple comparison adjustment. RESULTS Although our numbers do not allow for statistical significance, there was no appreciable difference in rat weights between the immature groups, nor was there appreciable difference between serum chemistries, or gross or histological examination of liver, kidney, or bone. CONCLUSIONS Diindolylmethane seems to have no adverse affects on the rat even when given in doses 10x what we propose to be therapeutic. This adds evidence to the safety of this drug in the pediatric population as a treatment option for recurrent respiratory papilloma. PMID:19544380

  13. Flukicidal action of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected rats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Maes, L; Lauwers, H; Deckers, W; Vanparijs, O

    1988-03-01

    The relative importance of peak level- and residual level-related flukicidal activity of closantel against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica was evaluated in a comparative efficacy trial using two animal species with a different plasma elimination pattern, that is, the rat and the sheep with an elimination half-life of less than one week and of two to three weeks, respectively. The rats were dosed orally with closantel at 20 mg kg-1 at two, four, six, eight and 10 weeks; the sheep at 10 mg kg-1 at eight, 10 and 12 weeks after artificial infection. Necropsy was performed either one week after treatment or 12 weeks after infection. Efficacy rates and the length of the recovered flukes were evaluated. It was demonstrated that the flukicidal effect of closantel is directly related to its peak plasma levels and less to its residual plasma concentrations. In the rat, a high efficacy (P less than 0.001) could be demonstrated against immature stages of four weeks or older. The two-week immature stages were less markedly affected. No significant differences in efficacy and size of the flukes were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection. In the sheep, the efficacy against six-week and eight-week-old immature stages varied between 70.3 and 76.8 per cent and between 92.8 and 96.5 per cent, respectively. As in the rats, no marked differences in efficacy were noted between the animals autopsied one week after treatment and those autopsied 12 weeks after infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Cutting edge: impaired transitional B cell production and selection in the nonobese diabetic mouse.

    PubMed

    Quinn, William J; Noorchashm, Negin; Crowley, Jenni E; Reed, Amy J; Noorchashm, Hooman; Naji, Ali; Cancro, Michael P

    2006-06-15

    Developing B cells undergo selection at multiple checkpoints to eliminate autoreactive clones. We analyzed B cell kinetics in the NOD mouse to establish whether these checkpoints are intact. Our results show that although bone marrow production is normal in NOD mice, transitional (TR) B cell production collapses at 3 wk of age, reflecting a lack of successful immature B cell migration to the periphery. This yields delayed establishment of the follicular pool and a lack of selection at the TR checkpoint, such that virtually all immature B cells that exit the bone marrow mature without further selection. These findings suggest that compromised TR B cell generation in NOD mice yields relaxed TR selection, affording autoreactive specificities access to mature pools.

  15. Multicenter Systems Analysis of Human Blood Reveals Immature Neutrophils in Males and During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blazkova, Jana; Gupta, Sarthak; Liu, Yudong; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A; Bolen, Christopher R; Saar-Dover, Ron; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K; Angst, Martin S; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Aghaeepour, Nima; Stevenson, David; Baldwin, Nicole; Anguiano, Esperanza; Chaussabel, Damien; Altman, Matthew C; Kaplan, Mariana J; Davis, Mark M; Furman, David

    2017-03-15

    Despite clear differences in immune system responses and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases between males and females, there is little understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we identified a gene signature of immature-like neutrophils, characterized by the overexpression of genes encoding for several granule-containing proteins, which was found at higher levels (up to 3-fold) in young (20-30 y old) but not older (60 to >89 y old) males compared with females. Functional and phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood neutrophils revealed more mature and responsive neutrophils in young females, which also exhibited an elevated capacity in neutrophil extracellular trap formation at baseline and upon microbial or sterile autoimmune stimuli. The expression levels of the immature-like neutrophil signature increased linearly with pregnancy, an immune state of increased susceptibility to certain infections. Using mass cytometry, we also find increased frequencies of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood of women during late pregnancy. Thus, our findings show novel sex differences in innate immunity and identify a common neutrophil signature in males and in pregnant women.

  16. Immature house fly (Musca domestica) control in breeding sites with a new Brevibacillus laterosporus formulation.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca; Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio

    2008-04-01

    A bacterial formulation containing spores of a Brevibacillus laterosporus strain from Sardinia, known to be toxic by ingestion to the house fly (Musca domestica), was assayed in laboratory, outdoor, and field conditions for the control of immature stages of this pest. In all laboratory assays, the bacterial formulation exhibited toxicity against house fly larvae. A concentration of 1 x 10(8) spores of B. laterosporus/g of diet caused 100% mortality of house fly immature stages. The same formulation, applied at a concentration of 1 x 10(8) spores/ml, equivalent to a dose of 2 liters/m(2), caused a reduction in adult emergence from laboratory and natural breeding substrates (outdoor cage experiments) up to 80.3 and 57.8%, respectively. Similarly, this formulation applied in the cow pen of a diary farm at a dose of 2 liters/m(2) produced a significant reduction (30%) in immature fly development. Therefore, the use of this bacterial preparation in microbiological control strategies for the integrated pest management of this species is promising.

  17. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  18. Role of immature myeloid cells in mechanisms of immune evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2006-03-01

    Tumor affects myelopoiesis by inhibiting the process of differentiation/maturation of antigen-presenting cells from their myeloid precursors and by stimulating an accumulation of immature myeloid cells in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. These immature myeloid cells can contribute greatly to tumor progression and promote tumor evasion from immune attack: i) by inhibiting development of adaptive immune responses against tumor in lymphoid organs; ii) by migrating into tumor site and differentiating there into highly immune suppressive tumor-associated macrophages. Immature myeloid cells and tumor-associated macrophages utilize different JAK/STAT signaling pathways and different mechanisms to control T cell responses, which include increased production of TGF-beta, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrites, as well as enhanced L-arginine metabolism. Understanding of precise mechanisms, which tumors use to affect differentiation of APC from myeloid cell precursors and inhibit T cell responses, could help to develop new approaches for cancer therapy and substantially improve efficiency of existing cancer vaccination strategies.

  19. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Arindam; Dewangan, Yatindra Kumar; Bain, Jayanta; Rakshit, Pritha; Dhruw, Krishnanand; Basu, Sandip Kanti; Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL) is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05) in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar. PMID:25593424

  20. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G.; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.

  1. Determination of working length for teeth with wide or immature apices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J A; Chandler, N P

    2013-06-01

    Practitioners face several challenges during the root canal treatment of teeth with wide or immature apices, one of which is working length determination. There is relatively little data regarding the value of radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL) use when root formation is incomplete, and supplementary measurement techniques may be helpful. This review considers length determination for canals with wide or completely open apices in permanent and primary teeth. The Ovid Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched individually and in combinations to August 2012 using the subject headings 'working length determination' and 'open apex' and revealed only one article. Further headings, 'tooth apex', 'apical constriction', 'resorption', 'foramen size', 'mature root apex', 'immature root apex', 'working length determination', 'apexification', 'open apices', 'open apex', 'open apical foramina', 'canal length determination', 'immature teeth', 'apical diameters', 'electronic apex locators', 'primary teeth', 'treatment outcome' and 'clinical outcome' were entered. Potentially useful articles were chosen for a manual search of bibliography as well as a forward search of citations. Other investigations revealed case reports and some research related to open apices and laboratory studies evaluating EALs, radiography and tactile methods. Some involved permanent teeth of various apical diameters and primary teeth with and without resorption. There is a need to define the term 'open apex'. Clinicians should be aware of the benefits and limitations of all canal measuring techniques involved in managing this problem.

  2. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in skeletally immature patients: an individualized approach☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Lopes Júnior, Osmar Valadão; Saggin, Paulo Renato; Matos do Nascimento, Gilberto; Kuhn, André; Saggin, José; Inácio, André Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate a series of skeletally immature patients who underwent three surgical techniques for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction according to each patient's growth potential. Methods a series of 23 skeletally immature patients who underwent ACL reconstruction surgery at ages ranging from 7 to 15 years was evaluated prospectively. The surgical technique was individualized according to the Tanner sexual maturity score. The surgical techniques used were transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction and extraphyseal reconstruction. Four patients underwent the extraphyseal technique, seven the partial transphyseal technique and twelve the full transphyseal technique, on the ACL. The postoperative evaluation was based on the Lysholm score, clinical analysis on the knee and the presence of angular deformity or dysmetria of the lower limb. Results the mean Lysholm score was 96.34 (±2.53). None of the patients presented differences in length and/or clinical or radiographic misalignment abnormality of the lower limbs. Conclusion ACL reconstruction using flexor tendon grafts in skeletally immature patients provided satisfactory functional results. Use of individualized surgical techniques according to growth potential did not give rise to physeal lesions capable of causing length discrepancies or misalignments of the lower limbs, even in patients with high growth potential. PMID:26229809

  3. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development and reproduction in the stable fly.

    PubMed

    Liu, S S; Li, A Y; Lohmeyer, K H; Pérez De León, A A

    2012-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting flies that affect cattle. The use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only a limited success owing to the insect's unique feeding behaviours and immature development sites. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two insect growth regulator (IGR) products, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, on the development of the immature stages of the stable fly and the effects of pyriproxyfen on oviposition and egg hatch. Both pyriproxyfen and buprofezin had significant inhibitory effects on immature development. The LC(50) s of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were 0.002 and 18.92 p.p.m., respectively. Topical treatment of adult females with different doses of pyriproxyfen had significant negative effects on both female oviposition and egg hatching when 1- and 3-day-old females were treated, and the effects were dose dependent. A significant reduction in the mean number of eggs laid was observed only at the highest pyriproxyfen dose (8 µg/fly) and egg hatch was unaffected by pyriproxyfen treatment when 5-day-old females were treated. Results from the present study indicate that pyriproxyfen has the potential to be used as part of an integrated stable fly management programme.

  4. Erroneously elevated immature reticulocyte counts in leukemic patients determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jungwon; Moon, Heewon; Chung, Whasoon

    2007-10-01

    The immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) in peripheral blood, as determined by automated reticulocyte analysis, is calculated using the sum of medium and highly fluorescent reticulocyte numbers and provides information about erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. The purpose of this study was to investigate erroneously elevated IRF in leukemic patients, as determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Normal reticulocyte scattergram patterns show regions corresponding to reticulocytes located between matured RBCs and an upper particle (UPP) region, which show a continuum of non-separated fraction. The UPP represents erythroblasts and some immature reticulocytes. As a control group, peripheral blood was taken from patients with benign hematologic diseases, and their reticulocyte scattergrams all showed a normal pattern; UPP values were all less than 100. However, the reticulocyte scattergrams of 5 of 11 leukemia patients showed abnormal patterns and displayed a gap between RBC and reticulocyte regions. Three patients showed a flag with a message such as "RET Abn Scattergram". IRF results were elevated in these five patients, and their UPP values were above 100. For the remaining six leukemia patients with a normal reticulocyte scattergram pattern, immature reticulocytes were not markedly increased, and UPP values were less than 100. The findings of the present study demonstrate that IRF results may be erroneously elevated in leukemia patients and indicate that hematologists should examine reticulocyte scattergrams and UPP values carefully.

  5. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.

  6. Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease): lesional cells exhibit an immature dendritic cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pilichowska, Monika E; Pinkus, Jack L; Pinkus, Geraldine S

    2009-02-01

    Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL) is a rare benign disorder characterized histologically by nodal lesions composed of histiocytes, lymphoid cells, and so-called plasmacytoid T cells/plasmacytoid monocytes, with associated karyorrhexis. It has been proposed that plasmacytoid monocytes represent immature myeloid and lymphoid (plasmacytoid) early-committed dendritic cells (DCs). Monoclonal antibodies are now available for the detection of myeloid (CD1c [BDCA-1]+) and plasmacytoid (CD303 [BDCA-2]+) dendritic cells. With an extensive panel of antibodies to immature and mature DCs and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), cryostat section studies of 6 cases of HNL revealed that the morphologically distinctive mononuclear cells in lesional areas consisted of 2 populations of immature DCs: myeloid DCs immunoreactive for CD1c with coexpression of myeloid antigens CD13 and CD33 and plasmacytoid DCs immunoreactive for CD303 and CD123. These cells were CD68+, strongly expressed the IFN-alpha inducible protein MxA, and were nonreactive for fascin, a mature DC marker.

  7. Summer behavior of immature radio-equipped woodcock in central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunford, R.D.; Owen, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of 15 immature American woodcock (Philohela minor) was studied in central Maine during the summers of 1969 and 1970 using radiotelemetry. The monitored birds used a variety of nocturnal sites including old fields, bogs, powerlines, highway medians, woods roads, and fore clearings. Old fields were occupied more often than any other type of opening. Second growth-hardwoods, alders, hardwood-conifers, and conifers were utilized as diurnal cover. Diurnal locations of radio-equipped woodcock averaged 15 m from major breaks in the forest canopy. Four birds were monitored continuously during the day and night to detennine periods of activity. Although the birds were active throughout the day, very little activity was recorded after they moved to nocturnal sites. No apparent difference was found in the daily patterns of movement between immature male and female woodcock. Crepuscular movements between diurnal covers and nocturnal areas averaged 332 m. A composite summer range for the 15 woodcock during 183 woodcock-days was 1060 hectares. The data suggest that immature woodcock are quite mobile during the summer and utilize most of the forest openings occurring within 1-3 km of good nesting habitat. Most of these openings are also used for singing grounds by males in the spring.

  8. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Katsura; Shiono, Yasuhiro; Maki, Kenshi

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry. PMID:24959181

  9. Propofol compared with isoflurane inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in immature swine cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, Douglas B; Ledee, Dolena R; Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Morgan, Phil G; Sedensky, Margaret M; Isern, Nancy G; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in the development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in immature swine anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon-labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared spectroscopy. Compared with isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol decreased pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked lactate accumulation. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype that resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations that typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may have a role in the neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain. PMID:24398942

  10. On the morphology of the worker immatures of the leafcutter ant Atta sexdens Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Ceccato, Marcela; Reiss, Itamar Cristina; Décio, Pâmela; Lorenzon, Natalia; Da Silva, Natiele Gonçalves; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-08-01

    Leafcutter ants of the genus Atta Fabricius are serious agricultural pests. Morphological studies of immature stages within this group are few, and the data provided for species of considerable importance are usually incomplete. In this study, the immatures of Atta sexdens Linnaeus are described and compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Only specimens from founding stage colonies (i.e., lacking adult workers) were used. The existence of four larval instars was estimated by a frequency plot of maximum head widths, and the larvae of different instars differed from each other mainly by their bodily dimensions. Worker larvae belonged to two distinct morphological castes: (1) gardeners and nurses and (2) within-nest generalists. The worker larvae described in this study differed from a previous description of the same species by the following traits: the existence of a genal lobe, the number of clypeal hairs, the presence of two hairs on the ninth abdominal somite, the presence of hairs on the anterior surface of the labrum, and the shape of the maxillary palpus. This study provides a comparative analysis of immature stages of A. sexdens that may be relevant to future morphological and biological studies of the Attini.

  11. Role Of Immature Myeloid Cells in Mechanisms of Immune Evasion In Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Kusmartsev, Sergei; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Tumor affects myelopoiesis by inhibiting the process of differentiation/maturation of antigen-presenting cells from their myeloid precursors and by stimulating an accumulation of immature myeloid cells in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. These immature myeloid cells can contribute greatly to tumor progression and promote tumor evasion from immune attack: i) by inhibiting development of adaptive immune responses against tumor in lymphoid organs; ii) by migrating into tumor site and differentiating there into highly immune suppressive tumor-associated macrophages. Immature myeloid cells and tumor-associated macrophages utilize different JAK/STAT signaling pathways and different mechanisms to control T cell responses, which include increased production of TGF-beta, reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrites, as well as enhanced L-arginine metabolism. Understanding of precise mechanisms, which tumors use to affect differentiation of APC from myeloid cell precursors and inhibit T cell responses, could help to develop new approaches for cancer therapy and substantially improve efficiency of existing cancer vaccination strategies. PMID:16047143

  12. Vitrification of human immature oocytes before and after in vitro maturation: a review.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Shahedi, Abbas; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Nottola, Stefania Annarita; Macchiarelli, Guido; Palmerini, Maria Grazia

    2017-08-18

    The use of immature oocytes subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) opens interesting perspectives for fertility preservation where ovarian reserves are damaged by pathologies or therapies, as in PCO/PCOS and cancer patients. Human oocyte cryopreservation may offer some advantages compared to embryo freezing, such as fertility preservation in women at risk of losing fertility due to oncological treatment or chronic disease, egg donation and postponing childbirth. It also eliminates religious and/or other ethical, legal, and moral concerns of embryo freezing. In addition, a successful oocyte cryopreservation program could eliminate the need for donor and recipient menstrual cycle synchronization. Recent advances in vitrification technology have markedly improved the oocyte survival rate after warming, with fertilization and implantation rates comparable with those of fresh oocytes. Healthy live births can be achieved from the combination of IVM and vitrification, even if vitrification of in vivo matured oocytes is still more effective. Recently, attention is given to highlight whether vitrification procedures are more successful when performed before or after IVM, on immature GV-stage oocytes, or on in vitro matured MII-stage oocytes. In this review, we emphasize that, even if there are no differences in survival rates between oocytes vitrified prior to or post-IVM, reduced maturation rates of immature oocytes vitrified prior to IVM can be, at least in part, explained by underlying ultrastructural and biomolecular alterations.

  13. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes.

  14. Regenerative potential of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps after different regenerative protocols.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Mohamed M; Tawfik, Hosam E; Hashem, Ahmed Abdel Rahman; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M

    2014-02-01

    Regenerative endodontics is a promising alternative treatment for immature teeth with necrotic pulps. The present study was performed to assess the regenerative potential of young permanent immature teeth with necrotic pulp after the following treatment protocols: (1) a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug, (2) the regenerative endodontic protocol (blood clot scaffold), and (3) the regenerative endodontic protocol with a blood clot and an injectable scaffold impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor. Immature necrotic permanent maxillary central incisors (n = 36) of patients 9-13 years old were divided into 3 groups according to the treatment protocol: the MTA group (MTA apical plug), the REG group (regenerative endodontic protocol [blood clot]), and the FGF group (regenerative endodontic protocol [blood clot + injectable scaffold]). Follow-up was done up to 18 months. Standardized radiographs were digitally evaluated for an increase in root length and thickness, a decrease in the apical diameter, and a change in periapical bone density. After a follow-up period of 18 months, most of the cases showed radiographic evidence of periapical healing. Groups 2 and 3 showed a progressive increase in root length and width and a decrease in apical diameter. The regenerative endodontic procedure allowed the continued development of roots in teeth with necrotic pulps. The use of artificial hydrogel scaffold and basic fibroblast growth factor was not essential for repair. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. All-Epiphyseal, All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Technique for Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Moira M.; Graziano, Jessica; Green, Daniel W.; Cordasco, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the juvenile population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Adult reconstruction techniques are inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients because of the risk of physeal complications, including limb-length discrepancy and angular deformities. “Physeal-sparing” reconstruction techniques exist, but their ability to restore knee stability is not well understood. We describe an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction for use in skeletally immature patients. This is an all-inside technique with the femoral tunnel drilled retrograde and the tibial tunnel drilled retrograde; both tunnels are entirely within the epiphysis. Fixation of the hamstring autograft is achieved with soft-tissue buttons on both the femur and tibia. We present case examples for 2 patients who underwent the all-inside, all-epiphyseal reconstruction and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol. We present a novel surgical technique for an all-inside, all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. PMID:23767001

  16. Functional Outcome of Transphyseal Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Skeletally Immature Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Shim, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, conventional adult reconstruction techniques have to face the potential risk of growth disturbance or angular deformities in skeletally immature patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction by conventional transphyseal tunnel technique. Materials and Methods On a retrospective basis, we reviewed 25 skeletally immature patients; all the patients showed skeletal maturity at last follow-up, and the mean age was 16.4 years. The average injury to surgery interval was 12.6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed at a mean of 74.4 months postoperatively using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, the Tegner activity level, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and plain radiographs. Results All the patients had undergone transphyseal reconstruction of ACL. The mean Lysholm score was 48.36 points preoperatively and 93.32 points postoperatively; the mean Tegner activity level was changed from 3.0 points to 5.6 points. The mean IKDC level was categorized as C preoperatively and changed to A postoperatively. Conclusions Our midterm outcome at an average 6 years after surgery was satisfactory without significant leg length discrepancies or abnormal alignment of the knee joint. Transphyseal reconstruction of ACL is a good treatment modality in the skeletally immature patient. PMID:22977795

  17. Re-eruption of an intruded immature permanent incisor with necrotic pulp: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Güven, Günseli; Cehreli, Zafer C; Gurbuz, Taskin; Aydin, Cumhur

    2008-01-01

    Intrusive luxation is a serious dental injury that causes damage to the pulp and supporting structures of a tooth because of its dislocation into the alveolar process. This paper presents the case of the re-eruption of a severely intruded immature permanent incisor with a crown-root fracture. A 9-year-old boy was referred to the clinic 1 day after a fall. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed intrusive luxation of the immature left permanent incisor and a crown-root fracture without pulp exposure. Palatal gingivectomy was done 2 weeks later to facilitate re-eruption. Root canal therapy with intracanal calcium hydroxide paste was initiated during the first month owing to severe spontaneous pain. Six months later, the tooth re-erupted to a normal position, after which root canal obturation and a final esthetic restoration were done. The present case demonstrates the possibility of obtaining re-eruption of intruded immature permanent teeth with interim medication (calcium hydroxide) in the root canal.

  18. Multicenter Systems Analysis of Human Blood Reveals Immature Neutrophils in Males and During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Blazkova, Jana; Gupta, Sarthak; Liu, Yudong; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A.; Bolen, Christopher R.; Saar-Dover, Ron; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Angst, Martin S.; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Aghaeepour, Nima; Stevenson, David; Baldwin, Nicole; Anguiano, Esperanza; Chaussabel, Damien; Altman, Matthew C.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Davis, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite clear differences in immune system responses and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases between males and females, there is little understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we identified a gene signature of immature-like neutrophils, characterized by the overexpression of genes encoding for several granule-containing proteins, which was found at higher levels (up to 3-fold) in young (20–30 y old) but not older (60 to >89 y old) males compared with females. Functional and phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood neutrophils revealed more mature and responsive neutrophils in young females, which also exhibited an elevated capacity in neutrophil extracellular trap formation at baseline and upon microbial or sterile autoimmune stimuli. The expression levels of the immature-like neutrophil signature increased linearly with pregnancy, an immune state of increased susceptibility to certain infections. Using mass cytometry, we also find increased frequencies of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood of women during late pregnancy. Thus, our findings show novel sex differences in innate immunity and identify a common neutrophil signature in males and in pregnant women. PMID:28179497

  19. Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine

    PubMed Central

    He, YingYing; Liu, ShuBai; Leone, Serena; Newburg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOS) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOS was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by colostrum HMOS (cHMOS), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOS attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1/2, IL-1β), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. 3’-, 4-, and 6’-galactosyllactoses of cHMOS account for specific immunomodulation of PIC-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOS attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

  20. The MOUSE Squad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  1. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  2. Fracture resistance of immature teeth filled with BioAggregate, mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Elif Bahar; Dinçol, Muzaffer Emir; Gençay, Koray; Aktören, Oya

    2011-06-01

    Abstract -  Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the long-term fracture resistance of human immature permanent teeth filled with BioAggregate (BA), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (CH).  The study consisted of single rooted premolar teeth with immature root formation extracted for orthodontic reasons. A total of 28 immature premolars with average root length of 10.7 mm and apical diameter of 3 mm were included in the study. The pulps were extirpated and the canals were prepared using an apical approach. The teeth were randomly assigned to four groups: Group I: DiaRoot(®) BA (DiaDent, Burnaby, BC, Canada), Group II: Angelus MTA (MTA-A; Angelus, Londrina, Brazil), Group III: ProRoot(®) MTA (MTA-PR; Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA), Group IV: CH (Sultan Chemists Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). The teeth were placed in saline solution at 4°C for 1 year. The root of each tooth was then embedded in an acrylic resin block. All specimens were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1) in an Instron testing machine and the peak loads up to fracture were recorded. Data were analysed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests.  Mean (±SD) failure loads (MPa) were: 37.69 ± 14.43 for BA group, 32.94 ± 8.15 for MTA-A group, 28.74 ± 9.49 for MTA-PR group and 23.18 ± 8.48 for CH group. The BA group exhibited the highest fracture resistance and the CH group showed the lowest resistance to fracture. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in fracture resistance were found between the DiaRoot-BA and CH groups, and also between the MTA-A and CH groups.  Within the limitations of this study, data suggest that DiaRoot-BA-filled immature teeth demonstrate higher fracture resistance than other groups at 1 year. Considering the long-term risk of cervical root fracture associated with immature teeth, the use of DiaRoot-BA as a root canal filling material appears to be the most advantageous of the

  3. The pathomechanism of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis in immature primate lumbar spines in vitro and finite element assessments.

    PubMed

    Konz, R J; Goel, V K; Grobler, L J; Grosland, N M; Spratt, K F; Scifert, J L; Sairyo, K

    2001-02-15

    Immature Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) spine specimens were used to determine load-displacement behavior as related to disc injury. This was accomplished through the application of A-P shear force until failure of FSUs with pars defects. Several finite element models (FEMs) of the FSU were developed to study the mechanism of slippage in immature baboon lumbar spines. The purpose was to show that spondylolisthesis (olisthesis) always occurs through the growth plate using a model similar to immature human lumbar spines. Using FEMs, the roles of facet orientation, pars interarticularis thickness, and a weak growth-plate in producing slippage were examined. Progression from spondylolysis (lysis) to olisthesis occurs, most often, during the adolescent growth spurt. The biomechanical literature dealing with the slippage mechanism in the immature lumbar spine does not provide a clear understanding and is sparse. Several groups of FSUs were subjected to A-P shear force until failure. The results provided displacement at failure as a function of disc injury and flexion-extension fatigue. A bilateral pars defect was created in each specimen prior to application of A-P shear force using an MTS machine. Failure sites were assessed radiographically and histologically. A nonlinear 3-D FEM of the intact L4-L5 was created from CT scans. The model was modified to predict the effects of a pars fracture, a thin pars, a weak growth plate, and facet orientation on the shear load through the growth plate and stresses in the pars. Experimentally, failures always occurred through the growth-plate in the disc intact and disc-incised groups. In the intact FEM, the growth plate carried21% of the applied A-P shear force. The load increased when the facets were more sagittally oriented. The effect of thin pars and/or weaker growth plate was an increase in stresses in the pars. Changes in the load through the growth plate were minimal. The weakest link in immature baboon lumbar functional

  4. Birth of healthy calves after intra-follicular transfer (IFOT) of slaughterhouse derived immature bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Michael, Hoelker; Ana, Kassens; Dessie, Salilew-Wondim; Harald, Sieme; Christine, Wrenzycki; Dawit, Tesfaye; Christiane, Neuhoff; Karl, Schellander; Eva, Held-Hoelker

    2017-07-15

    To circumvent the negative impacts of in vitro culture on bovine embryos, we have recently established a new method, the so called intra-follicular oocyte transfer (IFOT), enabling in vivo fertilization and in vivo development of in vitro matured oocytes up to the blastocyst stage as well as to term. In this study, we raised the question whether immature bovine oocytes could also be transferred into a pre-ovulatory follicle to support in vivo maturation prior to subsequent in vivo fertilization, in vivo development as well as to term. To unravel that question, a total of 791 immature oocytes were transferred in groups of ∼50 into pre-ovulatory follicles of 16 recipient heifers. Consequently, we were able to recollect a total of 306 structures 8 days thereafter (38.5%). All in all, 12 heifers (75%) gave embryos developed to the morula or blastocyst stage in addition to the expected native embryos. Among all recollected structures, 40.1% had developed to the morula and/or blastocyst stage, meaning a total efficiency of 17.3% based on all transferred oocytes. Of impact, IFOT-embryos reached significantly higher developmental rates to the Morula and/or blastocyst stage until day 7 compared to in vitro cultured control embryos, despite being derived from the same charge of slaughterhouse ovaries (40.1 vs. 29.3%). This implicates a beneficial effect of the follicular environment for the intrinsic quality of the fertilized embryos during maturation and for subsequent developmental rates up to the blastocyst stage. Finally, the birth of two healthy calves after transfer of frozen-thawed IFOT-derived blastocysts to final recipients established the first proof of principle that IFOT of immature bovine oocytes generates bovine blastocysts bearing developmental capacity to term. Likewise, to the best of our knowledge, these calves are the first calves derived from full in vivo development of immature slaughterhouse derived oocytes. Thus, the results of the present

  5. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  6. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  7. Prebiotic content of bread prepared with flour from immature wheat grain and selected dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type "0 America" wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages of

  8. Knockdown of Immature Colon Carcinoma Transcript 1 Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhiyu; Wu, Xintian

    2016-07-13

    Non-small cell lung cancer, as the most frequent type lung cancer, has lower survival rate of 5 years, despite improvements in surgery and chemotherapy. Previous studies showed immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 is closely related to tumorigenesis of human cancer cells. In the present study, we found immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues using Oncomine database mining, and the biological effect of immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 was investigated in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines 95D and A549. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to knock down immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 expression in 95D and A549 cells in vitro, and the knockdown efficiency was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay. Knockdown of immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 significantly suppressed non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and colony formation ability confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was applied to measure cell cycle arrest, and the result showed the cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase in 95D cells and arrested in G0/G1 phase in A549 cells. Furthermore, we measured the levels of cell cycle-associated proteins by Western blot analysis and found immature colon carcinoma transcript 1-mediated cell proliferation inhibition appeared due to downregulation of cell cycle activator cyclin D1 and upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor p21. In addition, immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 silencing significantly induced non-small cell lung cancer cell apoptosis by annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin D double-staining assay. All our data suggest that immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 may play an important role for non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and could be a potential molecular target for diagnosing and treating human non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. Chemokines and other GPCR ligands synergize in receptor-mediated migration of monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gouwy, Mieke; Struyf, Sofie; Leutenez, Lien; Pörtner, Noëmie; Sozzani, Silvano; Van Damme, Jo

    2014-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, described as the initiators of adaptive immune responses. Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14⁺ monocytes. After further MDDC maturation by LPS, the markers CD80 and CD83 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were upregulated, whereas CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression was reduced. CCL3 dose-dependently synergized with CXCL8 or CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC. CXCL12 augmented the CCL3-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in immature MDDC, although the synergy between CCL3 and CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC was dependent on the Akt signaling pathway but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CCL2 also synergized with CXCL12 in immature MDDC migration. Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. Further, the non-chemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligands chemerin and fMLP synergized with respectively CCL7 and CCL3 in immature MDDC signaling and migration. Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses.

  10. Discrimination between immature and mature green coffees by attenuated total reflectance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the characterization and discrimination between immature and mature or ripe coffee beans. Arabica coffee beans were submitted to FTIR analysis by reflectance readings employing attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance (DR) accessories. The obtained spectra were similar, but in general higher absorbance values were observed for nondefective beans in comparison to immature ones. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering, AHC) was performed in order to verify the possibility of discrimination between immature and mature coffee samples. A clear separation between immature and mature coffees was observed based on AHC and PCA analyses of the normalized spectra obtained by employing both ATR and DR accessories. Linear discriminant analysis was employed for developing classification models, with recognition and prediction abilities of 100%. Such results showed that FTIR analysis presents potential for the development of a simple routine methodology for separation of immature and mature coffee beans. Practical Application: The ultimate goal of this research is to be able to propose improvements in the way immature coffee beans are separated from graded mature beans in coffee facilities (cooperatives and other coffee producer's associations). The results obtained herein point toward FTIR as a potential tool for the aimed improvements.

  11. Measurements of immature platelets with haematology analysers are of limited value to separate immune thrombocytopenia from bone marrow failure.

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Annalina; Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Krause, Stefan W

    2017-05-01

    Detection of immature platelets in the circulation may help to dissect thrombocytopenia due to platelet destruction from bone marrow failure (BMF). We prospectively tested the predictive value of immature platelets, measured as immature platelet fraction (IPF) on the XE-5000 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) or percentage of reticulated platelets (rPT) on the CD Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) to separate immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) from BMF (leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anaemia). We analysed 58 samples of patients with BMF, 47 samples of patients with ITP and 97 controls. Median rPT (CD Sapphire) was increased to 9·0% in ITP and to 10·9% in BMF, compared to 1·9% in controls. Median IPF (XE-5000) was 16·2% in ITP, 10·2% in BMF and 2·5% in controls. We found an inverse correlation between high fractions of immature platelets and low platelet counts in thrombocytopenic samples regardless of the diagnosis. In conclusion, we observed a broad overlap of immature platelets between ITP and BMF, which may be caused by an accelerated release of immature platelets in any thrombocytopenic state and decreased production in many patients with ITP. Despite this, IPF (XE-5000) had some power to discriminate ITP from BMF, whereas rPT (CD Sapphire) was of no predictive value. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Feasibility of salvaging genetic potential of post-mortem fawns: production of sperm in testis tissue xenografts from immature donor white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in recipient mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Sepideh; Honaramooz, Ali

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of testis tissue xenografting from immature deer. Testis tissue was collected post-mortem from a 2-mo-old white-tailed deer fawn (Odocoileus virginianus) and small fragments of the tissue were grafted under the back skin of immunodeficient recipient mice (n = 7 mice; 8 fragments/mouse). Single xenograft samples were removed from representative recipient mice every 2 mo from grafting for up to 14 mo post-grafting. The retrieved xenografts were evaluated for seminiferous tubular density (per mm(2)) and tubular diameter, as well as for seminiferous tubular morphology and identification of the most advanced germ cell type present in each tubule cross section. Overall, 63% of the grafted testis fragments were recovered as xenografts. Testis tissue xenografts showed a gradual testicular development starting with tubular expansion by 2 mo, presence of spermatocytes by 6 mo post-grafting, round and elongated spermatids by 8 mo, followed by fully-formed sperm by 12 mo post-grafting. The timing of complete spermatogenesis generally corresponded to the reported timing of sexual maturation in white-tailed deer. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that testis tissue xenografting from immature deer donors into recipient mice can successfully result in testicular maturation and development of spermatogenesis in the grafts up to the stage of sperm production. These results may therefore provide a model for salvaging genetic material from immature male white-tailed deer that die before reaching sexual maturity.

  13. Advax delta inulin adjuvant overcomes immune immaturity in neonatal mice thereby allowing single-dose influenza vaccine protection.

    PubMed

    Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Ong, Chun Hao; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-09-11

    Neonates are at high risk for influenza morbidity and mortality due to immune immaturity and lack of priming by prior influenza virus exposure. Inactivated influenza vaccines are ineffective in infants under six months and to provide protection in older children generally require two doses given a month apart. This leaves few options for rapid protection of infants, e.g. during an influenza pandemic. We investigated whether Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles could help overcome neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness. We first tested whether it was possible to use Advax to obtain single-dose vaccine protection of neonatal pups against lethal influenza infection. Inactivated influenza A/H1N1 vaccine (iH1N1) combined with Advax™ adjuvant administered as a single subcutaneous immunization to 7-day-old mouse pups significantly enhanced serum influenza-specific IgM, IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b levels and was associated with a 3-4 fold increase in the frequency of splenic influenza-specific IgM and IgG antibody secreting cells. Pups immunized with Advax had significantly higher splenocyte influenza-stimulated IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production by CBA and a 3-10 fold higher frequency of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 or IL-17 secreting T cells by ELISPOT. Immunization with iH1N1+Advax induced robust protection of pups against virus challenge 3 weeks later, whereas pups immunized with iH1N1 antigen alone had no protection. Protection by Advax-adjuvanted iH1N1 was dependent on memory B cells rather than memory T cells, with no protection in neonatal μMT mice that are B-cell deficient. Hence, Advax adjuvant overcame neonatal immune hypo-responsiveness and enabled single-dose protection of pups against otherwise lethal influenza infection, thereby supporting ongoing development of Advax™ as a neonatal vaccine adjuvant.

  14. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  15. Establishment of functional clonal lines of neurons from mouse neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Augusti-Tocco, G; Sato, G

    1969-09-01

    Clonal lines of neurons were obtained in culture from a mouse neuroblastoma. The neuroblastoma cells were adapted to culture growth by the animal-culture alternate passage technique and cloned after single-cell plating. The clonal lines retained the ability to form tumors when injected back into mice. A striking morphological change was observed in the cells adapted to culture growth; they appeared as mature neurons, while the cells of the tumor appeared as immature neuroblasts. Acetylcholinesterase and the enzymes for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, cholineacetylase and tyrosine hydroxylase were assayed in the tumor and compared with brain levels; tyrosine hydroxylase was found to be particularly high, as described previously in human neuroblastomas. The three enzymes were found in the clonal cultures at levels comparable to those found in the tumors. Similarly, there were no remarkable differences between the three clones examined.

  16. Effect of needle insertion depth and apical diameter on irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Aksel, Hacer; Askerbeyli, Sevinc; Canbazoglu, Cigdem; Serper, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth when the apical diameter and needle insertion depth were varied. Thirty single-rooted maxillary incisors with straight root canals were selected. The root length was standardized to a length of 9 mm. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups according to the degree of apical enlargement (n = 15). The apices were enlarged to a diameter of 1.10 mm or 1.70 mm by using a #3 or #6 peeso reamer, respectively, to simulate immature teeth. The irrigation solution was applied 2 or 4 mm short of the working length (WL) in each experimental group. The glass vial model was used for the collection of extruded irrigant beyond the root apex. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test showed that there was no significant difference between different needle insertion depths (2 and 4 mm short of the WL) in the group with an apical diameter of 1.70 mm (p > 0.05). In the group with an apical diameter of 1.10 mm, a 32% increase in irrigant extrusion was observed when the needle was positioned at 2 mm (p < 0.05). Regarding the effect of apical diameter, the group with a diameter of 1.70 mm showed more apical extrusion of the irrigant (34% increase for the needle positioned at 2 mm and 68% increase for the needle positioned at 4 mm). It was observed that the needle insertion depth and apical diameter have a significant effect on irrigant extrusion in immature permanent teeth.

  17. Stiripentol exhibits higher anticonvulsant properties in the immature than in the mature rat brain.

    PubMed

    Auvin, Stéphane; Lecointe, Cécile; Dupuis, Nina; Desnous, Béatrice; Lebon, Sophie; Gressens, Pierre; Dournaud, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    After the first positive experimental data in rodents in the early 1970s demonstrating the anticonvulsant effect of stiripentol (STP), in vitro studies showed that STP acts directly on γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors. Chloride influx is higher when these receptors contain an α3 subunit, leading to the hypothesis that STP might exhibit higher efficacy in the immature brain. We explored this issue by studying the efficacy of STP in P21 and P75 rats using the pentylenetetrazol model of acute seizures or the lithium-pilocarpine status epilepticus model. P21 and adult rats received vehicle, 150, 250, or 350 mg/kg of STP, i.p., 1 h before evaluating the anticonvulsant. We also studied the blood and brain levels of STP as well as the expression and the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptors at both ages. STP exhibited anticonvulsant properties in both models at both ages, but STP was more effective in P21 than in P75 rats. This was shown by the significant suppression of seizure or status epilepticus occurrence in P21 with 350 mg/kg STP, whereas the same dose had no significant effect at P75. The blood level, brain level, and blood/brain ratio of STP did not explain these differences between the two age groups. Moreover, the higher anticonvulsant properties in the immature brain were not explained by the mRNA level or protein expression of the GABAA α3 subunit at either age. Stiripentol exhibits higher anticonvulsant properties in the immature than in the mature brain. These findings require further investigation because it might lead to new clinical developments. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Angiotensin II stimulates hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in immature ovine cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, N C; Giraud, G D; Stork, P J S; Maylie, J G; Thornburg, K L

    2003-01-01

    Rat and sheep cardiac myocytes become binucleate as they complete the ‘terminal differentiation’ process soon after birth and are not able to divide thereafter. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to stimulate hypertrophic changes in rodent cardiomyocytes under both in vivo and in vitro conditions via the AT1 receptor and intracellular extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade. We sought to develop culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes in order to test the hypothesis that Ang II is a hypertrophic agent in the immature myocardium of the sheep. We isolated fetal sheep cardiomyocytes and cultured them for 96 h, added Ang II and phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h, and measured footprint area and proliferation (5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake) separately in mono- vs. binucleate myocytes. We found that neither Ang II nor PE changed the footprint area of mononucleated cells. PE stimulated an increase in footprint area of binucleate cells but Ang II did not. Ang II increased myocyte BrdU uptake compared to serum free conditions, but PE did not affect BrdU uptake. The MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor UO126 prevented BrdU uptake in Ang II-stimulated cells and prevented cell hypertrophy in PE-stimulated cells. This paper establishes culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes and reports that: (1) Ang II is not a hypertrophic agent; (2) Ang II stimulates hyperplastic growth among mononucleate myocytes; (3) PE is a hypertrophic agent in binucleate myocytes; and (4) the ERK cascade is required for the proliferation effect of Ang II and the hypertrophic effect of PE. PMID:12626668

  19. A comparison between two negative pressure irrigation techniques in simulated immature tooth: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Fukumoto, Yasue; Takatomo, Yoshioka; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suda, Hideaki; Adorno, Carlos G

    2016-01-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the irrigation efficacy of a new apical negative pressure system (ANP) in canals with simulated immature teeth, by comparing it to EndoVac (EV) system in terms of smear layer (SL) removal and irrigation extrusion. Three millimetres of the root end of 40 single canalled lower incisors were resected and decoronated to standardize root canal length. After instrumentation, the specimens were embedded in warm normal saline agar coloured with 1 % acid red and randomly divided into four groups; one control group and three experimental groups. Except in the control group where distilled water was used as irrigant using positive pressure irrigation needle, the canals were irrigated with 6 % NaOCl and 17 % EDTA using the intracanal negative pressure needle (iNP) system, the EV system or 27G open-ended needle under positive pressure (PP). NaOCl extrusion was determined by observing a discolouration of the agar surrounding the root. The SL was evaluated by observing scanning electron microscope images based on a four-level scoring system. Two specimens with irrigant extrusion were observed in the iNP group, which was significantly different (logistic regression, p < 0.05) to EV and PP. There were no significant differences (Kruskall-Wallis test, p > 0.05) among the experimental groups in terms of SL removal, but all were significantly different to the control group. Irrigation with the iNP could be a viable alternative to EV as an apical negative pressure irrigation technique especially while treating immature teeth. ANP in canal cleanliness is recommended to be utilized in treating immature teeth where periapical tissues should be saved and stimulated. The iNP system might have the potential to avoid irrigant extrusion while cleaning the canal till the apical end.

  20. Tissue characterization following revascularization of immature dog teeth using different disinfection pastes.

    PubMed

    Pagliarin, Claudia Medianeira Londero; Londero, Clacir de Lourdes Dotto; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Barletta, Fernando Branco

    2016-08-18

    Revascularization of immature teeth with necrotic pulps traditionally involves the use of triple antibiotic paste, which may sometimes lead to undesirable complications. The objective of this study was to assess tissue repair in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis subjected to revascularization, comparing two different pastes used for root canal disinfection. Apical periodontitis was induced in 30 dog premolars. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups: root canals filled with triple antibiotic paste (n = 10); root canals filled with 1% propolis paste (n = 10); and no medication (n = 10). An additional group (n = 10, no intervention) was used as control. After 7 months, the jaws were histologically evaluated for the following variables: newly formed mineralized tissue (present/absent); vital tissue in the canal space (absent/periodontal ligament-like/pulp-like); apical extension of root (present/absent); and severity of inflammatory process (absent/mild/moderate/severe). There were no statistically significant differences among the experimental groups in new mineralized tissue formation and apical root development. The formation of vital tissue in the canal space, in turn, was statistically different between the triple paste and propolis groups: vital tissues were present in all revascularized teeth disinfected with propolis paste (100%), compared to 71% of those disinfected with the triple paste. Severity of inflammatory process was different between the triple paste and no medication groups. The new tissues formed onto canal walls and in the root canal space showed characteristics of cementum and periodontal ligament, respectively. Propolis may have some advantages over the triple paste for the revascularization of immature teeth.

  1. Effect of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Apical Plug Thickness on Fracture Resistance of Immature Teeth.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ersan; Yılmaz, Neslihan; Koçak, M Murat; Sağlam, Baran Can; Koçak, Sibel; Bilgin, Burcu

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth after using different thicknesses of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Fifty-two human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Five teeth were the positive control group; they were prepared using Peeso reamers to simulate immature teeth without any access cavity preparation. Access cavities of the 47 teeth were prepared, and the canals were instrumented with Peeso reamers. Five teeth served as the negative control; they were filled with calcium hydroxide. Forty-two teeth were divided into 3 groups; in groups 1, 2, and 3, MTA was placed into canals as a 3-mm and a 6-mm apical plug and a thorough canal length, respectively. The rest of the canals in groups 1 and 2 were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). After the storage period, the roots were covered with a polyether impression material and were embedded into self-curing resin blocks. Each specimen was then subjected to fracture testing using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test for multiple comparisons. The negative group showed the lowest fracture resistance compared with the other groups. The 3-mm apical plug group showed the highest fracture resistance (P < .05). No significant differences were found between the 3-mm and 6-mm apical plug groups (P > .05). MTA should be used as an apical plug instead of root canal filling material to increase the fracture resistance of immature teeth. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Are the Current Classifications and Radiographic Measurements for Trochlear Dysplasia Appropriate in the Skeletally Immature Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Stepanovich, Matthew; Bomar, James D.; Pennock, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment and classification of trochlear dysplasia in pediatric patients has yet to be well documented or validated. Purpose: To examine several different measurements/classifications of trochlear dysplasia in skeletally immature patients to assess inter- and intraobserver reliability and to determine which best correlates with patellar instability. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 36 skeletally immature patients undergoing surgery for patellar instability were compared with 27 age-matched cohort patients who had similar imaging for an acute knee injury but no clinical evidence of patellar instability. Trochlear dysplasia was measured/classified using the radiographic and MRI Dejour classifications, the trochlear depth index (TDI), the lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), and the medial condyle trochlear offset (MCTO). Additionally, the tibial tubercle–trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was calculated for all patients. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of each measurement, as well as the ability to discriminate patients with patellar instability, were evaluated. Results: Inadequate radiographs prevented the radiographic Dejour classification from being assessed in 78% of cases. The MRI Dejour classification had the lowest inter- and intraobserver reliabilities (κ = 0.687 and 0.596, respectively); all other measurements were greater than 0.80. The TDI, LTI, and MCTO all significantly differentiated patients with patellar instability compared with those with no instability, with critical cutoffs of 3 mm, 17°, and 1 mm, respectively. Patients with a TDI <3 mm or MCTO <1 mm were 33 and 38 times more likely to have patellar instability, respectively. The TT-TG was directly correlated with trochlear dysplasia severity. Conclusion: Trochlear dysplasia is common in skeletally immature patients with patellar instability. The objective assessment of

  3. Roles of thyroid hormones in follicular development in the ovary of neonatal and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Fedail, Jaafar Sulieman; Zheng, Kaizhi; Wei, Quanwei; Kong, Lingfa; Shi, Fangxiong

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a critical role in ovarian follicular development, maturation and the maintenance of various endocrine functions. However, whether TH can affect ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of TH on ovarian follicular development in neonatal and immature rats. Thirty female post-lactation mothers of Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into three groups: control, hyperthyroid (hyper), and hypothyroid (hypo). On postnatal days (PND) 10 and 21, body weights, serum hormones, ovarian histologic changes, and immunohistochemistry of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRα1) and nitric oxide synthase types (NOS), and NOS activities, were determined. The data showed that body weights significantly decreased in both hyper and hypo groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the hyper group had increased serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2; whereas the hypo group manifested reduced serum concentrations of T3, T4, and E2 on PND 10 and 21. The hyper and hypo groups showed significantly reduced total number of primordial, primary and secondary follicles on PND 10 and 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, antral follicle numbers in the hyper and hypo groups were significantly decreased on PND 21 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Immunostaining indicated that TRα1 and NOS were expressed in ovarian surface epithelium and oocytes of growing and antral follicles, with strong staining of the granulosa and theca cells of follicles. NOS activities were significantly augmented in the hyper, but diminished in the hypo groups on PND 10 and 21. In summary, our findings suggest that TH play important roles in ovarian functions and in the regulation of NOS activity. Our results also indicate that a relationship exists between the TH and NO signaling pathways during the process of ovarian follicular

  4. Gap junction protein expression and cellularity: comparison of immature and adult equine digital tendons

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Rachael L; Fleck, Roland A; Becker, David L; Goodship, Allen E; Ralphs, Jim R; Patterson-Kane, Janet C

    2007-01-01

    Injury to the energy-storing superficial digital flexor tendon is common in equine athletes and is age-related. Tenocytes in the superficial digital flexor tendon of adult horses appear to have limited ability to respond adaptively to exercise or prevent the accumulation of strain-induced microdamage. It has been suggested that conditioning exercise should be introduced during the growth period, when tenocytes may be more responsive to increased quantities or intensities of mechanical strain. Tenocytes are linked into networks by gap junctions that allow coordination of synthetic activity and facilitate strain-induced collagen synthesis. We hypothesised that there are reductions in cellular expression of the gap junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and 32 during maturation and ageing of the superficial digital flexor tendon that do not occur in the non-injury-prone common digital extensor tendon. Cryosections from the superficial digital flexor tendon and common digital extensor tendon of 5 fetuses, 5 foals (1–6 months), 5 young adults (2–7 years) and 5 old horses (18–33 years) were immunofluorescently labelled and quantitative confocal laser microscopy was performed. Expression of Cx43 and Cx32 protein per tenocyte was significantly higher in the fetal group compared with all other age groups in both tendons. The density of tenocytes was found to be highest in immature tissue. Higher levels of cellularity and connexin protein expression in immature tendons are likely to relate to requirements for tissue remodelling and growth. However, if further studies demonstrate that this correlates with greater gap junctional communication efficiency and synthetic responsiveness to mechanical strain in immature compared with adult tendons, it could support the concept of early introduction of controlled exercise as a means of increasing resistance to later injury. PMID:17848160

  5. Destruction of the germinal disc region of an immature preovulatory chicken follicle induces atresia and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, H H; Volentine, K K; Bahr, J M

    1998-09-01

    The germinal disc region (GDR), which contains the germinal disc and overlying granulosa cells, is essential for completion of maturation of the preovulatory chicken follicle. The current study was conducted to test the hypothesis that destruction of the GDR (GDRX) of an immature preovulatory chicken follicle blocks ovulation, induces apoptosis, and causes atresia. The GDR of immature preovulatory follicles (F2) were destroyed by freezing with dry ice (3 mm in diameter) 48-50 h before ovulation. As a control for the effect of freezing, a nonGDR portion (a portion of the follicular wall opposite to the GDR relative to the follicular stalk) of other F2 follicles were destroyed (nonGDRX). Treatment of F2 follicles by GDRX caused atresia and blocked ovulation of all treated follicles (6 of 6), whereas none of the nonGDRX follicles (0 of 5) underwent atresia. Treatment of follicles by GDRX induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation (laddering) in theca and granulosa layers obtained from the frozen area and in the theca layer obtained from the follicular wall distal to the frozen area. In contrast, apoptosis was only present in theca and granulosa layers in the frozen area of the nonGDRX follicle. Furthermore, the in situ DNA end-labeling technique demonstrated that in the GDRX follicle 24 h after treatment, cells in the theca interna, endothelial cells in blood vessels of the theca externa, and a few granulosa cells underwent apoptosis. These results indicate that destruction of the GDR of an immature preovulatory follicle causes atresia and apoptosis and blocks ovulation. These novel findings suggest that the GDR maintains development of the chicken preovulatory follicle by producing one or more survival factors. Without the GDR, chicken follicles cannot develop further and they eventually die.

  6. GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc; Tyzio, Roman; Khazipov, Rustem

    2007-10-01

    Developing networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric acid (GABA), which operates primarily via chloride-permeable GABA(A) receptor channels. In all developing animal species and brain structures investigated, neurons have a higher intracellular chloride concentration at an early stage leading to an efflux of chloride and excitatory actions of GABA in immature neurons. This triggers sodium spikes, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and acts in synergy with NMDA channels by removing the voltage-dependent magnesium block. GABA signaling is also established before glutamatergic transmission, suggesting that GABA is the principal excitatory transmitter during early development. In fact, even before synapse formation, GABA signaling can modulate the cell cycle and migration. The consequence of these rules is that developing networks generate primitive patterns of network activity, notably the giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), largely through the excitatory actions of GABA and its synergistic interactions with glutamate signaling. These early types of network activity are likely required for neurons to fire together and thus to "wire together" so that functional units within cortical networks are formed. In addition, depolarizing GABA has a strong impact on synaptic plasticity and pathological insults, notably seizures of the immature brain. In conclusion, it is suggested that an evolutionary preserved role for excitatory GABA in immature cells provides an important mechanism in the formation of synapses and activity in neuronal networks.

  7. Injury and repair in the very immature lung following brief mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Brew, Nadine; Hooper, Stuart B; Allison, Beth J; Wallace, Megan J; Harding, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) of very premature infants contributes to lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the effects of which can be long-lasting. Little is currently known about the ability of the very immature lung to recover from ventilator-induced lung injury. Our objective was to determine the ability of the injured very immature lung to repair in the absence of continued ventilation and to identify potential mechanisms. At 125 days gestational age (days GA, 0.85 of term), fetal sheep were partially exposed by hysterotomy under anesthesia and aseptic conditions; they were intubated and ventilated for 2 h with an injurious MV protocol and then returned to the uterus to continue development. Necropsy was performed at either 1 day (short-term group, 126 days GA, n = 6) or 15 days (long-term group, 140 days GA, n = 5) after MV; controls were unventilated (n = 7-8). At 1 day after MV, lungs displayed signs of injury, including hemorrhage, disorganized elastin and collagen deposition in the distal airspaces, altered morphology, significantly reduced secondary septal crest density, and decreased airspace. Bronchioles had thickened epithelium with evidence of injury and sloughing. Relative mRNA levels of early response genes (connective tissue growth factor, cysteine-rich 61, and early growth response-1) and proinflammatory cytokines [interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β] were not different between groups 1 day after MV. At 15 days after MV, lung structure was normal with no evidence of injury. We conclude that 2 h of MV induces severe injury in the very immature lung and that these lungs have the capacity to repair spontaneously in the absence of further ventilation.

  8. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The α7⁎nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional α7⁎nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2–3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2–9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of α7⁎nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric α7⁎nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific α7⁎nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic α7⁎nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating α7⁎nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain. PMID:25553616

  9. Functional alpha7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    John, Danielle; Shelukhina, Irina; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Henderson, Zaineb

    2015-03-19

    Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and postnatal-born granule cells migrate into the granule cell layer and extend axons to their target areas. The α7*nicotinic receptor has been implicated in neuronal maturation during development of the brain and is abundant in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of the adult brain. Signalling through these same receptors is believed also to promote maturation and integration of adult-born granule cells in the hippocampal formation. We therefore aimed to determine whether functional α7*nicotinic receptors are expressed in developing granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. For these experiments we used 2-3 week-old Wistar rats, and 2-9 week old transgenic mice in which GABAergic interneurons were marked by expression of green fluorescent protein. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of α7*nicotinic receptor subunits around granule cells close around the subgranular zone which correlated with the distribution of developmental markers for immature granule cells. Whole-cell patch clamp recording showed that a proportion of granule cells responded to puffed ACh in the presence of atropine, and that these cells possessed electrophysiological properties found in immature granule cells. The nicotinic responses were potentiated by an allosteric α7*nicotinic receptor modulator, which were blocked by a specific α7*nicotinic receptor antagonist and were not affected by ionotropic glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. These results suggest the presence of functional somato-dendritic α7*nicotinic receptors on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus, consistent with studies implicating α7*nicotinic receptors in dendritic maturation of dentate gyrus neurons in adult brain.

  10. Vulnerability of the superficial zone of immature articular cartilage to compressive injury

    PubMed Central

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Muehleman, Carol; Li, Jun; Kurz, Bodo; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Frank, Eliot; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The zonal composition and functioning of adult articular cartilage causes depth-dependent responses to compressive injury. In immature cartilage, shear and compressive modulus, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content also vary with depth. However, there is little understanding of depth-dependent damage caused by injury. Since injury to immature knee joints most often causes articular cartilage lesions, our objectives were to characterize the zonal dependence of biomechanical, biochemical and matrix-associated changes cause by injury. Methods Superficial and deeper zones disks from bovine calves were biomechanically characterized, injured (50% compression, 100%/sec) and re-characterized. Tissue compaction upon injury, GAG-density, GAG loss and biosynthesis were measured. Collagen-fiber-orientation and matrix damage was assessed using histology, Diffraction-Enhanced-X-Ray-Imaging, and texture analysis. Results Injured superficial disks showed surface disruption, compaction by 20.3±4.3%, and immediate biomechanical impairment: dynamic stiffness decreased to 7.1±3.3% of its initial value and equilibrium modulus was below detection. Tissue areas apparently intact by histology showed clear textural alterations. Injured deeper zones disks showed collagen crimping but remained undamaged and biomechanically intact. Superficial zone disks did not lose GAG immediately after injury but lost 17.8±1.4% by 48h; deeper zones disks lost only 2.8±0.3% GAG. Biomechanical impairment was primarily associated with structural damage. Conclusion The soft superficial zone of immature cartilage is vulnerable to compressive injury causing superficial matrix disruption, extensive compaction, and textural alteration, and resulting in immediate loss of biomechanical function. In conjunction with delayed superficial GAG loss, these changes may predispose the articular surface to further softening, damage, and increased risk of developing secondary OA. PMID:20556809

  11. Functional Vegetable Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) Accessions for Improving Flavonoid Concentrations in Immature Pods.

    PubMed

    Morris, John Bradley; Wang, Ming Li

    2017-03-04

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seeds are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however, the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, Georgia area. Nineteen guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, USA for two years (2010-2011). Since the determination of flavonoid concentration would add value to the guar accessions for use as a functional food vegetable, immature guar pods were evaluated for flavonoid concentration. In this study, the immature pods from these 19 guar accessions were analyzed for flavonoid concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Several accessions including PI 253182, PI 262152, PI 263698, and PI 288357 showed significantly greater daidzein concentration than all three controls based on seed production in 2010. However, PI 179926, PI 180434, PI 182969, PI 183400, PI 253182, PI 262152, PI 263882, and PI 263897 exhibited significantly greater genistein concentration than the second and third best controls in 2011. Both PI 180434 and PI 288359 produced significantly higher kaempferol concentration than the third best control. Daidzein concentration was significantly correlated with genistein concentration (r(2) = 0.47*) for both years. Luteolin concentration showed a significant negative correlation with genistein (r(2) = -0.45*). Quercetin concentration significantly correlated with kaempferol (r(2) = 0.854***) and genistein (r(2) = 0.455*) concentrations. The accession, PI 542608 was observed to contain high concentrations of kaempferol and quercetin in the cluster analyses. These results will help plant breeders develop guar cultivars with superior flavonoid concentrations.

  12. Angiotensin II stimulates hyperplasia but not hypertrophy in immature ovine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, N C; Giraud, G D; Stork, P J S; Maylie, J G; Thornburg, K L

    2003-05-01

    Rat and sheep cardiac myocytes become binucleate as they complete the 'terminal differentiation' process soon after birth and are not able to divide thereafter. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to stimulate hypertrophic changes in rodent cardiomyocytes under both in vivo and in vitro conditions via the AT1 receptor and intracellular extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signalling cascade. We sought to develop culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes in order to test the hypothesis that Ang II is a hypertrophic agent in the immature myocardium of the sheep. We isolated fetal sheep cardiomyocytes and cultured them for 96 h, added Ang II and phenylephrine (PE) for 48 h, and measured footprint area and proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake) separately in mono- vs. binucleate myocytes. We found that neither Ang II nor PE changed the footprint area of mononucleated cells. PE stimulated an increase in footprint area of binucleate cells but Ang II did not. Ang II increased myocyte BrdU uptake compared to serum free conditions, but PE did not affect BrdU uptake. The MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor UO126 prevented BrdU uptake in Ang II-stimulated cells and prevented cell hypertrophy in PE-stimulated cells. This paper establishes culture methods for immature sheep cardiomyocytes and reports that: (1) Ang II is not a hypertrophic agent; (2) Ang II stimulates hyperplastic growth among mononucleate myocytes; (3) PE is a hypertrophic agent in binucleate myocytes; and (4) the ERK cascade is required for the proliferation effect of Ang II and the hypertrophic effect of PE.

  13. GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature rat cortical neurons under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Qian, Hong; Xia, Ying

    2005-07-01

    Although recent studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine may be 'inhibitory' to mature neurons, but 'excitatory' to immature neurons under normoxia, it is unknown whether inhibitory neurotransmitters are differentially involved in neuronal response to hypoxia in immature and mature neurons. In the present study, we exposed rat cortical neurons to hypoxia (1% O2) and examined the effects of three major inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA, glycine and taurine) on the hypoxic neurons at different neuronal ages [days in vitro (DIV)4-20]. Our data showed that the cortical neurons expressed both GABA(A) and glycine receptors with differential developmental profiles. GABA (10-2000 microm) was neuroprotective to hypoxic neurons of DIV20, but enhanced hypoxic injury in neurons of DIV4. In comparison with delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced protection in DIV20 neurons exposed to 72 h of hypoxia, glycine-induced protection was weaker than that of DOR but stronger than that of GABA and taurine. These data suggest that the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitters on hypoxic cortical neurons are age-dependent, with GABA and glycine being neurotoxic to immature neurons and neuroprotective to mature neurons.

  14. Temporal Variations of Microbiota Associated with the Immature Stages of Two Florida Culex Mosquito Vectors.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Hall, Michael W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Neufeld, Josh D

    2017-05-11

    Microbiota associated with mosquito vector populations impact several traits of mosquitoes, including survival, reproduction, control, and immunity against pathogens. The influence of seasonal variations and mosquito species on mosquito gut microbiota is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the mosquito microbiota associated with immature stages of two congeners (Culex coronator and Culex nigripalpus) differ temporally and between the two species. Using high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we characterized bacterial and archaeal communities found in the immature stages of the two Culex mosquito species sampled over three seasons to compare the diversity of bacteria between the two species. Beta diversity analyses of the larval microbiota sequences revealed that the two Culex species differed significantly, both temporally within each species and between the two species. Bacteria in Cx. coronator larvae were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, mainly associated with Roseoccocus and unidentified species of Rhizobiales, and two unidentified species of Cyanobacteria. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus was dominated by Thorsellia anophelis (Gammaproteobacteria), Clostridium, an unidentified species of Ruminococcacae (Clostridiales), and additional unidentified species associated with Erysipelotrichaceae (Erysipelotrichales), Bacteroidales, and Mollicutes. Results of our study revealed both seasonal and interspecies differences in bacterial community composition associated with the immature stages of Cx. coronator and Cx. nigripalpus vector populations in Florida. These results have important implications for our understanding of the underlying factors of variations in disease transmission among seasons, susceptibility to various pesticides, and other biotic factors, including the role of the microbiota on the spread of invasive species. In addition, our results suggest close associations of certain bacteria species with each of the two Culex species

  15. Tracking through Life Stages: Adult, Immature and Juvenile Autumn Migration in a Long-Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Péron, Clara; Grémillet, David

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal long-distance migration is likely to be experienced in a contrasted manner by juvenile, immature and adult birds, leading to variations in migratory routes, timing and behaviour. We provide the first analysis of late summer movements and autumn migration in these three life stages, which were tracked concurrently using satellite tags, geolocators or GPS recorders in a long-ranging migratory seabird, the Scopoli’s shearwater (formerly named Cory’s shearwater, Calonectrisdiomedea) breeding on two French Mediterranean islands. During the late breeding season, immatures foraged around their colony like breeding adults, but they were the only group showing potential prospecting movements around non-natal colonies. Global migration routes were broadly comparable between the two populations and the three life stages, with all individuals heading towards the Atlantic Ocean through the strait of Gibraltar and travelling along the West African coast, up to 8000 km from their colony. However, detailed comparison of timing, trajectory and oceanographic conditions experienced by the birds revealed remarkable age-related differences. Compared to adults and immatures, juveniles made a longer stop-over in the Balearic Sea (10 days vs 4 days in average), showed lower synchrony in crossing the Gibraltar strait, had more sinuous pathways and covered longer daily distances (240 km.d-1 vs 170 km.d-1). Analysis of oceanographic habitats along migratory routes revealed funnelling selection of habitat towards coastal and more productive waters with increasing age. Younger birds may have reduced navigational ability and learn progressively fine-scale migration routes towards the more profitable travelling and wintering areas. Our study demonstrates the importance of tracking long-lived species through the stages, to better understand migratory behavior and assess differential exposure to at-sea threats. Shared distribution between life stages and populations make Scopoli

  16. Regenerative Characteristics of Apical Papilla-derived Cells from Immature Teeth with Pulpal and Periapical Pathosis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Oh, Joung-Hwan; Lee, WooCheol; Woo, Kyung Mi

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the regenerative characteristics of apical papilla-derived cells (APDCs) from immature teeth with pulpal and periapical pathosis and thus to provide proof-of-principle evidence for further regenerative endodontic research. Pulpal and periapical pathosis was induced in immature permanent double-rooted premolars of beagles, which were randomly assigned to experimental treatment groups: group AO (n = 14), pulp disruption and access left open; group PS (n = 14), supragingival plaque suspension-soaked cotton pellet was introduced, and access was sealed; and control (n = 7), untreated. The teeth were extracted at 2- and 4-week periods after experimental treatments. APDCs were cultured from the extracted teeth, and their cellular proliferation, differentiation characteristics, and stemness were assessed. The data were statistically analyzed. After 4 weeks of intentional pulpal and periapical pathosis induction period, all teeth in group PS showed features of apical periodontitis with necrotic pulp, and their APDCs showed significantly increased proliferation rate and osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation capabilities (P < .05). The stemness was maintained in all APDCs, although the stem cell population was smaller in group PS at 2-week period when the inflammatory responses were most fulminant (P < .05). The APDCs from immature teeth retained the regenerative characteristics with the differences according to their pulpal and periapical pathosis. The results of this study partly provide the evidence for regenerative endodontic research. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Echocardiography in mouse].

    PubMed

    Fayssoil, A

    2008-06-01

    Assessing cardiac phenotype requires invasive or noninvasive techniques in mouse. Echocardiography is a noninvasive technique for evaluating cardiac function. The purpose of this paper is to underline echocardiography modalities and new tools Doppler applications like tissue Doppler imaging.

  18. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  19. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed Central

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in ‘preparation’ for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the ‘preparation for tool use’ hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future

  20. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  1. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  2. Management of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Knee in the Skeletally Immature Athlete.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N; Anderson, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Intrasubstance tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are being diagnosed with increasing frequency in the skeletally immature. Management options include nonoperative/ early surgical, or delayed surgical reconstruction. Nonoperative/delayed reconstruction results in worse functional outcomes than early reconstruction. Physicians are faced with a treatment dilemma; clinical and basic science studies have demonstrated risk of limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity with ACL reconstruction. Vertical drill tunnels decrease physeal damage and minimize growth deformity; however, this technique results in nonanatomic ACL graft placement. All-epiphyseal reconstruction avoids damage to the growth plate. These techniques are biomechanically superior to extraarticular and modified physeal-sparing procedures.

  3. A novel triterpenoid carbon skeleton in immature sulphur-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de Leeuw, Jan W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel S compound, 1,4-bis(2',5',5',8a'-tetramethylhexahydrothiochroman)-butane has been detected in several immature S-rich sediments, of which the desulphurized counterpart was unambiguously identified by synthesis of an authentic standard and coinjection experiments. This C skeleton of the S compound, 1,10-bis(2',2',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-3,8-dimethyldodecane(I), has not been reported yet in any sediment or organism. We suggest that it may be biosynthesized through an enzymatic cyclization reaction of squalene (II), which shows similarities with the biosynthesis of β,β-carotene (III) from lycopene (IV).

  4. An analysis of suboptimal outcomes of medial malleolus fractures in skeletally immature children.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Scott J; Oda, Jon E; O'Donnell, June; Keeler, Kathryn A; Schoenecker, Perry L; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gordon, J Eric

    2012-03-01

    We retrospectively analyzed cases of intra-articular medial malleolar fractures in skeletally-immature patients (Salter-Harris III and IV) with suboptimal outcomes at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Shriner's Hospital for Children. Common causes of poor outcome were frac­ture malunion or malreduction and physeal damage. Malreductions of only 2 mm does not appear to be toler­ated and the concept of "remodeling" does not apply to these fracture patterns. Based on this study, we "recom­mend" fracture reduction and fixation if there is greater than 1 mm of fracture step-off..

  5. Massive intracranial immature teratoma with extracranial extension into oral cavity, nose, and neck.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, A; Shattuck, K E; Rowe, T; Hawkins, H

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of congenital massive intracranial teratoma with extracranial extension into oral cavity, nose, and neck diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography at 25 weeks of gestation. The fetus was delivered by cesarean section because of massive fetal head size and severe maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension. At necropsy the tumor was found to be an immature teratoma, with no recognizable normal brain tissue. An additional finding was hepatomegaly secondary to extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis. Karyotyping of both the fetus and the teratoma revealed a normal female chromosomal composition: 46,XX.

  6. Rehabilitation of severely mutilated teeth under general anesthesia in an emotionally immature child.

    PubMed

    Navit, S; Katiyar, A; Samadi, F; Jaiswal, J N

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease. In rampant caries, there is early pulp involvement and gross destruction of the maxillary anterior teeth as well as posterior teeth. This leads to decreased masticatory efficiency, difficulty in speech, compromised esthetics, development of abnormal tongue habits and subsequent malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary incisors is often a procedure that presents a special challenge to dentists, particularly in an uncooperative child. This case report documents the restoration of severely mutilated deciduous teeth in an emotionally immature patient under general anesthesia.

  7. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  8. Initiation of somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos of oocarpa pine (Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schlectendal).

    PubMed

    Lara-Chavez, Alejandra; Flinn, Barry S; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2011-05-01

    The focus of the current project was to establish somatic embryogenesis protocols for the tropical pine species Pinus oocarpa using immature zygotic embryos (ZEs) as explants. Somatic embryogenesis is best supported by mimicking natural seed-embryo developmental conditions, through a tissue culture medium formulation based on the mineral content of the seed nutritive tissue [megagametophyte (MG)]. A novel culture medium (P. oocarpa medium, PO) was tested in combination with different plant growth regulator (PGR) concentrations and compared with standard Pinus taeda media for the initiation of somatic embryogenesis from immature ZEs of P. oocarpa. Immature MGs containing immature ZEs of two mother trees were used with 12 and 8% extrusion rates for mother tree genotypes 3 and 5, respectively. In both mother trees the percentage capture was 2%. Multiplication of two captured cell lines (T5C2S01 and T5C1S12) was improved by lowering the concentrations of PGRs to 2.5 µM each 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and abscisic acid (ABA) plus 1.0 µM each 6-benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Mature somatic embryos formed on 40 µM ABA, 6% (w/v) maltose, 12% (w/v) PEG 8000 and 0.6% (w/v) Phytagel. While PO medium appeared suboptimal for somatic embryo induction, it did exhibit potential for enhanced culture proliferation and subsequent improved maturation with cell line T5C2S01, where microscopic analysis revealed better embryo morphology on PO medium than on 1250 medium. However, this enhancement was not observed with cell line T5C1S12. Germination was preceded by partial desiccation for a period of 2-3 weeks before transferring the embryos to germination medium. Germination was observed after 7 days under low light, and apical primordia slowly expanded after transfer to ex vitro conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of somatic seedlings in P. oocarpa.

  9. Aggrecanolysis and in vitro matrix degradation in the immature bovine meniscus: mechanisms and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about endogenous or cytokine-stimulated aggrecan catabolism in the meniscal fibrocartilage of the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize the structure, distribution, and processing of aggrecan in menisci from immature bovines, and to identify mechanisms of extracellular matrix degradation that lead to changes in the mechanical properties of meniscal fibrocartilage. Methods Aggrecanase activity in the native immature bovine meniscus was examined by immunolocalization of the aggrecan NITEGE neoepitope. To investigate mechanisms of cytokine-induced aggrecan catabolism in this tissue, explants were treated with interleukin-1α (IL-1) in the absence or presence of selective or broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitors. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen contents of explants and culture media were quantified by biochemical methods, and aggrecan catabolism was examined by Western analysis of aggrecan fragments. The mechanical properties of explants were determined by dynamic compression and shear tests. Results The aggrecanase-generated NITEGE neoepitope was preferentially localized in the middle and outer regions of freshly isolated immature bovine menisci, where sGAG density was lowest and blood vessels were present. In vitro treatment of explants with IL-1 triggered the accumulation of NITEGE in the inner and middle regions. Middle region explants stimulated with IL-1 exhibited substantial decreases in sGAG content, collagen content, and mechanical properties. A broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor significantly reduced sGAG loss, abrogated collagen degradation, and preserved tissue mechanical properties. In contrast, an inhibitor selective for ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 was least effective at blocking IL-1-induced matrix catabolism and loss of mechanical properties. Conclusions Aggrecanase-mediated aggrecanolysis, typical of degenerative articular cartilage, may play a physiologic role in the development

  10. The immature stages of Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Oca-Aguilar, Ana Celia Montes De; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2016-04-25

    The egg exochorion, larval instars and pupa of the phlebotomine sand fly Micropygomyia (Coquillettimyia) chiapanensis (Dampf) are described and illustrated based on specimens collected in the locality of Farallón, municipality of Actopan, Veracruz, Mexico. Morphology of fourth instar larval mouthparts, particularly the incisor lobe and molar lobe shape of mandible, could be important for species identification of immature Phlebotominae. In this work is compared the pupal chaetotaxy of Mi. chiapanensis with other species previously described. The fourth instar larva of Mi. chiapanensis is compared with other species of this genus, the most important differentiating characters being the size, shape and position of the abdominal dorsal internal seta.

  11. Aspisoma lineatum (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) firefly: description of the immatures, biological, and ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Viviani, V R; Rosa, S P; Martins, M A

    2012-04-01

    Aspisoma lineatum (Gyllenhal) is a common firefly in the Southeastern region of Brazil. Adults and larvae were collected in the municipality of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and the immature stages were described and reared in the laboratory. Four generations were reproduced in the laboratory, and a method for its rearing was established. The life cycle usually lasts 6 months, but under optimal laboratory conditions, it lasted from 2 to 4 months. Larvae were fed with Bradybaena similaris and Bulimulus tenuissimus snails since the beginning of the larval stage. This species was found to be easily adapted to environments under anthropic influence, such as urban areas and farms.

  12. Nitrogen Oxide, Endothelin-1, and Serotonin in the Blood of Immature Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Chibireva, M D; Aflyatumova, G N; Matveeva, V L; Bilalova, D F; Kuz'mina, O I; Sadykova, D I; Nigmatullina, R R

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial function is an early and sensitive marker of subclinical increase of BP in children and adolescents. It is associated with an imbalance of the key vasoactive factors (NO, endothelin-1, and serotonin). Immature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR line) are characterized by increased plasma concentrations of NO and endothelin-1 (by 14.7% and 2.9 times, respectively) and increased serotonin content in the plasma and platelets (by 2.7 and 2.3 times, respectively) in comparison with Wistar-Kyoto rats. Platelet count in the blood of SHR rats is by 50% higher than in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

  13. Somatic embryogenesis from shoot tip and immature inflorescence of Phoenix dactylifera cv. Barhee.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H

    1992-12-01

    A method of clonal propagation via somatic embryogenesis of date palm, cultivar Barhee, which has potential for large scale commercial application as well as for developmental studies on embryos is described. Cultures were initiated from shoot tip and immature inflorescence explants, both of which were capable of development into embryogenic callus. When the embryogenic callus was cultured in liquid suspension on a rotary shaker, hundreds of embryos developed from milligram quantities of callus in a fairly synchronous manner. Scanning electron microscopy showed globular, heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped embryos. Green leaves emerged from a white cotyledonary sheath.

  14. Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jacky; Gan, Jian; Selfridge, Jim; Cobb, Stuart; Bird, Adrian

    2007-02-23

    Rett syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder caused by mosaic expression of mutant copies of the X-linked MECP2 gene in neurons. However, neurons do not die, which suggests that this is not a neurodegenerative disorder. An important question for future therapeutic approaches to this and related disorders concerns phenotypic reversibility. Can viable but defective neurons be repaired, or is the damage done during development without normal MeCP2 irrevocable? Using a mouse model, we demonstrate robust phenotypic reversal, as activation of MeCP2 expression leads to striking loss of advanced neurological symptoms in both immature and mature adult animals.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-04

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds.

  16. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  17. Uptake of apoptotic DC converts immature DC into tolerogenic DC, which induce differentiation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Wu, Jing; Oliver, Jordan R.; Jiang, George; Zhang, Jinyi; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Hu, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cell (DC) apoptosis has been observed in patients with cancer and sepsis, and defects in DC apoptosis have been implicated in development of autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms of how DC apoptosis affects immune responses however, are unclear. In this study we showed that immature viable DC have the ability to uptake apoptotic DC as well as necrotic DC without it being recognized as an inflammatory event by immature viable DC. However, the specific uptake of apoptotic DC converted immature viable DC into tolerogenic DC, which were resistant to LPS induced maturation. In contrast, these tolerogenic DC secreted increased levels of TGF-β1, which induced differentiation of naïve T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). Furthermore, induction of Treg differentiation only occurred upon uptake of apoptotic DC and not upon uptake of apoptotic splenocytes by viable DC, indicating that it is specifically the uptake of apoptotic DC that gives viable immature DC the potential to induce Foxp3+ Treg. Taken together, these findings identify uptake of apoptotic DC by viable immature DC as an immunologically tolerogenic event. PMID:20101618

  18. Immature CD4⁺ dendritic cells conditioned with donor kidney antigen prolong renal allograft survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Xu, Lin; Li, Heng; Huang, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Miao, Bin; Na, Ning

    2012-07-01

    Allogeneic transplant rejection is currently a major problem encountered during organ transplantation. The dendritic cell (DC) is the most effective powerful known professional antigen-presenting cell, and recent studies have found that DCs can also induce immune tolerance, and avoid or reduce the degree of transplant rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transfused immature CD4(+) DCs on renal allografts in the rat model. In this study, we induced CD4(+) immature DCs from rat bone marrow cells by a cytokine cocktail. The immature CD4(+) DCs were identified by morphological analysis and then the suppressive activity of these cells conditioned with donor kidney antigen was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Immature CD4(+) DCs conditioned with donor kidney antigen possessed immunosuppressive activity in vitro and they were able to prolong renal transplant survival in an allograft rat model in vivo. Our study provides new information on efficacious renal transplantation, which might be useful for understanding the function of immature CD4(+) DCs in modulating renal transplant rejection and improving clinical outcome in future studies.

  19. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800 MHz) on immature and mature rats.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Vedat; Akar, Ayşegül; Sekeroğlu, Zülal Atlı

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the cytogenotoxic effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) for 45 day and the effect of a recovery period of 15 day after exposure to EMF on bone marrow cells of immature and mature rats. The animals in treatment groups were exposed to 1800 MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day. Two recovery groups were kept for a recovery period of 15 day without EMF after exposure to HF-EMF. Two control groups for both immature and mature rats were also included. Significant differences were also observed in chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) frequency, mitotic index (MI) and ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in all treatment groups. The cytogenotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage in immature rats. Because much higher and irreversible cytogenotoxic damage was observed in immature rats than in mature rats, further studies are needed to understand effects of EMF on DNA damage and DNA repair, and to determine safe limits for environment and human, especially for children.

  20. Residue dynamics of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves, mature onion bulb and soil.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Jagdish, G K

    2011-12-01

    Residue persistence of tebuconazole and quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves (spring onion), mature onion bulb and soil was studied following their spray applications 3 times. The applications were untreated control; tebuconazole @ 187.5 and 375 g a.i. ha(-1); quinalphos @ 300 and 600 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of tebuconazole in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.628 and 1.228 mg kg(-1). The residues of tebuconazole dissipated with the half-life of 5 and 7.7 days. The safe pre-harvest intervals (PHI) for consumption of immature onion bulb with leaves were 16 and 35 days, respectively. Initial residue deposits of quinalphos in immature onion bulb with leaves from the two treatments were 0.864 and 2.283 mg kg(-1). Loss of quinalphos residues from immature onion bulb with leaves was very fast. The residues dissipated with the half-life of 1.7 and 2.6 days and the required PHI was 5 and 11 days, respectively. At harvest mature onion bulbs were free from residues of both tebuconazole and quinalphos.

  1. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  2. Is revascularization of immature permanent teeth an effective and reproducible technique?

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Po; Jovani-Sancho, Maria del Mar; Sheth, Chirag C

    2015-12-01

    Revascularization has been proposed as an improved alternative treatment for irreversibly damaged pulp of immature teeth as it has been shown to preserve the potential for continued root growth in treated teeth. To review clinical cases of revascularization in humans to evaluate their utility and reproducibility. A structured electronic search of scientific articles published between 2001 and 2014 was carried out using the following keywords: 'pulp revascularization', 'pulp revitalization' and/or 'immature tooth'. Clinical revascularization cases conducted on human subjects were selected, reviewed and organized into two charts including patient information, diagnostic information, treatment and results in follow-up visits. Ninety-seven of 101 teeth (96.0%) were successfully treated with the revascularization technique. The range of technique variations available for irrigation, disinfection and blood clot induction have a negligible impact on the clinical outcome variables tested in our analysis. During the follow-up visits, apical closure was detected in fewer cases (55.4%) as compared to the other apexogenesis phenomena (increased root length, 76.2%; increased root width, 79.2%). The review shows that the revascularization technique showed marked increase in the root length, width and apical closure in the cases that were reported independently of clinical variables such as operator and material selection and individual differences in protocols. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Classification of immature stage habitats of Culicidae (Diptera) collected in Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Almirón, W R; Brewer, M E

    1996-01-01

    In order to classify mosquito immature stage habitats, samples were taken in 42 localities of Córdoba Province, Argentina, representing the phytogeographic regions of Chaco, Espinal and Pampa. Immature stage habitats were described and classified according to the following criteria: natural or artificial; size; location related to light and neighboring houses; vegetation; water; permanence, movement, turbidity and pH. Four groups of species were associated based on the habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis: Aedes albifasciatus, Culex saltanensis, Cx. mollis, Cx. brethesi, Psorophora ciliata, Anopheles albitarsis, and Uranotaenia lowii (Group A); Cx. acharistus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. bidens, Cx. dolosus, Cx. maxi and Cx. apicinus (Group B); Cx. coronator, Cx. chidesteri, Mansonia titillans and Ps. ferox (Group C); Ae. fluviatilis and Ae. milleri (Group D). The principal component analysis (ordination method) pointed out that the different types of habitats, their nature (natural or artificial), plant species, water movement and depth are the main characters explaining the observed variation among the mosquito species. The distribution of mosquito species by phytogeographic region did not affect the species groups, since species belonging to different groups were collected in the same region.

  4. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; De Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2012-02-01

    Forensic entomology is an area of science that serves as a tool in crime scene investigations. Usually, flies are the first insects to reach a carcass and can oviposit just a few hours after arrival. Therefore, the knowledge of immature stages is essential for correct identification of the species found on corpses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information about morphological characters helping to identify the immature forms of flies. Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) is a very important fly for forensic entomology, because it has high population densities and is easily found in colonizing carcasses, moreover, it is also a possible causative agent for secondary myiasis. The aim of this study is to identify larvae and puparia of C. putoria using SEM. The first instar larvae were composed of 12 smooth segments separated by spines. Antennae and maxillary palps were visible. Anterior spiracle was absent and only one spiracular opening could be seen at the posterior spiracle. Second and third larval instars were similar to first instar, except for the presence of anterior spiracle that is composed by 11-12 spiracular ramifications. At the anal segment, two spiracular openings were found in second instars and three openings in third instar larvae. Puparia showed a retracted cephalic region and none of the head structures were visible.

  5. Immature pea seeds: effect of storage under modified atmosphere packaging and sanitation with acidified sodium chlorite.

    PubMed

    Collado, Elena; Venzke Klug, Tâmmila; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Artés-Hernandez, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Fernández, Juan A; Gómez, Perla A

    2017-10-01

    Appropriate sanitation is a priority for extending the shelf life and promoting the consumption of immature pea seeds, as processing accelerates quality deterioration and microbial growth. The combined effect of disinfection with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or sodium hypochlorite (SH) and packaging under a passive modified atmosphere (MAP) at 1 or 4 °C on quality was analysed. After 14 days, greenness and vitamin C had decreased, especially in the SH-disinfected samples. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity were not affected by disinfection. Proteins levels fell by around 27%, regardless of the sanitizer and storage temperature. Compared with the initial microbial load, samples stored at 1 °C showed an increase of 1 log CFU g(-1) in psychrophiles when treated with SH, whereas no increase of note occurred with ASC. In general, microbial counts were always below 3 log CFU g(-1) for all the treatments. Immature pea seeds could be stored for 14 days at 1-4 °C under MAP with only minor quality changes. Disinfection with ASC resulted in better sensory quality, higher content of vitamin C and lower psychrophile counts. More research is needed to analyse the effect of these treatments on other quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rapid increases in immature synapses parallel estrogen-induced hippocampal learning enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Anna; Suschkov, Sarah; Molinaro, Luke; Reynolds, Kathryn; Lymer, Jennifer M.; Bailey, Craig D. C.; Kow, Lee-Ming; MacLusky, Neil J.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic increases in hippocampal spine synapse density are known to occur within minutes of estrogen exposure. Until now, it has been assumed that enhanced spinogenesis increased excitatory input received by the CA1 pyramidal neurons, but how this facilitated learning and memory was unclear. Delivery of 17β-estradiol or an estrogen receptor (ER)-α (but not ER-β) agonist into the dorsal hippocampus rapidly improved general discrimination learning in female mice. The same treatments increased CA1 dendritic spines in hippocampal sections over a time course consistent with the learning acquisition phase. Surprisingly, estrogen-activated spinogenesis was associated with a decrease in CA1 hippocampal excitatory input, rapidly and transiently reducing CA1 AMPA activity via a mechanism likely reflecting AMPA receptor internalization and creation of silent or immature synapses. We propose that estrogens promote hippocampally mediated learning via a mechanism resembling some of the broad features of normal development, an initial overproduction of functionally immature connections being subsequently “pruned” by experience. PMID:26655342

  7. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  8. TRC8-dependent degradation of hepatitis C virus immature core protein regulates viral propagation and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Sayaka; Okamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Yukari; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Ito, Ayano; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Ono, Chikako; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okochi, Masayasu; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Chayama, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Shoji, Ikuo; Moriishi, Kohji; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane protease that participates in the production of the mature core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we show that SPP inhibition reduces the production of infectious HCV particles and pathogenesis. The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Moreover, the haploinsufficiency of SPP in CoreTg has similar effects. TRC8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the degradation of the immature core protein. The expression of the HCV core protein alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution and induces ER stress in SPP/TRC8 double-knockout cells. These data suggest that HCV utilizes SPP cleavage to circumvent the induction of ER stress in host cells. PMID:27142248

  9. Generalist-feeding subterranean mites as potential biological control agents of immature corn rootworms.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, Deirdre A; Knutson, Eric M; Dashiell, Kenton E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2011-11-01

    Predatory mites are important components of subterranean food webs and may help regulate densities of agricultural pests, including western corn rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Implementing conservation and/or classical biocontrol tactics could enhance densities of specialist or generalist predatory mites and lead to pest suppression, but first relevant mite species must be identified and their predatory capabilities evaluated. We conducted lab assays to quantify consumption of immature rootworms and oviposition rates of various mite species. Our study indicates that rootworms are a sub-optimal food source for the mite taxa tested. However, all mite species fed upon rootworms to some degree, although consumption by nematophagous Eviphis ostrinus was extremely low. Predators consumed more rootworm larvae than eggs, and mite size was correlated with prey consumption, with larger predators eating more prey. Four mite taxa (Gaeolaelaps sp., S. miles, Gl. americana, and G. aculeifer) had detrimental effects on survival of rootworm larvae, and the latter two species also had negative impacts on densities of pest eggs. Although it is unlikely that any of these mite species by itself has a major impact on rootworm control, the community of generalist soil-dwelling mites may play an important role in regulating immature rootworm populations in the field.

  10. Influence of orthodontic derotation and extrusion on pulpal and periodontal condition of autotransplanted immature third molars.

    PubMed

    Bauss, Oskar; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of orthodontic treatment on the pulpal and periodontal condition of 91 transplanted immature third molars. In patients with atrophy of the alveolar process or unfavorable root morphology, transplants had to be placed in extreme rotated or infraoccluded positions. After 3 to 6 months, these transplants were derotated (45 degrees to 90 degrees) to a correct position in the dental arch (derotation group; n = 28) or extruded to the occlusal plane (extrusion group; n = 21). Finally, approximal spaces were closed in both groups. A sample of 42 transplanted third molars with no orthodontic treatment need served as the control group. All transplants were followed clinically and radiologically for a mean period of 4.0 years. With respect to pulpal and periodontal conditions, no significant differences were observed between the control and the extrusion group. In contrast, compared with the control group, transplants in the derotation group had a significantly poorer pulpal and periodontal condition. In the derotated transplants, a significant correlation was detected between pulp necrosis and orthodontic treatment of multi-rooted transplants. This study indicates that orthodontic extrusion and minor lateral movements of autotransplanted immature third molars, as well as rotation of single-rooted third-molar transplants, represent no additional risk to transplant survival. In contrast, rotation of multi-rooted transplants seems to initiate later severance of the vascular and nerval supply to the pulp.

  11. Effects of continuous low-frequency pacing on immature canine diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Marzocchi, M; Brouillette, R T; Klemka-Walden, L M; Heller, S L; Weese-Mayer, D E; Brozanski, B S; Caliendo, J; Daood, M; Ilbawi, M N; Hunt, C E

    1990-09-01

    Although diaphragm pacing has been shown to be a practical method of supporting ventilation in children, its usefulness has been limited because of concern that continuous (24 h/day) diaphragm pacing would fatigue and damage the diaphragm. We examined the functional and structural effects of continuous low-frequency diaphragm pacing on the left hemidiaphragm of five immature dogs aged 65 +/- 2 (SD) days at onset of pacing. Stimulus parameters approximated those required to pace infants: frequency 11.1 Hz, inspiratory time 810 ms, and respiratory rate 20 breaths/min. Animals were paced 24 h/day for 24-28 days. Paced tidal volumes and airway occlusion pressures were unchanged at low (less than 15 Hz) stimulus frequencies but were reduced at high (greater than 20 Hz) stimulus frequencies. Although histologically the paced hemidiaphragms appeared normal, histochemical studies showed a conversion from a mixture of type I (54%) and type II (46%) fibers to a uniform population of type I fibers with high oxidative enzyme activity. Transformation of muscle type was also demonstrated by pyrophosphate gel electrophoresis; fast and slow isomyosin bands were noted in control specimens, whereas only slow isomyosin was identified in paced specimens. Thus, in immature dogs, continuous low-frequency pacing affects both function and structure of the diaphragm.

  12. Continued Root Formation after Delayed Replantation of an Avulsed Immature Permanent Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Darvish, Alireza; Adel, Mamak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Tooth avulsion in the young permanent dentition is a frequent finding, and its prognosis depends on the treatment of the avulsed tooth before replantation, the extra-alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient's general health. The present report describes management of an immature avulsed lower central incisor 90 minutes after the accident. Methods. A right lower central incisor of a 7-year-old girl was avulsed, and it was soaked in a glass of milk. 90 minutes after avulsion, replantation was performed, and the tooth was splinted; but after two weeks the replanted tooth's pulp was necrotic. Thus, endodontic treatment was performed and root canal was filled using a calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste (Metapex). Three months later, the intracanal medication was washed out and the canal was sealed using an apical plug of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Results. 20 months after replantation the tooth was completely asymptomatic, with physiologic mobility. Also, continued root formation including an apical segment beyond the artificial apical plug was observed. Conclusion. Creation of an appropriate apical barrier following the disinfection of root canal system promoted continued root-end growth in a replanted immature permanent tooth. PMID:24900928

  13. Nonlinear analysis and modeling of cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electrocorticogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Karin; Groh, Tobias; Schwab, Matthias; Witte, Herbert

    2009-03-01

    An approach combining time-continuous nonlinear stability analysis and a parametric bispectral method was introduced to better describe cortical activation and deactivation patterns in the immature fetal electroencephalogram (EEG). Signal models and data-driven investigations were performed to find optimal parameters of the nonlinear methods and to confirm the occurrence of nonlinear sections in the fetal EEG. The resulting measures were applied to the in utero electrocorticogram (ECoG) of fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation when organized sleep states were not developed and compared to previous results at 0.9 gestation. Cycling of the nonlinear stability of the fetal ECoG occurred already at this early gestational age, suggesting the presence of premature sleep states. This was accompanied by cycling of the time-variant biamplitude which reflected ECoG synchronization effects during premature sleep states associated with nonrapid eye movement sleep later in gestation. Thus, the combined nonlinear and time-variant approach was able to provide important insights into the properties of the immature fetal ECoG.

  14. Life Cycle and Immature Stages of the Arctiid Moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 ± 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species. PMID:20345309

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery