Science.gov

Sample records for immature rat uterus

  1. The expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Seiichi; Ashizawa, Koji; Gohma, Hiroshi

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and an ER antagonist on the expression of Hedgehog genes (Indian hedgehog: Ihh; Desert hedgehog: Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Patched 1: Ptc1; glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1: Gli1; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II: Coup-TfII) in the rat uterus. Immature female rats were administered once with 17{alpha}-ethynyl estradiol (EE, an ER agonist), propyl pyrazole triole (PPT, an ER{alpha}-selective agonist), diarylpropionitrile (DPN, an ER{beta}-selective agonist), or ICI 182,780 (an ER antagonist). Expression of mRNA for Ihh, Dhh, and Ptc1 was dose-dependently downregulated by EE inmore » the uterus of immature rats, mediated by ER as confirmed by coadministration of ICI 182,780. The mRNA expression levels of Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII were simultaneously downregulated during the period in which the mRNA expression levels of Ihh and Dhh were downregulated in the uterus after administration of EE. PPT downregulated the transcription of Ihh, Dhh, Ptc1, Gli1, and Coup-TfII, indicating that expression of these genes was regulated by the ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. DPN also downregulated the transcription of Ihh and Dhh, although the effect was weaker than that of PPT, indicating that the regulation of uterine Ihh and Dhh transcription was also affected by the ER{beta}-dependent pathway. These results suggest that the expression of Hedgehog genes (Ihh, Dhh) and Hedgehog target genes (Ptc1, Gli1, Coup-TfII) is affected by estrogenic stimuli in the uterus of immature female rats.« less

  2. Effect of Saraca asoca (Asoka) on estradiol-induced keratinizing metaplasia in rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adangam Purath; Salini, Sasidharan; Sasidharan, Nanu; Padikkala, Jose; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen-mediated uterus endometrium instability is considered as one of the etiological factors in dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and uterine cancer. Saraca asoca (Family: Fabaceae) and its fermented preparation, Asokarishta, are extensively used as uterine tonic to treat gynecological disorders in Ayurveda. The present study evaluated the effect of S. asoca (Asoka) on estrogen-induced endometrial thickening of rat uterus. Endometrial thickening was induced by intraperitoneal injection of estradiol (20 μg/kg b.wt) to 8-day-old immature rats for alternate 5 days. Methanolic extract (200 mg/kg b. wt) from S. asoca bark was given orally along with estradiol. Uterus endometrial thickening was analyzed histopathologically and serum estrogen level by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression in rat uterus was also estimated by Western blot. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was analyzed by formalin- and carrageenan-elicited paw edema models in mouse. Uterus endometrium proliferation and keratinized metaplasia with seven to eight stratified epithelial layers on day 16 was observed in rats administered with estradiol. Treatment with S. asoca reduced the thickening to two to four layers and the serum estrogen level diminished significantly to 82.9±12.87 pg/mL compared to rats administered with estrogen alone (111.2±10.68 pg/mL). A reduction of formalin- and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mouse by S. asoca extract was observed. Lower level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced COX-2 enzyme in rat uterus by the extract further confirms its anti-inflammatory activity. Present study reveals the antiproliferative and antikeratinizing effects of S. asoca in uterus endometrium possibly through its anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

    2014-04-07

    Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in

  4. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  5. Chronic stress effects and their reversibility on the Fallopian tubes and uterus in rats.

    PubMed

    Divyashree, S; Yajurvedi, H N

    2018-01-01

    The durational effects of chronic stress on the Fallopian tubes and uterus were studied by exposing rats to stressors in the form of restraint (1h) and forced swimming (15min) daily for 4, 8 or 12 weeks. One group of stressed rats from each time period was then maintained without exposure to stressors for a further 4 weeks to assess their ability to recover from stress. All time periods of stress exposure resulted in decreased weight of the body and Fallopian tubes; however, the relative weight of the uterus and serum concentrations of oestradiol and insulin increased significantly. The antioxidant potential was decreased with increased malondialdehyde concentrations in the Fallopian tubes following all durations of exposure and after 4 and 8 weeks of stress exposure in the uterus. Interestingly, rats stressed for 12 weeks showed an increase in serum testosterone concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities with a decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in the uterus. The antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde concentration in the Fallopian tubes of all recovery group rats were similar to stressed rats. However, in the uterus these parameters were similar to controls in recovery group rats after 4 weeks or 8 weeks of exposure, but after 12 weeks of stress exposure these parameters did not return to control levels following the recovery period. These results reveal, for the first time, that chronic stress elicits an irreversible decrease in antioxidant defence in the Fallopian tubes irrespective of exposure duration, whereas the uterus develops reversible oxidative stress under short-term exposure but increased antioxidant potential with endometrial proliferation following long-term exposure.

  6. Tachykinin receptors in the rat isolated uterus.

    PubMed

    Fisher, L; Pennefather, J N; Hall, S

    1993-07-02

    Tachykinin receptors mediating uterotonic effects were examined in preparations from oestrogen-primed rats. In the absence of peptidase inhibitors [Lys5-MeLeu9-Nle10] NKA (4-10) was 14-fold more potent than neurokinin A (NKA), but the two peptides were equipotent in the presence of phosphoramidon alone and in combination with amastatin. The NK-2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 antagonised responses to the tachykinins. These findings indicate that an NK-2 receptor is present in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus and that endopeptidase 24.11 plays a major role to inactivate NKA in this tissue.

  7. Extraction of collagenase from the involuting rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Weeks, J G; Halme, J; Woessner, J F

    1976-08-12

    Collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) activity can be measured directly in homogenates of the involuting rat uterus. Latent forms of collagenase are activated by a brief exposure to trypsin; trypsin activity is then blocked with soybean trypsin inhibitor. Homogenizing conditions have been developed that permit 90-95% recovery of the total active and latent collagenase activity in a 6000 X g pellet, where it is presumably bound to its collagen substrate. This insoluble activity can then be extracted by heating to 60 degrees C for 4 min in 0.04 M Tris - HCl buffer, pH 7.5, containing 0.1 M CaCl2. Methods are presented for the estimation of the recovery of collagenase in the extracts; this approximates 65-70% of the total. Small amounts of activity can also be extracted from rat liver and kidney. This extraction procedure should be of use in purifying collagenase without culturing the enzyme-producing tissue and in the direct assay of tissue collagenase activity. The activity extracted from rat uterus has been proven to be collagenase by its characteristic pattern of collagen breakdown products on disc electrophoresis and by the split of tropocollagen at interband 41 as shown by electron microscopy of reconstituted fragments. The activity is inhibited by EDTA, and this inhibition is not reversed by calcium or zinc ions.

  8. Altered expression of miRNAs in the uterus from a letrozole-induced rat PCOS model.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Jiang, Yanwen; Gao, Shan; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Fengge; Zhu, Xiaoling; Rao, Jiahui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xu

    2017-01-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control. These miRNAs included 111 upregulated miRNAs and 37 downregulated miRNAs. The differential expression of miR-484, miR-375-3p, miR-324-5p, and miR-223-3p was further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these four miRNAs were predicted to regulate a large number of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that target genes of miRNAs were involved in insulin secretion and signaling pathways, such as wnt, AMPK, PI3K-Akt, and Ras. These data indicated that miRNAs differentially expressed in rat uterus with PCOS may be associated with PCOS pathogenesis in the uterus. Our findings can help clarify the mechanism of uterine defects in PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Induction of UO-44 gene expression by tamoxifen in the rat uterus and ovary.

    PubMed

    Huynh, H; Ng, C Y; Lim, K B; Ong, C K; Ong, C S; Tran, E; Tuyen Nguyen, T T; Chan, T W

    2001-07-01

    A complementary DNA, uterine-ovarian-specific gene 44 (UO-44), has been isolated from tamoxifen-induced rat uterine complementary DNA library using differential display techniques. UO-44 transcripts are found to be abundant in the uterus and ovary. UO-44 gene expression in the uterus is strictly regulated by estrogens, tamoxifen, and GH, whereas the pure antiestrogen ICI 182780 is inhibitory. Treatment of ovariectomized rats and hypophysectomized rats with tamoxifen and GH, respectively, resulted in up-regulation of UO-44 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization revealed that UO-44 gene expression was restricted to the luminal and glandular epithelial cells of the uterus and to granulosa cells of medium-size ovarian follicles. Transfection studies showed that UO-44 was a membrane-associated protein. Because estrogens, tamoxifen, and GH are stimulators of uterine luminal epithelial cell growth in vivo, UO-44 protein may serve as a mediator of the effect of these compounds in inducing epithelial proliferation and differentiation in these tissues.

  10. Characterization and distribution of natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, A M; Fujio, N; Dam, T V; Mukaddam-Daher, S; Jankowski, M; Tremblay, J; Gutkowska, J

    1995-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors were characterized in rat uterus. The binding of [125I]ANP to uterine membranes was completely competed for by increasing concentrations of unlabeled ANP (Kd = 0.39 nM) and brain natriuretic peptide (Kd = 1.24 nM) and partially by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP; Kd = 80.4 nM), but not by C-ANF. Also, [125I]Tyr-CNP bound to uterine membranes was completely competed by unlabeled CNP (Kd = 1.12 nM). Cross-linking of [125I]ANP to uterine membranes revealed the presence of one band of 130 kilodaltons, corresponding to the guanylyl cyclase (GC-A and/or GC-B) subtypes of natriuretic peptide receptors. The presence of messenger RNA coding for genes of both GC-A and GC-B receptors was shown by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, ANP and, to a lesser degree, CNP stimulated the production of cGMP in rat uterus. Autoradiographic studies localized the highest binding of [125I]ANP in the endometrium, whereas [125I]Tyr-CNP binding was distributed in the endometrium as well as in the myometrium. These results demonstrate that rat uterine ANP receptors are of the guanylyl cyclase-coupled subtypes. The uterus is a target of natriuretic peptides where ANP induces its biological effects through the production of cGMP.

  11. Does melatonin influence the apoptosis in rat uterus of animals exposed to continuous light?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cecília S; Carvalho, Kátia C; Maganhin, Carla C; Paiotti, Ana P R; Oshima, Celina T F; Simões, Manuel J; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin has been described as a protective agent against cell death and oxidative stress in different tissues, including in the reproductive system. However, the information on the action of this hormone in rat uterine apoptosis is low. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on mechanisms of cell death in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light stress. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: GContr (vehicle control) and GExp which were treated with melatonin (0.4 mg/mL), both were exposed to continuous light for 90 days. The uterus was removed and processed for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), using PCR-array plates of the apoptosis pathway; for immunohistochemistry and TUNEL. The results of qRT-PCR of GEXP group showed up-regulation of 13 and 7, pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, compared to GContr group. No difference in pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Fas and Faslg) expression was observed by immunohistochemistry, although the number of TUNEL-positive cells was lower in the group treated with melatonin compared to the group not treated with this hormone. Our data suggest that melatonin influences the mechanism and decreases the apoptosis in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light.

  12. Arsenic abrogates the estrogen-signaling pathway in the rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arsenic, a major pollutant of water as well as soil, is a known endocrine disruptor, and shows adverse effects on the female reproductive physiology. However, the exact molecular events leading to reproductive dysfunctions as a result of arsenic exposure are yet to be ascertained. This report evaluates the effect and mode of action of chronic oral arsenic exposure on the uterine physiology of mature female albino rats. Methods The effect of chronic oral exposure to arsenic at the dose of 4 microg/ml for 28 days was evaluated on adult female albino rats. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining method evaluated the changes in the histological architecture of the uterus. Circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of the estrogen receptor and estrogen-induced genes was studied at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results Sodium arsenite treatment decreased circulating levels of estradiol in a dose and time-dependent manner, along with decrease in the levels of both LH and FSH. Histological evaluation revealed degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands in response to arsenic treatment, along with reduction in thickness of the longitudinal muscle layer. Concomitantly, downregulation of estrogen receptor (ER alpha), the estrogen-responsive gene - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and G1 cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was also observed. Conclusion Together, the results indicate that arsenic disrupted the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, led to degeneration of luminal epithelial, stromal and myometrial cells of the rat uterus and downregulated the downstream components of the estrogen signaling pathway. Since development and functional maintenance of the uterus is under the influence of estradiol, arsenic-induced structural degeneration may be attributed to the reduction in

  13. Confirmation of uterotrophic activity of 3-(4-methylbenzylidine)camphor in the immature rat.

    PubMed Central

    Tinwell, Helen; Lefevre, Paul A; Moffat, Graeme J; Burns, A; Odum, Jenny; Spurway, T D; Orphanides, George; Ashby, John

    2002-01-01

    In this study we found that the ultraviolet sunscreen component 3-(4-methylbenzylidine)camphor (4MBC) is uterotrophic in immature rats when administered by either subcutaneous injection or oral gavage. These data confirm earlier reports of uterotrophic activity for this agent when administered to immature rats in the diet or by whole-body immersion; however, they are in contrast to negative unpublished immature rat uterotrophic assay results. Data also indicate that 4MBC binds to isolated rat uterine estrogen receptors and shows activity in a human estrogen receptor yeast transactivation assay; however, we considered both of these effects equivocal. In this study, we confirmed the original observation that 4MBC was active as a mitogen to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We evaluated and discounted the possibility that the estrogenic activity of 4MBC is related to its bulky camphor group, which is of similar molecular dimensions to that of the weak estrogen kepone. Uncertainty remains regarding the mechanism of the uterotrophic activity of 4MBC. PMID:12003759

  14. Evaluation of cryogenine on rat paw thermal oedema and rat isolated uterus

    PubMed Central

    Malone, M. H.; Trottier, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    1. Significant inhibition of oedema formation caused by thermal injury was observed for calcium carbaspirin, phenylbutazone, hydrocortisone, cryogenine and indomethacin when given daily beginning 2 days prior to thermal exposure and afterwards. Several anti-inflammatory drugs, including cryogenine, failed to reduce thermal oedema significantly when given as single doses 1 h prior to the thermal injury. 2. Kinetic experiments on the rat isolated uterus demonstrated that cryogenine, chlorpromazine, and flufenamic acid were, in part, competitive inhibitors of synthetic bradykinin, while indomethacin and tetrabenazine showed only non-competitive antagonism. PMID:4733728

  15. Monosodium glutamate suppresses the female reproductive function by impairing the functions of ovary and uterus in rat.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Mukti; Sarkar, Kaushik; Nath, Partha Pratim; Paul, Goutam

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the functions of ovary and uterus in rat. Virgin female rats of Charles Foster strain (120 gms approximately) were administrated MSG by oral gavage at a dose level of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4 gm/kgBW/day, respectively for 30 and 40 days duration. We observed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus, estrus and metestrus phases, and increase in the duration of diestrus phase and diestrus index compared to control. We found significant increase in the levels of serum LH, FSH and estradiol in test groups of rat. We also observed significant increase in the number of primary and primordial follicles, increase in the size of graafian follicle, and decrease in the size of corpus luteum. Further, we have seen significant increase in the activities SOD, CAT and GST, decrease in the activities GR and GPx, and decrease MDA level in MSG exposed groups. These results suggest that MSG impairs the functions of the ovary probably by augmenting the release of FSH, LH and estradiol; promoting the follicular maturation and improving the biochemical mechanism for antioxidant defense. We also observed significant potentiation of the force of contraction of uterus in estrus, metestrus and diestrus phases. This result suggests that MSG potentiates the contraction of uterus probably by stimulating the estradiol sensitivity to oxytocin. From the results it is concluded that MSG suppresses the female reproductive function in rat probably by impairing the functions of ovary and uterus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Changes in geometrical and biomechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, Ronald F.; Hou, Jack C.-H.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Nishimoto, Mitchell; Patel, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    The differences in the geometry and mechanical properties of immature male and female rat tibiae were detailed in order to provide comparative data for spaceflight, exercise, or disease experiments that use immature rats as an animal model. The experiment focuses on the particularly rapid period of growth that occurs in the Sprague-Dawley rat between 40 and 60 d of age. Tibial length and middiaphysical cross-sectional data were analyzed for eight different groups of rats according to age and sex, and tibial mechanical properties were obtained via three-point bending tests to failure. Results indicate that, during the 15 d period of rapid growth, changes in rat tibial geometry are more important than changes in bone material properties for influencing the mechanical properties of the tibia. Male tibiae changed primarily in structural properties, while in the female rats major changes in mechanical properties of the tibia were only attributable to changes in the structural properties of the bone.

  17. Refractoriness of the gravid rat uterus to tocolytic and biochemical effects of atrial natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, W.; Varma, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    1. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on tension development, particulate guanylate cyclase activity and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) concentrations of uteri from oestrogen-treated, progesterone-treated, ovariectomized and pregnant rats were determined in vitro. 2. ANP inhibited the tension development by myometrial tissues from oestrogen-treated virgin rats and the sterile horn of 10 to 14 day pregnant rats but not of the uterus from pregnant and progesterone-treated rats. 3. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase activities did not restore the tocolytic activity of ANP on gravid uterus. ANP exerted a tocolytic effect on nongravid uterus submaximally stimulated by prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), oxytocin, vasopressin, angiotensin II or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). 4. Ovariectomy decreased the tocolytic effects of ANP, which could be restored by oestrogen treatment. 5. The refractoriness to the tocolytic effect of ANP in pregnant rats was not accompanied by a decrease in its relaxant effects on isolated aortic strips. 6. Tocolytic effects of isoprenaline, isobutylmethyl xanthine and hydroxylamine were not influenced by pregnancy or progesterone treatment. Up to a concentration of 3 mM, sodium nitroprusside did not affect myometrial tension development. 7. Pregnancy and progesterone treatment markedly inhibited ANP-induced increases in myometrial particulate guanylate cyclase activity and cyclic GMP concentrations but did not influence the effects of ANP on aortic cyclic GMP concentrations. 8. It is concluded that exposure of the myometrium to circulating and placentally-produced progesterone is responsible for the pregnancy-induced decrease in the effects of ANP on myometrial particulate guanylate cyclase activity and cyclic GMP concentrations and in turn on myometrial tension development. PMID:1974161

  18. Culture of bovine embryos in deproteinized hemodialysate-supplemented media and immature mouse uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Thuemmel, A E; Gwazdauskas, F C; Canseco, R S; Pearson, R E; Jochle, W

    1991-06-01

    Bovine morulae (d 6) were used to evaluate embryonic development in a deproteinized hemodialysate, agar embedding, and in the uterus of the immature mouse. Agar-embedded embryos were cultured in Ham's F-10 and 10% steer serum either (treatment 1) immediately after collection or (treatment 2) 24 h after storage in the uterus of the immature mouse. Unembedded embryos were cultured in Ham's F-10 containing (treatment 3) 10% steer serum, (treatment 4) 1% deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107, or (treatment 5) 1% de-proteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 and 10% steer serum. A greater percentage of the embryos reached the hatched blastocyst stage after culture in treatments 1, 3, 4, and 5 (38.1, 34.6, 28.6, and 21.1%) than in treatment 2 (9.5%) in which embryos were stored in the immature mouse uterus for 24 h prior to in vitro culture. Final development scores for unembedded and agar-embedded embryos cultured in Ham's F-10 (5.5 +/- .3) and 10% steer serum (4.9 +/- .4) were similar and higher than those of embryos cultured in deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 (4.2 +/- .4), deproteinized hemodialysate CLB1107 and steer serum (4.2 +/- .4), or immature mouse uteri (3.4 +/- .4). It is concluded that deproteinized hemodialysate supplementation at 1% (vol/vol) failed to enhance embryonic development in vitro. Moreover, bovine morulae were unaffected by agar embedding and were able to develop to a limited extent following short-term storage in the uterus of the immature mouse.

  19. Expression of VEGF 111 and other VEGF-A variants in the rat uterus is correlated with stage of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Camilla M; Danastas, Kevin; Grau, Georges E; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A is a major mediator of angiogenesis, a critically important process in vertebrate growth and development as well as pregnancy. Here we report for the first time the expression of a rare and unusually potent splice variant, VEGF 111 , in vivo in mammals. This variant has previously only been found in mammals in cultured human cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Our discovery of VEGF 111 in the uterus of both a eutherian (rat) and a marsupial (fat-tailed dunnart) suggests that the splice variant may be common to all mammals. As VEGF 111 is also expressed in the uterus of at least one lineage of lizards, the expression of this splice variant may be a widespread amniote phenomenon. We measured expression of VEGF 111 and two major VEGF-A splice variants in the uterus of pregnant rats, showing that the three variants show different expression patterns across pregnancy. Our results suggest that viviparous mammals possess a precisely regulated milieu of VEGF isoforms producing the angiogenesis required for successful pregnancy. The discovery of VEGF 111 in rat uterus paves the way for the development of in vivo models of VEGF 111 activity in a highly tractable laboratory animal, and is particularly significant in the context of early pregnancy loss and cancer research.

  20. Estradiol rapidly inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase expression in rat uterus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krumenacker, J. S.; Hyder, S. M.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Previous reports that investigated the regulation of the NO/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway by estrogenic compounds have focused primarily on the levels of NO, NO-producing enzymes, and cGMP in various tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) regulates the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the NO receptor, sGC, at the mRNA and protein levels in rat uterus. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that within 1 h of in vivo E2 administration to rats, sGC mRNA levels begin to diminish. After 3 h, there is a maximal diminution of sGC mRNA expression (sGC alpha(1) 10% and sGC beta(1) 33% of untreated). This effect was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, indicating that estrogen receptor is required. The effect of E2 also was observed in vitro with incubations of uterine tissue, indicating that the response does not depend on the secondary release of other hormones or factors from other tissues. Puromycin did not block the effect, suggesting the effects occur because of preexisting factors in uterine tissues and do not require new protein synthesis. Using immunoblot analysis, we found that sGC protein levels also were reduced by E2 over a similar time course as the sGC mRNA. We conclude that sGC plays a vital role in the NO/sGC/cGMP regulatory pathway during conditions of elevated estrogen levels in the rat uterus as a result of the reduction of sGC expression.

  1. Rapamycin down-regulates KCC2 expression and increases seizure susceptibility to convulsants in immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoxing; McMahon, John; Yang, Jun; Shin, Damian; Huang, Yunfei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seizure susceptibility to neurological insults, including chemical convulsants, is age-dependent and most likely reflective of overall differences in brain excitability. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying development-dependent seizure susceptibility remain to be fully understood. Because the mTOR pathway regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and cell survival, thereby influencing brain development, we tested if exposure of the immature brain to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin changes seizure susceptibility to neurological insults. We found that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin in immature rats (3 to 4 weeks old) increases the severity of seizures induced by pilocarpine, including lengthening the total seizure duration and reducing the latency to the onset of seizures. Rapamycin also reduces the minimal dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) necessary to induce clonic seizures. However, in mature rats, rapamycin does not significantly change the seizure sensitivity to pilocarpine and PTZ. Likewise, kainate sensitivity was not significantly affected by rapamycin treatment in either mature or immature rats. Additionally, rapamycin treatment down-regulates the expression of potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) in the thalamus and to a lesser degree in the hippocampus. Pharmacological inhibition of thalamic mTOR or KCC2 increases susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizure in immature rats. Thus, our study suggests a role for the mTOR pathway in age-dependent seizure susceptibility. PMID:22613737

  2. [Effects of electroacupuncture of "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on contents of MDA and beta-EP, and expression of HSP 70 in the uterus in rats with dysmenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Lu-Fen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Li-Li; Li, Chun-Hua; Ding, Xi-Yan; Ren, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Ya-Fang; Guo, Meng-Wei; Sun, Zhi-Fang; Zhu, Jiang

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on the uterus in dysmenorrhea rats so as to study its underlying analgesic mechanism. A total of 48 SD rats during diestrus were randomized into normal saline (control) group, model group and acupuncture group according to a random number table, with 16 rats in each group. Dysmenorrhea model was established by subcutaneous injection of Estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg/d on the 1st and 10th day, and 0.2 mg/d from day 2 to day 9, once daily for 10 days) and oxytocin (2 U/rat, once on day 10). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and beta-endorphin (beta-EP) contents in the uterus were detected by radioimmunoassay, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) immunoactivity of the uterus was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the control group, MDA content in the uterus was increased significantly in the model group (P < 0.01), while the beta-EP level and the immunoactivity of HSP 70 immune-reaction (IR) positive products in the uterus decrease significantly (P < 0.01) and moderately, respectively in the model group. In comparison with the model group, uterine MDA content in the EA group was decreased significantly (P < 0.01), while uterine beta-EP level increased considerably (P < 0.01) and HSP 70 expression was upregulated to a certain degree. EA of "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) can reduce MDA content and upregulate beta-EP level of the uterus in rats with dysmenorrhea, which may contribute to its analgesic effect in relieving dysmenorrhea by clearing away oxygen free radicals and raising analgesic substance in the uterus.

  3. Prolonged Febrile Seizures in the Immature Rat Model Enhance Hippocampal Excitability Long Term

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Celine; Chen, Kang; Eghbal-Ahmadi, Mariam; Brunson, Kristen; Soltesz, Ivan; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2011-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FSs) constitute the most prevalent seizure type during childhood. Whether prolonged FSs alter limbic excitability, leading to spontaneous seizures (temporal lobe epilepsy) during adulthood, has been controversial. Recent data indicate that, in the immature rat model, prolonged FSs induce transient structural changes of some hippocampal pyramidal neurons and long-term functional changes of hippocampal circuitry. However, whether these neuroanatomical and electrophysiological changes promote hippocampal excitability and lead to epilepsy has remained unknown. By using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we determined that prolonged hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats caused long-term enhanced susceptibility to limbic convulsants that lasted to adulthood. Thus, extensive hippocampal electroencephalographic and behavioral monitoring failed to demonstrate spontaneous seizures in adult rats that had experienced hyperthermic seizures during infancy. However, 100% of animals developed hippocampal seizures after systemic administration of a low dose of kainate, and most progressed to status epilepticus. Conversely, a minority of normothermic and hyperthermic controls had (brief) seizures, none developing status epilepticus. In vitro, spontaneous epileptiform discharges were not observed in hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slices derived from either control or experimental groups. However, Schaeffer collateral stimulation induced prolonged, self-sustaining, status epilepticus-like discharges exclusively in slices from experimental rats. These data indicate that hyperthermic seizures in the immature rat model of FSs do not cause spontaneous limbic seizures during adulthood. However, they reduce thresholds to chemical convulsants in vivo and electrical stimulation in vitro, indicating persistent enhancement of limbic excitability that may facilitate the development of epilepsy. PMID:10716253

  4. Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Jannatifar, Rahil; Shokri, Saeed; Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejatbakhsh, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature. This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time. 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Group C (control) without any treatment, and group D (vehicle) received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution in two periods 35 and 70 days. 40 immature rats were divided into 4 groups same as mature ones. After surgery body weight, testis size, histomorphometry of testis, and serum testosterone level were evaluated. Our results showed that ND decreased the number of Leydig cells in group B (39.9 ±. 919), group A (43.4 ±. 120), and long term (40.6 ±. 299) immature rats, which could result in a reduction of testosterone concentration significantly in all experimental groups except short term mature group. Number of sertoli cells, testis size, and diameter of seminiferous tubules decreased in the long-term immature group. Eventually, the number of sperm was decreased in mature and immature groups, but a severe depletion of sperm was occurred in both mature and immature in long time in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). This time course study showed that supraphysiological dose of ND may negatively affect the number of Leydig cells, sperm cell, and testosterone concentration of immature rats in the same matter of mature rats. However, the number of sertoli cell, testis size, and seminferous diameter were decreased only in the long immature rats.

  5. Isoflavone genistein inhibits estrogen-induced chloride and bicarbonate secretory mechanisms in the uterus in rats.

    PubMed

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesized that genistein could affect the chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) secretory mechanisms in uterus. Ovariectomized female rats were given estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone with 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day genistein. Following completion of the treatment, uterine fluid Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations were determined by in vivo uterine perfusion. Uteri were subjected for molecular biological analysis (Western blot, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry) to detect levels of expression of Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger (SLC26a6), Na + /HCO 3 - cotransporter (SLC4a4), and estrogen receptor (ER)-α and β. Coadministration of genistein resulted in decrease in Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations and expression of CFTR, SLC26a6, SLC4a4, and ER-α and ER-β in the uteri of estradiol-treated rats. In estradiol plus progesterone-treated rats, a significant increase in the above parameters were observed following high-dose genistein treatment except for the SLC24a4 level. In conclusion, genistein-induced changes in the uterus could affect the reproductive processes that might result in infertility. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Inhibition of P$sup 32$ Capture in the Ovaries and Uterus of White Rats Following the Administration of Pineal Hormone; L'INHIBITION DE LA CAPTATION DU PHOSPHORE P$sup 32$ CHEZ LES RATS ALBINOS AU NIVEAU DES OVARIES ET DE L'UTERUS APRES L'ADMINISTRATION DE L'EPIPHYSEHORMONE

    SciTech Connect

    Milcou, S.M.; Serban, Al.M.D. et al.

    A study was made in the rat of the modifications in the rate of P/sup 32/ uptake by the ovaries and uterus following the administration of pineal hormone. A dose of 10 mu c of P/sup 32/ was injected intraperitoneally in nubile and nonnubile female rats which had received pineal hormone for ten days. The animals were sacrificed after 4 and 24 hours. The results showed that the rate of P/sup 32/ uptake was reduced in the ovaries and uterus. Antuitrin S and pinea1 hormone were injected into non-nubile rats to study a possible inhibition of gonadotropin by this hormone.more » Gonadotropin causes an increase in P/sup 32/ uptake by the ovary and uterus with a progressive tendency for the first 24 hours. Pineal hormone causes a decrease in the degree of P/sup 32/ uptake produced by the gonadotropin. (J.S.R.)« less

  7. Artemisinin induces hormonal imbalance and oxidative damage in the erythrocytes and uterus but not in the ovary of rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, E O; Abolaji, A O; Adedara, I A; Maduako, I; Omodanisi, I

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is an antimalarial drug previously reported to induce neurotoxicity and embryotoxicity in animal models. This study investigated the erythrocytes and reproductive toxicity potentials of artemisinin in female rats. Animals were randomly divided into four study groups of eight rats each. The control group (group I) received corn oil, the vehicle, while groups II-IV were orally exposed to 7, 35 and 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) of artemisinin, respectively, by gastric intubation for 7 consecutive days. Subsequently, we evaluated the impact of artemisinin on the endocrine environment and selected markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant status of the erythrocytes, ovary and uterus. Artemisinin significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreased catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in erythrocytes and uterus of rats compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, artemisinin did not alter ovarian MDA, H2O2, glutathione levels and catalase activity, while ovarian and uterine histological assessment revealed absence of visible lesions. Moreover, artemisinin significantly decreased follicle-stimulating hormone and increased progesterone levels compared with control (p < 0.05). Thus, these data suggest that in the absence of malarial parasite infection, artemisinin induced hormonal imbalance and oxidative damage in the erythrocytes and uterus but spared the ovary of rats. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Histopathologic Changes in the Uterus, Cervix and Vagina of Immature CD-1 Mice Exposed to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Uterotrophic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Darlene; Reed, Casey E.; Moore, Alicia B.; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene A.; Hines, Erin P.; Wallace, Elizabeth A.; Stanko, Jason P.; Lu, Yi; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Newbold, Retha R.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was assessed using an immature mouse uterotrophic assay and by histologic evaluation of the uterus, cervix and vagina following treatment. Female offspring of CD-1 dams were weaned at 18 days old and assigned to groups of equal weight, and received 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg PFOA/kg BW/d by gavage with or without 17-β estradiol (E2, 500 μg/kg/d) from PND18-20 (n=8/treatment/block). At 24 hr after the third dose (PND 21), uteri were removed and weighed. Absolute and relative uterine weights were significantly increased in the 0.01 mg/kg PFOA only group. Characteristic estrogenic changes were present in all E2-treated mice; however, they were minimally visible in the 0.01 PFOA only mice. These data suggest that at a low dose PFOA produces minimal histopathologic changes in the reproductive tract of immature female mice, and does not antagonize the cellular effects of E2. PMID:22146484

  9. Effect of the aqueous extract of Senecio biafrae (Oliv. & Hiern) J. Moore on some fertility parameters in immature female rat.

    PubMed

    Lienou, L L; Telefo, P B; Njimou, J R; Nangue, C; Bayala, B R; Goka, S C; Biapa, P; Yemele, M D; Donfack, N J; Mbemya, J T; Tagne, S R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2015-02-23

    Senecio biafrae is a plant from the huge family of Asteraceae used in the African pharmacopoeia for the treatment of many ailments among which is infertility. The aqueous extract, which was primarily subjected to polyphenol analysis, has been administered to immature female rats for 20 days at 8, 32, 64 and 128 mg/kg of body weight. The day following the treatment, the animals were sacrificed; their serum, ovary and uterus were retained respectively for reproductive hormones, ovarian and uterine proteins, and ovarian cholesterol assays. Light body weight gain variation of treated animals was observed during the experimental period. A significant increase (p ˂ 0.05) in serum estradiol and proteins as well as in uterine weight (p ˂ 0.01) of all Senecio biafrae treated animals was noted. No significant variation was noticed in the ovarian weight and follicle numbers. The various biochemical and physiological parameters of fertility were significantly improved with the aqueous extract of Senecio biafrae, thus attesting some of its traditional usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization of insulin resistance and glycolytic metabolism in the rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Sun, Xue; Sun, Xiaoyan; Meng, Fanci; Hu, Min; Li, Xin; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Brännström, Mats; Shao, Ruijin; Billig, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the primary features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, how insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism affect uterine function and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS are open questions. We treated rats with insulin alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and showed that peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism alter uterine morphology, cell phenotype, and cell function, especially in glandular epithelial cells. These defects are associated with an aberration in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is used as an indicator for the onset of insulin resistance in classical metabolic tissues. Concomitantly, increased GSK3β (Ser-9) phosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rats treated with insulin and hCG were also observed. We also profiled the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoform genes in the uterus under conditions of insulin resistance and/or hyperandrogenism. Finally, we determined the expression pattern of glycolytic enzymes and intermediates during insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in the uterus. These findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways play a role in the onset of uterine insulin resistance, and they also suggest that changes in specific Glut isoform expression and alterations to glycolytic metabolism contribute to the endometrial dysfunction observed in PCOS patients. PMID:27461373

  11. Age, Dose, and Time-Dependency of Plasma and Tissue Distribution of Deltamethrine in Immature Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objective of this project was to characterize the systemic disposition of the pyrethroid, deltamethrin (DLT), in immature rats, with emphasis on the age-dependence of target organ (brain) dosimetry. Postnatal day (PND) 10, 21, and 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0...

  12. [Experimental study on the possibility of brain damage induced by chronic treatment with phenobarbital, clonazepam, valproic acid and topiramate in immature rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-xia; Cai, Fang-cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ping

    2007-02-01

    To explore the possibility of brain damage induced by several anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) at therapeutic level to immature brain of rat. Totally 160 healthy Spraque-Dawley (SD) rats selected for the study were divided into infant and adult groups. Each age group was treated with phenobarbital (PB), clonazepam (CZP), valproic acid (VPA), topiramate (TPM) or normal saline respectively for 2 or 5 weeks with 8 rats in each group. The steady-state plasma concentrations of AEDs at the experimental dosage were coincided with the range of clinical therapeutic concentrations. Drug levels in plasma were determined by fluorescence polarization. Body and brain weights were measured when the rats were sacrificed. Histological studies on the tissues of frontal lobes and hippocampus were performed by Nissl staining. And ultrastructural changes of brain were observed by the transmission electron microscopy. Plasma neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was determined by ELISA. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax in neurons was detected by immunohistochemistry. Neuronal apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). (1) There were no significant differences in brain weight among all adults groups. While remarkable reduction of brain weight was observed in immature rats exposed to CZP or PB (P < 0.01) for long term. (2) Significant neurodegeneration, neuronal necrosis and decrease in the number of neurons can be observed in the immature rats exposed to CZP or PB for long period. (3) For immature rats, concentration of plasma NSE was increased even after short-term treatment with PB [(8.84 +/- 2.10) nmol/L] compared with control group [(6.27 +/- 1.27) nmol/L] (P < 0.01). And it was increased in immature rats exposed to CZP [(8.15 +/- 1.67) nmol/L] or PB [(8.07 +/- 1.27) nmol/L] for long term compared with controls [(6.02 +/- 1.20) nmol/L] (P < 0.01). But there were no significant differences between AEDs-treated adult

  13. Royal Jelly Promotes Ovarian Follicles Growth and Increases Steroid Hormones in Immature Rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Elham; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khazaei, Mozafar; Nejati, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a complementary diet widely prescribed by traditional medicine specialists for treatment of infertility. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of RJ on a set of reproductive parameters in immature female rats. In this experimental study, thirty two immature female rats (30-35 g) were divided into four groups (n=8/group): three experimental groups and one control. The experimental groups received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight doses of RJ daily for 14 days, and the control group received 0.5 ml distilled water interaperitonealy (i.p). The treated rats were sacrificed and their ovaries were dissected for histological examination. The serum levels of ovarian hormones, nitric oxide (NO) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated, and the ratios of the ovarian and uterine weight to body weight were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. The body weights were significantly different (P=0.002) among the rat groups, with an increase in all RJ treated animals. Uterine and ovarian weights and the serum levels of progesterone (P=0.013) and estradiol (P=0.004) were significantly increased in experimental groups compared to the control group. In addition, a significant increase in the number of mature follicles and corpora lutea (P=0.007) was seen in RJ recipients compared to the controls. A significant increase in the serum levels of FRAP (P=0.009) and a significant decrease in NO level (P=0.013) were also observed. RJ promotes folliculogensis and increases ovarian hormones. This product can be considered as a natural growth stimulator for immature female animals. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  14. Peri-pubertal high caffeine exposure increases ovarian estradiol production in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yoojin; Choi, Hyeonhae; Bae, Jaeman; Choi, Yun-Young; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-04-01

    Chronic caffeine consumption exerts a negligible effect on the reproductive organs of normal adult females, but it is not known whether this is also true for children and adolescents. Here, we investigated the effects of high caffeine exposure on sexual maturation and ovarian estradiol production in immature female rats. Immature female SD rats were divided into controls and caffeine groups fed 120 and 180mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 weeks. There was a significant delay in vaginal opening in the caffeine-fed groups. In addition, serum estradiol levels were elevated in the caffeine-fed animals after 2 and 4 weeks of exposure. Estradiol secretion as well as aromatase expression also increased significantly in the ovarian cells in response to caffeine. These results demonstrate that peripubertal exposure to high caffeine increases estradiol production in the ovary; this may disturb the coordinated regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis, thereby interfering with sexual maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of myoelectric signals of pregnant rat uterus: new method to detect myometrial contraction

    PubMed Central

    Szűcs, Kálmán F.; Grosz, György; Süle, Miklós; Nagy, Anikó; Tiszai, Zita; Samavati, Reza; Gáspár, Róbert

    2017-01-01

    Aim To develop an electromyography method for pregnant rat uterus in vivo and to separate myometrial signals from the gastrointestinal tract signals. Methods Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8) were anaesthetized and their stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were removed from the abdomen. A pair of thread electrodes was inserted into the uterus, while a pair of disk electrodes was placed subcutaneously above the myometrium. Additionally, a strain gauge sensor was fixed on the surface of the myometrium and cecum for the parallel detection of mechanical contractions in rats (n = 18) with intact gastrointestinal tract. The filtered electric signals were amplified and recorded by an online computer system and analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. The frequency of the electric activity was characterized by cycle per minute (cpm), the magnitude of the activity was described as power spectrum density maximum (PsDmax). Results The frequency of the pregnant uterine activity was 1-3 cpm, which falls within the same range as that of cecum. Measuring by both electrodes, oxytocin (1 µg/kg) increased and terbutaline (50 µg/kg) decreased the PsDmax by 25%-50% (P < 0.001) and 25%-40% (P < 0.01), respectively. We found a strong positive correlation between the alterations of PsDmax values and the strain gauge sensor-detected mechanical contractions (area under curve). The GI specific compounds (neostigmine, atropine) mainly affected the cecal activity, while myometrium specific drugs (oxytocin, terbutaline) influenced the myometrial signals only. Conclusion Our method proved to be able to detect the myoelectric activity that reflects the mechanical contraction. The overlapping myometrial and cecal signals are not separable, but they can be distinguished based on the much higher activity and different pharmacological reactivity of the pregnant uterus. Thus, the early signs of contractions can be detected and labor may be predicted in a fast and

  16. Royal Jelly Promotes Ovarian Follicles Growth and Increases Steroid Hormones in Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Elham; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khazaei, Mozafar; Nejati, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Background Royal jelly (RJ) is a complementary diet widely prescribed by traditional medicine specialists for treatment of in- fertility. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of RJ on a set of reproductive parameters in immature female rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, thirty two immature female rats (30-35 g) were divided into four groups (n=8/group): three experimental groups and one control. The experimental groups received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/body weight doses of RJ daily for 14 days, and the control group received 0.5 ml distilled water interaperito- nealy (i.p). The treated rats were sacrificed and their ovaries were dissected for histological examination. The serum levels of ovarian hormones, nitric oxide (NO) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated, and the ratios of the ovarian and uterine weight to body weight were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results The body weights were significantly different (P=0.002) among the rat groups, with an increase in all RJ treated animals. Uterine and ovarian weights and the serum levels of progesterone (P=0.013) and estradiol (P=0.004) were significantly increased in experimental groups compared to the control group. In addition, a significant increase in the number of mature follicles and corpora lutea (P=0.007) was seen in RJ recipients compared to the controls. A significant increase in the serum levels of FRAP (P=0.009) and a significant decrease in NO level (P=0.013) were also observed. Conclusion RJ promotes folliculogensis and increases ovarian hormones. This product can be considered as a natural growth stimulator for immature female animals. PMID:29043701

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of constitutive and inducible cyclo-oxygenases in rat uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fang, L; Chatterjee, S; Dong, Y L; Gangula, P R; Yallampalli, C

    1998-06-01

    The uterus is a rich source of eicosanoids synthesized from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Two isoforms of cyclo-oxygenase, constitutive (COX-I) and inducible (COX-II) enzyme, have been reported. In the present study, we have immunohistochemically mapped the distribution of both COX-I and COX-II during various physiological states of the rat uterus. Uterine tissue was collected from female rats (a) during different stages of the oestrous cycle, (b) on days 1, 4, 8 and 18 of gestation, (c) after spontaneous delivery and (d) post partum, and fixed in Bouin's fixative. After paraffin wax embedding, 5-microm-thick sections were immunohistochemically stained by the ABC technique. Observation of the stained sections under the light microscope revealed that, in non-pregnant rat uterus, both COX-I and COX-II were abundantly expressed in the endometrium, with minimal staining observed in the myometrium. Staining was more prominent in epithelial cells than in stromal cells. The intensity of staining in epithelial cells was highest at pro-oestrus and oestrus and lowest at dioestrus. In pregnant rats, although the expression of both COX-I and COX-II was localized primarily to the endometrium with very little staining in the myometrium on day 1 of gestation, both of these enzymes were also apparent in myometrial cells by day 4 of gestation. The staining intensity of endometrial and myometrial cells increased further with the progression of gestation, being maximal at the time of spontaneous delivery. During the post-partum period, however, the staining intensity for both of the enzymes in endometrium and myometrium was decreased. Thus, our studies show that the expression of cyclo-oxygenases in various uterine cells vary with the oestrous cycle and with pregnancy. Furthermore, prominent increases in the expression of cyclo-oxygenases in the myometrium during pregnancy and parturition imply that the cyclo-oxygenase system in the myometrium may

  18. Comparison of estrogenic responses in bone and uterus depending on the parity status in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Jarry, Hubertus; Vollmer, Günter; Zierau, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive transition of women through peri- to postmenopause is characterized by changes in steroid hormone levels due to the cessation of the ovarian function. Beside several complaints associated with these hormonal changes, the deterioration of the trabecular bone micro-architecture and the loss of skeletal mass can cause osteoporosis. At this life stage, women often have a reproductive history of one to several pregnancies. The ovariectomized skeletally mature rat (>10 months old) is one of the most commonly used animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis research. Despite the fact that mammals can undergo up to several reproductive cycles (primi-/pluriparous), nulliparous animals are often used and the question whether changes in the hormonal milieu subsequently affect the skeleton and influence the outcome of intervention studies is often neglected in study designs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the estrogen responsiveness of nulliparous and pluriparous rats. For this purpose, one year old virgin or retired breeder Lewis rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized, whereas half of the ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous 17β-estradiol pellets eight weeks after surgery. After another four weeks, the effects on the uterus were determined by expression analysis of estrogen-dependently regulated steroid receptor genes and well-established marker genes. Moreover, trabecular bone parameters in the tibia were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Parity-dependency in estrogen responsiveness was observed with respect to the achieved serum E2 levels in response to similar E2 treatment. This led to differences both on the uterus wet weight and on the expression level of uterine target genes. In addition, a reversal of the ovariectomy-induced changes of the bone architecture after 17β-estradiol substitution was only observed among the nulliparous. In conclusion, the observations of this study support parity

  19. Alterations of Hippocampal Myelin Sheath and Axon Sprouting by Status Convulsion and Regulating Lingo-1 Expression with RNA Interference in Immature and Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Jie; Han, Wei; He, Rong; Li, Tian-Yi; Xie, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Li; Chen, Heng-Sheng; Jiang, Li

    2018-03-01

    Seizure-induced brain damage is age-dependent, as evidenced by the different alterations of neural physiopathology in developing and mature brains. However, little is known about the age-dependent characteristics of myelinated fiber injury induced by seizures. Considering the critical functions of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in myelination and Lingo-1 signaling in regulating OPCs' differentiation, the present study aimed to explore the effects of Lingo-1 on myelin and axon in immature and adult rats after status convulsion (SC) induced by lithium-pilocarpine, and the differences between immature and adult brains. Dynamic variations in electrophysiological activity and spontaneous recurrent seizures were recorded by electroencephalogram monitoring after SC. The impaired microstructures of myelin sheaths and decrease in myelin basic protein caused by SC were observed through transmission electron microscopy and western blot analysis respectively, which became more severe in adult rats, but improved gradually in immature rats. Aberrant axon sprouting occurred in adult rats, which was more prominent than in immature rats, as shown by a Timm stain. This damage was improved or negatively affected after down or upregulating Lingo-1 expression. These results demonstrated that in both immature and adult brains, Lingo-1 signaling plays important roles in seizure-induced damage to myelin sheaths and axon growth. The plasticity of the developing brain may provide a potential window of opportunity to prevent the brain from damage.

  20. Pregnancy swimming causes short- and long-term neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia in very immature rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Durán-Carabali, Luz Elena; Tosta, Andrea; Nicola, Fabrício; Schmitz, Felipe; Rodrigues, André; Siebert, Cassiana; Wyse, Angela; Netto, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundHypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm newborn. Swimming during pregnancy alters the offspring's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain.MethodsFemale Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to the sedentary (SE, n=6) or the swimming (SW, n=6) group. From gestational day 0 (GD0) to GD21 the rats in the SW group were made to swim for 20 min/day. HI on postnatal day (PND) 3 rats caused sensorimotor and cognitive impairments. Animals were distributed into SE sham (SESH), sedentary HIP3 (SEHI), swimming sham (SWSH), and swimming HIP3 (SWHI) groups. At PND4 and PND5, Na + /K + -ATPase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed. During lactation and adulthood, neurological reflexes, sensorimotor, anxiety-related, and cognitive evaluations were made, followed by histological assessment at PND60.ResultsAt early stages, swimming caused an increase in hippocampal BDNF levels and in the maintenance of Na + /K + -ATPase function in the SWHI group. The SWHI group showed smaller lesions and the preservation of white matter tracts. SEHI animals showed a delay in reflex maturation, which was reverted in the SWHI group. HIP3 induced spatial memory deficits and hypomyelination in SEHI rats, which was reverted in the SWHI group.ConclusionSwimming during pregnancy neuroprotected the brains against HI in very immature neonatal rats.

  1. Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole on the steroidogenesis of rat immature Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoheng; Cao, Shuyan; Mao, Baiping; Bai, Yanfang; Chen, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiudi; Wu, Ying; Li, Linxi; Lin, Han; Lian, Qingquan; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-09-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic antioxidant used for food preservation. Whether BHA affects testosterone biosynthesis is still unclear. The effects of BHA on the steroidogenesis in rat immature Leydig cells were investigated. Rat immature Leydig cells were isolated from 35-old-day rats and cultured with BHA (50 μM) for 3 h in combination with 22R-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone, and the concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured. Leydig cells were cultured with BHA (0.05-50 μM) for 3 h. Q-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of following genes: Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1 and Akr1c14. The testis microsomes were prepared to detect the direct action of BHA on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1), 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 activities. In Leydig cells, BHA (50 μM) significantly inhibited LH- and 8Br-cAMP-mediated androgen production. BHA directly inhibited rat testis CYP17A1 and HSD3B1 activities. At 50 μM, it also reduced the expression levels of Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1 and their protein levels. In conclusion, BHA directly inhibits the activities of CYP17A1 and HSD3B1, and the expression levels of Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1, leading to the lower production of androgen in Leydig cells.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of MK-801 against traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Ataç; Sayın, Oya; Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Çalişir, Meryem

    2015-06-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in pediatric ages and also has major social, economic, and emotional outcomes, with diverse sequelae in many spheres of everyday life. We aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on hippocampal damage and behavioral deficits on 10-day-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. The aims of the present study were to determine: (i) the short term effects of MK-801 on hippocampal BDNF, NGF and NMDA receptor immunoreactivity and neuron density in hippocampus (ii) long term effects of MK-801 on cognitive dysfunction following TBI in the immature rats. MK-801, was injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 1mg/kg of body weight immediately after induction of traumatic injury. Hippocampal damage was examined by cresyl violet staining, BDNF, NGF and NMDAR receptor immunohistochemistry on P10 day and behavioral alterations were evaluated using elevated plus maze and novel object recognition tests two months after the trauma. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations showed that treatment with a single dose of 1mg/kg MK-801 (i.p.) significantly ameliorated the trauma induced hippocampal neuron loss and decreased BDNF, NGF and NMDAR expressions in CA1, CA3 and DG hippocampal brain regions. Additionally, treatment with MK-801 ameliorated anxiety and hippocampus dependent memory of animals subjected to trauma. These results show that acute treatment of MK-801 has a neuroprotective role against trauma induced hippocampal neuron loss and associated cognitive impairment in immature rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nandrolone decanoate and physical effort: histological and morphometrical assessment in adult rat uterus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; de Souza, Roberta Barreiros; Frei, Fernando; de Fátima Paccola Mesquita, Suzana; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2011-02-01

    In the past decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit abuse of these drugs by athletes and non-athletes. Since that AAS can affect the reproductive tract, resulting in reproduction and fertilization damages, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nandrolone decanoate (ND) effects, associated or not with physical effort, on the uterine histomorphometric parameters. Female Wistar rats, sedentary or not, were exposed to treatment with ND by intraperitoneal injection (5 mg/kg/day, once a week) during four consecutive weeks. Control animals, sedentary or not, received vehicle alone (propylene glycol) in the same manner. The physical activity was forced swimming (20 min/day). During the experiment, all animals were monitored by daily vaginal smears. After 30 days of treatment, the females were sacrificed and their uteri collected and examined under light microscopy techniques. The ND-treated females showed estrus acyclicity and decreased thickness of both the epithelium and endometrial stroma. A reduction in the number and size of blood vessels was also found in ND-treated rats submitted to physical effort when compared to ND sedentary rats. ND-treated rats, regardless of exercise, exhibited stromal fibrosis and reduced gland ducts that displayed high mitotic activity. A remarkable widespread presence of leukocytes occurred in rats receiving ND and submitted to exercise. These results suggest that ND associated or not with physical effort causes histomorphometric changes to the rat uterus. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  5. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Developmental Anomalies of the Uterus and the Vagina in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sharon W; Epelman, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Developmental anomalies of the uterus and the vagina are associated with infertility and miscarriage and are most commonly detected in the postpubertal age-group. These conditions may also present in younger patients as a mass or pain owing to obstruction of the uterus or the vagina. Associated urinary tract anomalies are common, as well. Accurate diagnosis and thorough description of these anomalies is essential for appropriate management; however, evaluation may be difficult in an immature reproductive tract. Magnetic resonance imaging technique pertinent to imaging of the pediatric female reproductive tract is presented and illustrated along with the findings associated with various anomalies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specialised sympathetic neuroeffector associations in immature rat iris arterioles

    PubMed Central

    SANDOW, SHAUN L.; HILL, CARYL E.

    1999-01-01

    Sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction in iris arterioles of mature rats occurs via the activation of α1B-adrenoceptors alone, while in immature rat iris arterioles, vasoconstriction occurs via activation of both α1- and α2-adrenoceptors. In mature rats the vast majority of sympathetic varicosities form close neuroeffector junctions. Serial section electron microscopy of 14 d iris arterioles has been used to determine whether restriction in physiological receptor types with age may result from the establishment of these close neuroeffector junctions. Ninety varicosities which lay within 4 μm of arteriolar smooth muscle were followed for their entire length. Varicosities rarely contained dense cored vesicles even after treatment with 5-hydroxydopamine. 47% of varicosities formed close associations with muscle cells and 88% formed close associations with muscle cells or melanocytes. Varicosities in bundles were as likely as single varicosities to form close associations with vascular smooth muscle cells, although the distribution of synaptic vesicles in single varicosities did not show the asymmetric accumulation towards the smooth muscle cells seen in the varicosities in bundles which were frequently clustered together. We conclude that restriction of physiological receptor types during development does not appear to correlate with the establishment of close neuroeffector junctions, although changes in presynaptic structures may contribute to the refinement of postsynaptic responses. PMID:10529061

  8. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA. PMID:27827907

  9. Pueraria mirifica Exerts Estrogenic Effects in the Mammary Gland and Uterus and Promotes Mammary Carcinogenesis in Donryu Rats.

    PubMed

    Kakehashi, Anna; Yoshida, Midori; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Naomi; Okuno, Takahiro; Gi, Min; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-11-04

    Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N -ethyl- N '-nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3%, and more pronouncedly, at 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA.

  10. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Methods Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. Results The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001). GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg) treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg), EST (0.2 mg/kg), and ORZ (200 mg/kg) (P<0.05). Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg) compared to the OVX untreated group (P<0.05), and there was a slight non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P<0.05) in the treated groups compared to the OVX untreated group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER

  11. Transplant of insulin-like growth factor-1 expressing bone marrow stem cells improves functional regeneration of injured rat uterus by NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Mengnan; Jin, Minfei; Wu, Yuelin; Zheng, Tao; Gu, Shengyi; Hua, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the potential beneficial effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in BMSC transplantation therapy of uterus injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms, rat BMSCs were isolated and cultured. The relative expressions of IGF-1 and IL-10 were determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. The secretory IL-10 and released E2 were measured using ELISA kits. The relative vWF and α-SMA expressions were determined by immunohistochemistry. The direct binding of NF-κB subunit p50 with IL-10 promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The regulation of IL-10 expression by p50 was interrogated by luciferase reporter assay. Our data demonstrated that IGF-1 expression in BMSCs induced IL-10 expression and secretion, which was further enhanced by E2-PLGA. IGF-1 overexpression improved BMSCs transplantation therapy in rat uterus injury. We further demonstrated that both inhibition and knockdown of p50 abolished IGF-1-induced expression and secretion of IL-10 in BMSCs, which consequently compromised the IGF-1 conferred therapeutic benefits against uterus injury. Furthermore, we elucidated that p50 regulated IL-10 expression via direct association with its promoter. Our data suggested that transplantation of IGF-1 overexpressing BMSCs improved functional regeneration of injured uterus by inducing IL-10 expression and secretion via activation of NF-κB signalling. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Prevention of hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats by a hydantoin derivative of naloxone.

    PubMed

    Chatterjie, N; Laorden, M L; Puig, M M; Alexander, G J

    1989-01-01

    The non-specific opiate antagonist naloxone protects immature rats from hyperthermic seizures which occur when the animals are exposed to an environment of 40 degrees C and 55% humidity. Most of the currently used antiepileptic therapeutic agents can be said to contain either a hydantoin or a moiety stereochemically closely related to one. We have added a hydantoin group to naloxone and created a new combined chemical, naloxyl-6-alpha spirohydantoin. The new compound was ten times as effective as naloxone against hyperthermic seizures in 15-day old rat pups. Unlike naloxone, the new naloxone-hydantoin derivative retained a protective effect 24 hrs after injection.

  13. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    PubMed

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  14. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects. PMID:19428502

  15. Radioprotective potential of histamine on rat small intestine and uterus

    PubMed Central

    Carabajal, E.; Massari, N.; Croci, M.; Martinel Lamas, D.; Prestifilippo, J.P.; Ciraolo, P.; Bergoc, R.M.; Rivera, E.S.; Medina, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve knowledge about histamine radioprotective potential investigating its effect on reducing ionising radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage on the rat small intestine and uterus. Forty 10-week-old male and 40 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Histamine and histamine-5Gy groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Histamine-5Gy and untreated-5Gy groups were irradiated with a dose of whole-body Cesium-137 irradiation. Three days after irradiation animals were sacrificed and tissues were removed, fixed, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and histological characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA markers were studied by immunohistochemistry, while micronucleus assay was performed to evaluate chromosomal damage. Histamine treatment reduced radiation-induced mucosal atrophy, oedema and vascular damage produced by ionising radiation, increasing the number of crypts per circumference (239±12 vs 160±10; P<0.01). This effect was associated with a reduction of radiation-induced intestinal crypts apoptosis. Additionally, histamine decreased the frequency of micronuclei formation and also significantly attenuated 8-OHdG immunoreactivity, a marker of DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, radiation induced flattening of the endometrial surface, depletion of deep glands and reduced mitosis, effects that were completely blocked by histamine treatment. The expression of a proliferation marker in uterine luminal and glandular cells was markedly stimulated in histamine treated and irradiated rats. The obtained evidences indicate that histamine is a potential candidate as a safe radio-protective agent that might increase the therapeutic index of radiotherapy for intra-abdominal and pelvic cancers. However, its efficacy needs to be carefully investigated in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23361244

  16. Phytochemical characteristic and uterotonic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves in rats uterus.

    PubMed

    Amiera, Z Umi Romaizatul; Nihayah, M; Wahida, I Farah; Rajab, N F

    2014-09-01

    Ficus deltoidea is traditionally consumed by Malay woman to augment labour and hastening parturition. This study was to investigate the phytochemical present and uterotonic activity of F. deltoidea var. Deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. Angustifolia (FDA) leaves aqueous extract. FDD and FDA were qualitatively analysed. In uterine contraction activity, adult female Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 0.2 mg kg(-1) diethylstilbestrol 24 h to induce oestrus phase. The rats then killed and uterine horns were taken out, cut into two centimetres length and put into organ bath that connected to Powerlab instrument. The uterus separately tested with cumulative concentrations of FDD (10-1280 μg mL(-1)), FDA (10-1280 μg mL(-1)), oxytocin (0.02-0.64 μg mL(-1)) and combination of oxytocin (0.08 μg mL(-1)) with FDD and FDA (10-1280 μg mL(-1)). FDD showed presence of flavonoid, saponin and tannin meanwhile FDA consist of flavonoid, tannin and terpenoid. Result showed FDD, FDA and oxytocin induced a dose-related increase in force of contraction of isolated rat uterus. The maximum uterine contraction (Emax) produced by FDD, FDA and oxytocin were at the concentration 640 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 5.903 ± 0.529 μg mL), 20 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 290.5 ± 0.158 μg mL(-1)) and 0.4 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 0.060 ± 0.011 μg mL(-1)) respectively. Combination effects of oxytocin with FDD and FDA produced Emax at the concentration 80 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 270.3 ± 0.643 μg mL(-1)) and 1280 μg mL(-1) (EC50, 26.83 ± 0.727 μg mL(-1)), respectively. Study indicated F. deltoidea possess contractile effect on uterine contraction. This plant has great potential to develop as natural uterotonic agent in inducing labour and treatment for post-partum haemorrhage.

  17. [Effect of estradiol on the prolactin content in the adenohypophysis of sexually mature and immature rats].

    PubMed

    Arse, Kh A

    1979-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis was used in a comparative study of prolactin content in the hypophysis of rats of different age and sex, and at various stages of the estral cycle. The hormone level in the pubertal rats was twice or thrice greater than in the immature ones; it was by 16% less at the diestrus than at the estrus stage. There was no change in the hypophysis prolactin content in male rats at puberty. Ovariectomy was accompained by a sharp reduction of prolactin in the hypophysis. Replacing estradiol therapy increased the amount of prolactin in the hypophysis, without bringing it, however, to the level characteristic of intact rats. Estrogens are responsible for the maintenance of prolactin level, but apparently other factors influencing its content in the hypophysis also exist.

  18. Wistar rats immature testicular tissue vitrification and heterotopic grafting.

    PubMed

    Benvenutti, Larissa; Salvador, Rafael Alonso; Til, David; Senn, Alfred Paul; Tames, David Rivero; Amaral, Nicole Louise Lângaro; Amaral, Vera Lúcia Lângaro

    2018-04-25

    To evaluate the efficiency of two vitrification protocols for rat immature testicular tissue and heterotopic transplantation. Twenty-four pre-pubertal Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8). After orchiectomy, testicular fragments (3mm) from Groups 1 and 2 were vitrified with different cryoprotectant concentration solutions, using sterile inoculation loops as support. After warming up, the fragments were submitted to cell viability assessment by Trypan blue and histological evaluation. Vitrified (Groups 1 and 2) and fresh (Group 3) fragments were grafted to the animals periauricular region. After 8 weeks of grafting, the implant site was histologically analyzed. The viability recovery rate from Group 1 (72.09%) was higher (p=0.02) than that from Group 2 (59.19%). Histological analysis showed similar tubular integrity between fresh fragments from Groups 1 and 3. Group 2 samples presented lower tubular integrity. We ran histological analyses in the grafts from the Groups. In all groups, it was possible to see the implant site, however, no fragment of testicular tissue or signs of inflammation were histologically found in most samples from Groups 1 and 3. In one sample from Group 2, we found degenerated seminiferous tubules with necrosis and signs of an inflammatory process. In another sample from Group 2, we found seminiferous tubules in the implant site. The vitrification of pre-pubertal testicular tissue of rats showed little damage to cell viability through histological analysis when we used cryoprotectants in a lower concentration. Heterotopic transplantation could not preserve the structural organization of the testicular tissue.

  19. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Ameliorates Arsenic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Rat Uterus by Modulating MAPK Signaling Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Chatterji, Urmi

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to arsenic leads to inhibition of the anti-oxidant defense mechanism of the body. Reactive oxygen species generated in response to arsenic causes reproductive failures in exposed females and also acts as an inducer of apoptosis. As a prospective remedial agent, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed for reversing arsenic-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or up to 56 days. Production of H 2 O 2 was detected using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein diacetate (DCFCA) by flow cytometry. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, ALT, and AST were estimated by biochemical assays and Western blot analyses. Detection of apoptosis was performed using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide. Expressions of p53, p21, cleaved caspase 3, JNK/pJNK, and ERK/pERK levels were estimated using Western blot analysis. Elemental arsenic deposition in the rat uterus and liver was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Our results confirmed that ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced ROS generation, restored redox balance, and prevented apoptosis. Concomitant recovery was observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Tissue arsenic deposition was significantly reduced in the uterus upon continuous ATRA treatment. The results revealed that ATRA reversed arsenic-induced free radical generation, activated the anti-oxidant defence system, and subsequently repressed p53-dependent apoptosis through inhibition of the MAPK signaling components. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3796-3809, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alpha-tocopherol succinate increases cyclooxygenase-2 activity: Tissue-specific action in pregnant rat uterus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kothencz, Anna; Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Csányi, Adrienn; Gáspár, Róbert

    2018-01-01

    Lipid soluble vitamin E plays a role in several physiological mechanisms, however, the mechanism of this action is controversial. We investigated how tocopherol (α-tocopherol acid succinate) influences the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXi) in the smooth muscles. The contractility of the samples from 22-day-pregnant myometrium and non-pregnant myometrium and trachea was determined in an isolated organ bath in vitro. The activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX) was also measured in the tissues. Diclofenac (10 -9 -10 -5 M) and rofecoxib (10 -10 -10 -5 M) decreased the contractions in non-pregnant and 22-day-pregnant uteri. Tocopherol (10 -7 M) increased the relaxant effect only in pregnant uteri. Both diclofenac (10 -9 -10 -5 M) and rofecoxib (10 -10 -10 -5 M) reduced the tracheal tones, while they were slightly intensified by pretreatment with tocopherol (10 -7 M). Tocopherol enhanced the contractions of pregnant uteri. Tocopherol (10 -7 M) itself can induce the cyclooxygenase activity and shift the COX-1 and COX-2 ratio to COX-2. The lowest COX activity was found in non-pregnant uteri, while the highest one was in the trachea. The COX enzymes, especially COX-2, play an important role in the contraction of pregnant uteri in rat. Tocopherol has a tissue specific COX-2 activity increasing effect in pregnant rat uterus but has no such action in non-pregnant uteri or tracheal tissue. Hereby, tocopherol may intensify selectively the uterine relaxing effect of COX-2 inhibitors in preterm contractions. However, tocopherol can enhance the contractile response of pregnant uterus that may increase the risk of premature contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of oxytocin and deaminooxytocin displacement from the OXTR-receptor compartment in rat uterus ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Pliska, Vladimir; Jutz, Guido

    2018-02-01

    The oil immersion method suggested earlier by Kalsner and Nickerson for analysing actions of sympathomimetic drugs upon smooth muscle tissues was applied to isometric preparations of rat myometrium stimulated by oxytocin and deaminooxytocin. An exchange of the aqueous medium by mineral oil allows monitoring the displacement of the peptides from their receptor compartment in absence of free diffusion transport between tissue and organ medium. Exponential analysis of the data from the uterotonic decay phase allows several inferences to be drawn: 1) Transport rate constants (roughly equal for the two peptides) are higher than rate constants of (irreversible) elimination from the receptor compartment. 2) The response decay rate in the oil immersion phase is proportional solely to the peptide elimination and thus offers estimates of elimination rate constants. 3) Peptide elimination kinetics in the receptor compartment is only insignificantly influenced by the kinetics of ligand-receptor binding. 4) As expected, the elimination rate constant of deaminooxytocin is considerably lower than for oxytocin. The apparent concentration of receptors in the paracellular space of the myometrium ("apparent", since receptor molecules are embedded in the cell membrane and hence not exposed to a diffusive flux), estimated from histometric parameters, appears rather high: 7 and 120 μM for high and low affinity receptors, respectively. Concentration-response curves for rat uterus stimulated by oxytocin or deaminooxytocin indicate that only about 0.25 to 5 per cent of the available receptors are involved in eliciting a maximal uterus contraction. The remnant receptor pool is likely to behave as a receptor reserve ("spare receptors"). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of several potassium channel openers and glibenclamide on the uterus of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Piper, I.; Minshall, E.; Downing, S. J.; Hollingsworth, M.; Sadraei, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. The ability of several potassium (K+) channel openers to inhibit spasm of the uterus of the nonpregnant rat and their susceptibility to antagonism by glibenclamide was assessed in vitro and in vivo. 2. In the isolated uterus exposed to oxytocin (0.2 nM), cromakalim, RP 49356 and pinacidil were of similar potency (mean pD2 = 6.4, 6.0 and 6.2 respectively) while minoxidil sulphate was of lower potency (pD2 = 4.7). Glibenclamide antagonized cromakalim and RP 49356 with the interactions consistent with competitive antagonism (mean pA2 of 6.57 and 7.00 respectively). Glibenclamide also antagonized pinacidil (pA2 = 6.22) but the slope of the Schild plot was significantly greater than -1. Neither salbutamol nor minoxidil sulphate was antagonized by glibenclamide (10 microM). 3. Cromakalim (1 and 10 microM), RP 49356 (1 and 10 microM), pinacidil (1 microM) and minoxidil sulphate (100 microM) suppressed spasm evoked by low (less than 40 mM) but not high (greater than or equal to 40 mM) KCl concentrations. Glibenclamide (10 microM) prevented cromakalim (10 microM)-, RP 49356 (10 microM)- and pinacidil (10 microM)-induced suppression of KCl (20 mM)-evoked spasm. Pinacidil (10 and 100 microM), cromakalim (100 microM) and salbutamol (0.01-1 microM) inhibited spasm evoked by all concentrations of KCl (10-80 mM). Suppression of spasm evoked by KCl (10-80 mM) by cromakalim (100 microM) and pinacidil (100 microM) was insensitive to glibenclamide (10 microM). 4. Cromakalim (0.1 mg kg-1) and RP 49356 (0.1 mg kg-1), given by i.v. bolus injection, inhibited uterine contractions, produced a fall in blood pressure and a slight tachycardia in the conscious ovariectomized rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2128195

  3. Regulation of proliferation of rat cartilage and bone by sex steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sömjen, D; Weisman, Y; Mor, Z; Harell, A; Kaye, A M

    1991-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that 17 beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates proliferation of skeletal tissues, both in vivo and in vitro, as measured by increased DNA synthesis and creatine kinase (CK) specific activity. The effect of E2 on bone is sex specific. E2 is active only in females and androgens only in males. By contrast, in cartilage of both sexes, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as well as E2 stimulates CK specific activity and DNA synthesis. In bone, we find that sex steroids stimulate skeletal cell proliferation in gonadectomized as well as in immature rats. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats, between 1 and 4 weeks after surgery, show stimulation of CK by E2. The basal activity and response of CK changes with the varying endogenous levels of E2 in cycling rats, in which the highest basal activity is at proestrus and estrus and the highest response is in diestrus. In rats of all ages tested, both the basal and stimulated specific activity of CK is higher in diaphysis and epiphysis than in the uterus, or in the adipose tissue adjacent to the uterus, which has a response similar to that of the uterus itself. The effect of E2 in vivo, and in chrondroblasts and osteoblasts in vitro, is inhibited by high levels of the antiestrogen tamoxifen which, by itself, in similar high concentrations, shows stimulatory effects. In addition to the sex steroids, skeletal cells are also stimulated by secosteroid and peptide calciotrophic hormones. The interactions of the sex steroids with these hormones modulate the response of cartilage and bone cells to both sex steroids and the other calciotrophic hormones. These results provide the first steps towards understanding the regulation of bone cell proliferation and growth by the concerted action of a variety of hormones and growth factors.

  4. Recording EEG in immature rats with a novel miniature telemetry system

    PubMed Central

    Zayachkivsky, A.; Lehmkuhle, M. J.; Fisher, J. H.; Ekstrand, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Serial EEG recordings from immature rat pups are extremely difficult to obtain but important for analyzing animal models of neonatal seizures and other pediatric neurological conditions as well as normal physiology. In this report, we describe the features and applications of a novel miniature telemetry system designed to record EEG in rat pups as young as postnatal day 6 (P6). First, we have recorded electrographic seizure activity in two animal models of neonatal seizures, hypoxia- and kainate-induced seizures at P7. Second, we describe a viable approach for long-term continuous EEG monitoring of naturally reared rat pups implanted with EEG at P6. Third, we have used serial EEG recordings to record age-dependent changes in the background EEG signal as the animals matured from P7 to P11. The important advantages of using miniature wireless EEG technology are: 1) minimally invasive surgical implantation; 2) a device form-factor that is compatible with housing of rat pups with the dam and littermates; 3) serial recordings of EEG activity; and 4) low power consumption of the unit, theoretically allowing continuous monitoring for up to 2 yr without surgical reimplantation. The miniature EEG telemetry system provides a technical advance that allows researchers to record continuous and serial EEG recordings in neonatal rodent models of human neurological disorders, study the progression of the disease, and then assess possible therapies using quantitative EEG as an outcome measure. This new technical approach should improve animal models of human conditions that rely on EEG monitoring for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23114207

  5. Effects of space flight on the immunohistochemical demonstration of connexin 26 and connexin 43 in the postpartum uterus of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 11 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. Pregnancy was allowed to proceed to term and rats delivered vaginally on days 22-23, although flight animals required more labour contractions to complete the delivery process. Pups were placed with foster dams and connexin 26 and 43 were examined in the uterus of flight animals approximately 3 h after delivery. Space flight did not affect uterine connexin 26, localized primarily in epithelial cells of the endometrium, but decreased connexin 43, the major gap junction protein in the myometrium. It is suggested that decreased connexin 43 alters synchronization and coordination of labour contractions, resulting in a requirement for more contractions to complete the delivery process.

  6. Potencies of agonists acting at tachykinin receptors in the oestrogen-primed rat uterus: effects of peptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fisher, L; Pennefather, J N

    1997-09-24

    The uterotonic potencies of the naturally occurring mammalian tachykinins and the synthetic subtype-selective agonist analogues of these agents [Lys5,MeLeu9,Nlel0]neurokinin A-(4-10) and [Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10) (tachykinin NK2 receptor-selective), [Sar9,Met(O2)11]substance P (tachykinin NK1 receptor-selective) and senktide (tachykinin NK3 receptor-selective) were determined using preparations from oestradiol-treated rats. The endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, N-[N-[1-(S)-carboxyl-3-phenylpropyl]-(S)-phenyl-alanyl-(S)-isoserine+ ++ (SCH 39370), potentiated responses to neurokinin A, neurokinin B and substance P, but not to [Lys5,MeLeu9,Nle10)]neurokinin A-(4-10) or senktide. [Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10) effects were potentiated by SCH 39370 with amastatin and those to [Sar9,Met(O2)11]substance P were potentiated by SCH 39370 and captopril in combination. In the presence of optimal concentrations of peptidase inhibitors the relative order of agonist potency was: neurokinin A > substance P > neurokinin B for the naturally occurring mammalian tachykinins and [Lys5,MeLeu9,Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10) > [Nle10]neurokinin A-(4-10) > [Sar9,Met(O2)11]substance P > senktide for the synthetic tachykinin analogues. Thus, while a tachykinin NK2 receptor predominates in the oestrogen-primed uterus, a tachykinin NK1 receptor may also be present. The non-peptide tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonist, SR 142801, did not antagonise the effects of senktide suggesting that tachykinin NK3 receptors do not mediate its relatively minor effect on the uterus of the oestrogen-primed rat.

  7. Effects of laser irradiation on immature olfactory neuroepithelial explants from the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, A.F.; Snow, J.B. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    The photobiological effect of low-output laser irradiation on the maturation and regeneration of immature olfactory bipolar receptor cells of the rat was studied. The maturation and regeneration of the receptor cells of rat fetuses were quantified in neuroepithelial explants with morphometric analysis. The number of explants with outgrowth and the number and length of neuritic outgrowths were determined on a regular basis for 12 days. Explants in the experimental group were irradiated with a helium-neon laser using different incident energy densities (IED). Explants in the fluorescent light control group were exposed to fluorescent light for the same periods of timemore » as those in the experimental group were exposed to laser irradiation. Explants in another control group were not exposed to laser or fluorescent light irradiation. The IED of 0.5 J/cm2 laser irradiation has been found to increase significantly the number of explants with outgrowth and the number and length of the outgrowths. Other laser IEDs or fluorescent light irradiation did not influence maturation or regeneration.« less

  8. Tachykinin receptor and neutral endopeptidase gene expression in the rat uterus: characterization and regulation in response to ovarian steroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, F M; Armesto, C P; Magraner, J; Trujillo, M; Martín, J D; Candenas, M L

    1999-06-01

    Tachykinin neuropeptides, such as substance P, are localized to a population of sensory fibers that innervate the mammalian female reproductive tract. In the present study, we have characterized tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R), NK2 receptor (NK2R), and NK3 receptor (NK3R) gene expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR in uteri from ovariectomized rats and studied their regulation in response to 17beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or a combination of both. In addition, we analyzed the expression and regulation of the neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), the most important enzyme involved in tachykinin degradation in the rat uterus. In uteri from control (olive oil-treated) rats, RT-PCR assays revealed single bands corresponding to the expected product sizes encoding complementary DNA for NK1R (232 bp), NK2R (491 bp), NK3R (325 bp), and NEP (221 bp). The identity of the amplified fragments was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Compared with control rats, NK1R messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased by 2-fold in uteri from rats treated with E2, was decreased by 3.3-fold in rats treated with P4, and was decreased by 1.8-fold in rats treated with both E2 and P4. Uterine NK2R mRNA levels were not altered by any steroid treatment. E2 treatment decreased by 15-fold NK3R mRNA. P4 was without effect if administered alone and did not influence the E2-induced decrease in NK3R mRNA. NEP mRNA levels were about 4-fold lower in E2-treated than in P4-treated rats. Functional studies were carried out in uteri from E2- or P4-treated ovariectomized rats to characterize the contractile response evoked by the selective tachykinin receptor agonists [Sar9Met(O2)11]substance P (NK1R selective), [Nle10]NKA-(4-10) (NK2R selective), and [MePhe7]NKB (NK3R selective) in the presence of the NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon (1 microM). A marked correlation was observed between the magnitude of the contractile response to each agonist and the level of expression determined by RT-PCR for each tachykinin

  9. Protective properties of 6-gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger) on chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats.

    PubMed

    Abolaji, Amos O; Ojo, Mercy; Afolabi, Tosin T; Arowoogun, Mary D; Nwawolor, Darlinton; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-05-25

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide widely used in agricultural applications and household environments. 6-Gingerol-rich fraction from Zingiber officinale (Ginger, 6-GRF) has been reported to possess potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated the protective properties of 6-GRF on CPF-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats. Five groups of rats containing 14 rats/group received corn oil (control), CPF (5 mg/kg), 6-GRF (100 mg/kg), CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (50 mg/kg) and CPF (5 mg/kg) + 6-GRF (100 mg/kg) through gavage once per day for 35 days respectively. The results showed that 6-GRF protected against CPF-induced increases in oxidative stress ((hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), inflammatory (myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)), and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers. Also, 6-GRF improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the brain, ovary and uterus of rats exposed to CPF (p < 0.05). Overall, the protective effects of 6-GRF on CPF-induced toxicity in the brain and reproductive organs of rats may be due to its potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parameters of Microcirculation in the Broad Ligament of the Uterus in Wistar Rats after Injection of Autologous Biomedical Cell Product.

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T I; Lykov, A P; Shurlygina, A V; Starkova, E V; Poveshchenko, O V; Bondarenko, N A; Kim, I I; Tenditnik, M V; Borodin, Yu I; Konenkov, V I

    2015-10-01

    We studied the effects of autologous biomedical cell product (bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and their conditioned media) on the parameters of the microcirculatory bed in the broad ligament of the uterus of normal Wistar rats were studied. The parameters of microcirculation and lymph drainage in the broad ligament changed in opposite directions in response to injection of autologous biomedical cell product via different routes. This fact should be taken into consideration when prescribing cell therapy for inflammatory degenerative processes in the pelvic organs.

  11. Fibrin gel improves tissue ingrowth and cell differentiation in human immature premolars implanted in rats.

    PubMed

    Ruangsawasdi, Nisarat; Zehnder, Matthias; Weber, Franz E

    2014-02-01

    In pulpless immature human premolars implanted in rodents, this study investigated whether fibrin gel offered advantages over leaving the root canal empty regarding soft tissue ingrowth and cell differentiation. Root canals of extracted human immature premolars (n = 12) were accessed and then irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Root canals were then either left empty or filled with a fibrin gel (n = 6 each) before being placed subcutaneously on top of the calvarial bone of rats (1 tooth per rat) for 12 weeks. After sacrifice, teeth were histologically assessed. Tissue ingrowth was quantified and compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < .05). Cells adhering to the pulp canal wall were immunohistochemically screened for the presence of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). More tissue grew into the pulp space when teeth were filled with fibrin gel (P < .05). The presence of fibrin gel affected not only the extent of tissue ingrowth but also tissue morphology and differentiation of cells contacting the dentinal wall. In the fibrin gel group, newly formed tissue was similar to normal pulp, constituted of inner pulp, cell-rich zone, cell-free zone, and an apparent odontoblast layer, which stained positive for BSP and DSP. Newly formed blood vessels were also more abundant compared with the initially empty root canals. Under the conditions of this study, fibrin gel improved cell infiltration and cell-dentin interaction. Both are necessary for pulp tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolomics Approach to Investigate Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and Independent Effects of o,p'-DDT in the Uterus and Brain of Immature Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezhen; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Yao; Yan, Jin; Teng, Miaomiao; Miao, Jiyan; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2017-05-10

    Previous studies have demonstrated the endocrine disruption of o,p'-DDT. In this study, we used a 1 H NMR based metabolomics approach to investigate the estrogenic effects of o,p'-DDT (300 mg/kg) on the uterus and brain after 3 days of oral gavage administration, and ethynylestradiol (EE, 100 μg/kg) was used as a positive control. A supervised statistical analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that o,p'-DDT exerted both estrogenic receptor-(ER)-dependent and independent effects on the uterus but mainly ER-independent effects on the brain at metabolome levels, which was verified by coexposing with the antiestrogenic ICI 182,780. Four changed metabolites-glycine, choline, fumarate, and phenylalanine-were identified as ER-independent alterations in the uterus, while more metabolites, including γ-aminobutyrate, N-acetyl aspartate, and some amino acids, were disturbed based on the ER-independent mechanism in the brain. Together with biological end points, metabolomics is a promising approach to study potential estrogenic chemicals.

  13. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  14. Progesterone inhibits contraction and increases TREK-1 potassium channel expression in late pregnant rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zongzhi; Li, Yun; He, Wenzhu; Li, Dan; Li, Hongyan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Bing; Wang, Xi; Cao, Yunxia; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism by which progesterone regulates uterine contraction in late pregnant rats Results Progesterone caused concentration-dependent relaxation of uterine strips that was enhanced compared with control nontreated uterine strips. Uterine strips incubated with progesterone showed a significant increase in TREK-1 mRNA expression and protein level. TREK-1 inhibitor L-methionine partly reversed uterine relaxation caused by the progesterone, while TREK-1 activator arachidonic acid did not cause significant change in progesterone-induced relaxation. Conclusions Progesterone inhibits uterine contraction and induces uterine relaxation in late pregnancy. The progesterone-induced inhibition of uterine contraction appears to partly involve increased potassium channel TREK-1 expression/activity. Materials and Methods Uterus from late-pregnant rats (gestational day 19) was isolated, and uterine strips were prepared for isometric contraction measurement. Oxytocin-induced contraction was compared in uterine strips pretreated with different concentration of progesterone. TREK-1 potassium channel inhibitor L-methionine and TREK-1 agonist arachidonic acid were used to determine whether the changes caused by progesterone involve changes in TREK-1 activity. The mRNA and protein expression of TREK-1 in uterine tissues were measured using qPCR and Western blot. PMID:29416642

  15. Effect of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin on the activities of delta 4-5 alpha-reductase, aromatase, and other enzymes in the ovaries of immature rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Kawakura, K; Tamaoki, B I

    1978-05-01

    After incubation of progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testostrone with an ovarian preparation (supernatant fluid at 10,000 x g) of immature rats (21-23 days of age) in the presence of NADPH, 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-reduced steroids were obtained as the major metabolites. Among the enzyme activities relevant to the metabolism, delta 4-5 alpha-reductase and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were intracellularly localized to the microsomal fraction (10,000--105,000 x g), and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was detected exclusively in the cytosol fraction (supernatant fluid at 105,000 x g). Within 2 days after a single injection of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (10 IU/rat) to 21-day-old female rats, the following occurred: 1) an enhancement of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C-17-C-20 lyase activities; 2) a suppression of delta 4-5 alpha-reductase activity; and 3) an increase in aromatizing activity. From the above-mentioned results, it was concluded that the increased secretion of estrogen from ovaries of immature rats stimulated by pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin administration was caused by a modification of the ovarian enzyme activities relevant to estrogen production.

  16. Developmental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Uterus of Rat Offspring1

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, Gilbert; Friedrich, Karin; Paul, Martin; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA), which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERα and ERβ distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced). ERα expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERβ expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of Erα and ERβ. PMID:15548368

  17. Haematological and histopathological effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, N; Karabulut, G

    2015-07-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the histopathological and haematological effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin on Wistar immature female rats using Tier 2 of the uterotrophic assay. The female rats were divided into 17 groups with 6 rats in each group. There was a negative control group and positive control dose groups that contained 0.07 µg/kg/day, 0.7 µg/kg/day and 7 µg/kg/day of ethinyl estradiol (EE), 0.7 µg/kg/day 17α-ethinyl estradiol + 1 mg/kg/day tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups contain 1 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day of apigenin, myricetin and phloretin. All chemicals had been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for three consecutive days. At the end of the study, blood samples were analysed for haematological parameters. Tissue samples that were taken from the liver, kidney, spleen and thyroid were histopathologically and histomorphometrically examined. There were no significant differences between oil control and other dose groups for glomerular histomorphometry. However, there were significant differences for thyroid histomorphometry. Especially, 10 and 100 mg/kg/day of phloretin dose groups had a significant increase in colloid surface area in thyroid compared with the 1 mg/kg/day of phloretin and oil control groups. Significant histopathological changes (congestion, degeneration, fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration) were noted in the tissue specimens obtained from the treatment groups compared with the control group. According to the results of the haematological analysis of the groups, especially the values of erythrocytes and haematocrit were increased significantly in most of the dose groups according to the oil control group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Effects of thyroid hormones on the antioxidative status in the uterus of young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    KONG, Lingfa; WEI, Quanwei; FEDAIL, Jaafar Sulieman; SHI, Fangxiong; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones and oxidative stress play significant roles in the normal functioning of the female reproductive system. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), participates in the regulation of thyroid function and is also a good biomarker for assessment of the oxidative stress status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate effects of thyroid hormones on uterine antioxidative status in young adult rats. Thirty immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, hypothyroid (hypo-T) and hyperthyroid (hyper-T). The results showed the body weights decreased significantly in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups and that uterine weights were decreased significantly in the hypo-T group. The serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), as well as estradiol (E2), were significantly decreased in the hypo-T group, but increased in the hyper-T group. The progesterone (P4) concentrations in the hypo- and hyperthyroid rats markedly decreased. Immunohistochemistry results provided evidence that thyroid hormone nuclear receptor α/β (TRα/β) and three NOS isoforms were located in different cell types of rat uteri. The NO content and total NOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were markedly diminished in the hypo-T group but increased in the hyper-T group. Moreover, the activities of both glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) exhibited significant decreases and increases in the hypo-T and hyper-T groups, respectively. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in both the hypo-T and hyper-T groups showed a significant increase. Total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in the hypo- and hyper-T rats markedly decreased. In conclusion, these results indicated that thyroid hormones have an important influence on the modulation of uterine antioxidative status. PMID:25797533

  19. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  20. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. promote cutaneous wound healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tannins extracted from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. are considered as effective components promoting the process of wound healing. The objective of this study is to explore the optimal extraction and purification technology (OEPT) of tannins, while studying the use of this drug in the treatment of a cutaneous wound of rat as well as its antibacterial effects. Methods The content of tannin extracts was measured by the casein method, and antibacterial ability was studied by the micro-dilution method in vitro. In wound healing experiment, animals in group Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ were treated with vaseline ointment, tannin extracts (tannin content: 81%) and erythromycin ointment, respectively (5 mg of ointment were applied on each wound). To evaluate the process of wound healing, selected pharmacological and biochemical parameters were applied. Results After optimal extraction and purification, content of tannin extracts was increased to 81%. Tannin extracts showed the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella Pneumonia in vitro. After excision of wounds, on days 7 and 10, the percent of wound contraction of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. After being hurt with wounds, on days 3, 7, and 10, the wound healing quality of group Ⅱ was found to be better than that of group Ⅰ in terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. After wound creation, on day 3, the vascular endothelial growth factor expression of group Ⅱ was higher than that of group Ⅰ. Conclusion The results suggest that tannin extracts from dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. can promote cutaneous wound healing in rats, probably resulting from a powerful anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity of the extracts. PMID:21982053

  1. Effects of Chronic Genistein Treatment in Mammary Gland, Uterus, and Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Christoffel, Julie; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background The isoflavone genistein (GEN) is found in soy (Glycine max) and red clover (Trifolium pratense). The estrogenic activity of GEN is known, and it is widely advertised as a phytoestrogen useful in alleviating climacteric complaints and other postmenopausal disorders. Knowledge of effects of long-term administration of GEN in laboratory animals is scarce, and effects in the uterus and mammary gland after long-term administration have not been studied. The uterus and mammary gland are known to be negatively influenced by estrogens used in hormone therapy. Objectives We administered two doses of GEN [mean daily uptake 5.4 (low) or 54 mg/kg (high) body weight (bw)] orally over a period of 3 months to ovariectomized (ovx) rats and compared the effects with a treatment with two doses of 17β-estradiol [E2; 0.17 (low) or 0.7 mg/kg bw (high)]. Mammary glands, vaginae, and uteri were investigated morphologically and immunohistochemically. We quantified the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the mammary gland. Results In rats treated with either of the E2 doses or the high GEN dose, we found increased uterine weight, and histologic analysis showed estrogen-induced features in the uteri. In vaginae, either E2 dose or GEN high induced hyperplastic epithelium compared with the atrophic controls. In the mammary gland, E2 (either dose) or GEN increased proliferation and PR expression. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone were decreased by E2 (both doses) but not by GEN. Conclusions In summary, E2 and GEN share many effects in the studied organs, particularly in the vagina, uterus, and mammary gland but not in the hypothalamo/pituitary unit. PMID:18174952

  2. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  3. Greater resistance and lower contribution of free radicals to hypoxic neurotoxicity in immature rat brain compared to adult brain as revealed by dynamic changes in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Maruoka, N; Murata, T; Omata, N; Fujibayashi, Y; Waki, A; Yoshimoto, M; Yano, R; Yonekura, Y; Wada, Y

    2001-01-01

    Seven-day-old rat brain slices were incubated at 36C in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution containing [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG), and serial two-dimensional time-resolved images of [(18)F]FDG uptake by the slices were obtained. The Gjedde-Patlak graphical method was applied to the image data, and the duration limit of hypoxia loading that allowed recovery of the fractional rate constant (k3*) of [(18)F]FDG (proportional to the cerebral glucose metabolic rate) after hypoxia loading to the unloaded control level was 50 min, and MK-801 as an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist had neuroprotective effects, but PBN as a free radical scavenger was ineffective. In our previous study in adult (7-week-old) rat brains [Murata et al., Exp Neurol 2000, 164:269-279], the limit of the hypoxia loading time was 20 min, and both MK-801 and PBN were effective. In the immature rat brains, the ratio of aerobic glucose metabolism to the total glucose metabolism was low compared with the adult rat brains, suggesting only a slight involvement of free radicals in hypoxic neurotoxicity. These data suggest that the higher resistance of immature brains to hypoxia compared to that of adult brains is attributable to a lower involvement of free radicals due to a lower aerobic glucose metabolic rate. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Comparison of the estrogenic potencies of standardized soy extracts by immature rat uterotrophic bioassay.

    PubMed

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Duarte, Rodrigo Ferreira; Campos, Ligia Maria Moreira; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, isoflavones, are a primary class of plant-based estrogen alternatives being sold over the counter nowadays. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the major isoflavones found in soybeans, as aglycones and glycosides. Each isoflavone shows distinctive estrogenic activity and pharmacokinetics. Soy dry extracts, employed as pharmaceutical raw material for manufacturing isoflavone supplements, are standardized to contain 40% of total isoflavones, but the amount of each isoflavone is highly diverse. The influence of these compositional differences on the estrogenic potency of soy extracts was evaluated by uterotrophic bioassay. Five commercial samples of standardized soy dry extract, homogeneously suspended in arachis oil, were administered per os in serial doses (125-4150 mg/kg bw/day) to immature female rats for 3 days. Soy extract samples with considerable diversity in isoflavone composition revealed different estrogenic potencies. Our results indicate a need of standardization of the individual isoflavone content in soy extracts.

  5. Double Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... double uterus may initially consult a doctor for menstrual bleeding that isn't stopped by a tampon. ... doctor Seek medical advice if you have a menstrual flow despite the insertion of a tampon, or ...

  6. Cellular organization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in several tissues. Changes in the uterus by hormone action.

    PubMed

    George-Téllez, R; Segura-Valdez, M L; González-Santos, L; Jiménez-García, L F

    2002-05-01

    In the mammalian cell nucleus, splicing factors are distributed in nuclear domains known as speckles or splicing factor compartments (SFCs). In cultured cells, these domains are dynamic and reflect transcriptional and splicing activities. We used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy to monitor whether splicing factors in differentiated cells display similar features. Speckled patterns are observed in rat hepatocytes, beta-cells, bronchial and intestine epithelia and also in three cell types of the uterus. Moreover, the number, distribution and sizes of the speckles vary among them. In addition, we studied variations in the circular form (shape) of speckles in uterine cells that are transcriptionally modified by a hormone action. During proestrus of the estral cycle, speckles are irregular in shape while in diestrus I they are circular. Experimentally, in castrated rats luminal epithelial cells show a pattern where speckles are dramatically rounded, but they recover their irregular shape rapidly after an injection of estradiol. The same results were observed in muscle and gland epithelial cells of the uterus. We concluded that different speckled patterns are present in various cells types in differentiated tissues and that these patterns change in the uterus depending upon the presence or absence of hormones such as estradiol.

  7. Inversion of the uterus following abortion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D

    1982-10-16

    A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical

  8. Effects of concurrent exposure to tributyltin and 1,1-dichloro-2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) on immature male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuji; Omura, Minoru; Tanaka, Akiyo; Kiyohara, Chikako

    2005-12-01

    Tributyltin and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) have been ubiquitously distributed over the world. In Japan, p,p'-DDE and tributyltin are ingested through marine products, in which these substances are accumulated through bio-concentration and the food chain. However, the consequence of potential combined hazards of these substances remains unknown. Therefore, the effects of concurrent exposure to 125 ppm p,p'-DDE and 25 ppm tributyltin were investigated in immature male Wistar rats by oral administration during puberty. In this study, tributyltin promoted the growth of pubertal male rats, while p,p'-DDE itself did not affect the growth but inhibited the growth enhancement by tributyltin. Furthermore, tributyltin reduced thymus weight but p,p'-DDE also prevented this weight reduction. Neither development of male sexual accessory organs nor sexual maturation was affected even by concurrent exposure to p,p'-DDE and tributyltin. No significant changes of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and epididymal sperm numbers were observed with the administration of p,p'-DDE and/or tributyltin. These results indicate that sexual maturation, male reproductive organ development and sperm production is scarcely affected in immature male Wistar rats even by concurrent exposure to p,p'-DDE and tributyltin at a daily dose of ca. 2 mg/kg tributyltin and 10 mg/kg p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of p,p'-DDE with tributyltin counterbalanced the effects that were attributed to tributyltin alone.

  9. Monoamines and sexual function in rats bred for increased catatonic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Klochkov, D V; Alekhina, T A; Kuznetsova, E G; Barykina, N N

    2009-07-01

    Body weight, ovary and uterus weight, the nature of estral cycles, and hypothalamus dopamine and noradrenaline levels and plasma testosterone levels were studied in female GC rats, bred for increased catatonic reactivity, at different stages of the estral cycle (estrus, proestrus). The outbred Wistar strain served as controls. On the background of decreased body weight, GC females showed impairments to the morphological cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus, with a reduction in ovary weight in diestrus (p < 0.01) and a smaller estrogen-dependent increase in uterus weight in estrus as compared with Wistar females. On the background of decreases in dopamine and noradrenaline contents in the hypothalamus, GC rats showed higher levels of these monoamines in estrus and lower levels in diestrus. Plasma testosterone levels in female GC rats were higher in diestrus than in estrus and in Wistar rats.

  10. Replacement of serum with ocular fluid for cryopreservation of immature testes.

    PubMed

    Pothana, Lavanya; Devi, Lalitha; Venna, Naresh Kumar; Pentakota, Niharika; Varma, Vivek Phani; Jose, Jedy; Goel, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testis is a feasible approach for germplasm preservation of male animals. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) are used for testis cryopreservation. However, an alternative to FBS is needed, because FBS is expensive. Buffalo ocular fluid (BuOF), a slaughter house by-product, could be an economical option. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BuOF can replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testes. Results showed that rodent and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO (10% for rodents and 20% for buffalo) with 20% FBS or BuOF had similar numbers of viable and DNA-damaged cells (P > 0.05). The expression of cell proliferation- (PCNA) and apoptosis-specific proteins (Annexin V and BAX/BCL2 ratio) were also comparable in mouse and buffalo testes frozen in DMSO with FBS or BuOF (P > 0.05). Interestingly, rat testis frozen in DMSO with BuOF had lower expression of Annexin V protein than testis frozen in DMSO with FBS (P < 0.05). The percentage of meiotic germ cells (pachytene-stage spermatocytes) in xenografts from testis frozen either in DMSO with BuOF or FBS did not significantly differ in rats or buffalo (P > 0.05). These findings provide evidence that BuOF has potential to replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature rodent and buffalo testis. Further investigation is needed to explore whether BuOF can replace FBS for testis cryopreservation of other species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alpha-SNAP functions in insulin exocytosis from mature, but not immature secretory granules in pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Y; Nagamatsu, S

    1999-06-24

    To explore alpha-SNAP function in insulin exocytosis from either immature or mature secretory granules in pancreatic beta cells, we studied the effects of overexpression of adenovirus-mediated wild-type alpha-SNAP and C-terminally deleted alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) on newly synthesized proinsulin and insulin release by rat islets and MIN6 cells. Rat islets overexpressing alpha-SNAP and mutant alpha-SNAP were pulse-chased. Exocytosis from immature and mature insulin secretory granules was measured as fractional (%) labeled-proinsulin release immediately after the pulse-labeling and percentage labeled-insulin release after a 3-h chase period, respectively. There was no difference in percentage labeled-proinsulin release between the control and alpha-SNAP or mutant alpha-SNAP-overexpressed islets. Although percentage labeled-insulin release after a 3-h chase period was significantly increased in alpha-SNAP-overexpressed islets, it was decreased in mutant alpha-SNAP-overexpressed islets. Thus, the results demonstrated that alpha-SNAP overexpression in rat islets primarily increased exocytosis from mature, but not immature insulin secretory granules. On the other hand, in MIN6 cells, alpha-SNAP overexpression scarcely affected glucose-stimulated insulin release; therefore, we examined the effect of mutant alpha-SNAP overexpression as the dominant-negative inhibitor on the newly synthesized proinsulin/insulin release using the same protocol as in the rat islet experiments. alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) overexpression in MIN6 cells decreased the percentage labeled insulin release from mature secretory granules, but not percentage labeled proinsulin release from immature secretory granules. Thus, our data demonstrate that alpha-SNAP functions mainly in the mature insulin secretory granules in pancreatic beta cells. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Effect of radioactive iodine-induced hypothyroidism on longitudinal bone growth during puberty in immature female rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeonhae; Ryu, Ki-Young; Roh, Jaesook; Bae, Jaeman

    2018-05-22

    Thyroid cancer in children, the most common endocrine malignancy, shows aggressive behavior and has a high recurrence rate after surgical ablation. Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is the most effective primary modality for medical ablation of juvenile thyroid cancer, and leads to intentional hypothyroidism. Although several negative impacts of hypothyroidism have been reported in children in response to other antithyroid agents, the combined effects of RAI exposure and hypothyroidism, on growing bones specifically, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of RAI-induced hypothyroidism on the long bones during the pubertal growth spurt using immature female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, and an RAI-treated group fed with RAI (0.37 MBq/g body weight) twice via gavage. After 4 weeks, we observed a significantly-reduced serum free thyroxine level in the RAI group. The latter group also displayed decreased body weight gain compared to the control. In addition, the lengths of long bones, such as the leg bones and vertebral column, as well as bone mineral content, were reduced in the RAI-treated animals. Our results confirm the negative impacts of RAI-induced thyroid deficiency during puberty on longitudinal bone growth and bone mineralization.

  13. Other women's wombs: uterus transplants and gestational surrogacy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The birth of a child after uterus transplant from a living donor in Sweden in October, 2013 has spurred reproductive and transplant physicians in Europe and North America to investigate whether uterus transplants, from living or cadaveric donors, will be a safe and effective therapy for women with uterine insufficiency. While progress with uterus transplant depends on medical factors, there are also important ethical and legal concerns. Uterus transplant is essential for women without access to surrogacy. It may also be sought by infertile women who dislike surrogacy. This article examines medical, ethical, legal, and policy issues that arise with womb transplant, including the role of surrogacy policies that make them necessary. The conclusion is that there is a clear ethical path for either surrogacy or uterus transplant to be used by women with uterine insufficiency. PMID:27774233

  14. Other women's wombs: uterus transplants and gestational surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2016-04-01

    The birth of a child after uterus transplant from a living donor in Sweden in October, 2013 has spurred reproductive and transplant physicians in Europe and North America to investigate whether uterus transplants, from living or cadaveric donors, will be a safe and effective therapy for women with uterine insufficiency. While progress with uterus transplant depends on medical factors, there are also important ethical and legal concerns. Uterus transplant is essential for women without access to surrogacy. It may also be sought by infertile women who dislike surrogacy. This article examines medical, ethical, legal, and policy issues that arise with womb transplant, including the role of surrogacy policies that make them necessary. The conclusion is that there is a clear ethical path for either surrogacy or uterus transplant to be used by women with uterine insufficiency.

  15. Uterus transplantation: ethical and regulatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Blake, Valarie

    2014-06-01

    Moving forward rapidly in the clinical research phase, uterus transplantation may be a future treatment option for women with uterine factor infertility, which accounts for three per cent of all infertility in women. This new method of treatment would allow women, who currently rely on gestational surrogacy or adoption, to gestate and birth their own genetic offspring. Since uterus transplantation carries significant risk when compared with surrogacy and adoption as well as when compared with other organ transplants, it requires greater justification because its goals are quality of life, not life-saving, in their scope. It is important to address questions regarding the physical, psychosocial and ethical risks and benefits of uterus transplantation for all three parties involved--the patient, the donor and the potential child--as well as discuss the regulatory implications as research on uterus transplantations moves forward. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Uterus transplantation: current progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Liza; Järvholm, Stina

    2016-01-01

    Even if reproductive medicine has been remarkably successful during the past few decades, with the introduction of in vitro fertilization in the late 1970s and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the early 1990s, it has been repeatedly mocked by infertility due to an absolute uterine factor. No treatment has been available for the women suffering from an absent or dysfunctional uterus, in terms of carrying a pregnancy. Approximately one in 500 women suffer from absolute uterine infertility, and the option so far to become a mother has been to either adopt or utilize gestational surrogacy. As of today, a total of eleven cases of human uterus transplantations have been reported worldwide, conducted in three different countries. The results of these initial experimental cases far exceed what might be expected of a novel surgical method. Many more uterus transplantations are to be expected in the near future, as other research teams’ preparations are being ready to be put into clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the current worldwide experience of uterus transplantation as a treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility and the future prospects of human uterus transplantation. PMID:26917976

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Dibutyl and Monobutyl Phthalates on the Steroidogenesis of Rat Immature Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxi; Chen, Xiaomin; Hu, Guoxin; Wang, Sicong; Xu, Renai; Zhu, Qiqi; Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Mingcang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used synthetic phthalic diester and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its main metabolite. DBP can be released into the environment and potentially disrupting mammalian male reproductive endocrine system. However, the potencies of DBP and MBP to inhibit Leydig cell steroidogenesis and their possible mechanisms are not clear. Immature Leydig cells isolated from rats were cultured with 0.05–50 μM DBP or MBP for 3 h in combination with testosterone synthesis regulator or intermediate. The concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured, and the mRNA levels of the androgen biosynthetic genes were detected by qPCR. The direct actions of DBP or MBP on CYP11A1, CYP17A1, SRD5A1, and AKR1C14 activities were measured. MBP inhibited androgen production by the immature Leydig cell at as low as 50 nM, while 50 μM was required for DBP to suppress its androgen production. MBP mainly downregulated Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 expression levels at 50 nM. However, 50 μM DBP downregulated Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 expression levels and directly inhibited CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 activities. In conclusion, DBP is metabolized to more potent inhibitor MBP that downregulated the expression levels of some androgen biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:27148549

  18. Effects of ethanol on superovulation in the immature rat following pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) or PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bo, W J; Krueger, W A; Rudeen, P K

    1983-05-01

    We sought to determine whether superovulation could occur in immature rats on a 5% ethanol diet and treated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) alone or with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Holtzman female rats were divided into five groups at 20 days of age. Six rats (Group I) were killed at that age. Ten rats (Group II) were placed on an ad libitum laboratory chow diet and killed on Day 33. Twenty-four rats (Group III) were placed on an ad libitum laboratory chow diet. Twenty-four rats (Group IV) were placed on 5% ethanol liquid diet, while 24 rats in Group V were pair-fed with the animals in Group IV. At 30 days of age, 12 rats from each Group, III, IV, and V, received 25 IU of PMSG s.c. and were killed 74-76 h later. The remaining 12 rats from each Group, III, IV and V, received 25 IU of PMSG and 54-56 h later received 10 IU of hCG and were killed 20 h later. Ovulation occurred in all the rats of Groups III and V that received PMSG alone or with hCG. In the ethanol-treated rats that received PMSG alone, 75% ovulated, while 92% ovulated that received PMSG and hCG. The number of ova shed in the ethanol-PMSG-treated rats was significantly less than in the ethanol-PMSG-hCG-treated animals and in the controls. The uterine weights and morphology of the animals in Group IV were similar to those in Groups III and V. The study indicates that ethanol does not have a direct gonadotoxic effect on the ovary but indicates that ethanol has an effect on the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary, thereby disrupting the synthesis and/or release of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) or luteinizing hormone (LH).

  19. Consecutive Isoproterenol and Adenosine Treatment Confers Marked Protection against Reperfusion Injury in Adult but Not in Immature Heart: A Role for Glycogen.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Martin; Szobi, Adrian; Balaska, Dirki; Khaliulin, Igor; Adameova, Adriana; Griffiths, Elinor; Orchard, Clive H; Suleiman, M-Saadeh

    2018-02-07

    Consecutive treatment of adult rat heart with isoproterenol and adenosine (Iso/Aden), known to consecutively activate PKA/PKC signaling, is cardioprotective against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Whether this is cardioprotective in an immature heart is unknown. Langendorff-perfused hearts from adult and immature (60 and 14 days old) male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, with or without prior perfusion with 5 nM Iso for 3 min followed by 30 μM Aden for 5 min. Changes in hemodynamics (developed pressure and coronary flow) and cardiac injury (Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) release and infarct size) were measured. Additional hearts were used to measure glycogen content. Iso induced a similar inotropic response in both age groups. Treatment with Iso/Aden resulted in a significant reduction in time to the onset of ischemic contracture in both age groups whilst time to peak contracture was significantly shorter only in immature hearts. Upon reperfusion, the intervention reduced cardiac injury and functional impairment in adults with no protection of immature heart. Immature hearts have significantly less glycogen content compared to adult. This work shows that Iso/Aden perfusion confers protection in an adult heart but not in an immature heart. It is likely that metabolic differences including glycogen content contribute to this difference.

  20. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Cura, M; Martinez, N; Cura, A; Dalsaso, T J; Elmerhi, F

    2009-09-01

    Arterial venous malformations (AVM) of the uterus are uncommon entities and should be considered in patients who present with profuse genital bleeding. There are two types of uterine AVM: acquired and congenital. Acquired uterine AVMs are conformed by communications between the uterine arteries and the myometrial veins, and are caused by an iatrogenic event or a pathological condition. Congenital AVMs are the result of abnormal development of primitive vessels that result in connections between pelvic arteries and veins in the uterus without an interconnecting capillary bed. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive diagnostic method able to demonstrate and characterize AVMs of the uterus. AVM in the pelvis may be noted incidentally by computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to confirm and further characterize the sonographic findings of uterine AVM. Catheter angiography and embolization are very effective in defining the vascular anatomy and treating uterine vascular abnormalities.

  1. Does Male Care, Provided to Immature Individuals, Influence Immature Fitness in Rhesus Macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Among many mammals, maternal care strongly impacts infant survival; however, less is known about whether adult males also affect infant fitness. Paternal care is expected when providing care enhances offspring survival and reproduction, which likewise increases fathers’ fitness. Males might also care for unrelated immature individuals to increase their mating probability with the immature individuals’ mothers. Studies in multimale primate groups showed that sires enhance food access for offspring and provide protection in conflicts. Furthermore, fathers’ presence during infancy has been suggested to accelerate offspring sexual maturation. However, no study has yet directly linked the degree of father-offspring bonds to offspring fitness in primates. We previously reported father-offspring affiliation in rhesus macaques, pronounced during early infancy and independent of mothers’ presence. The present study aims at investigating whether affiliation with fathers or other males affects proxies of immature fitness (body mass gain, body fat and testis size). First, we combined behavioral, genetic and morphometric data from 55 subjects of one group. Second, using demographic and genetic data, we investigated for 92 individuals of the population whether mother- and father-offspring co-residence during immaturity influenced offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Our results show that focal rank and higher amounts of affiliation with high-ranking males during infancy tend to positively impact body mass gain of female, but not male focal animals. In contrast, body mass gain of male focal individuals, but not females’, appeared to be higher when affiliation of male immature individuals was evenly distributed across their adult male partners. Moreover, we found mothers’, but not fathers’, presence during immaturity to predict offspring LRS. Our results suggest that male-immature affiliation, but not father-offspring co-residence, potentially impacts

  2. The Predominant Proteins that React to the MC-20 Estrogen Receptor Alpha Antibody Differ in Molecular Weight between the Mammary Gland and Uterus in the Mouse and Rat.

    PubMed

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Thakur, Archana; Sun, Yuan; Wu, Jiusheng; Liao, D Joshua

    2012-03-01

    There are many estrogen receptor α (ERα) antibodies available but few of them target a rodent ERα. Using the MC-20 antibody raised against the C-terminus of mouse ERα, we show in this communication that in the mammary gland of female mice and rats, the wild type (wt) ERα was detected on immunoblots as a dominant protein only during lactation, and the protein was lactating specific as it migrated slightly faster than the 67-kD wt ERα in the uterus, likely due to a different phosphorylation status. In contrast, in the nulliparous, pregnant, involuting and involuted mammary glands, the dominant protein recognized by MC-20 was about 61-kD, which is dubbed herein as "MC-20 reactive protein" or MC20RP in abbreviation as its identity is unknown. Our results showed that it was not derived from proteolysis or de-phosphorylation of the 67-kD ERα and was unlikely to be translated from an ERα mRNA variant. Ovariectomy decreased the lactating specific wt ERα but increased the 61-kD MC20RP in the mammary tumors from MMTV-c-myc transgenic mice but these two proteins in the uterus were unaffected. The 61-kD MC20RP was decreased in the mammary tumors, compared with proliferating mammary glands, in estrogen-treated ACI rats. These results suggest that while the lactating specific wt ERα alone or together with the MC20RP may sustain lactation, the MC20RP may support proliferation of the mammary gland and some mammary tumors.

  3. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Consecutive Isoproterenol and Adenosine Treatment Confers Marked Protection against Reperfusion Injury in Adult but Not in Immature Heart: A Role for Glycogen

    PubMed Central

    Szobi, Adrian; Balaska, Dirki; Khaliulin, Igor; Adameova, Adriana; Griffiths, Elinor; Orchard, Clive H.; Suleiman, M.-Saadeh

    2018-01-01

    Consecutive treatment of adult rat heart with isoproterenol and adenosine (Iso/Aden), known to consecutively activate PKA/PKC signaling, is cardioprotective against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Whether this is cardioprotective in an immature heart is unknown. Langendorff–perfused hearts from adult and immature (60 and 14 days old) male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, with or without prior perfusion with 5 nM Iso for 3 min followed by 30 μM Aden for 5 min. Changes in hemodynamics (developed pressure and coronary flow) and cardiac injury (Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) release and infarct size) were measured. Additional hearts were used to measure glycogen content. Iso induced a similar inotropic response in both age groups. Treatment with Iso/Aden resulted in a significant reduction in time to the onset of ischemic contracture in both age groups whilst time to peak contracture was significantly shorter only in immature hearts. Upon reperfusion, the intervention reduced cardiac injury and functional impairment in adults with no protection of immature heart. Immature hearts have significantly less glycogen content compared to adult. This work shows that Iso/Aden perfusion confers protection in an adult heart but not in an immature heart. It is likely that metabolic differences including glycogen content contribute to this difference. PMID:29414860

  5. Uterus transplantation: Experimental animal models and recent experience in humans

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Sadık; Selçuk, Selçuk; Eroğlu, Mustafa; Karateke, Ateş

    2015-01-01

    Uterus transplantation has been considered as an alternative management modality in the last few years for adoption or gestational surrogacy for women with absence of uterus due to congenital or acquired reasons. Surrogacy is legal in only a few countries because of ethical, social and legal issues. Up to date, a total of 11 uterus transplantation cases have been reported in which uteri were harvested from ten live donors and one donor with brain death. After unsuccessful attempt of first uterus transplantation, many studies have been conducted in animals and these experimental models enabled our knowledge to increase on this topic. First experimental studies were performed in rodents; later uterus transplantation was accomplished in sheep, pigs and rabbits. Recently, researches in non-human primates have led the experience regarding transplantation technique and success to improve. In this review, we reviewed the experimental animal researches in the area of uterus transplantation and recent experience in humans. PMID:28913039

  6. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  7. Retroversion of the uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a retroverted position. Scarring may come from: Endometriosis Infection in uterus or tubes Pelvic surgery ... most of the time. Underlying disorders, such as endometriosis or adhesions, should be treated as needed.

  8. The relationship of the oestrogen and progestin receptors in the abnormal uterus of the adult anovulatory rat. Effects of neonatal treatment with testosterone propionate or clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed Central

    White, J O; Moore, P A; Elder, M G; Lim, L

    1981-01-01

    The neonatal administration of testosterone propionate to Wistar rats resulted in anovulatory adults in persistent vaginal oestrus. Clomiphene citrate had a similar effect. In both groups of adults, hyperplasia of the uterine epithelium and occasional metaplasia was observed. The uterine nuclear and cytosol oestrogen and progestin receptors of these anovulatory rats were found to have affinities for their respective ligands similar to those of normal females. The nuclear oestrogen receptor comprised occupied and unoccupied components, as in normal females. The content of the nuclear oestrogen receptor was comparable with that of females in the late dioestrous or pro-oestrous phase. This content was higher in the clomiphene-treated group. Despite the relatively high nuclear oestrogen receptor content the content of progestin receptors, a putative index of the oestrogenic response, was lower in the treated rats than in normal adult females throughout the cycle. Administration of oestradiol to both treatment groups resulted in depletion of cytosol oestrogen receptor content 1 h later, which, however, was not reflected by an increase in the content of nuclear oestrogen receptors. There was no measurable increase in progesterone receptor content in treated rats after daily administration of oestrogen (5 microgram/rat) for 3 days. These changes in sex-hormone-receptor interactions involving an impairment of the normal oestrogenic response may be associated with the abnormal differentiation of the uterus in these sterile, anovulatory animals. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7316994

  9. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  10. Histopathologic response of the immature rat to diffuse traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Adelson, P D; Jenkins, L W; Hamilton, R L; Robichaud, P; Tran, M P; Kochanek, P M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the histopathologic response of rats at postnatal day (PND) 17 following an impact-acceleration diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a 150-g/2-meter injury as previously described. This injury produces acute neurologic and physiologic derangements as well as enduring motor and Morris water maze (MWM) functional deficits. Histopathologic studies of perfusion-fixed brains were performed by gross examination and light microscopy using hematoxylin and eosin, Bielschowsky silver stain, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry at 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 day after injury. Gross pathologic examination revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at 1-3 days but minimal supratentorial intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Petechial hemorrhages were noted in ventral brainstem segments and in the cerebellum. After 1-3-day survivals, light microscopy revealed diffuse SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), mild edema, significant axonal injury, reactive astrogliosis, and localized midline cerebellar hemorrhage. Axonal injury most commonly occurred in the long ascending and descending fiber tracts of the brainstem and occasionally in the forebrain, and was maximal at 3 days, but present until 7 days after injury. Reactive astrocytes were similarly found both in location and timing, but were also significantly identified in the hippocampus, white matter tracts, and corpus callosum. Typically, TBI produced significant diffuse SAH accompanied by cerebral and brainstem astrogliosis and axonal injury without obvious neuronal loss. Since this injury produces some pathologic changes with sustained functional deficits similar to TBI in infants and children, it should be useful for the further study of the pathophysiology and therapy of diffuse TBI and brainstem injury in the immature brain.

  11. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J. Michael, E-mail: sander10@mail.nih.gov; Coulter, Sherry J.; Knudsen, Gabriel A.

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250 mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24 h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250 mg/kg. Expression of genes associated withmore » receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats. - Highlights: • Perturbation of estrogen homeostasis in TBBPA-treated female rats was investigated. • Gene expression changes were observed in the liver and uterus of these rats. • Genes associated with estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism were affected. • Genes associated with thyroid homeostasis and cell division/growth were affected. • A mechanism of uterine toxicity via endocrine disruption was indicated.« less

  12. Daidzein–Estrogen Interaction in the Rat Uterus and Its Effect on Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Leonardo; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Villena, Joan; Lemus, Igor; Gidekel, Manuel; Cabrera, Gustavo; Astorga, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sex hormone replacement therapy provides several advantages in the quality of life for climacteric women. However, estrogen-induced cell proliferation in the uterus and mammary gland increases the risk of cancer development in these organs. The lower incidence of mammary cancer in Asian women as compared with Western women has been attributed to high intake of soy isoflavones, including genistein. We have previously shown that genistein induces an estradiol-like hypertrophy of uterine cells, but does not induce cell proliferation, uterine eosinophilia, or endometrial edema. It also inhibits estradiol-induced mitosis in uterine cells and hormone-induced uterine eosinophilia and endometrial edema. Nevertheless, genistein stimulates growth of human breast cancer cells in culture; therefore, it is not an ideal estrogen for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRD). The present study investigated the effect of another soy isoflavone, daidzein (subcutaneous, 0.066 mg/kg body weight), in the same animal model, and its effect on responses induced by subsequent treatment (1 h later) with estradiol-17β (E2; subcutaneous, 0.33 mg/kg body weight). In addition, we investigated the effects of daidzein (1 μg/mL) or E2 on the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Results indicate that daidzein stimulates growth of breast cancer cells and potentiates estrogen-induced cell proliferation in the uterus. We suggest caution for the use of daidzein or formulas containing this compound in HRD. Future research strategies should be addressed in the search for new phytoestrogens that selectively inhibit cell proliferation in the uterus and breast. PMID:23216111

  13. Effects of Etomidate on the Steroidogenesis of Rat Immature Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Cheng; Zhu, Danyan; Wang, Chan; Guan, Hongguo; Li, Senlin; Hu, Cong; Chen, Zhichuan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Han; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background Etomidate is a rapid hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. The major side effect of etomidate is the reduced plasma concentration of corticosteroids, leading to the abnormal reaction of adrenals. Cortisol and testosterone biosynthesis has similar biosynthetic pathway, and shares several common steroidogenic enzymes, such as P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1). The effect of etomidate on Leydig cell steroidogenesis during the cell maturation process is not well established. Methodology Immature Leydig cells isolated from 35 day-old rats were cultured with 30 μM etomidate for 3 hours in combination with LH, 8Br-cAMP, 25R-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. The concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. Leydig cells were cultured with various concentrations of etomidate (0.3–30 μM) for 3 hours, and total RNAs were extracted. Q-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of following genes: Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, and Akr1c14. The testis mitochondria and microsomes from 35-day-old rat testes were prepared and used to detect the direct action of etomidate on CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 activity. Results and Conclusions In intact Leydig cells, 30 μM etomidate significantly inhibited androgen synthesis. Further studies showed that etomidate also inhibited the LH- stimulated androgen production. On purified testicular mitochondria and ER fractions, etomidate competitively inhibited both CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 activities, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 12.62 and 2.75 μM, respectively. In addition, etomidate inhibited steroidogenesis-related gene expression. At about 0.3 μM, etomidate significantly inhibited the expression of Akr1C14. At the higher concentration (30 μM), it also reduced the expression levels of

  14. Effects of Etomidate on the Steroidogenesis of Rat Immature Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Cheng; Zhu, Danyan; Wang, Chan; Guan, Hongguo; Li, Senlin; Hu, Cong; Chen, Zhichuan; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Han; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Etomidate is a rapid hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. The major side effect of etomidate is the reduced plasma concentration of corticosteroids, leading to the abnormal reaction of adrenals. Cortisol and testosterone biosynthesis has similar biosynthetic pathway, and shares several common steroidogenic enzymes, such as P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1). The effect of etomidate on Leydig cell steroidogenesis during the cell maturation process is not well established. Immature Leydig cells isolated from 35 day-old rats were cultured with 30 μM etomidate for 3 hours in combination with LH, 8Br-cAMP, 25R-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. The concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. Leydig cells were cultured with various concentrations of etomidate (0.3-30 μM) for 3 hours, and total RNAs were extracted. Q-PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of following genes: Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, and Akr1c14. The testis mitochondria and microsomes from 35-day-old rat testes were prepared and used to detect the direct action of etomidate on CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 activity. In intact Leydig cells, 30 μM etomidate significantly inhibited androgen synthesis. Further studies showed that etomidate also inhibited the LH- stimulated androgen production. On purified testicular mitochondria and ER fractions, etomidate competitively inhibited both CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 activities, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 12.62 and 2.75 μM, respectively. In addition, etomidate inhibited steroidogenesis-related gene expression. At about 0.3 μM, etomidate significantly inhibited the expression of Akr1C14. At the higher concentration (30 μM), it also reduced the expression levels of Cyp11a1, Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1. In conclusion

  15. Porcine uterus contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Miernik, Katarzyna; Karasinski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    The uterus has a remarkable ability of cycling remodeling throughout the reproductive life of the female. Recent findings in the human and mouse indicate that adult stem/progenitor cells may play a prominent role in the maintenance of uterine endometrial and myometrial homeostasis. We aimed to characterize the prospective stem/progenitor cells in the porcine uterus and establish a new model for uterine stem cell research. In this study, we demonstrated that cells isolated from porcine uterus have capacity for in vitro differentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages and express the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD29, CD44, CD144, CD105, and CD140b as revealed by RT-PCR. Moreover, we showed that some cells isolated from the porcine uterus when cultured at low density produce large clones with an efficiency of 0.035%. Simultaneously, they were negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers such as CD34 and CD45. Low expression of nestin, which is specific for neural stem cells and various progenitor cells, was also detected. We conclude that the porcine uterus contains a small population of undifferentiated cells with MSC-like properties similar to human and mouse uteri.

  16. Uterine Tissue Engineering and the Future of Uterus Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Mats; Bandstein, Sara; Brännström, Mats

    2017-07-01

    The recent successful births following live donor uterus transplantation are proof-of-concept that absolute uterine factor infertility is a treatable condition which affects several hundred thousand infertile women world-wide due to a dysfunctional uterus. This strategy also provides an alternative to gestational surrogate motherhood which is not practiced in most countries due to ethical, religious or legal reasons. The live donor surgery involved in uterus transplantation takes more than 10 h and is then followed by years of immunosuppressive medication to prevent uterine rejection. Immunosuppression is associated with significant adverse side effects, including nephrotoxicity, increased risk of serious infections, and diabetes. Thus, the development of alternative approaches to treat absolute uterine factor infertility would be desirable. This review discusses tissue engineering principles in general, but also details strategies on how to create a bioengineered uterus that could be used for transplantation, without risky donor surgery and any need for immunosuppression. We discuss scaffolds derived from decellularized organs/tissues which may be recellularized using various types of autologous somatic/stem cells, in particular for uterine tissue engineering. It further highlights the hurdles that lay ahead in developing an alternative to an allogeneic source for uterus transplantation.

  17. o-p′-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kwekel, Joshua C.; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

    1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p′-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide and endocrine disruptor known to activate the estrogen receptor. Comprehensive ligand- and species-comparative dose- and time-dependent studies were conducted to systematically assess the uterine physiological, morphological and gene expression responses elicited by o,p′-DDT and ethynyl estradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice and Sprague–Dawley rats. Custom cDNA microarrays were used to identify conserved and divergent differential gene expression responses. A total of 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species, 559 of which exhibited similar temporal expression profiles suggesting that o,p′-DDT elicits estrogenic effects at high doses when compared to EE.more » However, 51 genes exhibited species-specific uterine expression elicited by o,p′-DDT. For example, carbonic anhydrase 2 exhibited species- and ligand-divergent expression as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to gene expression demonstrates that systematic comparative gene expression assessments are valuable for elucidating conserved and divergent estrogen signaling mechanisms in rodent uterotrophy. - Highlights: • o,p′-DDT and enthynyl estradiol (EE) both elicit uterotrophy in mice and rats. • o,p′-DDT and EE have different kinetics in uterine wet weight induction. • o,p′-DDT elicited stromal hypertrophy in rats but myometrial hypertrophy in mice. • 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species. • Only 51 genes had species-specific uterine expression.« less

  18. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumyia; Ziada, Amal; Al Salam, Suhail; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Blunden, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract and anthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls.

  19. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-01-01

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells.

  20. Incarceration of the Gravid Uterus.

    PubMed

    Shnaekel, Kelsey L; Wendel, Michael P; Rabie, Nader Z; Magann, Everett F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the risk factors, clinical and radiographic criteria, and management of this rare complication of pregnancy. A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with no limitations on the number of years searched. There were 60 articles identified, with 53 articles being the basis of this review. Multiple risk factors have been suggested in the literature including retroverted uterus in the first trimester, deep sacral concavity with an overlying sacral promontory, endometriosis, previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, pelvic or uterine adhesions, ovarian cysts, leiomyomas, multifetal gestation, uterine anomalies, uterine prolapse, and uterine incarceration in a prior pregnancy. The diagnosis is difficult to make owing to the nonspecific presenting symptoms. The diagnosis is clinical and confirmed by imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound to accurately diagnose and elucidate the distorted maternal anatomy. Treatment is dictated by gestational age at diagnosis based on risks and benefits. The recommended route of delivery is cesarean delivery when uterine polarity cannot be corrected. Incarceration of the gravid uterus is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The diagnosis is clinical and confirmed with imaging, with magnetic resonance imaging being superior to delineate the distorted maternal anatomy. Reduction of the incarcerated uterus should be attempted to restore polarity and avoid unnecessary cesarean delivery.

  1. Uterus transplantation: From animal models through the first heart beating pregnancy to the first human live birth

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Omer; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Dogan, Selen; Aydinuraz, Batu; Simsek, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Absolute uterine factor infertility affects 3–5% of the general population, and unfortunately this condition is untreatable. There are some available options, including surrogacy or adoption, but neither of these suits each and every woman who desires to have her own genetic child. With recent advances in surgery and transplant immunology, uterus transplantation may be a source of hope for these women with uterine infertility. In the last decade, a number of animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and primates have been used as experimental models, and pregnancies were achieved in some of these. Human data consist of 11 subjects yielding positive pregnancy results with no live births in the second trial from Turkey and, more fortunately, live births from the latest trial from Sweden. In the light of all these studies, uterus transplantation has been proven to be a viable option for women with uterine factor infertility. PMID:27638900

  2. Effect of subacute exposure to lead and estrogen on immature pre-weaning rat leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Villagra, R.; Tchernitchin, N.N.; Tchernitchin, A.N.

    1997-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant known to cause damage to human health, affecting specially the central nervous system, reproductive organs, the immune system and kidney. From the perspective or reproduction, lead affects both men and women. Reported effects in women include infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and premature delivery. In experimental animals, lead affects female reproductive organs through different mechanisms. The heavy metal may interact at the enzyme level. It may interfere with the action of reproductive hormones at the target organ, modifying the activity of estrogen receptors in the pregnant uterus and inhibiting responses where estrogens play a role.more » Lead may induce imprinting mechanism, causing persistent changes in uterine estrogen receptors and ovary LH receptors following perinatal exposure. Finally, it may interfere at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary, decreasing pituitary response to growth hormone releasing factor, affecting levels of FSH and LH and increasing blood levels of glucocorticoids, which modify the action of estrogens in the uterus. This study examines the mechanisms of lead-induced interference with female reproductive and immune functions. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. [Polycythaemia in a patient with uterus myomatosus].

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Velders, G; Aliredjo, R; Scheenjes, E; Flinsenberg, T W H

    2017-01-01

    Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome (MES) is characterised by a combination of polycythaemia, uterus myomatosus and the normalisation of erythrocyte count after hysterectomy. A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman was referred to the gynaecologist with symptoms of vaginal blood loss, increased abdominal circumference and pollakiuria. Physical examination indicated her uterus was enlarged to the size of a 24-week gestation. Endometrial malignancy was excluded and ultrasound showed a myoma. In consultation with the patient a hysterectomy was planned. Pre-operative blood tests showed increased haemoglobin levels (14.2 mmol/l). No indications of polycythaemia vera or secondary polycythaemia were found after which the diagnosis of MES was made. Haemoglobin levels normalised after hysterectomy without any further intervention. MES is common, although relatively unknown. Its pathophysiology is most likely based on ectopic production of erythropoietin by leiomyoma tissue. The combination of polycythaemia and uterus myomatosus should alert clinicians to this syndrome, especially as polycythaemia normalises after hysterectomy.

  5. Palmitoylethanolamide Ameliorates Hippocampal Damage and Behavioral Dysfunction After Perinatal Asphyxia in the Immature Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, María I.; Udovin, Lucas D.; Toro-Urrego, Nicolás; Kusnier, Carlos F.; Luaces, Juan P.; Capani, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication associated with an impaired gas exchange. This health problem continues to be a determinant of neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental disorders. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has exerted neuroprotection in several models of brain injury and neurodegeneration. We aimed at evaluating the potential neuroprotective role of PEA in an experimental model, which induces PA in the immature rat brain. PA was induced by placing Sprague Dawley newborn rats in a water bath at 37°C for 19 min. Once their physiological conditions improved, they were given to surrogate mothers that had delivered normally within the last 24 h. The control group was represented by non-fostered vaginally delivered pups, mimicking the clinical situation. Treatment with PEA (10 mg/kg) was administered within the first hour of life. Modifications in the hippocampus were analyzed with conventional electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (for NeuN, pNF-H/M, MAP-2, and GFAP) and western blot (for pNF H/M, MAP-2, and GFAP). Behavior was also studied throughout Open Field (OF) Test, Passive Avoidance (PA) Task and Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) Test. After 1 month of the PA insult, we observed neuronal nucleus degeneration in CA1 using electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in pNF-H/M and decrease in MAP-2 in CA1 reactive area. These changes were also observed when analyzing the level of expression of these markers by western blot. Vertical exploration impairments and anxiety-related behaviors were encountered in the OF and EPM tests. PEA treatment attenuated PA-induced hippocampal damage and its corresponding behavioral alterations. These results contribute to the elucidation of PEA neuroprotective role after PA and the future establishment of therapeutic strategies for the developing brain. PMID:29662433

  6. Hedgehog signaling plays roles in epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal mouse uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2012-04-01

    Both the uterus and vagina develop from the Müllerian duct but are quite distinct in morphology and function. To investigate factors controlling epithelial differentiation and cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina, we focused on Hedgehog (HH) signaling. In neonatal mice, Sonic hh (Shh) was localized in the vaginal epithelium and Indian hh (Ihh) was slightly expressed in the uterus and vagina, whereas all Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) genes were mainly expressed in the stroma. The expression of target genes of HH signaling was high in the neonatal vagina and in the uterus, it increased with growth. Thus, in neonatal mice, Shh in the vaginal epithelium and Ihh in the uterus and vagina activated HH signaling in the stroma. Tissue recombinants showed that vaginal Shh expression was inhibited by the vaginal stroma and uterine Ihh expression was stimulated by the uterine stroma. Addition of a HH signaling inhibitor decreased epithelial cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus and vagina and increased stromal cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus. However, it did not affect epithelial differentiation or the expression of growth factors in organ-cultured uterus and vagina. Thus, activated HH signaling stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina but inhibits stromal cell proliferation in neonatal uterus.

  7. Adhesion to Carbon Nanotube Conductive Scaffolds Forces Action-Potential Appearance in Immature Rat Spinal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toma, Francesca Maria; Calura, Enrica; Rizzetto, Lisa; Carrieri, Claudia; Roncaglia, Paola; Martinelli, Valentina; Scaini, Denis; Masten, Lara; Turco, Antonio; Gustincich, Stefano; Prato, Maurizio; Ballerini, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, carbon nanotube growth substrates have been used to investigate neurons and neuronal networks formation in vitro when guided by artificial nano-scaled cues. Besides, nanotube-based interfaces are being developed, such as prosthesis for monitoring brain activity. We recently described how carbon nanotube substrates alter the electrophysiological and synaptic responses of hippocampal neurons in culture. This observation highlighted the exceptional ability of this material in interfering with nerve tissue growth. Here we test the hypothesis that carbon nanotube scaffolds promote the development of immature neurons isolated from the neonatal rat spinal cord, and maintained in vitro. To address this issue we performed electrophysiological studies associated to gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that spinal neurons plated on electro-conductive carbon nanotubes show a facilitated development. Spinal neurons anticipate the expression of functional markers of maturation, such as the generation of voltage dependent currents or action potentials. These changes are accompanied by a selective modulation of gene expression, involving neuronal and non-neuronal components. Our microarray experiments suggest that carbon nanotube platforms trigger reparative activities involving microglia, in the absence of reactive gliosis. Hence, future tissue scaffolds blended with conductive nanotubes may be exploited to promote cell differentiation and reparative pathways in neural regeneration strategies. PMID:23951361

  8. High-temperature thermal treatment of the uterus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Xiao, Jia Hua; Chung, Juh Yun

    2003-06-01

    More than 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the US due to abnormal uterine bleeding from excessive menstrual flow. A minimally invasive procedure has been developed using thermal treatment combined with pressure to the endometrial lining of the uterus. Results from a 3-D finite element model will be shown, as well as experimental data. Good correlation was seen between simulations and experiments. The study found similar results then temperatures were increased and times for treatment were shortened.More than 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the US due to abnormal uterine bleeding from excessive menstrual flow. A minimally invasive procedure has been developed using a balloon-based thermal treatment combined with pressure to the endometrial lining of the uterus. A 3D finite element model was set up to simulate the balloon ablation device in the human uterus as used in over 150,000 patients to date. Several additional simulations were made at higher temperatures to seek alternative combinations with higher temperature and shorter time intervals for the same depth of penetration, or deeper penetration at longer times and elevated temperatures. A temperature range of 87 to 150°C was explored. The Bioheat Equation was used in the simulations to predict temperature distributions in tissue. The Damage Integral was also used to characterize the location at depth of irreversible damage in the uterus. Treatment safety issues were also analyzed as the simulations showed the depth of penetration into the myometrium, towards the serosa.

  9. Effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles on the regulation of testicular function in immature male rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (4-nitro-m-cresol, PNMC) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the reproductive functions of male rats. Twenty-eight-day-old rats were injected subcutaneously with PNMC (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The weights of the epididymis, seminal vesicle, and Cowper gland were significantly decreased in rats treated with 10 mg/kg PNMC. The plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly increased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. However, the plasma concentrations of testosterone and immunoreactive (ir)-inhibin were significantly decreased by PNMC at 100 mg/kg. The testosterone content of the testicles was significantly decreased in the group treated with 100 mg/kg PNMC compared with the control group. Furthermore, testicular concentration of ir-inhibin was significantly decreased by PNMC at 1 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg. To investigate the direct effects of PNMC on the secretion of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary gland, and on the secretion of testosterone from the testes, we exposed cultured anterior pituitary and interstitial Leydig cells to PNMC (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) M) with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 nM) (for the LH and FSH tests) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 0.1 IU/mL) (for the testosterone test) for 24 hours. PNMC did not change either the basal or GnRH-stimulated levels of FSH and LH secretion. However, PNMC significantly inhibited both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone production. These findings suggest that PNMC has a direct effect on the testes of immature male rats, causing a reduction in testosterone secretion.

  10. Local microcirculation disorders in uterus under laser tissue welding and their influence in the healing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valentine I.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Fatkullin, Ildar; Terman, Oleg A.; Chizhov, Gennadii; Gabidullina, Rushania

    1994-12-01

    To study the possibility of using Nd:YAG laser to weld the tissues of the uterus experiments in rats and dogs have been conducted. With the biomicroscopy and the laser Doppler flowmetry we have evaluated the microcirculation in the uterus wall under traditional suture and laser welding suture. As a model of the wound, the dissection of serosa and muscles of the organ wall have been used. In laser welding suture we have welded the zone of tissue about 1 mm3 with the laser (power density 270 W/cm2). Histological control has been fulfilled on various phases of the healing process. The investigation of the uterus wall demonstrates that there are zones of microcirculation disorders in tissues: (1) the zone of coagulation of microvessels and adjacent tissues (about 100 micrometers ); (2) the zone of stasis (150 - 200 micrometers ); (3) the zone of reactive-destructive changes of microvessels (300 micrometers ), (4) the zone of malfunctional microcirculatory changes (600 micrometers ). The coagulation of microvessels changes the character of inflammation and the healing process, decreases the exudation phase and the leucocyte infiltration of tissues, and accelerates the capillary growth. In contrast with traditional suture, in the case of laser welding suture the edema and hemorrhagic signs are less expressed. The complete restoration of microcirculation under laser welding suture has been observed by the fourteenth day of the healing process. Under the traditional suture method normalization of tissue nutritious blood flow has been achieved by 21 days.

  11. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on lipid peroxidation and visual development in neonatal rats with hypoxia-ischemia brain damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Yan-Hui; Lv, Hong-Yan; Chen, Li-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on lipid peroxidation and visual development in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). The rat models of HIBD were established by delayed uterus dissection and were divided randomly into two groups (10 rats each): HIBD and HBO-treated HIBD (HIBD+HBO) group. Another 20 rats that underwent sham-surgery were also divided randomly into the HBO-treated and control groups. The rats that underwent HBO treatment received HBO (0.02 MPa, 1 h/day) 24 h after the surgery and this continued for 14 days. When rats were 4 weeks old, their flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEPs) were monitored and the ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under transmission electron microscope. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue homogenate were detected by xanthine oxidase and the thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method. Compared with the control group, the ultrastructures of the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area were distorted, the latencies of F-VEPs were prolonged (P<0.01) and the SOD activities were lower while the MDA levels were higher (P<0.01) in the HIBD group. No significant differences in ultrastructure, the latency of F-VEPs or SOD/MDA levels were identified between the HBO-treated HIBD group and the normal control group (P>0.05). HBO enhances antioxidant capacity and reduces the ultrastructural damage induced by hypoxic-ischemia, which may improve synaptic reconstruction and alleviate immature brain damage to promote the habilitation of brain function.

  12. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  13. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.

    1989-02-28

    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction thatmore » was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.« less

  14. Large-scale oscillatory calcium waves in the immature cortex.

    PubMed

    Garaschuk, O; Linn, J; Eilers, J; Konnerth, A

    2000-05-01

    Two-photon imaging of large neuronal networks in cortical slices of newborn rats revealed synchronized oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These spontaneous Ca2+ waves usually started in the posterior cortex and propagated slowly (2.1 mm per second) toward its anterior end. Ca2+ waves were associated with field-potential changes and required activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors. Although GABAA receptors were not involved in wave initiation, the developmental transition of GABAergic transmission from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing (around postnatal day 7) stopped the oscillatory activity. Thus we identified a type of large-scale Ca2+ wave that may regulate long-distance wiring in the immature cortex.

  15. A Three Year Clinicopathological Study of Cases of Rupture Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Swain, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rupture uterus is a life threatening obstetric complication with serious maternal and fetal side-effects. We report a 3 year (2010-2013) retrospective clinical study of pregnancy with rupture uterus cases attending a tertiary care hospital. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of rupture uterus, incidence as per age, parity, clinical presentations, risk factors, complications and management. Materials and Methods Retrospective data of 74 cases of rupture uterus in SCB Medical college, Cuttack was collected from case records of 26,547 deliveries during a 3 year span (2010-2013). Parameters like cause of rupture, type, site of rupture and outcome were recorded. The collected data was analysed by SPSS software v19. Results Out of 26,547 deliveries during the three year period, there were 74 cases of rupture uterus with an incidence of rupture 1 in 359 (0.28%). The mean age of rupture uterus was 27.4 years. 95.8% were multigravida and majority were referred cases from low socioeconomic status. Only 40.5% had the required minimum of four antenatal visits as recommended by WHO (World Health Organisation). A total of 48.6% of cases with rupture uterus had history of previous Caesarean section. Prolonged labour was present in 75.6% of the cases. Only 12.2% of the cases had history of oxytocin use whereas 9.5% had undergone an operative vaginal delivery. Obstructed labour was the cause in 24.3% of cases, 85.1% had complete rupture. Majority had a rupture in the anterior wall (69%) and 81.1% had rupture in lower segment of uterus. Only 17.6% had broad ligament haematoma, 10.8% colporrhexis and 6.8% had associated bladder injury. Repair was possible in only 39.2% of cases, whereas majority landed up in hysterectomy. Internal iliac ligation was done in 2.7% of cases. Perinatal mortality was 90.5% whereas maternal death was seen in 13.5% cases. One patient developed VVF (vesicovaginal fistula). Duration of hospital stay was upto 14 days in 81

  16. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  17. Conservative Treatment of Ewing's Sarcoma of the Uterus in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Giuseppe; Resta, Leonardo; Di Naro, Edoardo; Caringella, Anna Maria; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Vicino, Mario; Tartagni, Massimo; Schonauer, Luca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms characterized by a continuum of neuroectodermal differentiations. ES/PNET of the uterus is rare. There are 48 cases of ES/PNET of the uterus published in the literature as far as we know. We describe a case of Ewing sarcoma of the uterus occurring in a 17-year-old woman presenting with a two-month history of pelvic pain. After surgical excision and microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopy examination, the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma of the uterus was suggested. This report will discuss the diagnosis and surgical and clinical management of Ewing uterine sarcoma in young women, according to the available literature. In spite of the rarity of ES/PNETs, they should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of uterine neoplasms in young women.

  18. Double uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: pelvic anatomic variants in 87 cases.

    PubMed

    Fedele, L; Motta, F; Frontino, G; Restelli, E; Bianchi, S

    2013-06-01

    What are the anatomic variants (and their frequencies) of double uterus, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis? Most cases examined (72.4%) were of the classic anatomic variant of the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (with didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis) but the 27.6% of cases are of a rare variant of the syndrome (with uterus septum or cervical agenesis), showing relevant clinical and surgical implications. The extreme variability of anatomic structures involved in this syndrome (both uterus, cervico-vaginal and renal anomalies) is well known, even if a complete and uniform analysis of all its heterogeneous presentations in a large series is lacking. This is a retrospective study with 87 patients referred to our third level referral center between 1981 and 2011. We analyzed the laparoscopic and chart records of 87 women, who referred to our institute with double uterus, unilateral cervico-vaginal obstruction and ipsilateral renal anomalies. Sixty-three of 87 patients had the more classic variant of didelphys uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 10/87 patients had septate bicollis uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 9/87 patients had bicornuate bicollis uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 4/87 patients had didelphys uterus with unilateral cervical atresia; 1/87 patients had bicornuate uterus with one septate cervix and unilateral obstructed hemivagina. This is a retrospective study with a long enrolling period (30 years). New insights in the anatomic variants of this rare syndrome with their relevant surgical implications.

  19. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  20. Dexamethasone prevents hypoxia/ischemia-induced reductions in cerebral glucose utilization and high-energy phosphate metabolites in immature brain.

    PubMed

    Tuor, U I; Yager, J Y; Bascaramurty, S; Del Bigio, M R

    1997-11-01

    We examined the potential importance of dexamethasone-mediated alterations in energy metabolism in providing protection against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in immature rats. Seven-day-old rats (n = 165) that had been treated with dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were assigned to control or hypoxic-ischemic groups (unilateral carotid artery occlusion plus 2-3 h of 8% oxygen at normothermia). The systemic availability of alternate fuels such as beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, pyruvate, and free fatty acids was not altered by dexamethasone treatment, and, except for glucose, brain levels were also unaffected. At the end of hypoxia, levels of cerebral high-energy phosphates (ATP and phosphocreatine) were decreased in vehicle- but relatively preserved in dexamethasone-treated animals. The local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilization (lCMRgl) was decreased modestly under control conditions in dexamethasone-treated animals, whereas cerebral energy use measured in a model of decapitation ischemia did not differ significantly between groups. The lCMRgl increased markedly during hypoxia-ischemia (p < 0.05) and remained elevated throughout ischemia in dexamethasone- but not vehicle-treated groups, indicating an enhanced glycolytic flux with dexamethasone treatment. Thus, dexamethasone likely provides protection against hypoxic-ischemic damage in immature rats by preserving cerebral ATP secondary to a maintenance of glycolytic flux.

  1. Follitropin receptors in rat testis. Characterization with enzymatically 125I-labeled human follitropin.

    PubMed

    Ketelslegers, J M; Catt, K J

    1978-07-03

    The interaction between enzymatically radioiodinated human follitropin and the follitropin receptors in testis homogenate was investigated in immature and adult rats. The 125I-labeled human follitropin exhibited high binding activity with specific binding of up to 17% in the presence of an excess of testis homogenate. Approx. 50% of the bound hormone could be eluted at pH 5, and the receptor purified tracer exhibited a 3.6-fold increase in binding activity when compared with the original tracer preparation. Quantitative analysis of equilibrium binding data was performed with corrections for the measured specific activity and maximum binding activity of the tracer hormone. The equilibrium association constants (Ka) determined 24 degrees C were not significantly different in immature and adult rat testis, and the mean value for Ka was 3.9 . 10(9) M-1. At 37 degrees C, the Ka value obtained using immature rat testis was 1.3 . 10(10) M-1. The association of 125I-labeled human follitropin with immature rat testis homogenate was time and temperature dependent. In the presence of an excess of unlabeled hormone, 30--60% of the preformed hormone . receptor complex was dissociated after 24 h incubation. A specific and sensitive radioligand-receptor assay for follitropin was developed using immature rat testis homogenate. The minimum detectable dose of purified human follitropin was 0.6 ng, and human urinary and pituitary follitropin, ovine follitropin and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin reacted in the assay with equivalent slopes. The potencies of highly purified pregnent mare serum gonadotropin and highly purified human follitropin were similar in the radioligand-receptor assay, consistent with the follitropin bioactivity of the equine gonadotropin.

  2. Elevated expression of pleiotrophin in pilocarpine-induced seizures of immature rats and in pentylenetetrazole-induced hippocampal astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Liang, Feng; Wang, Bing; Le, Yuan; Wang, Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a secreted extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated cytokine that has emerged as an important neuromodulator with multiple neuronal functions. In the present study, we detected and compared the dynamic expression of PTN in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex of immature rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Moreover, we also confirmed the results by examining PTN expression in hippocampal astrocytes cultured in the presence of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Immunohistochemistry showed faint immunostaining of PTN in the control hippocampus and adjacent cortex. Notably, PTN immunoreactivity began to increase in relatively small cells in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 2h and 3 weeks after seizures, and the labeling intensity reached the maximum level in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex at 8 weeks after seizures. Furthermore, we also found that PTZ treatment significantly reduced astrocytic viability in a dose-dependent manner and time-dependently increased expression levels of PTN in hippocampal astrocytes. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of PTN in the brain tissues may be involved in epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of changing the ionic environment on passive and active membrane properties of pregnant rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Y.

    1971-01-01

    . 10. Manganese abolished the spontaneous and evoked spike. Tetrodotoxin had no effect. 11. The results show that rat uterus has cable-like properties. The action potential may be due to calcium entry, while sodium, by influencing the membrane potential in competition with calcium, may be involved in the spontaneous spike generation and the spread of excitation. PMID:5103422

  4. The ethics of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Catsanos, Ruby; Rogers, Wendy; Lotz, Mianna

    2013-02-01

    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Distinct Spatiotemporal Expression of Serine Proteases Prss23 and Prss35 in Periimplantation Mouse Uterus and Dispensable Function of Prss35 in Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Honglu; Xiao, Shuo; Li, Rong; Zhao, Fei; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2013-01-01

    PRSS23 and PRSS35 are homologous proteases originally identified in mouse ovaries. In the periimplantation mouse uterus, Prss23 was highly expressed in the preimplantation gestation day 3.5 (D3.5) uterine luminal epithelium (LE). It disappeared from the postimplantation LE and reappeared in the stromal compartment next to the myometrium on D6.5. It was undetectable in the embryo from D4.5 to D6.5 but highly expressed in the embryo on D7.5. Prss35 became detectable in the uterine stromal compartment surrounding the embryo on D4.5 and shifted towards the mesometrial side of the stromal compartment next to the embryo from D5.5 to D7.5. In the ovariectomized uterus, Prss23 was moderately and Prss35 was dramatically downregulated by progesterone and 17β-estradiol. Based on the expression of Prss35 in granulosa cells and corpus luteum of the ovary and the early pregnant uterus, we hypothesized that PRSS35 might play a role in female reproduction, especially in oocyte development, ovulation, implantation, and decidualization. This hypothesis was tested in Prss35(−/−) mice, which proved otherwise. Between wild type (WT) and Prss35(−/−) mice, superovulation of immature females produced comparable numbers of cumulus-oocyte complexes; there were comparable numbers of implantation sites detected on D4.5 and D7.5; there were no obvious differences in the expression of implantation and decidualization marker genes in D4.5 or D7.5 uteri. Comparable mRNA expression levels of a few known protease-related genes in the WT and Prss35(−/−) D4.5 uteri indicated no compensatory upregulation. Comparable litter sizes from WT × WT and Prss35 (−/−)× Prss35 (−/−) crosses suggested that Prss35 gene was unessential for fertility and embryo development. Prss35 gene has been linked to cleft lip/palate in humans. However, no obvious such defects were observed in Prss35(−/−) mice. This study demonstrates the distinct expression of Prss23 and Prss35 in the periimplantation

  6. Endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Gaballa, Khaled; Cicero, Carla; Gallotta, Valerio; Zannoni, Gianfranco; Scambia, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the diagnosis and the management of endometrial carcinoma in a single horn of bicornuate uterus in a 64-year-old woman as a case report. The case underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral iliac lymphadenectomy. The gross examination of the uterus revealed a bicornuate uterus with a greater horn of 12 × 9 × 8 cm and a smaller horn of 10 × 3 cm. The cavity of the greater horn showed a neoplastic growth of 10 cm with infiltration of about 1,8 cm of the myometrium from whole thickness of 1.9 cm. while the other horn was free of tumor tissue. The microscopic examination of the uterus revealed G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium of the greater horn with infiltration of more than 50% of the myometrium. In the presence of bicornuate uterus, a bilateral endometrial biopsy should be performed in order to reduce the risk of delayed or missed diagnosis. The management of a case of bicornuate unicollis uterus with endometrial carcinoma in only one horn is the same as patients with endometrial cancer in single uterus and depends mainly on stage and histological grade of the tumor. The possibility of existence of a separate uterine cavity should always be considered when endometrial cancer is clinically suspected but pathology fails to confirm the diagnosis. This points out the importance of a careful physical examination and radiographic evaluation in such cases. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  8. Beneficial effects of enriched environment following status epilepticus in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Faverjon, S; Silveira, D C; Fu, D D; Cha, B H; Akman, C; Hu, Y; Holmes, G L

    2002-11-12

    There is increasing evidence that enriching the environment can improve cognitive and motor deficits following a variety of brain injuries. Whether environmental enrichment can improve cognitive impairment following status epilepticus (SE) is not known. To determine whether the environment in which animals are raised influences cognitive function in normal rats and rats subjected to SE. Rats (n = 100) underwent lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE at postnatal (P) day 20 and were then placed in either an enriched environment consisting of a large play area with toys, climbing objects, and music, or in standard vivarium cages for 30 days. Control rats (n = 32) were handled similarly to the SE rats but received saline injections instead of lithium-pilocarpine. Rats were then tested in the water maze, a measure of visual-spatial memory. A subset of the rats were killed during exposure to the enriched or nonenriched environment and the brains examined for dentate granule cell neurogenesis using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) immunostaining, a brain transcription factor important in long-term memory. Both control and SE rats exposed to the enriched environment performed significantly better than the nonenriched group in the water maze. There was a significant increase in neurogenesis and pCREB immunostaining in the dentate gyrus in both control and SE animals exposed to the enriched environment compared to the nonenriched groups. Environmental enrichment resulted in no change in SE-induced histologic damage. Exposure to an enriched environment in weanling rats significantly improves visual-spatial learning. Even following SE, an enriched environment enhances cognitive function. An increase in neurogenesis and activation of transcription factors may contribute to this enhanced visual-spatial memory.

  9. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; Pereira, Sângela Cunha; Cardoso, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide; Caetano, Abadio Gonçalves; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha; Volpon, José Batista

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). RESULTS: Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure. PMID:29319726

  10. Second hand tobacco smoke adversely affects the bone of immature rats.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; Pereira, Sângela Cunha; Cardoso, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide; Caetano, Abadio Gonçalves; Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de; Volpon, José Batista

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase. Both tibias were dissected and weighed; the lengths were measured, and the bones were then stored in a freezer for analysis of bone mineral content and mechanical resistance (maximal load and stiffness). Exposure of rats to tobacco smoke significantly compromised bone health, suggesting that the harmful effects may be time dependent. Harmful effects on bone growth were detected and were more pronounced at 60-day follow-ups with a 41.8% reduction in alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.01) and a decrease of 11.25% in tibia length (p<0.001). Furthermore, a 41.5% decrease in bone mineral density was observed (p<0.001), leading to a 42.8% reduction in maximum strength (p<0.001) and a 56.7% reduction in stiffness (p<0.001). Second hand cigarette smoke exposure in rats affected bones that were weaker, deforming them and making them osteopenic. Additionally, the long bone was shorter, suggesting interference with growth. Such events seem to be related to time of exposure.

  11. Sensitivity of the immature rat uterotrophic assay to mixtures of estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Tinwell, Helen; Ashby, John

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated whether mixtures of estrogens, present in the mix at doses that are individually inactive in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, can give a uterotrophic response. Seven chemicals were evaluated: nonylphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), methoxychlor, genistein (GEN), estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and ethinyl estradiol. Dose responses in the uterotrophic assay were constructed for each chemical. The first series of experiments involved evaluating binary mixtures of BPA and GEN at dose levels that gave moderate uterotrophic responses when tested individually. The mixtures generally showed an intermediate or reduced uterotrophic effect compared with when the components of the mixture were tested alone at the dose used in the mixture. The next series of experiments used a multicomponent (complex) mixture of all seven chemicals evaluated at doses that gave either weakly positive or inactive uterotrophic responses when tested individually in the assay. Doses that were nominally equi-uterotrophic ranged over approximately six orders of magnitude for the seven chemicals. Doses of agents that gave a weak uterotrophic response when tested individually gave a marginally enhanced positive response in the assay when tested combined as a mixture. Doses of agents that gave a negative uterotrophic response when tested individually gave a positive response when tested as a mixture. These data indicate that a variety of different estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, present individually at subeffective doses, can act simultaneously to evoke an ER-regulated response. However, translating these findings into the process of environmental hazard assessment will be difficult. The simple addition of the observed, or predicted, activities for the components of a mixture is confirmed here to be inappropriate and to overestimate the actual effect induced by the mixture. Equally, isobole analysis is only suitable for two- or three-component mixtures, and concentration addition requires

  12. Living Donor Uterus Transplant and Surrogacy: Ethical Analysis According to the Principle of Equipoise.

    PubMed

    Testa, G; Koon, E C; Johannesson, L

    2017-04-01

    The uterus is the most recent addition to the list of organs that can be successfully transplanted in humans. This article analyzes living donor uterus transplantation according to the ethical principle of equipoise. A comparison is made between living donor uterus transplantation and gestational surrogate motherhood. Both are solutions to absolute uterine infertility that allow the transfer of genetic material from intended parents to a child. The analysis concludes that living donor uterus transplantation does not violate the ethical principle of equipoise and should be considered an ethically acceptable solution to absolute uterine infertility. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Significance of preoperative calculation of uterine weight as an indicator for preserving the uterus in pelvic reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qingsong; Ma, Ning; Huang, Huijuan; Xu, Bo; He, Chunni; Song, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that uterus preservation is beneficial for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) patients, both physiologically and psychologically. However, the preoperative indicators for uterus preservation have rarely been examined. The current study was designed to determine the relationship between the preoperative evaluated uterus weight and the operation selection (preserving the uterus or not) in pelvic reconstructive surgery (PRS) using vaginal meshes. First, in a series of 96 patients undergoing hysterectomy, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements, and was then compared with the postoperative actual weight of the uterus. Subsequently, in a series of 65 patients undergone PRS using vaginal meshes and preserving the uterus, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements. Lastly, in a series of 43 patients with a uterine weight > 56.12 g who had undergone PRS using vaginal meshes, the operation success rate in patients with a preserved uterus was compared to patients for whom the uterus was not preserved. The results showed that uterus weight can be evaluated by ultrasound and used as a preoperative indicator for whether the uterus should be preserved or not in PRS when using vaginal meshes. It was indicated that preoperative evaluation of uterine weight is beneficial for surgical planning and guidance. PMID:25755793

  14. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Nutrient Analysis, Growth, and Organ Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    A diet (KSC-25) to be sterilized by irradiation was formulated to contain 66% moisture and to provide the required nutrients for growing rats. Analyses of the irradiated dry diet provided data to evaluate its nutrient content. The diet was evaluated for its ability to supply all nutrients, including water, required by immature rats. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the high-moisture diet with or without access to a water bottle. Rats (n = 16) fed an irradiated purified diet in a meal form with access to a water bottle were the control animals. Feed efficiency, food and water consumption, and growth rate data were collected during the 28-day study. Organ weights were collected on day 28. The test diet met or exceeded the National Research Council (NRC) estimated nutritional requirements for immature laboratory rats. The 66% moisture KSC-25 diet provided all nutrients, including water, required by weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for growth equivalent to the established purified diet.

  15. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: determination of normal values.

    PubMed

    Hauth, Elke A M; Jaeger, Horst J; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies.

  16. [A Case of Sigmoid Colon Cancer with Metastasis to the Uterus].

    PubMed

    Tokoro, Yukinari; Tonooka, Toru; Souda, Hiroaki; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Chibana, Tomofumi; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Yanagibashi, Hiroo; Chou, Akihiro; Ikeda, Atsushi; Nabeya, Nobuhiro; Kainuma, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Matsuo

    2015-11-01

    A 65-year-old woman complaining of fetor ex vagina was diagnosed with endometrial adenocarcinoma of the uterus based on the pathological findings of an endometrial biopsy. Sigmoid colon cancer was found on a pre-operative CT scan. Diagnosis of double cancer was made and we performed sigmoidectomy and panhysterectomy with associated resection of both adnexa. Histopathological examination found that the tumor accounted for almost all of the uterine mucosa and over half of the muscular layer. Immunostaining showed CK7 (-), CK20 (+), CDX2 (+), ER (-), and PgR (-), and we diagnosed it as a metastasis to the uterus of the sigmoid colon cancer. The pathological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pT4b (SI: urinary bladder), pN0 (0/12), H0, P1,M1a (uterus), pStage Ⅳ. As adjuvant chemotherapy, she was administered XELOX for 6 months. Although colorectal cancer rarely metastasizes to the uterus, due to the increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, it may be also increase. To choose the best treatment course, it is necessary to diagnose whether it is a primary uterine cancer or a metastatic uterine cancer.

  17. Agonistic activity of ICI 182 780 on activation of GSK 3β/AKT pathway in the rat uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Baranda-Avila, Noemi; Mendoza-Rodríguez, C Adriana; Morimoto, Sumiko; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Langley, Elizabeth; Cerbón, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We examined the ability of ICI 182,780 (ICI) to block uterine cell proliferation via protein kinase b/AKT pathway in the uterus of the rat during the estrous cycle. Intact rats, with regular estrous cycles, received a subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of either vehicle or ICI at 08:00 h on the day of proestrus or at 00:00 h on the day of estrus and sacrificed at 13:00 h of metaestrus. Estradiol (E₂) and progesterone (P₄) plasma levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Both ICI treatments, induced a significant decrease (p<0.01) in uterine estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) content, had no effect on uterine progesterone receptor (PR) protein expression and caused marked nuclear localization of cyclin D1, in both luminal and glandular uterine epithelium, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore, we detected that ICI treatment induced glycogen synthase kinase (Gsk3-β) Ser 9 phosphorylation, which correlates with cyclin D1 nuclear localization. However, some differences were observed between the two different time schedules of administration. We observed that the administration of ICI at 08:00 h on proestrus day produced a 15% inhibition of luminal epithelial cell proliferation, reduced uterine wet weight by 21% and caused reduction of Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473 as compared to vehicle-treated animals, whereas ICI treatment at 00:00 h on estrus day had no effect on these parameters. The overall results indicate that ICI may exert agonistic and antagonistic effects on uterine cell proliferation through differential activation of the Akt pathway depending on the administration period during the estrous cycle, and indicates that the mechanism of cell proliferation during the physiological conditions of the estrous cycle, is under a different and more complex regulation than in the ovariectomized + E₂ animal model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immature rat brain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation as an in vitro model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, David; Martínez-Orgado, José; Casanova, Ignacio; Bonet, Bartolomé; Leza, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo, Pedro; Moro, Maria Angeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2005-06-30

    To analyze whether exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of immature rat brain slices might reproduce the main pathophysiologic events leading to neuronal death in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE), 500 microm-thick brain slices were obtained from 7-day-old Wistar rats, and incubated in oxygenated physiological solution. In OGD group, oxygen and glucose were removed from the medium for 10-30 min (n = 25); then, slices were re-incubated in normal medium. In control group the medium composition remained unchanged (CG, n = 30). Medium samples were obtained every 30 min for 3 h. To analyze neuronal damage, slices were stained with Nissl and CA1 area of hippocampus and cortex were observed under microscopy. In addition, neuronal death was quantified as LDH released to the medium determined by spectrophotometry. Additionally, medium glutamate (Glu) levels were determined by HPLC and those of TNFalpha by ELISA, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was determined by Western blot performed on slices homogenate. Optimal OGD time was established in 20 min. After OGD, a significant decrease in the number of neurones in hippocampus and cortex was observed. LDH release was maximal at 30 min, when it was five-fold greater than in CG. Furthermore, medium Glu concentrations were 200 times greater than CG levels at the end of OGD period. A linear relationship between Glu and LDH release was demonstrated. Finally, 3 h after OGD a significant induction of iNOS as well as an increase in TNFalpha release were observed. In conclusion, OGD appears as a feasible and reproducible in vitro model, leading to a neuronal damage, which is physiopathologically similar to that found in NHIE.

  19. [Simulated uterus microenvironment induced human placental mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to uterus smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-dong; Zhang, Wei-yuan; Yuan, Chun-li; Han, Li-ying

    2008-12-09

    To develop a new method to promote the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta (pMSC) to uterus smooth muscle cells (uSMC) in simulated uterus microenvironment. MSCs were isolated from human placenta, cultivated, and analyzed for their phenotype by flow cytometry. The multipotential differentiation of the pMSC was examined by chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenetic induction. uSMC were isolated from uteri resected during operation and co-cultivated with the pMSC in a Transwell chamber simulating Two, 4, and 8 days later RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of alpha-actin, calmodulin, and myosin heavy chains (MHC), the markers of smooth muscle differentiation at the early, middle, and late stages. On day 8 RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of estrogen receptor in these 2 groups of cells, then estrogen was used to stimulate these cells and the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was examined. The pMSC could be induced into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes respectively. After co-culture with uSMC, the morphology of the pMSC changed closely into that of the uSMC, and MHC was expressed in the pMSC. Estrogen receptor was positive in both groups of cells. The PKC activity increased, especially in the cell membrane, after stimulation of estrogen. The postpartum human placenta can be used as an important and novel source of multipotent stem cells for tissue engineering and genetic engineering. Placental MSC have the potential to differentiate into smooth muscle cells under the simulated uterus microenvironment in vitro.

  20. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Triclosan exposure modulates estrogen-dependent responses in the rat uterotrophic assay.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies in the juvenile rat indicated that the biocide triclosan may alter steroid hormone levels. Here, we hypothesize that triclosan possesses estrogenic activity. In the first study, we evaluated the potential estrogenicity of triclosan using the immature rat uter...

  2. Torsion, infarction, and rupture of a nongravid uterus: a complication of a large ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Yap, Felix Y; Radin, Randall; Tchelepi, Hisham

    2016-12-01

    Torsion of a nongravid uterus is rare, as most cases of uterine torsion occur during pregnancy. We report a case of a large ovarian cyst causing uterine torsion, infarction, and rupture. A 57-year-old woman presented with acute-onset abdominal pain and increasing abdominal girth over the past year. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated axial rotation and swirling of the uterus and the mesenteric fat, leading to a preoperative diagnosis of uterine torsion. Laparotomy confirmed that the uterine corpus had undergone a 180-degree axial rotation, and further revealed uterine wall infarction and rupture into the endometrium as well as partial decapitation of the uterus from the cervix. The swirled appearance of the uterus, radiologically similar to the "whirlpool sign" seen in bowel volvulus, is an important CT finding to recognize, especially in view of the risk of irreversible ischemic complications this uncommon entity may inflict on the uterus.

  3. PRE AND POST-IMPLANTATION CHANGES IN THE UTEUS OF RATS: RESPONSE TO MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Anand O.; Pathak, Sandhya; Shukla, Sangeeta; Mathur, R.

    1988-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (root) has been studies on pre and post-implementation stages of the uterus of rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. Results on the biochemical estimation in the uterus of control pregnant rats at different stages of pregnancy revealed a successive increase in the total proteins, glycogen content and the activity or acid and alkaline phosphatase from day 2 to 5 post-coitum. When aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Was administered, there was a significant reduction in all these biochemical constituents when compared to their respective control groups. The role of these biochemical transformations has been discussed in relation to anti-implantation action of the extract. PMID:22557630

  4. Expression of Hormonal Carcinogenesis Genes and Related Regulatory microRNAs in Uterus and Ovaries of DDT-Treated Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, T S; Kononchuk, V V; Gulyaeva, L F

    2017-10-01

    The insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a nonmutagenic xenobiotic compound able to exert estrogen-like effects resulting in activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) followed by changed expression of its downstream target genes. In addition, studies performed over recent years suggest that DDT may also influence expression of microRNAs. However, an impact of DDT on expression of ER, microRNAs, and related target genes has not been fully elucidated. Here, using real-time PCR, we assessed changes in expression of key genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis as well as potentially related regulatory oncogenic/tumor suppressor microRNAs and their target genes in the uterus and ovaries of female Wistar rats during single and chronic multiple-dose DDT exposure. We found that applying DDT results in altered expression of microRNAs-221, -222, -205, -126a, and -429, their target genes (Pten, Dicer1), as well as genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis (Esr1, Pgr, Ccnd1, Cyp19a1). Notably, Cyp19a1 expression seems to be also regulated by microRNAs-221, -222, and -205. The data suggest that epigenetic effects induced by DDT as a potential carcinogen may be based on at least two mechanisms: (i) activation of ERα followed by altered expression of the target genes encoding receptor Pgr and Ccnd1 as well as impaired expression of Cyp19a1, affecting, thereby, cell hormone balance; and (ii) changed expression of microRNAs resulting in impaired expression of related target genes including reduced level of Cyp19a1 mRNA.

  5. Allograft en bloc vagino-utero-ovarian avascular transplant versus autograft implantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Salehian, Mohammad-Taghi; Salehian, Arash; Mossaffa, Nariman; Hadian, Mehrnaz; Eghtesadi-Araghi, Payam

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of an allograft en bloc vagino-uteroovarian avascular transplant with those of autograft implantation in rats. Thirty-four inbred adult virgin female Albino rats (age range, 10 - 12 weeks) were divided into 2 groups: the control group (autograft, n=11) and the study group (en bloc vagino-utero-ovariectomy, n=23). In the study group, the uterus and adnexa and the ovaries of the donor rat were transplanted to the recipient animal. Twenty-five to 30 days after that procedure, all rats were killed, and the samples were assessed histopathologically. No immunosuppressive drugs were used. Ten rats died during the postoperative period. In 16 rats, the transplanted system had survived completely at the conclusion of the study. In each of the study groups, complete survival of the uterus and ovaries was noted in 8 rats (34.8% in the study group and 72.8% in the control group). In all rats except 1, histopathologic examination did not reveal any signs of the classic criteria for tissue rejection reaction. The lack of revascularization, nonspecific signs of inflammation, and the presence of large granular lymphocytes and natural killer cells were reported. Our data indicated that the outcome of both allograft and homograft avascular en bloc transplant of vagino-utero-ovariectomy in rats was successful, and that immunologic rejection did not seem to have an important role in those procedures.

  6. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus.

    PubMed

    Keeble, J E; Poyser, N L

    2002-08-01

    Initial experiments in the present study investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) on the output of prostaglandins from guinea-pig uterus on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. Superfusion of day 7 guinea-pig uterus in vitro with either EGF or sodium nitroprusside increased the output of PGF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not of PGE(2). IL-1beta had no effect on the output of these three prostaglandins. EGF still increased the output of PGF(2alpha), but did not increase the output of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in a calcium-depleted superfusate. Subsequent experiments investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on contractile activity of day 7 guinea-pig uterus. Basal spontaneous activity of both the intact uterus and isolated myometrium superfused in vitro was low. Sodium nitroprusside increased the contractile activity of these tissues two- to fourfold. EGF did not affect the contractile activity of the uterus, indicating that sodium nitroprusside-induced contractions are not due to increased prostaglandin production. Overall, the findings indicate that EGF and nitric oxide may act as mediators in the mechanism by which oestradiol acting on a progesterone-primed uterus stimulates the increase in PGF(2alpha) production by the guinea-pig uterus necessary for luteolysis. Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low.

  7. Noise exposure of immature rats can induce different age-dependent extra-auditory alterations that can be partially restored by rearing animals in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Molina, S J; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2016-04-01

    It has been previously shown that different extra-auditory alterations can be induced in animals exposed to noise at 15 days. However, data regarding exposure of younger animals, that do not have a functional auditory system, have not been obtained yet. Besides, the possibility to find a helpful strategy to restore these changes has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to test age-related differences in diverse hippocampal-dependent behavioral measurements that might be affected in noise-exposed rats, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential neuroprotective strategy, the enriched environment (EE), on noise-induced behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats of 7 and 15 days were exposed to moderate levels of noise for two hours. At weaning, animals were separated and reared either in standard or in EE cages for one week. At 28 days of age, different hippocampal-dependent behavioral assessments were performed. Results show that rats exposed to noise at 7 and 15 days were differentially affected. Moreover, EE was effective in restoring all altered variables when animals were exposed at 7 days, while a few were restored in rats exposed at 15 days. The present findings suggest that noise exposure was capable to trigger significant hippocampal-related behavioral alterations that were differentially affected, depending on the age of exposure. In addition, it could be proposed that hearing structures did not seem to be necessarily involved in the generation of noise-induced hippocampal-related behaviors, as they were observed even in animals with an immature auditory pathway. Finally, it could be hypothesized that the differential restoration achieved by EE rearing might also depend on the degree of maturation at the time of exposure and the variable evaluated, being younger animals more susceptible to environmental manipulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the effects of naringenin-type flavanones in uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Dörfelt, Peggy; Chatterjee, Namita; Helle, Janina; Bader, Manuela I; Vollmer, Günter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Kuhlee, Franziska; Thieme, Detlef; Zierau, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The potential utilization of plant secondary metabolites possessing estrogenic properties as alternatives to the classical hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the relief of postmenopausal complaints asks for an evaluation regarding the safety in reproductive organs. In order to contribute to the estimation of the safety profile of the flavanones naringenin (Nar), 8‑prenylnaringenin (8PN) and 6‑(1,1‑dimethylally) naringenin (6DMAN), we investigated uterus and vagina derived from a three‑day uterotrophic assay in rats. Also, we investigated the metabolite profile resulting from the incubation of the three substances with liver microsomes. While no metabolites were detectable for naringenin, hydroxylation products were observed for 8PN and 6DMAN after incubation with human as well as rat liver microsomes. The parent compound naringenin did not evoke any estrogenic responses in the investigated parameters. A significant increase of the uterine wet weight, uterine epithelial thickness and proliferating vaginal cells was observed in response to 8PN, questioning the safety of 8PN if applied in the human situation. In contrast, no estrogenic effects on the reproductive organs were observed for 6DMAN in the conducted study, rendering it the compound with a more promising safety profile, therefore justifying further investigations into its efficacy to alleviate postmenopausal discomforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of oxytocin-induced but not angiotensin-induced rat uterine contractions following exposure to sodium sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Franklin, K.J.; Roth, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Low concentrations of sodium sulfide reversibly attenuate the contractile response of the isolate rat uterus to oxytocin without affecting angiotensin II responsiveness. These findings suggest that functionally important disulfide bonds in the rat uterine oxytocin receptor, but not the angiotensin receptor, are sensitive to hydrosulfide ion. Reduction of oxytocin receptors by hydrosulfide ion may be a mechanism by which low level of H{sub 2}S delay parturition in rats.

  10. Variation in uterus position prior to brachytherapy of the cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, M T; Anghel, R

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: brachytherapy is administered in the treatment of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer following chemoradiotherapy. Lack of local anatomy evaluation prior to this procedure might lead to the selection of an inappropriate brachytherapy applicator, increasing the risk of side effects (e.g. uterus perforation, painful procedure ...). Objective: To assess the movement of the uterus and cervix prior to brachytherapy in patients with gynecological cancer, in order to select the proper type of brachytherapy applicator. Also we wanted to promote the replacement of the plain X-ray brachytherapy with the image-guided procedure. Methods and results: We presented the case of a 41-year-old female diagnosed with a biopsy that was proven cervical cancer stage IIIB. At diagnosis, the imaging studies identified an anteverted uterus. The patient underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Prior to brachytherapy, the patient underwent a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which identified a displacement of the uterus in the retroverted position. Discussion: A great variety of brachytherapy applicators is available nowadays. Major changes in uterus position and lack of evaluation prior to brachytherapy might lead to a higher rate of incidents during this procedure. Also, by using orthogonal simulation and bidimensional (2D) treatment planning, brachytherapy would undoubtedly fail to treat the remaining tumoral tissue. This is the reason why we proposed the implementation of a prior imaging of the uterus and computed tomography (CT)/ MRI-based simulation in the brachytherapy procedure. Abbreviations: MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, CT = computed tomography, CTV = clinical target volume, DVH = dose-volume histogram, EBRT = external beam radiotherapy, GTV = gross tumor volume, Gy = Gray (unit), ICRU = International Commission of Radiation Units, IGRT = image guided radiotherapy, IM = internal margin, IMRT = image modulated radiotherapy, ITV = internal target

  11. Revascularization and Apical Plug in an Immature Molar

    PubMed Central

    Roghanizadeh, Leyla; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2018-01-01

    Managing of necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices is a treatment challenges. Treatment of such teeth includes apexification, apical plug and more recently, revascularization technique with the probable advantage of continuation of root development. In the present case report the referred patient had discomfort with a necrotic immature mandibular first molar. Periapical radiography showed a rather large apical lesion around immature roots. Revascularization protocol using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was indicated for the mesial root. However, in distal canal apical plug technique was applied. At 2-year follow-up, both procedures were successful in relieving patient’s symptoms. Dentin formation and increase in length of the mesial root was obvious. Apical plug and revascularization technique proved to be successful in management of necrotic immature teeth; moreover, revascularization carried the advantage of continuation of root development. PMID:29692851

  12. The role of resveratrol on full - Thickness uterine wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Oya; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Goker, Asli; Kamaci, Gonca; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Yilmaz, Osman; Guner Akdogan, Gul

    2017-10-01

    Healing of the uterus after cesarean section and myomectomy operation is clinically important. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol (3,5,4'-o-trihydroxystilbene) on the wound healing process of the uterus in rats treated with resveratrol following full thickness injury of the uterus. Twenty-one female wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (1) control group with no intervention (2) injury group with uterine full thickness injury (3) resveratrol group with uterine full thickness injury and treated with resveratrol. Resveratrol was injected by oral gavage at the doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 30 days following uterine full thickness injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) distributions were assessed using the immunohistochemical methods in tissue and ELISA methods in the tissue homogenate. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were evaluated with colorimetric method and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels also were measured using high performance liquid chromatography in the tissue homogenate. The effects of resveratrol on the uterine histology also were evaluated histologically with the light microscopy. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical evaluations showed that treatment with a resveratrol significantly increased the thickness of the uterine wall and VEGF expression and decreased expression PDGF during wound healing. Biochemically, GPx and SOD activities were increased significantly after treatment with resveratrol. Additionally, resveratrol administration decreased MDA levels. These results showed that the antioxidant effects of resveratrol has been shown to have a positive influence on wound healing of the uterus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Localization of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) in the developing gustatory epithelium of the rat.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryo; Shi, Lei; Honma, Shiho; Fujii, Masae; Ueda, Katsura; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Wakisaka, Satoshi

    2004-09-01

    To understand the development of the gustatory structures necessitates a reliable marker for both immature and mature taste buds. It has been reported that the intragemmal cells within the taste buds of adult rats were bound to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), a specific lectin for alpha-linked fucose, but it has not been determined whether immature taste buds, i.e. taste buds without an apparent taste pore, are labeled with UEA-I. The present study was conducted to examine the UEA-I binding pattern during the development of the rat gustatory epithelium. In adult animals, UEA-I bound to the membrane of taste buds in all examined regions of the gustatory epithelium. Within the individual taste buds, UEA-I labeled almost all intragemmal cells. The binding of UEA-I was occasionally detected below the keratinized layer of the trench wall epithelium but could not be found in the lingual epithelium of the adult animal. During the development of circumvallate papilla, some cells within the immature taste buds were also labeled with UEA-I. The developmental changes in the UEA-I binding pattern in fungiform papillae were almost identical to those in the circumvallate papilla: both immature and mature taste buds were labeled with UEA-I. The present results indicate that UEA-I is a specific lectin for the intragemmal cells of both immature and mature taste buds and, thus, UEA-I can be used as a reliable marker for all taste buds in the rat.

  14. [Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterus complicated with hydronephrosis].

    PubMed

    Isosaka, Mai; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Mitsuhashi, Kei; Tanaka, Michihiro; Adachi, Takeya; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    Malignant lymphoma sometimes originates from extranodal sites; however, the uterus has rarely been reported as the site of the primary lesion. We present a patient with malignant lymphoma of the uterus complicating bilateral hydronephrosis. A 67-year-old previously healthy woman was seen at a clinic because of massive genital bleeding. She was referred to our hospital for further examination of a uterine tumor. Computed tomography scans revealed a pelvic tumor invading to the retroperitoneal region, which caused bilateral obstruction of the ureters and hydronephrosis. No lymph node swelling was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a bulky uterine tumor that was homogenously low on T1-weighted imaging and isointense on T2-weighted imaging, while the endometrium was intact. A pathological examination of the biopsy specimen from the uterine cervix revealed diffuse infiltration of CD20-positive atypical large lymphoid cells, which was compatible with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Since the tumor expanded from the uterus and no other abnormal lesion was observed in imaging studies including gallium scintigraphy, a diagnosis of DLBCL of the uterus, clinical stage IE was made. The patient received six cycles of rituximab plus CHOP chemotherapy followed by involved field irradiation. She achieved complete remission and has been alive for more than two years without relapse.

  15. The impact of nandrolone decanoate administration on ovarian and uterine tissues in rat: Luteinizing hormone profile, histopathological and morphometric assessment.

    PubMed

    Saddick, Salina Y

    2018-03-01

    The study had been conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (abused repeated doses) on female rat's ovary and uterus during administration and withdrawal. The study included 18 rats that were divided into control group (n = 6) and treated group (n = 12). The treated group was injected intramuscular (IM) with nandrolone decanoate (7 mg/kg body weight) for three consecutive days, for two weeks. The study stated that nandrolone decanoate increases the weights of body, ovary, and uterus. Moreover, it has a tendency of bringing upon modifications in the biochemical, histopathological, and morphological makeup of the female reproductive aspects. In conclusion, nandrolone decanoate has been identified as deleterious element for the female rats, and it is suggested that keen observations must be made on the human abusers to control and manage the possible pathologies.

  16. Prolapse-related knowledge and attitudes toward the uterus in women with pelvic organ prolapse symptoms.

    PubMed

    Good, Meadow M; Korbly, Nicole; Kassis, Nadine C; Richardson, Monica L; Book, Nicole M; Yip, Sallis; Saguan, Docile; Gross, Carey; Evans, Janelle; Harvie, Heidi S; Sung, Vivian

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the basic knowledge about prolapse and attitudes regarding the uterus in women seeking care for prolapse symptoms. This was a cross-sectional study of English-speaking women presenting with prolapse symptoms. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire that included 5 prolapse-related knowledge items and 6 benefit-of-uterus attitude items; higher scores indicated greater knowledge or more positive perception of the uterus. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. A total of 213 women were included. The overall mean knowledge score was 2.2 ± 1.1 (range, 0-5); 44% of the items were answered correctly. Participants correctly responded that surgery (79.8%), pessary (55.4%), and pelvic muscle exercises (34.3%) were prolapse treatment options. Prior evaluation by a female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery specialist (beta = 0.57, P = .001) and higher education (beta = 0.3, P = .07) was associated with a higher mean knowledge score. For attitude items, the overall mean score was 15.1 (4.7; range, 6-30). A total of 47.4% disagreed with the statement that the uterus is important for sex. The majority disagreed with the statement that the uterus is important for a sense of self (60.1%); that hysterectomy would make me feel less feminine (63.9%); and that hysterectomy would make me feel less whole (66.7%). Previous consultation with a female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery specialist was associated with a higher mean benefit of uterus score (beta = 1.82, P = .01). Prolapse-related knowledge is low in women seeking care for prolapse symptoms. The majority do not believe the uterus is important for body image or sexuality and do not believe that hysterectomy will negatively affect their sex lives. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of rat and human androgen biosynthetic enzymes by apigenin: Possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiudi; Wang, Guimin; Li, Xiaoheng; Liu, Jianpeng; Hong, Tingting; Zhu, Qiqi; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavone. It has recently been used as a chemopreventive agent. It may also have some beneficial effects to treat prostate cancer by inhibiting androgen production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the steroidogenesis of rat immature Leydig cells and some human testosterone biosynthetic enzyme activities. Rat immature Leydig cells were incubated for 3h with 100μM apigenin without (basal) or with 1ng/ml luteinizing hormone (LH), 10mM 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8BR), and 20μM of the following steroid substrates: 22R-hydroxychloesterol (22R), pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), and androstenedione (D4). The medium levels of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (DIOL), the primary androgen produced by rat immature Leydig cells, were measured. Apigenin significantly inhibited basal, 8BR, 22R, PREG, P4, and D4 stimulated DIOL production in rat immature Leydig cells. Further study showed that apigenin inhibited rat 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 11.41±0.7, 8.98±0.10, and 9.37±0.07μM, respectively. Apigenin inhibited human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 2.17±0.04 and 1.31±0.09μM, respectively. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of rat and human steroidogenic enzymes, being possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Angiogenesis of the uterus and chorioallantois in the eastern water skink Eulamprus quoyii.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Bridget F; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-10-01

    We have discovered a modification of the uterus that appears to facilitate maternal-fetal communication during pregnancy in the scincid lizard Eulamprus quoyii. A vessel-dense elliptical area (VDE) on the mesometrial side of the uterus expands as the embryo grows, providing a large vascular area for physiological exchange between mother and embryo. The VDE is already developed in females with newly ovulated eggs, and is situated directly adjacent to the chorioallantois of the embryo when it develops. It is likely that signals from the early developing embryo determine the position of the VDE, as the VDE is off-centre in cases where the embryo sits obliquely in the uterus. The VDE is not a modification of the uterus over the entire chorioallantoic placenta, as the VDE is smaller than the chorioallantois after embryonic stage 33, but expansion of the VDE and growth of the chorioallantois during pregnancy are strongly correlated. The expansion of the VDE is also strongly correlated with embryonic growth and increasing embryonic oxygen demand (Vo2). We propose that angiogenic stimuli are exchanged between the VDE and the chorioallantois in E. quoyii, allowing the simultaneous growth of both tissues.

  19. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled withmore » serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.« less

  20. In vitro investigation of heat transfer phenomenon in human immature teeth.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Maryam; Moghimi, Sahar; Shafagh, Mina; Kalani, Hadi; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Heat generated within tooth during clinical dentistry can cause thermally induced damage to hard and soft components of the tooth (enamel, dentin and pulp). Geometrical characteristics of immature teeth are different from those of mature teeth. The purpose of this experimental and theoretical study was to investigate thermal changes in immature permanent teeth during the use of LED light-curing units (LCU). Materials and methods. This study was performed on the second mandibular premolars. This experimental investiga-tion was carried out for recording temperature variations of different sites of tooth and two dimensional finite element models were used for heat transfer phenomenon in immature teeth. Sensitivity analysis and local tests were included in the model validation phase. Results. Overall, thermal stimulation for 30 seconds with a low-intensity LED LCU increased the temperature from 28°C to 38°C in IIT (intact immature tooth) and PIT (cavity-prepared immature tooth). When a high-intensity LED LCU was used, tooth temperature increased from 28°C to 48°C. The results of the experimental tests and mathematical modeling illustrated that using LED LCU on immature teeth did not have any detrimental effect on the pulp temperature. Conclusion. Using LED LCU in immature teeth had no effect on pulp temperature in this study. Sensitivity analysis showed that variations of heat conductivity might affect heat transfer in immature teeth; therefore, further studies are required to determine thermal conductivity of immature teeth.

  1. S-adenosyl methionine regulates calcium channels and inhibits uterine smooth muscle contraction in rats with infectious premature delivery through the transient receptor protein 3/protein kinase Cβ/C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoqiu; Shan, Lili; Zhang, Jinhuan; Hong, Yan; Xia, Yanqiu; Wang, Jun; Hou, Mingxiao

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) on infectious premature inflammatory factors and uterine contraction, and to further explore its mechanism of action via the transient receptor protein 3 (TRPC3)/protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ)/C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) signaling pathway, following intervention by a TRPC3 inhibitor. A rat model of premature delivery induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was established. Following treatment with SAMe and inhibiting TRPC3 expression, rat serum and uterus were isolated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in the uterus. Uterine muscle strips in vitro were selected to measure the changes in muscle tension. ELISA was utilized to measure the changes in serum inflammatory factor and oxidative stress indexes. Immunohistochemistry, western blot assay and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied to detect calcium channel protein expression in the uterus. Western blot analysis was employed to measure the expression of TRPC3/PKCβ/CPI-17 signaling pathway-related proteins. TRPC3 was highly expressed in the uterus of rat models of premature delivery induced by LPS. Following treatment with SAMe, inflammatory cell infiltration markedly reduced in the uterus and the tension of in vitro uterine muscle strips significantly decreased. SAMe treatment suppressed inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, and diminished L-type and T-type calcium channel protein expression. TRPC3/PKCβ/CPI-17 signaling pathway-related protein expression was also reduced. When TRPC3 expression was suppressed, the effects of SAMe against inflammation and oxidative stress were diminished. TRPC3/PKCβ/CPI-17 signaling pathway-related protein expression significantly increased. SAMe was able to reduce inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress in the uterus of rat model of infectious premature delivery

  2. Reproductive effects of Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) in female rats.

    PubMed

    Watcho, Pierre; Ngadjui, Esther; Alango, Nkeng-Efouet P; Benoît, Nguelefack T; Kamanyi, Albert

    2009-03-01

    The reproductive effects of Ficus asperifolia in female rats were investigated in the present study. Sperm-positive adult female rats were orally administered (P.O.) either the aqueous and methanol extracts of Ficus asperifolia (100 and 500mg/kg), distilled water (10ml/kg) or 5%Tween 80 (10ml/kg) for seven days. On day 10 of pregnancy, the implantation sites were recorded. In the fertility study, adult female rats received the same test substances for 21 days and, the fertility index and litter size determined. In the uterotrophic test, normal and ovariectomized immature rats were treated for seven days with the dry extract of Ficus asperifolia (100 and 500mg/kg) in the absence and presence of 17ȃ-estradiol benzoate 1µg/animal/day, s.c. On day 8, the uterine growth index was measured. Results of the study showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the implantation sites and litter size of animals receiving 100mg/kg of the aqueous extract of Ficus asperifolia. In the estrogenic assay, normal immature rats were sensitive to the treatment with Ficus asperifolia than the ovariectomized ones. Our results give added scientific support to the popular use of Ficus asperifolia in the treatment of some cases of women's sterility/infertility related problems.

  3. [THE PECULIARITIES OF UTERINE STRUCTURE AFTER DELIVERY IN RATS WITH THE MYOMETRIAL SCAR].

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Pekarev, O G; Yakimova, N V; Pekareva, Ye O; Maiborodina, V I; Perminova, Ye I

    2015-01-01

    The uterine tissues of female rats (n=30) with a scarred myometrium were examined by methods of light microscopy after the delivery. 1.5-2 months after the delivery no significant differences in the parameters of blood and lymph flow in the deep layers of the endometrium, myometrium and the myometrial scar tissue were found between the intact rats, nulliparous rats with a scarred uterus, rats that gave birth after laparotomy only and those that gave birth under the conditions of myometrial scar. In the course of pregnancy and labor activity, the damage of the tissues was observed not in the uterine scar proper, but at its borders with the myometrium. This is supported by the old hemorrhages and lymphostasis phenomena, greater number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and erythrocytes. In determining the indications and contraindications to vaginal childbirth in women with scarred uterus it is necessary to examine not only the scar proper, but also its border with the myometrium. The myometrial scar by itself, is not an absolute contraindication to vaginal delivery, the natural delivery is feasible in the absence of cavities with liquid and hemorrhages in the tissues of the uterine scar and at its border with myometrium.

  4. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; Kuo, Chay T.; Wadiche, Jacques I.; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spike due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations. PMID:27095423

  5. Evaluation of Deltamethrin Kinetics and Dosimetry in the Maturing Rat using a PBPK Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90...

  6. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  7. Low excitatory innervation balances high intrinsic excitability of immature dentate neurons

    DOE PAGES

    Dieni, Cristina V.; Panichi, Roberto; Aimone, James B.; ...

    2016-04-20

    Persistent neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus produces immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability and low levels of inhibition that are predicted to be more broadly responsive to afferent activity than mature neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that these immature neurons are necessary for generating distinct neural representations of similar contexts, but it is unclear how broadly responsive neurons help distinguish between similar patterns of afferent activity. Here we show that stimulation of the entorhinal cortex in mouse brain slices paradoxically generates spiking of mature neurons in the absence of immature neuron spiking. Immature neurons with high intrinsic excitability fail to spikemore » due to insufficient excitatory drive that results from low innervation rather than silent synapses or low release probability. Here, our results suggest that low synaptic connectivity prevents immature neurons from responding broadly to cortical activity, potentially enabling excitable immature neurons to contribute to sparse and orthogonal dentate representations.« less

  8. Aliskiren toxicity in juvenile rats is determined by ontogenic regulation of intestinal P-glycoprotein expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Peter, E-mail: peterk.hoffmann@novartis.com; Beckman, David; McLean, Lee Anne

    Juvenile rat toxicity studies with the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren were initiated to support treatment in the pediatric population. In Study 1, aliskiren was administered orally to juvenile rats at doses of 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day with repeated dosing from postpartum day (PPD) 8 to PPD 35/36. In-life, clinical pathology, anatomic pathology, and toxicokinetics evaluations were performed. In Study 2, single oral doses of aliskiren (0, 100 or 300 mg/kg) were given to 14-, 21-, 24-, 28-, 31- or 36-day-old rats; in-life data and toxicokinetics were evaluated. Study 3 was a single dose (3 mg/kg i.v.) pharmacokinetic studymore » in juvenile rats on PPD 8, 14, 21 and 28. In Study 4, naïve rats were used to investigate ontogenic changes of the multidrug-resistant protein 1 (MDR1) and the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) mRNA in several organs. Oral administration of aliskiren at 100 and 300 mg/kg caused unexpected mortality and severe morbidity in 8-day-old rats. Aliskiren plasma and tissue concentrations were increased in rats aged 21 days and younger. Expression of MDR1 and OATP mRNA in the intestine, liver and brain was significantly lower in very young rats. In conclusion, severe toxicity and increased exposure in very young rats after oral administration of aliskiren are considered to be the result of immature drug transporter systems. Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes appears to be the most important mechanism responsible for the high exposure. - Highlights: • Aliskiren was orally administered to juvenile rats. • Unexpected severe toxicity and acute mortality occurred in rats aged 8 days. • Toxicity was associated with increased aliskiren plasma and tissue exposure. • Developmental changes of exposure correlated with ontogeny of transporters. • Immaturity of MDR1 in enterocytes causes increased exposure in very young rats.« less

  9. A Physiologically Based Kinetic Model of Rat and Mouse Gestation: Disposition of a Weak Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic model of gestation in the rat mouse has been developed. The model is superimposed on the normal growth curve for nonpregnant females. It describes the entire gestation period including organogenesis. The model consists of uterus, mammary tiss...

  10. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Uterus models for use in virtual reality hysteroscopy simulators.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Peter; Weiss, Stephan; Caduff, Rosmarie; Bajka, Michael; Szekély, Gabor; Harders, Matthias

    2009-05-01

    Virtual reality models of human organs are needed in surgery simulators which are developed for educational and training purposes. A simulation can only be useful, however, if the mechanical performance of the system in terms of force-feedback for the user as well as the visual representation is realistic. We therefore aim at developing a mechanical computer model of the organ in question which yields realistic force-deformation behavior under virtual instrument-tissue interactions and which, in particular, runs in real time. The modeling of the human uterus is described as it is to be implemented in a simulator for minimally invasive gynecological procedures. To this end, anatomical information which was obtained from specially designed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging procedures as well as constitutive tissue properties recorded from mechanical testing were used. In order to achieve real-time performance, the combination of mechanically realistic numerical uterus models of various levels of complexity with a statistical deformation approach is suggested. In view of mechanical accuracy of such models, anatomical characteristics including the fiber architecture along with the mechanical deformation properties are outlined. In addition, an approach to make this numerical representation potentially usable in an interactive simulation is discussed. The numerical simulation of hydrometra is shown in this communication. The results were validated experimentally. In order to meet the real-time requirements and to accommodate the large biological variability associated with the uterus, a statistical modeling approach is demonstrated to be useful.

  12. Accuracy of ultrasonic detection of the uterus in normal newborn infants: implications for infants with ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kutteh, W H; Santos-Ramos, R; Ermel, L D

    1995-02-01

    Every year approximately one in 5000 babies is born with ambiguous genitalia, a condition that requires immediate sex assignment if possible. We investigated whether transabdominal ultrasonography with the use of a linear array high-resolution 7.5-MHz transducer would enhance the accuracy of detecting the uterus in the newborn. One hundred mothers who delivered normal, term infants (> 36 weeks and > 2500 g) gave their informed consent for the investigation. Each infant was placed in an unmarked bassinet, external genitalia were covered, and ultrasound examinations were performed by the same examiner (R.S.) who was blinded to the sex of the infant. The neonatal uterus was identified in 47 of 50 female infants (94% sensitivity) and the absence of a uterus was correctly predicted in 49 of 50 male infants (specificity 98%). The average length of the neonatal uteri 1 day after birth was 3.2 +/- 0.5 cm and the total volume was 3.5 +/- 0.9 cm3. An endometrial strip could be identified in 98% of neonatal uteri. We conclude that the use of the high-resolution 7.5-MHz transducer available in commercial ultrasound equipment is an accurate method for the detection of the neonatal uterus. Infants born with ambiguous genitalia who have a uterus will almost always be assigned the female sex. Infants with ambiguous genitalia but without a uterus will have male pseudohermaphroditism.

  13. Combinatorial effects of quercetin and sex-steroids on fluid and electrolytes’ (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-) secretory mechanisms in the uterus of ovariectomised female Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Karim, Kamarulzaman; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of uterine fluid environment could impair successful reproduction and this could be due to the effect of environmental estrogens. Therefore, in this study, effect of quercetin, an environmental estrogen on uterine fluid and electrolytes concentrations were investigated under sex-steroid influence. Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10, 50 or 100mg/kg/day quercetin subcutaneously with 17-β estradiol (E) for seven days or three days E, then three days E plus progesterone (P) (E+P) treatment. Uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations were determined by in-vivo perfusion. Following sacrifice, uteri were harvested and levels of the proteins of interest were identified by Western blotting and Realtime PCR. Distribution of these proteins in the uterus was observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of uterine cAMP were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). Administration of quercetin at increasing doses increased uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations, but to the levels lesser than that of E. In concordant, levels of CFTR, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP in the uterus increased following increased in the doses of quercetin. Co-administration of quercetin with E caused uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations to decrease. In concordant, uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP decreased. Greatest effects were observed following co-administration of 10mg/kg/day quercetin with E. Co-administration of quercetin with E+P caused uterine fluid Na+ and HCO3- concentrations to increase but no changes in fluid secretion rate and Cl- concentration were observed. Co-administration of high dose quercetin (100 mg/kg/day) with E+P caused uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, AC, GPα/β and ENaC (α, β and γ) to increase. Quercetin-induced changes in the uterine fluid secretion rate and electrolytes

  14. Metabolic and Structural Imaging at 7 Tesla After Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Immature Rats.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Emin; Foley, Lesley M; New, Lee Ann; Alexander, Henry; Kochanek, Patrick M; Hitchens, T Kevin; Bayır, Hülya

    2018-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children is a common and serious public health problem. Traditional neuroimaging findings in children who sustain mTBI are often normal, putting them at risk for repeated mTBI (rmTBI). There is a need for more sensitive imaging techniques capable of detecting subtle neurophysiological alterations after injury. We examined neurochemical and white matter changes using diffusion tensor imaging of the whole brain and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampi at 7 Tesla in 18-day-old male rats at 7 days after mTBI and rmTBI. Traumatic axonal injury was assessed by beta-amyloid precursor protein accumulation using immunohistochemistry. A significant decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in axial and radial diffusivity were observed in several brain regions, especially in white matter regions, after a single mTBI versus sham and more prominently after rmTBI. In addition, we observed accumulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein in the external capsule after mTBI and rmTBI. mTBI and rmTBI reduced the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) and increased the myoinositol/creatine ratio (Ins/Cr) versus sham. rmTBI exacerbated the reduction in NAA/Cr versus mTBI. The choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and (lipid/Macro Molecule 1)/creatine (Lip/Cr) ratios were also decreased after rmTBI versus sham. Diffusion tensor imaging findings along with the decrease in Cho and Lip after rmTBI may reflect damage to axonal membrane. NAA and Ins are altered at 7 days after mTBI and rmTBI likely reflecting neuro-axonal damage and glial response, respectively. These findings may be relevant to understanding the extent of disability following mTBI and rmTBI in the immature brain and may identify possible therapeutic targets.

  15. All-trans retinoic acid protects against arsenic-induced uterine toxicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Chatterji, U., E-mail: urmichatterji@gmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Background and purpose: Arsenic exposure frequently leads to reproductive failures by disrupting the rat uterine histology, hormonal integrity and estrogen signaling components of the rat uterus, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed as a prospective therapeutic agent for reversing reproductive disorders. Experimental approach: Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to either recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or treatment continued up to 56 days. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining was used to evaluate changes in the uterine histology. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by ELISA. Expression ofmore » the estrogen receptor (ER{alpha}), an estrogen responsive gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Key results: ATRA ameliorated sodium arsenite-induced decrease in circulating estradiol and gonadotropin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with recovery of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands. Concomitant up regulation of ER{alpha}, VEGF, cyclin D1, CDK4 and Ki-67 was also observed to be more prominent for ATRA-treated rats as compared to the rats that were allowed to recover naturally for 56 days. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the results reveal that ATRA reverses arsenic-induced disruption of the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, and degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands of the rat uterus, indicating resumption of their functional status. Since structural and functional maintenance of the pubertal uterus is under the influence of estradiol, ATRA consequently up regulated the estrogen receptor and resumed cellular proliferation, possibly by an antioxidant therapeutic approach against arsenic toxicity. Highlights: Black

  16. [METROPLASTY FOR OBSTETRIC PERITONITIS, ARISING IN THE BACKGROUND SUTURE FAILURE OF THE UTERUS].

    PubMed

    Tussupkaliyev, A; Daribay, Zh; Saduov, M; Dossimbetova, M; Rakhmetullina, G

    2016-12-01

    Improving treatment outcomes obstetric peritonitis after cesarean section on the basis of organ-preserving treatment and reasonable intensive care in the postpartum period. Fifteen clinical cases in which on the background of peritonitis were made conserving surgery, which included: excision of necrotic areas on the uterus, uterine cavity curettage, metroplasty. Nasointestinal bowel intubation and drainage of the abdominal cavity. It is discussed tactics of postpartum women with obstetric peritonitis on the background of insolvency seams on the uterus, currently existing criteria for evaluation and treatment of patients data. The necessity of using in the algorithm survey postpartum women with obstetric peritonitis diagnostic criteria SIRS, leukocyte index of intoxication, integrated scales organ dysfunctions. Modern approaches to surgical treatment, the starting antibiotic therapy antibiotics ultra wide spectrum of action, combined with early intensive treatment in an intensive care unit avoids removal of the uterus as a primary focus.

  17. Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterus and broad ligament: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Runzhe; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Hongming; Ding, Jiahua; Chen, Baoan

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the uterus and broad ligament is rare. Here, we present a rare case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of uterus and broad ligament in a 63-year-old female. The patient presenting with lower abdominal distention was referred to our hospital. Subsequent abdominal and pelvic ultrasound revealed the presence of a large mass, which was highly suspected as subserosal uterine leiomyoma. A large tumor was found with unclear boundary with right posterior wall, broad ligament and bilateral adnexa during surgery. Her uterus and the tumor of a broad ligament and bilateral adnexa were all excised as a result. Postoperative pathological examination showed DLBCL in uterus and broad ligament. Further examinations excluded metastatic diseases, which supported the diagnosis of primary DLBCL of the uterus and broad ligament. The patient received six cycles of R-CHOP (21 days) regimen. During the 8 months follow-up, no evidence of disease recurrence was identified. As the prevalence of primary extranodal lymphoma is increasing, the details of this rare case may highlight the importance and facilitate treatment of similar diseases. A summary focusing on the presentation and prognosis as well as a review of current management is also discussed.

  18. Biochemical, metabolic, and behavioral characteristics of immature chronic hyperphenylalanemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalanemia are inborn errors in metabolism of phenylalanine arising from defects in steps to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Phe accumulation causes severe mental retardation that can be prevented by timely identification of affected individuals and their placement on a Phe-restricted diet. In spite of many studies in patients and animal models, the basis for acquisition of mental retardation during the critical period of brain development is not adequately understood. All animal models for human disease have advantages and limitations, and characteristics common to different models are most likely to correspond to the disorder. This study established similar levels of Phe exposure in developing rats between 3 and 16 days of age using three models to produce chronic hyperphenylalanemia, and identified changes in brain amino acid levels common to all models that persist for ~16h of each day. In a representative model, local rates of glucose utilization (CMRglc) were determined at 25–27 days of age, and only selective changes that appeared to depend on Phe exposure were observed. CMRglc was reduced in frontal cortex and thalamus and increased in hippocampus and globus pallidus. Behavioral testing to evaluate neuromuscular competence revealed poor performance in chronically-hyperphenylalanemic rats that persisted for at least three weeks after cessation of Phe injections and did not occur with mild or acute hyperphenylalanemia. Thus, the abnormal amino acid environment, including hyperglycinemia, in developing rat brain is associated with selective regional changes in glucose utilization and behavioral abnormalities that are not readily reversed after they are acquired. PMID:26224289

  19. Ovarian stimulation by exogenous gonadotrophins in fetal ethanol-exposed immature rats.

    PubMed

    Rudeen, P K; Hagaman, J

    1988-08-15

    Adult pregnant rats were given either an ad libitum liquid diet containing 5% ethanol, a pair fed liquid diet or an ad libitum diet of rat chow and water administered throughout pregnancy and during the nursing period. The female offspring received either pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) or PMSG followed by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at 30 days of age. The ovaries of fetal ethanol-exposed animals responded greater to the exogenous gonadotrophins with enhanced ovarian weights, increased numbers of ova shed, greater numbers of corpora lutea and antral follicles, and higher serum progesterone levels than in animals exposed to the control diets during gestation.

  20. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  1. Trophinin expression in the mouse uterus coincides with implantation and is hormonally regulated but not induced by implanting blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Nadano, D; Paria, B C; Kupriyanov, S; Sugihara, K; Fukuda, M N

    2000-11-01

    Trophinin mediates apical cell adhesion between two human cell lines, trophoblastic teratocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma. In humans, trophinin is specifically expressed in cells involved in implantation and early placentation. The present study was undertaken to establish trophinin expression by the mouse uterus. In the pregnant mouse uterus, trophinin transcripts are expressed during the time which coincides with the timing of blastocyst implantation. Trophinin is also expressed in the nonpregnant mouse uterus at estrus stage. Uteri from ovariectomized mice did not express trophinin, whereas strong expression was induced by estrogen but not by progesterone. Trophinin transcripts and protein were found in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus. No differences were detected in trophinin expression by the uteri in the pregnant, pseudopregnant, and pseudopregnant received blastocysts. In delayed implantation model, trophinin proteins were found in both luminal and glandular epithelium, whereas dormant blastocysts were negative for trophinin. Upon activation with estrogen, however, no significant changes were detected either in the blastocyst or in the uterus. These results indicate that ovarian hormones regulate trophinin expression by the mouse uterus, and that an implanting blastocyst has no effect on trophinin expression in the surrounding endometrial luminal epithelial cells.

  2. Sonographic findings in acute urinary retention secondary to retroverted gravid uterus: pathophysiology and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Yang, J-M; Huang, W-C

    2004-05-01

    To explore the pathophysiology of acute urinary retention in women with a retroverted gravid uterus and to suggest measures to prevent its recurrence. In five women with a retroverted gravid uterus and acute urinary retention necessitating catheterization, the morphology of the genitourinary system was assessed by using transabdominal, transvaginal and introital sonography. In the supine resting position, the cervix was displaced superiorly and anteriorly by the impacted and retroverted uterus so that it compressed the lower bladder, leading to obstruction of the internal urethral orifice. The upper bladder extended superiorly and overlay the uterus. During straining, urethral motion was not limited and there was an average rotational angle of the bladder neck of 32 degrees, ranging from 21 degrees to 44 degrees. Increasing abdominal pressure further compressed the lower bladder. Measures suggested to the women for the prevention of urinary retention included limiting fluid intake before sleep, changing from the supine to the prone position before getting up and avoiding a Valsalva maneuver but performing a Credé maneuver during voiding. In all except one case these measures successfully prevented recurrence. Acute urinary retention secondary to a retroverted gravid uterus is caused by a displaced cervix compressing the lower bladder and interfering with drainage to the urethra. The urethra itself is not compressed or distorted. Understanding the pathophysiology of the lower urinary tract may allow maneuvers which prevent acute urinary retention. Copyright 2004 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Candida species differ in their interactions with immature human gastrointestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Falgier, Christina; Kegley, Sara; Podgorski, Heather; Heisel, Timothy; Storey, Kathleen; Bendel, Catherine M.; Gale, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Life-threatening gastrointestinal (GI) diseases of prematurity are highly associated with systemic candidiasis. This implicates the premature GI tract as an important site for invasion by Candida. Invasive interactions of Candida spp. with immature enterocytes have heretofore not been analyzed. Using a primary immature human enterocyte line, we compared the ability of multiple isolates of different Candida spp. to penetrate, injure, and induce a cytokine response from host cells. Of all the Candida spp. analyzed, C. albicans had the greatest ability to penetrate and injure immature enterocytes and to elicit interleukin-8 (IL-8) release (p < 0.01). In addition, C. albicans was the only Candida spp. to form filamentous hyphae when in contact with immature enterocytes. Similarly, a C. albicans mutant with defective hyphal morphogenesis and invasiveness had attenuated cytotoxicity for immature enterocytes (p < 0.003). Thus, hyphal morphogenesis correlates with immature enterocyte penetration, injury and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, variability in enterocyte injury was observed among hyphal-producing C. albicans strains suggesting that individual organism genotypes also influence host-pathogen interactions. Overall, the finding that Candida spp. differed in their interactions with immature enterocytes implicates that individual spp. may employ different pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:21283049

  4. Metastasis of lobular breast carcinoma to the uterus in a patient under anastrozole therapy.

    PubMed

    Ustaalioglu, Basak B O; Bilici, Ahmet; Seker, Mesut; Salman, Tarik; Gumus, Mahmut; Barisik, Nagehan O; Salepci, Taflan; Yaylaci, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    Metastasis of extragenital neoplasms to the uterus are rarely encountered, and usually occur as a manifestation of advanced disease. Lobular carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer that metastasizes to the uterus. We report on a 56-year-old woman who 3 years previously was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast and was treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. While the patient was on adjuvant anastrozole therapy for 2 years, she complained of vaginal bleeding. Because of endometrial thickening and a uterine leiomyoma detected during abdominal ultrasonographic ex-amination, a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of the specimens revealed carcinoma infiltration of the myometrium, endometrium, cervix, uterine tube, and left ovary. Immunohistochemical staining of tumoral cells with pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) proved the diagnosis of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to the uterus. To our knowledge, this is the second case of lobular breast carcinoma metastasized to the uterus under anastrozole therapy. In women with lobular breast cancer under adjuvant anastrozole therapy, who present with vaginal bleeding, uterine metastasis of lobular carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Minocycline protects the immature white matter against hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Thomas; Krabbe, Grietje; Weikert, Georg; Scheuer, Till; Matheus, Friederike; Wang, Yan; Mueller, Susanne; Kettenmann, Helmut; Matyash, Vitali; Bührer, Christoph; Endesfelder, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Poor neurological outcome in preterm infants is associated with periventricular white matter damage and hypomyelination, often caused by perinatal inflammation, hypoxia-ischemia, and hyperoxia. Minocycline has been demonstrated in animal models to protect the immature brain against inflammation and hypoxia-ischemia by microglial inhibition. Here we studied the effect of minocycline on white matter damage caused by hyperoxia. To mimic the 3- to 4-fold increase of oxygen tension caused by preterm birth, we have used the hyperoxia model in neonatal rats providing 24h exposure to 4-fold increased oxygen concentration (80% instead of 21% O2) from P6 to P7. We analyzed whether minocycline prevents activation of microglia and damage of oligodendroglial precursor cell development, and whether acute treatment of hyperoxia-exposed rats with minocycline improves long term white matter integrity. Minocycline administration during exposure to hyperoxia resulted in decreased apoptotic cell death and in improved proliferation and maturation of oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPC). Minocycline blocked changes in microglial morphology and IL-1β release induced by hyperoxia. In primary microglial cell cultures, minocycline inhibited cytokine release while in mono-cultures of OPCs, it improved survival and proliferation. Long term impairment of white matter diffusivity in MRI/DTI in P30 and P60 animals after neonatal hyperoxia was attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline protects white matter development against oxygen toxicity through direct protection of oligodendroglia and by microglial inhibition. This study moreover demonstrates long term benefits of minocycline on white matter integrity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High grade primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dizon, A Mitch; Kilgore, Larry C; Grindstaff, Alan; Winkler, Marcus; Kimball, Kristopher J

    2014-01-01

    •Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus is extremely rare.•Diagnosis requires timely evaluation with molecular analysis.•Different combinations of adjuvant chemotherapy have been reported.

  7. Uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, B; Dyck, F

    1976-07-01

    Two cases of uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina are reported with a review of the literature. In all cases investigated, ipsilateral renal agenesis was found on the affected side. A summary of the embryologic development of the female reproductive tract is included, as well as a possible explanation for this rare anomaly. The authors describe their proposed method of management to achieve freedom from symptoms and maintenance of a relatively intact reproductive tract.

  8. Neural stem cells in the immature, but not the mature, subventricular zone respond robustly to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goodus, Matthew T; Guzman, Alanna M; Calderon, Frances; Jiang, Yuhui; Levison, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury is a significant problem that affects many children each year. Progress is being made in developing neuroprotective strategies to combat these injuries. However, investigators are a long way from therapies to fully preserve injured neurons and glia. To restore neurological function, regenerative strategies will be required. Given the importance of stem cells in repairing damaged tissues and the known persistence of neural precursors in the subventricular zone (SVZ), we evaluated regenerative responses of the SVZ to a focal brain lesion. As tissues repair more slowly with aging, injury responses of male Sprague Dawley rats at 6, 11, 17, and 60 days of age and C57Bl/6 mice at 14 days of age were compared. In the injured immature animals, cell proliferation in the dorsolateral SVZ more than doubled by 48 h. By contrast, the proliferative response was almost undetectable in the adult brain. Three approaches were used to assess the relative numbers of bona fide neural stem cells, as follows: the neurosphere assay (on rats injured at postnatal day 11, P11), flow cytometry using a novel 4-marker panel (on mice injured at P14) and staining for stem/progenitor cell markers in the niche (on rats injured at P17). Precursors from the injured immature SVZ formed almost twice as many spheres as precursors from uninjured age-matched brains. Furthermore, spheres formed from the injured brain were larger, indicating that the neural precursors that formed these spheres divided more rapidly. Flow cytometry revealed a 2-fold increase in the percentage of stem cells, a 4-fold increase in multipotential progenitor-3 cells and a 2.5-fold increase in glial-restricted progenitor-2/multipotential-3 cells. Analogously, there was a 2-fold increase in the mitotic index of nestin+/Mash1- immunoreactive cells within the immediately subependymal region. As the early postnatal SVZ is predominantly generating glial cells, an expansion of precursors might not

  9. Immunohistochemical analysis of histone H3 acetylation and methylation—Evidence for altered epigenetic signaling following traumatic brain injury in immature rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei-Min; Chadha, Mandeep S.; Kline, Anthony E.; Clark, Robert S.B.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Dixon, C. Edward; Jenkins, Larry W.

    2009-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins may result in altered epigenetic signaling after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hippocampal histone H3 acetylation and methylation in immature rats after moderate TBI were measured and decreased only in CA3 at 6 h and 24 h with persistent methylation decreases up to 72 h after injury. Decreased histone H3 acetylation and methylation suggest altered hippocampal CA3 epigenetic signaling during the first hours to days after TBI. PMID:16406269

  10. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. immature fruit and seed organic extracts.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, B; Marzouk, Z; Fenina, N; Bouraoui, A; Aouni, M

    2011-06-01

    Inflammations and immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis are widespread in the entire globe. The treatment of these illnesses is mainly based on the use of synthetic and biotechnological drugs, in recent years. Tunisian traditional medicine is a potential source of new remedies namely Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae): endemic in southern Tunisia and used in folk medicine to treat many inflammation disorders. Our goal was to assess the in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed organic extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and finely methanol extract). Yields of prepared organic extracts are gravimetrically determined. For the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, we have used respectively, the acetic acid writhing test in mice and the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. All extracts displayed an important analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at different doses without inducing any side effects. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed extracts. Experiment results provide scientific insight into the ancient practice of utilizing Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. as analgesic and as anti-inflammatory agents.

  11. Virion stiffness regulates immature HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a protease-mediated maturation process that is required for its infectivity. Little is known about how the physical properties of viral particles change during maturation and how these changes affect the viral lifecycle. Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we previously discovered that HIV undergoes a “stiffness switch”, a dramatic reduction in particle stiffness during maturation that is mediated by the viral Envelope (Env) protein. Results In this study, we show that transmembrane-anchored Env cytoplasmic tail (CT) domain is sufficient to regulate the particle stiffness of immature HIV-1. Using this construct expressed in trans with viral Env lacking the CT domain, we show that increasing particle stiffness reduces viral entry activity in immature virions. A similar effect was also observed for immature HIV-1 pseudovirions containing Env from vesicular stomatitis virus. Conclusions This linkage between particle stiffness and viral entry activity illustrates a novel level of regulation for viral replication, providing the first evidence for a biological role of virion physical properties and suggesting a new inhibitory strategy. PMID:23305456

  12. The effects of dietary vitamin B12 deficiency on sperm maturation in developing and growing male rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ohkawa, Keiko; Kasai, Shigenobu; Ebara, Shuhei; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yoshitaka

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the role of vitamin B12 on spermatogenesis, the effects of dietary vitamin B12 deficiency on sperm maturation in developing rat fetuses and young growing rats were examined. The vitamin B12-deficient diet was given to all the animals for three different periods: whole period (gestation to mature), gestation period (gestation to weaning), or immature period (3-12 weeks postnatal). Sperm examination revealed that the sperm count was markedly lower in male progeny (F1) that were vitamin B12-deficient during the whole period. In addition, a significantly higher number of abnormal sperm, such as tailless and amorphous sperm, was observed. In male rats that were vitamin B12-deficient during the immature period, the incidence of abnormal sperms was 14.4% and 4.8% for tailless and short tail, respectively. The motion rates, such as path velocity and straight line velocity, were decreased to 20-40% of the control value in rats that were vitamin B12-deficient both during the whole and gestation periods. However, no effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on sperm motility were observed during the immature and mature periods. From these findings, we suggest that dietary vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy may induce irreversible damage in the germ cells of embryos and affect the maturation of spermatozoa.

  13. Zearalenone Delays Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Songyi; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Leikai; Chen, Xianwu; Lü, Yao; Ge, Fei; Chen, Yong; Chen, Xiaofang; Lian, Qingquan; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2018-04-16

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, is present in a wide range of human foods. By virtual screening, we have identified that ZEA is a potential endocrine disruptor of Leydig cells. The effect of ZEA on Leydig cell development is still unclear. The objective of the present study was to explore whether ZEA affected Leydig cell developmental process and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (60 days old) were randomly divided into three groups and these rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg ethane dimethane sulfonate (EDS) to eliminate all Leydig cells. Seven days after EDS treatment, rats intratesticularly received normal saline (control) or 150 or 300 ng/testis/day ZEA for 21 days. Immature Leydig cells isolated from 35-day-old rats were treated with ZEA (0.05-50 μM) for 24 h in vitro. In vivo ZEA exposure lowered serum testosterone levels, reduced Leydig cell number, and decreased Leydig cell specific gene or protein expression levels possibly via downregulating the steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1) expression. ZEA in vitro inhibited androgen production and steroidogenic enzyme activities in immature Leydig cells by downregulating expression levels of cholesterol side cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), and steroid 5α-reductase 1 (Srd5a1) at a concentration as low as 50 nM. In conclusion, ZEA exposure disrupts Leydig cell development and steroidogenesis possibly via downregulating Nr5a1.

  14. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    PubMed

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Follow-Up Imaging of Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Uterus and Its Spontaneous Regression

    PubMed Central

    Markovic Vasiljkovic, Biljana; Plesinac Karapandzic, Vesna; Pejcic, Tomislav; Djuric Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Milosevic, Zorica; Plesinac, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an aggressive benign mass that may arise from various tissues and organs with a great variability of histological and clinical appearances. Due to variable and nonspecific imaging findings, diagnosis of IMT is not obtained before surgery. The aim of this paper is to present CT and MRI findings during four-year follow-up of complete, spontaneous regression of IMT of the uterus. The diagnosis was made by histology and immunohistochemistry analysis of the open excisional biopsy specimen. At that time, the organ of origin was not specified. After analysis of the follow-up imaging findings and the mode of tumor regression, the uterus was proclaimed as the probable site of origin. IMT of the uterus is extremely rare and has been reported in ten cases up to now. The gradual, complete regression of uterine IMT documented by CT and MRI may contribute to understanding of its nature. PMID:27110328

  16. Reducing maternal mortality from ruptured uterus--the Sokoto initiative.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Y; Shehu, C E; Nwobodo, E I; Ekele, B A

    2004-06-01

    Uterine rupture is the most common cause of maternal mortality in our institution. Case fatality for the year 2001 was 47%. Health care including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is not free, hence, delays in receiving care could occur in patients with limited resources. The objectives of the study were to promote access to emergency obstetric care through a loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus and determine the success or otherwise of the scheme. The scheme was initiated in January 2002, with the sum of thirty eight Thousand Naira (about 300 US dollars) by consultant obstetricians in the department. Funds were released to the patient only after assessment of her financial capability to enable her get emergency surgical packs. All that was required was a promise to pay back the loan before discharge. Following resuscitation, surgery was performed by one of the consultants. Eighteen cases of ruptured uterus have been managed. Treatment was initiated within 30 minutes of admission. Admission-laparotomy interval averaged 3.5 hours (+/-1.2). There were two maternal deaths, giving a case fatality of 11% (2/ 18). The case fatality from a previous study from the same centre was 38% (16/42). There was a significant difference in case fatality between the two studies (P<0.05; confidence limits are-0.328 and -0.211). Of the seventeen patients that benefited from the scheme, 16 repaid the loan before discharge (94% loan recovery). Only one patient defaulted with five thousand Naira (40 US dollars). A loan scheme for indigent patients with ruptured uterus that enabled them receive emergency obstetric care reduced case fatality. Loan recovery was good. In our quest to reduce maternal mortality in low-income countries without health insurance policies, there might be a need to extend similar initiative to other obstetric emergencies.

  17. [The estrogenic effect of formononetin and its effect on the expression of rats' atrium estrogen receptors].

    PubMed

    Xing, Dian-Xia; Liu, Xian-Ling; Xue, Cun-Kuan; Huang, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Xiong, Liang

    2010-09-01

    To observe the estrogenic effect of formononetin and its effect on the expressions of atrial estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta). 50 femal rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, model group, nilestriol group, formononetin groups of low and high dose. Rats in sham group were cut a piece of fat before closing the abdomen, the others were ovariectomized. Vaginal exfoliated cell were observed from the fifth day to the tenth after operation to test if the model is successful. The sham and model group were given nomal saline in 10 mL/kg by gavage, the remaining three groups were given nilestriol 2.5 mg/(kg x w), low [20 mg/(kg x d) land high dose [100 mg/(kg x d)) of formononetin by gavage respectively. In the 8th week, vaginal exfoliated cell were observed, then decapitated the rats, removed the uterus, weighed and take wright staining microscopy. The relative expressions of ERalpha and ERbeta of right atrium were detected by RT-PCR. The vaginal cells exhibit a change of estrus after had been fed with high dose of formononetin after 8 weeks. Formononetin increase the uterus coefficient and the expression of atrial ERbeta (P < 0.01), but it dose not have any effect on the expression of ERalpha (P > 0.05). Formononetin have estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats, and it can markedly upregulate the expression of rats' atrial ERbeta.

  18. 25 years of research on global asphyxia in the immature rat brain.

    PubMed

    Barkhuizen, M; van den Hove, D L A; Vles, J S H; Steinbusch, H W M; Kramer, B W; Gavilanes, A W D

    2017-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy remains a common cause of brain damage in neonates. Preterm infants have additional complications, as prematurity by itself increases the risk of encephalopathy. Currently, therapy for this subset of asphyxiated infants is limited to supportive care. There is an urgent need for therapies in preterm infants - and for representative animal models for preclinical drug development. In 1991, a novel rodent model of global asphyxia in the preterm infant was developed in Sweden. This method was based on the induction of asphyxia during the birth processes itself by submerging pups, still in the uterine horns, in a water bath followed by C-section. This insult occurs at a time-point when the rodent brain maturity resembles the brain of a 22-32 week old human fetus. This model has developed over the past 25 years as an established model of perinatal global asphyxia in the early preterm brain. Here we summarize the knowledge gained on the short- and long-term neuropathological and behavioral effects of asphyxia on the immature central nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluid shear stress regulates vascular remodeling via VEGFR-3 activation, although independently of its ligand, VEGF-C, in the uterus during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Choi, Jawun; Jung, Hye-Kang; Song, In Kyu; Shin, Yongwhan; Park, Sang-Youel; Seol, Jae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in the blood volume of the uterus for embryonic development, thereby exerting fluid shear stress (FSS) on the vascular walls. The uterus experiences vascular remodeling to accommodate the increased blood flow. The blood flow-induced FSS elevates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors, and regulates vascular remodeling through the activation of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). However, the mechanisms responsible for FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression in the uterus during pregnancy are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vascular remodeling in the uterus during pregnancy is regulated by FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression. We examined the association between VEGFR-3 and FSS through in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments revealed VEGFR-3 expression in the CD31-positive region of the uterus of pregnant mice; VEGF-C (ligand for VEGFR-3) was undetected in the uterus. These results confirmed that VEGFR-3 expression in the endometrium is independent of its ligand. In vitro studies experiments revealed that FSS induced morphological changes and increased VEGFR-3 expression in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, VEGFR-3 activation by FSS is associated with vascular remodeling to allow increased blood flow in the uterus during pregnancy. PMID:28849193

  20. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  1. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  2. Fatigue of immature baboon cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Keller, T S; Lovin, J D; Spengler, D M; Carter, D R

    1985-01-01

    Strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue and monotonic tensile tests were conducted on turned femoral cortical bone specimens obtained from baboons at various ages of maturity. Fatigue loading produced a progressive loss in stiffness and an increase in hysteresis prior to failure, indicating that immature primate cortical bone responds to repeated loading in a fashion similar to that previously observed for adult human cortical bone. Bone fatigue resistance under this strain controlled testing decreased during maturation. Maturation was also associated with an increase in bone dry density, ash fraction and elastic modulus. The higher elastic modulus of more mature bone meant that these specimens were subjected to higher stress levels during testing than more immature bone specimens. Anatomical regions along the femoral shaft exhibited differences in strength and fatigue resistance.

  3. Huge (9 Kg) Broad Ligament Fibroid Mimicking Sarcoma of Uterus: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Katke, Rajshree Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Fibroids are most common benign tumors of the uterus, mostly situated in the body of the uterus. Rarely, they arise from extrauterine sites with broad ligament fibroids being uncommon. We present a case of a 47-year-old female, multipara who presented in outpatient department in CAMA hospital with a history of sudden development of dysuria 10 days back. Intraoperatively, uterus was pushed to side and large broad ligament fibroid of 25 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm seen arising from right-sided broad ligament. The fibroid was densely adherent to bowel and bladder. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of broad ligament fibroid of 9 Kg with total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy was done.

  4. Rat Sertoli cells acquire a beta-adrenergic response during primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kierszenbaum, A L; Spruill, W A; White, M G; Tres, L L; Perkins, J P

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the radioligand (-)-[125I]iodopindolol (125I-Pin) have been used to study isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation and beta-adrenergic receptor availability, respectively, in cultured Sertoli cells and freshly isolated seminiferous tubular segments of sexually immature and mature rats. Sertoli cells prepared from sexually immature rats show progressive 125I-Pin binding in primary cultures that correlates with isoproterenol-induced cell shape changes, redistribution of immunoreactive vimentin, and phosphorylation of this intermediate filament protein. The development of 125I-Pin binding to Sertoli cell lysates is blocked by cycloheximide. Seminiferous tubules do not show significant isoproterenol-dependent vimentin phosphorylation nor 125I-Pin binding. However, vimentin phosphorylation can be induced by follicle-stimulating hormone or a cyclic nucleotide analog. This study stresses the need for correlating pharmacological-induced responses observed in Sertoli cell primary cultures with those in the intact seminiferous tubule. Images PMID:2984678

  5. GC-MS analysis of Cocus nucifera flower extract and its effects on heterogeneous symptoms of polycystic ovarian disease in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Soumya, V; Muzib, Y Indira; Venkatesh, P; Hariprasath, K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Cocus nucifera L. flowers in reducing the major multiple symptoms of letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in female rats. Female, virgin Wistar rats were treated with letrozole (1 mg/kg body wt) to induce PCOD, and after 21 days of induction rats were administered orally with 100 and 200 mg·kg(-1) of Cocus nucifera flower aqueous extract, respectively. Estrus cycle and blood sugar were monitored once a week throughout the study. After scarification, various biochemical parameters, such as antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH)) of the uterus homogenate, lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides (TG)) of the serum were determined. Weights of the uterus and ovaries were separately monitored. The characteristics of changes in the ovary were evaluated by histopathological studies. GC-MS analysis of the aqueous extract showed the presence of volatile and pharmacologically active phytoconstituents. C. nucifera flower extract-treated groups showed estrus cyclicity and increased uterus weight which indicates the estrogenic effect. The improved blood sugar level, ideal lipid profile, good antioxidant status, and histopathology results revealed the recovery from poly cystic ovaries. The results indicate that C. nucifera flower is a potential medicine for the treatment of PCOD and this study supports the traditional uses of C. nucifera flower. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Torsion of a nongravid uterus with a large ovarian cyst: usefulness of contrast MR image.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroki; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Nakahara, Kenji; Kojimahara, Takanobu; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2007-01-01

    Torsion of a nongravid uterus is extremely rare. Most cases of uterine torsion occur during pregnancy. Here we report a case of nongravid uterus torsion with a large adnexal mass. A 73-year-old woman presented at the emergency room with acute abdominal pain. A preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian cyst was made and laparotomy was performed. The left ovary was twisted 360 degrees in a clockwise rotation, and the uterine corpus had also undergone a 360 degrees rotation. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were carried out. Although a preoperative diagnosis of uterine torsion was not possible, it is noteworthy that in the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images the uterine cervix was intensely enhanced, while the uterine corpus was not. This is the first report to show the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a twisted uterus. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Ultrastructure of the gravid uterus of Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Conn, D B

    1993-08-01

    The fine structure of the uterus in gravid proglottids of Hymenolepis diminuta was examined by standard techniques for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The uterus consisted of a syncytial uterine epithelium attached to the medullary parenchyma through a thin extracellular basal matrix. The epithelium contained prominent nuclei in the juxtalumenal cytoplasm. The cytoplasm was dominated by extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum, with dilated cisternae containing an electron-lucent material and widely scattered electron-dense spherical bodies. No Golgi body or other agranular endomembrane component was observed, but the epithelium contained numerous free ribosomes and a few mitochondria. The apical plasma membrane was folded into long microlamellae. Epithelial and epitheliomesenchymal folds and villi resulted in a compartmentalized uterine lumen, with each chamber containing 1 to several eggs. These data suggest a high level of synthetic activity within the uterine epithelium, but the chemical products and functional significance of this activity are not yet known.

  8. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuji; Tsunashima, Masako; Hiei, Yukoh; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Wheat may now be transformed very efficiently by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the protocol hereby described, immature embryos of healthy plants of wheat cultivar Fielder grown in a well-conditioned greenhouse were pretreated with centrifuging and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. Transgenic wheat plants were obtained routinely from between 40 and 90 % of the immature embryos, thus infected in our tests. All regenerants were normal in morphology and fully fertile. About half of the transformed plants carried single copy of the transgene, which are inherited by the progeny in a Mendelian fashion.

  9. Protective effects of melatonin against metabolic and reproductive disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sarayu A; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to study the effects of melatonin on metabolic and reproductive aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in rats. PCOS was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of testosterone (20 mg/kg) to 21-day-old female rats for 35 days. Rats were given metformin (500 mg/kg), melatonin (1 mg/kg) or melatonin (2 mg/kg) along with testosterone. One group served as vehicle control. On the 36th day, the animals were euthanised, and anthropometrical, biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipids, testosterone, C reactive protein (CRP)), oral glucose tolerance test, and histopathological evaluation of ovaries, uterus and intraabdominal fat (IAF), were carried out. Daily colpocytological examination was carried out from 14(th) day of study until termination. Both the doses of melatonin significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, IAF, insulin and CRP. A favourable lipid profile, normal glucose tolerance and a decrease in the percentage of estrus smears were observed. Histopathological examination of ovary, uterus and IAF revealed a decrease in the number of cystic follicles, decrease in neoplastic endometrial glands, and decrease in adipocyte hypertrophy, respectively. The effects observed with melatonin were comparable to that with metformin. The study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of melatonin in PCOS. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Fluid shear stress regulates vascular remodeling via VEGFR-3 activation, although independently of its ligand, VEGF-C, in the uterus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Gyu; Choi, Jawun; Jung, Hye-Kang; Song, In Kyu; Shin, Yongwhan; Park, Sang-Youel; Seol, Jae-Won

    2017-10-01

    Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in the blood volume of the uterus for embryonic development, thereby exerting fluid shear stress (FSS) on the vascular walls. The uterus experiences vascular remodeling to accommodate the increased blood flow. The blood flow‑induced FSS elevates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors, and regulates vascular remodeling through the activation of VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). However, the mechanisms responsible for FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression in the uterus during pregnancy are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vascular remodeling in the uterus during pregnancy is regulated by FSS-induced VEGFR-3 expression. We examined the association between VEGFR-3 and FSS through in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments revealed VEGFR-3 expression in the CD31-positive region of the uterus of pregnant mice; VEGF-C (ligand for VEGFR‑3) was undetected in the uterus. These results confirmed that VEGFR-3 expression in the endometrium is independent of its ligand. In vitro studies experiments revealed that FSS induced morphological changes and increased VEGFR-3 expression in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, VEGFR-3 activation by FSS is associated with vascular remodeling to allow increased blood flow in the uterus during pregnancy.

  11. Adverse effects of 4-tert-octylphenol on the production of oxytocin and hCG in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun; Kang, Eun-Jin; Park, Mee-Na; Lee, Jae-Eon; Hong, So-Hye; An, Sung-Min; Kim, Seung-Chul; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter the structure or function of the endocrine system. 4-Tert-octylphenol (OP) is one of the most representative EDCs and has estrogenic effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and OP on the pituitary gland, placenta, and uterus of pregnant rats. Expression levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), oxytocin (OT), and contraction-associated proteins (CAPs) were determined, and uterine contractile activity was measured by uterine contraction assay. EE and OP both increased mRNA expression of OT and hCG in the pituitary gland but not the placenta. Since OT and hCG control uterine contraction, we next examined CAP expression in the uterus. Expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (PGDH) was upregulated by OP, whereas expression of other CAPs was unaffected. To clarify the effect of OP on uterine contraction in pregnant rats, uterine contraction assay was performed. The 17β-Estradiol (E2) did not affect contraction of primary uterine cells harvested from pregnant rats in a 3D collagen gel model. However, OP showed different effects from E2 by significantly reducing contraction activity. In summary, we demonstrated that OP interferes with regulation of OT and hCG in the pituitary gland as well as PGDH in the uterus, thereby reducing uterine contraction activity. This result differs from the action of endogenous E2. Collectively, these findings suggest that exposure to EDCs such as OP during pregnancycan reduce uterine contractile ability, which may result in contraction-associated adverse effects such as metratonia, bradytocia, and uterine leiomyomata. PMID:25324873

  12. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G.

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of (3H) inositol phosphates in (3H)inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats.more » Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of (3H)QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with (3H)pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%.« less

  13. Structure and Uncoating of Immature Adenovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Berna, A.J.; Mangel, W.; Marabini, R.

    2009-09-18

    Maturation via proteolytic processing is a common trait in the viral world and is often accompanied by large conformational changes and rearrangements in the capsid. The adenovirus protease has been shown to play a dual role in the viral infectious cycle: (a) in maturation, as viral assembly starts with precursors to several of the structural proteins but ends with proteolytically processed versions in the mature virion, and (b) in entry, because protease-impaired viruses have difficulties in endosome escape and uncoating. Indeed, viruses that have not undergone proteolytic processing are not infectious. We studied the three-dimensional structure of immature adenovirus particlesmore » as represented by the adenovirus type 2 thermosensitive mutant ts1 grown under non-permissive conditions and compared it with the mature capsid. Our three-dimensional electron microscopy maps at subnanometer resolution indicate that adenovirus maturation does not involve large-scale conformational changes in the capsid. Difference maps reveal the locations of unprocessed peptides pIIIa and pVI and help define their role in capsid assembly and maturation. An intriguing difference appears in the core, indicating a more compact organization and increased stability of the immature cores. We have further investigated these properties by in vitro disassembly assays. Fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments reveal differences in the stability and uncoating of immature viruses, both at the capsid and core levels, as well as disassembly intermediates not previously imaged.« less

  14. Contraceptive, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic potentials of methanolic root extract of Carpolobia lutea in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ettebong, Ette Okon; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Ekpo, Memfin; Ajibesin, Kola Kayode

    2011-10-01

    Several plants are used in herbal medicine for family planning. Carpolobia lutea is a medicinal plant in South Eastern Nigeria used for family planning. The study was designed to investigate the contraceptive, estrogenic and antiestrogenic potentials of the methanolic root extract of Carpolobia lutea in both rats and mice. The contraceptive effect of extract (7 - 21mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route for four days in divided doses was tested in mice and rats. Sexually-active males were introduced on day 5 at the ratio of 3F:1M and kept with these females till the end of the experiment. Investigations on the estrogenic and antiestrogenic property of the extract (7-21mg/kg) were done in immature rats that had undergone surgical removal of both ovaries. The effects of the extract (vaginal opening, vaginal cornification, uterine wet weight) were compared with 17-beta-estradiol (0.1µg/rat/day) as standard drug. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were sacrificed following the last dose and the weights of uterus, kidney, liver and small intestine were recorded. The extract prevented conception in both mice and rats for two gestational periods. Significant changes (p<0.05-0.001) were observed in the length and weight of pups relative to control. There were no abnormalities observed in the pups over thirty days. In ovariectomized immature young rats, the extract showed estrogenic effect (vaginal opening, vaginal cornification and increased uterine wet weight) in low doses while in high doses, it showed anti-estrogenic effect. These findings agree with the traditional use of Carpolobia lutea in the control of fertility. The contraceptive property of the extract may be associated with the direct effects of its chemical constituents.

  15. [Effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth and learning/memory in young rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Li, Sheng-Hui; Cui, Mao-Long; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2009-02-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on the immature brain remain unknown. Based on a computer controlled chronic sleep deprivation animal model, the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth, learning and memory in young rats were explored. Twelve weaned male Spraque-Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly divided into sleep deprivation, test control and blank control groups. Sleep deprivation was performed using computer-controlled "disc-over-water" technique at 8-11 am daily, for 14 days. The temperature and weights were measured every 7 days. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory abilities before and 7 and 14 days after sleep deprivation. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats were sacrificed for weighting their major organs. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats' temperature increased significantly. During the sleep deprivation, the rate of weight gain in the sleep deprivation group was much slower than that in the test control and blank control groups. The thymus of the rats subjected to sleep deprivation was much lighter than that of the blank control group. After 7 days of sleep deprivation, the rats showed slower acquisition of reference memory, but were capable of successfully performing the task by repeated exposure to the test. Such impairment of reference memory was not seen 14 days after sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect growth of immature rats, as well as their abilities to acquire spatial reference memory.

  16. Hysteroscopic Resection of the Vaginal Septum in Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Hemivagina: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Jee, Byung Chul; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Excision of the obstructed vaginal septum is the treatment of choice for symptom relief and the preservation of reproductive capability. A 14-yr-old girl complained of persistent vaginal spotting following each menstruation. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a uterus didelphys with left hematocolpos and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Instead of conventional transvaginal excision of the vaginal septum, we used hysteroscopic excision under transabdominal ultrasonographic guidance to preserve the integrity of the hymen. The postoperative course was uneventful, and clinical symptoms were completely resolved after this intervention. Resectoscopic excision of the vaginal septum was found to be easy, safe, effective, and appropriate for young women as it preserved hymen integrity. We believe that this is the first Korean report on the use of a hysteroscopy for vaginal septum resection in a patient with uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina. PMID:17728527

  17. Immature granulocyte detection by the SE-9000 haematology analyser during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, A; Pascual, V T; Gimenez, M T F; Hernández, J F S

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the alarm for immature granulocytes appearing in haemograms from pregnant women, as detected by the immature cell information channel (IMI) of the SE-9000 automated haematology analyser. Of all tests run on pregnant women in a 4-month period (n = 698), the first 100 haemograms with immature granulocyte alarms (14.33%) were collected. Each of these samples was then stained with Wright-Giemsa stain. The following variables were also analysed: age of the mother, trimester and days of gestation, type of delivery, weight and sex of the baby, and Apgar score. Most pregnant women were in the third trimester of gestation (82%) when an alarm was noted on the IMI channel. Of the patients, 62% had normal deliveries. The most frequent complication was obstructed delivery (23%). Mean percentages by microscopic counts of band cells, metamyelocytes, and myelocytes were 2.99, 0.45, and 0.19%, respectively. There was a statistically significant correlation for all cell types between the SE-9000 and the manual count method. No association was observed between the presence of immature granulocytes and the clinical variables analysed. The SE-9000 analyser shows high sensitivity in the IMI channel for detection of immature forms.

  18. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Helua

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m{sup 3}, 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg,more » i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.« less

  19. Genomics of Mature and Immature Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, Melissa D.; Breheny, Patrick; Stromberg, Arnold J.; McClintock, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous replacement of neurons in the olfactory epithelium provides an advantageous model for investigating neuronal differentiation and maturation. By calculating the relative enrichment of every mRNA detected in samples of mature mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), immature OSNs, and the residual population of neighboring cell types, and then comparing these ratios against the known expression patterns of >300 genes, enrichment criteria that accurately predicted the OSN expression patterns of nearly all genes were determined. We identified 847 immature OSN-specific and 691 mature OSN-specific genes. The control of gene expression by chromatin modification and transcription factors, and neurite growth, protein transport, RNA processing, cholesterol biosynthesis, and apoptosis via death domain receptors, were overrepresented biological processes in immature OSNs. Ion transport (ion channels), presynaptic functions, and cilia-specific processes were overrepresented in mature OSNs. Processes overrepresented among the genes expressed by all OSNs were protein and ion transport, ER overload response, protein catabolism, and the electron transport chain. To more accurately represent gradations in mRNA abundance and identify all genes expressed in each cell type, classification methods were used to produce probabilities of expression in each cell type for every gene. These probabilities, which identified 9,300 genes expressed in OSNs, were 96% accurate at identifying genes expressed in OSNs and 86% accurate at discriminating genes specific to mature and immature OSNs. This OSN gene database not only predicts the genes responsible for the major biological processes active in OSNs, but also identifies thousands of never before studied genes that support OSN phenotypes. PMID:22252456

  20. Low magnesium diet alters distribution of macroelements and trace elements in tissues and organs of female rats.

    PubMed

    Zheltova, Anastasia A; Kharitonova, Maria V; Iezhitsa, Igor N; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Evsyukov, Oleg Y; Spasov, Alexander A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether dietary magnesium deficiency can alter distribution of macroelements and trace elements in different organs and tissues. Experiments were carried out on 12 adult female Wistar rats, which were fed either a diet with low Mg content (≤20mgkg -1 of diet) (LMgD) or a diet with daily recommended Mg content (≈500mgkg -1 ) as control group (CG) for 70 days. On the 70th day of the experiment heart, aorta, femoral skeletal muscle, forebrain, cerebellum, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, ovaries, uterus, liver, kidneys, and spleen were taken for analysis of mineral content. Concentrations of Fe and Ca were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and levels of Na, K, Mg, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, I were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. On the 70th day, LMgD led to significant reduction of Mg level in red blood cells, plasma, aorta, uterus and thyroid gland compared to CG as well as resulted in significant decrease of Mg/Ca ratio in kidneys, spleen and ovaries. Contrary to this, an increase of Mg/Ca ratio was found in cerebellum of LMgD group. Significant decrease of K concentration was shown in aorta of LMgD animals compared to CG whereas myocardial K concentration was increased in LMgD group. Na level was two-fold higher in skeletal muscles of rats that received LMgD in comparison to CG (p=0.006). Increased concentrations of Fe in ovaries and uterus were found in LMgD. Mg restriction did not affect Zn concentration in any of tasted tissues. Se level was higher in spleen and lower in uterus of LMgD animals compared to CG. MgD was accompanied by increased level of Co in skeletal muscles and decreased its level in kidneys and uterus. LMgD feeding was associated with decreased concentrations of Ni in heart, thyroid gland, spleen, uterus and Co in heart, aorta, liver, kidneys, spleen and ovaries. The changes of Mg, K, Co content were accompanied by dramatic (10-fold) decrease of

  1. Distension of the uterus induces HspB1 expression in rat uterine smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    White, B G; MacPhee, D J

    2011-11-01

    The uterine musculature, or myometrium, demonstrates tremendous plasticity during pregnancy under the influences of the endocrine environment and mechanical stresses. Expression of the small stress protein heat shock protein B1 (HspB1) has been reported to increase dramatically during late pregnancy, a period marked by myometrial hypertrophy caused by fetal growth-induced uterine distension. Thus, using unilaterally pregnant rat models and ovariectomized nonpregnant rats with uteri containing laminaria tents to induce uterine distension, we examined the effect of uterine distension on myometrial HspB1 expression. In unilaterally pregnant rats, HspB1 mRNA and Ser(15)-phosphorylated HspB1 (pSer(15) HspB1) protein expression were significantly elevated in distended gravid uterine horns at days 19 and 23 (labor) of gestation compared with nongravid horns. Similarly, pSer(15) HspB1 protein in situ was only readily detectable in the distended horns compared with the nongravid horns at days 19 and 23; however, pSer(15) HspB1 was primarily detectable in situ at day 19 in membrane-associated regions, while it had primarily a cytoplasmic localization in myometrial cells at day 23. HspB1 mRNA and pSer(15) HspB1 protein expression were also markedly increased in ovariectomized nonpregnant rat myometrium distended for 24 h with laminaria tents compared with empty horns. Therefore, uterine distension plays a major role in the stimulation of myometrial HspB1 expression, and increased expression of this small stress protein could be a mechanoadaptive response to the increasing uterine distension that occurs during pregnancy.

  2. Fertilizability of Superovulated Eggs by Estrous Stage-independent PMSG/hCG Treatment in Adult Wistar-Imamichi Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Hiroe; Hokao, Ryoji; Shinoda, Motoo

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the fertilization and developmental ability of superovulated eggs obtained from adult Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats, by using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Female WI rats, 11–13 weeks of age, were divided into four groups by estrous stage (metestrus [ME], diestrus [DE], proestrus [PE], or estrus [E]). PMSG (150 IU/kg) and hCG (75 IU/kg) were injected at an interval of 48 or 55 h and the female rats were mated with mature male rats. The ovulated eggs were collected 20, 24, and 27 h after hCG injection. Regardless of the estrous stage at the time of PMSG injection, the treated rats mated and ovulated similar to the untreated spontaneously ovulated rats (S group). Although the proportion of fertilized eggs in the E- and PE-treated groups was less than the S group 20 h after hCG injection, the proportion was not different among all treated and S groups 24 h after hCG injection. The proportion of fertilized eggs using in vitro fertilization and the proportion of offspring obtained from 2-cell stage embryo transfer did not differ among the treated and S groups. In comparison with PMSG/hCG-treated immature rats, mating and ovulation rate of adult rats were significantly higher. The proportion of fertilized eggs obtained from mated rats did not differ between immature and adult rats. These results demonstrate that adult WI rats are good egg donors for reproductive biotechnological studies using unfertilized or fertilized eggs. PMID:24770643

  3. Bacterial colonization stimulates a complex physiological response in the immature human intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R; Huang, Sha; Nagy, Melinda S; Yadagiri, Veda K; Fields, Courtney; Mukherjee, Dishari; Bons, Brooke; Dedhia, Priya H; Chin, Alana M; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Thodla, Shrikar; Schmidt, Thomas M; Walk, Seth

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is immature at birth, yet must adapt to dramatic changes such as oral nutrition and microbial colonization. The confluence of these factors can lead to severe inflammatory disease in premature infants; however, investigating complex environment-host interactions is difficult due to limited access to immature human tissue. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelium of human pluripotent stem-cell-derived human intestinal organoids is globally similar to the immature human epithelium and we utilize HIOs to investigate complex host-microbe interactions in this naive epithelium. Our findings demonstrate that the immature epithelium is intrinsically capable of establishing a stable host-microbe symbiosis. Microbial colonization leads to complex contact and hypoxia driven responses resulting in increased antimicrobial peptide production, maturation of the mucus layer, and improved barrier function. These studies lay the groundwork for an improved mechanistic understanding of how colonization influences development of the immature human intestine. PMID:29110754

  4. Laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy in treatment of a didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina.

    PubMed

    Boudhraa, K; Barbarino, A; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Maldevelopment of the Müllerian duct system may result in various urogenital anomalies including didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina. We report a patient with this anomaly who was treated by laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy and hysteroscopic resection of hemi-vagina. A 16-year-old patient who had complained of vaginal pus-like discharge on and off for 1 year was diagnosed by MRI to have a double uterus with obstructed right hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. After hysteroscopic identification of hypoplasia of the right uterine cervix, laparoscopic resection of the right uterus and right fallopian tube and hysteroscopic assisted resection of the vaginal septa were performed successfully. We think that combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy may be an effective alternative in the management and diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies.

  5. BCR mediated signal transduction in immature and mature B cells.

    PubMed

    Koncz, Gábor; Bodor, Csaba; Kövesdi, Dorottya; Gáti, Róbert; Sármay, Gabriella

    2002-06-03

    Ligation of B cell receptors (BCR) on immature B cells may induce apoptosis, while in mature B cells it stimulates cell activation and growth. The signaling pathway regulating the differential functional response, death or survival of the B cell is not fully characterized. We have tested the intracellular signaling requirement of these processes using B cells isolated from the spleen of irradiated auto-reconstituted (transitional immature B cells) and untreated mice (mature B cells), respectively. We compared the BCR induced intracellular [Ca2+] transient, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK phosphorylation, furthermore, the activation of Elk-1 and CREB transcription factors. The BCR induced rise of intracellular [Ca2+] did not significantly differ in the two populations, only a slight difference in the late phase of the response was observed. Immature B cells responded with a maximum tyrosine phosphorylation to a five times lower dose of anti-IgM compared to the mature population. Most importantly, we have found a significant difference in the tyrosine phosphorylation of the Gab family adaptor proteins, Gab1/2. In contrast to mature B cells, crosslinking of BCR on immature B cells did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Gab2, thus the Gab2-organized signal amplification complex could not be produced. Furthermore, we detected a significant difference in the kinetics of BCR induced ERK, Elk-1 and CREB phosphorylation. In immature B cells, ERK was transiently phosphorylated, ceasing after 120 min, while in mature cells, ERK phosphorylation was sustained. Elk-1 and CREB activation was also transient in immature B cells, followed the kinetics of ERK phosphorylation. The lack of sustained Erk1/2 activation suppresses the transcription factors necessary for the proliferation signal. Since ERK is regulated by the phosphorylated Gab1/2, these data demonstrate that BCR triggered phosphorylation and signal amplification of Gab1/2 is a critical step in a life or death

  6. Development of immature stomata: evidence for epigenetic selection of a spacing pattern.

    PubMed

    Kagan, M L; Sachs, T

    1991-07-01

    In Sansevieria trifasciata as many as half the potential stomata remain immature. The development of all stomatal structures started at the same time and the early stages of the development of immature stomata had no special characteristics. Statistical analysis showed that the mature stomata were more evenly spaced than all potential stomata, both mature and immature. Furthermore, the distribution of mature stomata per unit area was more predictable or orderly than comparable structures of a random model that developed in the same way. These facts indicate that a nonrandom loss of many stomata by "immaturity" is a major determinant, acting during rather than preceding development, of the distribution of the mature, functional stomata. Thus in Sansevieria there is a selection of an epidermal pattern from an excess of cells that undergo the early stages of stomatal development.

  7. Very early stage adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-I; Chou, Szu-Yuan; Lin, Sey-En; Liang, So-Jung; Chiu, Hsiao-Chen; Hsu, Chun-Sen

    2006-12-01

    Malignant transformations of adenomyosis in premenopausal women with normal endometrium are extremely rare. We report a case of adenocarcinoma arising from an adenomyotic focus in the uterus, which was found unexpectedly in a woman undergoing myomectomy for adenomyosis. A 47-year-old premenopausal woman presented with massive vaginal bleeding and anemia. She was admitted and underwent myomectomy under the initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Microscopic studies revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which was a malignant transformation of a focus of adenomyosis in the surgical specimen. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was then performed. Pathologic studies showed no residual tumors in the entire resected specimen except for the previous lesion. The endometrium had normal thickness with mild proliferative activity throughout the cavity. There was no atrophic or hyperplastic change in the whole endometrium. The adenocarcinoma was present exclusively in the myometrium, and a transition between the carcinoma and the adenomyotic glands was observed. This case report presents evidence that adenocarcinoma may a rise de novo from an adenomyotic lesion in the uterus.

  8. Bcl-2 expression during the development and degeneration of RCS rat retinae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K

    2001-12-14

    In various hereditary retinal degenerations, including that in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, the photoreceptors ultimately die by apoptosis. Bcl-2 is one of the genes, which regulates apoptosis and is thought to promote survival of cells. This study has investigated the developmental expression of Bcl-2 in RCS rat, which is a well-studied animal model for hereditary retinal degeneration. An antibody against Bcl-2 was used for its immunohistochemical localization in dystrophic RCS rat retinae from postnatal (PN) days 4, 7, 13, 35, 45, 70, 202 and 14 months. Results were compared with Bcl-2 localization in congenic non-dystrophic rats from PN 4, 7, 13, 44, 202 and 14 months. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in non-dystrophic retinae was already present in PN 4 retinae in the nerve fiber layer (presumably in the endfeet of immature Müller cells) and in the proximal parts of certain radially aligned neuroepithelial cells/immature Müller cell radial processes. With increasing age the immunoreactivity in relatively more mature Müller cell radial processes spread distally towards the outer retina and between PN 13 and 44 it reached the adult distribution. No cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer were found to be immunoreactive. Expression of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in dystrophic RCS rat retinae closely resembled that of non-dystrophic retinae. No immunoreactivity was seen in photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium in dystrophic or non-dystrophic retinae. In conclusion, Bcl-2 expression is not altered, either in terms of its chronology or the cell type expressing it, during retinal degeneration in RCS rats.

  9. Immature blood vessels in rheumatoid synovium are selectively depleted in response to anti-TNF therapy.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Elena; Cañete, Juan D; Celis, Raquel; Santiago, Begoña; Usategui, Alicia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Del Rey, Manuel J; Pablos, José L

    2009-12-02

    Angiogenesis is considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) where it has been proposed as a therapeutic target. In other settings, active angiogenesis is characterized by pathologic, immature vessels that lack periendothelial cells. We searched for the presence of immature vessels in RA synovium and analyzed the dynamics of synovial vasculature along the course of the disease, particularly after therapeutic response to TNF antagonists. Synovial arthroscopic biopsies from RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls were analyzed by double labeling of endothelium and pericytes/smooth muscle mural cells to identify and quantify mature/immature blood vessels. To analyze clinicopathological correlations, a cross-sectional study on 82 synovial biopsies from RA patients with variable disease duration and severity was performed. A longitudinal analysis was performed in 25 patients with active disease rebiopsied after anti-TNF-alpha therapy. We found that most RA synovial tissues contained a significant fraction of immature blood vessels lacking periendothelial coverage, whereas they were rare in OA, and inexistent in normal synovial tissues. Immature vessels were observed from the earliest phases of the disease but their presence or density was significantly increased in patients with longer disease duration, higher activity and severity, and stronger inflammatory cell infiltration. In patients that responded to anti-TNF-alpha therapy, immature vessels were selectively depleted. The mature vasculature was similarly expanded in early or late disease and unchanged by therapy. RA synovium contains a significant fraction of neoangiogenic, immature blood vessels. Progression of the disease increases the presence and density of immature but not mature vessels and only immature vessels are depleted in response to anti-TNFalpha therapy. The different dynamics of the mature and immature vascular fractions has important implications for the

  10. Frequent homozygosity in both mature and immature ovarian teratomas: a shared genetic basis of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Snir, Olivia L; DeJoseph, Maura; Wong, Serena; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Although homozygosity is well documented in mature teratomas, the genetic zygosity of ovarian immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors is less well studied. Ten cases of mature cystic teratomas, eleven cases of grade 2 or 3 immature teratomas, and seven cases of mixed germ cell tumors with an immature teratoma component were investigated by short tandem repeat genotyping to interrogate their genetic zygosity. DNA genotyping was informative in eight mature teratomas, seven immature teratomas and six cases of mixed germ cell tumors. Out of the eight mature teratomas, five cases showed partial or complete homozygosity (63%) with two cases demonstrating complete homozygosity (25%). Of the immature teratomas, six cases showed partial or complete homozygosity (86%) with two cases demonstrating complete homozygosity (29%). For the mixed germ cell tumors, two cases showed partial homozygosity (33%) and none displayed complete homozygosity. Long-term clinical follow-up was available for five immature teratomas (mean follow-up 110 months) and five mixed germ cell tumors (mean follow-up 66 months). None of the five patients with pure immature teratoma had a recurrence; in contrast, four out of five mixed ovarian germ cell tumors recurred between 4 months to 8 years (P=0.048). In conclusion, both immature and mature teratomas harbor frequent genetic homozygosity suggesting a common cellular origin involving germ cells at the same developmental stage. The difference in the rate of homozygosity and tumor recurrence between pure immature teratomas and mixed germ cell tumors suggests that the two entities may involve different pathogenetic pathways and likely pursue different biological behaviors.

  11. Simethicone retinopathy in an immature infant.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie; Tsai, Tony; O'Brien, Joan; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2010-10-28

    The authors describe retinal findings in an immature infant consuming simethicone, a common over-the-counter drug used in the treatment of colic. The lesions are most consistent with an embolic phenomenon possibly from systemic absorption of a medication such as simethicone. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. [Experimental study on therapeutic effect of Dabuyin Wan on true precocious puberty in female rats].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min; Ye, Xiao-Di; Miao, Yun-Ping; Chen, Ai-Ying; Zheng, Gao-Li

    2013-02-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of Dabuyin Wan on true precocious puberty of female rats and its possible mechanism. Twenty-two-day-old female SD rats were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg x kg(-1) N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMA) at 14:00 and 16:00 every day; meanwhile, the rats were given Dabuyin Wan for intervention. Visual inspection was conducted for the time of vaginal opening. The first estrus was observed by yaginal smear test. Their ovaries and uterus were weighed to calculate organ coefficients. Conventional pathological slices were made to observe morphological changes in ovaries and uterus and calculate the thickness of uterine walls and the number of corpus luteums. The level of E2 in serum was detected to assess the therapeutic effect of Dabuyin Wan on NMA precocious puberty in rats. expressions of GnRH, GPR54 and Kiss-1 mRNA in hypothalamus were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR to investigate the possible mechanism of Dabuyin Wan. Dabuyin Wan at 3.24 g x kg(-1) and 1.62 g x kg(-1) significantly decreased the organ coefficients in rats with precocious puberty (P < 0.05), decrease the number of vaginal openings in rats (P < 0.01) and the thickness of uterine walls and the number of corpus luteums (P < 0.05), and notably down-regulated expressions of GnRH, GPR54 and Kiss-1 mRNA in hypothalamus (P < 0.05), without significant impact on E2 in serum. Dabuyin Wan may inhibit GnRH synthesis and release as well as startup of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by down-regulating Kiss-1/GPR54 mRNA expression in hypothalamus, in order to realize the therapeutic effect on true precocious puberty.

  13. Characterization and isolation of immature neurons of the adult mouse piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Rubio, A; Belles, M; Belenguer, G; Vidueira, S; Fariñas, I; Nacher, J

    2016-07-01

    Physiological studies indicate that the piriform or primary olfactory cortex of adult mammals exhibits a high degree of synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, a subpopulation of cells in the layer II of the adult piriform cortex expresses neurodevelopmental markers, such as the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) or doublecortin (DCX). This study analyzes the nature, origin, and potential function of these poorly understood cells in mice. As previously described in rats, most of the PSA-NCAM expressing cells in layer II could be morphologically classified as tangled cells and only a small proportion of larger cells could be considered semilunar-pyramidal transitional neurons. Most were also immunoreactive for DCX, confirming their immature nature. In agreement with this, detection of PSA-NCAM combined with that of different cell lineage-specific antigens revealed that most PSA-NCAM positive cells did not co-express markers of glial cells or mature neurons. Their time of origin was evaluated by birthdating experiments with halogenated nucleosides performed at different developmental stages and in adulthood. We found that virtually all cells in this paleocortical region, including PSA-NCAM-positive cells, are born during fetal development. In addition, proliferation analyses in adult mice revealed that very few cells were cycling in layer II of the piriform cortex and that none of them was PSA-NCAM-positive. Moreover, we have established conditions to isolate and culture these immature neurons in the adult piriform cortex layer II. We find that although they can survive under certain conditions, they do not proliferate in vitro either. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 748-763, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Unicornuate uterus with cavitary non-communicating rudimentary horn: magnetic resonance characterization].

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Oscullo, Jenny Del Rocío; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián Antonio; Gómez-Pérez, María de Guadalupe

    2018-01-01

    Mullerian duct or paramesonephric anomalies are a group of congenital malformations of the female genital tract that result from the alteration in one or more stages of embryonic development. The prevalence has increased, probably due to the progress of diagnostic imaging methods and the relevance that it has acquired in young women with infertility problems. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of choice for characterizing the different types of Mullerian anomalies, its complications and associated pathology. Unicornuate uterus correspond to class II of classification of Mullerian duct anomalies developed by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. According to this, four subtypes have been identified, each with different clinical implications. A cavitated, non-communicating rudimentary horn in a unicornuate uterus is associated with an increased incidence of gynecological problems and obstetric complications that sometimes threaten the lives of patients, reason why its suspicion, diagnosis and treatment is necessary. We report the case of a patient with infertility in which this subtype of congenital malformation was discovered.

  15. Urinary retention and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) secondary to impacted gravid uterus.

    PubMed

    Irani, M; Fisher, N; Mor, A; Bensinger, G

    2016-06-01

    Urinary retention is an emergency that rarely occurs during pregnancy. Previous case reports have suggested multiple risk factors that can cause the gravid uterus to become impacted in the pelvis leading to lower bladder or urethral compression with subsequent urinary retention. However, no cases of urinary obstruction in a pregnancy that was complicated with severe electrolyte imbalance have been reported. To our knowledge, we report the first case of a 31-year-old woman presenting at 8 weeks' gestation with acute urinary retention caused by a retroflexed, retroverted uterus with a 6-cm posterior uterine fibroid leading to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and severe hyponatremia requiring intensive care unit admission. The cornerstones of effective management of urinary retention should include: (i) urgent bladder catheterization; (ii) assessment of sodium levels to rule out syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and prompt treatment before neurological damage occurs; (iii) reduction of the impacted uterus; and (iv) monitoring for post-obstructive diuresis. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience.

  17. Subacute exposure to N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol results in the formation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and alters superoxide dismutase activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C; Glauert, Howard P; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Mariappan, S V S; Spitz, Douglas R; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate > perfluorooctanesulfonamide ~ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate > perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol approximately N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity.

  18. Kingiodendron pinnatum, a pharmacologically effective alternative for Saraca asoca in an Ayurvedic preparation, Asokarishta.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adangam Purath; Sasidharan, Nanu; Salini, Sasidharan; Padikkala, Jose; Meera, Nair; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2018-01-01

    Saraca asoca (Fabaceae) is a prime ingredient in Asokarishta , a well-known Ayurvedic preparation for gynecological ailments. Due to scarcity, adulteration or substitution of related raw drugs is a common practice in its preparation. The bark of Kingiodendron pinnatum (Roxb. ex DC.) Harms, morphologically similar to S. asoca (Asoka) is a widely used substitute. The present study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effectiveness of K. pinnatum as an alternative for S. asoca in Asokarishta by determining the inhibitory effect of estrogen induced uterus endometrial thickening in immature female rats. Arishta was prepared using S. asoca and with the substitute, K. pinnatum as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia. Uterus endometrial thickening was induced by the administration of estradiol (20 μg/kg b. wt, i.p) to 8-day-old rats for 5 alternate days. On day 16, following estradiol administration, the serum estrogen level was found elevated to 156.5 ± 8 pg/ml from the normal value 32.4 ± 5 pg/ml and consequently increased the thickness of uterus endometrium from 16.7 ± 1.4 to 75.2 ± 15.3 μm. Upon oral administration of 400 μl/kg b. wt Asokarishta (ASA) and Arishta made with K. pinnatum (AKP), the thickening was reduced to 42.5 ± 12.7 and 47.1 ± 10.5 μm and the estrogen level diminished to 102.6 ± 10 and 97.3 ± 8 pg/ml, respectively. Arishta also reduced the chronic/acute inflammations in mice and improved the antioxidant status of rats. No toxic symptom was observed in the animals by the treatment of Arishta . The study supports the use of K. pinnatum as an alternative to S. asoca in Asokarishta and gives a scientific validation for Asokarishta in gynecological ailments.

  19. Benign abdominal and pulmonary metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Egberts, Jan-Hendrik; Schafmayer, Clemens; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Jänig, Ute; Tepel, Juergen

    2006-08-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease in which the lung is described to be the most afflicted extrauterine organ. We report of a 42-year-old African woman with a BML in the abdomen and lung who had undergone a hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma 10 years ago. She was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a huge tumor mass in the pelvis consisting of multiple nodules in the abdomen and left lung. Assuming an advanced intraperitoneal malignancy was present, a 'palliative' limited tumor debulking and due to a tumor compressing the sigmoid a Hartmann's procedure was performed. The histopathologic examination showed a leiomyoma positive for estrogen receptor. Treatment was started with GnRH analoga. In the presence of a stable disease after 12 months, the patient underwent a re-laparotomy with a reanastomosis of the colon. Treatment was continued with GnRH analoga and the residual nodules have not increased in size during 36 months of follow-up. The review of the literature supports the concept that the primary tumor of BML is located in the uterus and that leiomyomas in the uterus can metastasize leading via hematogenous spread to BML. However, the origin of the tumor remains controversial.

  20. Biology and External Morphology of Immature Stages of the Butterfly, Diaethria candrena candrena

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M.S.; Carneiro, Eduardo; Casagrande, Mirna M.; Mielke, Olaf H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The biology and the external morphology of immature stages of Diaethria candrena candrena (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae) are described. Immature D. c. candrena found on Allophylus spp. (Sapindaceae) were collected in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil and reared in the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are given, based on observations using electronic, stereoscopic, and optic microscopes, the latter two attached to camera lucida. Results are compared and discussed with immature stages of other species of Biblidinae described to date. PMID:22943597

  1. Hot topic: 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the microbiome of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Moore, S G; Ericsson, A C; Poock, S E; Melendez, P; Lucy, M C

    2017-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows possessed a resident microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus. The endometrium of 10 virgin heifers in estrus and the amniotic fluid, placentome, intercotyledonary placenta, cervical lumen, and external cervix surface (control) of 5 pregnant cows were sampled using aseptic techniques. The DNA was extracted, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were generated from the sequences using Qiime v1.8 software, and taxonomy was assigned using the Greengenes database. The effect of tissue on the microbial composition within the pregnant uterus was tested using univariate (mixed model) and multivariate (permutational multivariate ANOVA) procedures. Amplicons of 16S rRNA gene were generated in all samples, supporting the contention that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows contained a microbiome. On average, 53, 199, 380, 382, 525, and 13,589 reads annotated as 16, 35, 43, 63, 48, and 176 OTU in the placentome, virgin endometrium, amniotic fluid, cervical lumen, intercotyledonary placenta, and external surface of the cervix, respectively, were generated. The 3 most abundant phyla in the uterus of the virgin heifers and pregnant cows were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and they accounted for approximately 40, 35, and 10% of the sequences, respectively. Phyla abundance was similar between the tissues of the pregnant uterus. Principal component analysis, one-way PERMANOVA analysis of the Bray-Curtis similarity index, and mixed model analysis of the Shannon diversity index and Chao1 index demonstrated that the microbiome of the control tissue (external surface of the cervix) was significantly different from that of the amniotic fluid, intercotyledonary placenta, and placentome tissues

  2. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Methods Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. Results GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. Conclusion GBR and its

  3. Blood as a route of transmission of uterine pathogens from the gut to the uterus in cows.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Cunha, Federico; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Bicalho, Rodrigo C; Lima, Svetlana; Bicalho, Marcela L; Galvão, Klibs N

    2017-08-25

    Metritis is an inflammatory disease of the uterus caused by bacterial infection, particularly Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium. Bacteria from the environment, feces, or vagina are believed to be the only sources of uterine contamination. Blood seeps into the uterus after calving; therefore, we hypothesized that blood could also be a seeding source of uterine bacteria. Herein, we compared bacterial communities from blood, feces, and uterine samples from the same cows at 0 and 2 days postpartum using deep sequencing and qPCR. The vaginal microbiome 7 days before calving was also compared. There was a unique structure of bacterial communities by sample type. Principal coordinate analysis revealed two distinct clusters for blood and feces, whereas vaginal and uterine bacterial communities were more scattered, indicating greater variability. Cluster analysis indicated that uterine bacterial communities were more similar to fecal bacterial communities than vaginal and blood bacterial communities. Nonetheless, there were core genera shared by all blood, feces, vaginal, and uterine samples. Major uterine pathogens such as Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium were part of the core genera in blood, feces, and vagina. Other uterine pathogens such as Prevotella and Helcococcus were not part of the core genera in vaginal samples. In addition, uterine pathogens showed a strong and significant interaction with each other in the network of blood microbiota, but not in feces or vagina. These microbial interactions in blood may be an important component of disease etiology. The copy number of total bacteria in blood and uterus was correlated; the same did not occur in other sites. Bacteroides heparinolyticus was more abundant in the uterus on day 0, and both B. heparinolyticus and Fusobacterium necrophorum were more abundant in the uterus than in the blood and feces on day 2. This indicates that B. heparinolyticus has a tropism for the uterus, whereas both

  4. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  5. PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE SCAPHOID IN IMMATURE SKELETONS

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Bentes, Ádria Simone Ferreira; Neto, Miguel Flores do Amaral; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lech, Osvandré

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature individuals, taking into consideration its epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, as well as its controversies. Knowledge of this subject makes it possible for patients to be given appropriate treatment immediately. Pseudarthrosis of the scaphoid in skeletally immature patients is a rare condition that results from error or lack of diagnosis of a fracture. Thus, careful clinical and radiographic examination should be performed in order to confirm or rule out this diagnosis. Several treatment methods have been reported and have shown good results. These include conservative plaster cast treatment, bone graft without osteosynthesis, bone graft with Kirschner wires, percutaneous screws and bone graft with compression screws. The treatment performed depends on the characteristics of the pseudarthrosis and the surgeon's experience. PMID:27042636

  6. Immature doublecortin-positive hippocampal neurons are important for learning but not for remembering.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Jana; Borlikova, Gilyana G; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Robinson, Gregory J; Sullivan, Robert K P; Walker, Tara L; Bartlett, Perry F

    2013-04-10

    It is now widely accepted that hippocampal neurogenesis underpins critical cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. To assess the behavioral importance of adult-born neurons, we developed a novel knock-in mouse model that allowed us to specifically and reversibly ablate hippocampal neurons at an immature stage. In these mice, the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) is expressed under control of the doublecortin (DCX) promoter, which allows for specific ablation of immature DCX-expressing neurons after administration of diphtheria toxin while leaving the neural precursor pool intact. Using a spatially challenging behavioral test (a modified version of the active place avoidance test), we present direct evidence that immature DCX-expressing neurons are required for successful acquisition of spatial learning, as well as reversal learning, but are not necessary for the retrieval of stored long-term memories. Importantly, the observed learning deficits were rescued as newly generated immature neurons repopulated the granule cell layer upon termination of the toxin treatment. Repeat (or cyclic) depletion of immature neurons reinstated behavioral deficits if the mice were challenged with a novel task. Together, these findings highlight the potential of stimulating neurogenesis as a means to enhance learning.

  7. [Ultrastructural characteristics of the vitellaria, uterus and vagina of Amphilina foliacea Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoda: Amphilinidea)].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, L G

    2013-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of the vitelline follicles, uterus and vagina of the amphilinid cestode Amphilina foliacea from the body cavity of Acipenser ruthenus of the Volga basin are described. Some new distinguishing characters are revealed, including the presence of a single type of the cellular component in the vitelline follicles with sarcoplasmic processes filling the space around and within vitellocytes. The,uterus of this species is recognized by the presence of the syncytial epithelial lining with underlying secretory perikaria and different kinds of luminal projections. The most distal part of the uterus, situated closely to the uterine pore, is characterized by nuclei occupying the syncytial uterine epithelium. Slightly further proximally, they are located basally and then transformed into sunken perikaria. The vaginal epithelium is characterized by the syncytial structure with underlying epithelial perikaria in its distal region, with intraepithelial location of the nuclei slightly further proximally and the absence of the nuclei in its proximal region (the seminal receptacle). The syncytial cytoplasm of the vagina contains numerous vesicles and possesses microvilli-like surface structures. The morphological aspects of the female reproductive system of A. foliacea are compared with those of other Cestoda and Neodermata.

  8. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Mingoti, G Z; Pereira, R N; Monteiro, C M R

    2003-05-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32 degrees C daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 +/- 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 +/- 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004). No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 +/- 5.41 vs 127.02 +/- 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001). These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  9. Toxicity of injected radium-226 in immature dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of injected {sup 226}Ra in immature dogs and to compare the results with those from studies of injected {sup 226}Ra in young adult dogs. An historic objective of these studies, initiated at the University of Utah and continued at ITRI, was to compare the results in dogs to the population of dial painters who ingested {sup 226}Ra as young adults. Age at the time of exposure is considered to be an important factor in dosimetry and risk of developing radiation-induced disease, particularly bone cancer. In summary, dogs injected with {sup 226}Ra whenmore » immature had increased occurrences of bone tumors in a dose-related fashion.« less

  10. Impact of Perinatal Systemic Hypoxic–Ischemic Injury on the Brain of Male Offspring Rats: An Improved Model of Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy in Early Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwu; Wu, Weizhao; Lai, Xiulan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian; Chen, Yunbin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to design a model using Sprague-Dawley rats to better reproduce perinatal systemic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in early preterm newborns. On day 21 of gestation, the uterus of pregnant rats were exposed and the blood supply to the fetuses of neonatal HIE groups were thoroughly abscised by hemostatic clamp for 5, 10 or 15 min. Thereafter, fetuses were moved from the uterus and manually stimulated to initiate breathing in an incubator at 37 °C for 1 hr in air. We showed that survival rates of offspring rats were decreased with longer hypoxic time. TUNEL staining showed that apoptotic cells were significant increased in the brains of offspring rats from the 10 min and 15 min HIE groups as compared to the offspring rats in the control group at postnatal day (PND) 1, but there was no statistical difference between the offspring rats in the 5 min HIE and control groups. The perinatal hypoxic treatment resulted in decreased neurons and increased cleaved caspase-3 protein levels in the offspring rats from all HIE groups at PND 1. Platform crossing times and the percentage of the time spent in the target quadrant of Morris Water Maze test were significantly reduced in the offspring rats of all HIE groups at PND 30, which were associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and neuronal cells in the hippocampus of offspring rats at PND 35. These data demonstrated that perinatal ischemic injury led to the death of neuronal cells and long-lasting impairment of memory. This model reproduced hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in early preterm newborns and may be appropriate for investigating therapeutic interventions. PMID:24324800

  11. Effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A on gene expression and global genomic DNA methylation in the prostate, female mammary gland, and uterus of NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Luísa; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Han, Tao; Kobets, Tetyana; Koturbash, Igor; Surratt, Gordon; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Fuscoe, James C.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Pogribny, Igor P.; Delclos, K. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, binds to the nuclear estrogen receptor with an affinity 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than that of estradiol. We reported previously that “high BPA” (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day), but not “low BPA” [2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day], induced clear adverse effects in NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged daily from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 90. The “high BPA” effects partially overlapped those of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 0.5 and 5.0 μg/kg bw/day). To evaluate further the potential of “low BPA” to induce biological effects, here we assessed the global genomic DNA methylation and gene expression in the prostate and female mammary glands, tissues identified previously as potential targets of BPA, and uterus, a sensitive estrogen-responsive tissue. Both doses of EE2 modulated gene expression, including of known estrogen-responsive genes, and PND 4 global gene expression data showed a partial overlap of the “high BPA” effects with those of EE2. The “low BPA” doses modulated the expression of several genes; however, the absence of a dose response reduces the likelihood that these changes were causally linked to the treatment. These results are consistent with the toxicity outcomes. PMID:25862956

  12. A lifetime cancer bioassay of quinacrine administered into the uterine horns of female rats.

    PubMed

    Cancel, Aida M; Dillberger, John E; Kelly, Catherine M; Bolte, Henry F; Creasy, Dianne M; Sokal, David C

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated if quinacrine can induce a tumorigenic response in rats when administered in a manner similar to the intended human use for female non-surgical sterilization. Young sexually mature female rats received two doses of quinacrine (or 1% methylcellulose control) into each uterine horn approximately 21 days apart, and were observed for 23 months after the second dose administration. Dose levels were 0/0, 0/0, 10/10, 70/70, and 70/250-350 mg/kg (first dose/second dose), which represent local doses in the uterus at approximate multiples of 1x, 8x and 40x the human dose (mg quinacrine/g uterine weight) used for female non-surgical sterilization. Rats were observed for viability, clinical signs of toxicity, and changes in body weight and food consumption. At necropsy, selected organs were weighed, macroscopic observations were recorded, and tissues were collected, fixed, processed, and examined for microscopic pathologic findings. Acute quinacrine toxicity was evident during the dosing period but did not affect long-term survival. Non-neoplastic findings were more common in treated animals than controls, providing evidence of the appropriateness of the bioassay. The incidence of uncommon tumors of the reproductive tract was similar to controls at doses of 10/10mg/kg but increased with dose level and was significantly greater than controls at >or=70/70 mg/kg. We conclude that two doses of quinacrine administered approximately 21 days apart into the uterus of young sexually mature rats at a local dose approximately 8 times the human dose used for non-surgical female sterilization increased the lifetime risk of tumor development in the reproductive tract. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cervical brachytherapy technique for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix in a patient with septate uterus.

    PubMed

    Platta, Christopher S; Wallace, Charlie; Gondi, Vinai; Das, Rupak; Straub, Margaret; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed; Applegate, Glenn; Bradley, Kristin A

    2014-03-01

    To describe an approach to cervical brachytherapy in a patient with congenital septate uterus and locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The patient is a 34-year-old female with septate uterus presenting with pelvic pain. Workup demonstrated a stage IIB cervical adenocarcinoma with imaging evidence of an involved right external iliac lymph node. The patient received whole pelvic radiation, with concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m(2)), to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a parametrial boost of 5.4 Gy and an additional nodal boost of 9 Gy. The patient was initiated on cervical brachytherapy following fraction 23 of pelvic radiation. To conform to her septated uterus, a Rotte-Y tandem was used. Additionally, 2 CT-compatible ovoids were placed in the vaginal apex to enhance dose distribution and coverage of the target volume. Each fraction of brachytherapy was performed with CT-based planning. A high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and normal structures were defined and constrained per American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) guidelines. The brachytherapy dose was 27.5 Gy in 5 fractions of 5.5 Gy each, prescribed to the HR-CTV. Herein, we report the first documented case of cervical brachytherapy in a patient with septate uterus and locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Using CT-guided planning, in conjunction with the ABS and GEC-ESTRO guidelines, the patient was effectively treated with adapted cervical brachytherapy, meeting criteria for HR-CTV coverage and normal tissue tolerances.

  14. Rupture of the gravid uterus in a tertiary health facility in the Niger delta region of Nigeria: A 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Nyengidiki, T K; Allagoa, D O

    2011-10-01

    Ruptured uterus is a major life-threatening condition encountered mostly in developing countries and is an index of failure of obstetric care at a point in time in a woman's reproductive career. With worsening economic condition, increasing caesarean section rates, and patients' aversion for operative delivery this condition would still remain a major obstetric matter for discussion. To identify the incidence, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, causes, and outcome of ruptured uterus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A 5-year retrospective study of cases of ruptured uterus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital was carried out. The case notes of 40 patients with uterine rupture during the period 2003-2007 were analyzed. Data collected included sociodemographic characteristics, etiologic factors, clinical presentation, and outcome. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel version 2007 and SPSS 14.0 computer software. The incidence of rupture of the gravid uterus was 1:258 deliveries. In patients with rupture of the gravid uterus, 65% (26) of patients were unbooked; 37.5% (15) were aged between 25 and 29 years. A total of 42.5% (17) of patients had secondary education and 21 (52.5%) were housewives. Rupture of a previous scar was the commonest etiologic factor accounting for 32.5% (11). The commonest presentation was abdominal pain in 92.5% of cases. Perinatal mortality and maternal mortality were 80% and 17.5% respectively. Rupture of the gravid uterus still remains a major cause of maternal mortality. Injudicious use of oxytocics should be discouraged in peripheral health facilities and reinforcement of the need for hospital based deliveries in patients with previous caesarean sections should also be intensified to improve outcome.

  15. A rare case of leiomyosarcoma originating from the left round ligament of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Metin; Tokmak, Aytekin; Timur, Hakan; Özdal, Bülent; Şirvan, Levent; Güngör, Tayfun

    2016-07-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are rare malignancies with a poor prognosis. The incidence is reported to be 3-7/100.000 per year. Preoperative and intraoperative differentiation between LMS and large leiomyoma is always challenging. Therefore, LMS are often diagnosed during postoperative histologic evaluation of hysterectomy or myomectomy specimens. LMS of the round ligament of the uterus which can represent as an inguinal or pelvic mass is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there is only one case report of LMS arising from the round ligament available in the literature. Herein, we aimed to present the second case of LMS originating from the left round ligament of the uterus in a premenopausal woman initially misdiagnosed as an ovarian tumor. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  16. Uterus bicornis bicollis, imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    DaCosta, V; Christie, L; Wynter, S; Harriott, J; Frederick, J

    2009-09-01

    We present a case of a patient with Uterus bicornis bicollis, imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. This group of congenital malformations is often asymptomatic until puberty, when it presents as cyclic dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea or a pelvic mass. Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming the preferred modality for delineation of uterine malformations. When congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract are encountered, a search should also be made for renal anomalies. Patients with Uterus bicornis bicollis and unilateral imperforate vagina are often seen with pain severe enough to mimic an acute abdomen. It is important to keep this unusual congenital malformation in mind in the differential diagnosis of vaginal discharge, pelvic mass and/or abdominopelvic pain in young women so as to avoid inappropriate surgical procedures.

  17. Sampling of prenatal and postnatal offspring from individual rat dams enhances animal use without compromising development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, J. R.; Burden, H. W.; Hawes, N.; Ronca, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess prenatal and postnatal developmental status in the offspring of a group of animals, it is typical to examine fetuses from some of the dams as well as infants born to the remaining dams. Statistical limitations often arise, particularly when the animals are rare or especially precious, because all offspring of the dam represent only a single statistical observation; littermates are not independent observations (biologically or statistically). We describe a study in which pregnant laboratory rats were laparotomized on day 7 of gestation (GD7) to ascertain the number and distribution of uterine implantation sites and were subjected to a simulated experience on a 10-day space shuttle flight. After the simulated landing on GD18, rats were unilaterally hysterectomized, thus providing a sample of fetuses from 10 independent uteruses, followed by successful vaginal delivery on GD22, yielding postnatal samples from 10 uteruses. A broad profile of maternal and offspring morphologic and physiologic measures indicated that these novel sampling procedures did not compromise maternal well-being and maintained normal offspring development and function. Measures included maternal organ weights and hormone concentrations, offspring body size, growth, organ weights, sexual differentiation, and catecholamine concentrations.

  18. EMMPRIN-Mediated Induction of Uterine and Vascular Matrix Metalloproteinases during Pregnancy and in Response to Estrogen and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yiping; Li, Wei; Tran, Victoria; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in order to adapt for the growing fetus and the hemodynamic changes in the maternal circulation. We have previously shown upregulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during pregnancy. Whether pregnancy-associated changes in MMPs are localized to the uterus or are generalized in feto-placental and maternal circulation is unclear. Also, the mechanisms causing the changes in uteroplacental and vascular MMPs during pregnancy are unclear. MMPs expression, activity and tissue distribution were measured in uterus, placenta and aorta of virgin, mid-pregnant (mid-Preg) and late pregnant (late-Preg) rats. Western blots and gelatin zymography revealed increases in MMP-2 and -9 in uterus and aorta of late-Preg compared with virgin and mid-Preg rats. In contrast, MMP-2 and -9 were decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but was less in placenta of late-Preg than mid-Preg rats. Prolonged treatment of uterus or aorta of virgin rats with 17β-estradiol and progesterone increased the amount of EMMPRIN, MMP-2 and -9, and the sex hormone-induced increases in MMPs were prevented by EMMPRIN neutralizing antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-2 and -9 and EMMPRIN increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Thus pregnancy-associated upregulation of uterine MMPs is paralleled by increased vascular MMPs, and both are mediated by EMMPRIN and induced by estrogen and progesterone, suggesting similar role of MMPs in uterine and vascular tissue remodeling and function during pregnancy. The decreased MMPs and EMMPRIN in placenta of late-Preg rats suggests reduced role of MMPs in feto-placental circulation during late pregnancy. PMID:23856290

  19. EMMPRIN-mediated induction of uterine and vascular matrix metalloproteinases during pregnancy and in response to estrogen and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yiping; Li, Wei; Tran, Victoria; Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-09-15

    Pregnancy is associated with uteroplacental and vascular remodeling in order to adapt for the growing fetus and the hemodynamic changes in the maternal circulation. We have previously shown upregulation of uterine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during pregnancy. Whether pregnancy-associated changes in MMPs are localized to the uterus or are generalized in feto-placental and maternal circulation is unclear. Also, the mechanisms causing the changes in uteroplacental and vascular MMPs during pregnancy are unclear. MMPs expression, activity and tissue distribution were measured in uterus, placenta and aorta of virgin, mid-pregnant (mid-Preg) and late pregnant (late-Preg) rats. Western blots and gelatin zymography revealed increases in MMP-2 and -9 in uterus and aorta of late-Preg compared with virgin and mid-Preg rats. In contrast, MMP-2 and -9 were decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN) was increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but was less in placenta of late-Preg than mid-Preg rats. Prolonged treatment of uterus or aorta of virgin rats with 17β-estradiol and progesterone increased the amount of EMMPRIN, MMP-2 and -9, and the sex hormone-induced increases in MMPs were prevented by EMMPRIN neutralizing antibody. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-2 and -9 and EMMPRIN increased in uterus and aorta of pregnant rats, but decreased in placenta of late-Preg versus mid-Preg rats. Thus pregnancy-associated upregulation of uterine MMPs is paralleled by increased vascular MMPs, and both are mediated by EMMPRIN and induced by estrogen and progesterone, suggesting similar role of MMPs in uterine and vascular tissue remodeling and function during pregnancy. The decreased MMPs and EMMPRIN in placenta of late-Preg rats suggests reduced role of MMPs in feto-placental circulation during late pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflections on the No-Uterus Rule: Pregnancy, Academia, and Feminist Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shope, Janet Hinson

    2005-01-01

    This essay relays the author's own pregnancy story to illustrate how academia traditionally reinforces the mind/body dualism by adhering to the no-uterus rule: a gender blind, antibody approach that treats persons as if they do not occupy a body in time and space. Her experience reveals the problems disembodied approaches to knowledge pose for…

  1. Correlative Analysis of Behavioral and Physiological Concomitants of Labor in Pregnant Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, L. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During parturition, rats exhibit characteristic behavioral expressions of labor. Lordosis contractions, consisting of an elongation of the dams body, are observed beginning several hours prior to neonate births, whereas vertical contractions, repeated rapid lifts of the abdomen, occur immediately preceding the birth of each neonate. We analyzed underlying changes in intrauterine pressure (IUP) using a telemetric sensor that we modified for use in freely-moving rats. This technique enabled us to correlate behavioral expressions of labor contractions with IUP. A small telemetric blood pressure sensor was fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. On Gestational day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, a unit was surgically implanted within the uterus. The dams were simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to directly correlate IUP signals with behavioral expressions of labor contractions. Earlier phases of labor, consisting predominantly of lordosis contractions were characterized by lower pressures relative to later phases during which higher pressures and vertical contractions were frequently observed.

  2. Subacute Exposure to N-Ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol Results in the Formation of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and Alters Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wu, Qian; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Tharappel, Job C.; Telu, Sanjay; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Glauert, Howard P.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Santhana Mariappan, S. V.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Weydert, Jamie; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonamides, such as N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), are large scale industrial chemicals but their disposition and toxicity are poorly understood despite significant human exposure. The hypothesis that subacute exposure to N-EtFOSE, a weak peroxisome proliferator, causes a redox imbalance in vivo was tested using the known peroxisome proliferator, ciprofibrate, as a positive control. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with N-EtFOSE, ciprofibrate or corn oil (vehicle) for 21 days, and levels of N-EtFOSE and its metabolites as well as markers of peroxisome proliferation and oxidative stress were assessed in serum, liver and/or uterus. The N-EtFOSE metabolite profile in liver and serum was in good agreement with reported in vitro biotransformation pathways in rats and the metabolite levels decreasing in the order perfluorooctanesulfonate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamide ∼ N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate ≫ perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol ∼ N-EtFOSE. Although N-EtFOSE treatment significantly decreased the growth rate, increased relative liver weight and activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in liver and uterus (total SOD, CuZnSOD and MnSOD), a metabolic study revealed no differences in the metabolome in serum from N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals. Ciprofibrate treatment increased liver weight and peroxisomal acyl Co-A oxidase activity in the liver and altered antioxidant enzyme activities in the uterus and liver. According to NMR metabolomic studies, ciprofibrate treated animals had altered serum lipid profiles compared to N-EtFOSE-treated and control animals, whereas putative markers of peroxisome proliferation in serum were not affected. Overall, this study demonstrates the biotransformation of N-EtFOSE to PFOS in rats that is accompanied by N-EtFOSE-induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:19544052

  3. THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON FEMALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR ASSESSING PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female rats were dosed by oral gavage from postnatal day (PND) 22 through PND 41 with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg ATR /kg. Half of the females in each treatment group were killed on PND 41 and organ weights (e.g., liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, uterus and pituitary) and serum ...

  4. RNA-sequencing data analysis of uterus in ovariectomized rats fed with soy protein isolate,17B-estradiol and casein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This data file describes the bioinformatics analysis of uterine RNA-seq data comparing genome wide effects of feeding soy protein isolate compared to casein to ovariectomized female rats age 64 days relative to treatment of casein fed rats with 5 ug/kg/d estradiol and relative to rats treated with e...

  5. Immature defense mechanisms are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency and greater alcohol consumption before sex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Disturbances of emotional and physical awareness can impair female sexual function. Previous research revealed that immature psychological defense mechanisms (impairing emotional awareness) are associated specifically with impaired vaginal orgasm (orgasm triggered solely by penile-vaginal stimulation). Alcohol consumed before sex (ACBS) might impair vaginal orgasm or lead to avoiding the opportunity for it, but research examining immature defenses, ACBS, and specific sexual behaviors has been lacking. To test the hypothesis that greater use of immature defenses and greater ACBS are inversely associated with vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. Three hundred twenty-three coitally experienced women (predominantly Scottish) responded to an online survey reporting their frequency of various sexual activities (and corresponding orgasms) and their ACBS, and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire DSQ-40. Univariate and multivariate correlations of immature defenses, ACBS, and various sexual behaviors. Both immature defenses and ACBS were associated with less vaginal orgasm consistency, but unrelated or positively correlated with frequency of other sexual behaviors (including clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse). Immature defenses were associated with more ACBS. Immature defenses explained the association between ACBS and both lack of vaginal orgasm and greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. The results provide further evidence that difficulty in having a vaginal orgasm is associated with immature defenses (and associated disturbances of sensibility), among other indicators of poorer health and relatedness. ACBS might impair vaginal orgasm or increase the likelihood of choosing other sexual activities, but this effect might be somewhat contingent on immature defenses. Based on various empirical studies, we call for examination of the possibility that lack of vaginal

  6. Molecular differences between mature and immature dental pulp cells: Bioinformatics and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Yifeng; Du, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from mature and immature teeth exhibit potential for multi-directional differentiation, the molecular and biological difference between the DPSCs from mature and immature permanent teeth has not been fully investigated. In the present study, 500 differentially expressed genes from dental pulp cells (DPCs) in mature and immature permanent teeth were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus online database. Based on bioinformatics analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, these genes were divided into a number of subgroups associated with immunity, inflammation and cell signaling. The results of the present study suggest that immune features, response to infection and cell signaling may be different in DPCs from mature and immature permanent teeth; furthermore, DPCs from immature permanent teeth may be more suitable for use in tissue engineering or stem cell therapy. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database stated that Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), a differentially expressed gene in DPCs from mature and immature permanent teeth, serves a crucial role in the development of craniofacial tissues, including teeth, which further confirmed that SHH may cause DPCs from mature and immature permanent teeth to exhibit different biological characteristics. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database revealed that SHH has functional protein associations with a number of other proteins, including Glioma-associated oncogene (GLI)1, GLI2, growth arrest-specific protein 1, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 and BMP4, in mice and humans. It was also demonstrated that SHH may interact with other genes to regulate the biological characteristics of DPCs. The results of the present study may provide a useful reference basis for selecting suitable DPSCs and molecules for the treatment of these cells to optimize features for tissue

  7. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  8. [A case of true hermaphroditism].

    PubMed

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Grotowski, W; Jaruzelska, J; Halerz-Nowakowska, B; Wiza, M

    1997-09-01

    In the paper we present the case of true hermaphroditism in young girl. The examinations revealed the presence of an ovary with left corn of the uterus at the left side and immature testis with seminal duct the right side.

  9. [Effects of acupuncture on bone metabolism and serum estradiol level in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis rats].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Yun-guang, Hu; Zhang, Da-hui

    2008-08-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture (Acu) on bone metabolism and serum estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats for studying its underlying mechanism in treating osteoporosis. Forty female SD rats of six months were randomized into sham operation (sham), model, Acu and Diethylstibestrol (DES) groups, with 10 cases in each. Postmenopausal osteoporosis model was established by removing ovaries under anesthesia. In Acu group, bilateral "Dazhu" (BL 11), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Pishu" (BL 20) were punctured and stimulated for 30 minutes, once daily for 60 days. Rats of DES group were drenched with saline+DES (22.5 microg/ml) 1 ml/100 g, once daily for 60 days. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected from femoral artery for assaying serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) contents by using biochemistry, and serum bone gla protein (BGP) and E2 levels by immunoradioassay. Compared with sham group, uterus wet weight, serum E2 content in model group decreased significantly (P < 0.01) while body weight, serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels in model group increased significantly (P < 0.01, 0.05). Compared with model group, uterus wet weight and serum Ez content in Acu and DES groups increased significantly (P < 0.01); while body weight, serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels decreased considerably (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between Acu and DES groups in serum E2, ALP, BGP and TRAP levels (P > 0.05). Acupuncture can suppress abnormal increase of body weight and decrease of serum E2 level, and significantly downregulate serum ALP, BGP and TRAP levels in OVX rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving osteoporosis.

  10. WINGLESS (WNT) signaling is a progesterone target for rat uterine stromal cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Alex; Bhusri, Anuradha; Krumsick, Zach; Foster, Sierra; Wormington, Joshua; Kimler, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of mammalian uterus for embryo implantation requires a precise sequence of cell proliferation. In rodent uterus, estradiol stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. Progesterone operates as a molecular switch and redirects proliferation to the stroma by down-regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and stimulating β-catenin accumulation in the periluminal stromal cells. In this study, the WNT signal involved in the progesterone-dependent proliferative switch was investigated. Transcripts of four candidate Wnt genes were measured in the uteri from ovariectomized (OVX) rats, progesterone-pretreated (3 days of progesterone, 2mg/daily) rats, and progesterone-pretreated rats given a single dose (0.2µg) of estradiol. The spatial distribution of the WNT proteins was determined in the uteri after the same treatments. Wnt5a increased in response to progesterone and the protein emerged in the periluminal stromal cells of progesterone-pretreated rat uteri. To investigate whether WNT5A was required for proliferation, uterine stromal cell lines were stimulated with progesterone (1µM) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 50ng/mL). Proliferating stromal cells expressed a two-fold increase in WNT5A protein at 12h post stimulation. Stimulated stromal cells were cultured with actinomycin D (25µg/mL) to inhibit new RNA synthesis. Relative Wnt5a expression increased at 4 and 6 h of culture, suggesting that progesterone plus FGF preferentially increased Wnt5a mRNA stability. Knockdown of Wnt5a in uterine stromal cell lines inhibited stromal cell proliferation and decreased Wnt5a mRNA. The results indicate that progesterone initiates and synchronizes uterine stromal cell proliferation by increasing WNT5A expression and signaling. PMID:26975616

  11. Teratogenic effects of Silastic intrauterine devices in the rat with or without added medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Barlow, S M; Knight, A F

    1983-02-01

    The teratogenicity of intrauterine devices (IUDs) made of silicone rubber (Silastic, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, MI) with or without added medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has been investigated in the rat. Small rod-shaped IUDs were inserted into the uterus, one between each embryo, on day 9 of pregnancy and left in place until the rats were killed just before term for examination of the fetuses. MPA exposure caused masculinization of the external genitalia of female fetuses and feminization of the external genitalia of male fetuses. There was no increase in other, nongenital malformations in MPA-exposed fetuses, compared with fetuses exposed to Silastic alone, but both Silastic-exposed groups had significantly more malformations than untreated control rats. In a second experiment, a significant increase in malformations in fetuses exposed to Silastic alone, compared with untreated control fetuses, was confirmed. The malformation rate in control rats that underwent sham operations was not significantly increased, compared with untreated control rats.

  12. Induction of humoral immunity and pulmonary mast cells in mice and rats after immunization with aerosolized antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, S; Björkstén, B; Nygren, H; Smedegård, G

    1983-01-01

    Rats (BN X Wistar) and mice (CBA/Ca) were immunized by exposure in 10-day periods to an aerosol of ovalbumin (OA). In rats this immunization resulted in IgE antibodies detectable at very low levels in bronchial washings, whereas IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were recorded both in serum and in bronchial washings. In mice, exposure to aerosolized antigen resulted in specific IgE and IgG antibodies in serum. The levels of IgM antibodies were low and no IgA antibodies could be recorded with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histological examination of lung tissue from immunized rats and mice revealed increased numbers of cells with characteristics of both immature and mature mast cells. In addition, in the rats these cells were more closely located to the bronchi in immunized than in control animals. In the latter animals the mast cells were located around the blood vessels. Immature mast cells were located in the bronchiole-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT) which showed a marked proliferation in immunized animals. The findings indicate that sensitization via the airways provides possibilities to develop a model in rodents for studies of IgE-mediated allergy in the lung. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:6822403

  13. Severity of Asynchronous Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses in Skeletally Immature Versus More Skeletally Mature Patients.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Philip D; Silva, Selina; Toelle, Lisa; Strohmeyer, Greg; Wahlquist, Trevor; Li, Ying; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S

    2017-01-01

    Routine prophylactic screw fixation for skeletally immature patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) continues to be debated. The purpose of this study was to assess the slip severity of a second SCFE in skeletally immature versus more mature patients and determine necessity of contralateral hip prophylactic screw fixation. All patients treated for SCFE at 3 pediatric hospitals over a 10-year time period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011) were evaluated. Patients were included if they had a unilateral SCFE and a contralateral asynchronous SCFE, and were divided into immature (Oxford triradiate score 1) versus more mature (Oxford triradiate score 2 and 3) groups. Data evaluation included age, time between slips, body mass index, Southwick angles of first then second SCFEs, and follow-up duration. There were a total of 45 patients: 16 patients in the skeletally immature and 29 patients in the more mature group. Average age at first SCFE in immature patients was 10.9 years and in more mature patients 12.1 years (P=0.70). Age at second SCFE in immature patients was 11.5 years and in more mature patients 13.0 years (P=0.023). Average time between SCFEs was 6.6 months for immature and 11.4 months for more mature patients (P=0.093). Southwick angles for immature patient first and second SCFEs were 25 and 12.9 degrees, respectively, and for more mature patient first and second SCFEs were 31 and 21 degrees, respectively. Southwick angles were higher at first and second slips in the more mature group, significant only at the second slip (P=0.032). SCFE severity at initial event was predictive of severity of second SCFE regardless of maturity (P=0.043). Regression analysis of slip severity against multiple patient factors demonstrated triradiate score was not a factor assessing subsequent SCFE magnitude (P=0.099). There was no significant difference between first and second SCFEs regardless of skeletal maturity but severity of initial SCFE did correlate with

  14. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Placement in a Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patient with a Bicornuate Uterus.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Ashley M; Crane, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face contraceptive challenges. Data are limited and conflicting on the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) in this patient population. A 32-year-old nulligravid woman with a history of breast cancer on tamoxifen presented with new-onset vaginal bleeding. Further workup revealed a previously undiagnosed bicornuate uterus. She underwent hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, and LNG-IUD placement in each uterine horn. Postoperative follow-up confirmed retention and proper placement of both IUDs. Pathology from the dilation and curettage was benign, and the abnormal uterine bleeding abated. LNG-IUD placement in a young patient with a personal history of breast cancer on tamoxifen and a bicornuate uterus is a safe and feasible alternative for contraception. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulp revascularization of immature teeth with apical periodontitis: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui Yu; Cheung, Gary Shun-pan; Chen, Jie; Yin, Xing Zhe; Wang, Qian Qian; Zhang, Cheng Fei

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure for immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twelve patients, each with an immature permanent tooth with chronic or acute apical periodontitis, were recruited. A triantibiotic mix (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline) was used to disinfect the pulp for 1 week. Then a blood clot was created in the canal, over which grey mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. Patients were recalled periodically. Six patients dropped from the study (as a result of pain or failure to induce bleeding after canal disinfection) and instead received a standard apexification procedure. Another 3 patients did not attend any recall appointments. The remaining teeth (n = 3) were found to exhibit complete root development, with a positive response to pulp testing. Revascularization could be effective for managing immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis with appropriate case selection.

  16. [Metamorphosis of the uterus from Hippocrates to Ambroise Pare].

    PubMed

    Dasen, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The treatise Des monstres et prodiges (1579, 1585) by Ambroise Paré includes a vignette depicting a monstrous embryo in the form of a human head surrounded by snakes. This picture belongs to the iconographic tradition relating to the Graeco-Roman mythology of sexuality and procreation. It derives from the belief in the womb's animal nature, illustrated on magic Graeco-Roman and Byzantine gemstones, where the uterus is shown in turn as a cupping vessel, a scarab-beetle, an octopus or the head of Gorgo.

  17. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing

    2006-04-01

    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  18. Revascularization for a necrotic immature permanent lateral incisor: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kottoor, Jojo; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2013-07-01

    Revascularization is a valuable treatment in immature necrotic teeth that allows the continuation of root development. This article describes the successful revascularization treatment of an immature maxillary lateral incisor that was initially diagnosed with apical periodontitis. The tooth was asymptomatic and functional clinically and radiographically during the follow-up period of 5 years. The follow-up showed evidence of progressive thickening of the dentinal walls, development of root length and apical closure. The article also discusses the currently available literature regarding revascularization of immature permanent teeth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  19. Successful use of balloon tamponade in the management of postpartum hemorrhage in a case of bicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Erum Saleem; Basharat, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide 50%-70% of all cases of maternal morbidity have been attributed to postpartum hemorrhage. This report discusses a case of bicornuate uterus in a term pregnancy. The delivery was by cesarean section, which was followed by massive postpartum hemorrhage, managed successfully with balloon tamponade. This is the second reported case of successful management of post partum hemorrhage in a bicornuate uterus with balloon tamponade. A 22-year-old primigravida at 39 weeks of gestational age presented with vaginal leaking of clear fluid. Cesarean section was done due to meconium stained liquor in early labor; with an incidental finding of bicornuate uterus followed by massive postpartum hemorrhage managed successfully with balloon tamponade. The use of uterine balloon tamponade as an effective method to control postpartum hemorrhage has been studied extensively, but use in cases of hemorrhage associated with uterine malformations has not been reported much in literature. Use of uterine balloon tamponade in case of uterine malformations has been highlighted in our case as an effective non-surgical method to control hemorrhage.

  20. Transient sex change in the immature Malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, androgen treatment.

    PubMed

    Murata, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Karimata, Hirofumi; Kishimoto, Kazuo; Kimura, Motofumi; Nakamura, Masaru

    2014-07-01

    To clarify the cause of sex change recovery after the withdrawal of androgen treatment, immature female Malabar grouper were fed a diet containing 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) at 50 μg/g for 7 mo and then a normal diet for 6 mo. The MT brought about precocious sex change from immature ovaries to mature testes with active spermatogenesis, including the development of spermatozoa, and sex change reversed soon after MT treatment withdrawal. This result indicates that precocious sex change in immature Malabar grouper with oral MT treatment is impermanent. The expression of three steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a, Cyp19a1a, and Cyp11b) in the gonads of the Malabar grouper were analyzed immunohistochemically at the end of the 7-mo treatment. No apparent differences were seen in the expression pattern of these enzymes between the mature testes of MT-treated fish and the immature ovaries of control fish. In addition, serum estradiol-17beta and 11-ketotestosterone levels in treated fish were the same as those in control fish. These results indicate that in the case of immature Malabar grouper MT might have little effect on endogenous steroidogenesis during precocious sex change even though it induced active spermatogenesis in the gonads of treated fish. From these results, we also concluded that MT might have little effect on the steroidogenic endocrine pathway, and this is one cause of sex change recovery after treatment withdrawal. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Mature and immature teratoma: A report from the second Italian pediatric study.

    PubMed

    Terenziani, Monica; D'Angelo, Paolo; Inserra, Alessandro; Boldrini, Renata; Bisogno, Gianni; Babbo, Gian Luca; Conte, Massimo; Dall' Igna, Patrizia; De Pasquale, Maria Debora; Indolfi, Paolo; Piva, Luigi; Riccipetitoni, Giovanna; Siracusa, Fortunato; Spreafico, Filippo; Tamaro, Paolo; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Teratomas demonstrate a benign clinical behavior, however they may recur with malignant components or as teratoma, and in a small group of patients prognosis could be fatal. After the first Italian study, we collected cases of teratoma, alongside the protocol for malignant germ cell tumors. Patients with teratoma were collected from 2004 to 2014. Teratomas were classified according to the WHO classifications, as mature and immature. Patients with pathological aFP and/or bHCG, and those with a malignant germ cell component were not included. The study enrolled 219 patients (150 mature, 69 immature teratomas) with a median age at diagnosis of 42 months. The primary sites involved were: 118 gonadal and 101 extragonadal teratomas. Two females with ovarian teratoma had a positive family history. Complete and incomplete surgeries were performed in 85% and 9% of cases. Seventeen events occurred: six females had a second metachronous tumor (5 contralateral ovarian teratoma, 1 adrenal neuroblastoma) and 11 teratomas relapsed/progressed (3 mature, 8 immature teratomas). Two patients died, one of progressive immature teratoma and one of surgical complications. At a median follow up of 68 months, the event-free, relapse-free, and overall survival rates were 90.6%, 94.3%, 98.6%, respectively. Teratomas show a good prognosis, especially the mature ones: surgery and follow-up remain the standard approach. Incomplete surgery in immature teratoma is the group at greatest risk of relapse. Bilateral ovarian tumors are a possibility, and the rare family predisposition to ovarian mature teratoma warrants further analyses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Attenuation of tachykinin-induced airflow obstruction and microvascular leakage in immature airways.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuyama, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Morikawa, A.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuroume, T.; Barnes, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. To study the effect of maturation on substance P (SP)- and neurokinin A (NKA)-induced airflow obstruction and airway microvascular leakage (MVL), we have measured changes in both lung resistance (RL) and extravasation of Evans blue dye in anaesthetized immature (aged 14 +/- 1 days) and adult guinea-pigs (aged 80 +/- 3 days). 2. RL and its recovery after hyperinflation at 5 min were measured for 6 min after i.v. SP (0.2, 1 and 30 nmol kg-1), NKA (1 and 10 nmol kg-1) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl). After measurement of RL, MVL in trachea, main bronchi and intrapulmonary airways was also examined. 3. The order of potency in inducing airflow obstruction did not change with age (NKA > SP) but immature animals required a larger dose of SP or NKA than adults to cause a significant increase in RL. 4. The order of potency in inducing airway microvascular leakage was SP > NKA in both immature and adult animals. The amount of extravasated dye after SP was significantly less in immature airways, especially in central airways. 5. Phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg-1), a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, significantly increased RL after 0.2 nmol kg-1 SP only in adult airways. Phosphoramidon enhanced the dye extravasation after 0.2 nmol kg-1 SP in both immature and adult airways with a significantly greater amount of dye in adult animals, suggesting that mechanisms other than changes in NEP activity may be responsible for this age-related difference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7679033

  3. Nootropic and antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) in immature rat pups.

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Molodavkin, G M; Borodavkina, M V; Kheyfets, I A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A

    2009-09-01

    The antiamnestic effects of tenoten (pediatric formulation) was demonstrated on the model of scopolamine-induced amnesia of passive avoidance reflex and the nootropic effect of this preparation was demonstrated on the model of incomplete conditioning and in rat pups with experimental attention deficit syndrome. The efficiency of the preparation was comparable to that of piracetam and phenibut and even surpassed it by some parameters.

  4. Catalog of known immature stages of Camptosomate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lack of syntheses of knowledge on immature stages of insects impedes accurate understanding of their diversity, biology and evolution. In Chrysomelidae, this information gap undermines basic explanations of this lineage’s radiation. Literature describing and discussing known immature stages of cas...

  5. HIV-1 maturation inhibitor bevirimat stabilizes the immature Gag lattice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Paul W; Adamson, Catherine S; Heymann, J Bernard; Freed, Eric O; Steven, Alasdair C

    2011-02-01

    Maturation of nascent virions, a key step in retroviral replication, involves cleavage of the Gag polyprotein by the viral protease into its matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) components and their subsequent reorganization. Bevirimat (BVM) defines a new class of antiviral drugs termed maturation inhibitors. BVM acts by blocking the final cleavage event in Gag processing, the separation of CA from its C-terminal spacer peptide 1 (SP1). Prior evidence suggests that BVM binds to Gag assembled in immature virions, preventing the protease from accessing the CA-SP1 cleavage site. To investigate this hypothesis, we used cryo-electron tomography to examine the structures of (noninfectious) HIV-1 viral particles isolated from BVM-treated cells. We find that these particles contain an incomplete shell of density underlying the viral envelope, with a hexagonal honeycomb structure similar to the Gag lattice of immature HIV but lacking the innermost, NC-related, layer. We conclude that the shell represents a remnant of the immature Gag lattice that has been processed, except at the CA-SP1 sites, but has remained largely intact. We also compared BVM-treated particles with virions formed by the mutant CA5, in which cleavage between CA and SP1 is also blocked. Here, we find a thinner CA-related shell with no visible evidence of honeycomb organization, indicative of an altered conformation and further suggesting that binding of BVM stabilizes the immature lattice. In both cases, the observed failure to assemble mature capsids correlates with the loss of infectivity.

  6. Description of the immature stages and redescription of the female of Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 (Acari: Ixodidae), an endemic tick species of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Onofrio, Valeria C; Faccini, João L H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Arruda-Santos, Ana D; Giacomin, Flávia G

    2007-11-01

    Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 is a tick endemic to Brazil, where nine species of Ixodes Latreille, 1796 are currently known to occur. Larvae, nymphs and females of I. schulzei were obtained from a laboratory colony originating from an engorged female collected on a free-living water rat Nectomys squamipes from the Santa Branca municipality, São Paulo State. Only female ticks were obtained from engorged nymphs. Unfed immature and female adult specimens were measured and the descriptions were based on optical and scanning electron microscopy, as were drawings of some features of the larva. Both immature stages present the very long palpi and basis capituli, and the female has large, contiguous porose areas. However, the basis capituli is triangular, with a slight central elevation in the larva and nymph, whereas in the female this area is depressed. The I. schulzei types deposited at the FIOCRUZ (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz) were also examined, as was other material from collections, such as the IBSP (Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan), CNC-FMVZ/USP (Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da USP) and USNTC (United States National Tick Collection). In addition, the relationship between I. schulzei and other immature neotropical species of Ixodes is discussed.

  7. [Effect of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Shao-Feng; Li, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Hui-Rong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2017-12-25

    To study effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in SD rats. Thirty SD rats weighted(110±10) and aged 1 month were randomly divided into control group and electromagnetic field group, 15 in each group. Normal control group of 50 Hz 0 mT density and sinusoidal electromagnetic field group of 50 Hz 1.8 mT were performed respectively with 1.5 h/d and weighted weight once a week, and observed food-intake. Rats were anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to detect bone density of whole body, and detected bone density of femur and vertebral body. Osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were detected by ELSA; weighted liver, kidney and uterus to calculate purtenance index, then detected pathologic results by HE. Compared with control group, there was no significant change in weight every week, food-intake every day; no obvious change of bone density of whole body at 2 and 4 weeks, however bone density of whole body, bone density of excised femur and vertebra were increased at 6 weeks. Expression of OC was increased, and TRACP 5b expression was decreased. No change of HE has been observed in liver, kidney and uterus and organic index. 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields could improve bone formation to decrease relevant factors of bone absorbs, to improve peak bone density of young rats, in further provide a basis for clinical research electromagnetic fields preventing osteoporosis foundation.

  8. Mechanical Characterization of Immature Porcine Brainstem in Tension at Dynamic Strain Rates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Li, Kui; Liao, Zhikang; Xiang, Hongyi; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-21

    Many brain injury cases involve pediatric road traffic accidents, and among these, brainstem injury causes disastrous outcomes. A thorough understanding of the tensile characterization of immature brainstem tissue is crucial in modeling traumatic brain injury sustained by children, but limited experimental data in tension is available for the immature brain tissue at dynamic strain rates. We harvested brainstem tissue from immature pigs (about 4 weeks old, and at a developmental stage similar to that of human toddlers) as a byproduct from a local slaughter house and very carefully prepared the samples. Tensile tests were performed on specimens at dynamic strain rates of 2/s, 20/s, and 100/s using a biological material instrument. The constitutive models, Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential function, for immature brainstem tissue material property were developed for the recorded experimental data using OriginPro 8.0 software. The t test was performed for infinitesimal shear modules. The curves of stress-versus-stretch ratio were convex in shape, and inflection points were found in all the test groups at the strain of about 2.5%. The average Lagrange stress of the immature brainstem specimen at the 30% strain at the strain rates of 2, 20, and 100/s was 273±114, 515±107, and 1121±197 Pa, respectively. The adjusted R-Square (R2) of Fung, Ogden, Gent, and exponential model was 0.820≤R2≤0.933, 0.774≤R2≤0.940, 0.650≤R2≤0.922, and 0.852≤R2≤0.981, respectively. The infinitesimal shear modulus of the strain energy functions showed a significant association with the strain rate (p<0.01). The immature brainstem is a rate-dependent material in dynamic tensile tests, and the tissue becomes stiffer with increased strain rate. The reported results may be useful in the study of brain injuries in children who sustain injuries in road traffic accidents. Further research in more detail should be performed in the future.

  9. Recognition of Immaturity and Emotional Expressions in Blended Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of facial immaturity and emotional expression by children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and non-disabled controls was studied in two experiments. Children identified immaturity and expression in upright and inverted faces. The autism group identified fewer immature faces and expressions than control (Exp. 1 &…

  10. UV-fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bidyut B.; Glassman, Wenling S.; Alfano, Robert R.; Cleary, Joseph; Prudente, R.; Celmer, Edward J.; Lubicz, Stephanie

    1991-06-01

    Malignant breast tumors can be separated from benign and normal tissues using uv-fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Using the same method one can also distinguish cancerous tissues from noncancerous ones in case of cervix, uterus and ovary.

  11. Intrauterine proximity to male fetuses affects the morphology of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pei, Minjuan; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies on polytocous rodents have revealed that the fetal intrauterine position influences its later anatomy, physiology, reproductive performance and behavior. To investigate whether the position of a fetus in the uterus modifies the development of the brain, we examined whether the structure of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of rat brains accorded to their intrauterine positions. Brain sections of adult rats gestated between two male fetuses (2M) and between two female fetuses (2F) in the uterus were analysed for their immunoreactivity to calbindin-D28k, which is a marker of the SDN-POA. The SDN-POA volume of the 2M adult males was greater than that of the 2F adult males, whereas the SDN-POA volume of the 2M and 2F adult females showed no significant difference. This result indicated that contiguous male fetuses have a masculinizing effect on the SDN-POA volume of the male. To further examine whether the increment of SDN-POA volume in adulthood was due to exposure to elevated steroid hormones during fetal life, concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in the brain were measured with 2M and 2F fetuses during gestation, respectively. On gestation day 21, the concentrations of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in the brain were significantly higher in the 2M male rats as compared with the 2F male rats. The results suggested that there was a relationship between the fetal intrauterine position, hormone transfer from adjacent fetuses and the SDN-POA volume in adult rat brains.

  12. Down-regulation of anandamide hydrolase in mouse uterus by sex hormones.

    PubMed

    MacCarrone, M; De Felici, M; Bari, M; Klinger, F; Siracusa, G; Finazzi-Agrò, A

    2000-05-01

    Endocannabinoids are an emerging class of lipid mediators, which mimic several effects of cannabinoids. Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide) is a major endocannabinoid, which has been shown to impair pregnancy and embryo development. The activity of anandamide is controlled by cellular uptake through a specific transporter and intracellular degradation by the enzyme anandamide hydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH). We characterized FAAH in mouse uterus by radiochromatographic and immunochemical techniques, showing that the enzyme is confined to the epithelium and its activity decreases appreciably during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy because of lower gene expression at the translational level. Ovariectomy prevented the decrease in FAAH, and both progesterone and estrogen further reduced its basal levels, suggesting hormonal control of the enzyme. Anandamide was shown to induce programmed cell death in mouse blastocysts, through a pathway independent of type-1 cannabinoid receptor. Blastocysts, however, have a specific anandamide transporter and FAAH, which scavenge this lipid. Taken together, these results provide evidence of an interplay between endocannabinoids and sex hormones in pregnancy. These findings may also be relevant for human fertility, as epithelial cells from healthy human uterus showed FAAH activity and expression, which in adenocarcinoma cells was increased fivefold.

  13. Small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Nkor, S K; Igberase, G O; Osime, O C; Faleyimu, B L; Babalola, R

    2009-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is an important contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. To present a case of small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at induced abortion. A 36-year-old woman, presented at a private hospital, with abdominal pain and weight loss. She had full clinical assessment and laboratory investigations which indicated small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at induced abortion, and was commenced on treatment. She was para 5+0. Her main complaints were abdominal and weight loss following induced abortion of a 12- week pregnancy, four months prior to presentation. At presentation the tools (ultrasound scan, plain abdominal radiograph and barium enema) used for diagnoses only suggested some form of intestinal obstruction and were unremarkable. Correct diagnoses indicating small bowel obstruction was only made at laparotomy. An exploratory laparotomy, adhesiolysis, small bowel resection, end to end anastomosis and bowel decompression was done after bowel preparation. Laparotomy has an enviable place in bowel injuries secondary to uterine perforation especially when there is a diagnostic dilemma. Nigerian female population requires continuous health education on widespread and effective use of contraception. Physicians need training and retraining on abortion techniques and management of abortion complications.

  14. Specific roles of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I in photosynthetic regulation in immature and mature leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I (PSI) is essential for photosynthesis in mature leaves. However, the physiological roles of CEF in immature leaves are little known. Here, we measured the PSI and PSII activities, light response changes in PSI and PSII energy quenching for immature and mature leaves of Erythrophleum guineense grown under full sunlight. Comparing with the maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v /F m ), the immature leaves had much lower values of the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (P m ) than the mature leaves, suggesting the unsynchronized development of PSI and PSII activities. Furthermore, the immature leaves displayed significantly lower capacities for the photosynthetic electron flow through PSII (ETRII) and CEF. However, when exposed to high light, the immature leaves displayed higher levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and P700 oxidation ration [Y(ND)] than mature leaves. Under high light, the similar NPQ values were accompanied with much lower CEF activity in the immature leaves. These results suggest that, in immature leaves, CEF primarily contributes to photoprotection for PSI and PSII via acidification of thylakoid lumen. By comparison, in mature leaves, a large fraction of CEF-dependent generation of ΔpH contributes to ATP synthesis and a relative small proportion favors photoprotection via lumen acidification. These findings highlight the specific roles of CEF in photosynthetic regulation in immature and mature leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Sonographic findings of early pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus: A two case report.

    PubMed

    Dove, Christine K; Harvey, Sara M; Spalluto, Lucy B

    Congenital uterine anomalies have a profound impact on reproductive outcomes. The unicornuate uterus accounts for approximately 20% of all congenital uterine anomalies. Unicornuate uterine anomalies with non-communicating rudimentary horns are at risk of developing ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn. Given increased risked of uterine rupture, rudimentary horn pregnancies pose significant maternal health risks. Understanding the sonographic appearance of early pregnancy within the rudimentary horn of the unicornuate uterine configuration is imperative for appropriate and timely clinical management. We present two cases of pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus diagnosed sonographically in the first trimester. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Glucocorticoid Signaling Enhances Expression of Glucose-Sensing Molecules in Immature Pancreatic Beta-Like Cells Derived from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghazalli, Nadiah; Wu, Xiaoxing; Walker, Stephanie; Trieu, Nancy; Hsin, Li-Yu; Choe, Justin; Chen, Chialin; Hsu, Jasper; LeBon, Jeanne; Kozlowski, Mark T; Rawson, Jeffrey; Tirrell, David A; Yip, M L Richard; Ku, Hsun Teresa

    2018-06-06

    Pluripotent stem cells may serve as an alternative source of beta-like cells for replacement therapy of type 1 diabetes; however, the beta-like cells generated in many differentiation protocols are immature. The maturation of endogenous beta cells involves an increase in insulin expression starting in late gestation and a gradual acquisition of the abilities to sense glucose and secrete insulin by week 2 after birth in mice; however, what molecules regulate these maturation processes are incompletely known. In this study, we aim to identify small molecules that affect immature beta cells. A cell-based assay, using pancreatic beta-like cells derived from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells harboring a transgene containing an insulin 1-promoter driven enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter, was used to screen a compound library (NIH Clinical Collection-003). Cortisone, a glucocorticoid, was among five positive hit compounds. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that glucocorticoids enhance the gene expression of not only insulin 1 but also glucose transporter-2 (Glut2; Slc2a2) and glucokinase (Gck), two molecules important for glucose sensing. Mifepristone, a pharmacological inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, reduced the effects of glucocorticoids on Glut2 and Gck expression. The effects of glucocorticoids on ES-derived cells were further validated in immature primary islets. Isolated islets from 1-week-old mice had an increased Glut2 and Gck expression in response to a 4-day treatment of exogenous hydrocortisone in vitro. Gene deletion of GR in beta cells using rat insulin 2 promoter-driven Cre crossed with GR flox/flox mice resulted in a reduced gene expression of Glut2, but not Gck, and an abrogation of insulin secretion when islets were incubated in 0.5 mM d-glucose and stimulated by 17 mM d-glucose in vitro. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids positively regulate glucose sensors in

  17. Production of functional sperm by subcutaneous auto-grafting of immature testes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Makoto; Sakuma, Daika; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2018-02-01

    Sexually mature individuals are indispensable for breeding programs. Salmonids require a long period before reaching sexual maturity, so we aimed to shorten the period required to obtain functional sperm by grafting immature testicular fragments into mature recipients, which we predicted would allow the grafted testicular fragments to skip the long pre-pubertal period. First, we demonstrated successful subcutaneous auto-grafting of testicular fragments in rainbow trout. Unilateral testectomy was performed, and the isolated immature testicular fragment was auto-grafted into the subcutaneous space along the back of recipient fish. The grafted testicular fragments developed synchronously with the recipients' testis remaining in its body cavity, and both eventually produced functional sperm. Next, immature testicular fragments were auto-grafted into the subcutaneous space of sexually mature males. We achieved this, without immune rejection, by isolating and cryopreserving testes from immature fish, and rearing these unilaterally testectomized fish until sexual maturity. The cryopreserved testes were then auto-grafted into the original, now spermiating fish. The grated immature testicular fragments differentiated and produced functional sperm within 5 months after grafting. By combining this grafting method with a technique to avoid immune rejection, we expect to develop a practical method for producing sperm in a shorter period in salmonids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antagonistic activity of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on mature and immature Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Maciel, A S; Freitas, L G; Figueiredo, L D; Campos, A K; Mello, I N K

    2012-07-01

    In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the ability of 6 isolates of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia to infect immature and mature Toxocara canis eggs on cellulose dialysis membrane. There was a direct relationship between the number of eggs colonized and the increase in the days of interaction, as well as between the number of eggs colonized and the increase in the concentration of chlamydospores (P<0.05). Immature eggs were more susceptible to infection than mature eggs. The isolate Pc-04 was the most efficient egg parasite until the 7th day, and showed no difference in capacity to infect mature and immature eggs in comparison to Pc-07 at 14 and 21 days of interaction, respectively. Isolate Pc-04 was the most infective on the two evolutionary phases of the eggs at most concentrations, but its ability to infect immature eggs did not differ from that presented by the isolates Pc-07 and Pc-10 at the inoculum level of 5000 chlamydospores. Colonization of infective larvae inside or outside the egg was observed in treatments with the isolates Pc-03, Pc-04, Pc-07 and Pc-10. The isolate Pc-04 of P. chlamydosporia has great biological capacity to destroy immature and mature T. canis eggs in laboratory conditions.

  19. Delayed preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists in a rat model of perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Dorota; Sulejczak, Dorota; Duszczyk, Małgorzata; Małek, Michał; Słomka, Marta; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments have demonstrated that preconditioning primary neuronal cultures by temporary application of NMDA receptor antagonists induces long-term tolerance against lethal insults. In the present study we tested whether similar effects also occur in brain submitted to ischemia in vivo and whether the potential benefit outweighs the danger of enhancing the constitutive apoptosis in the developing brain. Memantine in pharmacologically relevant doses of 5 mg/kg or (+)MK-801 (3 mg/kg) was administered i.p. 24, 48, 72 and 96 h before 3-min global forebrain ischemia in adult Mongolian gerbils or prior to hypoxia/ischemia in 7-day-old rats. Neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 in gerbils or weight deficit of the ischemic hemispheres in the rat pups was evaluated after 14 days. Also, the number of apoptotic neurons in the immature rat brain was evaluated. In gerbils only the application of (+)MK-801 24 h before ischemia resulted in significant prevention of the loss of pyramidal neurons. In rat pups administration of (+)MK-801 at all studied times before hypoxia-ischemia, or pretreatment with memantine or with hypoxia taken as a positive control 48 to 92 h before the insult, significantly reduced brain damage. Both NMDA receptor antagonists equally reduced the number of apoptotic neurons after hypoxia-ischemia, while (+)MK-801-evoked potentiation of constitutive apoptosis greatly exceeded the effect of memantine. We ascribe neuroprotection induced in the immature rats by the pretreatment with both NMDA receptor antagonists 48 to 92 h before hypoxia-ischemia to tolerance evoked by preconditioning, while the neuroprotective effect of (+)MK-801 applied 24 h before the insults may be attributed to direct consequences of the inhibition of NMDA receptors. This is the first report demonstrating the phenomenon of inducing tolerance against hypoxia-ischemia in vivo in developing rat brain by preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists.

  20. Enhanced regeneration potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells from immature teeth.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, H; Iohara, K; Hayashi, Y; Okuwa, Y; Kurita, K; Nakashima, M

    2017-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from mature teeth by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced mobilization method can enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and improve pulp regeneration when compared with colony-derived DPSCs. However, the efficacy of this method in immature teeth with root-formative stage has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stemness, biological characteristics, and regeneration potential in mobilized DPSCs compared with colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. Mobilized DPSCs isolated from immature teeth were compared to colony-derived DPSCs using methods including flow cytometry, migration assays, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factor, and induced differentiation assays. They were also compared in trophic effects of the secretome. Regeneration potential was further compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Mobilized DPSCs had higher migration ability and expressed more angiogenic/neurotrophic factors than DPSCs. The mobilized DPSC secretome produced a higher stimulatory effect on migration, immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, endothelial differentiation, and neurite extension. In addition, vascularization and pulp regeneration potential were higher in mobilized DPSCs than in DPSCs. G-CSF-induced mobilization method enhances regeneration potential of colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Remote sensing studies of immature soils on the Moon (Reiner-gamma formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.

    1993-01-01

    On the base of laboratory results and telescopic data it is shown that the spectropolarization ratio P(sub max(sup B))/P(sub max(sup R)) for blue and red spectral regions is a remote sensing parameter of lunar soil maturity. It correlates with value of maturity index derived from morphological or ferromagnetic methods of exposure age determination. This parameter is equal to 0.315 for Reiner-gamma formation. So Reiner-gamma area is covered by immature soil. An extensive spectral mapping of the Reiner-gamma formation with high spatial resolution (0.2 km/pixel) was produced. This result was obtained at the 2-meter aperture telescope of Pic-du-Midi (France). The data sets consist in repeated runs comprising 10 selected narrow-band images (from 0.4 to 1.05 micron). The analysis of these data suggests that such a type of immature material includes not more than 28% of agglutinattes. We find the model grain size of fine fraction to be 40 micrometers grain size, of more immature soil 400-500 micrometers, and of the formation soil 120-150 micrometers. The exposure age of the Reiner-gamma immature soil is equal about 10 x 10(exp 6) years.

  2. Improvement of neurological disorders in postmenopausal model rats by administration of royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Minami, A; Matsushita, H; Ieno, D; Matsuda, Y; Horii, Y; Ishii, A; Takahashi, T; Kanazawa, H; Wakatsuki, A; Suzuki, T

    2016-12-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to a high risk of memory impairment and depression as well as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. We here investigated the effect of RJ on memory impairment and depression-like behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were administered with RJ for 82 days. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and depression-like behaviors were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the forced swimming test, respectively. The weights of body, brain and uterus and the contents of protein and myelin galactolipids including galactosylceramide and sulfatide were measured. Memory impairment and depression-like behaviors in OVX rats were recovered to the levels of sham-operated rats by RJ administration. Increased body weight and decreased uterine weight in OVX rats were recovered to the levels of sham-operated rats by 17β-estradiol (E2) administration but not by RJ administration. In contrast, brain weight was slightly increased by RJ administration but not by E2 administration. The contents of protein and myelin galactolipids were higher in the brains of RJ-administered OVX rats than in the brains of E2-administered OVX rats. The results suggest that RJ has a beneficial effect on neurological symptoms of a menopausal disorder.

  3. [Risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji-shun; Pan, Fei-xia; He, Sai-nan; Hu, Wen-sheng

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa. Clinical data of 24 pregnant women of second and third trimester with a scarred uterus and placenta previa,who requested termination in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 2009 to June 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. The method of mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate was adopted for all cases. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate and uterine artery embolization were routinely given for patients with complete placenta previa. Cesarean section was performed for patients who failed to delivery or underwent massive vaginal bleeding before delivery. Age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity, times of previous cesarean section, the interval from previous operation, the position and the type of placenta previa, placenta accretet, the indication and method of termination, postpartum hemorrhage, successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and uterus rupture were documented. The successful rate of labor induction was 83.3%. The analysis showed that age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity and times of previous cesarean section were not risk factors for failed labor induction, however the interval time from previous operation was related to induction failure (P<0.05). Patients with previous cesarean section ≥ 13 years were more likely to require cesarean section than those <13 years (P<0.05). The placenta adhered to the antetheca of the uterus or placenta accrete increased risk to have cesarean section. There were no significant differences in postpartum hemorrhage, the successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and the rate of uterine rupture between patients with uterine artery embolization and those without. The labor induction would be feasible for women with a scarred uterus and placenta previa in second and third-trimester pregnancy

  4. Experimental characterization of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuji; Toujima, Saori; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Yukawa, Kazunori; Umesaki, Naohiko

    2008-07-01

    Minimal optimal surgery without chemotherapy is often performed for patients with ovarian immature teratoma, which frequently occurs in young women who hope for future pregnancies. If tumors recur after the operation, anticancer drug chemotherapy is often administered, although few studies have highlighted differences between the recurrent and the primary tumor cells. Therefore, we have established experimental animal models of recurrent ovarian immature teratoma cells after optimal surgery and characterized the anticancer drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the recurrent tumors. Surgically-excised tumor cells of a grade II ovarian immature teratoma were cultured in vitro and transplanted into nude mice to establish stable cell lines. Differential drug sensitivity and antigenicity of the tumor cells were compared between the primary and the nude mouse tumors. Nude mouse tumor cells showed a normal 46XX karyotype. Cultured primary cells showed a remarkably high sensitivity to paclitaxel, docetaxel, adriamycin and pirarubicin, compared to peritoneal cancer cells obtained from a patient with ovarian adenocarcinomatous peritonitis. The drug sensitivity of teratoma cells to 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin or peplomycin was also significantly higher. However, there was no significant difference in sensitivity to platinum drugs between the primary teratoma and the peritoneal adenocarcinoma cells. As for nude mouse tumor cells, sensitivity to 12 anticancer drugs was significantly lower than that of the primary tumor cells, while there was little difference in sensitivity to carboplatin or peplomycin between the primary and nude mouse tumor cells. Flow cytometry showed that the expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA) significantly decreased in nude mouse tumor cells when compared to cultured primary cells. In conclusion, ovarian immature teratomas with normal karyotypes have a malignant potential to recur after minimal surgery. During nude mouse transplantation, SMA

  5. Dental Pulp Revascularization of Necrotic Permanent Teeth with Immature Apices.

    PubMed

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Farsi, Najat M; Abuzeid, Sawsan T; El Ashiry, Mohamed M; Bahammam, Hammam A

    The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis presents challenges in endodontic and pediatric dentistry. Revascularization is a recent treatment for such cases as an alternative to conventional apexification. The purpose is to examine the effect of a pulpal revascularization procedure on immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty patients were enrolled for pulp revascularization procedure by root canal disinfection using a triple antibiotic mixture for 1-2 weeks, followed by creating a blood clot, sealing the root canal orifice using white mineral trioxide aggregate and a coronal seal of composite resin. Patients were recalled periodically for up to 24 months. During follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. Three cases of chronic apical periodontitis showed clinical disappearance of the sinus tract 2 weeks after treatment. Radiography revealed progressive periapical radiolucency resolution within the first 12 months. Within 12-24 months, the treated teeth showed progressive increases in dentinal wall thickness, root length and continued root development. Clinical and radiographic evidence showed successful revascularization treatments of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. More studies are necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms and to perform histopathology of the pulp space contents after revascularization procedures.

  6. Toxic effects of theobromine on mature and immature male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Soffietti, M G; Nebbia, C; Valenza, F; Amedeo, S; Re, G

    1989-01-01

    Mature and immature male rabbits were fed for 120 and 20 days, respectively, a commercial diet containing theobromine in amounts of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 per cent. Clinical, haematological, histopathological and histoenzymological examinations were performed. Mortality, which appeared dose- and time-related, was severe and rapid, mostly in the 1 and 1.5 per cent groups and was attributed to cardiac failure. Theobromine administration resulted in marked changes in thymus and testes and the severity of lesions appeared to be related to the amounts of the ingested methylxanthine. The earliest thymic alterations in immature rabbits consisted of a blurring of demarcation between cortex and medulla accompanied, in the more advanced stages, by a decreased lymphocyte density. Similar lesions were observed in mature animals which had died in the earlier phase of the study. Testicular alterations ranged from vacuolation of spermatids and spermatocytes to multinucleated cell formation and oligospermia or aspermia with extensive degeneration of tubule cells. Some necrotic and post-necrotic myocardial foci were also recorded. The increase in testicular activity of beta-glucuronidase in immature rabbits compared to the untreated animals provided further evidence of an early theobromine-induced damage of the testes.

  7. Cigarette Smoke Inhibits Recruitment of Bone-Marrow-Derived Stem cells to The Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuping; Gan, Ye; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to female infertility and a decreased incidence of endometriosis. Bone marrow derived stem cells are recruited to uterine endometrium and endometriosis. The effect of cigarette smoking on stem cell recruitment to any organ is uncharacterized. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to the uterus and differentiation would be diminished by cigarette smoke. We used human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in vitro and a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure. After myeloablation female C57BL/6J received bone marrow cells from males. Mice were exposed to room air or smoke from unfiltered cigarettes. Immunofluorescence and Y-FISH was performed on uterine sections. In vitro hMSCs were treated with 8-Br-cAMP to induce endometrial cell differentiation with or without cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and decidualization assessed morphologically and by prolactin expression. After 4 weeks the total number of Y-chromosome cells in the uterus was reduced by 68% in the smoke exposed mice. Both leukocytes and bone marrow derived endometrial cells were reduced by 60% and 73%, respectively. Differentiation of bone marrow derived cell to endometrial epithelial cells was reduced by 84%. hMSC treated with CSE failed to show cytological characteristics of decidualization. mRNA levels of the decidualization marker prolactin were decreased by 90% in CSE treated cells. Smoking inhibits both recruitment of bone marrow derived stem cells to uterus and stem cell differentiation. Inhibition of stem cells recruitment may be a general mechanism by which smoking leads to long term organ damage through inability to repair or regenerate multiple tissues. PMID:20955787

  8. A Substance Exchanger-Based Bioreactor Culture of Pig Discs for Studying the Immature Nucleus Pulposus.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Gan, Yibo; Wang, Haoming; Xu, Yuan; Song, Lei; Wang, Liyuan; Ouyang, Bin; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Various research models have been developed to study the biology of disc cells. Recently, the adult disc nucleus pulposus (NP) has been well studied. However, the immature NP is underinvestigated due to a lack of a suitable model. This study aimed to establish an organ culture of immature porcine disc by optimizing culture conditions and using a self-developed substance exchanger-based bioreactor. Immature porcine discs were first cultured in the bioreactor for 7 days at various levels of glucose (low, medium, high), osmolarity (hypo-, iso-, hyper-) and serum (5, 10, 20%) to determine the respective optimal level. The porcine discs were then cultured under the optimized conditions in the novel bioreactor, and were compared with fresh discs at day 14. For high-glucose, iso-osmolarity, or 10% serum, cell viability, the gene expression profile (for anabolic genes and catabolic genes), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and hydroxyproline (HYP) contents were more favorable than for other levels of glucose, osmolarity, and serum. When the immature discs were cultured under the optimized conditions using the novel bioreactor for 14 days, the viability of the immature NP was maintained based on histology, cell viability, GAG and HYP contents, and matrix molecule expression. In conclusion, the viability of the immature NP in organ culture could be maintained under the optimized culture conditions (high-glucose, iso-osmolarity, and 10% serum) in the substance exchanger-based bioreactor. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis phytoestrogen on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Wang, Zhen-lin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue

    2014-12-13

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant chemicals belonging to the "phytoestrogen" class. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of isoflavones obtained from Cordyceps sinensis (CSIF) on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. After the rats were treated orally with CSIF, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol and interferonγ (IFN-γ) level were examined. At the same time, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus and the mass of uterus, thymus and body were also examined. The beneficial effects of CSIF on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSIF also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary CSIF can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. The significant estrogenic activity of CSIF demonstrated that CSIF has significant estrogenic effects in OVX rats.

  10. [Twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn].

    PubMed

    Ejnès, L; Desprez, B; Bongain, A; Gillet, J Y

    2003-01-01

    We describe the case of a rudimentary horn pregnancy coexistent with an intrauterine pregnancy. This situation is usually associated with rupture of the rudimentary horn and death of the correspondent twin. This is the first report on a multiple gestation with the two siblings successfully delivered by caesarean section in the two horns of a unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn before any complication. Since the maternal mortality is higher in this situation, early ultrasound diagnosis is important to make the right decisions.

  11. Intramedullary spinal immature teratoma: resolution of quadriplegia following resection in a 4-week-old infant.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Chambless, Lola B; Carson, Robert P; Coffin, Cheryl M; Pearson, Matthew M; Abel, Ty W

    2010-12-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord teratomas are rare entities in infants. Management of these lesions is primarily surgical, with outcome dependent on rapid surgical decompression and complete gross-total tumor resection. The lesions are typically of the mature type, with immature teratomas displaying unique pathological features. The authors report a case of an extensive intramedullary immature teratoma in an infant with resolution of quadriplegia following gross-total radical resection. At the 1-year follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of tumor, and surgical reexploration yielded portions of immature teratoma and extensive gliosis.

  12. Preventive dietary potassium supplementation in young salt-sensitive Dahl rats attenuates development of salt hypertension by decreasing sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Behuliak, M; Kuneš, J; Vaněčková, I

    2011-05-01

    Increased potassium intake attenuates the development of salt-dependent hypertension, but the detailed mechanisms of blood pressure (BP) reduction are still unclear. The aims of our study were (i) to elucidate these mechanisms, (ii) to compare preventive potassium effects in immature and adult animals and (iii) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of dietary potassium supplementation in rats with established salt hypertension.   Young (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) female salt-sensitive Dahl rats were fed a high-salt diet (5% NaCl) or a high-salt diet supplemented with 3% KCl for 5 weeks. The participation of vasoconstrictor (renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems) and vasodilator systems [prostanoids, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels, nitric oxide (NO)] was evaluated using a sequential blockade of these systems. Preventive potassium supplementation attenuated the development of severe salt hypertension in young rats, whereas it had no effects on BP in adult rats with moderate hypertension. Enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction was responsible for salt hypertension in young rats and its attenuation for potassium-induced BP reduction. Conversely, neither salt hypertension nor its potassium-induced attenuation were associated with significant changes of the vasodilator systems studied. The relative deficiency of vasodilator action of NO and Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels in salt hypertensive Dahl rats was not improved by potassium supplementation. The attenuation of enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction is the principal mechanism of antihypertensive action exerted by preventive potassium supplementation in immature Dahl rats. Dietary potassium supplementation has no preventive effects on BP in adult salt-loaded animals or no therapeutic effects on established salt hypertension in young rats. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine protects both mature and immature brain.

    PubMed

    Maurois, Pierre; Rocchi, Stéphane; Pages, Nicole; Bac, Pierre; Stables, James P; Gressens, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    (N-[9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl]-)-L-leucine (FMOC-L-leucine) and rosiglitazone, two ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), were evaluated in mature (adult mice) and immature (pups) brain injury models. In adult magnesium-deficient mice, a model responsive to both neuroprotective and anti-seizure compounds, FMOC-L-leucine, but not rosiglitazone, protected against audiogenic seizures. The protection afforded by FMOC-L-leucine was alleviated by the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 (1-2 mg/kg) and was induced in 50% animals by 4.8+/-1.2 mg/kg. At this dose, FMOC-L-leucine modified audiogenic seizure phase durations in convulsing mice differently than prototype antiepileptic drugs did. FMOC-L-leucine (up to 100 mg/kg) was inactive in the 6 Hz seizure test, an adult animal model largely responsive to anti-seizure drugs. In a model of neonatal brain injury, FMOC-L-leucine (4 microg/kg) was neuroprotective against cerebral ibotenate toxicity. It reduced significantly the size of lesions in grey but not in white matter, while rosiglitazone (10 microg/kg) was inactive. Taken as a whole, the present data support neuroprotective potentialities of FMOC-L-leucine towards both mature and immature brain. The PPAR-based protection of immature brain is more important as it is known that classic adult brain protectants (GABA(A) activators, N-methyl-D-aspartate and sodium channel blockers) may be toxic for immature brain. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine is likely to be devoid of these classic protective mechanisms because of its inactivity in the 6 Hz seizure test, its activity in the audiogenic test being explained by neuroprotective rather than intrinsic anti-seizure mechanisms. Targeting PPARs might be thus a promising way to protect immature brain.

  14. Coadministration of puerarin (low dose) and zinc attenuates bone loss and suppresses bone marrow adiposity in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wei; Ge, Xiyuan; Jia, Shengnan; Li, Binbin

    2016-12-01

    Puerarin is a phytoestrogen that shows osteogenic effects. Meanwhile, zinc stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption. The study aims to investigate the effects of coadministration of puerarin (low dose) and zinc on bone formation in ovariectomized rats. Co-administration or use alone of puerarin (low dose) and/or zinc were gavaged in OVX rats. The estrogen-like effects were detected by the uterus weight, the histologic observation and the IGF-1 protein expression. The osteogenic effects were determined by bone histomorphometric and mechanical parameters, osteogenic and adipogenic blood markers, and so on. The results showed that oral administration of puerarin (low dose) plus zinc didn't significantly increase uterus weight. The glandular epithelial of endometrium had no proliferation and no protein expression of IGF-1. Moreover, co-administration attenuated bone loss and biomechanical decrease more than single use of puerarin or zinc (p<0.05). Next, combined administration of puerarin and zinc promoted the serological level of osteocalcin, bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) proliferation, and the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and suppressed the serological level of adiponectin and adiposity in bone marrow (BM). In conclusion, co-administrated puerarin (low dose) and zinc can partially reverse OVX-induced bone loss and suppress the adiposity of BM in rats, which shed light on the potential use of puerarin and zinc in the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  16. Mesocyclops longisetus effects on survivorship of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Ibáñez-Bernal, S; Delfín-González, H; Parra Tabla, V

    1998-10-01

    The effect of the introduction of the entomophagous copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Acuacultura F.C.B. strain) on the survival of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres was evaluated under semi-natural conditions in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Life tables were constructed for the immature stages of the mosquito in the presence and absence of M. longisetus, and the survival data were compared using log-linear models. The data set was adjusted using the GLIM statistical package and the quality of adjustment was evaluated with a chi-squared test. Survivorship curves were constructed for each treatment. In the absence of M. longisetus, the survivorship of Ae. aegypti immature stages averaged 9%. The highest mortality rate was observed during the fourth larval instar (54%) and the resulting survival pattern corresponded to a type II survivorship curve. The mortality rate of Ae. aegypti first-instar larvae (fifty per tyre) increased more than 200-fold in the presence of M. longisetus (twenty per tyre) and the highest mortality was during the first two larval instars, where it reached 98.9%, with a resulting survivorship of 0.2%. Overall mortality was sixfold greater in the presence of the copepod than in its absence. The survival pattern of immature stages of Ae. aegypti in the presence of the copepod corresponded to a type III survivorship curve. As M. longisetus was so effective against Ae. aegypti immature stages in tyres under seminatural conditions, its long-term effectiveness should be evaluated under socially and ecologically realistic field conditions in Mexico.

  17. Fine structure of uterus and non-functioning paruterine organ in Orthoskrjabinia junlanae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    PubMed

    Korneva, Janetta V; Kornienko, Svetlana A; Jones, Malcolm K

    2016-06-01

    Some cyclophyllidean cestodes provide protection for their eggs in the external environment by providing them with additional protective layers around the egg membranes. In attempting to examine such adaptations, the microanatomy and fine structure of the uterus of pregravid and gravid proglottids of the cyclophyllidean cestode Orthoskrjabinia junlanae, a parasite of mammals that inhabit a terrestrial but moist environment, were studied. In the initial stages of uterine development, developing embryos locate freely in the lumen of a saccate uterus that later partitions into chambers. Each chamber that forms encloses several embryos. The chambers are surrounded by muscle cells that synthesize extracellular matrix actively. The paruterine organs consist of stacks of flattened long outgrowths of muscular cells, interspersed with small lipid droplets. In the gravid proglottids, the size of paruterine organ increases and consists of flattened basal and small rounded apical parts separated by constrictions. The fine structure of the organ wall remains the same: sparse nuclei and stacks of flattened cytoplasmic outgrowths but internal invaginations or lumen in the paruterine organ are absent. Completely developed eggs remain localized in the uterus. Based on the comparative morpho-functional analysis of uterine and paruterine organs and uterine capsules in cestodes, we conclude that these non-functioning paruterine organ in O. junlanae is an example of an atavism. We postulate that the life cycle of the parasite, which infects mammals living in wet habitats, where threats of desiccation of parasite ova is reduced, has favoured a reversion to a more ancestral form of uterine development.

  18. The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees on pelvic inflammatory disease in rats through down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Xiao, Zuoqi; Wen, Xiaoke; Luo, Jieying; Chen, Shuqiong; Cheng, Zeneng; Xiang, Daxiong; Hu, Jian; He, Jingyu

    2016-11-25

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (APN), a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. Thirty-six female specific pathogen-free SD rats were randomly divided into control group, PID group, APN1 group, APN2 group, APN3 group and prednisone group. Pathogen-induced PID rats were constructed. The APN1, APN2 and APN3 group rats were orally administrated with APN extract at different levels. The prednisone group rats were administrated with prednisone. Eight days after the first infection, the histological examination of upper genital tract was carried out, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out using homogenate of the uterus and fallopian tube. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluations of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α in uterus was conducted. APN obviously suppressed the infiltrations of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and it could significantly reduce the excessive production of cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, APN could block the pathogen-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. APN showed potent anti-inflammatory effect on pathogen-induced PID in rats, with a potential mechanism of inhibiting the NF-κB signal pathway.

  19. Aquatic larval immatures of two acentropines, Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) and Oxyelophila callista (Forbes) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyraloid moths in the subfamily Acentropinae have immatures that are aquatic, that is, they live and breathe underwater during all or part of their immature developmental stages. We discovered and describe the previously unknown larvae of Usingeriessa onyxalis (Hampson) (Crambidae) reared on Hygroph...

  20. Mature and immature pediatric head and neck teratomas: A 15-year review at a large tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Harish; Rouillard-Bazinet, Noémie; Chandy, Binoy M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric head and neck teratomas account for less than 4% of congenital teratomas. The distinct presentations and outcomes of mature and immature head and neck teratomas have not been well established. To review the management and outcomes of pediatric head and neck teratomas. To distinguish differences between mature and immature tumors with respect to the age at presentation and surgery, tumor size and location, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels, airway management, and recurrence. A 15-year retrospective chart review of patients treated for head and neck teratomas at Texas Children's Hospital was performed. A total of 20 patients were included. Wilcoxon rank and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Immature teratomas were associated with both higher AFP levels (80800 ng/ml, p = 0.02) and maximum tumor dimensions (14.4 cm, p = 0.0034) than mature teratomas (24400 ng/ml and 6.44 cm). Patients with immature tumors were younger at the time of surgical resection (19.8 days, p = 0.025) compared to those with mature tumors (348 days). 89% of immature teratomas involved anterior neck localization compared to 27% for mature teratomas (p = 0.0098); 88% of the immature teratomas required an EXIT (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) procedure compared with 40% of the mature teratomas (p = 0.0656). Recurrence was noted in only two cases: an immature teratoma 51 months after incomplete resection and a mature teratoma 33 months after complete resection. Long-term consequences of surgical resection included cleft palate (38.9%), dysphagia (33.3%), facial nerve paresis/paralysis (16.7%) and tracheotomy (16.7%). Immature teratomas had higher AFP levels, tumor dimensions, frequency of anterior neck localization, and requirement of EXIT than mature teratomas. Given that there was no significant difference between the recurrence rates of immature and mature teratomas, follow-up vigilance should be maintained equally regardless of tumor maturity. Copyright

  1. An interesting case of pyoderma gangrenosum with immature hystiocytoid neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Besner Morin, Catherine; Côté, Benoit; Belisle, Annie

    2018-01-01

    We present a unique case of a 36-year-old male who developed more than 20 pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) ulcers showing on histopathology a dense inflammatory infiltrate composed of histiocytoid mononuclear immature cells with a strong positivity for myeloperoxidase and Leder stain, suggesting a myeloid lineage in the absence of a concomitant myeloproliferative disorder. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome (SS) is now recognized as a histological subtype of SS. Although PG and SS belong to the spectrum of neutrophilic diseases, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a "Histiocytoid pyoderma gangrenosum" encompassing immature granulocytes in the absence of leukemia cutis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Phenotypic characterization of spontaneously mutated rats showing lethal dwarfism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Takenaka, Motoo; Suzuki, Katsushi

    2007-08-01

    We have characterized the phenotype of spontaneously mutated rats, found during experimental inbreeding in a closed colony of Wistar Imamichi rats. Mutant rats showed severe dwarfism, short lifespan (early postnatal lethality), and high incidence of epileptic seizures. Mutant rats showed growth retardation after 3 d of age, and at 21 d their weight was about 56% that of normal rats. Most mutant rats died without reaching maturity, and 95% of the mutant rats had an ataxic gait. About 34% of the dwarf rats experienced epileptic seizures, most of which started as 'wild running' convulsions, progressing to generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. At age 28 d, the relative weight of the testes was significantly lower, and the relative weight of the brain was significantly higher, in mutant than in normal rats. Histologically, increased apoptotic germ cells, lack of spermatocytes, and immature Leydig cells were found in the mutant testes, and extracellular vacuoles of various sizes were present in the hippocampus and amygdala of the mutant brain. Mutant rats had significantly increased concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and inorganic phosphate, as well as decreased concentrations of plasma growth hormone. Hereditary analysis showed that the defects were inherited as a single recessive trait. We have named the hypothetically mutated gene as lde (lethal dwarfism with epilepsy).

  3. Differential sensitivity of immature and mature ventral mesencephalic neurons to rotenone induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Satish Bollimpelli, V; Kondapi, Anand K

    2015-12-25

    Rotenone induced neuronal toxicity in ventral mesencephalic (VM) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in culture is widely accepted as an important model for the investigation of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about developmental stage dependent toxic effects of rotenone on VM neurons in vitro. The objective of present study is to investigate the effect of rotenone on developing VM neurons at immature versus mature stages. Primary VM neurons were cultured in the absence of glial cells. Exposure of VM neurons to rotenone for 2 days induced cell death in both immature and mature neurons in a concentration-dependent manner, but to a greater extent in mature neurons. While rotenone-treated mature VM neurons showed α-synuclein aggregation and sensitivity to DA neurons, immature VM neurons exhibited only DA neuronal sensitivity but not α-synuclein aggregation. In addition, on rotenone treatment, enhancement of caspase-3 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were higher in mature VM neurons than in immature neurons. These results suggest that even though both mature and immature VM neurons are sensitive to rotenone, their manifestations differ from each other, with only mature VM neurons exhibiting Parkinsonian conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

    PubMed Central

    Pucinelli, Carolina Maschietto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Cohenca, Nestor; Romualdo, Priscilla Coutinho; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Consolaro, Alberto; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Nelson, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP) with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15); conventional irrigation (n=17); healthy teeth (control) (n = 10); and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control) (n=10). After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation) or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p<0.05). The ANP group showed a predominance of low magnitude inflammatory infiltrate, a smaller periodontal ligament, and lower mineralized tissue resorption. There were no differences in the periapical lesion extensions between the ANP and conventional groups (p>0.05). However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis. PMID:29211282

  5. Summer behavior of immature radio-equipped woodcock in central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunford, R.D.; Owen, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of 15 immature American woodcock (Philohela minor) was studied in central Maine during the summers of 1969 and 1970 using radiotelemetry. The monitored birds used a variety of nocturnal sites including old fields, bogs, powerlines, highway medians, woods roads, and fore clearings. Old fields were occupied more often than any other type of opening. Second growth-hardwoods, alders, hardwood-conifers, and conifers were utilized as diurnal cover. Diurnal locations of radio-equipped woodcock averaged 15 m from major breaks in the forest canopy. Four birds were monitored continuously during the day and night to detennine periods of activity. Although the birds were active throughout the day, very little activity was recorded after they moved to nocturnal sites. No apparent difference was found in the daily patterns of movement between immature male and female woodcock. Crepuscular movements between diurnal covers and nocturnal areas averaged 332 m. A composite summer range for the 15 woodcock during 183 woodcock-days was 1060 hectares. The data suggest that immature woodcock are quite mobile during the summer and utilize most of the forest openings occurring within 1-3 km of good nesting habitat. Most of these openings are also used for singing grounds by males in the spring.

  6. Effect of intense pulsed light on immature burn scars: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Arindam; Dewangan, Yatindra Kumar; Bain, Jayanta; Rakshit, Pritha; Dhruw, Krishnanand; Basu, Sandip Kanti; Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As intense pulsed light (IPL) is widely used to treat cutaneous vascular malformations and also used as non-ablative skin rejunuvation to remodel the skin collagen. A study has been undertaken to gauze the effect of IPL on immature burn scars with regard to vascularity, pliability and height. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014, among patients with immature burn scars that healed conservatively within 2 months. Photographic evidence of appearance of scars and grading and rating was done with Vancouver Scar Scale parameters. Ratings were done for both case and control scar after the completion of four IPL treatment sessions and were compared. Results: Out of the 19 cases, vascularity, pliability and height improved significantly (P < 0.05) in 13, 14 and 11 scars respectively following IPL treatment. Conclusions: Intense pulsed light was well-tolerated by patients, caused good improvement in terms of vascularity, pliability, and height of immature burn scar. PMID:25593424

  7. Expression of Endogenous Betaretroviruses in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Neonatal Age, Estrous Cycle, Pregnancy, and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Palmarini, Massimo; Gray, C. Allison; Carpenter, Karen; Fan, Hung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    The ovine genome contains 15 to 20 copies of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) highly related to the oncogenic jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus. enJSRVs are highly expressed in the endometrial lumenal epithelia (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE) of the ovine uterus. The effects of neonatal age, estrous cycle, pregnancy, and progesterone on expression of enJSRVs in the ovine uterus were determined. Expression of enJSRV RNAs was absent from the uterus of ewes at birth, but enJSRV RNAs were expressed specifically in the LE and developing GE from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 56. In adult ewes, enJSRV RNAs were detected only in the epithelia of the uterine endometrium, as well as epithelia of the oviduct, cervix, and vagina. In cyclic ewes, endometrial enJSRV RNA abundance was lowest on day 1, increased 12-fold between days 1 and 13, and then decreased to day 15. In pregnant ewes, levels of endometrial enJSRV RNAs were high on day 11, increased to day 13, and then decreased to day 19. In day 17 and 19 conceptuses, enJSRV RNAs were also detected in binucleate cells of the trophectoderm. Immunoreactive JSRV capsid and envelope proteins were detected in the endometrial LE and GE, as well as in the binucleate cells of the conceptus. In transfection assays utilizing ovine endometrial LE cells, progesterone increased transcriptional activity of several enJSRV long terminal repeats. Collectively, these results indicate that transcription of enJSRVs in the endometrial epithelia of the ovine uterus is increased by progesterone and might support a role for enJSRVs in conceptus-endometrium interactions during the peri-implantation period and early placental morphogenesis. PMID:11689612

  8. Surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after treatment with misoprostol for miscarriage: the MisoREST trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical treatment with misoprostol is a non-invasive and inexpensive treatment option in first trimester miscarriage. However, about 30% of women treated with misoprostol have incomplete evacuation of the uterus. Despite being relatively asymptomatic in most cases, this finding often leads to additional surgical treatment (curettage). A comparison of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical management versus expectant management is lacking in women with incomplete miscarriage after misoprostol. Methods/Design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial that assesses the costs and effects of curettage versus expectant management in women with incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Eligible women will be randomized, after informed consent, within 24 hours after identification of incomplete evacuation of the uterus by ultrasound scanning. Women are randomly allocated to surgical or expectant management. Curettage is performed within three days after randomization. Primary outcome is the sonographic finding of an empty uterus (maximal diameter of any contents of the uterine cavity < 10 millimeters) six weeks after study entry. Secondary outcomes are patients’ quality of life, surgical outcome parameters, the type and number of re-interventions during the first three months and pregnancy rates and outcome 12 months after study entry. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the (cost) effectiveness of surgical versus expectant management in women with incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3110 PMID:23638956

  9. A Naturally Transmitted Epitheliotropic Polyomavirus Pathogenic in Immunodeficient Rats: Characterization, Transmission, and Preliminary Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Pesavento, Patricia; Hamilton, Shari; Bauer, Beth; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Phan, Tung; Delwart, Eric; Livingston, Robert; Cushing, Susan; Watanabe, Rie; Levin, Stephen; Berger, Diana; Myles, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality. Large basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed in epithelium of the respiratory tract, salivary and lacrimal glands, uterus, and prostate gland. Unbiased viral metagenomic sequencing of lesioned tissues identified a novel polyomavirus, provisionally named Rattus norvegicus polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), which clustered with Washington University (WU) polyomavirus in the Wuki clade of the Betapolyomavirus genus. In situ hybridization analyses and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results demonstrated viral nucleic acids in epithelium of respiratory, glandular, and reproductive tissues. Polyomaviral disease was reproduced in Foxn1 rnu nude rats cohoused with infected rats or experimentally inoculated with virus. After development of RatPyV2-specific diagnostic assays, a survey of immune-competent rats from North American research institutions revealed detection of RatPyV2 in 7 of 1,000 fecal samples by PCR and anti-RatPyV2 antibodies in 480 of 1,500 serum samples. These findings suggest widespread infection in laboratory rat populations, which may have profound implications for established models of respiratory injury. Additionally, RatPyV2 infection studies may provide an important system to investigate the pathogenesis of WU polyomavirus diseases of man.

  10. A postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to identify active principles of Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mvondo, M A; Njamen, D; Fomum, S Tanee; Wandji, J; Vollmer, Günter

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the two major compounds of Erythrina lysistemon are active principles accounting for Erythrina estrogenic effects, we used a postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to evaluate their effects on some menopausal problems. Ovariectomized rats were orally treated either with compound 1 or compound 2 at 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 28 days. Estradiol valerate served as the reference substance. As results, compounds 1 and 2 displayed estrogen-like effects on the uterus and the vagina, and reduced atherogenic risks by decreasing the two assessed atherogenic parameters, the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and the atherogenic index of plasma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of ultra-morphological features of apoptosis in mature and immature sperm.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Sonja; Fitzl, Guenther; Springsguth, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    There is a fundamental body of evidence suggesting that activated apoptosis signaling in ejaculated human sperm negatively influences their fertilization potential. However, it is still controversial whether this apoptotic signaling is a relic of an abortive apoptosis related to spermatogenesis or if it should be regarded as a functional preformed pathway in mature sperm leading to stereotypical morphological changes reflecting nuclear disassembly. To address this question, apoptosis was induced using betulinic acid in mature and immature ejaculated human sperm enriched by density gradient centrifugation. Execution of apoptosis was monitored by observing ultra-morphological changes via transmission electron microscopy. Typical morphological signs of apoptosis in somatic cells include plasma membrane blebbing with the formation of apoptotic bodies, impaired mitochondrial integrity, defects of the nuclear envelope, and nuclear fragmentation; these morphologies have also been observed in human sperm. In addition, these apoptotic characteristics were more frequent in immature sperm compared to mature sperm. Following betulinic acid treatment, apoptosis-related morphological changes were induced in mature sperm from healthy donors. This effect was much less pronounced in immature sperm. Moreover, in both fractions, the betulinic acid treatment increased the percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm. The results of our ultra-morphological study prove the functional competence of apoptosis in mature ejaculated human sperm. The theory of a sole abortive process may be valid only for immature sperm. The induction of the acrosome reaction by stimulating apoptosis might shed light on the biological relevance of sperm apoptosis.

  12. Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immature water hemlock seed heads caused the death of 9 cows in a herd of 81 in central Utah. This is the first documented case of poisoning and death in cattle from ingesting immature water hemlock seed. Field investigation of the poisoning and follow up diagnostic, chemical and toxicological eva...

  13. Ruptured uterus in pregnancy: a Canadian hospital's experience.

    PubMed Central

    Fedorkow, D M; Nimrod, C A; Taylor, P J

    1987-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 15 cases of complete rupture of the uterus in pregnancy were identified among 52,854 deliveries at Foothills Provincial General Hospital, Calgary, for an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 deliveries. Previous cesarean section (in seven patients) was not the only predisposing factor: a history of dilatation and curettage (in two patients) or laparoscopy (in one) were also implicated. Long, obstructed labour did not appear to be a factor. Rupture also occurred in patients at low risk. The most frequent immediate complication was hypotension, in five patients. The rupture site was repaired in 11 of the patients; the other 4 underwent hysterectomy. Close surveillance and prompt intervention are the keys to good fetal and maternal outcome. PMID:3594331

  14. Size dependent translocation and fetal accumulation of gold nanoparticles from maternal blood in the rat.

    PubMed

    Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; Lipka, Jens; Wenk, Alexander; Hirn, Stephanie; Schäffler, Martin; Tian, Furong; Schmid, Günter; Oberdörster, Günter; Kreyling, Wolfgang G

    2014-09-10

    There is evidence that nanoparticles (NP) cross epithelial and endothelial body barriers. We hypothesized that gold (Au) NP, once in the blood circulation of pregnant rats, will cross the placental barrier during pregnancy size-dependently and accumulate in the fetal organism by 1. transcellular transport across the hemochorial placenta, 2. transcellular transport across amniotic membranes 3. transport through ~20 nm wide transtrophoblastic channels in a size dependent manner. The three AuNP sizes used to test this hypothesis are either well below, or of similar size or well above the diameters of the transtrophoblastic channels. We intravenously injected monodisperse, negatively charged, radio-labelled 1.4 nm, 18 nm and 80 nm ¹⁹⁸AuNP at a mass dose of 5, 3 and 27 μg/rat, respectively, into pregnant rats on day 18 of gestation and in non-pregnant control rats and studied the biodistribution in a quantitative manner based on the radio-analysis of the stably labelled ¹⁹⁸AuNP after 24 hours. We observed significant biokinetic differences between pregnant and non-pregnant rats. AuNP fractions in the uterus of pregnant rats were at least one order of magnitude higher for each particle size roughly proportional to the enlarged size and weight of the pregnant uterus. All three sizes of ¹⁹⁸AuNP were found in the placentas and amniotic fluids with 1.4 nm AuNP fractions being two orders of magnitude higher than those of the larger AuNP on a mass base. In the fetuses, only fractions of 0.0006 (30 ng) and 0.00004 (0.1 ng) of 1.4 nm and 18 nm AuNP, respectively, were detected, but no 80 nm AuNP (<0.000004 (<0.1 ng)). These data show that no AuNP entered the fetuses from amniotic fluids within 24 hours but indicate that AuNP translocation occurs across the placental tissues either through transtrophoblastic channels and/or via transcellular processes. Our data suggest that the translocation of AuNP from maternal blood into the fetus is NP-size dependent which is

  15. PGF₂α levels in Day 8 blood plasma are increased by the presence of one or more embryos in the uterus.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Martin, D; Carrocera, S; Muñoz, M

    2015-08-01

    In cattle, the detection of very early endometrial responses is considered to be hampered by the presence of only a single embryo. Therefore, we have previously developed a model of multiple embryo transfer to circumvent this hindrance. In this work, we analysed embryo-maternal interactions in the bovine uterus on day 8 of development while comparing the presence of multiple v. single embryos using embryo transfer and artificial insemination, respectively. Concentration of proteins (β-actin, NFkB, clusterin and immunoproteosome 20S β5i subunit-i20S), by western blot, and hexoses (glucose and fructose) were measured in paired samples of uterine fluid (UF) from the same animal with and without embryos in the uterus and were compared with UF obtained after artificial insemination. Prostaglandin (PG) F2 α and PGE2 concentrations were also analysed in blood plasma. The four proteins analysed and hexoses were unaffected by the presence of one or more embryos in the uterus. However, blood PGF2 α showed similar, significant increases with one or more embryos over cyclic animals; such changes were not observed in blood PGE2. Although multiple embryo transfer may appear to be non-physiological, we showed that the uterus, at the very early embryonic stages, does exhibit physiological reactions. Multiple embryo transfer can, therefore, be used for studies of very early embryo-maternal interactions in vivo in monotocous species.

  16. Persistent Gut Microbiota Immaturity in Malnourished Bangladeshi Children

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sathish; Huq, Sayeeda; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Haque, Rashidul; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Alam, Mohammed A.; Benezra, Amber; DeStefano, Joseph; Meier, Martin F.; Muegge, Brian D.; Barratt, Michael J.; VanArendonk, Laura G.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Province, Michael A.; Petri, William A.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic food interventions have reduced mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) but incomplete restoration of healthy growth remains a major problem1,2. The relationships between the type of nutritional intervention, the gut microbiota, and therapeutic responses are unclear. In the current study, bacterial species whose proportional representation define a healthy gut microbiota as it assembles during the first two postnatal years were identified by applying a machine-learning-based approach to 16S rRNA datasets generated from monthly fecal samples obtained from a birth-cohort of children, living in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who exhibited consistently healthy growth. These age-discriminatory bacterial species were incorporated into a model that computes a ‘relative microbiota maturity index’ and ‘microbiota-for-age Z-score’ that compare development (defined here as maturation) of a child’s fecal microbiota relative to healthy children of similar chronologic age. The model was applied to twins and triplets (to test for associations of these indices with genetic and environmental factors including diarrhea), children with SAM enrolled in a randomized trial of two food interventions, and children with moderate acute malnutrition. Our results indicate that SAM is associated with significant relative microbiota immaturity that is only partially ameliorated following two widely used nutritional interventions. Immaturity is also evident in less severe forms of malnutrition and correlates with anthropometric measurements. Microbiota maturity indices provide a microbial measure of human postnatal development, a way of classifying malnourished states, and a parameter for judging therapeutic efficacy. More prolonged interventions with existing or new therapeutic foods and/or addition of gut microbes may be needed to achieve enduring repair of gut microbiota immaturity in childhood malnutrition and improve clinical outcomes. PMID

  17. Effects of the bradykinin antagonist B4310 on smooth muscles and blood pressure in the rat, and its enzymatic degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.; Saria, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. Six competitive bradykinin (Bk) antagonists were tested for their agonistic properties on the rat uterus. Five of these peptides showed agonistic effects only at concentrations at least two orders of magnitude higher than those of bradykinin. 2. The antagonistic potency of Lys-Lys-3-Hyp-5,8-Thi-7-DPhe-Bk (B4310) in the rat uterus (pA2 = 7.24) and in the rat duodenum (pA2 = 7.31) was very similar to that determined in an earlier study for the antagonism of the bradykinin-induced stimulation of the trigeminal nerve in the rabbit iris sphincter muscle preparation (pA2 = 7.59). 3. The fall in mean arterial blood pressure induced by i.a. injections of bradykinin was greatly reduced during an i.a. infusion of B4310, but not 10 min thereafter, which indicates a rapid inactivation of B4310 in vivo. Bacitracin possibly interferes with the enzymatic cleavage of B4310 but seems to have no effect on the degradation of bradykinin. 4. An i.a. infusion of captopril greatly enhanced the potency of bradykinin in inducing a fall in arterial blood pressure, confirming the important role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the cleavage of bradykinin. However, the design of this experiment did not allow conclusions about the effect of captopril on the degradation of B4310. 5. B4310 incubated with rat lung tissue disappeared from the incubation medium within a few minutes, i.e. as fast as bradykinin, which explains its short duration of action in vivo. Captopril partially inhibited the cleavage of both bradykinin and B4310.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2655805

  18. Abdominal Cocoon in Association with Adenomyosis and Leiomyomata of the Uterus and Endometriotic Cyst : Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohd. Noor, Nor Haznita; Zaki, Nik Mohamed; Kaur, Gurjeet; Naik, Venkatesh R.; Zakaria, Ahmad Zahari

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare condition. A 46 year old Malay woman with adenomyosis and leiomyomata of the uterus and ovarian endometriotic cyst in association with abdominal cocoon is reported. PMID:22977364

  19. A case report of bicornis bicollis uterus with unilateral cervical atresia: an unusual aetiology of chronic debilitating pelvic pain in a Cameroonian teenager.

    PubMed

    Dohbit, Julius Sama; Meka, Esther; Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Kamla, Igor; Mwadjie, Darolles; Foumane, Pascal

    2017-06-02

    Congenital uterine anomalies like bicornis or bicornuate uterus are relatively rare in sub-Saharan Africa. They are associated with an increased rate of spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and infertility. The occurrence of bicornis bicollis uterus with unilateral cervical atresia is exceptional and its management is controversial. We hereby report a rare cause of chronic pelvic pain in a Cameroonian teenager due to unilateral obstructive hematometra and hematosalpinx in the non-communicating horn of a bicornis bicollis uterus. A 13-year-old premenarchal non-virgin female presented with chronic and severe cyclical crampy pelvic pain. On clinical examination, she had a perforated hymen, a single vagina, and one uterine cervix. A two-dimensional pelvic ultrasonography revealed hematometra but missed out the underlying anomaly. Failure to drain the hematometra by serial cervical dilatations prompted an exploratory laparotomy which revealed: bicornis bicollis uterus with a right rudimentary uterine horn communicating with the vagina and a left non-communicating uterine horn distended by hematometra due to a homolateral cervical atresia. She underwent utero-vaginal canalization and a left hemi-hysterotomy with drainage of the hematometra. The postoperative period was uneventful. Regular cyclic menses occurred thereafter beginning at the first postoperative month. She had complete resolution of symptoms without recurrence after six months. Due to the risk of compromised fertility from bicornis uterus and the diagnostic challenges akin to resource-limited settings, we highlight the need for a high index of suspicion by healthcare providers when faced with chronic pelvic pain in premenarchal adolescents.

  20. Casein kinase 2 inhibition impairs spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions in late pregnant mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Suhas, K S; Parida, Subhashree; Gokul, Chandrasekaran; Srivastava, Vivek; Prakash, E; Chauhan, Sakshi; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Panigrahi, Manjit; Telang, Avinash G; Mishra, Santosh K

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the inhibition of the protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) alter the uterine contractility? What is the main finding and its importance? Inhibition of CK2 impaired the spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in late pregnant mouse uterus. This finding suggests that CK2 is a novel pathway mediating oxytocin-induced contractility in the uterus and thus opens up the possibility for this class of drugs to be developed as a new class of tocolytics. The protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitously expressed serine or threonine kinase known to phosphorylate a number of substrates. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CK2 inhibition on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractions in 19 day pregnant mice. The CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation in late pregnant mouse uterus. CX-4945 and another selective CK2 inhibitor, apigenin, also inhibited the oxytocin-induced contractile response in late pregnant uterine tissue. Apigenin also blunted the prostaglandin F 2α response, but CX-4945 did not. Casein kinase 2 was located in the lipid raft fractions of the cell membrane, and disruption of lipid rafts was found to reverse its effect. The results of the present study suggest that CK2, located in lipid rafts of the cell membrane, is an active regulator of spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractions in the late pregnant mouse. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  1. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP) in the Ovine Uterus: Regulation by Interferon Tau and Progesterone1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gwonhwa; Satterfield, M. Carey; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is abundantly expressed by endometrial glands of the ovine uterus and processed into different bioactive peptides, including GRP1-27, GRP18-27, and a C-terminus, that affect cell proliferation and migration. However, little information is available concerning the hormonal regulation of endometrial GRP and expression of GRP receptors in the ovine endometrium and conceptus. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), interferon tau (IFNT), placental lactogen (CSH1), and growth hormone (GH) on expression of GRP in the endometrium and GRP receptors (GRPR, NMBR, BRS3) in the endometrium, conceptus, and placenta. In pregnant ewes, GRP mRNA and protein were first detected predominantly in endometrial glands after Day 10 and were abundant from Days 18 through 120 of gestation. Treatment with IFNT and progesterone but not CSH1 or GH stimulated GRP expression in the endometrial glands. Western blot analyses identified proGRP in uterine luminal fluid and allantoic fluid from Day 80 unilateral pregnant ewes but not in uterine luminal fluid of either cyclic or early pregnant ewes. GRPR mRNA was very low in the Day 18 conceptus and undetectable in the endometrium and placenta; NMBR and BRS3 mRNAs were undetectable in ovine uteroplacental tissues. Collectively, the present studies validate GRP as a novel IFNT-stimulated gene in the glands of the ovine uterus, revealed that IFNT induction of GRP is dependent on P4, and found that exposure of the ovine uterus to P4 for 20 days induces GRP expression in endometrial glands. PMID:18448839

  2. Effect of sub-optimal doses of fluoxetine plus estradiol on antidepressant-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Vega-Rivera, Nelly M; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens and antidepressants synergize to reduce depressive symptoms and stimulate neurogenesis and neuroplastic events. The aim of this study was to explore whether the antidepressant-like effect induced by the combination of low doses of estradiol (E2) and fluoxetine (FLX) involves changes in cell proliferation, early survival, morphology and dendrite complexity of hippocampal new-immature neurons. The antidepressant-like effects of E2 and/or FLX were evaluated by the forced swimming test (FST), cell proliferation was determined with the endogenous marker Ki67, survival of newborn cells was established with bromo-deoxiuridine (BrdU) and immature neurons were ascertained by doublecortin (DCX) labeling while their dendrite complexity was evaluated with Sholl analysis. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Vehicle (saline/14 days+Oil/-8h before FST); E2 (saline/14 days + E2 2.5 or 10 μg/rat; -8 h before FST); FLX (1.25 or 10 mg/kg for 14 days + oil -8h before FST), and FLX plus E2 (FLX 1.25 mg/kg for 14 days + E2 2.5 μg/rat -8 h before FST). The combination of sub-threshold doses of FLX plus E2 produced antidepressant-like actions similar to those induced by FLX or E2 given independently at optimal doses. Only FLX at an optimal dose and the combination of FLX plus E2 increased cell proliferation, the number of DCX-labeled immature neurons and the complexity of their dendritic tree, suggesting that these events may be responsible for their antidepressant-like effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary omega-3 but not omega-6 fatty acids down-regulate maternal dyslipidemia induced oxidative stress: A three generation study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramaiyan, Breetha; Bettadahalli, Sadashivaiah; Talahalli, Ramaprasad Ravichandra

    2016-09-02

    Maternal nutrition modulates fetal metabolic programming and development later. Maternal dyslipidemia effects on oxidative stress (OS) in offsprings and its modulation by dietary fatty acids over generations remains to be elucidated. The objective of present study was to assess the long-term (three generations) effect of omega-3 fatty acids on OS under dyslipidemia. Weanling female Wistar rats were fed with control diet (7% lard), high fat diet (35% lard, HFL), high fat with fish oil (21% fish oil + 14% lard, HFF), high fat with canola oil (21% canola oil + 14% lard, HFC) and high fat with sunflower oil (21% sunflower oil + 14% lard, HFS). Following 60 days feeding, the female rats were mated with sexually matured males (fed normal chow diet) and continued with the above diet regimen during pregnancy and lactation. The pups after lactation were continued with their maternal diet for 60 days and subjected to mating and feeding trial as above for two generations. Serum lipid profiles, OS markers (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide release and protein carbonyl) and antioxidant defence enzymes (catalase, SOD, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase) were assessed in serum, liver and uterus of rats fed on experimental and control diets for three generations. Feeding HFL diet increased blood lipids, OS and lowered the antioxidant enzymes activity in serum, liver and uterus (p < 0.05). The reduction in the antioxidant enzymes in HFL group were higher in third followed by second generation compared to first generation (p < 0.05). Omega-3 fatty acids prevented the dyslipidemia induced loss of antioxidant enzyme activities in serum, liver and uterus. Our data show for the first time that offsprings born to dyslipidemic mothers' exhibit diminished enzymatic antioxidant defence and its progressive reduction in future generation, and dietary omega-3 fatty acids restore the enzymatic antioxidant defence in offsprings and suppress the markers of OS. Copyright

  4. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proceedings: guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    H Clay Smith; Maxine C. Eye

    1986-01-01

    How to do it, that is what this workshop is all about. This proceedings will provide field foresters and landowners with an update of current available information for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands. We all have dozens of questions and concerns and though several of these will be answered, some will not. Basically, guidelines are "guides" and...

  6. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus*

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil G.; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses (“pseudoimplantation”) that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. PMID:25931120

  7. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  8. A 34-Week Size Uterus with a Complete Hydatidiform Mole: Hook Effect and Severe Anemia with No Vaginal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Rodney; Bayya, Vijaya; Irani, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform mole is an abnormal pregnancy that usually presents with vaginal bleeding and markedly elevated serum ß-hCG levels. We report a rare case of complete hydatidiform mole occurring in a 16-year-old nulligravid who presented with a 34-week size uterus and a relatively low serum ß-hCG level (722 IU/L)-likely related to the "hook effect"-and severe anemia (hemoglobin: 6.1 g/dL) despite the absence of vaginal bleeding. She also reported right flank pain and was diagnosed with moderate right hydronephrosis owing to the compression exerted by the enlarged uterus on the right ureter. The patient received a total of 6 units of packed red blood cells and was managed by dilation and evacuation followed by serial monitoring of serum ß-hCG levels. Therefore, complete mole can present with symptoms related to an enlarged uterus and severe anemia before the occurrence of vaginal bleeding. It is also important to note that a negative urine pregnancy test or relatively low serum ß-hCG level should prompt repeating the measurement on diluted sample to prevent the "hook effect."

  9. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor of the Uterus with Ovarian Involvement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Megan; Pulver, Tanya; Klein, Molly; Murugan, Paari; Khalifa, Mahmoud; Amin, Khalid

    2016-05-06

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a rare group of neoplasms composed of epithelioid cells that express both melanocytic and myoid markers. When considering PEComas of the female genital tract, the uterus is the most common location. Involvement of the ovary in the context of a primary uterine PEComa, in the absence of systemic disease associated with tuberous sclerosis, however, has only been reported in 1 previous case. We report a case of a PEComa of the uterus with metastasis to the left ovary in a 61-year-old Caucasian woman. Gross examination of the uterus revealed a 10.7×10.5×10.2 cm tan-brown, mostly solid, partially cystic mass. Microscopic examination showed epithelioid cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, arranged in fascicles. Intranuclear pseudoinclusions were also noted. The tumor cells were smooth muscle actin, caldesmon, and desmin positive (diffuse); HMB-45 positive (focal); and Melan-A, AE1/AE3, CD10, and S100 negative by immunohistochemistry. Distinguishing among mesenchymal neoplasms, including PEComas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and leiomyosarcomas, can be difficult. Careful analysis of morphologic and immunohistochemical features is of the utmost importance. Differential diagnosis, including morphologic features and immunohistochemical patterns, is also discussed.

  10. Pictorial essay of ultrasound-reconstructed coronal plane images of the uterus in different uterine pathologies.

    PubMed

    Grigore, Mihaela; Grigore, Anamaria; Gafitanu, Dumitru; Furnica, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Imaging in the major planes (horizontal, coronal, and sagittal) of the uterus is important for determining anatomy and allowing the findings to be standardized, and for evaluating and diagnosing different pathological conditions in clinical practice. Examination of the coronal plane is an important step in identifying uterine pathologies and their relationships to the endometrial canal. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound reveals the normal anatomy better and improves the depiction of abnormal anatomy, as the coronal plane of the uterus can easily be obtained using 3D reconstruction techniques. Our pictorial essay demonstrates that adding 3D ultrasound to a routine gynecological workup can be beneficial for clinicians, enabling a precise diagnosis to be made. In addition, the volumes obtained and stored by 3D ultrasound can allow students or residents to become more familiar with normal and abnormal pelvic structures. Clin. Anat. 31:373-379, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (uterus didelphys, blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis) - a case report

    PubMed Central

    Arıkan, İlker İnan; Harma, Müge; Harma, Mehmet İbrahim; Bayar, Ülkü; Barut, Aykut

    2010-01-01

    Uterovaginal duplication with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is referred to as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome. A 17 year old woman presented with right pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea, present since menarche at 13 and worsening over the past year. Ultrasound examination revealed a right pelvic mass (5×5 cm), double endometrial echoes, and hematocolpos. A right pelvic mass, agenesis of the right kidney, double uterus, and blind hemivagina with hematocolpos were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and intravenous pyelography. A right tubo-ovarian abscess with dense adhesions and a double uterus were observed on diagnostic laparoscopy. Adhesiolysis was carried out and purulent material irrigated. After a course of antibiotics, a vaginal septum resection was performed and the pyocolpos drained. She remained symptom free after four months of follow-up. Prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome can significantly improve the lives of sufferers and prevent future complications. PMID:24591910

  12. Reexamination of the immature hominid maxilla from Tangier, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Minugh-Purvis, N

    1993-12-01

    Reexamination of the immature Upper Pleistocene hominid maxilla from Mugharet el-'Aliya (Tangier), Morocco is undertaken in light of new evidence on the growth and development of Upper Pleistocene hominids. Metric and qualitative comparisons were made with 17 immature Upper Pleistocene maxillae, and with a recent Homo sapiens sapiens sample. No unambiguous criteria for aligning the maxilla with Neandertals were found, although one character, the degree of maxillary flexion on the zygoma, strongly suggests that this child could be a representative of H.s. sapiens. The probable lack of a canine fossa in Mugharet el-'Aliya 1, the primary criterion used previously to align it with Neandertals, cannot be accurately extrapolated to its adult form from this juvenile. The present evidence suggests that it is inappropriate to refer to this fossil as "Neandertal-like" or as a North African "neandertaloid." Thus, the Tangier maxilla should not be cited as evidence for the presence of Neandertal facial features in North Africa during the Upper Pleistocene.

  13. Contractile effect of rifaximin on bovine uterus in the presence of steroid hormone antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sciorsci, R L; Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A

    2018-04-01

    This in vitro study investigated the modulatory effect of rifaximin on bovine uterus contractility, in both phases of the oestrous cycle, with and without the steroid hormones that are predominant in the respective phases: oestrogen in the follicular phase and progesterone in the luteal phase. The procedures were conducted in an isolated organ bath by using rifaximin alone (10 -4  M) and in association with the steroid hormone antagonists (10 -5  M) tamoxifen (oestrogen antagonist) in the follicular phase and mifepristone (progesterone antagonist) in the luteal phase. The results indicated that rifaximin can stimulate uterine contractility. Indeed, the administration of rifaximin in the presence of tamoxifen or mifepristone increased the tonic activity of the uterus in both phases of the cycle. This result is clinically significant because rifaximin might also enable, in vivo, a simultaneous increase in uterine cleaning and the antimicrobial action against bacteria during the first 14 days postpartum, during the development of acute metritis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of forced swimming stress on in-vivo fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ghasem; Rahim, Fakher; Vaysi, Ozra Allah

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to determine the effect of 50 days of forced swimming stress on fertilization capacity of rat and subsequent offspring quality. SETTING AND DESIGN: The prospective study designed in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 90 Wistar rats including 30 adult male (3 months of age, weighing 210 ± 10.6 g) and 60 female rats (3 months of age, weighing 230 ± 12.2 g) were engaged in this study. Male rats were randomly divided in two equal groups (n = 15): Control and experimental groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress for 3 min in water at 32°C daily for 50 days. Then all adult male rats were mated with normal females (2 per each male) for 7 days. Female rats were sacrificed and autopsy was performed on day 20 of pregnancy when uterus and ovaries were examined for the number of corpora lutea, dead and live fetuses, embryo resorption, implantation sites, and fetus weight. CONCLUSION: Results of this study have important implications for families attempting pregnancy. Stress pursuant to life events may have a negative impact on in vivo fertilization capacity of male rats and subsequent offspring quality. PMID:20607006

  15. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  16. Loss of CDH1 and Pten accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis in the mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Mallory E; Stodden, Genna R; King, Mandy L; MacLean, James A; Mann, Jordan L; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-07-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d)) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice died at Postnatal Days 15-19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death.

  17. Angiotensin peptides in the non-gravid uterus: Paracrine actions beyond circulation.

    PubMed

    Casalechi, Maíra; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Lima, Luiza C; Maciel, Luciana P; Pereira, Virgínia M; Reis, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involves a complex network of precursors, peptides, enzymes and receptors comprising a systemic (endocrine) and a local (paracrine/autocrine) system. The local RAS plays important roles in tissue modulation and may operate independently of or in close interaction with the circulatory RAS, acting in a complementary fashion. Angiotensin (Ang) II, its receptor AT 1 and Ang-(1-7) expression in the endometrium vary with menstrual cycle, and stromal cell decidualization in vitro is accompanied by local synthesis of angiotensinogen and prorenin. Mas receptor is unlikely to undergo marked changes accompanying the cyclic ovarian steroid hormone fluctuations. Studies investigating the functional relevance of the RAS in the non-gravid uterus show a number of paracrine effects beyond circulation and suggest that RAS peptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of proliferative and fibrotic diseases. Endometrial cancer is associated with increased expression of Ang II, Ang-converting enzyme 1 and AT 1 in the tumoral tissue compared to neighboring non-neoplastic endometrium, and also with a gene polymorphism that enhances AT 1 signal. Ang II induces human endometrial cells to transdifferentiate into cells with myofibroblast phenotype and to synthetize extracellular matrix components that might contribute to endometrial fibrosis. Altogether, these findings point to a fully operating RAS within the uterus, but since many concepts rely on preliminary evidence further studies are needed to clarify the role of the local RAS in uterine physiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Urologic surgical procedures in patients with uterus neoplasm and colon-rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Laudi, M; Capussotti, L; Zola, P

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. During the last 30 years, the multidisciplinary treatments of colon and uterus neoplasm have yielded an increase in total survival rates, fostering therefore the increase of cases with regional relapse involving the urinary tract. In these cases the iterative surgery can be performed, if no disease secondary to pelvic pain, haemostatic or debulking procedure is present, and must be considered and discussed with the patient, according to his/her general status. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 1997 to August 2007 we performed altogether 43 pelvic iterative surgeries, with simultaneous urologic surgical procedure because of pelvic tumor relapse in patients with uterus neoplasm and colon and rectal cancer. In 4 cases of anal cancer, the urological procedure were: one radical prostatectomy with continent vesicostomy in the first case, while in the other 3 cases radical pelvectomy with double-barrelled uretero-cutaneostomy. In 23 cases of colon cancer, the urologic procedures were: 9 cases of radical cystectomy with double-barrelled uretero-cutaneostomy, 4 cases of radical cystectomy with uretero-ileo-cutaneostomy according to Bricker- Wallace II procedure, and 9 cases of partial cystectomy with pelvic ureterectomy and ureterocystoneostomy according to Lich-Gregoire technique (7 cases) and Lembo-Boari (2 cases) procedure. In 16 cases of uterus cancer, the urological procedure were: 7 cases of partial cystectomy with pelvic ureterectomy and uretero-cystoneostomy according to Lich-Gregoire procedure; in 3 cases, a radical cystectomy with urinary continent cutaneous diversion according to the Ileal T-pouch procedure; 2 cases of total pelvectomy and double uretero-cutaneostomy, and 4 cases of bilateral uretero-cutaneostomy. RESULTS. No patients died in the perioperative time; early systemic complications were: 2 esophageal candidiasis, 1 case of venous thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS. The iterative pelvic surgery in the case of oncological relapse involving the urinary

  19. Bromine-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    DeSombre, E.R.; Mease, R.C.; Hughes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17..cap alpha..- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE/sub 2/, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide bromine-80m, prepared by the (p,n) reaction with /sup 80/Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the bromine-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE/sub 2/ showed higher tissuemore » to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE/sub 2/ were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of (/sup 80m/Br)BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  20. Seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid and the associated brain damage are prevented by group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub; Haugvicová, Renata; Mares, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2005-04-01

    The present study has examined the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC) in the model of seizures induced in immature 12-day-old rats by bilateral intracerebroventricular infusion of dl-homocysteic acid (DL-HCA, 600 nmol/side). For biochemical analyses, rat pups were sacrificed during generalized clonic-tonic seizures, approximately 45-50 min after infusion. Comparable time intervals were used for sacrificing the pups which had received 2R,4R-APDC. Low doses of 2R,4R-APDC (0.05 nmol/side) provided a pronounced anticonvulsant effect which was abolished by pretreatment with a selective group II mGluR antagonist LY341495. Generalized clonic-tonic seizures were completely suppressed and cortical energy metabolite changes which normally accompany these seizures were either normalized (decrease of glucose and glycogen) or markedly reduced (an accumulation of lactate). EEG recordings support the marked anticonvulsant effect of 2R,4R-APDC, nevertheless, this was only partial. In spite of the absence of obvious motor phenomena, isolated spikes or even short periods of partial ictal activity could be observed. Isolated spikes could also be seen in some animals after application of 2R,4R-APDC alone, reflecting most likely subclinical proconvulsant activity of this agonist. The neuroprotective effect of 2R,4R-APDC was evaluated after 24 h and 6 days of survival following DL-HCA-induced seizures. Massive neuronal degeneration, as revealed by Fluoro-Jade B staining, was observed in a number of brain regions following infusion of DL-HCA alone (seizure group), whereas 2R,4R-APDC pretreatment provided substantial neuroprotection. The present findings support the possibility that group II mGluRs are a promising target for a novel approach to treating epilepsy.

  1. Influence of Genista tinctoria L. or methylparaben on subchronic toxicity of bisphenol A in rats.

    PubMed

    Popa, Daniela-Saveta; Bolfa, Pompei; Kiss, Bela; Vlase, Laurian; Păltinean, Ramona; Pop, Anca; Cătoi, Cornel; Crişan, Gianina; Loghin, Felicia

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of an extract of Genista tinctoria L. herba (GT) or methylparaben (MP) on histopathological changes and 2 biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats subchronicly exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). Adult female Wistar rats were orally exposed for 90 d to BPA (50 mg/kg), BPA+GT (35 mg isoflavones/kg) or BPA+MP (250 mg/kg). Plasma and tissue samples were taken from liver, kidney, thyroid, uterus, ovary, and mammary gland after 30, 60, and 90 d of exposure respectively. Lipid peroxidation and in vivo hydroxyl radical production were evaluated by histological analysis along with malondialdehyde and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid detection. The severity of histopathological changes in liver and kidneys was lower after GT treatment than after BPA or BPA+MP treatment. A minimal thyroid receptor antagonist effect was only observed after BPA+MP treatment. The abnormal folliculogenesis increased in a time-dependent manner, and the number of corpus luteum decreased. No significant histological alterations were found in the uterus. The mammary gland displayed specific estrogen stimulation changes at all periods. Both MP and GT revealed antioxidant properties reducing lipid peroxidation and BPA-induced hydroxyl radical generation. GT L. extract ameliorates the toxic effects of BPA and is proved to have antioxidant potential and antitoxic effect. MP has antioxidant properties, but has either no effect or exacerbates the BPA-induced histopathological changes. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroxin treatment protects against white matter injury in the immature brain via brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pi-Lien; Huang, Chao-Ching; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Tu, Dom-Gene; Chang, Ying-Chao

    2013-08-01

    Low level of thyroid hormone is a strong independent risk factor for white matter (WM) injury, a major cause of cerebral palsy, in preterm infants. Thyroxin upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor during development. We hypothesized that thyroxin protected against preoligodendrocyte apoptosis and WM injury in the immature brain via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Postpartum (P) day-7 male rat pups were exposed to hypoxic ischemia (HI) and intraperitoneally injected with thyroxin (T4; 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg) or normal saline immediately after HI at P9 and P11. WM damage was analyzed for myelin formation, axonal injury, astrogliosis, and preoligodendrocyte apoptosis. Neurotrophic factor expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Neuromotor functions were measured using open-field locomotion (P11 and P21), inclined plane climbing (P11), and beam walking (P21). Intracerebroventricular injection of TrkB-Fc or systemic administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone was performed. On P11, the HI group had significantly lower blood T4 levels than the controls. The HI group showed ventriculomegaly and marked reduction of myelin basic protein immunoreactivities in the WM. T4 (1 mg/kg) treatment after HI markedly attenuated axonal injury, astrocytosis, and microgliosis, and increased preoligodendrocyte survival. In addition, T4 treatment significantly increased myelination and selectively upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the WM, and improved neuromotor deficits after HI. The protective effect of T4 on WM myelination and neuromotor performance after HI was significantly attenuated by TrkB-Fc. Systemic 7,8-dihydroxyflavone treatment ameliorated hypomyelination after HI injury. T4 protects against WM injury at both pathological and functional levels via upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling in the immature brain.

  3. Potential mechanisms of development-dependent adverse effects of the herbicide paraquat in 3D rat brain cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Sandström, J; Broyer, A; Zoia, D; Schilt, C; Greggio, C; Fournier, M; Do, K Q; Monnet-Tschudi, F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants during vulnerable windows of brain development is suspected to raise the prevalence for neurological dysfunctions at later stages in life. Differentiation processes and changes in morphology, as well as a lack of physiological barriers, might be reasons that render a developing brain more susceptible to neurotoxicants than an adult. However, also the intrinsic capacity of cells to combat toxicant induced cellular stress might differ between the immature- and mature brain. In order to study whether this intrinsic protection capacity differs between immature and maturated brain cells we chose to study the maturation-dependent adverse effects of the known neurotoxicant Paraquat Dichloride (PQ) in 3D rat brain cell cultures. This in vitro system consists of the major brain cell types - neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia - and over the time in vitro cultured cells undergo differentiation and maturation into a tissue-like organization. PQ was applied repeatedly over ten days in the sub-micromolar range, and effects were evaluated on neurons and glial cells. We observed that despite a higher PQ-uptake in mature cultures, PQ-induced adverse effects on glutamatergic-, GABAergic- and dopaminergic neurons, as assessed by gene expression and enzymatic activity, were more pronounced in immature cultures. This was associated with a stronger astrogliosis in immature- as compared to mature cultures, as well as perturbations of the glutathione-mediated defense against oxidative stress. Furthermore we observed evidence of microglial activation only in mature cultures, whereas immature cultures appeared to down-regulate markers for neuroprotective M2-microglial phenotype upon PQ-exposure. Taken together our results indicate that immature brain cell cultures have less intrinsic capacity to cope with cellular stress elicited by PQ as compared to mature cells. This may render immature brain cells more susceptible to the adverse

  4. Influence of electric field exposure on bone growth and fracture repair in rats

    SciTech Connect

    McClanahan, B.J.; Phillips, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at an unperturbed field strength of 100 kV/m to determine its affect on bone growth and fracture repair. Exposure of immature male and female rats for 20 h/day for 30 days did not alter growth rate, cortical bone area, or medullary cavity area of the tibia. In another experiment, midfibular osteotomies were performed and the juvenile rats were exposed at 100 kV/m for 14 days. Evaluation by resistance to deformation and breaking strength indicated that fracture repair was not as advanced in the exposed animals as in the sham-exposed animals. In anothermore » experiment measurements of resistance to deformation were made in adult rats at 16, 20 and 26 days after osteotmy. Fracture repair was slower in exposed compared to control animals at day 20 and, to a lesser extent, at day 16, but not at day 26. 28 references, 6 tables.« less

  5. Labor Contractions Enhance Oxygenation and Behavioral Activity of Newborn Rat Pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, N. A.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.; Balton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Labor contractions help instigate behavioral responses at birth (viz., breathing and suckling) that are vital for the newborn's adaptation to the extrauterine world (Ronca et al., 1996). In the present study, we analyzed the role of labor contractions in postpartum oxygenation and behavioral activity of newborn rat pups. Newborns were observed following either vaginal (V) or cesarean delivery. For cesarean delivery, day 21 pregnant dams' were administered a spinal transaction to eliminate lower body sensation, a laparotomy was performed and the uterus was maintained in a heated (37.5 C) bath. Four rat fetuses in one of the dams' paired uterine horn were compressed (C) to Simulate labor contractions (20 sec/min for 10 min) while four fetuses in the opposite horn were not compressed (NC). Fetuses were surgically removed from the uterus, stroked with a soft brush to mimic postnatal licking by the dam, the umbilical cord occluded. Pups were exposed to room temperature (22 C) for one hr, then nest temperature (33 C) for one hr. PO2, CO2, and O2, saturation were determined at 0, 30, 60, or 120 min post delivery using a blood gas analyzer. V and C delivered neonates showed comparable rates of PO2, CO2 and O2 saturation whereas NC neonates showed depressed levels at all time points (p<0.05). Respiratory rates of V, C and NC neonates increased significantly (p<0.05) over the first two postpartum hrs and did not differ across groups. Postpartum behavioral activity was significantly greater in V and C conditions and positively correlated with postnatal oxygenation. These findings provide further evidence for importance of labor contractions in early postpartum adaptation.

  6. A role for tachykinins in female mouse and rat reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Pintado, C Oscar; Pinto, Francisco M; Pennefather, Jocelyn N; Hidalgo, Agustin; Baamonde, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Candenas, M Luz

    2003-09-01

    Tachykinins may be involved in reproduction. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to analyze the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in different types of reproductive cells from mice. The preprotachykinin (PPT) genes, PPT-A, PPT-B and PPT-C, that encode substance P/neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and hemokinin-1, respectively, and the genes that encode the tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors were all expressed, at different levels, in the uterus of superovulated, unfertilized mice. The mRNA of neprilysin (NEP), the main enzyme involved in tachykinin metabolism, was also expressed in the uterus. Isolated cumulus granulosa cells expressed PPT-A, PPT-B, PPT-C, and NEP and low levels of the tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors. Mouse oocytes expressed PPT-A and -B mRNA transcripts. A low expression of the three tachykinin receptors was observed but PPT-C and NEP were undetectable. Two- and 8- to 16-cell mouse embryos expressed only a low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK1 receptor. However, the mRNAs of PPT-B, PPT-C and NEP appeared in blastocyst-stage embryos. A low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK2 receptor was the only target gene detected in mice sperm. Female mice or rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a reduced fertility. A reduction in litter size was observed in female rats treated in vivo with the tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. These data show that tachykinins of both neuronal and nonneuronal origin are differentially expressed in various types of reproductive cells and may play a role in female reproductive function.

  7. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-12-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Tératome immature de l’ovaire: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatima Zohra Fdili; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2017-01-01

    Les tératomes ovariens sont des tumeurs issues des cellules germinales pluripotentes, on décrit 3 types de tératomes: tératome mature, immature et monodermique. Le tératome immature constitue moins de 1% des cancers ovariens, et touche préférentiellement les sujets jeunes. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 25 ans, admise pour prise en charge d'une masse abdomino-pelvienne pour laquelle elle a bénéficiée d'une échographie et d'un scanner pelvien suivie d'un traitement conservateur a base d'une annexectomie gauche, avec multiples biopsies, dont le résultat anatomo-pathologique était en faveur d'un tératome ovarien immature. Par la suite le traitement a été complété par une hystérectomie avec curage lombo-aortique et omentectomie. Nous insistons à travers cette observation et sous la lumière d'une revue de la littérature sur les terrains particuliers prédisposant à ce type de tumeur rare et grave et sur les différents critères radiologiques orientant vers ce type histologique rare des tumeurs ovariennes, afin d'améliorer le pronostic et la prise en charge de cette pathologie qui reste multidisciplinaires. PMID:29187932

  9. Drying effect on flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of immature kumquat.

    PubMed

    Lou, Shyi-Neng; Lai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Jia-De; Ho, Chi-Tang; Ferng, Lin-Huei A; Chang, Yung-Chung

    2015-03-15

    A seven flavonoids in hot water extract of immature kumquat (Citrus japonica var. margarita) were identified and quantified (mg/100g fresh fruit): 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, 285.9 ± 2.9 mg/100g), acacetin 8-C-neohesperidoside (margaritene, 136.2 ± 2.6 mg/100g), acacetin 6-C-neohesperidoside (isomargaritene, 119.1 ± 1.8 mg/100g), fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 28.5 ± 0.7 mg/100g), apigenin 8-C-neohesperidoside (16.9 ± 0.1mg/100g), poncirin (isosakuranetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 5.1 ± 0.1mg/100g), and rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 2.0 ± 0.1mg/100g). When immature kumquat was dried at 110 and 130°C for 0.5h, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and identified flavonoids increased. The UV absorbance of browning products of immature kumquat dried at 130°C for 1.5h increased dramatically, while the identified flavonoids decreased. Therefore, it was concluded that drying below 130°C for 1.0 h, could release phenolic compounds, which resulted in the increasing antioxidant activity. Drying at 130°C for 1.5h, it might be due to the effect of formed browning products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fasciola hepatica: a light and electron microscope study of the ovary and of the development of oocytes within eggs in the uterus provides an insight into reproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; Moffett, D; Forster, F I; Trudgett, A G; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-05-15

    The ultrastructure of the ovary of Fasciola hepatica collected from field-infected sheep, was compared with that of flukes from laboratory-infected rats harbouring the Oberon or the Cullompton fluke isolate. At the periphery of the ovarian tubules, in all flukes, interstitial tissue was identified that appears to provide physical support and facilitate the metabolism of the germinal-line cells. Oogonia undergo mitotic division to maintain the cell population and to produce oocytes. Early oocytes feature conspicuous synaptonemal complexes in the nucleoplasm, and these become less evident as the oocytes grow in size, move towards the core of the ovarian tubule, and synthesise osmiophilic bodies. The latter may represent cortical granules, and serve to block polyspermy. The identity of the synaptonemal complexes was confirmed by immunocytochemical labelling of synaptonemal proteins. The occurrence of synaptonemal complexes in the oocytes of all fluke types examined indicates that pairing of bivalent chromosomes, with the potential for genetic recombination and chiasmata formation, is a feature of the triploid aspermic parthenogenetic Cullompton flukes, as well as of the wild-type out-breeding field-derived and Oberon isolate flukes. In oocytes within shelled eggs in the proximal uterus of all flukes, condensed chromosomes align at meiotic metaphase plates. Following the reduction division, two equal pronuclei appear in each oocyte in the distal uterus. On the basis of these observations, a mechanism of facultative parthenogenesis for F. hepatica is proposed that accommodates the survival and clonal expansion of triploid aspermic isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estrogen-induced transcription factor EGR1 regulates c-Kit transcription in the mouse uterus to maintain uterine receptivity for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Yeon Sun; Yang, Seung Chel; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lyu, Sang Woo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Hong, Seok-Ho; Song, Haengseok

    2018-07-15

    Early growth response 1 (Egr1) is a key transcription factor that mediates the action of estrogen (E 2 ) to establish uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. However, few direct target genes of EGR1 have been identified in the uterus. Here, we demonstrated that E 2 induced EGR1-regulated transcription of c-Kit, which plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions. Spatiotemporal expression of c-Kit followed that of EGR1 in uteri of ovariectomized mice at various time points after E 2 treatment. E 2 activated ERK1/2 and p38 to induce EGR1, which then activated c-Kit expression in the uterus. EGR1 transfection produced rapid and transient induction of c-KIT in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, luciferase assays to measure c-Kit promoter activity confirmed that a functional EGR1 binding site(s) (EBS) was located within -1 kb of the c-Kit promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR for three putative EBS within -1 kb demonstrated that the EBS at -818/-805 was critical for EGR1-dependent c-Kit transcription. c-Kit expression was significantly increased in the uterus on day 4 and administration of Masitinib, a c-Kit inhibitor, effectively interfered with embryo implantation. Collectively, our results showed that estrogen induces transcription factor EGR1 to regulate c-Kit transcription for uterine receptivity for embryo implantation in the mouse uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immature Stages of Development in the Parasitoid Wasp, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Leonela Zusel Carabajal; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Cladera, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    The morphological changes experienced during the immature stages of the solitary parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) were studied. This natural enemy of several species of tephritid fruit flies is widely used in biological control strategies. Immature stages are poorly understood in endoparasitoids because they exist within the host. In the present work, developmental processes are described for this species, reared in Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under controlled environmental conditions. At 25° C, 85% RH, and with an 18:6 L:D photoperiod, preimaginal development takes about 16 days. Five preimaginal stages can be described: egg, three larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and pharate adult. Superparasitism was found in 20% of the host pupae, and the number of oviposition scars was positively correlated with the number of parasitoid larvae per host puparium. The results are compared and discussed with previous studies on related species. PMID:20569133

  13. Sequential changes in the expression of Wnt- and Notch-related genes in the vagina and uterus of ovariectomized mice after estrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Sato, Tomomi; Iguchi, Taisen; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen regulates morphological changes in reproductive organs, such as the vagina and uterus, during the estrous cycles in mice. Estrogen depletion by ovariectomy in adults results in atrophy accompanied by apoptosis in vaginal and uterine cells, while estrogen treatment following ovariectomy elicits cell proliferation in both organs. Sequential changes in mRNA expression of wingless-related MMTV integration site (Wnt) and Notch signaling genes were analyzed in the vagina and uterus of ovariectomized adult mice after a single injection of 17β-estradiol to provide understanding over the molecular basis of differences in response to estrogen in these organs. We found estrogen-dependent up-regulation of Wnt4, Wnt5a and p21 and down-regulation of Wnt11, hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-1 (Hey1) and delta-like 4 (Dll4) in the vagina, and up-regulation of Wnt4, Wnt5a, Hey1, Heyl, Dll1, p21 and p53 and down-regulation of Wnt11, Hey2 and Dll4 in the uterus. The expression of Wnt4, Hey1, Hey2, Heyl, Dll1 and p53 showed different patterns after the estrogen injection. Expression patterns for Wnt5a, Wnt11, Dll4 and p21 in the vagina and uterus were similar, suggesting that these genes are involved in the proliferation of cells in both those organs in mice.

  14. Autofusion in the immature spine treated with growing rods.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Patrick J; Marvil, Sean; Cuddihy, Laury; Schutt, Corey; Idema, Jocelyn; Clements, David H; Antonacci, M Darryl; Asghar, Jahangir; Samdani, Amer F; Betz, Randal R

    2010-10-15

    Retrospective case review of skeletally immature patients treated with growing rods. Patients received an average of 9.6 years follow-up care. (1) to identify the rate of autofusion in the growing spine with the use of growing rods; (2) to quantify how much correction can be attained with definitive instrumented fusion after long-term treatment with growing rods; and (3) to describe the extent of Smith-Petersen osteotomies required to gain correction of an autofused spine following growing rod treatment. The safety and use of growing rods for curve correction and maintenance in the growing spine population has been established in published reports. While autofusion has been reported, the prevalence and sequelae are not known. Nine skeletally immature children with scoliosis were identified who had been treated using growing rods. A retrospective review of the medical records and radiographs was conducted and the following data collected: complications, pre- and postoperative Cobb angles at time of initial surgery (growing rod placement), pre- and postoperative Cobb angles at time of final surgery (growing rod removal and definitive fusion), total spine length as measured from T1-S1, % correction since initiation of treatment and at definitive fusion, total number of surgeries, and number of patients found to have autofusion at the time of device removal. The rate of autofusion in children treated with growing rods was 89%. The average percent of the Cobb angle correction obtained at definitive fusion was 44%. On average, 7 osteotomies per patient were required at the time of definitive fusion due to autofusion. Although growing rods have efficacy in the control of deformity within the growing spine, they also have adverse effects on the spine. Immature spines treated with a growing rod have high rates of unintended autofusion which can possibly lead to difficult and only moderate correction at the time of definitive fusion.

  15. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S; Tilton, Susan C; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Piehowski, Paul D; Monroe, Matthew E; Jegga, Anil G; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-06-12

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses ("pseudoimplantation") that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Placental and Fetal Disposition of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury: Role of Mrp2

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a prevalent environmental toxicant that can have deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Previous studies indicate that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is involved in renal and hepatic export of mercuric ions. Therefore, we hypothesize that Mrp2 is also involved in export of mercuric ions from placental trophoblasts and fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the disposition of mercuric ions in pregnant Wistar and TR– (Mrp2-deficient) rats exposed to a single dose of methylmercury. The amount of mercury in renal tissues (cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla), liver, blood, amniotic fluid, uterus, placentas and fetuses was significantly greater in TR– rats than in Wistar rats. Urinary and fecal elimination of mercury was greater in Wistar dams than in TR– dams. Thus, our findings suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the export of mercuric ions from maternal and fetal organs following exposure to methylmercury. PMID:23059061

  17. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  18. Harassment of adults by immatures in bonobos (Pan paniscus): testing the Exploratory Aggression and Rank Improvement hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Boose, Klaree; White, Frances

    2017-10-01

    The immatures of many primate species frequently pester adult group members with aggressive behaviors referred to as a type of harassment. Although these behaviors are characteristic of immatures as they develop from infancy through adolescence, there have been few studies that specifically address the adaptive significance of harassment. Two functional hypotheses have been generated from observations of the behavior in chimpanzees. The Exploratory Aggression hypothesis describes harassment as a mechanism used by immatures to learn about the parameters of aggression and dominance behavior and to acquire information about novel, complex, or unpredictable relationships. The Rank Improvement hypothesis describes harassment as a mechanism of dominance acquisition used by immatures to outrank adults. This study investigated harassment of adults by immatures in a group of bonobos housed at the Columbus Zoo and compared the results to the predictions outlined by the Exploratory Aggression and Rank Improvement hypotheses. Although all immature bonobos in this group harassed adults, adolescents performed the behavior more frequently than did infants or juveniles and low-ranking adults were targeted more frequently than high-ranking. Targets responded more with agonistic behaviors than with neutral behaviors and the amount of harassment an individual received was significantly correlated with the amount of agonistic responses given. Furthermore, bouts of harassment were found to continue significantly more frequently when responses were agonistic than when they were neutral. Adolescents elicited mostly agonistic responses from targets whereas infants and juveniles received mostly neutral responses. These results support predictions from each hypothesis where harassment functions both as a mechanism of social exploration and as a tool to establish dominance rank.

  19. Comprehensive RNA-Seq transcriptomic profiling across 11 organs, 4 ages, and 2 sexes of Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Zhao, Chen; Su, Zhenqiang; Wang, Charles; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Shi, Leming

    2014-01-01

    The rat is used extensively by the pharmaceutical, regulatory, and academic communities for safety assessment of drugs and chemicals and for studying human diseases; however, its transcriptome has not been well studied. As part of the SEQC (i.e., MAQC-III) consortium efforts, a comprehensive RNA-Seq data set was constructed using 320 RNA samples isolated from 10 organs (adrenal gland, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, spleen, thymus, and testes or uterus) from both sexes of Fischer 344 rats across four ages (2-, 6-, 21-, and 104-week-old) with four biological replicates for each of the 80 sample groups (organ-sex-age). With the Ribo-Zero rRNA removal and Illumina RNA-Seq protocols, 41 million 50 bp single-end reads were generated per sample, yielding a total of 13.4 billion reads. This data set could be used to identify and validate new rat genes and transcripts, develop a more comprehensive rat transcriptome annotation system, identify novel gene regulatory networks related to tissue specific gene expression and development, and discover genes responsible for disease and drug toxicity and efficacy.

  20. Knockdown of Immature Colon Carcinoma Transcript 1 Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo; Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhiyu; Wu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Non–small cell lung cancer, as the most frequent type lung cancer, has lower survival rate of 5 years, despite improvements in surgery and chemotherapy. Previous studies showed immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 is closely related to tumorigenesis of human cancer cells. In the present study, we found immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues using Oncomine database mining, and the biological effect of immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 was investigated in non–small cell lung cancer cell lines 95D and A549. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to knock down immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 expression in 95D and A549 cells in vitro, and the knockdown efficiency was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assay. Knockdown of immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 significantly suppressed non–small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and colony formation ability confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was applied to measure cell cycle arrest, and the result showed the cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase in 95D cells and arrested in G0/G1 phase in A549 cells. Furthermore, we measured the levels of cell cycle–associated proteins by Western blot analysis and found immature colon carcinoma transcript 1–mediated cell proliferation inhibition appeared due to downregulation of cell cycle activator cyclin D1 and upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor p21. In addition, immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 silencing significantly induced non–small cell lung cancer cell apoptosis by annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin D double-staining assay. All our data suggest that immature colon carcinoma transcript 1 may play an important role for non–small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and could be a potential molecular target for diagnosing and treating human non–small cell lung cancer. PMID:27413166

  1. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  2. Propofol Compared to Isoflurane Inhibits Mitochondrial Metabolism in Immature Swine Cerebral Cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Atkinson, D. B.; Ledee, Dolena R.

    2014-01-08

    Anesthetics used in infants and children are implicated in development of neurocognitive disorders. Although propofol induces neuroapoptosis in developing brain, the underlying mechanisms require elucidation and may have an energetic basis. We studied substrate utilization in an immature swine model anesthetized with either propofol or isoflurane for 4 hours. Piglets were infused with 13-Carbon labeled glucose and leucine in the common carotid artery in order to assess citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism in the parietal cortex. The anesthetics produced similar systemic hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen saturation by near-infrared-spectroscopy. Compared to isoflurane, propofol depleted ATP and glycogen stores. Propofol also decreasedmore » pools of the CAC intermediates, citrate and α-ketoglutarate, while markedly increasing succinate along with decreasing mitochondrial complex II activity. Propofol also inhibited acetyl-CoA entry into the CAC through pyruvate dehydrogenase, while promoting glycolytic flux with marked accumulation of lactate. Although oxygen supply appeared similar between the anesthetic groups, propofol yielded a metabolic phenotype which resembled a hypoxic state. Propofol impairs substrate flux through the CAC in the immature cerebral cortex. These impairments occurred without systemic metabolic perturbations which typically accompany propofol infusion syndrome. These metabolic abnormalities may play a role in neurotoxity observed with propofol in the vulnerable immature brain.« less

  3. A Novel Telometric Metric for In-Situ Measurement of Intrauterine Pressure (IUP) in Pregnant and Parturient Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; LaFramboise, M. N.; Hills, E. M.; Daly, M. E.; Mills, N. A.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During labor and birth, considerable forces exerted on fetuses help instigate certain adaptive postpartum responses (viz., breathing and suckling). To make precise, reliable measures of the forces experienced by rat fetuses during parturition, we developed a novel method for measuring intrauterine pressure (IUP) in late pregnant rats. A small (1.25 x 4cm) telemetric blood pressure sensor is fitted within a fluid-filled balloon, similar in size to a full term rat fetus. The balloon is surgically implanted in the uterus on Gestational Day 19 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. During birth, dams are able to deliver their pups and the balloon. IUP arsenals are recorded during labor (G22 or 23) and birth. Data derived from a group of implanted rats indicated that pressures on the balloon increased across the period of birth, reaching 18 mmHg during labor, 25 mmHg during pup births and 39 mmHg just prior to delivery of the balloon. These data are within the range reported for conventional IUP measurement techniques. Dams are simultaneously videotaped, enabling us to analyze behavioral expressions of labor contractions and to integrate in-situ and behavioral findings.

  4. Calcium Channels, Rho-Kinase, Protein Kinase-C, and Phospholipase-C Pathways Mediate Mercury Chloride-Induced Myometrial Contractions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Koli, Swati; Prakash, Atul; Choudhury, Soumen; Mandil, Rajesh; Garg, Satish K

    2018-05-21

    Adverse effects of mercury on female reproduction are reported; however, its effect on myogenic activity of uterus and mechanism thereof is obscure. Present study was undertaken to unravel the mechanistic pathways of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 )-induced myometrial contraction in rats. Isometric tension in myometrial strips of rats following in vitro exposure to HgCl 2 was recorded using data acquisition system-based physiograph. HgCl 2 produced concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 μM) uterotonic effect which was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in Ca 2+ -free solution and inhibited in the presence of nifedipine (1 μM), a L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, thus suggesting the importance of extracellular Ca 2+ and its entry through L-type calcium channels in HgCl 2 -induced myometrial contractions in rats. Cumulative concentration-response curve of HgCl 2 was significantly (p < 0.05) shifted towards right in the presence of Y-27632 (10 μM), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of Ca 2+ -sensitization pathway in mediating HgCl 2 -induced myometrial contraction. HgCl 2 -induced myometrial contraction was also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in the presence of methoctramine or para-fluoro-hexahydro-siladifenidol, a selective M 2 and M 3 receptor antagonists, respectively, which evidently suggest that mercury also interacts with M 2 and M 3 muscarinic receptors to produce myometrial contractions. U-73122 and GF-109203X, the respective inhibitors of PLC and PKC-dependent pathways, downstream to the receptor activation, also significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the uterotonic effect of HgCl 2 on rat uterus. Taken together, present study evidently reveals that HgCl 2 interacts with muscarinic receptors and activates calcium signaling cascades involving calcium channels, Rho-kinase, protein kinase-C, and phospholipase-C pathways to exert uterotonic effect in rats. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract depicting the mechanism of mercury

  5. Changes in lymphocyte accumulation and proliferation in the lymph nodes draining the pregnant uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, J D; McDougall, C M; Speedy, G; Inchley, C J

    1978-01-01

    Changes in weight, lymphocyte accumulation and cellular proliferation have been measured in the lymph nodes draining the uterus during inter- and intra-strain pregnancies and compared with similar effects after other antigenic stimuli. From the data obtained it was concluded that "paternal" antigenic stimulation from the conceptus initiated an immune response in these nodes. The mechanisms of the subsequent suppression of this response are discussed. PMID:657586

  6. Loss of Cdh1 and Pten Accelerates Cellular Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in the Mouse Uterus1

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Mallory E.; Stodden, Genna R.; King, Mandy L.; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1d/d Ptend/d) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice died at Postnatal Days 15–19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death. PMID:23740945

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in the Rat Myometrium During Pregnancy, Term Labor, and Postpartum1

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tina Tu-Thu Ngoc; Shynlova, Oksana; Lye, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy, spontaneous term labor (TL), and postpartum (PP) involution are associated with changes in the cellular and extracellular matrix composition of the uterus. Both the uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) and the infiltrating peripheral blood leukocytes involved in the activation of labor secrete extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) that can modulate cellular behavior and barrier function. MMP expression is induced by mechanical stretch in several tissues. We hypothesized that the expression and activity of myometrial MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are modulated in preparation for TL and PP involution and are regulated by mechanical stretch of uterine walls imposed by the growing fetus. Myometrial tissues were collected from bilaterally and unilaterally pregnant rats across gestation, TL, and PP. Total RNA and proteins were subjected to real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively, and tissue localization and activity was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ zymography. We found that Mmp7, Mmp11, and Mmp12 mRNA levels were upregulated during TL and PP, while Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp8, Mmp9, Mmp10, and Mmp13 mRNAs were only upregulated during PP. Timp1–Timp4 were stably expressed throughout gestation with some fluctuations PP. Active MMP2 was induced in the empty uterine horn during gestation and in the gravid PP uterus, suggesting negative regulation by biological mechanical stretch. We conclude that specific subsets of uterine MMPs are differentially regulated in the rat myometrium in preparation for two major events: TL and PP uterine involution. PMID:27251092

  8. Unilateral renal agenesis with subseptate uterus and sacrococcygeal teratoma: A unique triad

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Muhammad S; Imtiaz, Sheeza; Pathan, Hina; Usman, Rahila

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is a rare condition with a reported incidence of 0.93–1.8 per 1000 autopsies. It is commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging. URA is frequently associated with other genitourinary anomalies. Different associations have been described in both males and females, however, to our knowledge, it has not been reported with subseptate uterus (SSU) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in the same individual. Here, we present a unique case of URA with SSU and SCT. PMID:29089677

  9. Impaired Laparotomy Wound Healing in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Liyu; Culbertson, Eric J.; Wen, Yuan; Robson, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk of laparotomy dehiscence and incisional hernia. The aim of this study was to measure the biological effect of obesity on laparotomy wound healing and the formation of incisional hernias. Methods Normal-weight Sprague–Dawley (SD) and obese Zucker rats were used in an established laparotomy wound healing and incisional ventral hernia model. Mechanical testing was performed on abdominal wall strips collected from laparotomy wounds. Hernia size was measured by digital imaging. Picrosirius staining for collagen isoforms was observed with polarized microscopy. Abdominal wall fibroblasts were cultured to measure collagen matrix remodeling and proliferation. Results Laparotomy wound healing was significantly impaired in obese rats. Mechanical strength was lower than in normal-weight rats. Yield load was reduced in the obese group at all time points. Picrosirius red staining showed increased immature type III collagen content and disorganized type I collagen fibers within laparotomy wounds of obese rats. Wound size was significantly larger in the obese group. Collagen matrix remodeling was impaired with fibroblasts from obese rats, but there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation between the obese and normal-weight groups. Conclusions We observed for the first time that laparotomy wound healing is impaired in obese rats. The recovery of laparotomy wound strength is delayed due to abnormal collagen maturation and remodeling, possibly due to a defect in fibroblast function. Strategies to improve outcomes for laparotomy wound healing in obese patients should include correcting the wound healing defect, possibly with growth factor or cell therapy. PMID:21347822

  10. Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

    2013-07-01

    The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The current challenges to efficient immature oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Brambillasca, Fausta; Guglielmo, Maria Cristina; Coticchio, Giovanni; Mignini Renzini, Mario; Dal Canto, Mariabeatrice; Fadini, Rubens

    2013-12-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation represents an important tool for assisted reproductive technology. It offers the opportunity to preserve fertility in women at risk of loss of the ovarian function for various pathologies. It also represents a treatment alternative for couples that cannot benefit from embryo cryopreservation because of moral, religious, or legal constrains. On the other hand, in vitro oocyte maturation has a range of applications. It can be applied in patients with a contraindication to ovarian stimulation to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or to eliminate the risk of stimulation of hormone-sensitive tumours in cancer patients. However, while mature oocyte cryopreservation has found wide-spread application and oocyte in vitro maturation has a place for the treatment of specific clinical conditions, data on the efficiency of freezing of immature or in vitro matured oocytes are poorer. In this review we will focus on the combination of oocyte in vitro maturation with oocyte cryopreservation with particular emphasis on the biological implications of the cryopreservation of immature or in vitro matured oocytes. The two cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing and vitrification, will be discussed in relation to possible cryodamage occurring to subcellular structures of the oocyte and the functional interaction between oocyte and cumulus cells.

  12. Hypoplastic uterus and clitoris enlargement in Swyer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hétu, Valérie; Caron, Evelyne; Francoeur, Diane

    2010-02-01

    Swyer syndrome is associated with absent testicular differentiation in a 46XY phenotypic female. A 17-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and 46XY karyotype. Breast and pubic hair development were Tanner 2, and clitoral enlargement was noted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic uterus and 2 "normal ovaries." Serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were elevated. Testosterone and androstenedione were in the female range. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was slightly elevated. Laparoscopic bilateral gonadectomy was performed. Pathology reports showed bilateral microscopic benign hilar cell tumors. The diagnosis was a real puzzle for the clinicians because of the association of clitoral hypertrophy without hirsutism, female internal genitalia, and a 46XY karyotype. Clitoral enlargement can be explained by transient androgen secretion by the hilar cells found in the resected gonads. Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethogram of Immature Green Turtles: Behavioral Strategies for Somatic Growth in Large Marine Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Junichi; Nakajima, Kana; Noda, Takuji; Kimura, Satoko; Kamihata, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Masato; Arai, Nobuaki; Kagawa, Shiro; Kawabata, Yuuki; Yamada, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Animals are assumed to obtain/conserve energy effectively to maximise their fitness, which manifests itself in a variety of behavioral strategies. For marine animals, however, these behavioral strategies are generally unknown due to the lack of high-resolution monitoring techniques in marine habitats. As large marine herbivores, immature green turtles do not need to allocate energy to reproduction but are at risk of shark predation, although it is a rare occurrence. They are therefore assumed to select/use feeding and resting sites that maximise their fitness in terms of somatic growth, while avoiding predation. We investigated fine-scale behavioral patterns (feeding, resting and other behaviors), microhabitat use and time spent on each behavior for eight immature green turtles using data loggers including: depth, global positioning system, head acceleration, speed and video sensors. Immature green turtles at Iriomote Island, Japan, spent an average of 4.8 h feeding on seagrass each day, with two peaks, between 5∶00 and 9∶00, and between 17∶00 and 20∶00. This feeding pattern appeared to be restricted by gut capacity, and thus maximised energy acquisition. Meanwhile, most of the remaining time was spent resting at locations close to feeding grounds, which allowed turtles to conserve energy spent travelling and reduced the duration of periods exposed to predation. These behavioral patterns and time allocations allow immature green turtles to effectively obtain/conserve energy for growth, thus maximising their fitness. PMID:23840367

  14. Antifertility effect of betal leaf stalk (Tambul patrabrint): a preliminary experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tewari, P V; Chaturvedi, C; Dixit, S N

    1970-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine possible antifertility properties of the stalk of the betel plant, Piper betle, which is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of India for its leaves. The thin stalks were dried, powdered, and extracted with alcohol; the residue was used in the study and named betel leaf stalk extract (BLSE). It was macerated with gum acacia, suspended in distilled water, and diluted to 25 mg/ml. The drug was fed by oral intubation. Initially 20 rats were used in 2 groups, one receiving BLSE 50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days and the other vehicle only. Both were caged with males for 15 days. Only 2 of 10 rats receiving BLSE gave birth to litters while 9 of 10 controls delivered. Number of pups was also reduced. In another experiment using 60 female rats to 30 while BLSE at 50 mg/100 gm body weight was fed for 3 days during diestrus to 30 while 30 controls received vehicle only. Successful mating was confirmed by sperm in vaginal smears. 8 of 30 treated rats delivered 3.5 pups each while 29 of 30 controls delivered 7 pups per rat. In a third experiment 10 female rats were given BLSE 50mg/100 gm body weight, 10 vehicle only, and 10 neoclinesterol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5 the animals were sacrificed and weights of uterus and ovaries recorded. Antiestrogenic properties were studied in oophorectomized rats given stilbestrol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight by injection, then fed 150 mcg/100 gm body weight of neoclinesterol or BLSE, 50 mg/100 gm, but the neoclinesterol. Vaginal smears were examined for cornification on Days 2, 3, and 4. Progestational activity was studied in 12 immature female rabbits injected with stilbestrol then treated with BLSE or leutocycline. Tests for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of BLSE were negative. A mild progestational activity was found in immature estrogen-primed rabbits but some follicle depressant type action was noted as several graffian follicles were seen in their

  15. Influence of position and length of uterus on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF and embryo transfer treatment cycles.

    PubMed

    Egbase, P E; Al-Sharhan, M; Grudzinskas, J G

    2000-09-01

    In a prospective study of 807 consecutive women shown to have an apparently normal uterus after hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy or pelvic ultrasonography prior to IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer, the position and length of the uterine cavity was measured routinely at a pre-treatment mock transfer procedure. The apparent length of the uterine cavity was <7 cm in 128 women (group 1), 7-9 cm in 594 women (group 2) and >9 cm in 85 women (group 3). The uterus was noted to be retroverted in 38. 2% (308) women. The embryo transfer catheter was advanced to 5 mm from the uterine fundus based on the previously determined cavity length in all the embryo transfer procedures at 48 h after oocyte collection. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different with respect to position of the uterus, difficulties encountered in passage of the catheter, mean age of the women, aetiology or duration of infertility or embryology events. An apparently greater cavity length was seen in older and/or parous women, but the difference was not statistically significant. Although the highest implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were seen in women with a cavity length of 7-9 cm (group 2) the differences were not statistically significant: group 1, 18.9 and 36. 7%; group 2, 21.0 and 46.5%; and group 3, 17.3 and 32.9% respectively. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy per reported clinical pregnancy was highest in group 1 women, being 14.9% (7/47) in comparison with group 2 (1.8%, 5/276) and group 3 (0%, 0/27) (P: < 0.0005), suggesting that the size of the uterus is a critical factor in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy in IVF/ICSI-embryo transfer.

  16. Subclinical Pregnancy Toxemia-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Ovine Placenta and Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle, and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT) and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1 day) post-breeding, ewes (n = 18) had body condition score (BCS; 1–5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese) assessed, and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analyses. The ewes were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes. Based on BCS (2.0 ± 0.02), glucose (2.4 ± 0.33), and BHBA (0.97 ± 0.06) concentrations, ewes (n = 10) were grouped as healthy (n = 5) and subclinical SCPT (n = 5) ewes. The mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative PCR method, and prediction of miRNA partners and target genes for the predicted miRNA were identified using miRDB (http://mirdb.org/miRDB/). Top ranked target genes were used to identify associated biological functions and pathways in response to SPCT using PANTHER. The angiogenesis genes VEGF and PlGF, and AdipoQ, AdipoR2, PPARG, LEP, IGF1, IGF2, IL1b, and TNFα mRNA expressions were lower in abundances, whereas hypoxia genes eNOS, HIF1a, and HIF 2a, and sFlt1 and KDR mRNA expressions were greater in abundances in uterus and placenta of SCPT ewes compared to healthy ewes (P < 0.05). The predicted miRNA and associated target genes contributed to several biological processes, including apoptosis, biological adhesion, biological regulation, cellular component biogenesis, cellular process, developmental process, immune system process, localization, metabolic process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. The target genes were involved in several pathways including angiogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, hypoxia response via HIF activation, interleukin signaling, ubiquitin proteasome, and VEGF signaling pathway. In

  17. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment versus Apical Plug in Immature Teeth: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Nosrat, Ali

    This report compares and evaluates the treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment and apical plug as two accepted treatment protocols in a pair of necrotic immature maxillary central incisors of a 12-year old female. The patient was referred complaining of a dull pain and swelling in her upper lip area. She had a history of trauma to the anterior maxilla two years earlier. Both teeth were clinically diagnosed with pulp necrosis and periapical radiographs revealed that separate periapical radiolucent lesions surrounded the immature apices of both teeth. The left and right incisors were treated with apical plug and regenerative endodontic treatment, respectively, using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. The patient was followed-up for three years. During this period, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic and showed complete radiographic healing of the periapical lesions. The right central incisor showed root development. No tooth discoloration was evident. Apexification by apical plug placement and pulp regeneration are both reliable treatments for immature non-vital teeth. In order to choose the right treatment the advantages of either technique should be weighed against its drawbacks. CEM cement can be successfully applied for both purposes. This biomaterial causes less discoloration of the tooth.

  18. The Dose-response of Intrathecal Ropivacaine Co-administered with Sufentanil for Cesarean Delivery under Combined Spinal-epidural Anesthesia in Patients with Scarred Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Xu, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Yin-Fa; Liu, Lin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Li-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal anesthesia is considered as a reasonable anesthetic option in lower abdominal and lower limb surgery. This study was to determine the dose-response of intrathecal ropivacaine in patients with scarred uterus undergoing cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods: Seventy-five patients with scarred uterus undergoing elective cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, dose-ranging study. Patients received 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 mg intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine with 5 μg sufentanil. Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as a T4 sensory level achieved with no need for epidural supplementation. The 50% effective dose (ED50) and 95% effective dose (ED95) were calculated with a logistic regression model. Results: ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine for patients with scarred uterus undergoing cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) were 8.28 mg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.28–9.83 mg) and 12.24 mg (95% CI: 10.53–21.88 mg), respectively. Conclusion: When a CSEA technique is to use in patients with scarred uterus for an elective cesarean delivery, the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine along with 5 μg sufentanil were 8.28 mg and 12.24 mg, respectively. In addition, this local anesthetic is unsuitable for emergent cesarean delivery, but it has advantages for ambulatory patients. PMID:26415793

  19. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor of the Uterus with Ovarian Involvement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Megan; Pulver, Tanya; Klein, Molly; Murugan, Paari; Khalifa, Mahmoud; Amin, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 61 Final Diagnosis: Uterine PEComa with ovarian involvement Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology Objective: Rare disease Background: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a rare group of neoplasms composed of epithelioid cells that express both melanocytic and myoid markers. When considering PEComas of the female genital tract, the uterus is the most common location. Involvement of the ovary in the context of a primary uterine PEComa, in the absence of systemic disease associated with tuberous sclerosis, however, has only been reported in 1 previous case. Case Report: We report a case of a PEComa of the uterus with metastasis to the left ovary in a 61-year-old Caucasian woman. Gross examination of the uterus revealed a 10.7×10.5×10.2 cm tan-brown, mostly solid, partially cystic mass. Microscopic examination showed epithelioid cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, arranged in fascicles. Intranuclear pseudoinclusions were also noted. The tumor cells were smooth muscle actin, caldesmon, and desmin positive (diffuse); HMB-45 positive (focal); and Melan-A, AE1/AE3, CD10, and S100 negative by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: Distinguishing among mesenchymal neoplasms, including PEComas, endometrial stromal sarcomas, and leiomyosarcomas, can be difficult. Careful analysis of morphologic and immunohistochemical features is of the utmost importance. Differential diagnosis, including morphologic features and immunohistochemical patterns, is also discussed. PMID:27150246

  20. Regenerative endodontic treatment (revascularization) of immature necrotic molars medicated with calcium hydroxide: a case series.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Isbitiren, Beste; Sara, Sezgi; Erbas, Gizem

    2011-09-01

    Revascularization is an emerging regenerative treatment protocol with little published data available in immature molar teeth. The present case series demonstrates the outcome of revascularization treatment with intracanal medicament of calcium hydroxide in immature necrotic molars. Immature necrotic permanent first molars (n = 6) of patients 8-11 years old were treated by a revascularization protocol that used 2.5% NaOCl irrigation, medication with calcium hydroxide placed in the coronal third of the root canals, induction of apical bleeding, and coronal sealing with white mineral trioxide aggregate. Among the treated teeth, 4 molars had undergone prior root canal instrumentation by the referring dentists. National Institutes of Health Image-J program with TurboReg plug-in was used for standardization of the radiographs and to determine the increase in root length and root width. After a follow-up period of 10 months, all teeth demonstrated radiographic evidence of complete periapical healing, progressive thickening of dentinal walls, and continued apical development in the absence of clinical symptoms. Two uninstrumented molars showed a positive response to cold testing at 9 months. On the basis of a follow-up period of 10 months, the present cases demonstrate a favorable outcome of the revascularization procedure in immature necrotic molars by using calcium hydroxide medication in the coronal third of the root canals. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Over-the-Horizon Tactical Communications in an Immature Theater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    frequency bands, capacity, costs, and mobility, the research examines both alternate portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and rising technologies...IMMATURE THEATER, by Major Samuel Eugene Sinclair, 75 pages. This qualitative research in the field of over-the-horizon (OTH) voice communications

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Platelet Rich Fibrin-Mediated Tissue Repair in Immature Canine Pulpless Teeth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi Lin; Yang, Pan Pan; Ge, Li Hong; Liu, He

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the regenerative therapy of immature canine permanent teeth. Eight immature premolars of beagle dogs were pulp extracted and cleaned with irrigation, then divided into two groups of empty root canals and those filled with a PRF clot. All of the eight premolars were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement. Two premolars were left naturally grown as a positive control. The root development was assessed radiographically and histologically after 12 weeks. The radiological findings showed greater increases in the thickness of lateral dentinal wall in the PRF group than in the vacant group. Histologically, dental-associated mineral tissue, connective tissue, and bone-like mineral tissue grew into the root canals independent of PRF clot use. The PRF was able to increase the thickness of dental-associated mineral tissue. However, the vital tissue differed from the pulp dentin complex. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of using PRF-mediated regenerative therapy in pulpless immature teeth for improving tissue repair.

  3. Effect of KnockOut serum replacement on germ cell development of immature testis tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Cai, Chunhong; Wu, Xin; Cheng, Yanxia; Lin, Tao; Wei, Guanghui; He, Dawei

    2016-01-15

    To compare KnockOut serum replacement (KSR) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the development of germ cells. Testicular tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured for 4 weeks in culture media supplemented with FBS or KSR. Tissue area was measured at the beginning and end of the culturing period. Testicular histology, development of the germ cells, and the diameter of seminiferous tubules were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. After 4 weeks in culture, apoptosis and expression of the stage-specific spermatogenesis marker genes Kit, Sycp3, and Crisp1 were assayed. Tissues cultured in KSR-supplemented media were able to sustain growth and gradually increase seminiferous tubule diameter during the culture period. In addition, spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, and round spermatids were observed after 4 weeks in culture, and reverse transcription-PCR confirmed expression of the marker genes. In comparison, tissues cultured in FBS-supplemented media showed dwindling testicular organization, necrotic seminiferous tubules, and expression of Kit, but inconsistent expression of Sycp3 and Crisp1 KnockOut serum replacement outperforms FBS as a growth media supplements for culturing immature spermatogonial tissue culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hysteroscopic enlargement metroplasty for T-shaped uterus: 24 years' experience at the Strasbourg Medico-Surgical and Obstetrical Centre (CMCO).

    PubMed

    Ducellier-Azzola, G; Lecointre, L; Hummel, M; Pontvianne, M; Garbin, O

    2018-05-12

    What is the impact of hysteroscopic enlargement metroplasty for T-shaped uterus on the live birth rate? Performing enlargement metroplasty appears to improve the obstetrical prognosis and fertility in patients with a T-shaped uterus. T-shaped uterus is linked to an excess of myometrium in the uterine walls giving rise to a subcornual constriction ring which causes dysmorphism and hypoplasia of the uterine cavity. It is commonly associated with infertility or a sequence of repeated miscarriages. Single-centre observational cohort study in 112 patients who underwent enlargement metroplasty for T-shaped uterus between 1992 and 2016 in a Strasbourg university hospital centre. The mean age of patients was 33.2; they had been attempting to conceive on average for 56 months for subfertile patients and 42.2 months for infertile patients. Prior to surgery, patients had succeeded in becoming pregnant 161 times, i.e. a mean gravidity of 1.4 pregnancies. For subfertile patients the mean gravidity was 2.67. Mean parity was 0.04. In the overall population, one hundred pregnancies occurred following enlargement metroplasty. The live birth rate increased in a statistically significant manner following enlargement metroplasty: 4 (2.5%) vs. 60 (60%), p < 0.05. In parallel, the miscarriage rate was statistically reduced: 126 (78.3%) vs. 22 (22%), pnull< .05. Intraoperative complications were 1 case of cervical laceration (0.9%) and 1 case of false passage (0.9%). Subsequent pregnancies remained at risk of miscarriage (22%) and premature delivery (20%) but not extra uterine gestation. Delivery took place by Caesarean section in 61% of cases. In the subgroup of infertile patients, the live birth rate was also markedly increased and 49% of pregnancies which occurred were spontaneous. This study was descriptive and retrospective. These results are consistent with those in the literature. Hysteroscopic enlargement metroplasty is now a well-established technique with few

  5. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  6. Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Dunkel, Lynda P; Van Noordwijk, Maria A; Wich, Serge A; Sura, Agnes A L; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-01-01

    Studies of social learning in the wild are important to complement findings from experiments in captivity. In this field study, immature Bornean orangutans rarely foraged independently but consistently followed their mothers' choices. Their diets were essentially identical to their mothers' even though not all mothers had the same diet. This suggests vertical transmission of diet by enhancement. Also, immatures selectively observed their mothers during extractive foraging, which increased goal-directed practice but not general manipulation of similar objects, suggesting observational forms of learning of complex skills. Teaching was not observed. These results are consistent with the reported presence of food traditions and skill cultures in wild orangutans. We suggest that food traditions can develop wherever association commonly allows for social learning. However, the capacity for observational learning, and thus more complex culture, is more likely to evolve among extractive foragers with prolonged association between adults and immatures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Uterine progesterone signaling is a target for metformin therapy in PCOS-like rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Feng, Jiaxing; Xu, Xue; Zhang, Jiao; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaozhu; Li, Juan; Vestin, Edvin; Cui, Peng; Li, Xin; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Brännström, Mats; Shao, Linus R; Billig, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    Impaired progesterone (P4) signaling is linked to endometrial dysfunction and infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here, we report for the first time that elevated expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms A and B parallels increased estrogen receptor (ER) expression in PCOS-like rat uteri. The aberrant PGR-targeted gene expression in PCOS-like rats before and after implantation overlaps with dysregulated expression of Fkbp52 and Ncoa2 , two genes that contribute to the development of uterine P4 resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effects of metformin on the regulation of the uterine P4 signaling pathway under PCOS conditions showed that metformin directly inhibits the expression of PGR and ER along with the regulation of several genes that are targeted dependently or independently of PGR-mediated uterine implantation. Functionally, metformin treatment corrected the abnormal expression of cell-specific PGR and ER and some PGR-target genes in PCOS-like rats with implantation. Additionally, we documented how metformin contributes to the regulation of the PGR-associated MAPK/ERK/p38 signaling pathway in the PCOS-like rat uterus. Our data provide novel insights into how metformin therapy regulates uterine P4 signaling molecules under PCOS conditions. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. The impact of different ale brewer's yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer.

    PubMed

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-09-30

    It is well known that brewer's yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer's yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by ale brewer's yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and MS/MS and revealed common beer proteins, such as lipid transfer proteins (LTP1 and LTP2), protein Z and amylase-protease inhibitors. During fermentation, two protein spots, corresponding to LTP2, disappeared, while three protein spots were exclusively found in beer. These three proteins, all derived from yeast, were identified as cell wall associated proteins, that is Exg1 (an exo-β-1,3-glucanase), Bgl2 (an endo-β-1,2-glucanase), and Uth1 (a cell wall biogenesis protein). Yeast strain dependent changes in the immature beer proteome were identified, i.e. Bgl2 was present in beer brewed with KVL011, while lacking in WLP001 beer.

  9. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; Barbour, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st–2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  10. Synthesis and assembly of retrovirus Gag precursors into immature capsids in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sakalian, M; Parker, S D; Weldon, R A; Hunter, E

    1996-01-01

    The assembly of retroviral particles is mediated by the product of the gag gene; no other retroviral gene products are necessary for this process. While most retroviruses assemble their capsids at the plasma membrane, viruses of the type D class preassemble immature capsids within the cytoplasm of infected cells. This has allowed us to determine whether immature capsids of the prototypical type D retrovirus, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), can assemble in a cell-free protein synthesis system. We report here that assembly of M-PMV Gag precursor proteins can occur in this in vitro system. Synthesized particles sediment in isopycnic gradients to the appropriate density and in thin-section electron micrographs have a size and appearance consistent with those of immature retrovirus capsids. The in vitro system described in this report appears to faithfully mimic the process of assembly which occurs in the host cell cytoplasm, since M-PMV gag mutants defective in in vivo assembly also fail to assemble in vitro. Likewise, the Gag precursor proteins of retroviruses that undergo type C morphogenesis, Rous sarcoma virus and human immunodeficiency virus, which do not preassemble capsids in vivo, fail to assemble particles in this system. Additionally, we demonstrate, with the use of anti-Gag antibodies, that this cell-free system can be utilized for analysis in vitro of potential inhibitors of retrovirus assembly. PMID:8648705

  11. Frequent Calcium Oscillations Lead to NFAT Activation in Human Immature Dendritic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Vukcevic, Mirko; Zorzato, Francesco; Spagnoli, Giulio; Treves, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations have been observed in a number of excitable and non-excitable cells, but in most cases their biological role remains elusive. In the present study we demonstrate that spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations occur in immature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells but not in dendritic cells stimulated to undergo maturation with lipopolysaccharide or other toll like-receptor agonists. We investigated the mechanism and role of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in immature dendritic cells and found that they are mediated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor as they were blocked by pretreatment of cells with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist Xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate. A component of the Ca2+ signal is also due to influx from the extracellular environment and may be involved in maintaining the level of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. As to their biological role, our results indicate that they are intimately linked to the “immature” phenotype and are associated with the translocation of the transcription factor NFAT into the nucleus. In fact, once the Ca2+ oscillations are blocked with 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate or by treating the cells with lipopolysaccharide, NFAT remains cytoplasmic. The results presented in this report provide novel insights into the physiology of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and into the mechanisms involved in maintaining the cells in the immature stage. PMID:20348098

  12. Continued root maturation despite persistent apical periodontitis of immature permanent teeth after failed regenerative endodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Kim, Sahng G; Martin, Gabriela; Kahler, Bill

    2018-01-16

    Three immature permanent teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were treated with regenerative endodontic therapy (RET), which included root canal disinfection with sodium hypochlorite irrigation, intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide paste, 17% EDTA rinse, induction of periapical bleeding into the canal, collagen matrix and MTA coronal seal, and composite resin restoration of access cavities. After different periods of follow-up, it was observed that continued root maturation, especially apical closure occurred despite persistent apical periodontitis of immature permanent teeth after failed RET. This finding is of interest as the secondary goal of further root maturation occurred despite failure of the primary goal of elimination of clinical symptom/sign and periapical inflammation. The possible biological mechanisms that could allow for further root maturation to occur in spite of persistent root canal infection of immature permanent teeth are discussed. Based on these observations, the biology of wound healing of immature permanent teeth after injury is not fully understood and should be further investigated. This case report demonstrates that whilst further root maturation is considered a successful outcome for teeth treated with RET, the primary objective must be the resolution of the signs and symptoms of apical periodontitis. © 2018 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  13. Involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in myometrial responses in the pro-oestral rat.

    PubMed Central

    Acritopoulou-Fourcroy, S.; Marçais-Collado, H.

    1988-01-01

    1. Myometrial responses to different agents acting on adrenoceptors were examined in vivo in the pro-oestrous rat. Changes in spontaneous uterine mechanical activity were recorded isometrically and evaluated in terms of amplitude and duration of uterine contractions. 2. Phenylephrine (10 micrograms kg-1) markedly increased the amplitude and duration of contractions and 40 micrograms kg-1 gave rise to tetanic contractions. 3. Administration of either nicergoline (400 micrograms kg-1) or phentolamine (1000 micrograms kg-1) to phenylephrine-primed rat uterus reduced the strength of contractions and phentolamine abolished the phenylephrine-induced uterine contracture. 4. Following blockade of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by yohimbine (1000 micrograms kg-1) and beta-adrenoceptors by propranolol (2400 micrograms kg-1), a single injection of phenylephrine (100 micrograms kg-1) increased the amplitude of uterine contractions by 30%. 5. Noradrenaline reduced the amplitude of contractions and caused elevation of the baseline level. The response of myometrium to the combination of both propranolol and noradrenaline was the establishment of uterine contracture with subsequent increase of the duration of contractions. 6. These results clearly demonstrate the involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in the myometrial activity of the rat in vivo during pro-oestrus. PMID:2832026

  14. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Comparison of measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained by magnetic resonance and transabdominal ultrasound imaging to identify the brachytherapy target in patients with cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Sylvia; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Schneider, Michal; Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash

    2014-03-15

    To compare measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transabdominal ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound can identify the brachytherapy target and be used to guide conformal brachytherapy planning and treatment for cervix cancer. Consecutive patients undergoing curative treatment with radiation therapy between January 2007 and March 2012 were included in the study. Intrauterine applicators were inserted into the uterine canal while patients were anesthetized. Images were obtained by MRI and transabdominal ultrasound in the longitudinal axis of the uterus with the applicator in treatment position. Measurements were taken at the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus at 2.0-cm intervals along the applicator, from the external os to the tip of the applicator. Data were analyzed using Bland Altman plots examining bias and 95% limits of agreement. A total of 192 patients contributed 1668 measurements of the cervix and uterus. Mean (± SD) differences of measurements between imaging modalities at the anterior and posterior uterine surface ranged from 1.5 (± 3.353) mm to 3.7 (± 3.856) mm, and -1.46 (± 3.308) mm to 0.47 (± 3.502) mm, respectively. The mean differences were less than 3 mm in the cervix. The mean differences were less than 1.5 mm at all measurement points on the posterior surface. Differences in the measurements of the cervix and uterus obtained by MRI and ultrasound were within clinically acceptable limits. Transabdominal ultrasound can be substituted for MRI in defining the target volume for conformal brachytherapy treatment of cervix cancer. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Morais, Rosana N; Spercoski, Katherinne M; Rossi, Stefani C; Vechi, Marina F; Golin, Munisa; Lombardi, Natália F; Greca, Cláudio S; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2010-01-08

    Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Three different dose levels of TT (11, 42 and 110 mg/kg/day) were administered to castrated males for 7 days and to intact males and castrated females for 28 days. In addition to TT treatment, all experiments also included a group of rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In experiments using castrated males and females we also used testosterone and 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, respectively, as positive controls for androgenicity and estrogenicity. Neither DHEA nor TT was able to stimulate androgen sensitive tissues like the prostate and seminal vesicle in both intact and castrated male rats. In addition, administration of TT to intact male rats for 28 days did not change serum testosterone levels as well as did not produce any quantitative change in the fecal excretion of androgenic metabolites. However, a slight increase in the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids was observed in rats treated with 11 mg/kg/day of TT extract. In ovariectomized females, TT did not produce any stimulatory effects in uterine and vaginal epithelia. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. We also showed a positive effect of TT administration on rat sperm production, associated with unchanged levels of circulating androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activation of either the ETA or the ETB receptors is involved in the development of electrographic seizures following intrahippocampal infusion of the endothelin-1 in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Tsenov, Grygoriy; Vondrakova, Katerina; Otahal, Jakub; Burchfiel, James; Kubova, Hana

    2015-03-01

    and all the measured seizure parameters (seizure frequency, average and total seizure duration) in the ET-1 group. In addition, the severity of morphological damage positively correlated with the average seizure duration in animals after infusion of ET-1+ETA receptor antagonist or after infusion of ET-1+ETB receptor antagonist. Our results indicate that the activation of ETA receptors is crucial for ischemia development, however either ETA or ETB receptors mediate the development of seizures following the application of ET-1 in immature rats. The dissociation between the ischemic-producing and seizure-producing processes suggests that damage is not necessary to induce seizures, although it may exacerbate them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. CT and MR imaging findings of lymphangioleiomyomatosis involving the uterus and pelvic cavity.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Sung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Park, Jong Sup

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex.

  19. Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect the Immature Brain in Rats and Modulate Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin; Oppliger, Byron; Joerger-Messerli, Marianne; Reinhart, Ursula; Barnea, Eytan; Paidas, Michael; Kramer, Boris W; Surbek, Daniel V; Schoeberlein, Andreina

    2017-02-15

    The development of a mammalian brain is a complex and long-lasting process. Not surprisingly, preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Advances in perinatal care reduced mortality, but morbidity still represents a major burden. New therapeutic approaches are thus desperately needed. Given that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising candidate for cell therapy, we transplanted MSCs derived from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ-MSCs) to reduce the burden of immature brain injury in a murine animal model. WJ-MSCs transplantation resulted in protective activity characterized by reduced myelin loss and astroglial activation. WJ-MSCs improved locomotor behavior as well. To address the underlying mechanisms, we tested the key regulators of responses to DNA-damaging agents, such as cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase/calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKA/PKC), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated/ATM- and Rad3-related (ATM/ATR) substrates, protein kinase B (Akt), and 14-3-3 binding protein partners. We characterized WJ-MSCs using a specific profiler polymerase chain reaction array. We provide evidence that WJ-MSCs target pivotal regulators of the cell fate such as CDK/14-3-3/Akt signaling. We identified leukemia inhibitory factor as a potential candidate of WJ-MSCs' induced modifications as well. We hypothesize that WJ-MSCs may exert adaptive responses depending on the type of injury they are facing, making them prominent candidates for cell therapy in perinatal injuries.

  20. Planar cell polarity signaling in the uterus directs appropriate positioning of the crypt for embryo implantation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jia; Cha, Jeeyeon; Deng, Wenbo; Bartos, Amanda; Sun, Xiaofei; Ho, Hsin-Yi Henry; Borg, Jean-Paul; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Yang, Yingzi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2016-01-01

    Blastocyst implantation is a complex process requiring coordination of a dynamic sequence of embryo–uterine interactions. Blood vessels enter the uterus from the mesometrium, demarcating the uterus into mesometrial (M) and antimesometrial (AM) domains. Implantation occurs along the uterine longitudinal axis within specialized implantation chambers (crypts) that originate within the evaginations directed from the primary lumen toward the AM domain. The morphological orientation of crypts in rodent uteri was recognized more than a century ago, but the mechanism remained unknown. Here we provide evidence that planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling orchestrates directed epithelial evaginations to form crypts for implantation in mice. Uterine deletion of Vang-like protein 2, but not Vang-like protein 1, conferred aberrant PCP signaling, misdirected epithelial evaginations, defective crypt formation, and blastocyst attachment, leading to severely compromised pregnancy outcomes. The study reveals a previously unrecognized role for PCP in executing spatial cues for crypt formation and implantation. Because PCP is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, our study is likely to inspire implantation studies of this signaling pathway in humans and other species. PMID:27911818

  1. Fracture resistance of simulated immature tooth roots reinforced with MTA or restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Karapinar-Kazandag, Meric; Basrani, Bettina; Tom-Kun Yamagishi, Valerie; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Friedman, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    Immature endodontically treated teeth may require reinforcing to reduce the risk of root fracture. This study assessed the fracture resistance of simulated immature tooth roots reinforced with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or two composite resin (CR) materials. One hundred extracted roots of mature human maxillary incisors were decoronated and sectioned 9 mm further apically from the decoronation line and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). In Group 1 (negative control), roots received no treatment. In groups 2-5, canals were enlarged to 2.1 mm diameter to simulate immature roots, dressed with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) and incubated for 7 days. After removal of Ca(OH)2 , canals in Group 2 (positive control) were left unfilled. Canals in groups 3, 4 and 5 were filled with MTA, BisFil 2B flowable CR or BisFil II posterior CR, respectively. After further incubation for 30 days, specimens were embedded in acrylic cylinders and horizontally loaded in a universal testing machine at cross head speed of 5 mm min(-1) until fracture occurred. Load (N) at and pattern of fracture were recorded. Load at fracture was significantly lower (t-test, P = 0.003) in Group 2 (630 ± 199.12) than in Group 1 (896.98 ± 311.79). It did not differ significantly among groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 (anova, P > 0.07). Pattern of fracture did not differ among the groups either. Within the limitations of this study, root canal filling with MTA and two CR materials affected reinforcement of simulated immature roots to levels comparable with intact roots. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary pregnant uterine horn in a pseudo-unicornuate uterus at 23 weeks of amenorrhea. Case report].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Guillot, E; Cordier, A-G; Chis, C; Raynal, P; Panel, P

    2008-04-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation associated with a high risk of uterine rupture. We report the case of a pregnancy developed in a non communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus complicated by horn rupture at 23 weeks of amenorrhea showing as an acute abdominal pain and massive hemoperitoneum. This patient's uterine abnormality was known before, as this woman has delivered two years before at term a healthy boy by cesarean section. This past pregnancy was located in the normal horn and the non communicating rudimentary horn seemed at this time normal. This uterine malformation is presented with its gynecological and obstetrical entailments as well as methods that could prevent such outcome.

  3. Altered expression of histone deacetylases, inflammatory cytokines and contractile-associated factors in uterine myometrium of Long Evans rats gestationally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Laknaur, Archana; Foster, Terri-Lee; Bobb, Lesley E.; Ramesh, Aramandla; Ladson, Gwinnett M.; Hood, Darryl B.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Thota, Chandrasekhar

    2017-01-01

    Etiology of preterm birth (PTB) is multifactorial; therefore, decreasing the incidence of PTB is a major challenge in the field of obstetrics. Epidemiological studies have reported an association between toxicants and PTB. However, there are no studies on the role of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), an environmental toxicant, in the incidence of PTB. We first assessed the effects of BaP (150 and 300 μg kg−1 body weight) dosed via gavage from day 14 to 17 of pregnancy on gestation length in Long Evans rats. We further assessed the histopathology of the uterus, expression of inflammatory cytokines, contractile-associated factors, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and NFқB-p65 in myometrium collected on day 22 postpartum versus vehicle-treated controls. In our study, rats exposed to BaP delivered prematurely (P < 0.05) compared to control. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of uterus showed squamous metaplasia, glandular and stromal hyperplasia in BaP-exposed rats versus control. The concentrations of BaP metabolites measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography were higher in uterine myometrium of BaP-exposed rats while they were undetectable in controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed significant increases in mRNA expression of interleukin-1β and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, connexin 43, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F2α receptor as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that BaP exposure caused decreases in class I HDACs 1 and 3 and increases in class II HDAC 5, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and nuclear translocation of NFκB-p65 relative to controls. Our results suggest that gestational exposure to BaP increases incidence of PTB through epigenetic changes that causes increases in the expression of contractile-associated factors through the NFκB pathway. PMID:26358852

  4. Simultaneous determination of osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin in rat plasma and tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Ma, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Xiaojing; Sun, Jingjing; Tang, Bowen; Cui, Guangbo; Yao, Di; Liu, Lei; Gu, Guiying; Zhu, Jianwei; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2014-11-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method for simultaneous quantitation of osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin in rat plasma and tissues was developed by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After liquid-liquid extraction of samples with methyl tert-butyl ether, the analytes and dextrorphan (internal standard, IS) were separated by a Hypersil GOLD AQ C18 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile and water containing 0.5‰ formic acid. Three determinands were detected using an electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes with positive electrospray ionization. Calibration curves were recovered over the concentration ranges of 1-200 ng/ml, 1-500 ng/ml, 0.25-200 ng/ml for osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin in plasma; 1-100 ng/ml, 1-500 ng/ml, 0.5-100 ng/ml for osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin in tissues, respectively. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) was within 13.90% and the intra-day accuracy (R.E.) was within -6.27 to 6.84% in all biological matrixes. The inter-day precision (R.S.D.) was less than 13.66% and the inter-day accuracy (R.E.) was within -10.64 to 13.04%. Then the method was successfully applied to investigate plasma pharmacokinetic study and tissue distribution of osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin in rats after oral administration of Fructus Cnidii extraction, especially for testis/uterus tissue distribution. The results demonstrated that osthole, bergapten and isopimpinellin were absorbed and eliminated rapidly with wide distributions in rats. Distribution data of these three bioactive components in testis/uterus tissues could offer useful information for the further preclinical and clinical studies of Fructus Cnidii in the treatment of genital system disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven L; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Prager, Eric M; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Apland, James P; Braga, Maria F M

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2×LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, admini