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Sample records for immigrant household service

  1. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... a FOIA Request LAWS USCIS Federal Register Announcements Administrative Decisions Avoid Scams Buy American, Hire American Policy Memoranda Legal Settlement Notices USCIS Policy Manual Immigration and Nationality Act SERVICES CITIZENSHIP GREEN CARD ...

  2. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    PubMed

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Bridging the Gap: Library Services for Immigrant Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the universality of the student immigrant experience, the acculturation process, the librarians's role in regard to immigrant populations, and successful school and public library responses to the challenges posed by school-age immigrant children. Library programs and services dealing with second- and third-generation immigrants, guest…

  4. Health services and the treatment of immigrants: data on service use, interpreting services and immigrant staff members in services across Europe.

    PubMed

    Kluge, U; Bogic, M; Devillé, W; Greacen, T; Dauvrin, M; Dias, S; Gaddini, A; Koitzsch Jensen, N; Ioannidi-Kapolou, E; Mertaniemi, R; Puipcinós I Riera, R; Sandhu, S; Sarvary, A; Soares, J J F; Stankunas, M; Straßmayr, C; Welbel, M; Heinz, A; Priebe, S

    2012-06-01

    The number of immigrants using health services has increased across Europe. For assessing and improving the quality of care provided for immigrants, information is required on how many immigrants use services, what interpreting services are provided and whether staff members are from immigrant groups. Structured interviews were conducted with 15 health services (9 primary care, 3 emergency departments, 3 mental health) located in areas with high immigrant populations in each of 16 European countries (n=240). Responses were collected on the availability of data on service use by immigrant patients, the provision of interpreting services and immigrant staff members. Data on service use by immigrants were recorded by only 15% of services. More than 40% of services did not provide any form of interpreting service and 54% of the services reported having no immigrant staff. Mental health services were more likely to use direct interpreting services, and both mental health and emergency services were more likely to have immigrant staff members. For assessing and improving the quality of care provided for immigrants, there is a need to improve the availability of data on service use by immigrants in health services throughout Europe and to provide more consistent access to interpreting services. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Are Latino immigrants a burden to safety net services in nontraditional immigrant states? Lessons from Oregon.

    PubMed

    López-Cevallos, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group's limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts.

  6. Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Nontraditional Immigrant States? Lessons From Oregon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts. PMID:24625168

  7. 76 FR 63321 - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-63322] [FR Doc No: 2011-26361] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... Under Review: E-Verify Program. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as...

  8. Engaging Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in Immigration Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    In this report of innovative teacher practice, the author describes an arts-based event which brought together adolescent refugee and immigrant students and pre-service teachers to deliberate about immigration policies and attitudes in the United States.

  9. Engaging Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in Immigration Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    In this report of innovative teacher practice, the author describes an arts-based event which brought together adolescent refugee and immigrant students and pre-service teachers to deliberate about immigration policies and attitudes in the United States.

  10. Household demand for waste recycling services.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2005-02-01

    Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that

  11. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.

  12. Household structure, family ties, and psychological distress among U.S.-born and immigrant Latino women.

    PubMed

    Molina, Kristine M; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-02-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the United States, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among U.S.-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental-health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the United States. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life-structural and social domains-relate to mental-health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  14. 76 FR 60059 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... through the online system. This system will improve customer service; increase efficiency for processing... Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System of Records... and Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System...

  15. Mothers' citizenship status and household food insecurity among low-income children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort to assess this question, using multivariate probit regression analyses in a low-income sample. They found that households of children (foreign and U.S.-born) with noncitizen mothers are at substantially greater risk of food insecurity than their counterparts with citizen mothers and that demographic characteristics such as being Latina, levels of maternal education, and large household size explain about half of the difference in rates.

  16. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  17. Household context, generational status, and English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how household and parental-level determinants affect English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US. Within immigrant families, the study finds that children's level of proficiency has a stronger positive association with the proficiency of their mothers than with that of their fathers. Children's level of English proficiency significantly increases as the number other English-proficient children within their household increases. These impacts are stronger on the proficiency levels of first compared to second generation children. Levels of proficiency are, however, lowest among children in families from Portuguese speaking countries followed by their counterparts in families from countries where indigenous languages and Arabic are dominant. Although proficiency levels generally improve with increasing generational status, these improvements are smallest for children in families from Portuguese speaking countries. Except for children in families from English speaking countries, the largest improvements to proficiency with increasing generational status was observed among children in families from indigenous language backgrounds. PMID:25589796

  18. Use of maternal health services: comparing refugee, immigrant and US-born populations.

    PubMed

    Kentoffio, Katherine; Berkowitz, Seth A; Atlas, Steven J; Oo, Sarah A; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine use of recommended maternal healthcare services among refugee and immigrant women in a setting of near-universal insurance coverage. Methods Refugee women age ≥18 years, who arrived in the US from 2001 to 2013 and received care at the same Massachusetts community health center, were matched by age, gender, and date of care initiation to Spanish-speaking immigrants and US-born controls. The primary outcome was initiation of obstetrical care within the first trimester (12 weeks gestation). Secondary outcomes were number of obstetrical visits and attending a postpartum visit. Results We included 375 women with 763 pregnancies (women/pregnancies: 53/116 refugee, 186/368 immigrant, 136/279 control). More refugees (20.6 %) and immigrants (15.0 %) had their first obstetric visit after 12 weeks gestation than controls (6.0 %, p < 0.001). In logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, insurance, BMI, and median census tract household income, both refugee (odds ratio [OR] 4.58, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.73-12.13) and immigrant (OR 2.21, 95 % CI 1.00-4.84) women had delayed prenatal care initiation. Refugees had fewer prenatal visits than controls (median 12 vs. 14, p < 0.001). Refugees (73.3 %) and immigrant (78.3 %) women were more likely to have postpartum care (controls 54.8 %, p < 0.001) with differences persisting after adjustment (refugee [OR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83] and immigrant [OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.72-4.53]). Conclusions for Practice Refugee and immigrant women had increased risk for delayed initiation of prenatal care, but greater use of postpartum visits. Targeted outreach may be needed to improve use of beneficial care.

  19. Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-in-law who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in…

  20. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  1. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  2. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  3. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  4. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  5. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  6. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  7. Postpartum health, service needs, and access to care experiences of immigrant and Canadian-born women.

    PubMed

    Sword, Wendy; Watt, Susan; Krueger, Paul

    2006-01-01

    To describe immigrant women's postpartum health, service needs, access to services, and service use during the first 4 weeks following hospital discharge compared to women born in Canada. Data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study. Women were recruited from 5 hospitals purposefully selected to provide a diverse sample. A sample of 1,250 women following vaginal delivery of a healthy infant; approximately 31% were born outside of Canada. Self-reported health status, postpartum depression, postpartum needs, access to services, service use. Immigrant women were significantly more likely than Canadian-born women to have low family incomes, low social support, poorer health, possible postpartum depression, learning needs that were unmet in hospital, and a need for financial assistance. However, they were less likely to be able to get financial aid, household help, and reassurance/support. There were no differences between groups in ability to get care for health concerns. Health care professionals should attend not only to the basic postpartum health needs of immigrant women but also to their income and support needs by ensuring effective interventions and referral mechanisms.

  8. Access to health services for undocumented immigrants in Apulia.

    PubMed

    Brindicci, G; Trillo, G; Santoro, C R; Volpe, A; Monno, L; Angarano, G

    2015-04-01

    This paper, part of a larger epidemiological study carried out between 2004 and 2010, analyzed immigrants frequenting the largest Apulian regional hospital (Bari Policlinico). Our aim was to evaluate the perception on the part of undocumented immigrants of their rights of access to the National Health Care services and whether this privilege is actually utilized. An anonymous multi-language questionnaire was distributed to all patients with STP (code number for temporary presence of foreigners) at the immigrant outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic of Bari from June 2009 to June 2010. Questions were related to nationality, date of arrival in Italy, use of health facilities in the 2 years prior to the compilation of the questionnaire, and their understanding of STP. The patients were also screened for infectious diseases (HIV-Ab, HBsAg, HCV-Ab, VDRL, TPHA and Mantoux). A total of 256/272 patients completed the questionnaire; the meaning of STP was unknown to 156/256 (60.9%) patients, only 54/256 (21%) knew the exact meaning of STP and only 42/54 (76.6%) of the latter knew how long STP was valid. Moreover, 128/256 (50.7%) were aware that doctors from the emergency unit were not allowed to notify police regarding presence of illegal immigrants. Regarding clinical data 3% were HIV+ (8/256), 5% (13 patients) positive for TPHA, 5% for HBsAg, 2% were HCV (five patients). A >10 mm diameter infiltrate of Mantoux test was noted for 44% of patients. A lower prevalence than expected for infections such as HIV, HBV or HCV was noted for immigrants compared to data from their countries of origin. At present, large-scale political solutions to the challenges of facilitating access to health facilities for undocumented immigrants are lacking in Italy. The development of communication systems is fundamental to improving access to health services and to creating links between immigrants and the healthcare system.

  9. [Health services utilization by the immigrant population in Spain].

    PubMed

    Regidor, Enrique; Sanz, Belén; Pascual, Cruz; Lostao, Lourdes; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Díaz Olalla, José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To compare health services utilization between the immigrant and indigenous populations in Spain. We used information provided by the following four health surveys carried out around 2005: Catalonia 2005; city of Madrid 2005, Canary Islands 2004 and the Autonomous Community of Valencia 2005. The health services studied were general practice, specialist services, emergency services, hospitalization, and two preventive services: pap smear test and mammography. In general, most health services were less frequently used by the immigrant population than by the Spanish population. The health services showing the least differences between the two populations were general practice and hospitalization, while the greatest differences were found in the use of specialist and preventive services. The most heterogeneous results were found in general practice and hospitalization, since some immigrant groups showed a relatively high frequency of use in some geographical areas and a relatively low frequency in other areas. The results of the present study reproduce those found in other studies carried out in countries with similar social and economic characteristics to Spain. Like previous results, the present results are difficult to explain. Future research should aim to use other study designs and to test hypotheses not put forward by the scientific community to date.

  10. Providing Medical Services to Undocumented Immigrants: Costs and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Fred

    1979-01-01

    Reviews cost estimates for treating illegal aliens made by hospitals and county governments. Discusses patterns of utilization of health services by illegal immigrant groups and the difficulties in arriving at accurate cost estimates. Describes the current status of legislative programs that address this issue. (Author/GC)

  11. Navigating Disability and Related Services: Stories of Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Katrina P.; Hardin, Belinda J.

    2017-01-01

    Cultural beliefs, values, language differences, and unfamiliar educational infrastructures and practices can impact immigrant parents' capacity to support their children with disabilities in their new country. This study presents perspectives of disability and experiences with special education services based on interviews with eight immigrant…

  12. Navigating Disability and Related Services: Stories of Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Katrina P.; Hardin, Belinda J.

    2017-01-01

    Cultural beliefs, values, language differences, and unfamiliar educational infrastructures and practices can impact immigrant parents' capacity to support their children with disabilities in their new country. This study presents perspectives of disability and experiences with special education services based on interviews with eight immigrant…

  13. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the basic...

  14. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the basic...

  15. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers... Process § 656.19 Live-in household domestic service workers. (a) Processing. Applications on behalf of live-in household domestic service occupations are processed pursuant to the requirements of the basic...

  16. 75 FR 18857 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Immigration Services Ombudsman-001 Virtual Ombudsman System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION... Security system of records notice titled, ``Department of Homeland Security Citizenship and Immigration... efficient and secure processing of information to aid the Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman in...

  17. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  18. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  19. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  20. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  1. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  2. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  3. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  4. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  5. Emergency Department Services Use among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tarraf, Wassim; Vega, William; González, Hector M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Immigrants have disproportionate lack of access to healthcare and insurance. Emergency departments could serve as a healthcare substitute and increased demand can negatively affect the U.S. emergency services system. Methods Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2000–2008) data was modeled to compare ED use between non-citizens, foreign-born (naturalized), and US-born citizens. Group differences were assessed using non-linear decomposition techniques. Results Non-citizens were less likely to use ED services (8.7%) compared to naturalized immigrants (10.6%) and US-born Americans (14.7%). Differences in ED use persisted after adjusting for the Behavioral Model covariates. Healthcare need and insurance partially explained the differences in ED use between the groups. Conclusion Between 2000–2008 non-citizen immigrants used markedly less ED services compared to U.S. citizens, regardless of their nation of origin. We also found that demographic and healthcare need profiles contributed to the divergence in use patterns between groups. A less restrictive healthcare policy environment can potentially contribute to lower population disease burden and greater efficiencies in the U.S. health care system. PMID:23447058

  6. Service Learning and Pluralism: Working with Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasricha, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    Service learning, a pedagogy that has many supporters, encourages learning with civic engagement. In addition, according to Department of American Studies, service learning as a required course component is beneficial because it establishes a common ground for dialogue and for synthesis of observations from the community site, and the class…

  7. 31 CFR 542.521 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized. 542.521 Section 542.521 Money and Finance... Policy § 542.521 Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories... otherwise eligible for non-immigrant classification under categories A-3 and G-5 (attendants, servants...

  8. Immigration status and use of health services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A

    2009-08-01

    To assess the relationship between immigration status and use of health services among Latina women. From 2001 to 2004, information on immigration status and use of health services was collected from 710 Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. The dependent variable was use of health services during the previous 12 months, which we defined as use of preventive health, dental, urgent care, and emergency services. The primary independent variable was self-reported immigration status, which we categorized as undocumented immigrant, documented immigrant, or citizen. More than half of the women were undocumented immigrants, one quarter were documented immigrants, and 18% were citizens. Forty percent of women were uninsured, one third had no preventive health visits in the previous year, and 58% had not used dental services. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, undocumented Latinas were 60% less likely and documented Latinas were 46% less likely to have dental visits in the previous year, relative to citizens. Health insurance status was independently associated with all four health service outcomes. Uninsured women were less likely to use preventive health, dental, or urgent care services compared with privately insured women. In addition, publicly insured women were less likely to use dental care and more likely to use emergency care than privately insured women. Immigration and health insurance status were associated with use of preventive and nonpreventive services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Clinical and policy efforts must address the barriers to care that affect Latina immigrants, particularly undocumented women.

  9. Disparities in preventive health services among Somali immigrants and refugees.

    PubMed

    Morrison, T Ben; Wieland, Mark L; Cha, Stephen S; Rahman, Ahmed S; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2012-12-01

    African immigrants and refugees-almost half of them from Somalia-account for one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States. There is reason to suspect that Somali-Americans may be at risk for low completion of recommended preventive health services. This study's aim was to quantify disparities in preventive health services among Somali patients compared with non-Somali patients in an academic primary care practice in Rochester, Minn. It also examined the effect of medical interpreters, emergency department visits, and primary care visits on the completion of preventive services. Rates of pap smears, vaccinations (influenza, pneumococcus, and tetanus), lipid screening, colorectal cancer screening, and mammography were assessed in Somali and non-Somali patients during the second quarter of 2008. Data were collected regarding the utilization of medical interpreters, emergency services, and primary care services among Somali patients. Results were reported using standard descriptive statistics. Of the 91,557 patients identified in the database, 810 were Somali. Somali patients had significantly lower completion rates of colorectal cancer screening, mammography, pap smears, and influenza vaccination than non-Somali patients. Use of medical interpreters and primary care services were generally associated with higher completion rates of preventive services. There are significant discrepancies in the provision of preventive health services to Somali patients compared with that of non-Somali patients. These findings suggest the need to identify the root causes of these discrepancies so that interventions may be crafted to close the gap.

  10. How Do Social Service Providers View Recent Immigrants? Perspectives from Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington

    PubMed Central

    CLEVENGER, CASEY; DERR, AMELIA SERAPHIA; CADGE, WENDY; CURRAN, SARA

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how social service providers in two small, geographically distinct cities—Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington—understand the importance of welcoming and incorporating new immigrants in their cities. We focus on how providers characterize their responsibilities, how they understand the importance of responding to new immigrants, and what they describe as the challenges and opportunities presented by recent immigration to their cities. Despite differences in Portland and Olympia, we find that providers in both cities combine a sense of moral responsibility to help immigrants, with an emphasis on the economic and cultural resources immigrants bring to cities. These insights expand recent immigration scholarship from a focus on immigrants alone to include the perspectives and logics of social service workers who are often their first points of contact in new places. PMID:25110469

  11. 75 FR 409 - Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-010 Asylum Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...] Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services--010 Asylum Information and Pre... Citizenship and Immigration Services-010 Asylum Information and Pre- Screening System of Records. This new... and the Asylum Pre-Screening System. Refugees, Asylum, and Parole System and Asylum...

  12. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudmundsson, Kristjan G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants.

  13. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  14. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  15. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  16. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  17. In Other Words: Translating or "Para-Phrasing" as a Family Literacy Practice in Immigrant Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Reynolds, Jennifer; Dorner, Lisa; Meza, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Reports on ethnographic research that explores the range of ways in which Spanish-English bilingual immigrant youth interpret English language texts for their families. Focuses on interpretations of written text for close family members, done at home, and charts the domains of these multiple literacies. Argues that bilingual youth's experiences as…

  18. Restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to health services: the public health implications of welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T

    2003-10-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 greatly restricts the provision of many federal, state, and local public services to undocumented immigrants. These restrictions have prompted intense debates about the provision of free and discounted primary and preventive health care-services and have placed significant burdens on institutions that serve large undocumented immigrant populations. Intended to serve as a tool for reducing illegal immigration and protecting public resources, federal restrictions on undocumented immigrants' access to publicly financed health services unduly burden health care providers and threaten the public's health. These deleterious effects warrant the public health community's support of strategies designed to sustain provision of health services irrespective of immigration status.

  19. Experiences of French Speaking Immigrants and Non-immigrants Accessing Health Care Services in a Large Canadian City

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; Quan, Hude; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    French speakers residing in predominantly English-speaking communities have been linked to difficulties accessing health care. This study examined health care access experiences of immigrants and non-immigrants who self-identify as Francophone or French speakers in a mainly English speaking province of Canada. We used semi-structured interviews to gather opinions of recent users of physician and hospital services (N = 26). Language barriers and difficulties finding family doctors were experienced by both French speaking immigrants and non-immigrants alike. This was exacerbated by a general preference for health services in French and less interest in using language interpreters during a medical consultation. Some participants experienced emotional distress, were discontent with care received, often delayed seeking care due to language barriers. Recent immigrants identified lack of insurance coverage for drugs, transportation difficulties and limited knowledge of the healthcare system as major detractors to achieving health. This study provided the groundwork for future research on health issues of official language minorities in Canada. PMID:23202772

  20. Discursive Roles and Responsibilities: A Study of Interactions in Chinese Immigrant Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines features of communication in American households where Chinese is used as a heritage language against the backdrop of global migration and technological advancement. It aims to elucidate how meaning emerges and evolves through repeated and varied performance by multiple participants over time, through mundane and iterative…

  1. Discursive Roles and Responsibilities: A Study of Interactions in Chinese Immigrant Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines features of communication in American households where Chinese is used as a heritage language against the backdrop of global migration and technological advancement. It aims to elucidate how meaning emerges and evolves through repeated and varied performance by multiple participants over time, through mundane and iterative…

  2. User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Russel, Kory; Tilmans, Sebastien; Kramer, Sasha; Sklar, Rachel; Tillias, Daniel; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service. After three months, changes in these households' satisfaction with their sanitation situation, along with feelings of pride, modernity and personal safety, were compared to 248 households in two comparison cohorts. Following the service pilot, 71 per cent of participating households opted to continue with the container-based sanitation service as paying subscribers. The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents' desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

  3. Government dependence of Chinese and Vietnamese community organizations and fiscal politics of immigrant services.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Winston

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.

  4. Heading South: Why Mexican Immigrants in California Seek Health Services in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Steven P.; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn; Castañeda, Xochitl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Identify factors that explain why some Mexican immigrants in California use health services in Mexico. Methods California Health Interview Survey 2001 data were analyzed for medical care, dental care, and/or prescription drug purchases in Mexico in the previous year. Logistic regressions estimated the effect on use of need, availability, accessibility, and acceptability among immigrants from Mexico. Results An estimated 952,000 California adults used medical, dental, or prescription services in Mexico during the past year, 488,000 of whom were Mexican immigrants. Long-stay Mexican immigrants had the highest rate (15%), followed by short-stay Mexican immigrants (11.5%), U.S.-born Mexican Americans (5.4%) and U.S.-born non-Latino whites (2.1%). Predictors of use by immigrants included need, no insurance, delay seeking care, more recent immigration, limited English, and nonphysician provider use. Living closer to the border increased use, although half of immigrants seeking services lived more than 120 miles from the border. Mexican immigrants with long stays in the U.S. have a somewhat different pattern of predictors from those with short stays. Conclusions Mexican immigrants are the most likely to seek medical, dental, and prescription services in Mexico. A large number, but small percentage, of U.S.-born non-Latino whites purchase prescription drugs there. While proximity facilitates use, access and acceptability barriers in the U.S. medical care system encourage immigrants to seek care in Mexico who would be helped by expanded binational health insurance. PMID:19434002

  5. Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Derr, Amelia Seraphia

    2016-03-01

    Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation.

  6. 78 FR 20680 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and..., ``Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services-014 Electronic Immigration System-1... Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to collect and maintain records on...

  7. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App. C Appendix C to Part 61—Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures..., construction, and maintenance of new and existing INS facilities. All activities concerning the Immigration...

  8. [Transnational health service utilization by Mexican immigrants in the United States].

    PubMed

    González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh Tomás; Torres-Robles, Cristian Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2013-01-01

    Document the transnational utilization of health resources and services by Mexican immigrants in the United States. Between December 2009-February 2011, Interviews and focus groups were conducted in California and four states of México. Data were collected from 135 individuals, including return migrants, allopathic physicians and traditional healers. Faced with obstacles to accessing US health care and some health services within the Mexican system, many immigrants within the US make use of Mexican health resources and services, either from a distance or during visits to Mexico. These resources and services include allopathic medicine, traditional medicine, and home remedies and medicines. The legal status of immigrants and their access to health insurance in the US are related to whether their transnational use of Mexican health resources and services is formal or informal; immigrants who are undocumented and without health insurance are the most vulnerable.

  9. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  10. Beliefs about mothers' and fathers' roles and the division of child care and household labor in Indo-Caribbean immigrants with young children.

    PubMed

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Xu, Yili

    2009-04-01

    Using a creolization conceptual framework, this study assessed beliefs about paternal and maternal roles, time spent in child care, and household labor among 60 Indo-Caribbean immigrant couples with young children. Analyses revealed belief systems about maternal and paternal roles that fell along traditional lines. Mothers invested significantly more time in major areas of child care and domestic labor than fathers did. Findings are discussed in terms of the lack of movement away from traditional gendered ideologies and the assumption of child care and household labor in Indo-Caribbean families in their new cultural community.

  11. New Immigrants and the Social Service Agency: Changing Relations at SRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ken C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the organization and operation of an immigration social service agency in Garden City, Kansas, with attention to relations among the staff and between the staff and the Asian-American and Hispanic-American clientele. (DM)

  12. Library Services for Immigrants: A Report on Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Citizenship and Immigration Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public libraries in the United States have a long history of providing resources and education to immigrants. This tradition may be traced to Andrew Carnegie's support for public libraries as a place for immigrant self-education, enlightenment, and the study of democracy and English. This role is especially relevant today as the immigrant…

  13. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... one year's full time experience. Time spent in a household domestic service training course can not be... English shall be accompanied by a written translation into English certified by the translator as to the...

  14. Mental health service use by recent immigrants from different world regions and by non-immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-08-20

    Given that immigration has been linked to a variety of mental health stressors, understanding use of mental health services by immigrant groups is particularly important. However, very little research on immigrants' use of mental health service in the host country considers source country. Newcomers from different source countries may have distinct experiences that influence service need and use after arrival. This population study examined rates of use of primary care and of specialty services for non-psychotic mental health disorders by immigrants to Ontario Canada during their first five years after arrival. Service use by recent immigrants in broad source region groups representing all world regions was compared to use by age-matched Canadian-born or long term immigrants (called long term residents). This matched population-based cross-sectional study assessed likelihood of any use and counts of visits for each of primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders from 1993-2012. Adult immigrants living in urban Ontario (n = 912,114) were categorized based on their nine world regions of origin. Sex-stratified conditional logistic regression models and negative binomial models were used to compare service use by immigrant region groups to their age-matched long term residents. Immigrant were more or less likely to access primary mental health care compared to age-matched long term residents, depending on their world region of origin. Regarding specialty mental health care (psychiatry and hospital care), immigrants from all regions used less than long term residents. Across the three mental health services, estimates of use by immigrant region groups compared to long term residents were among the lowest for newcomers from East Asian and Pacific (range: 0.16-0.82) and among the highest for persons from Middle East and North Africa (range: 0.56-1.23). This population

  15. 78 FR 19568 - Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor Carriers and Related Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... specialized service or equipment normally required for such commodities is not within the definition of...'' or other specialized services, FMCSA may investigate whether the broker meets the definition of HHG... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor...

  16. Exclusionary policies in urban development: Under-servicing migrant households in Brazilian cities

    PubMed Central

    Feler, Leo; Henderson, J. Vernon

    2012-01-01

    Localities in developed countries often enact regulations to deter low-income households from moving in. In developing countries, such restrictions lead to the emergence of informal housing sectors. To deter low-income migrants, localities in developing countries withhold public services to the informal housing sector. Using a large sample of Brazilian localities, we examine migration and exclusion, focusing on the public provision of water to small houses where low-income migrants are likely to live. Withholding water connections reduces the locality growth rate, particularly of low-education households. In terms of service provision, during dictatorship in Brazil, we find evidence of strategic exclusion, where localities appear to withhold services to deter in-migration. We also find evidence of strategic interactions among localities within metro areas in their setting of service levels: if one locality provides more services to migrant households, other localities respond by withholding service. PMID:22707807

  17. Mental Health Status, Health Care Utilisation, and Service Satisfaction among Immigrants in Montreal: An Epidemiological Comparison.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean

    2017-08-01

    To examine variations between immigrants and nonimmigrants in 1) prevalence of common mental disorders and other mental health variables; 2) health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions, and 3) health service satisfaction. This article is based on a longitudinal cohort study conducted from May 2007 to the present: the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study of Montreal South-West (ZEPSOM). Participants were followed up at 4 time points (T1, n = 2433; T4, n = 1095). Core exposure variables include immigrant status (immigrant vs. nonimmigrant), duration of residence, and region of origin. Key outcome variables included mental health status, health service utilisation, and health service satisfaction. Data were analysed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Immigrants had been in Canada for 20 years on average. Immigrants had significantly lower rates of high psychological distress (32.6% vs. 39.1%, P = 0.016), alcohol dependence (1.4% vs. 3.9%, P =0.010), depression (5.2% vs. 9.2%, P = 0.008), and various other mental disorders. They had significantly higher scores of mental well-being (48.9 vs. 47.1 score, P = 0.014) and satisfaction with social (34.0 vs. 33.4 score, P = 0.021) and personal relationships (16.7 vs. 15.6 score, P < 0.001). Immigrants had significantly lower rates of health service utilisation for emotional problems, mental disorders, and addictions and significantly higher rates of health service satisfaction at all time points. Asian and African immigrants had particularly low rates of utilisation and high rates of satisfaction. Immigrants had better overall mental health than nonimmigrants.

  18. [Emergency room services utilization in the province of Reggio Emilia: a comparison between immigrants and Italians].

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, Laura; Broccoli, Serena; D'Angelo, Stefania; Candela, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Italian and immigrant accesses to Emergency Room (ER) Services in the province of Reggio Emilia, with particular attention to time differences and to potentially inappropriate accesses. the database of ER accesses in the province of Reggio Emilia was analyzed for the years 2007- 2010. In the analysis of the resident population all autochthonous citizens and all immigrants from Developed Countries were considered Italians, while citizens from Developing Countries were Immigrants. Temporary Immigrants were those immigrants with residence and citizenship in a Developing Country. A descriptive analysis was conducted using demographic variables related to patients (age, gender, citizenship and residence) and variables related to access (admission emergency codes, cause of admission, hour, day of the week, month and discharge modality). Standardized access Ratios (SRs) were calculated for the resident population, together with 95%Confidence Intervals (95% CI). The SRs were calculated separately for children and for adults. In the years 2007-2010, 562,658 accesses to ER were recorded for Italians, 95,300 accesses for Immigrants and 6,800 for the Temporary Immigrants. Access rates for resident Immigrants were higher than Italian ones. In 2010, the SR for men was 1.24 (95%CI 1.22-1.27) while for women it was 1.18 (95%CI 1.15-1.27). Considering only non-urgent accesses, the SRs were even higher (SR men=1.65, 95% CI 1.58-1.72, women=1.43, 95% CI 1.36-1.50). Similar findings were observed in children. Immigrants access the ER services more than Italians do.They also show more non-urgent accesses in comparison with Italians. This finding is consistent with results of studies conducted in other European countries and it underlines the necessity to reorganize primary care in order to better meet immigrants' needs.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to effective coverage of Intimate Partner Violence services for immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; La Parra, Daniel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    To explore service providers' perceptions in order to identify barriers and facilitators to effective coverage of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) services for immigrant women in Spain, according to the different categories proposed in Tanahashi's model of effective coverage. A qualitative study based on 29 in-depth personal interviews and four group interviews with a total of 43 professionals working in public services (social and health-care services, women's refuges, the police force, the judiciary) and NGOs in Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante (Spain) in 2011. Current IPV services in Spain partially fail in their coverage of abused immigrant women due to barriers of (i) availability, such as the inexistence of culturally appropriate services; (ii) accessibility, as having a residence permit is a prerequisite for women's access to different services and rights; (iii) acceptability, such as women's lack of confidence in the effectiveness of services; and (iv) effectiveness, for example, lack of specific training among professionals on the issues of IPV and immigration. However, interviewees also identified facilitators, such as the enabling environment promoted by the Spanish Law on Gender-Based Violence (1/2004), and the impetus it has provided for the development of other specific legislative tools to address IPV in immigrant populations in Spain (availability, accessibility and effectiveness). Whilst not dismissing cultural barriers, aspects related to service structure are identified by providers as the main barriers and facilitators to immigrant women use of IPV services. Despite noteworthy achievements, improvements are still required in terms of mainstreaming assistance tailored to immigrant women's needs in IPV policies and services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Factors Associated with Mental Health Service Utilization among Korean American Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Youn; Cho, Sunhee; Park, Yeddi; Bernstein, Kunsook S.; Shin, Jinah K.

    2014-01-01

    This study adapted Andersen's Health Belief Model to examine the predictors of mental health services utilization among Korean American (KA) immigrants. A cross-sectional survey was used to gather data on 363 KA immigrants 18 years and older residing in New York City. Predisposing factors included gender, age, marital status, education, length of stay in the US, and religion; the need factor was depression; and enabling factors included health insurance, English proficiency, income, and perceived need for help. Approximately 8.5 % of participants reported having utilized mental health services, while 23 % reported having depressive symptoms. Shorter duration of residence in the US, lower income, and the presence of perceived need for help were significantly related to use of mental health services. The perceived need for help mediated the relationship between depression and mental health service utilization. Failure to perceive the need for psychological help continues to be a major reason that KA immigrants do not use mental health services. PMID:23417654

  1. Service needs among Latino immigrant families: implications for social work practice.

    PubMed

    Ayón, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to learn from Latino immigrant families what services they need to promote their families' well-being within a context of stringent anti-immigrant legislation. Fifty-two Latino immigrant parents participated in focus groups. Focus groups took place following the passage of Senate Bill 1070. Findings reveal five major categories of need: mental health, physical health care, education, information and support services, and community efforts. Participants' experiences as immigrants played a significant role in their narratives. The narratives reveal that families need assistance navigating systems of care, coping with discrimination and oppressive environments, strengthening ties among community members, and advocating for policy change. Social workers are called to address the needs of this community and advocate for human rights and social justice.

  2. The relationship between somatization and posttraumatic symptoms among immigrants receiving primary care services.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Catino, Elena; Pucci, Daniela; Carrer, Sara; Colosimo, Francesco; Lafuente, Montserrat; Mazzetti, Marco; Maisano, Bianca; Geraci, Salvatore

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and somatization are related in studies on complex trauma, though this relation is rarely studied in immigrants. The relationship between somatization and self-reported traumatic experiences and posttraumatic symptoms in patients attending a primary care service for immigrants was studied. The sample consisted of 101 patients attending a primary healthcare service dedicated to immigrants. Participants completed two self-assessment questionnaires specifically designed for use in transcultural research: the Bradford Somatic Inventory and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Both were translated and back-translated into eight languages. Somatization was significantly related to traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. In primary care centers for immigrants, physicians should give particular attention to somatization as a possible sign of unreported posttraumatic symptoms.

  3. Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Amelia Seraphia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. Methods A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Results Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Conclusions Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation. PMID:26695493

  4. Expert opinion on "best practices" in the delivery of health care services to immigrants in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-08-01

    Delivery of health care to immigrants is an emerging field of interest. Immigrants are frequently characterised by health outcomes that are inferior to those of other groups with regard to morbidity and mortality. In addition, health professionals report difficulties associated with the encounter with immigrant patients. A Delphi process with eight Danish experts from the field of immigrant health was performed as part of an EU project. The objective of the Delphi process was to investigate expert opinion on "best practice in the delivery of healthcare to immigrants". Initially, 60 factors were suggested by the experts. Next, these factors were summarised into 32 factors that the experts were invited to rate and, if possible, agree on. The top 11 factors identified in the Delphi process were access to interpreters, quality of interpretation, ensuring medication compliance, having sufficient consultation time, coherence of offers, interdisciplinary collaboration, allocation of resources, the role of the practitioner, acknowledgement of the individual patient, education of health professionals and students and access to telephone interpretation to supplement other services. The Delphi process can be a valuable tool in the investigation of expert opinion and may thereby help to guide future policy directives. In the light of the importance experts placed on access to interpreters and on the quality of the interpretation services offered, it seems as an untenable strategy to introduce as from June 2011 self-payment for interpretation services provided to immigrants who have stayed in the country for more than seven years.

  5. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Services: A Game of Pass the Buck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the question of who will pay for the undocumented immigrants' access to social services, particularly health services. Argues that neither state governments, counties, local governments, private hospitals, the judiciary, nor the federal government have accepted responsibility, and consequently, the workers and the community at large are…

  6. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  7. Public health services knowledge and utilization among immigrants in Greece: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Petros; Sourtzi, Panayiota; Bellali, Thalia; Theodorou, Mamas; Karamitri, Ioanna; Siskou, Olga; Charalambous, Giorgos; Kaitelidou, Daphne

    2013-09-13

    During the 90s, Greece has been transformed to a host country for immigrants mostly from the Balkans and Eastern European Countries, who currently constitute approximately 9% of the total population. Despite the increasing number of the immigrants, little is known about their health status and their accessibility to healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to access and utilization of healthcare services by immigrants in Greece. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 191 immigrants who were living in Greece for less than 10 years. We developed a questionnaire that included information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, public health services knowledge and utilization and difficulties in health services access. Statistical analysis included Pearson's ×2 test, ×2 test for trend, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Only 20.4% of the participants reported that they had a good/very good degree of knowledge about public health services in Greece. A considerable percentage (62.3%) of the participants needed at least once to use health services but they could not afford it, during the last year, while 49.7% used public health services in the last 12 months in Greece. Among the most important problems were long waiting times in hospitals, difficulties in communication with health professionals and high cost of health care. Increased ability to speak Greek was associated with increased health services knowledge (p<0.001). Increased family monthly income was also associated with less difficulties in accessing health services (p<0.001). The empowerment and facilitation of health care access for immigrants in Greece is necessary. Depending on the needs of the migrant population, simple measures such as comprehensive information regarding the available health services and the terms for accessibility is

  8. [Perceptions and experiences of access to health services and their utilization among the immigrant population].

    PubMed

    Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Martina; Albar-Marín, M A Jesús; García-Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To identify and describe the needs and problems of the immigrant population related to access and utilization of health services. A descriptive, qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted using focus groups. The study area was the county of Campo de Gibraltar (Spain), which represents the gateway to Europe for immigration from Africa. The final sample size (51 immigrants from 11 countries) was determined by theoretical saturation. A narrative analysis was conducted with QSR NVivo9 software. Immigrants' discourse showed four categories of analysis: response to a health problem, system access, knowledge of social and health resources, and health literacy needs. Responses to health problems and the route of access to the health care system differed according to some sociodemographic characteristics (nationality/culture of origin, length of residence, and economic status). In general, immigrants primarily used emergency services, hampering health promotion and prevention. The health literacy needs identified concerned language proficiency and the functioning of the health system. There is a need to promote interventions to enhance health literacy among immigrants. These interventions should take into account diversity and length of residence, and should be based on an action-participation methodology. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of goods and services consumption in household greenhouse gas calculators.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M

    2001-11-01

    Despite the fact that lifestyles, in particular goods and services consumption, play a key role for global inequity and unsustainability of greenhouse gas emissions, these issues are often inadequately addressed in information and education materials such as household greenhouse gas calculators. Often, only limited individual responsibility for climate change can be concluded, and this is restricted to the reader's immediate surroundings such as the household and the private car, while goods and services consumption are almost always ignored. As a consequence, recommendations for reducing personal emissions concentrate on the relatively minor aspect of electricity and fuel use, while missing the more important issue of reducing goods and services consumption as an efficient way to abate climate change. These shortcomings are illustrated using the example of a recently published household greenhouse gas emissions questionnaire. An example for a comprehensive greenhouse gas calculator is also presented.

  10. Couples' reports of household decision-making and the utilization of maternal health services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Story, William T; Burgard, Sarah A

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the association between maternal health service utilization and household decision-making in Bangladesh. Most studies of the predictors of reproductive health service utilization focus on women's reports; however, men are often involved in these decisions as well. Recently, studies have started to explore the association between health outcomes and reports of household decision-making from both husbands and wives as matched pairs. Many studies of household decision-making emphasize the importance of the wife alone making decisions; however, some have argued that joint decision-making between husbands and wives may yield better reproductive health outcomes than women making decisions without input or agreement from their partners. Husbands' involvement in decision-making is particularly important in Bangladesh because men often dominate household decisions related to large, health-related purchases. We use matched husband and wife reports about who makes common household decisions to predict use of antenatal and skilled delivery care, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Results from regression analyses suggest that it is important to consider whether husbands and wives give concordant responses about who makes household decisions since discordant reports about who makes these decisions are negatively associated with reproductive health care use. In addition, compared to joint decision-making, husband-only decision-making is negatively associated with antenatal care use and skilled delivery care. Finally, associations between household decision-making arrangements and health service utilization vary depending on whose report is used and the type of health service utilized.

  11. Determinants of health service utilization among Pakistani immigrants in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahzad Ali; Manzoor, Khola

    2014-01-01

    Health of immigrants is challenge for any host country due to multiple reasons. Immigrants of Pakistani origin constitute a significant population in the USA and their population has doubled in last 10 years. This study was conducted to determine factors affecting health service utilization in the state of Maryland, USA. This was a descriptive study, utilizing mixed method research. A sample of 100 respondents from Pakistani immigrants in Maryland was selected through convenience sampling. A structured questionnaire was used for soliciting responses. Three focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative assessment of health service utilization. Male gender, higher level of education, longer duration of stay, and higher income people had more utilization of health services. Those not having insurance had affordability issues as they had to pay out of pocket for treatment cost. A high proportion of uninsured were resorting to traditional home remedies for treatment. There was a concern on delays in appointment system and long waiting time for elective cases. Most respondents mentioned problem of language while interacting with doctors and need of English speaking family member in medical consultation. Many respondents reported difficulty in availing health services due to job commitments. They had to make arrangements for substitute at their workplaces, which affected their utilization of health services. Low-income immigrants in USA are less likely to have health insurance. Factors affecting service use are out of pocket costs, long waiting time, language problems and immigrants' job commitments. It is recommended to get a clear idea of health systems of USA before moving to US as immigrant.

  12. A study of Iranian immigrants' experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Olson, Karin; Ogilvie, Linda

    2012-09-29

    Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. The research question guiding this study was, "What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?" To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian immigrants are able to access Canadian health care

  13. Factors associated with access to sexual health services among teens in toronto: does immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana; Hynie, Michaela; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    This manuscript explores predictors of access to sexual health services among urban immigrant adolescents who live in Toronto, Canada. Surveys (n = 1216) were collected from pre-existing youth groups in community settings. A binary logistic multivariate model was developed to examine associations between access to sexual health services and a series of individual, interpersonal, and structural variables. Sexual activity, age, race, and social resources each had significant partial impact on access to sexual health services. Among young women, those with more social resources had significantly accessed services more often than those with fewer resources, but among men there was no difference as a function of social resources. Although immigration predicted access to sexual health services on its own, it was not statistically significant in this model when other variables were included. Immigration status, in and of itself, was not a predictor of youth's access to sexual health services. The impact of immigration status appears to occur because of its association with other variables, such as race. Implications for practice are discussed.

  14. 77 FR 47411 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and...,'' Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services--006 Fraud Detection and National... records assists the Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

  15. 75 FR 28035 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services--011 E-Verify Program System of Records.'' The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services E-Verify Program allows employers...

  16. [How do immigrant women access health services in the Basque Country? Perceptions of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Urdiales, Iratxe; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-09-12

    To determine the perception of health professionals working in alternative health centres on the barriers and facilitators in the access by immigrant women to general public health services and sexual and reproductive health in the Basque Country. Basque Country. Analysis of qualitative content based on 11 individual interviews. Health professionals working in alternative health centres of Primary Care and sexual and reproductive health. Data collection was performed between September and December 2015 in four alternative health centres. After transcription, the units of meaning, codes and categories were identified. Four categories emerged from the analysis, which represented how the characteristics of immigrant women (Tell me how you are and I will tell you how to access), the attitude of the administrative and health staff ("When they are already taken care of"), the functioning of the health system (Inflexible, passive and needs-responsive health system), and health policies ("If you do not meet the requirements, you do not go in. The law is the law") influence access to health services of immigrant women. This study shows that there are a considerable number of barriers and few facilitators to the access by immigrant women to public health and sexual and reproductive health services in the Basque Country. The alternative health centres were presented as favouring the improvement of the health of the immigrant population and in their access. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Mental Health and Service Issues Faced by Older Immigrants in Canada: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Thomson, Mary Susan; Seifi, Sadaf Grace

    2015-12-01

    RÉSUMÉ Une population vieillissante et la croissance de la population sur la base de l'immigration nécessitent que la recherche, la pratique et la politique doivent se concentrer sur la santé mentale des immigrants âgés, surtout parce que leur santé mentale semble se détériorer au fil du temps. Cette revue se concentre sur: Qu'est-ce que l'on sait sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé mentale chez les immigrants âgés, et quels sont les obstacles à l'accès aux services de santé mentale confrontés par les immigrants âgés? Les résultats révèlent que (1) les déterminants sociaux décisifs de la santé mentale sont la culture, le sexe et les services de santé; (2) que les immigrants plus âgés utilisent les services de santé mentale de moins que leurs homologues nés au Canada à cause des obstacles tels que, par exemple, les croyances et les valeurs culturelles, un manque de services culturellement et linguistiquement appropriées, des difficultés financières, et l'âgisme; et (3) quelles que soient les sous-catégories dans cette population, les immigrants âgés éprouvent des inégalités en matière de la santé mentale. La preuve des recherches disponibles indique que de combler les lacunes des service de santé mentale devrait devenir une priorité pour la politique et la pratique du système de soins de santé au Canada.

  18. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  19. [Barriers in access and utilization of health services among immigrants: the perspective of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Silva, António Carlos; Cargaleiro, Helena; Martins, Maria O

    2011-01-01

    The growing international migration has reinforcing the importance of a greater adequacy of health services in order to respond effectively to immigrants' needs. Previous studies indicate that several difficulties in the access and utilization of health services persist for some immigrant groups. The objective of this study was to understand the perspective of different health professionals' groups about the barriers in access and utilization of services by immigrants. In a transversal study a questionnaire was applied to 320 primary health care professionals of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. Differences between professional groups were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. To determine which groups diverged more in their perceptions, mean ranks of each group were compared. Of the total participants, 64.2% evaluated their knowledge and competencies to deal with immigrants as reasonable however, 15.2% evaluated it as bad. Around one third of professionals admitted to be unaware of the legislation which regulates migrants' access to services. The largest proportion considered that, at the individual level, the frequent change of residence, the lack of economic resources, the cultural and religious beliefs and traditions, the fear of denunciation when the immigrant is undocumented, the lack of knowledge about legislation and services, and the linguistic differences influence access and utilization of health services. Most considered as barriers at the professionals' and services' level the limited sociocultural skills, the complex bureaucratic procedures, the cost and the lack of interpreters. The divergences in the perception of these factors occurred mainly between office workers and the other professionals. The perceptions of health professionals about the barriers in access and utilization of services by immigrants highlight opportunities for intervention in the context of cultural diversity. Given the different perceptions among the professional groups, which may be

  20. Social Service Utilization, Sense of Community, Family Functioning and the Mental Health of New Immigrant Women in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiaobing; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 296 new immigrant women in Hong Kong, this study investigated how social service utilization, family functioning, and sense of community influenced the depressive symptoms of new immigrant women. Results of the structural equation modeling suggested that family functioning and sense of community were both significantly and negatively associated with the depression of new immigrant women. Utilization of community services also influenced the depression of immigrant women indirectly through the mediating effect of sense of community. Implications of the research findings for mental health intervention were discussed. PMID:23629592

  1. Operationalisation of service quality in household waste collection.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Nico Alexander; Gellenbeck, Klaus; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Since 2007, there has been intensive discussion at European and national levels concerning the standardisation of services including those in the sector of waste management. The drafts of the European standard prEN 16250 and the German preliminary standard DIN SPEC 1108 are intended to establish a uniform definition of corresponding services and their (minimum) service levels. Their binding application in practice requires that systematic inspections be provided to ascertain to what degree a service has been carried out as agreed upon. However, both standardisation projects give only a few examples of potential quality characteristics and offer no concrete information concerning methods of measurement. Because intersectoral or cross-service quality inspections do not exist, there is a need for the development of specific quality inspections. The study introduced in this article examines the question of how the service quality of door-to-door waste collection can be systematically measured. To this end, the quality concept applied to the process of waste collection was first concretised and then operationalised using indicators. Based upon this, the methods of the quality inspections were developed and subjected to a trial of their applicability in a German waste management company. The methods for measuring and evaluating take into account, in addition to the different boundary conditions of collection, also the possible customer influence on the collection process and consequently on the service performed by the collection crew. In order to avoid time- and therefore cost-intensive exhaustive surveys, a multilevel random-controlled selection of survey units was developed, too. Based on the analysis of the measurement data, it was possible to determine specific time requirement values for the regular performance of the data surveys, as well as minimum sample sizes as a function of the number of container locations of the waste collection tours. On the basis of this

  2. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers. 656.19 Section 656.19 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... English shall be accompanied by a written translation into English certified by the translator as to...

  3. [Immigrant perceptions of the Spanish National Healthcare System and its services].

    PubMed

    Velasco, César; Vinasco, Ana Maria; Trilla, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    To analyse the perception, use and satisfaction of a group of immigrants living in Barcelona taking into account their gender, origin and social class. Cross sectional study. City of Barcelona, Spain. A group of 225 immigrant residents and users of social services in the city of Barcelona, from June to July 2012. the level of access and relationship with the public health system of immigrants living in Barcelona was analysed, based on a questionnaire. The responses were analysed in relation to: gender, age, social class, self-perceived health, national origin, time since arrival, and marital status. The large majority (89%) of the population surveyed declared that the most important aspect was «to have been treated with respect» in health services. However, 59.4% reported a perception of «discrimination against immigrants», and 68.4% said that cultural differences affect «totally or partially» the quality of care received. For 66.7% of the participants, health care received in Barcelona is better than in their home country, mainly for its scientific, technical quality, and universal access. Despite the good assessment of universal public health care system this study showed deficiencies of the system in terms of the psychosocial component of health care to immigrants in Barcelona. It is necessary to deepen the study of knowledge and perceptions of minority groups in the current context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Bridging Immigrants and Refugees with Early Childhood Development Services: Partnership Research in the Development of an Effective Service Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poureslami, Iraj; Nimmon, Laura; Ng, Kelly; Cho, Sarah; Foster, Susan; Hertzman, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the availability and accessibility of early childhood development (ECD) services to ethno-cultural communities in the Tri-Cities region of British Columbia. Primary participants were recent immigrant and refugee parents from three ethnic communities: Chinese (both Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking) and Korean-, and Farsi-speaking groups…

  5. Fostering Cultural Humility among Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting with Children and Youth of Immigrant Families through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Darren; Lianne, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article documents a community-initiated service-learning project within a teacher education program. A social justice model guided the initiative to raise critical awareness on power and privilege while countering deficit-model thinking. Partnering with community agencies serving immigrant children and youth, the faculty researcher worked…

  6. Fostering Cultural Humility among Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting with Children and Youth of Immigrant Families through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Darren; Lianne, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article documents a community-initiated service-learning project within a teacher education program. A social justice model guided the initiative to raise critical awareness on power and privilege while countering deficit-model thinking. Partnering with community agencies serving immigrant children and youth, the faculty researcher worked…

  7. Sociocultural Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk and Service Use among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, W. Patrick; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Jolly, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a community-based participatory research approach to problem identification, the objective of this study is to explore sociocultural determinants of HIV/AIDS risk and service use among immigrant Latino…

  8. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  9. Sociocultural Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk and Service Use among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, W. Patrick; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Jolly, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a community-based participatory research approach to problem identification, the objective of this study is to explore sociocultural determinants of HIV/AIDS risk and service use among immigrant Latino…

  10. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  11. Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings. PMID:28634496

  12. Primary mental health care information and services for St. John's visible minority immigrants: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Reitmanova, Sylvia; Gustafson, Diana L

    2009-10-01

    This article draws on an environmental scan and interviews with visible minority immigrants in a small urban Atlantic community to report on gaps and opportunities for improving access to information about primary mental health care services and barriers to utilization of these services. Information about services was limited and did not specifically address the complex health-related concerns of immigrants with diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. Accessing information about mental health care services was challenging for some visible minority immigrants because of physical and financial constraints and limited computer and language literacy. The major barriers to the utilization of primary mental health care services were lack of information, language and literacy issues, a mistrust of primary mental health care services, the stigma associated with mental illness, long wait times, lack of finances, and religious and cultural differences and insensitivity. A list of nine recommendations, which may be of interest to mental health decision-makers and service providers in small urban centers with limited ethno-cultural diversity, is provided.

  13. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p <.05). State-level legislation may reduce immigrants' access to protected benefits, which could adversely affect the broader public's health.

  14. Health Status and Health Service Access and Use Among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihuan Jennifer; Yu, Stella M.; Ledsky, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the health status and patterns of health care use of children in US immigrant families. Methods. Data from the 1999 National Survey of America’s Families were used to create 3 subgroups of immigrant children: US-born children with noncitizen parents, foreign-born children who were naturalized US citizens, and foreign-born children with noncitizen parents. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between immigrant status and health access variables. Subgroup analyses were conducted with low-income families. Results. Foreign-born noncitizen children were 4 times more likely than children from native families to lack health insurance coverage and to have not visited a mental health specialist in the preceding year. They were 40% and 80% more likely to have not visited a doctor or dentist in the previous year and twice as likely to lack a usual source of care. US-born children with noncitizen parents were also at a disadvantage in many of these aspects of care. Conclusions. We found that, overall, children from immigrant families were in worse physical health than children from non-immigrant families and used health care services at a significantly lower frequency. PMID:16507736

  15. Public health services knowledge and utilization among immigrants in Greece: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 90s, Greece has been transformed to a host country for immigrants mostly from the Balkans and Eastern European Countries, who currently constitute approximately 9% of the total population. Despite the increasing number of the immigrants, little is known about their health status and their accessibility to healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to access and utilization of healthcare services by immigrants in Greece. Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 191 immigrants who were living in Greece for less than 10 years. We developed a questionnaire that included information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, public health services knowledge and utilization and difficulties in health services access. Statistical analysis included Pearson’s ×2 test, ×2 test for trend, Student’s t-test, analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Only 20.4% of the participants reported that they had a good/very good degree of knowledge about public health services in Greece. A considerable percentage (62.3%) of the participants needed at least once to use health services but they could not afford it, during the last year, while 49.7% used public health services in the last 12 months in Greece. Among the most important problems were long waiting times in hospitals, difficulties in communication with health professionals and high cost of health care. Increased ability to speak Greek was associated with increased health services knowledge (p<0.001). Increased family monthly income was also associated with less difficulties in accessing health services (p<0.001). Conclusions The empowerment and facilitation of health care access for immigrants in Greece is necessary. Depending on the needs of the migrant population, simple measures such as comprehensive information regarding the available

  16. An equity analysis of utilization of health services in Afghanistan using a national household survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christine; Saeed, Khwaja Mir Ahad; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Zeng, Wu

    2016-12-05

    Afghanistan has made great strides in the coverage of health services across the country but coverage of key indicators remains low nationally and whether the poorest households are accessing these services is not well understood. We analyzed the Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 on utilization of inpatient and outpatient care, institutional delivery and antenatal care by wealth quintiles. Concentration indexes (CIs) were generated to measure the inequality of using the four services. Additional analyses were conducted to examine factors that explain the health inequalities (e.g. age, gender, education and residence). Among households reporting utilization of health services, public health facilities were used more often for inpatient care, while they were used less for outpatient care. Overall, the utilization of inpatient and outpatient care, and antenatal care was equally distributed among income groups, with CIs of 0.04, 0.03 and 0.08, respectively. However, the poor used more public facilities while the wealthy used more private facilities. There was a substantial inequality in the use of institutional delivery services, with a CI of 0.31. Poorer women had a lower rate of institutional deliveries overall, in both public and private facilities, compared to the wealthy. Location was an important factor in explaining the inequality in the use of health services. The large gap between the rich and poor in access to and utilization of key maternal services, such as institutional delivery, may be a central factor to the high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and impedes efforts to make progress toward universal health coverage. While poorer households use public health services more often, the use of public facilities for outpatient visits remains half that of private facilities. Pro-poor targeting as well as a better understanding of the private sector's role in increasing equitable coverage of maternal health services is needed. Equity-oriented approaches

  17. User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Russel, Kory; Tilmans, Sebastien; Kramer, Sasha; Sklar, Rachel; Tillias, Daniel; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service. After three months, changes in these households’ satisfaction with their sanitation situation, along with feelings of pride, modernity and personal safety, were compared to 248 households in two comparison cohorts. Following the service pilot, 71 per cent of participating households opted to continue with the container-based sanitation service as paying subscribers. The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services. PMID:26640322

  18. Finnish immigrants' experience of community pharmacy services in Spain: an example of a developing E.U. issue.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Minna Heleena; Lyles, Alan; Airaksinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    Emigration within the European Union has increased, especially toward southern countries. This places complex demands on health care providers and community pharmacists, yet there is no E.U. policy that harmonizes health care services and pharmacy practice across member countries. This exploratory study examined immigrants' experiences with community pharmacy services. A survey of 1000 Finnish immigrants living in Spain's Costa del Sol region was performed in 2002, using a questionnaire that included structured and open-ended questions. Respondents were mostly satisfied with pharmacy services; however, some services had higher medication safety risks-related to medication counseling (for prescription and nonprescription medicines) and obtaining some prescription drugs without a prescription-due mainly to lack of a common language. Pharmacy services in the European Union may not provide adequate assurances of medication safety for immigrants. Consistent E.U.-wide minimum pharmacy practice standards for immigrant populations are needed.

  19. Feasibility and effectiveness of telepsychiatry services for chinese immigrants in a nursing home.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Albert; Johnson, Daniel P; Trinh, Nhi-Ha; Weng, Wan-Chen Claire; Kvedar, Joseph; Fava, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the feasibility and effectiveness of providing telepsychiatry services to Chinese immigrants in a nursing home. The psychiatrist interviewed patients face-to-face for the initial consultation, and encouraged them to participate in this study to receive telepsychiatry-based follow-up visits. The feasibility and outcomes of telepsychiatry visits and satisfaction of the subjects, their families, and the nursing home staff were assessed. Nine monolingual Chinese immigrants, 8 women and 1 man, ranging from 54 to 88 years of age, were enrolled. The main reasons for psychiatric consultation were mood and behavioral problems. Eight of the 9 (88.9%) subjects participated in videoconference follow-up visits, and 1 subject (11.1%) declined. Among the 8 subjects, 6 were referred for psychiatric intervention, 1 for differential diagnosis, and 1 for suicide assessment. At the end of the study, all 6 subjects referred for intervention had greatly improved; the subjects, their families, and the nursing staff were highly satisfied with the telepsychiatry service. It is feasible to provide psychiatry consultations to ethnic immigrants in a nursing home despite the fact that many of them are unfamiliar with the technology and suffer from dementia and psychotic symptoms. Telepsychiatry provides an efficient way for ethnic elders in nursing homes to connect with mental health professionals with the appropriate language and cultural background, regardless of location. Telepsychiatry may decrease the disparities in treatment of mental illnesses among ethnic immigrants in nursing homes.

  20. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  1. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  2. Socioeconomic Status, Parental Investments, and the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Low-Income Children from Immigrant and Native Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, R.S.; Biesanz, J.C.; Chien, N.; Howes, C.; Benner, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes and if these relations are mediated by the quality of children's home environment and moderated by family nativity status. Data come from 1459 low-income families (n=257 and 1202 immigrant and native families,…

  3. The Work Kids Do: Mexican and Central American Immigrant Children's Contributions to Households and Schools in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2001-01-01

    Research on Mexican and Central American immigrant children illuminates their everyday work as helpers in the home, community, and school. Their participation is shaped by gender dynamics. Their work can be viewed in multiple ways as volunteerism, learning opportunities, and cultural and linguistic brokering. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  4. Mental Health Needs and Service Utilization by Hispanic Immigrants Residing in Mid-Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Deen, Tisha L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed mental health needs and service utilization patterns in a convenience sample of Hispanic immigrants. Design and Method A total of 84 adult Hispanic participants completed a structured diagnostic interview and a semistructured service utilization interview with trained bilingual research assistants. Results In the sample, 36% met diagnostic criteria for at least one mental disorder. Although 42% of the sample saw a physician in the prior year, mental health services were being rendered primarily by religious leaders. The most common barriers to service utilization were cost (59%), lack of health insurance (35%), and language (31%). Although more women than men met criteria for a disorder, service utilization rates were comparable. Participants with a mental disorder were significantly more likely to have sought medical, but not psychiatric, services in the prior year and faced significantly more cost barriers than participants without a mental disorder. Conclusions Findings suggest that Hispanic immigrants, particularly those with a mental illness, need to access services but face numerous systemic barriers. The authors recommend specific ways to make services more affordable and linguistically accessible. PMID:22802297

  5. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  6. Residents' preferences for household kitchen waste source separation services in Beijing: a choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-12-23

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents' preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  7. The Hispanic Female Head-of-Household: Limitations on Access to Social Services. Stage 1 Report. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Lynn Angel

    This report details the progress and findings of the first stage of research on Hispanic female heads-of-households and their access to social services. The report begins with a statistical portrait of Hispanic female heads-of-households, particularly those who live in New York City. The discussion follows and reviews the debate over welfare…

  8. Mexican immigrants in the US living far from the border may return to Mexico for health services.

    PubMed

    Bergmark, Regan; Barr, Donald; Garcia, Ronald

    2010-08-01

    This study explores to what extent and why Mexican immigrants in the U.S. living far from the border return to Mexico for medical services. Structured Spanish-language qualitative interviews were completed with a crosssectional sample of 10 Central Mexican immigrants living in Northern California and with 10 physicians and 25 former immigrants living in Central Mexico. Sixteen of the 35 current and former immigrants (46%) said they or a close friend or relative had returned to Mexico from the U.S. for health-related reasons. Participants returned to Mexico for care due to unsuccessful treatment in the U.S., the difficulty of accessing care in the U.S. and preference for Mexican care. Obtaining care in Mexico appears to be common. These findings have implications for the maintenance of continuity of care, for Mexico's healthcare system, and for the impact of changing border policies on immigrant health.

  9. A model of the impact of immigration on health and social service expenditures for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Factor, H; Habib, J

    1993-01-01

    "Immigration, primarily from the former Soviet Union, has swelled the population of Israel by 10% between 1990 and 1993 and total population growth by the end of the decade is expected to be over 30%. The research presented here represents part of a larger effort to project needs and costs for the entire population in order to assist health and social welfare services in planning and resource allocation. The paper presents an overview of the current demographic situation in Israel, a theoretical model for estimating the growth in needs, and estimates of needs and costs for services for the elderly population based upon this model." excerpt

  10. 77 FR 47415 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Services, Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) program is a fee- based intergovernmental... Entitlements (SAVE) program is to provide a fee-based intergovernmental service, which assists federal, state... Immigration Services (USCIS)--004--Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program System...

  11. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  12. Exploring the Providers Perspective of Health and Social Service Availability for Immigrants and Refugees in a Southern Urban Community.

    PubMed

    Edward, Jean; Hines-Martin, Vicki

    2015-08-01

    As the foreign-born population continues to grow and increasingly expand into inland U.S. cities, they experience insufficient resources and facilities to support their unique health and social needs. The purpose of this study was to describe provider perspectives on health and social services for immigrants and refugees in a southern metropolitan city with a rapidly increasing foreign-born population. Ten health and social service providers participated in an ethnographic study using surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observation, and document review methods. Providers identified the greatest need for immigrants and refugees was access to urgent health services and management of chronic illnesses. Barriers and facilitators to service were related to accessibility, availability, affordability, and acceptability factors. Findings indicate that despite the establishment of population specific service organizations, immigrants and refugees continue to experience unmet health and social needs associated with sociocultural, economic, and political contextual factors.

  13. The Desire to Acquire: Forecasting the Evolution of Household Energy Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Steven

    People are constantly inventing and adopting new energy-using devices to make their lives more comfortable, convenient, connected, and entertaining. This study aggregates 134 energy-using household devices, not including major appliances, into categories based on the energy service they provide. By 2006, there were 43 energy-using devices in the average U.S. household that used over 4,700 kWh of electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. A fixed effects panel model was used to examine the relationship of demand for energy-using devices to energy price, household income, and the cost of these devices. This analysis finds that the elasticity of demand for these devices with respect to energy price is -0.52 with a 90% confidence interval of -1.04 to -0.01. The elasticity of demand to income is 0.52 (a 90% confidence interval of [-0.42, 1.46]. The cost of these devices was also statistically significant.

  14. Avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders: state and local policies for OAA units on aging.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    The diversification and aging of the US population has been at the root of many political and policy debates in recent years. Of particular interest has been the place of immigrants in an aging society, and what rights these immigrants are entitled to. The objective of this article is to describe the current avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders and examine potential solutions for reform. The article begins with a historical overview of the policy issue, followed by the current status of the issue in the United States and suggestions for reform.

  15. Predictors of Essential Health and Nutrition Service Delivery in Bihar, India: Results From Household and Frontline Worker Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kosec, Katrina; Avula, Rasmi; Holtemeyer, Brian; Tyagi, Parul; Hausladen, Stephanie; Menon, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Bihar, India, coverage of essential health and nutrition interventions is low. These interventions are provided by 2 national programs—the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Health/National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)—through Anganwadi workers (AWWs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), respectively. Little is known, however, about factors that predict effective service delivery by these frontline workers (FLWs) or receipt of services by households. This study examined the predictors of use of 4 services: (1) immunization information and services, (2) food supplements, (3) pregnancy care information, and (4) general nutrition information. Methods: Data are from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 6,002 households in 400 randomly selected villages in 1 district of Bihar state, as well as an integrated survey of 377 AWWs and 382 ASHAs from the same villages. For each of the 4 service delivery outcomes, logistic regression models were specified using a combination of variables hypothesized to be supply- and demand-side drivers of service utilization. Results: About 35% of households reported receiving any of the 4 services. Monetary immunization incentives for AWWs (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.02–2.36) and above-median household head education (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.05–1.82) were statistically significant predictors of household receipt of immunization services. Higher household socioeconomic status was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving food supplements (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.79–0.96). ASHAs receiving incentives for institutional delivery (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.99–2.33) was marginally associated with higher odds of receiving pregnancy care information, and ASHAs who maintained records of pregnant women was significantly associated with households receiving such information (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.07–4.74). AWWs receiving immunization incentives was associated with significantly higher

  16. Utilisation of hospital services in Italy: a comparative analysis of immigrant and Italian citizens.

    PubMed

    Baglio, Giovanni; Saunders, Catherine; Spinelli, Angela; Osborn, John

    2010-08-01

    In Italy, immigrants from Less Developed Countries (LDCs) have doubled every 10 years since the 1970s and this number grew to 330,000 at the end of 1981, and to more than 1,300,000 in 2001. As the presence of immigrants increases, it becomes ever more important to assess their health needs and utilisation of health services, in order to promote adequate programmes and policies. This study was aimed to compare the patterns of hospital use by immigrants from LDCs living in the Lazio Region, Italy, with those of the resident Italians. The study was based on the hospital discharge data collected by the Lazio Region Hospital Information System. Discharges of immigrants from acute hospitals in Lazio during 2005 were compared with discharges of resident Italians. Age- and sex-specific hospitalisation rates (per 1,000) were also calculated for legal immigrants and Italians aged 18 years and over. Of 56,610 foreign patients from LCDs admitted to hospitals in Lazio during 2005, 88% were legally residing in the region. The immigrants were younger than the Italians (mean age 30.6 and 51.7 years, respectively), more than half were female and single, and about 1/3 had studied for 9 or more years. Among males, a similar pattern of hospital use by age was observed for foreigners and Italians, with the rates for foreigners in acute care being higher among young people (due to traumatic accidents) and lower among the oldest. Differently, among foreign females, the admission rates for both acute and day care settings varied with women's age, the pattern of hospital use being strongly influenced by reproductive events. The main reason for hospitalisation of foreign males in acute care was injuries (approximately 1/4 of all discharges), and in day care was neoplasms; among females, more than half of the admissions were for childbirth in acute or induced abortions in day care. Injuries for males and induced abortions for females were identified as critical areas for migrants' health, in

  17. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  18. Access to and use of health services among undocumented Mexican immigrants in a US urban area.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arijit; Galea, Sandro; Lopez, Gerald; Nandi, Vijay; Strongarone, Stacey; Ompad, Danielle C

    2008-11-01

    We assessed access to and use of health services among Mexican-born undocumented immigrants living in New York City in 2004. We used venue-based sampling to recruit participants from locations where undocumented immigrants were likely to congregate. Participants were 18 years or older, born in Mexico, and current residents of New York City. The main outcome measures were health insurance coverage, access to a regular health care provider, and emergency department care. In multivariable models, living in a residence with fewer other adults, linguistic acculturation, higher levels of formal income, higher levels of social support, and poor health were associated with health insurance coverage. Female gender, fewer children, arrival before 1997, higher levels of formal income, health insurance coverage, greater social support, and not reporting discrimination were associated with access to a regular health care provider. Higher levels of education, higher levels of formal income, and poor health were associated with emergency department care. Absent large-scale political solutions to the challenges of undocumented immigrants, policies that address factors shown to limit access to care may improve health among this growing population.

  19. Access to and Use of Health Services Among Undocumented Mexican Immigrants in a US Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Lopez, Gerald; Nandi, Vijay; Strongarone, Stacey; Ompad, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed access to and use of health services among Mexican-born undocumented immigrants living in New York City in 2004. Methods. We used venue-based sampling to recruit participants from locations where undocumented immigrants were likely to congregate. Participants were 18 years or older, born in Mexico, and current residents of New York City. The main outcome measures were health insurance coverage, access to a regular health care provider, and emergency department care. Results. In multivariable models, living in a residence with fewer other adults, linguistic acculturation, higher levels of formal income, higher levels of social support, and poor health were associated with health insurance coverage. Female gender, fewer children, arrival before 1997, higher levels of formal income, health insurance coverage, greater social support, and not reporting discrimination were associated with access to a regular health care provider. Higher levels of education, higher levels of formal income, and poor health were associated with emergency department care. Conclusions. Absent large-scale political solutions to the challenges of undocumented immigrants, policies that address factors shown to limit access to care may improve health among this growing population. PMID:18172155

  20. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  1. Immigrant women's experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a systematic review using a narrative synthesis.

    PubMed

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alexandre, Mirande; Chiu, Yvonne; Forgeron, Joan; Kocay, Deb; Barolia, Rubina

    2015-02-11

    Canada's diverse society and its statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that a synthesis of knowledge related to the healthcare experiences of immigrants is essential to realise the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for the tailoring of services to user needs. We therefore assessed the experiences of immigrant women accessing maternity-care services in Canada. In particular, we investigated the experiences of immigrant women in Canada in accessing and navigating maternity and related healthcare services from conception to 6 months postpartum in Canada. Our focus was on (a) the accessibility and acceptability of maternity-care services for immigrant women and (b) the effects of the perceptions and experiences of these women on their birth and postnatal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review using a systematic search and narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed reports of empirical research, with the aim of providing stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. We partnered with key stakeholders ('integrated knowledge users') to ensure the relevancy of topics and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy, practice and programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process for published and grey literature were conducted prior to appraisal of literature quality and narrative synthesis of the findings. Our knowledge synthesis of maternity care among immigrants to Canada provided a coherent evidence base for (a) eliciting a better understanding of the factors that generate disparities in accessibility, acceptability and outcomes during maternity care; and (b) improving culturally based competency in maternity care. Our synthesis also identified pertinent issues in multiple sectors that should be addressed to

  2. Disparities and barriers encountered by immigrant Dominican mothers accessing prenatal care services in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Colón-Burgos, J F; Colón-Jordan, H M; Reyes-Ortiz, V E; Marin-Centeno, H A; Rios-Mota, R

    2014-08-01

    Inadequate access to prenatal services has been associated with higher rates of mother and child mortality and premature births in the general population. Thus, this paper aims to compare the utilization and adequacy of prenatal care services of Dominican immigrant mothers with that of Puerto Rican mothers. Data was extracted from birth certificates using a cohort from 1998 to 2002 (n = 252, 919). The Kotelchuck index for adequate prenatal care was used for comparison with socio-demographic characteristics of the population. Less than half of Dominican mothers (48.5 %) received adequate prenatal care compared to more than two-thirds (69.1 %) of Puerto Rican mothers (p < .001). After controlling for demographic characteristics, health insurance, pregnancy risks, complications and previous birth (parity) the odds of receiving adequate care of Dominican mothers was 0.7 that of Puerto Rican mothers (p < .001). These results suggest significant disparities in obtaining adequate prenatal care services among migrant women and native Puerto Ricans.

  3. [Immigrations to Anatolia, related public health problems and healthcare services in the beginning of the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat

    Anatolia, one of the most important crossroads between two continents, has witnessed so many immigrations throughout the history. It is a place where different civilizations and cultures met and transformed each other by interaction. History of important immigrations to Anatolia during the reign of the Ottoman Empire goes back to 1683. Also, the period between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century was the time of wars, immigrations, and death and birth of nations. The Ottoman Empire had joined the several wars as well, and the new Republic of Turkey was established after it collapsed. In this study, we investigated the two large scale immigrations to Anatolia between Balkan Wars and the first years of Republic, and tried to compile our knowledge about the public health problems and the healthcare services provided.

  4. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We present the prevalence of political violence (PV) of immigrant Latinos in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. Methods We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. We use a conceptual framework that assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Results Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Specific subgroups of Latinos, including men and Mexican immigrants, were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last 12 months service use. Conclusions The strong consequences of PV suggest the need for systematic screening and referral strategies. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories. PMID:18850369

  5. Mental health needs of visible minority immigrants in a small urban center: recommendations for policy makers and service providers.

    PubMed

    Reitmanova, Sylvia; Gustafson, Diana L

    2009-02-01

    This qualitative pilot study explored the mental health needs of visible minority immigrants in St. John's--a small urban center in Atlantic Canada with limited ethnoracial diversity and ethnospecific infrastructure. The study examined the facilitators and barriers to maintaining immigrants' mental health and their perspectives on availability and access to support services and programs that support mental health. Our findings revealed several determinants of the mental health of visible minority immigrants: social support, income, employment, culture, physical environment, coping skills, gender, and availability, accessibility and cultural appropriateness of mental health services. We offer 18 recommendations framed by Health Canada determinants of health that may be of interest to decision-makers in government, health agencies and social services in similar small urban centers.

  6. Public Assistance Use among U.S.-Born Children of Immigrants. Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    U.S.-born children of immigrants may be less likely to receive some social services than are children of native-born immigrants, if foreign-born parents who are themselves ineligible are less likely to apply on their children's behalf. Researchers used retrospective data from a sample of about 2,400 low-income, predominantly Hispanic households in…

  7. Dental health behavior in a migrant perspective: use of dental services of Pakistani immigrants in Norway.

    PubMed

    Selikowitz, H S; Holst, D

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the utilization pattern of dental services in a group of Pakistani immigrants in Norway. Use was related to sociodemographic characteristics, level of urbanization in Pakistan, knowledge and belief about dental diseases and evaluated and perceived dental health. A total of 160 immigrants were clinically examined and interviewed by a structured questionnaire. The effect change analysis was performed, and separate analyses were performed for men and women. Altogether 60% had visited the dentist during the last 3 yr. While 69% coming from the cities had been to the dentist in Norway, this was the case for only 38% of those from the villages of Pakistan. Pain was given as the main reason for dental visits, and the data indicated insufficient ability to perform self-assessment of own dental health. The independent variables could explain more of the variance in use of dental services among the Pakistani men (R2 = 40%) than among the women (R2 = 21%). While number of decayed teeth and level of urbanization were among the strongest predictors among the men, dental behavior in Pakistan and number of years in Norway were of importance among the women. The latter variable indicated that the women in terms of dental behavior had a higher degree of acculturation than the men, leading to a change in traditional health behavior.

  8. Acceptance of Internet-Based Health Care Services Among Households in Poland: Secondary Analysis of a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polish society is benefiting from growing access to the Internet, but the use of advanced e-services is still limited. The provision of Internet-based health services depends not only on the penetration of the Internet into society, but also on the acceptance of this technology by potential users. Objective The main objective of this study was focused on the assessment of predictors of acceptance of Internet use for provision of health services (eg, sociodemographic status, the use of information technologies, and consumption of health care services) among households in Poland. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of the dataset from the 2011 Social Diagnosis survey (a biannual survey conducted since 2001 about economic and non-economic aspects of household and individual living conditions in Poland). Analysis of the questionnaire results focused on the situations of the households included in the study. The predictors for 2 outcome variables describing the acceptance of households for Internet use for provision of a full health care service, or at least access to information and download of required forms, were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results After excluding those households that would not consider the use of health care services or for which predictor variables assumed missing values, the final analyses were conducted on data from 8915 households. Acceptance of the use of the Internet for provision of full health care services in Polish households was significantly higher among households in urban locations with ≥ 200,000 inhabitants than among households in rural areas; it was also higher with salaried employment as the source of income than with self-employment in agriculture (odds ratio [OR] = 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 - 0.70), retirement pension (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.39 - 0.54), disability pension (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.34 - 0.68), or with several simultaneous income sources (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.57 - 0

  9. Utilization of health services in a resource-limited rural area in Kenya: Prevalence and associated household-level factors

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Anthony K.; Agoi, Felix; Mahoney, Megan R.; Lakhani, Amyn; Mang’ong’o, David; Nderitu, Esther; Armstrong, Robert; Macfarlane, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background and methods Knowledge of utilization of health services and associated factors is important in planning and delivery of interventions to improve health services coverage. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with health services utilization in a rural area of Kenya. Our findings inform the local health management in development of appropriately targeted interventions. We used a cluster sample survey design and interviewed household key informants on history of illness for household members and health services utilization in the preceding month. We estimated prevalence and performed random effects logistic regression to determine the influence of individual and household level factors on decisions to utilize health services. Results and conclusions 1230/6,440 (19.1%, 95% CI: 18.3%-20.2%) household members reported an illness. Of these, 76.7% (95% CI: 74.2%-79.0%) sought healthcare in a health facility. The majority (94%) of the respondents visited dispensary-level facilities and only 60.1% attended facilities within the study sub-counties. Of those that did not seek health services, 43% self-medicated by buying non-prescription drugs, 20% thought health services were too costly, and 10% indicated that the sickness was not serious enough to necessitate visiting a health facility. In the multivariate analyses, relationship to head of household was associated with utilization of health services. Relatives other than the nuclear family of the head of household were five times less likely to seek medical help (Odds Ratio 0.21 (95% CI: 0.05–0.87)). Dispensary level health facilities are the most commonly used by members of this community, and relations at the level of the household influence utilization of health services during an illness. These data enrich the perspective of the local health management to better plan the allocation of healthcare resources according to need and demand. The findings will also contribute in the development of

  10. [Health behavior, preventative medicine, early detection, and utilization of women's health services among Ethiopian women immigrants in Israel].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nivi; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2013-01-01

    Immigrants differ in morbidity and mortality characteristics, as well as health services and preventative medicine utilization, compared with the non-immigrant population. As the Length of stay in the host country increases, these patterns become similar to the Local population, due to the acculturation process. Immigrant women's prenatal care is often partial and inadequate, usually occurring late in pregnancy, their contraceptive use is lower and the rate of abortions is higher. They have less screening tests for cancer detection, are diagnosed at advanced stages and their survival and cure probabilities are lower Facilitators and barriers to immigrant women's health behaviors include cultural beliefs and perceptions, length of stay in the host country, degree of acculturation, Language barriers, accessibility, primary physician involvement, role burdens, knowledge and awareness. Ethiopian women experienced a sharp transition in a variety of life aspects following their immigration to Israel. Studies show that Ethiopian women's health and health behavior are typical to those encountered among immigrant women. Their birth patterns are becoming similar to local women as their years in Israel increase, and veteran's patterns are closer to the local population. Data regarding contraceptive use is lacking; the abortion rate is four times higher in comparison with Israeli-born Jewish women, and preventive medicine, referral and early detection rates for cancer are lower. Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are at high risk regarding their health. Understanding the underlying causes, the changes that occur as time in Israel increases, and identifying the accessibility barriers to services experienced by these women, will assist in planning cultural and needs sensitive services, including health promotion programs.

  11. The relationship between psychosocial status of immigrant Latino mothers and use of emergency pediatric services.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, R E; Ell, K; Dorrington, C; Wachsman, L; Hodge, D

    1994-05-01

    Consistent empirical evidence has shown that low-income Latino populations tend to underutilize health care services and do not have a usual source of care. This article identifies and describes the sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics of Latino immigrant mothers who use emergency pediatric services, assesses the association of maternal characteristics with perceived barriers to care, and examines key predictors of total number of pediatric visits in a year. A survey was carried out to obtain data on reason for emergency room visit, usual sources of care, child's health, and mother's physical and psychosocial health. The results revealed a clear pattern of delayed care for acute problems in the children, a high number of reported barriers to pediatric care, and high mental distress reported by mothers.

  12. Economic crisis, immigrant women and changing availability of intimate partner violence services: a qualitative study of professionals' perceptions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A; Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-09-10

    Since 2008, Spain has been in the throes of an economic crisis. This recession particularly affects the living conditions of vulnerable populations, and has also led to a reversal in social policies and a reduction in resources. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers' perceptions of the impact of the current economic crisis on these resources in Spain and on their capacity to respond to immigrant women's needs experiencing IPV. A qualitative study was performed based on 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews to social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, police officers and health professionals from different services dealing with IPV (both, public and NGO's) and cities in Spain (Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia and Alicante) in 2011. Transcripts were imported into qualitative analysis software (Atlas.ti), and analysed using qualitative content analysis. We identified four categories related to the perceived impact of the current economic crisis: a) "Immigrant women have it harder now", b) "IPV and immigration resources are the first in line for cuts", c) " Fewer staff means a less effective service" and d) "Equality and IPV policies are no longer a government priority". A cross-cutting theme emerged from these categories: immigrant women are triply affected; by IPV, by the crisis, and by structural violence. The professionals interviewed felt that present resources in Spain are insufficient to meet the needs of immigrant women, and that the situation might worsen in the future.

  13. A "theatre of rule?" Domestic service in aristocratic households under the Third Republic.

    PubMed

    Macknight, Elizabeth C

    2008-01-01

    E. P. Thompson developed the notion of "cultural hegemony" to analyse the power of the ruling class over the working class in eighteenth-century England. This article examines the aristocracy's endeavour to maintain its cultural hegemony in the France of the Third Republic. Drawing on the private archives of noble families, it documents servants' roles in supporting the "conspicuous consumption" of their employers, the hierarchy and wages of male and female servants and the language and gestures used in employer-servant interaction. It then looks at working-class responses to nobles' hegemonic ritual of hunting and concludes with discussion of the post-war socio-economic climate in which the distinctive features of domestic service in aristocratic households were gradually abandoned.

  14. Support networks for Chinese older immigrants accessing English health and social care services: the concept of Bridge People.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiayang; Cook, Glenda; Cattan, Mima

    2017-03-01

    As Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom age, they experience an increasing need to access health and care services. It has, however, been reported that older Chinese immigrants have difficulties in accessing these services. This study explored the experiences of this population in using health and care services and the strategies that they adopted to address their difficulties. A grounded theory method with a two-staged research design was used. Stage 1 explored the participants' experiences of ageing and use of health and social care services through focus group interviews. Stage 2 investigated the strategies individuals used to support access to and use of services through individual interviews. Forty-four older Chinese people and 15 supporters participated in interviews during August 2011 and May 2013. These older Chinese immigrants were challenged in knowing about and in accessing services. Their difficulties were attributed to language barriers, lack of information and instrumental support, and emotional and cultural issues regarding use of health and care services. Their supporters facilitated access to services and acted as a bridge between the service and the user; therefore, they were given the title 'Bridge People'. Bridge People have different backgrounds: family and friends, public sector workers and staff from community-based Chinese organisations. The defining attributes of these supporters were: bilinguality, bicultural, multifunctionality and accessibility. There is no charge for this support; and the relationship between the Bridge Person and recipient involves trust and influence over decisions regarding use of health and care services. Bridge People should be recognised and identified by health, social care and housing services to promote engagement and use of services by older immigrant Chinese people.

  15. Implementation of Congressional intent: a study of amnesty policy and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

    PubMed

    Arp, W; Baver, S L

    1994-01-01

    Despite the passage of the Immigration and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) the United States Border Patrol arrested about 1 million illegal aliens crossing the border in 1990. This phenomenon suggests that the IRCA has failed to control illegal immigration to the United States. Structural analysis of its implementation by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was analyzed. Under an agreement with the INS to process illegal workers, community-based organizations in Arizona and New York became certified Qualified Designated Entities (QDEs). In 1988 the INS carried out a study to measure the impact of IRCA and solicited data from 9 QDEs. Data were obtained from 308 illegal aliens who failed to apply for amnesty and another 286 temporary legal residents. In the New York study information was collected from the QDEs between 1987 and 1989, and also in the summer of 1989 a group of 171 amnesty applicants were surveyed. All QDEs stated that implementation was hampered by excessive documentation, lack of strong family unification provisions, the financial cost of seeking legalization, and a fear of the INS. The Arizona and New York studies indicated that excessive documentation, fear of the INS (46% in New York), and fear of family separation (47% in New York) were the major factors why the targeted people did not come forward. Instead of seeking a proper balance between the written words of IRCA and the intent of Congress, INS developed guidelines that ignored the relevant facts presented by respected QDEs and Latino groups. In reality, INS sought to prevent illegal entry through amnesty offices throughout the United States. The eligibility requirements issued by the INS for amnesty served to limit and constrain participation in that program.

  16. The construction of "cultural difference" and its therapeutic significance in immigrant mental health services in France.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Carolyn; Larchanché, Stéphanie

    2009-03-01

    Since the early 1970s, the French public health system has been accorded considerable responsibility for immigrants identified by the educational, judicial or social service authorities as psychologically distressed or socially disruptive. In this paper we discuss three models of healing embedded in constructs of "cultural difference" and addressed at specialized mental health-care centers catering to immigrants in Paris: "cultural mediation," transcultural psychiatry/ethnopsychiatry and clinical medical anthropology. Based on observations and interviews at three specialized mental health centers in Paris, we explore how these clinical approaches address migrant wellbeing and seek to resolve crises in migrant families, especially those of West African origin. We suggest that the prevalent approaches to therapy creatively blend concepts and practices of anthropology, psychiatry and psychology but, at the same time, confront challenges inherent in the use of a generic "African" healing modality. Cases studies demonstrate that in order for such interventions to be perceived as effective by patients, "cultural difference" must be acknowledged but also situated in broader social, political and economic contexts.

  17. Inequalities in the use of health services between immigrants and the native population in Spain: what is driving the differences?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-02-01

    In Spain, a growing body of literature has drawn attention to analysing the differences in health and health resource utilisation of immigrants relative to the autochthonous population. The results of these studies generally find substantial variations in health-related patterns between both population groups. In this study, we use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique to explore to what extent disparities in the probability of using medical care use can be attributed to differences in the determinants of use due to, e.g. a different demographic structure of the immigrant collective, rather than to a different effect of health care use determinants by nationality, holding all other factors equal. Our findings show that unexplained factors associated to immigrant status determine to a great extent disparities in the probability of using hospital, specialist and emergency services of immigrants relative to Spaniards, while individual characteristics, in particular self-reported health and chronic conditions, are much more important in explaining the differences in the probability of using general practitioner services between immigrants and Spaniards.

  18. [Results of two surveys of immigrants and natives in Southeast Spain: health, use of services, and need for medical assistance].

    PubMed

    Tormo, María-José; Salmerón, Diego; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra; Ballesta, Mónica; Dios, Sofía; Martínez-Fernández, Carmen; Pérez-Flores, Domingo; García-Pérez, Vicenta; Palomar, Joaquín A; Torres, Alberto M; Navarro, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    To compare the self-perceived health, use of health services and unmet need for health care (UNHC) among immigrants and native populations of Southeast Spain. Cross-sectional study of two representative samples of 1150 immigrants, and 1303 native participants from the National Health Survey. A single database was created with specific weights for each sample, and prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated by multivariate regression. Moroccans, Ecuadorians and Eastern Europeans (EE) reported poorer health than the native population (PRs [CI95%]: 2.45 [1.91-3.15]; 1.51 [1.28-1.79] and 1.44 [1.08-1.93], respectively). Immigrants made greater use of emergencies that natives (except for EE) and had lower use of medication. Moroccan showed the greatest difference in the frequency of UNHC (PR [CI95%]:12.20 [5.25 - 28.37]), mainly because of working limitations (46%). The health status and use of health services among immigrants differ significantly from those of natives. Results highlight the higher frequency of UNHC among immigrants, especially high in Moroccans.

  19. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  20. Access and utilization of healthcare services in Massachusetts, United States: a qualitative study of the perspectives and experiences of Brazilian-born immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana C; de Oliveira, Mariana Gonçalves; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita M; Arruda, Carlos Andre Moura

    2016-09-02

    Understanding immigrants' interactions with the United States (US) healthcare system will likely make it possible to meet their healthcare needs and improve their quality of life in the US. Although challenges to accessing and utilizing healthcare in the US have been identified, there is little information specific to Brazilian-born immigrants' experiences. Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US. The purpose of this study was to explore Brazilian immigrant women's perspectives and experiences with healthcare services in the US to gain insights into factors amenable to interventions that may contribute to disparities in access to and utilization of services. Five focus groups were conducted from April to May in 2015 using a purposeful sampling of Brazilian-born immigrant women living in Massachusetts, US. Thirty-five women participated in this study. Although participants expressed their overall satisfaction with the US healthcare system, they noted several barriers to care, including sociocultural differences in delivery of care and communication barriers, including inconsistent quality of interpreting services. This study provides new information on the experiences and challenges faced by Brazilian immigrant women in accessing and utilizing healthcare services in the US and points out opportunities for improving services and the overall health of this immigrant population. Addressing noted sociocultural differences and communication barriers including inconsistent quality of hospital's interpreting services might enhance Brazilian-born immigrants' experiences with the healthcare system.

  1. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  2. Utilization of health-care services among immigrants recruited through non-profit organizations in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Aida; Larosa, Elisabetta; Pileggi, Claudia; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2016-07-01

    The study aims were focused on acquiring information about access to health-care services and to investigate the potential barriers affecting full access to health-care services. The study population consisted of immigrants and refugees aged 18 or more living in Italy for at least 12 months recruited through non-profit organizations. 961 immigrants took part in the study, with a response rate of 98.9 %. Of the participants, 85 % had access to a general practitioner (GP) at least once, and 46.6 and 22.4 % mentioned a minimum one emergency visit and hospital stay, respectively. Diagnostic procedures and/or drug prescriptions (49.7 %), chronic disease control (15.8 %), and preventive interventions (13 %) were the most reported reasons for GP access. This study yielded current and broader insight into the model of health-care utilization among immigrants. The findings adds to our understanding of the third-sector organizations' role in facilitating immigrants' access to services offered by the Italian National Health Service, contributing to the extensive discussion on how to best manage migrant health care in Italy.

  3. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  4. 78 FR 43893 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and... Homeland Security system of records titled ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Citizenship and Immigration Services--011 E- Verify Program System of Records.'' The United States Citizenship and...

  5. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  6. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Lisa R; Porche, Michelle V; Alegria, Margarita

    2008-11-01

    We present the prevalence of exposure to political violence (PV) among Latino immigrants in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. Our conceptual framework assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Latino men and specific subgroups of Latinos were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last-12-months service use. Individuals who come from countries with a history of political violence often have multiple traumatic experiences. This suggests a need for systematic screening for trauma and related psychiatric disorders. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories.

  7. "It is an Issue of not Knowing Where to Go": Service Providers' Perspectives on Challenges in Accessing Social Support and Services by Immigrant Mothers of Children with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Haque, Nasim; Sheehan, Sinead; Jones, Gail

    2015-12-01

    In Canada little is known about the challenges immigrant mothers of children with disabilities encounter in accessing formal and informal social support. This paper presents the perspectives of service providers on the mothers' challenges. Data was collected from 27 service providers in Toronto, Canada in 2012 through in-depth interviews. The interview guide was informed by published literature on families of children with special needs. Level one analyses entailed descriptive analyses; and level two consisted of applying House's 4 domains of social support to organize the themes. Following House's domains, challenges to (1) Structural support, (2) Instrumental support, (3) Emotional support, and (4) Perception of support were identified. Among providers who work with families of children with disabilities there is recognition of the mothers' particular challenges in light of their immigration status. Language and communication are significant barriers for immigrant mothers in accessing social support.

  8. Predictors of Essential Health and Nutrition Service Delivery in Bihar, India: Results From Household and Frontline Worker Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kosec, Katrina; Avula, Rasmi; Holtemeyer, Brian; Tyagi, Parul; Hausladen, Stephanie; Menon, Purnima

    2015-06-17

    In Bihar, India, coverage of essential health and nutrition interventions is low. These interventions are provided by 2 national programs--the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) and Health/National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)--through Anganwadi workers (AWWs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), respectively. Little is known, however, about factors that predict effective service delivery by these frontline workers (FLWs) or receipt of services by households. This study examined the predictors of use of 4 services: (1) immunization information and services, (2) food supplements, (3) pregnancy care information, and (4) general nutrition information. Data are from a 2012 cross-sectional survey of 6,002 households in 400 randomly selected villages in 1 district of Bihar state, as well as an integrated survey of 377 AWWs and 382 ASHAs from the same villages. For each of the 4 service delivery outcomes, logistic regression models were specified using a combination of variables hypothesized to be supply- and demand-side drivers of service utilization. About 35% of households reported receiving any of the 4 services. Monetary immunization incentives for AWWs (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.02-2.36) and above-median household head education (OR = 1.39, CI = 1.05-1.82) were statistically significant predictors of household receipt of immunization services. Higher household socioeconomic status was associated with significantly lower odds of receiving food supplements (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.79-0.96). ASHAs receiving incentives for institutional delivery (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.99-2.33) was marginally associated with higher odds of receiving pregnancy care information, and ASHAs who maintained records of pregnant women was significantly associated with households receiving such information (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.07-4.74). AWWs receiving immunization incentives was associated with significantly higher odds of households receiving general

  9. Self-management, health service use and information seeking for diabetes care among recent immigrants in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Hyman, I; Patychuk, D; Zaidi, Q; Kljujic, D; Shakya, Y B; Rummens, J A; Creatore, M; Vissandjee, B

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to explore self-management practices, health services use and information-seeking for type 2 diabetes care among adult men and women from four recent immigrant communities in Toronto. A structured questionnaire was adapted for the Canadian context and translated into 4 languages. A total of 184 participants with type 2 diabetes-130 recent immigrants and 54 Canadian-born-were recruited in both community and hospital settings. Recent immigrants were significantly less likely than the Canadian-born group to perform regular blood glucose and foot checks and significantly more likely than the Canadian-born group to be non-smokers, participate in regular physical activity and reduce dietary fat. Recent immigrants were significantly less likely than the Canadian-born group to use a specialist, alternative provider and dietician and less likely to report using dieticians, nurses and diabetes organizations as sources of diabetes-related information. Important differences were observed by sex and country of origin. Findings suggest that diabetes prevention and management strategies for recent immigrants must address linguistic, financial, informational and systemic barriers to information and care.

  10. An audit of tuberculosis health services in prisons and immigration removal centres.

    PubMed

    Mehay, Anita; Raj, Thara; Altass, Lynn; Newton, Autilia; O'Moore, Eamonn; Railton, Cathie; Tan, Hong; Story, Al; Frater, Alison

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Rates of active TB in places of prescribed detention (PPD), which include Prisons, Young Offender Institutions and Immigration Removal Centres, are high compared with the general population. PPD therefore present an opportunity to develop targeted health programmes for TB control. This audit aims to assess current service provisions and identify barriers to achieving best practice standards in PPD across London. Twelve healthcare teams within PPD commissioned by NHS England (London Region) were included in the audit. Services were evaluated against the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence standards for TB best practice. None of the health providers with a digital X-ray machine were conducting active case finding in new prisoners and no health providers routinely conduct Latent TB infection testing and preventative treatment. Barriers to implementing standards include the lack of staff skills and staff skills mix, structural and technical barriers, and demands of custodial and health services. This audit restates the importance of national public health TB strategies to consider healthcare provisions across PPD.

  11. FERPA and the Immigration and Naturalization Service: A Guide for University Counsel on Federal Rules for Collecting, Maintaining and Releasing Information about Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatcheressian, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses college and university obligations to collect, maintain, and provide information about foreign students to the government. Explores federal immigration rules relating to foreign students and examines the interaction between the Immigration and Naturalization Service's (INS) regulations and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of…

  12. Examining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-03-13

    While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants' postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999-2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501,417 pairs). For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants--males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents--both sexes: 13.1%, p<0.001). Living in more deprived circumstances was associated with greater use of mental health services, but increases were smaller for immigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants' care use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. In settings where immigrants are over-represented in deprived areas, policymakers focused

  13. Factors associated with self-reported use of dental health services among older Greek and Italian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Calache, Hanny; Minichiello, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss utilization of dental health services by older Greek and Italian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Their study involved 374 Greek and 360 Italian adults who completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Nearly 41% of Greek and 45% of Italian respondents had used dental services in the previous year. As barriers to care, Greek participants most often cited waiting lists and waiting time in the office. Italian participants most often identified cost, length of waiting lists and language barriers. Multivariate analyses associated recent use of dental services with number of teeth, oral health knowledge, age and occupation before retirement for both groups, as well as living arrangements among Greek participants and perceived barriers among Italian participants. Findings highlight the need for oral health promotion programs targeted toward older adults from immigrant populations and reductions of the structural barriers that prevent these adults from seeking oral health care.

  14. [Patterns of contact with the out-of-hours service and emergency rooms by guest workers with immigrant and refugee background in Copenhagen municipality, 1998].

    PubMed

    Andersen, John Sahl; Dyhr, Lise

    2006-09-18

    Outside normal office hours, patients in Denmark with acute conditions are treated by the out-of-hours service connected to general practice and in the emergency rooms of hospitals. Little is known about the contact pattern of immigrants with these services. The purpose of this study was to compare the contact rates for immigrants (guest workers and refugees) and non-immigrants with out-of-hours service and emergency rooms and compare the results with the total number of contacts with general practice (out-of-hours service, daytime contacts) and emergency rooms. Data from 2,243,633 contacts in Copenhagen 1998 registered in the National Patient Registry and 112,733 visits to emergency units were merged with information about citizenship and place of birth in the Central Office of Civil Registration. The contacts were described by the average number of contacts per person at risk per year. The contact rates with the out-of-hours service were significantly lower for immigrant children than for non-immigrants, whereas the number of visits to emergency rooms did not show any differences. For both sexes aged 19-59, the contact rates for out-of-hours service and emergency rooms were higher for immigrants. The total number of contacts was 31-11% lower for children and those 60+ years of age and 4-20% higher for 19- to 59-year-old immigrants. Significant differences in the use of acute services by immigrants and non-immigrants were observed. Whether this is appropriate is questionable.

  15. The High Cost of Free Tuberculosis Services: Patient and Household Costs Associated with Tuberculosis Care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (≤35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor. PMID:24015293

  16. The high cost of free tuberculosis services: patient and household costs associated with tuberculosis care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Alobu, Isaac; Lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (± 11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (≤ 35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor.

  17. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The…

  18. Effects of Parent Immigration Status on Mental Health Service Use Among Latino Children Referred to Child Welfare.

    PubMed

    Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Dettlaff, Alan J; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Latino families may be at risk of experiencing stressors resulting from the immigration process, such as those related to documentation status and acculturation, that may increase their need for mental health services. However, little research exists on the mental health needs and service use of Latino children. This study examined how parental nativity and legal status influence mental health needs and service utilization among children in Latino families investigated by child welfare. Data from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative, prospective study of families investigated by child welfare agencies for maltreatment, were used to examine mental health need and service use in a subset of Latino children who remained in the home following a maltreatment investigation (N=390). Although children of immigrants did not differ from children of U.S.-born parents in levels of clinical need, they had lower rates of mental health service receipt. After the analyses accounted for other relevant variables, the odds of receiving services were significantly lower (odds ratio=.09) for children whose parents were undocumented compared with children whose parents were U.S. citizens. This study contributes to growing discourse on Latino family needs within the child welfare system. Analyses support earlier research regarding the effects of parent nativity on mental health service use and advance the literature by identifying parent legal status as a unique barrier to child service receipt.

  19. Undocumented Immigrant Women in Spain: A Scoping Review on Access to and Utilization of Health and Social Services.

    PubMed

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Alconada-Romero, Álvaro; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Pastells, Roland; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina, Fidel

    2017-02-01

    This scoping review summarizes and analyzes relevant studies related to the evidence published on undocumented immigrant women's access to and utilization of health and social services in Spain. Scientific literature was identified by entering search terms in seven electronic databases which combined retrieved health sciences peer-reviewed articles (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL Plus and Scopus) and grey literature databases (Europa OpenGrey, DART-Europe and Google Scholar) published between 2004 and 2014 and written in Spanish or in English presenting data about Spain. Those that fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected after a blind peer reviewed process when pertinence and quality was debated. A total of 16 publications were included, the main topics being socio-cultural differences in the access and utilization of social and health services and barriers faced by immigrant women. None of the studies focused exclusively on undocumented women, hence further research is needed in this area.

  20. 75 FR 54642 - Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... immigrant and non-immigrant benefits databases combined into a single user interface and presented in an... them into a system for the following three purposes: (1) Vetting USCIS application information for... nonimmigrants through applications and petitions for the purposes of adjudicating and bestowing...

  1. Use of dental services by immigration status in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fernando A; Wang, Yang; Stimpson, Jim P; McFarland, Kimberly K; Singh, Karan P

    2016-03-01

    There is limited research with mixed findings comparing differences in oral health outcomes and the use of dental services by immigration status. The authors conducted a study by reviewing nationally representative data to describe differences in dental care among noncitizens, naturalized citizens, and US-born citizens in the United States. The authors used nationally representative data from the 2008-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to examine dental care for US-born citizens, naturalized citizens, and noncitizens 18 years and older. Total analytical sample size was 98,107 adults. They used multivariate logistic regression to model dental service use adjusting for confounding factors. Naturalized citizens and noncitizens were significantly less likely to have at least 1 dental visit within 12 months (39.5% and 23.1%, respectively) compared with US-born citizens (43.6%; P < .001). Among users, a smaller proportion of comprehensive examination visits were for naturalized citizens and noncitizens (75.9% and 71.4%, respectively) compared with US-born citizens (82.8%; P < .01). Noncitizen visits to dentists were also more likely to involve tooth extraction compared with those of US-born citizens (11.3% versus 8.8%; P < .01). Multivariate logistic regression suggests both non- and naturalized citizens had lower adjusted odds of having a comprehensive examination compared with US-born citizens during a visit (P < .01). Noncitizens and naturalized citizens had a lower rate of dental service use, and noncitizens were more likely to have had tooth extraction compared with US-born citizens. Increased outreach efforts tailored to noncitizens and naturalized citizens who are at high risk of experiencing dental problems are needed, particularly to address misperceptions on the necessity of preventive dental visits. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of healthcare services in the region of origin among patients with an immigrant background in Denmark: a qualitative study of the motives.

    PubMed

    Lokdam, Nicoline; Kristiansen, Maria; Handlos, Line Neerup; Norredam, Marie

    2016-03-21

    In Denmark, immigrants have been found to have a higher use of healthcare services abroad. Since this use may have an impact on both the individual patient and the healthcare system in the country of residence, research into underlying reasons is of increasing relevance. This study therefore investigates what motives patients with an immigrant background have for seeking healthcare services in their region of origin. The study was based on 10 semi-structured interviews with 10 patients who had an immigrant background, primarily originating from Turkey and the Middle East, recruited at a clinic of immigrant medicine in Denmark. The interviews were analysed thematically to elucidate motives for seeking healthcare services abroad, with focus on identifying push and pull factors. Four motives for seeking healthcare in the region of origin were salient in the material: the perception of availability, in terms of quantity and access; familiarity, conceptualised as feeling comfortable within the healthcare system; perception of quality of services; and finally, the perceived need for a second opinion. All motives emerged simultaneously as push factors, motivating immigrants to explore healthcare services abroad, and pull factors, attracting them to their country of origin. Affordability did not emerge as an independent motive but influenced the other factors. The use of healthcare services abroad by patients with an immigrant background constitutes active health-seeking behaviours shaped by a range of factors perceived to be limiting access to high-quality services in Denmark. Further research, including quantitative studies, should be initiated to investigate the importance of these motives among larger, more diverse immigrant groups, consequences for treatment regimes, and the healthcare professionals' perspective on the use of healthcare in the region of origin among immigrant patients.

  3. Household's willingness to pay for heterogeneous attributes of drinking water quality and services improvement: an application of choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauda, Suleiman Alhaji; Yacob, Mohd Rusli; Radam, Alias

    2015-09-01

    The service of providing good quality of drinking water can greatly improve the lives of the community and maintain a normal health standard. For a large number of population in the world, specifically in the developing countries, the availability of safe water for daily sustenance is none. Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It hosts a population of more than two hundred thousand, yet only 45 % of the households are connected to the network of Yobe State Water Corporation's pipe borne water services; this has led people to source for water from any available source and thus, exposed them to the danger of contracting waterborne diseases. In order to address the problem, Yobe State Government has embarked on the construction of a water treatment plant with a capacity and facility to improve the water quality and connect the town with water services network. The objectives of this study are to assess the households' demand preferences of the heterogeneous water attributes in Damaturu, and to estimate their marginal willingness to pay, using mixed logit model in comparison with conditional logit model. A survey of 300 households randomly sampled indicated that higher education greatly influenced the households' WTP decisions. The most significant variable from both of the models is TWQ, which is MRS that rates the water quality from the level of satisfactory to very good. 219 % in simple model is CLM, while 126 % is for the interaction model. As for MLM, 685 % is for the simple model and 572 % is for the interaction model. Estimate of MLM has more explanatory powers than CLM. Essentially, this finding can help the government in designing cost-effective management and efficient tariff structure.

  4. Use of acute care hospital services by immigrant seniors in Ontario: A linkage study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward; Sanmartin, Claudia; Tu, Jack; Manuel, Doug

    2014-10-01

    Seniors constitute the largest group of hospital users. The increasing share of immigrants in Canada's senior population can affect the demand for hospital care. This study used the linked 2006 Census-Hospital Discharge Abstract Database to examine hospitalization during the 2004-to-2006 period, by immigrant status, of Ontario seniors living in the community. Hospitalization was assessed with logistic regressions; cumulative length of stay, with zero-truncated negative binomial regressions. All-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations specific to circulatory and digestive diseases were examined. Immigrant seniors had significantly low age-/sex-adjusted odds of hospitalization, compared with Canadian-born seniors (OR = 0.81). The odds varied from 0.4 among East Asians to 0.89 among Europeans, and rose with length of time since arrival from 0.54 for recent (1994 to 2003) to 0.86 for long-term (before 1984) immigrants. Adjustment for demographic and socio-economic characteristics did not change the overall patterns. Immigrants' cumulated length of hospital stay tended to be shorter than or similar to that of Canadian-born seniors. Immigrant seniors, especially recent arrivals, had lower odds of hospitalization and similar time in hospital, compared with Canadian-born seniors. These patterns likely reflect differences in health status. Variations by world region and disease reflect the diverse health care needs of immigrant seniors.

  5. Exploring the potential of Product Service Systems to achieve household waste prevention on new housing developments in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gottberg, Annika; Longhurst, Philip J; Cook, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Product service systems (PSS) are cleaner product concepts which have been developed to achieve improvements in resource productivity which may be realized from modern trends in service delivery. However, there is a paucity of research on the waste prevention performance of PSS in UK household markets. This paper reports the findings of exploratory research which begins to address this gap in knowledge. An exploratory waste prevention assessment was completed on four experimental PSS which were developed in conjunction with a major UK house-builder for delivery on their new housing developments. The results of the assessment show that the selected PSS concepts have potential to prevent high value and harmful Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) arising in UK household waste streams. Consistent with the canon of exploratory research, the assessment also identifies a number of factors which are thought to influence PSS waste prevention performance. It is recognized that further research is needed to gain an in-depth understanding of these factors as well as to define policy measures which enable the conditions in which PSS prevent household waste on new housing developments in the UK to be created.

  6. Empowering immigrant youth in Chicago: utilizing CBPR to document the impact of a Youth Health Service Corps program.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Maria J; Sacks, Tina K; Perez, Miriam; Nixon, John P; Asis, Dale; Coleman, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Youth Health Service Corps as a health promotion program, (2) examine the use of CBPR within the immigrant community, and (3) discuss preliminary findings using a model on critical youth empowerment.

  7. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  8. Effects of Social Determinants on Chinese Immigrant Food Service Workers' Work Performance and Injuries: Mental Health as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2015-07-01

    The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Mental health problems, which were associated with decreased work performance and increased injuries, also mediated relationships between job/employment concerns and both work performance and injuries but did not mediate the influences of discrimination and social support. This research reveals mechanisms by which social determinants influence immigrant worker health, pointing to complementary strategies for reducing occupational health disparities.

  9. Self-reported oral health and use of dental services among asylum seekers and immigrants in Finland-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Anni; Ghaderi, Peyvand; Tervonen, Laura; Niskanen, Leena; Pesonen, Paula; Anttonen, Vuokko; Laitala, Marja-Liisa

    2016-12-01

    The number of asylum seekers and immigrants arriving in European countries is growing explosively. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate self-reported oral health, oral health habits, dental fear and use of dental health care services among asylum seekers and immigrants in Finland. The interview study carried out in 2012 comprised 38 participants (18 males and 20 females) from 15 different countries, nine of whom were asylum seekers and 29 immigrants. The youngest participant was 17 and the oldest 53 years old. Each interview took approximately 30 min. The participants reported high need for dental treatment. Compared with the immigrants, the asylum seekers reported significantly more frequently dental pain and other symptoms and were less satisfied both in getting a dental appointment and in the quality of treatment they had received. All the asylum seekers and almost half of the immigrants found it difficult to get an appointment. The immigrants were more aware of good oral health habits than the asylum seekers. The asylum seekers suffered from dental fear more often than the immigrants. Despite the small number of participants, our interview-based study indicates that asylum seekers and immigrants have need for acute and basic dental treatment and health education. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. An examination of clinicians' experiences of collaborative culturally competent service delivery to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability.

    PubMed

    Fellin, Melissa; Desmarais, Chantal; Lindsay, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Although collaborative, culturally competent care has been shown to increase positive health outcomes and client satisfaction with services, little is known about the ways that clinicians implement service delivery models with immigrant families having a child with a disability. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of clinicians working with immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability and to examine the views and experiences of clinicians providing collaborative, culturally competent care to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. This study draws on in-depth interviews with 43 clinicians within two pediatric centers in Toronto and Quebec. Our findings show that clinicians remove or create barriers for immigrant families in different ways, which affect their ability to provide culturally competent care for immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. Our findings suggest that there is a need for more institutional support for collaborative, culturally competent care to immigrant families raising a child with a physical disability. There is a lack of formal processes in place to develop collaborative treatment plans and approaches that would benefit immigrant families. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians need greater institutional support and resources to spend more time with families and to provide more rehabilitative care in families' homes. Building rapport with families includes listening to and respecting families' views and experiences. Facilitate collaboration and culturally competent care by having team meetings with parents to formulate treatment plans.

  11. Examining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Objective While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants’ postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Study design Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999–2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Participants Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501 417 pairs). Primary and secondary outcome measures For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Results Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants—males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents—both sexes: 13.1%, p<0.001). Living in more deprived circumstances was associated with greater use of mental health services, but increases were smaller for immigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. Conclusions This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants’ care use for non

  12. Use of Mental Health Services and Subjective Satisfaction With Treatment Among Black Caribbean Immigrants: Results From the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Torres, Myriam; Martin, Lisa A.; Williams, David R.; Baser, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the use rates and correlates of formal psychiatric services among the US-born and immigrant Caribbean Black population. Methods. We compared overall mental health service use in samples of Caribbean Blacks and African Americans and examined the within-sample ethnic variation among Caribbean Blacks, including for ethnic origin (Spanish Caribbean, Haiti, and English Caribbean), nativity status (those born in or outside the United States), number of years spent living in the United States, age at the time of immigration, and generational status. Results. African Americans and Caribbean Blacks used formal mental health care services at relatively low rates. Among Caribbean Blacks, generational status and nativity showed the greatest effects on rates of reported use, satisfaction, and perceived helpfulness. Of those study participants who met the criteria for disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, about one third used formal mental health care services. The US-born subjects were more likely to receive care than were first-generation immigrants. Conclusions. Our study underscores the importance of ethnicity, immigration, and migration-related factors, within racial categorization, as it pertains to the use of mental health services in the United States. Our findings suggest that timing of migration and generational status of Caribbean Black immigrants and ancestry groups contribute to important differences in rates and sources of use, relative satisfaction, and perception of helpfulness, with regard to formal mental health services. PMID:17138907

  13. [Health services in the Mixteca: use and conditions of affiliation in US-migrant and non-migrant households].

    PubMed

    Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Infante-Xibille, César; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca; Serván-Mori, Edson E

    2010-01-01

    To describe the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of households in the Mixteca Baja and analyze differences in affiliation with health care programs and utilization, among members of households with migrants (HogMig) and without migrants (HogNoMig) to the United States. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used with heads of households in a representative sample from the Mixteca Baja of 702 homes with and without migrants to the US. Members of HogMig had more personal and economic resources than those of HogNoMig; they also regularly received remittances. The majority of members of both HogMig and HogNoMig did not receive benefits from the Oportunidades program or health coverage through Seguro Popular, IMSS or ISSSTE. In general, while they used the local health clinic, they often preferred to pay for private practitioners. A small proportion of those covered by IMSS or ISSSTE reported very low utilization of the health services offered by those institutions.

  14. Uninsured immigrant and refugee children presenting to Canadian paediatric emergency departments: Disparities in help-seeking and service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Laurin-Lamothe, Audrey; Rummens, Joanna Anneke; Meloni, Francesca; Steinmetz, Nicolas; Alvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Access to health care for medically uninsured immigrant and refugee children is a public health concern due to the consequences of delayed or substandard care for child development and health. OBJECTIVE: To explore possible differences in help-seeking and service delivery across migratory statuses, institutions and provinces. METHODS: A review was undertaken of 2035 emergency files of immigrant, refugee and undocumented children without provincial health care coverage who sought care at three major paediatric hospitals in Montreal (Quebec) and Toronto (Ontario) during 2008 and 2009. RESULTS: Refugee claimant children with Interim Federal Health Program benefits consulted for less urgent problems than the overall hospital population, except in one hospital that had a multicultural paediatric ambulatory clinic. Undocumented children and new permanent resident immigrant children within the three-month waiting period for provincial health care coverage were over-represented in the very urgent triage category and presented more often for injuries, trauma and mental health problems than did refugee claimant children. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Wide interhospital differences suggest that the predicament of limited access to health care of these groups of vulnerable medically uninsured children needs to be addressed through further research to inform policies and develop training. PMID:24426806

  15. Uninsured immigrant and refugee children presenting to Canadian paediatric emergency departments: Disparities in help-seeking and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Laurin-Lamothe, Audrey; Rummens, Joanna Anneke; Meloni, Francesca; Steinmetz, Nicolas; Alvarez, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Access to health care for medically uninsured immigrant and refugee children is a public health concern due to the consequences of delayed or substandard care for child development and health. To explore possible differences in help-seeking and service delivery across migratory statuses, institutions and provinces. A review was undertaken of 2035 emergency files of immigrant, refugee and undocumented children without provincial health care coverage who sought care at three major paediatric hospitals in Montreal (Quebec) and Toronto (Ontario) during 2008 and 2009. Refugee claimant children with Interim Federal Health Program benefits consulted for less urgent problems than the overall hospital population, except in one hospital that had a multicultural paediatric ambulatory clinic. Undocumented children and new permanent resident immigrant children within the three-month waiting period for provincial health care coverage were over-represented in the very urgent triage category and presented more often for injuries, trauma and mental health problems than did refugee claimant children. Wide interhospital differences suggest that the predicament of limited access to health care of these groups of vulnerable medically uninsured children needs to be addressed through further research to inform policies and develop training.

  16. Counter-Storytelling through Service-Learning: Future Teachers of Immigrant Students in Texas and California Re-Tell the "Self" and the "Other"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise; de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the use of Critical Race Pedagogy in two service-learning initiatives that prepare pre-service teachers for working with an increasing immigrant student population in California and Texas. It is not uncommon for teachers to participate in the "Othering" dominant discourse that tends to see those who are of a lower…

  17. From Symptom Recognition to Services: How South Asian Muslim Immigrant Families Navigate Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegatheesan, Brinda; Fowler, Susan; Miller, Peggy J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three South Asian Muslim immigrant families who have a young child with autism. It describes the early period of their child's disability as the families encountered four critical issues in their lives: a complex disability, the culturally diverse conceptualizations of the disability, family-professional…

  18. Welcoming America's Newest Immigrants: Providing Access to Resources and Services for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    America has always been a nation of immigrants, and many school libraries serve students whose first language is not English. In AASL's 2009 "School Libraries Count! Survey," 14% of the 5,824 respondents reported a student population with 25% or more English language learners. Yet 91% reported that less than 5% of their collections are…

  19. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service: Dysfunctional Not by Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    is for show, politics and press releases. Kiddie porn cases are done like fast food investigations so Assistant Secretary Myers can look like a deer...drugs, drugs, kiddie porn , strategic, drugs. HQ’s forcing immigration priorities, but SACS are fighting it. How do you account for 3 groups working

  20. From Symptom Recognition to Services: How South Asian Muslim Immigrant Families Navigate Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegatheesan, Brinda; Fowler, Susan; Miller, Peggy J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three South Asian Muslim immigrant families who have a young child with autism. It describes the early period of their child's disability as the families encountered four critical issues in their lives: a complex disability, the culturally diverse conceptualizations of the disability, family-professional…

  1. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  2. Reproductive and maternity health care services in Finland: perceptions and experiences of Somali-born immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari B; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Essen, Birgitta

    2014-06-01

    To explore immigrant Somali women's experiences of reproductive and maternity health care services (RMHCS) and their perceptions about the service providers. Five focus group discussions were conducted from April 1999 to June 2000 using a purposeful sampling strategy in order to reach multiparous female Somali-born Immigrants with experiences from the maternity health care in Finland. A total of 70 married Somali women aged 18-50 and mother of 2-10 children were studied. Among them, 18 came from Kenya, 32 from Mogadishu and 20 from Hargeysa. Of the participants, 45 were living in the city of Vantaa, 22 in the city of Helsinki and 13 in the city of Turku. Participants were satisfied with the RMHCS they received in Finland. Despite their satisfaction, the health care providers' social attitudes towards them were perceived as unfriendly, and communication as poor. The women's experiences revealed that they have access to good quality RMHCS in Finland. While their experiences are significant, their perceptions are important for physicians, nurses and midwives in order to achieve culturally competent care.

  3. Effect of acculturation and health beliefs on utilization of health care services by elderly women who immigrated to the USA from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Lyubov A; Krassen Covan, Eleanor; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, researchers explored what conditions influence women's use of professional health care services, and how sociocultural environments and acculturation affect utilization of health care services. We recruited 15 women in the Ukraine, 15 women who immigrated from the former Soviet Union, and 10 female U.S. citizens. Data include open-ended interviews, a "general information" questionnaire, and the Language, Identity and Behavioral Acculturation scale. Acculturation levels and length of residency in the United States were not consistent predictors of health-seeking behaviors for immigrants. The stronger predictor of health beliefs and health related behaviors among all participants was their mothers' health beliefs and health related behaviors.

  4. Disparities in Access to Prenatal Care Services for African Immigrant Women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Paz-Zulueta, María; Llorca, Javier; Santibáñez, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    This retrospective cohort study compares the utilization of prenatal care between African immigrant and native Spanish women. For 2007-2010, we identified 231 pregnant African immigrant women. The native-born population sample was obtained by simple random sampling in a 1:3 ratio. The Kessner Index (KI) and our Own Index (OI) were applied to rate prenatal care adequacy in three categories (adequate, intermediate, and inadequate). Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using non-conditional logistic regression. Prenatal care was adequate according to the indexes (KI or OI) in 21.3 and 25.8% of North Africans and in 22.5 and 30.4% of sub-Saharan Africans. The ORs of inadequacy when adjusted for maternal age, social risk factors, and previous reproductive outcomes were 30.32 and 35.47 (KI or OI) in North and 64.43 and 67.93 in sub- Saharan Africans. These results suggest significant differences in obtaining adequate prenatal care between immigrant and native Spanish women.

  5. 'There's something in their eyes' - Child Health Services nurses' experiences of identifying signs of postpartum depression in non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Malin; Hallström, Inger; Berggren, Vanja

    2017-01-25

    Due to the current world situation, Sweden has one of the highest asylum applications within the European Union. Immigrant mothers, specifically those who have immigrated during the last ten years and do not speak the language of the new country, are found to be at particular risk of being effected by postpartum depression. In this study, we elucidate Swedish Child Health Services nurses' experiences of identifying signs of postpartum depression in non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers. Latent content analysis was used when analysing data material from 13 research interviews. Being able to interpret a non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mother's mood required establishing and constant deepening of a transcultural caring relationship, the use of cultural knowledge to perceive signs of postpartum depression from observations and interactions and to rely on intuition. There are both challenges and key factors for success in interpreting the mood of non-Swedish-speaking immigrant mothers. This study provides information to healthcare professionals about challenges with adapting the screening with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to immigrant mothers not speaking the language of residence. Tacit knowledge and cultural competence among healthcare personnel are invaluable assets when interpreting mental health in this vulnerable group of mothers. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. HIV testing service awareness and service uptake among female heads of household in rural Mozambique: results from a province-wide survey.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Heather N; Blevins, Meridith; Koethe, John R; Hinton, Nicole; Vaz, Lara M E; Vergara, Alfredo E; Mukolo, Abraham; Ndatimana, Elisée; Moon, Troy D; Vermund, Sten H; Wester, C William

    2015-02-12

    HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in remote rural settings. We sought to identify factors associated with service awareness and service uptake of VCT among female heads of household in rural Zambézia Province of north-central Mozambique which is characterized by high HIV prevalence (12.6%), poverty, and suboptimal health service access and utilization. Our population-based survey of female heads of household was administered to a representative two-stage cluster sample using a sampling frame created for use on all national surveys and based on census results. The data served as a baseline measure for the Ogumaniha project initiated in 2009. Survey domains included poverty, health, education, income, HIV stigma, health service access, and empowerment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe service awareness and service uptake of VCT. Of 3708 women surveyed, 2546 (69%) were unaware of available VCT services. Among 1162 women who were aware of VCT, 673 (58%) reported no prior testing. In the VCT aware group, VCT awareness was associated with higher education (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.16), higher income (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.86), higher numeracy (aOR = 1.05, CI 1.03, 1.08), more children < age 5 in the home (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.18), closer proximity to a health facility (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.07), and mobile phone ownership (aOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.84) (all p-values < 0.04). Having a higher HIV-associated stigma score was the factor most strongly associated with being less likely to test. (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.23, 0.71; p<0.001). Most women were unaware of available VCT services. Even women who were aware of services were unlikely to have been tested. Expanded VCT and social marketing of VCT are needed in rural Mozambique with special attention to issues of community

  7. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs.

  8. [Health Promotion and care of immigrant population in the eighth Municipality of Rome: the experience of the Medicine Service of Solidarity and the University Hospital of Tor Vergata].

    PubMed

    Palombi, Leonardo; Ercoli, Lucia; Buonomo, Ersilia; Mancinelli, Sandro; De Luca, Simona; Laurenti, Serena; Visconti, Giuseppe; Bollero, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    The VIII Municipality of Rome is characterized by a high poverty rate, by the presence of many immigrant communities and by the lack of health services available to vulnerable social groups. In 2005 , the " Servizio di Medicina Solidale" of the University Hospital of "Tor Vergata", for the first time intervened in this Municipality regarding Immigrant Health. The paper describes the activities and organization of this service from January 2005 to December 2007. It demonstrates a complex epidemiological picture of 2,374 immigrants, characterized by a young population, mostly women with reproductive health issues, followed by children with infectious and nutritional problems and, ultimately, adults who accessed the service, firstly for gastroenterological problems, secondly for cardiovascular problems and finally for dysmetabolic disorders. The paper describes the culture-centered actions of Health Promotion and Health Education in order to improve health awareness and promote integration of immigrants. The study indicates that the limited number of hospital admissions ( n.20) with respect to the number of outpatient visits (n.70.000) in the first seven years of the service " Medicina Solidale" has significantly reduced the number of unnecessary admissions to emergency wards. In conclusion it is notable that the cost of such intervention results eight times inferior to emergency admissions and further confirms that a Community medicine approach is sustainable.

  9. Examining My Window and Mirror: A Pedagogical Reflection from a White Mathematics Teacher Educator about Her Experiences with Immigrant Latina Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinec-Craig, Crystal A.

    2014-01-01

    In this pedagogical reflection, a White mathematics teacher educator describes what she learned from three Latina pre-service teachers who were recent immigrants from Mexico while they completed an elementary mathematics methods course. Using Rochelle Gutierrez's (2012) metaphor of a window and mirror, the author interrogates her own identity and…

  10. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  11. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  12. Examining My Window and Mirror: A Pedagogical Reflection from a White Mathematics Teacher Educator about Her Experiences with Immigrant Latina Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinec-Craig, Crystal A.

    2014-01-01

    In this pedagogical reflection, a White mathematics teacher educator describes what she learned from three Latina pre-service teachers who were recent immigrants from Mexico while they completed an elementary mathematics methods course. Using Rochelle Gutierrez's (2012) metaphor of a window and mirror, the author interrogates her own identity and…

  13. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeConcini, Christina; Piller, Jeanine S.; Fisher, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Outlines historical legislation affecting immigration to the United States, explains current laws and how they affect immigration, summarizes the process for obtaining citizenship, describes the experience of immigrants with the legal system, introduces the work of pro bono (free) legal services for immigrants, and presents related teaching…

  14. Very Low Food Security in US Households Is Predicted by Complex Patterns of Health, Economics, and Service Participation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Fram, Maryah S; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Background: Very low food security (VLFS) happens at the intersection of nuanced and complex patterns of risk characteristics across multiple domains. Little is known about the idiosyncratic situations that lead households to experience VLFS.Objective: We used classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, which can handle complex combinations of predictors, to identify patterns of characteristics that distinguish VLFS households in the United States from other households.Methods: Data came from 3 surveys, the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the 2005-2012 NHANES, and the 2002-2012 Current Population Survey (CPS), with sample participants aged ≥18 y and households with income <300% of the federal poverty line. Survey participants were stratified into households with children, adult-only households, and older-adult households (NHIS, CPS) or individuals aged 18-64 y and individuals aged ≥65 y (NHANES). Household food security was measured with the use of the 10-item US Adult Food Security Scale. Variables from multiple domains, including sociodemographic characteristics, health, health care, and participation in social welfare and food assistance programs, were considered as predictors. The 3 data sources were analyzed separately with the use of CART analysis.Results: Household experiences of VLFS were associated with different predictors for different types of households and often occurred at the intersection of multiple characteristics spanning unmet medical needs, poor health, disability, limitation, depressive symptoms, low income, and food assistance program participation. These predictors built complex trees with various combinations in different types of households.Conclusions: This study showed that multiple characteristics across multiple domains distinguished VLFS households. Flexible and nonlinear methods focusing on a wide range of risk characteristics should be used to identify VLFS households and to inform policies and

  15. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  16. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.6 Section 302-12.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  17. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.6 Section 302-12.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  18. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  19. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  20. Rural Household Preferences for Active Participation in "Payment for Ecosystem Service" Programs: A Case in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Bennett, Michael T; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Kebin; Yang, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Many payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP), are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of "active and incomplete" participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation. As such, this paper uses the Choice Experiment (CE) method to explore ways for inducing effective program participation, by analyzing the effects of different regime attributes. The case study used to analyze participation utility was the Jing-Ji Afforestation Program for Ecological and Water Protection (JAPEWP), a typical active-participation forestry PES program, and a key source of water near Beijing in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment (MRC). Analyzing rural household survey data indicated that the program faces a variety of challenges, including long-term maintenance, implementation performance, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring approaches. There are also challenges with one-size-fits-all payment strategies, due to ineffective program participation or imperfect implementation regimes. In response, this study proposes several policies, including providing secure and complete land tenure to the participants, creating more local off-farm employment opportunities, designing performance-based monitoring systems that are integrated with financial incentives, applying differentiated payment strategies, providing capacity building to support forestation activities, and establishing a comprehensive implementation regime that would address these challenges. These policy conclusions provide valuable lessons for other active-participation PES programs as well.

  1. Local-Level Immigration Enforcement and Food Insecurity Risk among Hispanic Immigrant Families with Children: National-Level Evidence.

    PubMed

    Potochnick, Stephanie; Chen, Jen-Hao; Perreira, Krista

    2016-07-19

    Local-level immigration enforcement generates fear and reduces social service use among Hispanic immigrant families but the health impacts are largely unknown. We examine the consequence of 287(g), the foundational enforcement program, for one critical risk factor of child health-food insecurity. We analyze nationally representative data on households with children from pooled cross-sections of the Current Population Survey Food Supplemental Survey. We identify the influence of 287(g) on food insecurity pre-post-policy accounting for metro-area and year fixed-effects. We find that 287(g) is associated with a 10 percentage point increase in the food insecurity risk of Mexican non-citizen households with children, the group most vulnerable to 287(g). We find no evidence of spillover effects on the broader Hispanic community. Our results suggest that local immigration enforcement policies have unintended consequences. Although 287(g) has ended, other federal-local immigration enforcement partnerships persist, which makes these findings highly policy relevant.

  2. Households, Migration and Labor Market Participation: The Adaptation of Mexicans to Life in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of extended family and other non-nuclear family households serves as an important mechanism in the adaptation of Mexican immigrants in San Diego. Different types of households are important at different times in the migration process, and immigration status influences the patterns of household variation. (KH)

  3. Development of a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Chinese immigrants to the USA.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Christine Ml; Napoles, Anna M; Chou, Jeyling; Seligman, Hilary K

    2015-02-01

    To develop a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. In the current qualitative study, we (i) highlight methodological challenges which arise in developing survey instruments that will be used to make comparisons across language groups and (ii) describe the development of a Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module, called the San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module. Community sites in San Francisco, CA, USA. We conducted cognitive interviews with twenty-two community members recruited from community sites hosting food pantries and with five professionals recruited from clinical settings. Development of conceptually equivalent surveys can be difficult. We highlight challenges related to dialect, education, literacy (e.g. preferences for more or less formal phrasing), English words and phrases for which there is no Chinese language equivalent (e.g. 'balanced meals' and 'eat less than you felt you should') and response formats. We selected final translations to maximize: (i) consistency of the Chinese translation with the intent of the English version; (ii) clarity; and (iii) similarities in understanding across dialects and literacy levels. Survey translation is essential for conducting research in many communities. The challenges encountered illustrate how literal translations can affect the conceptual equivalence of survey items across languages. Cognitive interview methods should be routinely used for survey translation when such non-equivalence is suspected, such as in surveys addressing highly culturally bound behaviours such as diet and eating behaviours. Literally translated surveys lacking conceptual equivalence may magnify or obscure important health inequalities.

  4. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Haitian immigrant students: implications for access to mental health services and educational programming.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Betancourt, Theresa S; Marcelin, Lilly; Klopner, Michelle; Munir, Kerim; Muriel, Anna C; Oswald, Catherine; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2009-12-22

    Previous studies of Haitian immigrant and refugee youth have emphasized "externalizing" behaviors, such as substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and delinquency, with very little information available on "internalizing" symptoms, such as depression and anxiety. Analyzing stressors and "internalizing" symptoms offers a more balanced picture of the type of social and mental health services that may be needed for this population. The present study aims to: 1) estimate the prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Haitian immigrant students; and 2) examine factors associated with depression and PTSD to identify potential areas of intervention that may enhance psychosocial health outcomes among immigrant youth from Haiti in the U.S. A stratified random sample of Haitian immigrant students enrolled in Boston public high schools was selected for participation; 84% agreed to be interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression and PTSD was ascertained using the best estimate diagnosis method. The prevalence estimates of depression and PTSD were 14.0% and 11.6%; 7.9% suffered from comorbid PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated factors most strongly associated with depression (history of father's death, self-report of schoolwork not going well, not spending time with friends) and PTSD (concern for physical safety, having many arguments with parents, history of physical abuse, and lack of safety of neighborhood). A significant level of depression and PTSD was observed. Stressors subsequent to immigration, such as living in an unsafe neighborhood and concern for physical safety, were associated with an increased risk of PTSD and should be considered when developing programs to assist this population. Reducing exposure to these stressors and enhancing access to social support and appropriate school-based and mental health services may improve educational attainment and psychosocial health

  5. Household energy conservation: a review of the federal residential conservation service

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1984-09-01

    Most electric and gas utilities provide free or low-cost energy audits to their residential customers, usually as part of the federal Residential Conservations Service (RCS). RCS programs in the few states where competent evaluations were done show incremental energy savings for participants of approximately 3.5 percent. Assessing the economic worth of RCS programs is particularly difficult (and very site-specific) because of factors such as future fuel prices, differences between marginal and average fuel prices, discount rates, and differences in how programs are implemented. The meager evidence on RCS program cost-effectiveness suggests that the economic benefits are generally small. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. A qualitative study on African immigrant and refugee families' experiences of accessing primary health care services in Manitoba, Canada: it's not easy!

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn; Busolo, David Shiyokha; Crockett, Maryanne; Dean, Ruth Anne; Amaladas, Miriam R; Plourde, Pierre J

    2017-01-09

    Immigrant and refugee families form a growing proportion of the Canadian population and experience barriers in accessing primary health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of access to primary health care by African immigrant and refugee families. Eighty-three families originating from 15 African countries took part in multiple open ended interviews in western Canada. Qualitative data was collected in six different languages between 2013 and 2015. Data analysis involved delineating units of meaning from the data, clustering units of meaning to form thematic statements, and extracting themes. African immigrant and refugee families experienced challenges in their quest to access primary health care that were represented by three themes: Expectations not quite met, facing a new life, and let's buddy up to improve access. On the theme of expectations not quite met, families struggled to understand and become familiar with a new health system that presented with a number of barriers including lengthy wait times, a shortage of health care providers, high cost of medication and non-basic health care, and less than ideal care. On the theme of facing a new life, immigrant and refugee families talked of the difficulties of getting used to their new and unfamiliar environments and the barriers that impact their access to health care services. They talked of challenges related to transportation, weather, employment, language and cultural differences, and lack of social support in their quest to access health care services. Additionally, families expressed their lack of social support in accessing care. Privately sponsored families and families with children experienced even less social support. Importantly, in the theme of let's buddy up to improve access, families recommended utilizing networking approaches to engage and improve their access to primary health care services. African immigrant and refugee families experience barriers to accessing

  7. Health and Medical Care among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n = 46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household…

  8. Health and Medical Care among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n = 46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household…

  9. Perspectives on Breast Health Education and Services Among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Women in the Midwest: a Qualitative Study in Lancaster County, Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Athena K; Correa, Antonia; Trinidad, Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among Hispanic women in the USA. Throughout the country, Hispanic immigrants face many barriers to achieving optimal breast health. Three focus groups were conducted to explore challenges and opportunities in access to breast health services and information among recent Hispanic immigrant women in Lancaster Country, Nebraska. Respondents perceived breast cancer as a serious issue and were concerned about it, but there were few cues to action to improve health given the limited information and access to services available to low-income Spanish-speaking individuals in the community. Results highlighted the need for culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and services, accessibility and promotion of low-cost screening and treatment services, and inclusive policies to promote preventative healthcare services for all women regardless of immigration status. Health is more than just clinical care, and therefore, it is important to understand the contextual and cultural factors that have resulted in low screening rates and develop methods to address these them. Failure to address these aspects of social determinants of health could hamper efforts to improve breast health and reduce disparities.

  10. Access and utilisation of social and health services as a social determinant of health: the case of undocumented Latin American immigrant women working in Lleida (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina-Luque, Fidel; Otero-García, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal.

  11. Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1) accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access) to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2) the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs), and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates) to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge

  12. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Services: A Game of Pass the Buck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1983-01-01

    In court cases involving undocumented aliens' access to social services, each litigant (including federal, state, and county governments and private hospitals) is attempting to pass responsibility for services provision to the others. Central to the debate are definitions of residency and liability, as influenced by cultural values and…

  13. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in connection... the United States to work as an agent, employee, or contractor of the Government of Iran or a business entity or other organization in Iran. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in...

  14. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in connection... the United States to work as an agent, employee, or contractor of the Government of Iran or a business entity or other organization in Iran. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in...

  15. Household Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Richard R.; Rathje, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a theoretical model for archaeologists which relates household functions to variations in household size and organization. Household functions are defined as resource production and distribution, transmission of property, and family reproduction. The applicability of this model to a project on Mayan archaeology is discussed. (AM)

  16. [Influence of double workload in perceived health and health services utilization of immigrants and Murcian natives, Spain].

    PubMed

    Moreno López, Ana Belén; Ballesta Ruiz, Mónica; Salmerón Martínez, Diego; Navarro Sánchez, Carmen; Tormo Díaz, María José

    2013-01-01

    Gender inequalities in health have been largely documented. The main objective of this study is to assess whether there are gender differences in perceived health and health services utilization, and their relation with double workload in a representative sample of immigrants and Murcian natives. We used data from the NHS 2006 and Health and Culture Study, 1,303 immigrants and 1,303 Spanish, both residents in the Region of Murcia. With the combination of reproductive work and paid work we built up the variable 'double workload' (DW). We estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) for positive self-perceived health, chronic morbidity, activity limitation, doctor's visits, hospitalization, emergency and drug use, by origin, using regression methods. Two models were constructed by adding double burden to the basic model adjusted by sociodemographic variables. Analyses were performed between and within sex. After adjusting for DW, no changes were seen in the differences by gender [RP women/men of positive perception health: 0.70 (0.54-0.89) East European; 0.87 (0.79-0.95) autochthonous / chronic morbidity: 1.44 (1.14-1.82) Hispanic; 1.36 (1.19-1.55) autochthonous / activity limitation: 2.23 (1.29-3.83) Hispanic; 1.45 (1.01-2.10) autochthonous / doctor's visits: 1.93 (1.50-2.48) Hispanic; 1.74 (1.06-2.86) Moroccan; 1.32 (1.09-1.59) autochthonous / hospitalization: 1.80 (1.02-3.17) Hispanic], almost the same than unadjusted. Women used more drugs than men. Within sexes, both autochthonous men (1.19; 1.06-1.33) and women (1.18; 1.01-1.40) with shared DW had more positive self-perceived health than those without DW. Hispanic men with DW without assistance: 0.67 (0.47-0.94). Women have worse health indicators and greater use of health services regardless of origin. Consideration of the double workload does not explain gender inequalities in health.

  17. Keeping up with Changes in Laws Affecting Immigrants. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 20. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses keeping up with changes in laws affecting immigrants. Its objective is to teach students to track the legal framework that affects immigrants' lives and to build problem-solving…

  18. Use of cross-border healthcare services among ethnic Danes, Turkish immigrants and Turkish descendants in Denmark: a combined survey and registry study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare obtained abroad may conflict with care received in the country of residence. A special concern for immigrants has been raised as they may have stronger links to healthcare services abroad. Our objective was to investigate use of healthcare in a foreign country in Turkish immigrants, their descendants, and ethnic Danes. Methods The study was based on a nationwide survey in 2007 with 372 Turkish immigrants, 496 descendants, and 1,131 ethnic Danes aged 18–66. Data were linked to registry data on socioeconomic factors. Using logistic regression models, use of doctor, specialist doctor, hospital, dentist in a foreign country as well as medicine from abroad were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and health symptoms. Results Overall, 26.6% among Turkish immigrants made use of cross-border healthcare, followed by 19.4% among their descendants to 6.7% among ethnic Danes. Using logistic regression models with ethnic Danes as the reference group, Turkish immigrants were seen to have made increased use of general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospitals, and dentists in a foreign country (odds ratio (OR), 5.20-6.74), while Turkish descendants had made increased use of specialist doctors (OR, 4.97) and borderline statistically significant increased use of hospital (OR, 2.48) and dentist (OR, 2.17) but not general practitioners. For medicine, we found no differences among the men, but women with an immigrant background made considerably greater use, compared with ethnic Danish women. Socioeconomic position and health symptoms had a fairly explanatory effect on the use in the different groups. Conclusions Use of cross-border healthcare may have consequences for the continuity of care, including conflicts in the medical treatment, for the patient. Nonetheless, it may be aligned with the patient’s preferences and thereby beneficial for the patient. We need more information about reasons for obtaining cross-border healthcare

  19. Use of cross-border healthcare services among ethnic Danes, Turkish immigrants and Turkish descendants in Denmark: a combined survey and registry study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Yazici, Suzan; Petersen, Signe Gronwald; Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-11-13

    Healthcare obtained abroad may conflict with care received in the country of residence. A special concern for immigrants has been raised as they may have stronger links to healthcare services abroad. Our objective was to investigate use of healthcare in a foreign country in Turkish immigrants, their descendants, and ethnic Danes. The study was based on a nationwide survey in 2007 with 372 Turkish immigrants, 496 descendants, and 1,131 ethnic Danes aged 18-66. Data were linked to registry data on socioeconomic factors. Using logistic regression models, use of doctor, specialist doctor, hospital, dentist in a foreign country as well as medicine from abroad were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and health symptoms. Overall, 26.6% among Turkish immigrants made use of cross-border healthcare, followed by 19.4% among their descendants to 6.7% among ethnic Danes. Using logistic regression models with ethnic Danes as the reference group, Turkish immigrants were seen to have made increased use of general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospitals, and dentists in a foreign country (odds ratio (OR), 5.20-6.74), while Turkish descendants had made increased use of specialist doctors (OR, 4.97) and borderline statistically significant increased use of hospital (OR, 2.48) and dentist (OR, 2.17) but not general practitioners. For medicine, we found no differences among the men, but women with an immigrant background made considerably greater use, compared with ethnic Danish women. Socioeconomic position and health symptoms had a fairly explanatory effect on the use in the different groups. Use of cross-border healthcare may have consequences for the continuity of care, including conflicts in the medical treatment, for the patient. Nonetheless, it may be aligned with the patient's preferences and thereby beneficial for the patient. We need more information about reasons for obtaining cross-border healthcare among immigrants residing in European

  20. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  1. Self-management, health service use and information seeking for diabetes care among Black Caribbean immigrants in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Gucciardi, Enza; Patychuk, Dianne; Rummens, Joanna Anneke; Shakya, Yogendra; Kljujic, Dragan; Bhamani, Mehreen; Boqaileh, Fedaa

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care among Black-Caribbean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. The study population included Black-Caribbean immigrants and Canadian-born participants between the ages of 35 to 64 years with type 2 diabetes. Study participants were recruited from community health centres (CHCs), diabetes education centres, hospital-based diabetes clinics, the Canadian Diabetes Association and immigrant-serving organizations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographics and information related to diabetes status, self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care. Interviews were conducted with 48 Black-Caribbean immigrants and 54 Canadian-born participants with type 2 diabetes. Black-Caribbean immigrants were significantly more likely than the Canadian-born group to engage in recommended diabetes self-management practices (i.e. reduced fat diet, reduced carbohydrate diet, non-smoking and regular physical activity) and receive regular A1C and eye screening by a health professional. Black-Caribbean immigrant participants were significantly more likely to report receiving diabetes information and care through a community health centre (CHC) and nurses and dieticians than their Canadian-born counterparts. CHCs and allied health professionals play an important role in the management of diabetes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community and may contribute to this group's favourable diabetes self-management profile and access to information and care. Additional research is necessary to confirm whether these findings are generalizable to the Black-Caribbean community in general (i.e. immigrant and non-immigrant) and to determine whether the use of CHCs and/or allied health professionals is associated with favourable outcomes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community as well as others. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by

  2. [Immigration dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Latuch, M

    1998-10-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Poland are reviewed, including both voluntary migration and migration forced by extreme political or economic circumstances. Data are also presented on illegal immigrants and on their countries of origin.

  3. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres. PMID:26950568

  4. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries.

    PubMed

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres.

  5. Comparing Trauma Exposure, Mental Health Needs, and Service Utilization Across Clinical Samples of Refugee, Immigrant, and U.S.-Origin Children.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Birman, Dina; Lee, Robert; Ellis, B Heidi; Layne, Christopher M

    2017-06-01

    Most mental health services for trauma-exposed children and adolescents were not originally developed for refugees. Information is needed to help clinicians design services to address the consequences of trauma in refugee populations. We compared trauma exposure, psychological distress, and mental health service utilization among children and adolescents of refugee-origin, immigrant-origin, and U.S.-origin referred for assessment and treatment by U.S. providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN). We used propensity score matching to compare trauma profiles, mental health needs, and service use across three groups. Our sample comprised refugee-origin youth (n = 60, 48.3% female, mean age = 13.07 years) and propensity-matched samples of immigrant-origin youth (n = 143, 60.8% female, mean age = 13.26 years), and U.S.-origin youth (n = 140, 56.1% female, mean age = 12.11 years). On average, there were significantly more types of trauma exposure among refugee youth than either U.S.-origin youth (p < .001) or immigrant youth (p ≤ .001). Compared with U.S.-origin youth, refugee youth had higher rates of community violence exposure, dissociative symptoms, traumatic grief, somatization, and phobic disorder.  In contrast, the refugee group had comparably lower rates of substance abuse and oppositional defiant disorder (ps ranging from .030 to < .001).This clinic-referred sample of refugee-origin youth presented with distinct patterns of trauma exposure, distress symptoms, and service needs that merit consideration in services planning. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  7. Assisting Foreign Trained Immigrant Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadkhoda, Anahita

    Too often career counselors hear of, or work with, unemployed or underemployed foreign trained immigrant professionals. With the globalization of economy and shortages in skilled labor in Canada, the number of immigrant professionals is on the rise. It is becoming clear that services and programs are necessary to assist such individuals to ensure…

  8. U.S. Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Examines America's responsibility, in a period of economic recession, to the poor of other countries and to the illegal immigrants within the U.S. The author concludes that resident illegal aliens should have their status legalized and be offered social services, while policies for new immigrants should be reformed to encourage legal immigration…

  9. Immigrant Education: A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This report provides information on immigrant education in the United States in the areas of funding, participation, population, services, and allocation method. Additionally, it explores reauthorization issues confronting the Emergency Immigrant Education Act for fiscal year 1994. The report shows that: (1) there has been a steady decrease in…

  10. Educating Immigrants: The Community College Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Chang, June C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues related to the immigrant population at the community college, focusing on first-generation immigrants, including naturalized citizens, legal and illegal permanent residents, and individuals who are in the process of legalizing their immigration status. Considers questions of access, educational attainment, institutional services,…

  11. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  12. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena; Pickett, Kate E; Gideon, Jasmine

    2012-11-16

    International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health

  13. Guarded self-disclosure predicts psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.

  14. The health of homeless immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shirley; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Tolomiczenko, George; Kiss, Alex; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between immigrant status and current health in a representative sample of 1,189 homeless people in Toronto, Canada. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and current health status (assessed using the SF-12) among homeless recent immigrants (≤10 years since immigration), non-recent immigrants (>10 years since immigration), and Canadian-born individuals recruited at shelters and meal programs (response rate 73%). Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics and lifetime duration of homelessness, recent immigrants were significantly less likely to have chronic conditions (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9), mental health problems (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7), alcohol problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5), and drug problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) compared to non-recent immigrants and Canadian-born individuals. Recent immigrants were also more likely to have better mental health status (+3.4 points, SE ±1.6) and physical health status (+2.2 points, SE ±1.3) on scales with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 in the general population. Conclusion Homeless recent immigrants are a distinct group who are generally healthier and may have very different service needs compared to other homeless people. PMID:19654122

  15. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Rajendra Prasad; Rosenberg, Mark Warren

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants are normally in better health on arrival compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. However, the health conditions of new immigrants deteriorate after a few years of their arrival in Canada. This phenomenon is popularly termed the "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE) in the immigrant health literature. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to understand HIE, the causes are subject to ongoing discussion. Unlike previous studies, this study explored the possible causes behind the variations in the health status of recent and more established immigrants comparing 2001 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS). Four different hypotheses - namely lifestyle change, barriers to health care services, poor social determinants of health, and work related stress - were tested to understand variations in health status. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes of immigrants having less than and more than 10 years of residency in Canada. Logistic regression models show that the health conditions of immigrants are associated with age, sex, ethnic origin, smoking habit, Body Mass Index (BMI), total household income, number of consultations made with a family doctor per year and work related stress.

  16. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Receives over one-half of his or her support during the calendar year from one or both parents who are... the hours when D is working and E is sleeping. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount paid... additional cost of providing room and board for a caregiver over usual household expenditures may be...

  17. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Receives over one-half of his or her support during the calendar year from one or both parents who are... the hours when D is working and E is sleeping. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount paid... additional cost of providing room and board for a caregiver over usual household expenditures may be...

  18. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Receives over one-half of his or her support during the calendar year from one or both parents who are... the hours when D is working and E is sleeping. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount paid... additional cost of providing room and board for a caregiver over usual household expenditures may be...

  19. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Receives over one-half of his or her support during the calendar year from one or both parents who are... the hours when D is working and E is sleeping. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount paid... additional cost of providing room and board for a caregiver over usual household expenditures may be...

  20. 26 CFR 1.21-1 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Receives over one-half of his or her support during the calendar year from one or both parents who are... the hours when D is working and E is sleeping. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the amount paid... additional cost of providing room and board for a caregiver over usual household expenditures may be...

  1. What Is the Economic Burden of Subsidized HIV/AIDS Treatment Services on Patients in Nigeria and Is This Burden Catastrophic to Households?

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Chiegil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. Methods An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities’ during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES) and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits) as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively. Results The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (p<0.0001). Rural dwellers incurred more CHE for all categories of costs compared to urban dwellers, but the costs were statistically significant for only outpatient costs. Conclusion ART subsidization is not enough to eliminate economic burden of treatment on HIV patients. Service decentralization to reduce travel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to

  2. What Is the Economic Burden of Subsidized HIV/AIDS Treatment Services on Patients in Nigeria and Is This Burden Catastrophic to Households?

    PubMed

    Etiaba, Enyi; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Chiegil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities' during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES) and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits) as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively. The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (p<0.0001). Rural dwellers incurred more CHE for all categories of costs compared to urban dwellers, but the costs were statistically significant for only outpatient costs. ART subsidization is not enough to eliminate economic burden of treatment on HIV patients. Service decentralization to reduce travel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to eliminate the persisting inequitable and high

  3. Assessing upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Kateri; Auger, Louis-Pierre; Cormier, Marie-France; Vachon, Christine; St-Onge, Sabrina; Mathieu, Jean; Noreau, Luc; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). A cross-sectional study was set in an outpatient neuromuscular clinic where 200 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of DM1 (121 women; mean age: 47 y) were selected from the registry of a neuromuscular clinic to participate. Housing-related activities were assessed using the "housing" section of the Assessment of Life Habits Questionnaire (LIFE-H). The upper extremity assessment included grip strength (Jamar dynamometer), lateral pinch strength (pinch gauge), gross dexterity (Box and Block Test) and fine dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). Correlations with the LIFE-H item "housing" were stronger for grip and lateral strength (r = 0.62; 0.61). When difficulties were present in "housing", the cut-off score associated with lateral pinch strength was 4.8 kg (sensitivity: 75.6%; specificity: 79.2%). Grip strength presented cut-off scores that clinically differed by gender. In conclusion, potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services with valid assessment tools were developed for people with DM1 who experience difficulties in housing-related activities. These criteria will assist health professionals in their attempt to refer DM1 patients to rehabilitation services at the appropriate time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  5. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  6. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    PubMed

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-05-01

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain cleaners Laundry powder ...

  8. Issues Relating to Women's Immigration Status. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 8. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on issues related to women's immigration status. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills…

  9. Access to, use of and satisfaction with health services among adults enrolled in Brazil's Family Health Strategy: evidence from the 2008 National Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Lima Costa, Maria F

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of participation in Brazil's primary healthcare programme (the Family Health Strategy or FHS) on access, use and satisfaction with health services among adults. Data are from the 2008 National Household Survey (PNAD) on 264 754 adults. This cross-sectional analysis compares FHS enrollees to both non-enrollees and those with private health plans. We calculated predicted probabilities of each outcome stratified by household wealth quintile, rural/urban location and sex using robust Poisson regression. We performed propensity score analysis to assess the differences in access among FHS enrollees and the rest of the population, once relevant socio-demographic characteristics and other determinants of access were balanced. Compared to families with neither FHS enrolment nor private health plans, adult FHS enrollees were generally more likely to have a usual source of care, to have visited a doctor or dentist in the past 12 months, to have access to needed medications and to be satisfied with the care they received. The FHS effect was largest among urban dwellers and the poorest. The FHS appears to be associated with enhanced access to and utilization of health services in Brazil. However, it has not yet been able to match levels of access experienced by those with private health plans, perhaps because the population served by the FHS is among the poorest, most rural and least healthy in the country. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  11. Integrating Water Treatment into Antenatal Care: Impact on Use of Maternal Health Services and Household Water Treatment by Mothers—Rural Uganda, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Matanock, Almea; Anderson, Tara; Ayers, Tracy; Likicho, Lilian; Wamimbi, Richard; Lu, Xin; Emeetai, Thomas; Kakande, Celia; Mutabazi, Miriam; Quick, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To increase maternal health service use and household water treatment (HWT), free water treatment kits were provided at first antenatal care (ANC) visits and free water treatment sachet refills were provided at follow-up ANC visits, delivery, and postnatal visits in 46 health facilities in rural Uganda. We evaluated the impact by surveying 226 women in the initiative (intervention group) and 207 women who received ANC before the initiative began (comparison group). There was no differences in the percentages of intervention and comparison group women with ≥ 4 ANC visits; however, a higher percentage of intervention group women reported treating their drinking water (31.7% versus 19.7%, P = 0.01), and had free chlorine residual in stored water (13.5% versus 3.4%, P = 0.02) than comparison group women. The intervention did not appear to motivate increased maternal health service use, but demonstrated improvements in HWT. PMID:27001758

  12. Communication and language challenges experienced by Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents of children with cancer in Canada: implications for health services delivery.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Shaw, Nicola; Sung, Lillian; Poureslami, Iraj M; Klaassen, Robert; Dix, David; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-04-01

    Language is an important aspect of health literacy and plays a vital role in families' ability to access and use health information and resources. Our study explored the role of communication and language in the healthcare experiences of immigrant parents of children with cancer living in Canada. We used a grounded theory approach. Chinese and South Asian parents of children 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or English. Questions relevant to communication included: how parents navigated the healthcare system; nature of interpreter services and translated materials; and suggestions about how to improve services. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and constant comparison. Thirty-one (62%) parents reported no difficulty communicating with healthcare providers in English, while 13 (26%) parents struggled with English, and six (12%) parents could not communicate in English. Communication challenges influenced parents' role in caring for their child and made it difficult to learn complex medical terminology. Interpreting services were sometimes inadequate or not accessible. Parents occasionally missed out on services and resources, reported limited availability of linguistically and culturally appropriate information, and experienced a lack of social integration in the healthcare process. Language ability played an essential role in parents' healthcare experiences for pragmatic and social purposes. Language challenges can heighten systemic and socio-cultural barriers to accessing health information and resources. The provision of enhanced culturally and linguistically sensitive services may support immigrant families in their caregiving role. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  14. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  15. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  16. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results

  17. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  18. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  19. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials.

  20. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and customarily purchase food and prepare meals together for home consumption. (b) Special household... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household...

  1. Immigrants and Immigration in Israeli Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yitzhaki, Moshe; Richter, Nava

    Millions of people have immigrated to Israel throughout the 1900s and before. Immigration waves are considered the most important social, political, and economical turning points in the history of Israel. This study analyzes the content of Israeli children's books dealing with immigrants and immigration to determine the image of immigrants and…

  2. Food insecurity and risk of poor health among US-born children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Mariana; Black, Maureen M; Berkowitz, Carol; Casey, Patrick H; Cook, John; Cutts, Diana; Jacobs, Ruth Rose; Heeren, Timothy; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Coleman, Sharon; Meyers, Alan; Frank, Deborah A

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the risk of household food insecurity and reported fair or poor health among very young children who were US citizens and whose mothers were immigrants compared with those whose mothers had been born in the United States. Data were obtained from 19,275 mothers (7216 of whom were immigrants) who were interviewed in hospital-based settings between 1998 and 2005 as part of the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program. We examined whether food insecurity mediated the association between immigrant status and child health in relation to length of stay in the United States. The risk of fair or poor health was higher among children of recent immigrants than among children of US-born mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.55; P < .03). Immigrant households were at higher risk of food insecurity than were households with US-born mothers. Newly arrived immigrants were at the highest risk of food insecurity (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 2.16, 2.77; P < .001). Overall, household food insecurity increased the risk of fair or poor child health (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.57, 1.93; P < .001) and mediated the association between immigrant status and poor child health. Children of immigrant mothers are at increased risk of fair or poor health and household food insecurity. Policy interventions addressing food insecurity in immigrant households may promote child health.

  3. Food Insecurity and Risk of Poor Health Among US-Born Children of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Berkowitz, Carol; Casey, Patrick H.; Cook, John; Cutts, Diana; Jacobs, Ruth Rose; Heeren, Timothy; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Coleman, Sharon; Meyers, Alan; Frank, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the risk of household food insecurity and reported fair or poor health among very young children who were US citizens and whose mothers were immigrants compared with those whose mothers had been born in the United States. Methods. Data were obtained from 19 275 mothers (7216 of whom were immigrants) who were interviewed in hospital-based settings between 1998 and 2005 as part of the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program. We examined whether food insecurity mediated the association between immigrant status and child health in relation to length of stay in the United States. Results. The risk of fair or poor health was higher among children of recent immigrants than among children of US-born mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.55; P < .03). Immigrant households were at higher risk of food insecurity than were households with US-born mothers. Newly arrived immigrants were at the highest risk of food insecurity (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 2.16, 2.77; P < .001). Overall, household food insecurity increased the risk of fair or poor child health (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.57, 1.93; P < .001) and mediated the association between immigrant status and poor child health. Conclusions. Children of immigrant mothers are at increased risk of fair or poor health and household food insecurity. Policy interventions addressing food insecurity in immigrant households may promote child health. PMID:19106417

  4. How do tougher immigration measures affect unauthorized immigrants?

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2013-06-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees' intent to return to the United States in the near future.

  5. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  6. The Impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on Immigrant Health: Perceptions of Immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  7. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  8. 75 FR 54528 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository... pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 for the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services- 012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository System of Records system of records and this proposed...

  9. Six Immigrant Groups in Queens: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Geraldine S.

    This research report summarizes data on six new immigrant groups, Colombians, Italians, Greeks, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Israelis, living in the Borough of Queens in New York City. The research format consisted of a comprehensive interview administered to 116 households. Data on occupation, education, income, household composition,…

  10. [Health networks for new immigrants in taiwan].

    PubMed

    Yen, Fang-Tzu; Wu, Huei-Min

    2014-08-01

    Healthcare and studies related to new immigrants in Taiwan have been influenced by immigrant reproductive health management policy. Some nursing scholars have criticized the top-down approach as potentially not addressing the actual healthcare needs of these immigrants. Medical institutions are being called upon to provide culturally appropriate care. Using health networks as its conceptual framework, this paper explores the definition of health as perceived by recent immigrants to Taiwan and their perspectives on seeking and maintaining health. This paper uses participant observation and depth-interviews to assess how recent immigrants from Mainland China, Vietnam, and Indonesia seek health in their new homeland, evaluate the differences between the healthcare systems in their former and current countries, and recommend actions necessary to ensure the health and wellbeing of this population. The findings are grouped into three themes: "the differences between immigrants and Taiwanese in health care," "local health networks", and "transnational health networks." These themes reflect the views on health and health care of recent female immigrants to Taiwan. Through the actions and narratives of these immigrants, this paper suggests the priority concerns that immigrant agencies should address in order to maintain the health of this group. Additionally, findings give some insight into the gender and ethnic characteristics of immigrant health networks. Immigrants construct and rely upon social relations, cultural identity, and resources to maintain their wellbeing. This study contributes to transcultural nursing theory and to in-service training and helps medical practitioners and nurses provide culturally appropriate care.

  11. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  12. Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

  13. Integrating Water Treatment into Antenatal Care: Impact on Use of Maternal Health Services and Household Water Treatment by Mothers-Rural Uganda, 2013.

    PubMed

    Matanock, Almea; Anderson, Tara; Ayers, Tracy; Likicho, Lilian; Wamimbi, Richard; Lu, Xin; Emeetai, Thomas; Kakande, Celia; Mutabazi, Miriam; Quick, Robert

    2016-05-04

    To increase maternal health service use and household water treatment (HWT), free water treatment kits were provided at first antenatal care (ANC) visits and free water treatment sachet refills were provided at follow-up ANC visits, delivery, and postnatal visits in 46 health facilities in rural Uganda. We evaluated the impact by surveying 226 women in the initiative (intervention group) and 207 women who received ANC before the initiative began (comparison group). There was no differences in the percentages of intervention and comparison group women with ≥ 4 ANC visits; however, a higher percentage of intervention group women reported treating their drinking water (31.7% versus 19.7%, P = 0.01), and had free chlorine residual in stored water (13.5% versus 3.4%, P = 0.02) than comparison group women. The intervention did not appear to motivate increased maternal health service use, but demonstrated improvements in HWT. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Immigration and the public transfer system: some empirical evidence for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "Do immigrants subsidize the native population or vice versa? Is immigration a cost factor or a net benefit for the public transfer system? On the basis of the 1990 Swiss Consumer Survey, an attempt is made to answer these questions empirically.... The degree of participation of foreigners in the Swiss welfare state is estimated.... To this end, the public transfer balance (difference between government revenue and government expenditure) is empirically estimated for both native and foreign households. The method chosen covers public monetary transfers as well as the supply of goods and services by the government (real transfers). Social security insurance, redistribution through taxes, infrastructure investment (club goods) and immaterial goods such as the legal system (public goods) are thus covered."

  15. Two Decades of Immigration: Has the Sky Fallen Yet? Pat Brown Institute of Public Affairs State of Immigration Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modarres, Ali

    This report provides a demographic analysis of immigration to the United States and California, using information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service annual reports and digital database for 1990-98. It features details on the Asian immigrant population for the 1990s. From 1820-1998, about 62 million immigrants came to America. Nearly…

  16. Two Decades of Immigration: Has the Sky Fallen Yet? Pat Brown Institute of Public Affairs State of Immigration Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modarres, Ali

    This report provides a demographic analysis of immigration to the United States and California, using information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service annual reports and digital database for 1990-98. It features details on the Asian immigrant population for the 1990s. From 1820-1998, about 62 million immigrants came to America. Nearly…

  17. Immigration's Aftermath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that many children of immigrants are growing up under severely disadvantaged conditions. Poor schools, tough neighborhoods, and lack of role models related to parental poverty make it difficult for these children to achieve academically. Assimilation under these conditions leads to poverty and permanent disadvantage. Asserts that family…

  18. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  19. The Economics of U.S. Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The economic gains from immigration are much like those from international trade: The economy benefits overall from immigration, but there are distributional effects that create both winners and losers. Immigration is different from trade, however, in that the physical presence of the people who provide the goods and services that drive the…

  20. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  1. The Economics of U.S. Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The economic gains from immigration are much like those from international trade: The economy benefits overall from immigration, but there are distributional effects that create both winners and losers. Immigration is different from trade, however, in that the physical presence of the people who provide the goods and services that drive the…

  2. From refugees to immigrants: the legalization strategies of Salvadoran immigrants and activists.

    PubMed

    Coutin, S B

    1998-01-01

    "The legalization strategies pursued by Salvadoran immigrants and activists from the 1980s to the present demonstrate that migrants' and advocates' responses to policy changes reinterpret law in ways that affect future policy. Law is critical to immigrants' strategies in that [U.S.] legal status is increasingly a prerequisite for rights and services and that immigration law is embedded in other institutions and relationships. Immigration law is defined, however, not only when it is first formulated but also as it is implemented, enabling the immigrants who are defined according to legal categories to shape the definitions that categorization produces. Immigrants and activists also take formal legal and political actions, such as lobbying Congress and filing class action suits. Through such formal and informal policy negotiations, immigrants seek to shape their own and their nations' futures."

  3. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  4. Older Chinese Immigrants' Relationships With Their Children: A Literature Review From a Solidarity-Conflict Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are one of the largest and fastest growing groups in Western societies. This article used the solidarity-conflict model to synthesize current research examining parent-child relationships in this group. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed databases to identify relevant articles. A narrative approach was used to review the literature. Thirty-six articles were identified. Compared with Caucasians, older Chinese immigrants are more likely to live with children and have higher filial expectations. However, considerable numbers live independently. Of these, most live in public housing and rely on the community rather than their children for instrumental help. Many older Chinese immigrants have adjusted their filial expectations and valued being independent. They also provide extensive household help to their children. There are indications of intergenerational conflict, probably due to generational differences in attitudes toward life and limited intergenerational contact. This review suggests that although filial piety continues to influence older parent-child relationship in Chinese immigrant families, many changes have occurred. These findings have important implications for service planning and delivery for this cultural group. This review also provides evidence for the utility of the solidarity-conflict model. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. CONTACT WITH HEALTH-CARE SERVICE EXPECTATION AND REALITY OF SITUATION EXPERIENCED BY IMMIGRANTS SEEKING SWEDISH HEALTH-CARE

    PubMed Central

    Krupic, Ferid; Sadic, Sahmir; Fatahi, Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate how immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo experienced contact with Swedish health-care regarding meeting with health-care professionals. Material and Methods: Eighteen participants, nine men and nine women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo participated in focus group interviews (FGI). Data were collected from April 2013 to April 2014 through three group interviews using open-ended questions. A qualitative approach, incorporating a critical incident technique (CIT) was used. Results: The findings highlighted patient’s negative experiences regarding the Swedish health care system. Their main complaints concerned delayed ambulances, lack of doctors in outpatient clinics, long journeys to the hospital and long waiting time at the emergency department. Lack of information about the disease, difficulties seeing a doctor in the department, poor language skills and insufficient interpreters were some of other difficulties that mentioned by participants. Conclusions: In order to provide satisfactory health care to patient with different ethnic backgrounds, it is important to be aware of their vulnerable situation and their limit capacity to express their needs. This research could be a starting point in developing strategies for reducing ethnicity-based misunderstandings and inequalities in the health-care system. PMID:27147923

  6. [The parliamentary debate on immigration and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Describing and analysing the Spanish Parliamentary debate on immigration and health. A systematic search regarding parliamentary initiatives (PI) on immigration and immigration and health was conducted from the beginning of the Spanish democratic period (1979 to 2007). A protocol for collecting information was used to identify the parliamentary debate's main characteristics and the main topics related to PI concerning immigration and health. The PI immigration rate was calculated regarding the total rate of PI about the immigrant population based on the Spanish population per year. 4,022 PI concerning "immigration" were identified. The main content concerned statistical information about the immigrant population (57.2 %). 116 PI about "immigration and health" were analysed. The most frequently recurring topics were health-care strategies (25 %), health-service access (24.1 %) and epidemiological information (19.8 %). Most PI concerned questions related to the function of government control (94 %). No decisions were taken in 113 PI (97.4 %). Immigrant population rates increased per year; however, notable changes in PI regarding immigration were not observed until 1996 and PI about immigration and health until 1999. The immigration and health debate on the parliamentary agenda is heterogeneous. It would seem necessary to increase parliamentary debate about strategies and action for promoting immigrant-based needs in health.

  7. For Love of Family and Family Values: How Immigrant Motivations Can Inform Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacenti, David

    2009-01-01

    This article consists of more than fifty interviews with Spanish and Yucatec-Mayan men from Yucatan, Mexico, to the United States. Based on interview responses, I contend that Yucatec-Mayan immigrants support Jeffrey Cohen's (2004) "household model" and use a ch'i'ibal-centered, or family-centered, decision-making process to frame…

  8. For Love of Family and Family Values: How Immigrant Motivations Can Inform Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacenti, David

    2009-01-01

    This article consists of more than fifty interviews with Spanish and Yucatec-Mayan men from Yucatan, Mexico, to the United States. Based on interview responses, I contend that Yucatec-Mayan immigrants support Jeffrey Cohen's (2004) "household model" and use a ch'i'ibal-centered, or family-centered, decision-making process to frame…

  9. The deterioration of Canadian immigrants' oral health: analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effect of immigration on the self-reported oral health of immigrants to Canada over a 4-year period. The study used Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC 2001-2005). The target population comprised 3976 non-refugee immigrants to Canada. The dependent variable was self-reported dental problems. The independent variables were as follows: age, sex, ethnicity, income, education, perceived discrimination, history of social assistance, social support, and official language proficiency. A generalized estimation equation approach was used to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. After 2 years, the proportion of immigrants reporting dental problems more than tripled (32.6%) and remained approximately the same at 4 years after immigrating (33.3%). Over time, immigrants were more likely to report dental problems (OR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.55-3.02). An increase in self-reported dental problems over time was associated with sex, history of social assistance, total household income, and self-perceived discrimination. An increased likelihood of reporting dental problems occurred over time. Immigrants should arguably constitute an important focus of public policy and programmes aimed at improving their oral health and access to dental care in Canada. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Autism, ethnicity and maternal immigration.

    PubMed

    Keen, D V; Reid, F D; Arnone, D

    2010-04-01

    A growing number of European studies, particularly from Nordic countries, suggest an increased frequency of autism in children of immigrant parents. In contrast, North American studies tend to conclude that neither maternal ethnicity nor immigrant status are related to the rate of autism-spectrum disorders. To examine the hypotheses that maternal ethnicity and/or immigration are linked to the rate of childhood autism-spectrum disorders. Retrospective case-note analysis of all 428 children diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorders presenting to the child development services in two centres during a 6-year period. Mothers born outside Europe had a significantly higher risk of having a child with an autism-spectrum disorder compared with those born in the UK, with the highest risk observed for the Caribbean group (relative risks (RRs) in the two centres: RR = 10.01, 95% CI 5.53-18.1 and RR = 8.89, 95% CI 5.08-15.5). Mothers of Black ethnicity had a significantly higher risk compared with White mothers (RR = 8.28, 95% CI 5.41-12.7 and RR = 3.84, 95% CI 2.93-5.02). Analysis of ethnicity and immigration factors together suggests the increased risk is predominately related to immigration. Maternal immigration is associated with substantial increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders with differential risk according to different region of birth and possibly ethnicity.

  11. Undocumented Latina immigrants in Orange County, California: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, L R; Hubbell, F A; Mishra, S I; Valdez, R B

    1997-01-01

    "This article examines a unique data set randomly collected from Latinas (including 160 undocumented immigrants) and non-Hispanic white women in Orange County, California, including undocumented and documented Latina immigrants, Latina citizens, and non-Hispanic white women. Our survey suggests that undocumented Latinas are younger than documented Latinas, and immigrant Latinas are generally younger than U.S.-citizen Latinas and Anglo women. Undocumented and documented Latinas work in menial service sector jobs, often in domestic services. Most do not have job-related benefits such as medical insurance.... Despite their immigration status, undocumented Latina immigrants often viewed themselves as part of a community in the United States, which significantly influenced their intentions to stay in the United States. Contrary to much of the recent public policy debate over immigration, we did not find that social services influenced Latina immigrants' intentions to stay in the United States."

  12. Tracing Early Chinese Immigration into the United States: The Use of I.N.S. Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubitz, Shawn

    1988-01-01

    Examines the Chinese Exclusion Case Files of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), which documented the influx of Chinese immigrants from 1882-1923, the time when Chinese immigration was first limited and ultimately stopped altogether. These files contain data on thousands of immigrants, documenting their experience, aspirations, and…

  13. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  14. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following.... Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. BILLING CODE 9111-97-P...

  15. Reversing welfare reform? Immigrant restoration efforts and food stamp receipt among Mexican immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Potochnick, Stephanie

    2016-11-01

    The safety net that immigrants face today differs significantly from the immediate post-Welfare Reform era in terms of eligibility and economic context. To inform debates on immigrant access to the safety net, this paper examines implications of the 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act, which restored food stamp eligibility to nearly two-thirds of immigrants who lost eligibility under Welfare Reform. Using data from the 1995-2013 Current Population Survey and a difference-in-difference design, I examine how restoration efforts have influenced food stamp participation and food insecurity rates among low-income Mexican immigrant households with children. I then examine trends in food stamp receipt across policy and economic changes since Welfare Reform. Overall, results suggest that immigrant restoration efforts have reversed some but not all of the negative consequences of Welfare Reform and that immigrant households' use of food stamps has increased, particularly in the wake of the Great Recession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  17. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  18. Self-perceived need for interpreter among immigrants in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Harpelund, Lars; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-07-01

    Starting in June 2011, immigrants who have lived for more than 7 years in Denmark have to pay a user-fee for interpreters in GP consultations and when hospitalised. We do not know yet how many immigrants will be affected by this amendment to the Danish Health Act and which socioeconomic factors characterise the immigrants who might be affected. To shed light on this, we investigated self-perceived need for interpreter (SNI) in GP consultations among participants from the largest non-Western immigrant groups in Denmark, the association between socioeconomic factors and SNI, and the characteristics of the immigrants potentially affected by the act amendment. Survey data on 2866 immigrants from former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Somalia, and Turkey, linked to registry information on socioeconomic factors were examined. We compared unadjusted proportions of SNI by country of birth. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between SNI and socioeconomic factors. Overall, 20% of immigrants living longer than 3 years in Denmark and 15% after 7 years reported a need for interpretation in their encounters with GPs. Of the latter group, the majority were outside the labour force (72.3%) and reported poor health (56%). Sex, age, length of stay, education, employment and household income were important factors for SNI. The amendment to the Health Act will primarily affect immigrants with modest household income, poor health and who are outside the labour force, thereby contributing and creating ethnic and social inequalities in access to health care in Denmark.

  19. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  20. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  1. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  2. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  3. Households encountering with catastrophic health expenditures in Ferdows, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghoddoosinejad, Javad; Jannati, Ali; Gholipour, Kamal; Baghban Baghestan, Elham

    2014-08-01

    Out-of-pocket payments are the main sources of healthcare financing in most developing countries. Healthcare services can impose a massive cost burden on households, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to calculate households encountered with catastrophic healthcare expenditures in Ferdows, Iran. The sample included 100 households representing 20% of all households in Ferdows, Iran. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. The ability to pay of households was calculated, and then if costs of household health were at least 40% of their ability to pay, it was considered as catastrophic expenditures. Rate of households encountered to catastrophic health expenditures was estimated to be 24%, of which dentistry services had the highest part in catastrophic health expenditures. Low ability to pay of households should be supported against these expenditures. More equitable health system would solve the problem, although more financial aid should be provided for households encountered to catastrophic costs.

  4. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  5. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  6. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  7. The effect of immigrant generation on smoking.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Pan, Jocelyn; Jun, Hee-Jin; Osypuk, Theresa L; Emmons, Karen M

    2005-09-01

    Immigrants to the US are not only an increasingly significant demographic group but overall they also have lower socioeconomic status (SES) than the native-born. It is known that tobacco use is a major health risk for groups that have low SES. However, there is some evidence that tobacco use among certain immigrant groups is lower than among the respective native-born ethnic group, and that immigrant assimilation is positively related to tobacco use. We investigated the relationship between immigrant generation and daily smoking, using the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), 1995-96, a national data set representative of the US general and immigrant populations. Our multivariate logistic regression analysis of the relationship between immigrant generation and daily smoker status (n = 221,798) showed that after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, SES variables (i.e. equivalized household income, education, occupation), and central-city residence, the odds of being a daily smoker were highest among US-born individuals of US-born parents (reference group) and lowest among foreign-born individuals (95% CI: 0.54-0.62). Being a second-generation immigrant (i.e. US born) with two immigrant parents also conferred a protective effective from smoking (95% CI: 0.64-0.77). However, having only one foreign-born parent was not protective against smoking. Testing for interaction effects, we also found that being foreign born and being second generation with two immigrant parents were especially protective against smoking among females (vis-à-vis males); racial/ethnic minorities (vis-à-vis whites); and low-income individuals (vis-à-vis high-income individuals). We discuss possible mechanisms that may explain the protective effect against smoking of being foreign born and being second generation with two immigrant parents, including differences in the stage of the tobacco epidemic between immigrants' countries of origin and the US, the

  8. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  9. How Immigration Harms Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloff, Norman

    1996-01-01

    The negative impacts of immigration are felt most strongly by nonwhite Americans. The significant problems with today's immigration policies can only be solved by reducing immigration levels, something many minority groups support. Immigration is not the root of social problems, but in its present form, it exacerbates them. (SLD)

  10. To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services field office in Kodiak, Alaska.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2010-03-19

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services field office in Kodiak, Alaska.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2010-03-19

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. The current situation in mexican immigration.

    PubMed

    Vernez, G; Ronfeldt, D

    1991-03-08

    By 1988, the Mexican-origin population of the United States had grown to 12.1 million, largely from recent, sharp increases in immigration. The policy concerns raised by this phenomenon have been influenced by some perceptions that available research contradicts. Today most Mexican immigrants come to stay, about half are female, and they have increasingly less schooling compared to the native-born population and other immigrants. Nationally, they do not cause adverse economic effects for native-born workers and, across generations, their language and political assimilation is proceeding well. They put greater demands on education than on other public services. However, the Mexican-origin population affects the economy and public services more and differently in the areas where it is concentrated, primarily in the western United States and large urban areas. Further, the recent legalization of 2.3 million Mexican immigrants can be expected to increase the demand on public services, especially in those areas.

  13. Serving immigrant families and children in New York City's child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Zeinab; van Straaten, Justine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the efforts and special initiatives of New York City's Administration for Children's Services to improve services to immigrant and English language learner populations. Children's Services convened an immigration issues advisory subcommittee, created special tools for child welfare staff, collaborated with legal agencies to assist foster children with immigration status adjustments, improved agency data collection, and launched an agency-wide training initiative on immigration issues. The challenges encountered by Children's Services offer important insight for child welfare agencies in other jurisdictions designing strategies to strengthen their services for immigrant communities.

  14. The Effect of Household and Community on School Attrition: An Analysis of Thai Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2012-01-01

    We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…

  15. The Effect of Household and Community on School Attrition: An Analysis of Thai Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2012-01-01

    We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…

  16. A participatory action research approach for identifying health service needs of Hispanic immigrants: implications for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Martinez, Louise I; Casas-Byots, Clemencia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the field of Community Occupational Therapy has started to enter into new research areas, one being participatory research. This paper illustrates a participatory research methodology adapted by community residents and a research team to identify the service needs of an underserved Hispanic population as well as set action agendas to meet their needs. In order to plan and implement health programs, community residents participated actively in the needs assessment, action agenda development and brainstorming of solutions to address health and community needs and concerns. Concerns identified included the lack of affordable bilingual dentists and youth involvement in gangs, drugs, and alcohol. The results of the needs assessment were shared and discussed during five public forums in which 180 Hispanics from the community discussed the dimensions of the issues and alternative solutions. This process resulted in an agenda of health issues and ideas for improvement from the perspective of Hispanics. We emphasized the advantages of using participatory methodologies when developing health and community services within Hispanic communities. Additionally, the implications for advancing a Scholarship of Practice agenda for Community Occupational Therapy are discussed.

  17. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  18. All about U.S. immigration statistics.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, M

    1989-01-01

    The quality of data collected by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is assessed, with a focus on differences between U.S. and U.N. definitions of immigrants, emigrants, and refugees. The author suggests that "gaps in migration data collected for the U.S. limit their usefulness for studying international migration and estimating national population change. For example, no information is collected on emigration of legal permanent residents or U.S. citizens, nor is there any direct information on the immigration of U.S. citizens. Data collected on legal immigrants are based on a legal and administrative definition that often conflicts with the demographic definition of an immigrant."

  19. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities.

  20. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  1. Housing Adjustment among Immigrants in Israel: Application of Complementary Non-Metric and Metric Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebhun, Uzi

    2009-01-01

    This study applies two different complementary statistical techniques to examine the structure and determinants of homeownership and consumption of household goods among immigrants in Israel. Findings from partial-order analysis (POSAC) reveal significant differences between immigrant groups by type, rather than level, of household…

  2. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  3. Health care utilization by immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare utilization studies show how well documented disparities between migrants and non-migrants. Reducing such disparities is a major goal in European countries. However, healthcare utilization among Italian immigrants is under-studied. The objective of this study is to explore differences in healthcare use between immigrant and native Italians. Cross-sectional study using the latest available (2004/2005) Italian Health Conditions Survey. We estimated separate hurdle binomial negative regression models for GP, specialist, and telephone consultations and a logit model for emergency room (ER) use. We used logistic regression and zero-truncated negative binomial regression to model the zero (contact decision) and count processes (frequency decisions) respectively. Adjusting for risk factors, immigrants are significantly less likely to use healthcare services with 2.4 and 2.7 % lower utilization probability for specialist and telephone consultations, respectively. First- and second-generation immigrants' probability for specialist and telephone contact is significantly lower than natives'. Immigrants, ceteris paribus, have a much higher probability of using ERs than natives (0.7 %). First-generation immigrants show a higher probability of visiting ERs (1 %). GP visits show no significant difference. In conclusion Italian immigrants are much less likely to use specialist healthcare and medical telephone consultations than natives but more likely to use ERs. Hence, we report an over-use of ERs and under-utilization of preventive care among immigrants. We recommend improved health policies for immigrants: promotion of better information dissemination among them, simplification of organizational procedures, better communications between providers and immigrants, and an increased supply of health services for the most disadvantaged populations.

  4. Ethnic differences in mental health service use among White, Chinese, South Asian and South East Asian populations living in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Suresh K; Wang, Jianli

    2008-11-01

    Health services in Canada are publicly funded. However, the use of health services, especially mental health services, by ethnic minority groups in Canada, has not been well studied. The objectives of the study were to estimate the 12-month prevalence of mental health service use by ethnicities, overall and among those with major depression, and to identify factors associated with mental health services use in different ethnic groups in Canada. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.1) were used. Participants included in this analysis were white who were born in Canada (n = 108,192), white immigrants (n = 10,892), Chinese (n = 1,785), South Asian (n = 1,214), and South East Asian immigrants (n = 818). Participants were selected using multiple staged, stratified random sampling procedures from household residents aged 12 years or older in ten provinces. White people were more likely to have used mental health services than Chinese participants and those from South Asian and South East Asian regions. The Chinese participants appeared to be less likely to have used mental health services than those in the South Asian and South East Asian groups, in those without major depression. In Canada, Asian immigrants are less likely to use mental health service use than white people. More studies are needed to examine factors affecting mental health service use in Asian immigrants living in North America.

  5. Mental-Health Aid for Immigrant Children Lags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    As educators and experts assess the quality of student mental-health services in light of the deadly shootings last April 16, the Virginia Tech gunman's immigrant background is focusing attention on what immigration workers say is a lack of services tailored to such groups. Mental-health professionals say that, in general, even school districts…

  6. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Randy

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. This report presents characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2001. Information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data collected by the federal Food and Nutrition Service for quality…

  7. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Care: Making a Case for Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Edward, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. The Mutual Relationship Between Immigrants' Disrupted Everyday Activities and Their Health: A Grounded Theory of Experiences of Korean Immigrants Settling in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hagyun; Hocking, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For Asian immigrants, immigration has the potential to disrupt all familiar routines. That is a threat to their health and well-being. This grounded theory study explored how immigrants adjust to a new environment by analyzing the experiences of 25 Korean immigrants in New Zealand. The findings suggest that immigration is a stress-inducing phenomenon that requires adjustment of valued activities and adversely affects their health. In response, participants worked on regaining control over disrupted activities by opting for two world perspectives. The study helps social workers to develop effective interventions and services for immigrants to better handle health problems.

  9. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  10. [Immigrants in the labor market].

    PubMed

    Pugliese, E

    1990-04-01

    This is an analysis by occupation of foreigners working in Italy. "A relationship can frequently be observed between country of origin, religion, sex, and employment. Then, those who immigrate into Italy from Islamic countries are largely single males; most of them work as hawkers. At the opposite end, women, still prevalently employed in domestic service, come from Catholic countries, or from Catholic minorities within countries with different predominant religions. Besides these two categories, more traditional and majoritarian, there are the employed in agriculture, services, and, only recently, industry. The article points to the highly intense dynamics of immigration and to the ever-changing relative weight of different nationalities, main settlements, and prevalent activities themselves in the various regions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  11. U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mexican Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Rural Mexico's economy currently relies heavily on illegal migrants to the United States. Severing the link between rural Mexican households and U.S. labor markets would require restructuring not only affecting U.S. industries, which are the focus of federal immigration reform, but also migrant-sending economies in Mexico. If effectively enforced,…

  12. Family Functioning and Early Learning Practices in Immigrant Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…

  13. Family Functioning and Early Learning Practices in Immigrant Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…

  14. Trends: immigration and technology.

    PubMed

    Miller, B A

    1998-01-01

    America is experiencing a new wave of immigration that many say will be larger than the one beginning just before 1900. But this immigration is more global in origin and will result in making many states so diverse that there is no "majority" culture. Immigration will fuel the economy and will be particularly advantageous to those businesses that can recognize and respond to the needs of the new immigrant groups.

  15. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  16. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  17. Breastfeeding initiation in immigrant and non-immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Río, I; Castelló-Pastor, A; Del Val Sandín-Vázquez, M; Barona, C; Jané, M; Más, R; Rebagliato, M; Bolúmar, F

    2011-12-01

    Research about inequities between native and immigrant women regarding the quality of health care is still scarce. Initiation of breastfeeding in hospital is considered a quality care indicator. In this study, we explore the association between the geographical origin of the women and the establishment of breastfeeding in Spanish hospitals. Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation is higher for women from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Maghreb or sub-Saharan Africa than for Spanish women, and lower for Chinese women. Compared with Spanish women the odds of not breastfeeding in hospital were lower in all these immigrant groups but more than five times higher for Chinese immigrants. Culturally adapted health services are necessary to maintain breastfeeding rates in most immigrant groups. Moreover, it seems urgent to identify the factors influencing patterns of breastfeeding in Chinese immigrants and to develop innovative strategies to encourage breastfeeding initiation in hospital.

  18. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  19. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  20. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  1. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  2. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  3. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  4. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  5. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Macera, Margherita; Sagnelli, Caterina; Zampino, Rosa; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million people chronically infected and 600000 deaths per year due to acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitis or, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration from countries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a low HBV endemicity warrants particular attention to prevent the spread of HBV infection to the native population. This review article analyzes the epidemiology and virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in immigrant populations and in their host countries, and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of this infection. Among the immigrants from different geographical areas, those from South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, in accordance with the high endemicity of the countries of origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants reflect those of the geographical areas of origin: HBV genotype A and D predominate in immigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those from Asia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literature data on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAg-positive immigrants are scanty. The management of HBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult and requires expert personnel and dedicated structures for their assistance. The social services, voluntary operators and cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimized psychological and clinical intervention. PMID:26730274

  6. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  7. Household Budgets as a Social Indicator of Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Johan H.

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a universally accepted method of calculating poverty, household expenditure can be used to provide an indication of inequality of wealth and serve as an indicator of poverty. Household expenditure comprises expenditure of private households on goods and services, irrespective of their durability. The portion of household budgets…

  8. Household Budgets as a Social Indicator of Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Johan H.

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a universally accepted method of calculating poverty, household expenditure can be used to provide an indication of inequality of wealth and serve as an indicator of poverty. Household expenditure comprises expenditure of private households on goods and services, irrespective of their durability. The portion of household budgets…

  9. Immigration and health care reform: shared struggles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2007-01-01

    The connection between health care and immigration share overlaping key areas in policy reform. General concern, anger, and fear about immigration has been spreading nationwide. While illegal immigrants' use of expensive emergency department services does add to the cost for uncompensated care, this expenditure is not a primary cost driver but more a symptom of little or no access to preventative or primary health care. As a result of federal inaction, more state politicians are redefining how America copes with illegal residents including how or whether they have access to health care. The overlap of immigration and health care reform offers an opportunity for us to enter the next round of debate from a more informed vantage point.

  10. Immigration and HIV infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Oppenheim, S

    1994-02-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine areas in which additional education regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed by the undocumented and recently immigrated HIV-infected population, and to obtain preliminary information on the ability of this community to access medical treatment for HIV. Information regarding health status, immigration status, and the use of medical services was obtained from all HIV-infected undocumented and recently immigrated individuals who sought services from a Southern California nonprofit agency between July 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990. A total of 54 such individuals presented for services. Thirteen individuals reported participating in shared needle usage for the administration of medication or vitamins, in addition to other known risk factors for HIV. Only one of these 13 individuals had access to nonemergency medical care. Additional research is necessary to determine the reasons for these needle sharing behaviors. Educational outreach is needed to address these behaviors as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission.

  11. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  12. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  13. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  14. Immigration to the U.S.: the unfinished story.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, L F; Gradner, R W

    1986-11-01

    Annual totals of new immigrants and refugees in the US may now be up to the record highs of over a million immigrants counted in 6 years between 1905 and 1914. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year (570,009 in 1985), newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000, and the "settled" illegal immigrant population is growing by up to 1/2 million a year, according to some estimates. 1/2 of illegal immigrants are persons who entered the US legally but then overstayed the terms of temporary visas. Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehensions of illegal aliens, projected at a record 1.8 million for fiscal year 1986, indicate a sharp increase in illegal border crossers, driven by Mexico's and Central America's mounting population and economic pressures and lured by the prospect of jobs with employers who through a loophole in US immigration law can hire illegal aliens without penalty. The Census Bureau estimates that net immigration now accounts for 28% of US population growth and will account for all growth by the 2030's if fertility stays at the current low 1.8 births per woman. Public opinion strongly favors crubs on illegal immigration and legalization of illegal aliens long resident in the US, and in 1986 Congress enacted legislation to reduce illegal immigration to the US. Asians and Latin Americans now make up over 80% of legal immigrants and Latin Americans comprised 77% of illegal immigrants counted in the 1980 census. Asians far outstrip Latin American immigrants in education, occupational status, and income and might be expected to assimilate in the same manner as earlier immigrant group did. Hispanic immigrants so far appear to favor cultural pluralism, maintaining their own culture and the Spanish language. Research in California indicates that recent Hispanic immigrants (legal and illegal) have helped preserve low-wage industries and agriculture. Illegal immigrants appear to draw more on public health and

  15. Legal versus illegal U.S. immigration and source country characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bratsberg, B

    1995-01-01

    "Based on micro data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on legal immigrants as well as on legalization applications that followed the passage of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986], this study exploits the variation in legal and illegal immigration flows across seventy source countries to examine the sensitivity of immigration flows to underlying source country characteristics. The study finds that earnings in the source country and the distance from the United States form significant deterrents of both legal and illegal immigration flows. We also find that illegal immigration is more sensitive to such factors than is legal immigration." The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on U.S. immigration from Mexico is also assessed. excerpt

  16. America's immigration "problem.".

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  18. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening.

  19. Correlates of depressive symptoms in married immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang Suk; Kim, Bongjeong; Moon, Sun Sook; Park, Chang Gi; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the correlates of depressive symptoms among women who have immigrated to Korea for marriage. Cross-sectional data reflecting Korean language fluency, acculturation, acculturative stress, general stress, and marital satisfaction were collected from 223 married immigrant women. There was a significant negative correlation between depressive symptoms and Korean language fluency as well as between depressive symptoms and Korean acculturation. Multiple linear regression revealed that depressive symptoms among married immigrant women were predicted by levels of acculturative stress, general stress, marital satisfaction, and type of household. The model including each of these variables accounted for 41.9% of the variance in depressive symptoms in these women. Prevention programs for the management of depression in immigrant women should include an evaluation of acculturative conflict and stress and should consider marital and family conditions.

  20. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  1. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 103 and 208 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: On August 29, 2011, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) published...

  2. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  3. Transformative Learning of Mentors from an Immigrant Workplace Connections Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Butterwick, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    Mentorship programs have been deployed within immigrant and settlements services to integrate newcomers to the Canadian labor market. These programs are often assessed for their impacts on immigrant mentees. Little attention has been paid to how they may have influenced mentors. In this context, this study, from the perspective of transformative…

  4. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  5. Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

  6. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon

    2016-01-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  7. Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment? Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    This paper examines the determinants and consequences of immigrant/linguistic concentrations (enclaves), discussing reasons for the formation of those concentrations. It develops hypotheses regarding "ethnic goods" (market and non-market goods and services consumed by members of an immigrant/ethnic group that are not consumed by others), the…

  8. Supporting College Students through Peer Mentoring: Serving Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Matthew

    Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU Denver) Immigrant Services program enlists the support of peer mentors to provide holistic support to the institution's immigrant, refugee, and English Language Learner (ELL) populations. These peer mentors are highly specialized in their student employee role and are trained to provide academic and…

  9. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon

    2016-01-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  10. Transformative Learning of Mentors from an Immigrant Workplace Connections Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Butterwick, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    Mentorship programs have been deployed within immigrant and settlements services to integrate newcomers to the Canadian labor market. These programs are often assessed for their impacts on immigrant mentees. Little attention has been paid to how they may have influenced mentors. In this context, this study, from the perspective of transformative…

  11. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5 Pre-immigration trusts. (a)...

  12. On the Borders: The Arrival of Irregular Immigrants in Malta--Some Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the issue of the continual arrival of irregular immigrants in Malta and the problems that ensue. The view generally held is that we need to respond to the needs of irregular immigrants by providing services. However, with reference to some of Jacques Derrida's ideas, I argue in this paper that the "other"/immigrant is…

  13. 77 FR 74490 - Implementation of Immigrant Visa DHS Domestic Processing Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Domestic Processing Fee AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security... 1, 2013, USCIS will begin to collect a $165 Immigrant Visa DHS Domestic Processing Fee (USCIS... Immigrant Visa DHS Domestic Processing Fee and DHS response). USCIS established this fee to recover...

  14. On the Borders: The Arrival of Irregular Immigrants in Malta--Some Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the issue of the continual arrival of irregular immigrants in Malta and the problems that ensue. The view generally held is that we need to respond to the needs of irregular immigrants by providing services. However, with reference to some of Jacques Derrida's ideas, I argue in this paper that the "other"/immigrant is…

  15. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement by Local Police on the Civil Rights of Latinos. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This paper discusses the provisions of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) (sections 642 and 133) and outlines some concerns with the new Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) Quick Response Team initiative. It also examines the current relationships among local police, the INS, and local Latino…

  16. Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant and Arabic Women: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major disabling mood disorder that affects women during childbearing years. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries and compare it with prevalence and risk factors for PPD among Arab women in their home countries. 26 studies, published between 1995 and 2013 have been included. In this review, prevalence of PPD among Arab women in their countries ranged 10-37%, and the prevalence of PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries ranged 11.2-60%. Lack of social support, stressful life events, low income, and intimate partner violence were risk factors associated with development of PPD among both Arab women and immigrant women. Immigration stress and lack of access to health care services were found among immigrant women. Lack of social support was more predominant in studies on immigrant women.

  17. Changing U.S. immigration law and the occupational selectivity of Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lobo, A P; Salvo, J J

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between US immigration laws and their impact on the immigration of Asian professionals. The article relied on a 1996 Population Association presentation. Data were obtained from the US Immigration and Naturalization Service on legally admitted immigrants to the US. The authors describe the paths to admission, trends in immigration of professionals during 1972-94, and the Immigration Act of 1965 and its 4 amendments. Standardization-decomposition techniques are used to explain the relative differences in professional immigration across 1972-77, 1978-91, and 1992-94. The crude professional rate for all Asians declined by 19% during 1972-91. 62% of the decline was due to changes in the class of admission composition, and 25% was due to a decline in the class-specific professional rates. During 1992-94, the Asian crude professional rate increased 7%, most of which was due to changes in class composition, with the exception of Korean rates. Only the Vietnamese experienced a decline in rates. The 1965 law allowed for equity between countries in admission. The paths of immigration were family ties, job skills, or refugee status. During 1972-77, Chinese took advantage of family reunification, and Indians entered on employment preferences. The legal changes affected the size and share of each class of admission. The revisions indirectly affected the occupational selectivity of immigrant groups. 27% of the flow of Asians during 1972-77 was accounted for by employment preferences. Professionals were 44% of Asian immigrants during 1972-77, 26% during 1978-91, and 33% during 1992-94.

  18. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants’ residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans’ and Central Americans’ prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  19. Evaluating the impact of immigration policies on health status among undocumented immigrants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D; Rhodes, Scott; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of Immigration Policies on Health Status Among Undocumented Immigrants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D.; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations. PMID:24375382

  1. The Impact of Local Immigration Enforcement Policies on the Health of Immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M.; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Lawlor, Emma; Martinez, Omar; Sun, Christina J.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Reboussin, Beth A.; Hall, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to understand how local immigration enforcement policies affect the utilization of health services among immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina. Methods. In 2012, we analyzed vital records data to determine whether local implementation of section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Secure Communities program, which authorizes local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration laws, affected the prenatal care utilization of Hispanics/Latinas. We also conducted 6 focus groups and 17 interviews with Hispanic/Latino persons across North Carolina to explore the impact of immigration policies on their utilization of health services. Results. We found no significant differences in utilization of prenatal care before and after implementation of section 287(g), but we did find that, in individual-level analysis, Hispanic/Latina mothers sought prenatal care later and had inadequate care when compared with non-Hispanic/Latina mothers. Participants reported profound mistrust of health services, avoiding health services, and sacrificing their health and the health of their family members. Conclusions. Fear of immigration enforcement policies is generalized across counties. Interventions are needed to increase immigrant Hispanics/Latinos’ understanding of their rights and eligibility to utilize health services. Policy-level initiatives are also needed (e.g., driver’s licenses) to help undocumented persons access and utilize these services. PMID:25521886

  2. The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant hispanics/latinos in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Lawlor, Emma; Martinez, Omar; Sun, Christina J; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Reboussin, Beth A; Hall, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    We sought to understand how local immigration enforcement policies affect the utilization of health services among immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina. In 2012, we analyzed vital records data to determine whether local implementation of section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Secure Communities program, which authorizes local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration laws, affected the prenatal care utilization of Hispanics/Latinas. We also conducted 6 focus groups and 17 interviews with Hispanic/Latino persons across North Carolina to explore the impact of immigration policies on their utilization of health services. We found no significant differences in utilization of prenatal care before and after implementation of section 287(g), but we did find that, in individual-level analysis, Hispanic/Latina mothers sought prenatal care later and had inadequate care when compared with non-Hispanic/Latina mothers. Participants reported profound mistrust of health services, avoiding health services, and sacrificing their health and the health of their family members. Fear of immigration enforcement policies is generalized across counties. Interventions are needed to increase immigrant Hispanics/Latinos' understanding of their rights and eligibility to utilize health services. Policy-level initiatives are also needed (e.g., driver's licenses) to help undocumented persons access and utilize these services.

  3. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  4. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  6. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  7. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-12-03

    Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants' poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants' access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. A secondary data analysis was conducted on the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Simple descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period. Approximately 32% of immigrants reported unmet dental care needs. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.05-3.37), and those with an average household income of $20,000 to $40,000 per year (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.61), and lower than $20,000 (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.31-3.86), were more likely to report unmet dental care needs than those earning more than $60,000 per year. In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans. Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

  8. An evaluation of the healthy immigrant effect with adolescents in Canada: Examinations of gender and length of residence.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Kyunghwa

    2016-05-01

    The healthy immigrant effect, HIE, is the finding that immigrants initially arrive in the settlement society in the same or better health than their native-born counterparts, yet this advantage is lost as their length of residence increases. This phenomenon has been found among adult populations. The present study sought to extend the premise of HIE to adolescents in Canada. Utilizing national data sets of three years (Canadian Community Health Survey 2007, 2009, 2011; Statistics Canada), adolescents (aged 12-19), foreign-born immigrants (N = 2919) and native-born non-immigrants (N = 39,083), were compared for their perceived general health and mental health as well as diagnosed chronic illnesses and psychological illnesses. Multiple imputations were first carried out for the degrees of missing values, and multivariate analyses were conducted to find differences between non-immigrants and immigrants, and between recent and long-term immigrants to verify (1) whether immigrant adolescents show better health than their non-immigrant peers, (2) whether the health of immigrant adolescents vary with length of residence and gender, and (3) whether persistent trends would be shown across the three survey years. After adjusting for age, visible minority status, household income and household size as covariates, immigrant adolescents indeed reported better health in all four measures in each survey year. Girls experienced more health problems regardless of immigrant status, especially for chronic and psychological illnesses. However, only in 2009 the long-term immigrant adolescents reported less favorite health than recent immigrants, and length of residence influenced boys' and girls' mental health in different directions. The HIE was confirmed with national community population samples of adolescents in Canada: foreign-born immigrant adolescents experience better health than their native-born peers. However, understanding of the HIE needs to be further extended to

  9. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  10. Household Wealth in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility.

  11. Understanding employment barriers among older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Chi, Iris; Yi, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study involved an in-depth exploration of the employment barriers of older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles. This qualitative study used data obtained from 6 focus groups and 5 individual interviews. Participants were 36 older Korean immigrants living in Los Angeles, aged 50 years and older, and either unemployed or employed in part-time or full-time work. A grounded theory analytical approach and constant comparison method were used. Ten major themes emerged as employment barriers for older Korean immigrants and were categorized as stereotype, human capital, and acculturation barriers. Ageism among employers specific to Korean culture, lack of English proficiency, separation from U.S. culture, marginalization from both Korean and U.S. cultures, and lack of social networks were important themes. In addition, older Korean immigrants experienced multiple interconnected barriers. The findings highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to explore employment barriers among older Korean immigrants who face multiple obstacles in finding jobs. Implications for local governments and Korean communities and potential services to support employment opportunities for older Korean immigrants are discussed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The findings implied that the extension of financial services to children’s education could motivate parents to send their children for more education, increase disposable income of rural households by reducing precautionary savings, and provide better-educated labors in rural China. PMID:20835379

  13. Transnational dental care among Canadian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    This study examines predictors of transnational dental care utilization, or the use of dental care across national borders, over a 4-year period among immigrants to Canada. Data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC, 2001-2005) were used. Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' transnational dental care utilization. Approximately 13% of immigrants received dental care outside Canada over a period of 4 years. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.55-2.70), those reporting dental problems (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.12-1.88), who were female (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.22-2.08), aged ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.64), and who were always unemployed (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.39) were more likely to report transnational dental care utilization. History of social assistance was inversely correlated with the use of dental services outside Canada (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.83). It is estimated that roughly 11 500 immigrants have used dental care outside Canada over a 4-year period. Although transnational dental care utilization may serve as an individual solution for immigrants' initial barriers to accessing dental care, it demonstrates weaknesses to in-country efforts at providing publicly funded dental care to socially marginalized groups. Policy reforms should be enacted to expand dental care coverage among adult immigrants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Family obligations and individuation among immigrant youth: Do generational status and age at immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant children and adolescents often assume parental roles in their families and may feel guilty about psychologically separating and individuating from the family. However, little is known about this phenomenon and youth' generational status and age at immigration. We investigated various aspects of family obligations (instrumental and emotional roles, language and culture brokering, perceived unfairness) and individuation among 302 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel: first-generation (n = 44) and second-generation immigrant adolescents (n = 56); young adults who had arrived in Israel before the age of nine (n = 72) and from this age onward (n = 130). Immigrants who had arrived at age nine and older reported adopting more family obligations than other groups. Among the second-generation immigrants, family obligations were related to lower individuation compared to the first-generation immigrants. Possible explanations for the relations between family obligations and individuation according to generational status are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immigration Statistics. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Census and Population of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (October 10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    This document provides a transcript of a hearing of the House Subcommittee on Census and Population which focused on immigration statistics and ways of improving the methods of accounting for all immigrants. Prepared statements were presented by four witnesses: (1) Daniel B. Levine, the director of the Panel on Immigrations Statistics, who…

  16. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  17. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  18. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  19. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION AMONG ARAB IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Arab migrants are exposed to pre- and post migration stressors that increase their risk for health problems. However, little is known regarding healthcare utilization rates or factors associated with healthcare utilization among Arab immigrants and refugees. Methods 590 participants were interviewed 1 year post-migration to the United States Factors associated with healthcare utilization including stress coping mechanisms were examined using binary logistic regressions. Results Compared to national healthcare utilization data, immigrants had significantly lower and refugees had significantly higher rates. Being a refugee, married, and having health insurance were significantly associated with medical service utilization. None of the immigrants in this study had utilized psychological services. Among refugees, the use of medications and having strategies for dealing with stress were inversely associated with utilization of psychological services. Discussion (Conclusion) Healthcare utilization was significantly higher among refugees, who also reported a greater need for services than immigrants. PMID:25331684

  20. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  1. Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners.

    PubMed

    Keister, Lisa A; Aronson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants. Because no single survey dataset contains top wealth holders and data about country of origin, this paper uses two publicly-available data sets: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Multiple imputation is used to impute country of birth from the SIPP into the SCF. Descriptive statistics are used to demonstrate reliability of the method, to estimate the prevalence of immigrants among top wealth holders, and to document patterns of asset ownership among affluent immigrants. Significant numbers of top wealth holders who are usually classified as white natives may be immigrants. Many top wealth holders appear to be European and Canadian immigrants, and increasing numbers of top wealth holders are likely from Asia and Latin America as well. Results suggest that of those in the top one percent of wealth holders, approximately 3% are European and Canadian immigrants, .5% are from Mexico or Cuban, and 1.7% are from Asia (especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and India). Ownership of key assets varies considerably across affluent immigrant groups. Although the percentage of top wealth holders who are immigrants is relatively small, these percentages represent large numbers of households with considerable resources and corresponding social and political influence. Evidence that the propensity to allocate wealth to real and financial assets varies across immigrant groups suggests that

  2. Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners

    PubMed Central

    Keister, Lisa A.; Aronson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants. Methods Because no single survey dataset contains top wealth holders and data about country of origin, this paper uses two publicly-available data sets: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Multiple imputation is used to impute country of birth from the SIPP into the SCF. Descriptive statistics are used to demonstrate reliability of the method, to estimate the prevalence of immigrants among top wealth holders, and to document patterns of asset ownership among affluent immigrants. Results Significant numbers of top wealth holders who are usually classified as white natives may be immigrants. Many top wealth holders appear to be European and Canadian immigrants, and increasing numbers of top wealth holders are likely from Asia and Latin America as well. Results suggest that of those in the top one percent of wealth holders, approximately 3% are European and Canadian immigrants, .5% are from Mexico or Cuban, and 1.7% are from Asia (especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and India). Ownership of key assets varies considerably across affluent immigrant groups. Conclusion Although the percentage of top wealth holders who are immigrants is relatively small, these percentages represent large numbers of households with considerable resources and corresponding social and political influence. Evidence that the propensity to allocate wealth to real and financial assets varies

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Mitigation by Alternative Household Wastewater Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain ...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Mitigation by Alternative Household Wastewater Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain ...

  5. Variations in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants: the role of documentation status.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Fang, Hai; Garza, Jeremiah; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Wallace, Steven P; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify differences in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants by documentation status. Cross-sectional survey data are analyzed to identify differences in healthcare access and utilization across Mexican immigrant categories. Multivariable logistic regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition are used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components. Mexican immigrants ages 18 and above who are immigrants of California households and responded to the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (2,600 documented and 1,038 undocumented immigrants). Undocumented immigrants from Mexico are 27% less likely to have a doctor visit in the previous year and 35% less likely to have a usual source of care compared to documented Mexican immigrants after controlling for confounding variables. Approximately 88% of these disparities can be attributed to predisposing, enabling and need determinants in our model. The remaining disparities are attributed to unobserved heterogeneity. This study shows that undocumented immigrants from Mexico are much less likely to have a physician visit in the previous year and a usual source of care compared to documented immigrants from Mexico. The recently approved Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will not reduce these disparities unless undocumented immigrants are granted some form of legal status.

  6. Immigrant women and the emergency department: the juncture with welfare and immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Ivey, S L; Kramer, E J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act and their potential impact on immigrant women's access to medical services. Current federal mandates assuring access to emergency medical services and new restrictions on financing of health care under federal programs such as Medicaid and Medicare would appear to be on a collision course. Both acts specifically reaffirm federal law on delivery of emergency services without addressing the financing of that care. Unfunded mandates in an era of diminished ability to shift costs onto insured patients are problematic for the institutions that provide uncompensated care. Specific protections for victims of domestic violence are also discussed.

  7. Exposure to abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction among adults who witnessed intimate partner violence as children: implications for health and social services.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Anda, Robert F; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie J; Williamson, David F

    2002-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) damages a woman's physical and mental well-being, and indicates that her children are likely to experience abuse, neglect and other traumatic experiences. Adult HMO members completed a questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. We used their responses to retrospectively assess the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence and experiencing any of the 9 ACEs and multiple ACEs (ACE score). Compared to persons who grew up with no domestic violence, the adjusted odds ratio for any individual ACE was approximately two to six times higher if IPV occurred (p < 0.05). There was a powerful graded increase in the prevalence of every category of ACE as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. In addition, the total number of ACEs was increased dramatically for persons who had witnessed IPV during childhood. There was a positive graded risk for self-reported alcoholism, illicit drug use, i.v. drug use and depressed affect as the frequency of witnessing IPV increased. Identification of victims of IPV must include screening of their children for abuse, neglect and other types of adverse exposures, as well as recognition that substance abuse and depressed affect are likely consequences of witnessing IPV. Finally, this data strongly suggest that future studies, which focus on the effect of witnessing IPV on long-term health outcomes, may need to take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple ACEs, which can also affect these outcomes.

  8. Immigration and immigrant generations in population projections.

    PubMed

    Edmonston, B; Passel, J S

    1992-11-01

    This paper proposes a new model for population projections. This model projects an initial population under conditions of fertility, mortality, and international migration (like standard cohort-component models), but considers the population arrayed by generation. The model incorporates 4 generations: a foreign-born first generation (the immigrants), a second generation (sons and daughters of immigrants), a third generation (grandsons and granddaughters of immigrants), and fourth-and-higher generations. The model requires fertility, mortality, and migration equations by generation, which take a somewhat different form than in conventional cohort-component population projection. Consideration of the model also makes apparent that assignment of births to generations may not follow a simple form: the paper presents a method for including the empirical description of intergenerational births within the generational framework. As an example, the authors examine the next century of population growth for the Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic populations in the US, comparing their growth rates and their composition within the total US population. With annual net immigration of 950,000, the total US population of 249 million in 1990 will top 400 million in 2070 and reach about 432 million in 2090. Thus, the level of immigration and emigration assumed in these projections suggests considerable population growth for the next hundred years. The racial/ethnic composition of the US will shift markedly during the next century, as described in the paper.

  9. Antenatal and delivery services in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: care-seeking and experiences reported by women in a household-based survey.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Dimomfu, Bruno Lapika; Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Edmonds, Andrew; Behets, Frieda

    2013-10-01

    Increasing coverage of quality reproductive health services, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, requires understanding where and how these services are provided. To inform scale-up, we conducted a population-based survey in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stratified two-stage cluster sampling was used to select women ≥18 years old who had been pregnant within the prior three years. Participants were interviewed about their reproductive healthcare utilization and impressions of services received. We interviewed 1221 women, 98% of whom sought antenatal care (ANC). 78% of women began ANC after the first trimester and 22% reported <4 visits. Reasons for choosing an ANC facility included reputation (51%), friendly/accessible staff (39%), availability of comprehensive services (29%), medication access (26%), location (26%), and cost (21%). Most women reported satisfactory treatment by staff, but 47% reported that the ANC provider ignored their complaints, 23% had difficulty understanding responses to their questions, 22% wanted more time with the provider, 21% wanted more privacy, and 12% felt uncomfortable asking questions. Only 56% reported someone talked to them about HIV/AIDS. Strongest predictors of seeking inadequate ANC included low participant and partner education and lack of certain assets. Only 32% of women sought postnatal care. Some results varied by health zone. Scaling-up interventions to improve reproductive health services should include broad-based health systems strengthening and promote equitable access to quality ANC, delivery, and postnatal services. Personal and structural-level barriers to seeking ANC need to be addressed, with consideration given to local contexts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increasing HIV testing among African immigrants in ireland: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Asibon, Aba; O'Connor, Gerard; Carson, Richard; Cowan, Ethan; McKinley, Philip; Leider, Jason; Mallon, Patrick; Calderon, Yvette

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, immigrants constitute 63% of new cases of heterosexually transmitted HIV among individuals born outside Ireland. Current strategies to encourage testing can be ineffective if immigrants perceive them as culturally insensitive. We obtained qualitative data to explore challenges to voluntary HIV-testing for immigrants in Ireland. Content analysis was undertaken to identify and describe pertinent themes. Widespread beliefs that HIV is primarily a disease of African immigrants were identified as challenges that constrain access to testing and care. The organization and location of testing services, attitude of health workers, and beliefs regarding mandatory HIV-testing for immigrants seeking access to welfare benefits were also identified. Immigrants in Ireland encounter a variety of structural, cultural and personal constraints to HIV testing. Opportunities exist in the Irish Health system to increase testing among immigrants through greater acknowledgement of cultural sensitivities of immigrant groups.

  11. Pathogenic Policy: Immigrant Policing, Fear, and Parallel Medical Systems in the US South.

    PubMed

    Kline, Nolan

    2017-01-01

    Medical anthropology has a vital role in identifying health-related impacts of policy. In the United States, increasingly harsh immigration policies have formed a multilayered immigrant policing regime comprising state and federal laws and local police practices, the effects of which demand ethnographic attention. In this article, I draw from ethnographic fieldwork in Atlanta, Georgia, to examine the biopolitics of immigrant policing. I underscore how immigrant policing directly impacts undocumented immigrants' health by producing a type of fear based governance that alters immigrants' health behaviors and sites for seeking health services. Ethnographic data further point to how immigrant policing sustains a need for an unequal, parallel medical system, reflecting broader social inequalities impacting vulnerable populations. Moreover, by focusing on immigrant policing, I demonstrate the analytical utility in examining the biopolitics of fear, which can reveal individual experiences and structural influents of health-related vulnerability.

  12. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of…

  13. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  14. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  15. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They…

  16. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They…

  17. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  18. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  19. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  20. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a broad analytical framework in the study of immigrant naturalization that incorporates an immigrant's individual characteristics with the larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. Results testing of this framework show that such considerations are…

  1. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  2. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  3. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this type are the alcohols, chlorine (bleach), peroxides, and aldehydes. ♦ The second group consists mostly of ... isopropyl alcohol, household bleach (3% solution), or hydrogen peroxide. These agents are effective against a wide range ...

  4. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... and tightly sealed container. Insecticides/Rodenticides As with household cleaners, read and follow label instructions before using any type of pesticide in your pet’s environment. For example, flea and tick products labeled “for ...

  5. The child immigrant.

    PubMed

    Bonovitz, Jennifer M

    2004-06-01

    This article uses a developmental perspective to look at the effects of immigration on the young child. Factors influencing the way in which the immigrant family negotiates the ongoing process of settling into the new country are considered. It is argued that the ability of parents to provide an adequate holding environment to protect the young child from too much loss or dislocation is probably the most critical factor in determining whether the child's internal world will be enriched or impoverished by the immigration experience. It is emphasized that immigration is an ongoing process for the entire family. Some clinical material is presented to illustrate how the child's engagement in the process of separation-individuation both shapes and is shaped by, the immigration experience.

  6. Common household poisonings.

    PubMed

    Dymowski, J J; Uehara, D T

    1987-12-01

    Readily available household products represent a source of potential toxicity when ingested accidentally by children. Despite the large number of patients seen by physicians and a familiarity with many of these substances, patient management often remains a difficult problem. The current literature is reviewed with respect to appropriate management of ingestions of household cleaners, caustics, hydrocarbons, insecticides, rodenticides, plants, and other products often taken by children.

  7. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  8. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  9. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  10. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  11. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  12. Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

  13. Depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

    2013-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States.

  14. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... unit and do not want to cross the picket line for fear of personal injury or death, must not be deemed...

  15. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... unit and do not want to cross the picket line for fear of personal injury or death, must not be deemed...

  16. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... unit and do not want to cross the picket line for fear of personal injury or death, must not be deemed...

  17. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  18. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  19. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  20. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  1. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  2. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  3. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  4. Teaching History through Immigration Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Recommends and discusses texts that enable students to investigate the "typical" immigrant story, the parallels and differences in immigration experiences, and characteristics of immigrants. Provides vivid jumping-off points into complex and differentiated lives of real people often hidden beneath labels such as "immigrant." (CMK)

  5. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.

  6. The living arrangements of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union: a comparison of Israel and the United States.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Lowenstein, Ariela; Tavares, Jane L; Coyle, Caitlin; Mutchler, Jan E; Katz, Ruth; Khatutsky, Galina

    2012-12-01

    With the unprecedented emigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) during the 1990s as context, this study described the living arrangements of older FSU immigrants living in Israel and the US. Living arrangement choices represented an important strategy for coping with the migration process. Census data from Israel and the US were employed to examine the relationships among living arrangements (independent households, multigenerational households, and extended households) and personal characteristics, including duration of residence, Jewish identity, education, and home ownership. Results showed that the less time older immigrants lived in the host country, the more likely they lived in a multigenerational or extended household. The residency length and household relationship was stronger in Israel than in the US. Also, older FSU immigrants who owned their own home and who lived in a metropolitan area were more likely to live in a complex household than in an independent household. We discussed how the economic and social environments in each country contributed to the variability in living arrangement options among these older immigrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immigrant status and having a regular medical doctor among Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Degelman, Michelle L; Herman, Katya M

    2016-06-27

    New immigrants generally arrive in Canada with a health advantage over their Canadian counterparts, but lose that advantage over time. Difficulties in acquiring a physician may contribute. Past studies relied on older data, and lacked control for many confounders and assessment of gender differences. We assessed the relationship between immigrant status and having a regular doctor among Canadian adults. Cross-sectional data from the 2011-2012 Canadian Community Health Survey were self-reported by 73,958 respondents aged 18-64, representing >20 million Canadian adults. The relationship between immigrant status and having a doctor was analyzed using χ2 and logistic regression analyses stratified by gender. Age, body mass index, race, education, province of residence, physical activity, chronic conditions, self-perceived health, and number of children in household were controlled. Approximately 77% of males and 87% of females reported having a doctor. About 7% of respondents reported being new immigrants in Canada (0-9 years), while 16% were established immigrants (≥10 years). For males (M) and females (F) respectively, 78% and 88% of non-immigrants, 55% and 68% of new immigrants, and 84% and 91% of established immigrants reported having a doctor (p < 0.001). Compared to non-immigrants, new immigrants were significantly less likely to have a doctor (OR (95% CI) M: 0.43 (0.38-0.47); F: 0.36 (0.32-0.41)), while established immigrants were significantly more likely to have a doctor (M: 1.13 (1.03-1.24); F: 1.16 (1.03-1.30)). New Canadian immigrants are less likely to have a regular doctor compared to non-immigrants, and should be targeted by policies and programs facilitating finding a doctor.

  8. [Immigrants' access to health care in Spain: a review].

    PubMed

    Llop-Gironés, Alba; Vargas Lorenzo, Ingrid; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Aller, Marta-Beatriz; Vázquez Navarrete, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    An important proportion of the population in Spain is immigrant and the international literature indicates their inadequate access to health services. The objective is to contribute to improving the knowledge on access to health care of the immigrant population in Spain. Review of original papers published (1998-2012) on access to health services of the immigrant population in Spain published in Medline and MEDES. Out of 319 studies, 20 were selected, applying predefined criteria. The results were analyzed using the Aday and Andersen framework. Among the publications, 13 quantitative studies analysed differences in health care use between the immigrant and the native population, and 7 studied determinants of access of immigrants. Studies showed less use of specialized care by immigrants, higher use of emergency care and no differences in the use of primary care between groups. Five quantitative articles on determinants of access focused on factors related to the immigrant population (sex, age, educational level and holding private health insurance), but without observing clear patterns. The two qualitative studies analyzed factors related to health services, describing access to healthcare barriers such as the limited provision of information or the requirements for personal health card. Access to health care in immigrants has been scarcely studied, using different approaches and the barely analysed factors related to the services. No clear patterns were observed, as differences depend on the classification of migrants according to country of origin and the level of care. However, studies showed less use of specialized care by immigrants, higher use of emergency care and the existence of determinants of access different to their needs.

  9. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  10. Immigrants in community colleges.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Robert T; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and civic engagement should thus be a national priority. Community colleges offer one particularly important venue for achieving this objective. Because they are conveniently located, cost much less than four-year colleges, feature open admissions, and accommodate students who work or have family responsibilities, community colleges are well suited to meet the educational needs of immigrants who want to obtain an affordable postsecondary education, learn English-language skills, and prepare for the labor market. The authors explore how community colleges can serve immigrant students more effectively. Already, more immigrant students attend community colleges than any other type of post-secondary institution. But community colleges could attract even more immigrant students through outreach programs that help them to apply and to navigate the financial aid system. Federal reforms should also allow financial aid to cover tuition for English as a Second Language courses. Community colleges themselves could raise funds to provide scholarships for immigrants and undocumented students. Although there are many good ideas for interventions that can boost enrollment and improve the performance of immigrant students in community colleges, rigorous research on effective programs is scant. The research community and community colleges need to work together closely to evaluate these programs with a view toward what works and why. Without such research, policy makers will find it difficult to improve the role of community colleges in increasing the educational achievement of immigrant students.

  11. Does type of household affect maternal health? Evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Nandita; Singh, Abhishek

    2009-05-01

    The present paper examines the association between the type of household and maternal health in India using data from the National Family Health Survey 1998-99. The indicators of maternal health used in the analysis are contraceptive use, visit to obtain antenatal care in the first trimester, safe delivery and nutritional status of women measured in terms of body mass index (BMI). Binary and multinomial logistic regressions are used to establish associations. The type of household is coded into three categories, viz. nuclear household, joint household with in-laws and joint household without in-laws. The other independent variables used in the analysis are age, children ever born, work status, education of women, religion, caste, standard of living, exposure to mass media, women's autonomy and presence of others at the time of interview. The findings clearly suggest that type of household is significantly associated with the utilization of the above-mentioned services that positively affect maternal health. Women in nuclear households are more likely to utilize these services compared with women in joint households. However, an association between type of household and BMI was not found.

  12. One century of foreign immigration to the United States: 1880-1979.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A W

    1985-09-01

    Due to declining fertility rates and increased numbers of immigrants, legal foreign immigration now comprises 1/4 of the US's annual population growth. This article uses 1900-1979 Immigration and Naturalization Service data on immigrants' intended destination to examine immigration policy and its effect on immigrants and the American people. From the US's beginnings to the 1880s, immigrants came mainly from Great Britain, Germany, and other Northern and Western European countries, in the 1890s; over 70% of immigrants came from Italy, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and Germany. Immigration had peaked at over 1 million persons a year at the outbreak of World War I, then declined sharply, and rose again greatly during the first 2 decades of the 20th Century. The first significant legislation to restrict ethnic groups was in the early 1880s with the Chinese Exclusion Act; In 1924, Congress passed the 2nd Immigration and Naturalization Act which used the 1890 census to set quotas for ethnic groups, and later used the 1920 census to fix quotas in the national origins system; both pieces of legislation favored Northern and Western Europeans. Immigration declined drastically during the 1930s and early 1940s, but the Displaced Persons Act, the War Brides Act, and 1950s legislation allowed more Asian refugees and some other ethnic groups to enter the country. The nationality origins quotas were eliminated in 1965, and were followed by dramatic changes in immigration character as persons from formerly low quota nations flooded into the US. 1976 and 1978 legislation made immigration still more equitable, and the Refugee Act of 1980 allowed admittance of 50,000 refugees with no regard for geographic or ideological biases. A preference system, in operation since 1924, has favored relatives of citizens and immigrants with certain skills. Females presently outnumber male immigrants, average immigrant age is 26.2 years, and over 1/2 of the immigrants since 1950 have been housewives

  13. Immigration, assimilation and growth.

    PubMed

    Durkin, J T

    1998-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the welfare effects of immigration and its subsequent effect on ethnic diversity in a model featuring human capital spillovers which depend on the degree of ethnic heterogeneity, variation rates of time preference across individuals and endogenous levels of immigration and assimilation. In the model, an increase in ethnic diversity reduces the spillovers effect for the majority. Nonetheless, immigration can be welfare improving for the majority ethnic group even if it increases the degree of diversity as long as it raises the average human capital level and/or growth rate by increasing the proportion of people with low rates of time preference."

  14. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them.

  15. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  16. Changing Household Dynamics: Children's American Generational Resources in Street Vending Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Emir

    2013-01-01

    This article prompts a re-visioning of segmented assimilation theory by examining the household dynamics and consequences that occur when Latino immigrant children and youth become active contributors to family street vending businesses. Based on participant observation and 20 in-depth interviews with Latino children who work with their immigrant…

  17. Changing Household Dynamics: Children's American Generational Resources in Street Vending Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Emir

    2013-01-01

    This article prompts a re-visioning of segmented assimilation theory by examining the household dynamics and consequences that occur when Latino immigrant children and youth become active contributors to family street vending businesses. Based on participant observation and 20 in-depth interviews with Latino children who work with their immigrant…

  18. Social Context, Household Composition and Employment among Migrant and Nonmigrant Dominican Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurak, Douglas T.; Kritz, Mary M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the effects of household composition on employment using data from 528 Columbian and Dominican female immigrants in New York and 1,041 women residing in the Dominican Republic indicated that context was more important than group culture in explaining the labor force participation of Dominican women. (SLD)

  19. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant's fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  20. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings.

  1. Intersection of Canadian policy parameters affecting women with precarious immigration status: a baseline for understanding barriers to health.

    PubMed

    Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Hanley, Jill; Lach, Lucyna; Khanlou, Nazilla; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Agnew, Vijay

    2005-10-01

    Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from this precarious status. Federal immigration and health policies create direct barriers to health through regulation of immigrants' access to services as well as unintended secondary barriers. These direct and secondary policy barriers intersect with each other and with socio-cultural barriers arising from the migrant's socioeconomic and ethno-cultural background to undermine equitable access to health for immigrant women living in Canada.

  2. Food Insecurity and Food Resource Utilization in an Urban Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Howard P; Zajfen, Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    Risk and prevalence of food insecurity and use of food security resources are important but incompletely understood factors in immigrant health. Key informant interviews and a survey (N = 809) of housing units were conducted in a San Diego, California neighborhood with a high proportion of immigrant and low income families. The difference in food insecurity between immigrant and non-immigrant households was non-significant (20.1 vs. 15.7 %, p = n.s.), though immigrant families were more likely to use food security resources such as SNAP (32.7 vs. 22.9 %, p < .01) and food pantries (28.2 vs. 19.7 %, p < .001). Among immigrants, neither national origin nor years in the United States predicted food insecurity or use of most food security resources. In immigrant families, food insecurity often remains a challenge long after immigration, suggesting a potentially increasing need for food security resources as immigration into the United States continues.

  3. Development of a Culturally Specific Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2007-01-01

    A rapid increase in the number of Chinese immigrants and the specific challenges faced by low-income Chinese immigrant youth attending urban schools warrant culturally sensitive school-based interventions and services. However, research and services are limited for this population because of cultural biases in traditional career theories and the…

  4. A population-based study of chronic hepatitis C in immigrants and non-immigrants in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, Christina; Azoulay, Laurent; Allard, Robert; Cox, Joseph; Tran, Viet Anh; Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Steele, Russ; Klein, Marina

    2017-02-13

    Immigrants originating from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries may be at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis C infection (HCV) in their countries of origin, however they are not routinely screened after arrival in most low HCV prevalence host countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of HCV in immigrants compared to the Canadian born population. Using the reportable infectious disease database linked to the landed immigration database and several provincial administrative databases, we assembled a cohort of all reported cases of HCV in Quebec, Canada (1998-2008). Underlying co-morbidities were identified in the health services databases. Stratum specific rates of reported cases/100,000, rate ratios (RRs) and trends over the study period were estimated. A total of 20,862 patients with HCV were identified, among whom 1922 (9.2%) were immigrants. Immigrants were older and diagnosed a mean of 9.8 ± 7 years after arrival. The Canadian born population was more likely to have behavior co-morbidities (problematic alcohol or drug use) and HIV co-infection. Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe had the highest HCV reported rates with RRs compared to non-immigrants ranging from 1.5 to 1.7. The age and sex adjusted rates decreased by 4.9% per year in non-immigrants but remained unchanged in immigrants. The proportion of HCV occurring in immigrants doubled over the study period from 5 to 11%. Immigrants from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries are at increased risk for HCV and had a mean delay in diagnosis of almost 10 years after arrival suggesting that they may benefit from targeted HCV screening and earlier linkage to care.

  5. [Life-style and self-rated health status, and the use of health services by an immigrant population from Paraguay and Bolivia in city of Elche (Alicante, Spain)].

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Juárez, I G; Ponce-Samaniego, Y Y; Sempere-Selva, M T; Ramos-Rincón, J M

    2012-10-01

    To study the lifestyle, use of health services, self-perceived health status and health services evaluations of immigrants from Paraguay and Bolivia in the city of Elche, and to establish and/or adapt prevention health services strategies to the needs of this population. A cross-sectional study, using a health questionnaire, was conducted between November 2009 and April 2010, using a convenience sample selected from the Paraguay and Bolivia Citizens Association. A total of 49 Paraguayans and 35 Bolivians over 15 years old were interviewed of whom 42 (50%) were male; 33% of respondents did not perform any physical activity, and 14.3% were smokers (males [23.8%] vs female [4.8%], P=.03). The assessment of health was good or very good in 59.5% (Paraguayans [71.4%] vs Bolivians [42.9%]), P=.02). The use of health services was 85.4% (males [75%] vs women [95.2%], P=02) and 51% went to an emergency department. Consultation with a dentist was reported in 43.9% (Paraguayans [56.2%] vs Bolivians [26.5%], P=.007); 65.9% considered the Spanish public health system as being excellent, very good or good. The lifestyle, the use of private resources and the assessment of health status are different in both groups studied. The assessment of the Spanish public health system was good in both. Strategies are needed to improve lifestyle, counselling for smoking cessation, alcohol use and control of dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMERGEN. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of employment of recently arrived Mexican immigrant wives.

    PubMed

    Greenlees, C S; Saenz, R

    1999-01-01

    The work force participation of married, Mexican-origin immigrant women who came to the US in the 1980s was investigated. Determinants of employment utilized in this study are the women's human capital stock, household resources, and labor market structural factors. Nine hypotheses were derived from the analytical model and were examined through logistic regression. Findings showed that all human capital resource and structural labor market factors were significantly related to employment. On the other hand, four of the five family household factors namely: the age and presence of children in the household, husband's income, husband's employment, and non-labor income were significantly related to employment. Furthermore, the positive factors indicating the likelihood of being employed in 1989 for Mexican immigrant wives are: 1) being 25-54 years of age; 2) higher educational levels; 3) speaking fluent English; 4) lower levels of husband's income and non-labor income; 5) employment of husband in 1989; 6) absence of children under age 6 at home; 7) lower non-Hispanic female unemployment rates; 8) higher work force proportion employed in immigrant female-dependent occupations; 9) lower proportions of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) population being of Mexican origin; and 10) smaller MSA populations.

  7. Healthcare-seeking patterns among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Cortes, Maria; de Sousa, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Equity of access to health services is a major concern as it is an important precondition for positive health outcomes. However, inequities in use of health services among immigrant populations persist. Despite the increasing research in the field, patterns of healthcare seeking among immigrant populations and its associated factors are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate healthcare-seeking patterns among immigrants in Portugal and identify factors associated with utilisation of health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009 with a sample of 1,375 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire applied by trained interviewers. Two stepwise logistic regressions were conducted to identify which factors were associated with utilisation of the National Health Service (NHS) and with healthcare seeking for the first time in Portugal at the Primary Health Care service, estimated by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among participants, around 77% reported having used the NHS; 50% sought health-care for the first time at the Primary Health Care service and 33% at the emergency room. Lower odds of having used the NHS were associated with being male, Brazilian or eastern European compared with being African, and undocumented. Lower odds of having sought health-care for the first time at the Primary Health Care service were associated with being male and undocumented. These results suggest that further efforts are needed to tackle inequalities in access to care and promote the utilisation of health services, particularly among the more vulnerable immigrant groups. Increasing appropriate utilisation of health services, including the primary and preventive care services, may lead to better health outcomes. Immigrants' involvement and participation should be incorporated into the development of health strategies to improve access and utilisation of

  8. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  9. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  10. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2013-01-03

    In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants' ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible

  11. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and

  12. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field.

  13. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  14. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  15. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  16. 7 CFR 273.32 - Households who return to TANF during the transitional period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS The Transitional Benefits Alternative § 273.32 Households who return to TANF during the transitional period. If a household receiving transitional benefits returns to...

  17. The message of 187: facing up to illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P H

    1995-01-01

    The author makes the case that the adoption of Proposition 187, the anti-illegal immigrant initiative, in California in 1994 was "an expression of public frustration with a government and civil society that seem out of touch and out of control, and with external convulsions that our borders can no longer contain." He suggests that the general public is increasingly concerned about the services provided to illegal aliens and their costs, and that responsible leadership should admit that illegal immigration, even at current levels, is not an unmitigated evil, and be prepared to set and enforce immigration limits.

  18. Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to provide a critical overview of existing research on the health of immigrant youth within the last decade. Although the review focuses primarily on Canada, the findings have implications for public health planning, policy, and settlement/immigration services in other immigrant-receiving countries. The main objectives are: (i) to locate relevant literature written in the past 10 years (January 1998-January 2008); (ii) to undertake a critical review of retrieved studies; (iii) to highlight gaps in the current state of our knowledge and make recommendations for future research directions. The review focuses on the influence of migration experience on health of youth.

  19. Minors in Immigration Proceedings: Problems of Child Welfare and Immigration Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan S.; Weiss-Fagen, Patricia

    This document comprises a report on the status and needs of undocumented minor aliens detained by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and proposes a national policy regarding their care and treatment. Information was gathered from 26 site visits in the following states: (1) Arizona; (2) California; (3) Florida; (4) Nevada; (5) Texas;…

  20. [Immigration policies in Argentine law].

    PubMed

    Vichich, N P

    1988-12-01

    This paper analyzes contents of Argentine immigration laws in different periods of Argentine history and refers those contents to the State which enforced the corresponding immigration policies and to the socioeconomic structure they support. The Argentine constitution (1852) and subsequent immigration laws define 2 principal guidelines in population and immigration policies: 1) from 1852 until 1955 immigrants are seen as a part of socioeconomic growth, and 2) after 1955 the theory of national security prevails over considerations of an economic nature. With the return to democracy it should be possible to redefine immigration policies considering the country's demographic requirements and the migrants' own needs.