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Sample records for immigrant household service

  1. Are Latino Immigrants a Burden to Safety Net Services in Nontraditional Immigrant States? Lessons From Oregon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The significant growth of the Latino population in the midst of an economic recession has invigorated anti-Latino, anti-immigrant sentiments in many US states. One common misconception is that Latino immigrants are a burden to safety net services. This may be particularly true in nontraditional immigrant states that have not historically served Latino immigrants. Oregon data suggest that despite a higher prevalence of poverty, use of safety net services among Latino immigrants in Oregon is lower than that among non-Latino Whites. Immigration status, costs, lack of insurance coverage, and discrimination are among the reasons for this group’s limited use of services. Nevertheless, policies designed to strengthen community and institutional support for Latino immigrant families should be considered in the context of current health care and immigration reform efforts. PMID:24625168

  2. 76 FR 63321 - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-63322] [FR Doc No: 2011-26361] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services... Under Review: E-Verify Program. The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration... and Immigration Services. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to respond, as well as...

  3. Engaging Youth and Pre-Service Teachers in Immigration Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    In this report of innovative teacher practice, the author describes an arts-based event which brought together adolescent refugee and immigrant students and pre-service teachers to deliberate about immigration policies and attitudes in the United States.

  4. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.

  5. Mothers' citizenship status and household food insecurity among low-income children of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort to assess this question, using multivariate probit regression analyses in a low-income sample. They found that households of children (foreign and U.S.-born) with noncitizen mothers are at substantially greater risk of food insecurity than their counterparts with citizen mothers and that demographic characteristics such as being Latina, levels of maternal education, and large household size explain about half of the difference in rates.

  6. Household Living Arrangements and Economic Resources among Mexican Immigrant Families with Children. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 Census, this study examines the relationship between household living arrangements and economic resources among Mexican immigrant families with children. I model separately the relationships between family income and household structure and proportion of total household income contributed and household structure. The…

  7. 76 FR 70735 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... customer service; increase efficiency for processing benefits; better identify potential national security... Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System of Records... and Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System...

  8. 76 FR 60059 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... through the online system. This system will improve customer service; increase efficiency for processing... Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System of Records... and Immigration Services--016 Electronic Immigration System-3 Automated Background Functions System...

  9. Household context, generational status, and English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how household and parental-level determinants affect English proficiency among the children of African immigrants in the US. Within immigrant families, the study finds that children's level of proficiency has a stronger positive association with the proficiency of their mothers than with that of their fathers. Children's level of English proficiency significantly increases as the number other English-proficient children within their household increases. These impacts are stronger on the proficiency levels of first compared to second generation children. Levels of proficiency are, however, lowest among children in families from Portuguese speaking countries followed by their counterparts in families from countries where indigenous languages and Arabic are dominant. Although proficiency levels generally improve with increasing generational status, these improvements are smallest for children in families from Portuguese speaking countries. Except for children in families from English speaking countries, the largest improvements to proficiency with increasing generational status was observed among children in families from indigenous language backgrounds. PMID:25589796

  10. Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-in-law who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in…

  11. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  12. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  13. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  14. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  15. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  16. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  17. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  18. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disclaimers Social Media Policy Plug-ins Adobe Reader GOVERNMENT Passports Visa Bulletin U.S. Department of Homeland Security ... Customs & Border Protection U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement White House U.S. Department of State USA.gov National Customer ...

  19. Access to health services for undocumented immigrants in Apulia.

    PubMed

    Brindicci, G; Trillo, G; Santoro, C R; Volpe, A; Monno, L; Angarano, G

    2015-04-01

    This paper, part of a larger epidemiological study carried out between 2004 and 2010, analyzed immigrants frequenting the largest Apulian regional hospital (Bari Policlinico). Our aim was to evaluate the perception on the part of undocumented immigrants of their rights of access to the National Health Care services and whether this privilege is actually utilized. An anonymous multi-language questionnaire was distributed to all patients with STP (code number for temporary presence of foreigners) at the immigrant outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic of Bari from June 2009 to June 2010. Questions were related to nationality, date of arrival in Italy, use of health facilities in the 2 years prior to the compilation of the questionnaire, and their understanding of STP. The patients were also screened for infectious diseases (HIV-Ab, HBsAg, HCV-Ab, VDRL, TPHA and Mantoux). A total of 256/272 patients completed the questionnaire; the meaning of STP was unknown to 156/256 (60.9%) patients, only 54/256 (21%) knew the exact meaning of STP and only 42/54 (76.6%) of the latter knew how long STP was valid. Moreover, 128/256 (50.7%) were aware that doctors from the emergency unit were not allowed to notify police regarding presence of illegal immigrants. Regarding clinical data 3% were HIV+ (8/256), 5% (13 patients) positive for TPHA, 5% for HBsAg, 2% were HCV (five patients). A >10 mm diameter infiltrate of Mantoux test was noted for 44% of patients. A lower prevalence than expected for infections such as HIV, HBV or HCV was noted for immigrants compared to data from their countries of origin. At present, large-scale political solutions to the challenges of facilitating access to health facilities for undocumented immigrants are lacking in Italy. The development of communication systems is fundamental to improving access to health services and to creating links between immigrants and the healthcare system.

  20. 75 FR 69851 - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... RIN 1615-AB80 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland... Immigration Services Fee Schedule published in the Federal Register on September 24, 2010. DATES:...

  1. Providing Medical Services to Undocumented Immigrants: Costs and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Fred

    1979-01-01

    Reviews cost estimates for treating illegal aliens made by hospitals and county governments. Discusses patterns of utilization of health services by illegal immigrant groups and the difficulties in arriving at accurate cost estimates. Describes the current status of legislative programs that address this issue. (Author/GC)

  2. Navigating Disability and Related Services: Stories of Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Katrina P.; Hardin, Belinda J.

    2017-01-01

    Cultural beliefs, values, language differences, and unfamiliar educational infrastructures and practices can impact immigrant parents' capacity to support their children with disabilities in their new country. This study presents perspectives of disability and experiences with special education services based on interviews with eight immigrant…

  3. Emergency Department Services Use among Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tarraf, Wassim; Vega, William; González, Hector M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Immigrants have disproportionate lack of access to healthcare and insurance. Emergency departments could serve as a healthcare substitute and increased demand can negatively affect the U.S. emergency services system. Methods Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2000–2008) data was modeled to compare ED use between non-citizens, foreign-born (naturalized), and US-born citizens. Group differences were assessed using non-linear decomposition techniques. Results Non-citizens were less likely to use ED services (8.7%) compared to naturalized immigrants (10.6%) and US-born Americans (14.7%). Differences in ED use persisted after adjusting for the Behavioral Model covariates. Healthcare need and insurance partially explained the differences in ED use between the groups. Conclusion Between 2000–2008 non-citizen immigrants used markedly less ED services compared to U.S. citizens, regardless of their nation of origin. We also found that demographic and healthcare need profiles contributed to the divergence in use patterns between groups. A less restrictive healthcare policy environment can potentially contribute to lower population disease burden and greater efficiencies in the U.S. health care system. PMID:23447058

  4. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  5. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  6. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  7. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  8. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  9. 28 CFR 16.102 - Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administration and Immigration and Naturalization Service Joint System of Records. 16.102 Section 16.102 Judicial... Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.102 Exemption of Drug Enforcement Administration and Immigration and..., the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the Drug Enforcement Administration will...

  10. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  11. 28 CFR 16.99 - Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Immigration and....99 Exemption of the Immigration and Naturalization Service Systems-limited access. (a) The following systems of records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service are exempt from 5 U.S.C. 552a (c) (3)...

  12. Service Learning and Pluralism: Working with Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasricha, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    Service learning, a pedagogy that has many supporters, encourages learning with civic engagement. In addition, according to Department of American Studies, service learning as a required course component is beneficial because it establishes a common ground for dialogue and for synthesis of observations from the community site, and the class…

  13. 76 FR 60063 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... benefit requests through the online system. This system will improve customer service; increase efficiency... Immigration Services-014 Electronic Immigration System- 1 Temporary Accounts and Draft Benefit Requests System....S. Citizenship and Immigration Services-014 Electronic Immigration System-1 Temporary Accounts...

  14. 31 CFR 542.521 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized. 542.521 Section 542.521 Money and Finance... Policy § 542.521 Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories... otherwise eligible for non-immigrant classification under categories A-3 and G-5 (attendants, servants...

  15. How Do Social Service Providers View Recent Immigrants? Perspectives from Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington

    PubMed Central

    CLEVENGER, CASEY; DERR, AMELIA SERAPHIA; CADGE, WENDY; CURRAN, SARA

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how social service providers in two small, geographically distinct cities—Portland, Maine, and Olympia, Washington—understand the importance of welcoming and incorporating new immigrants in their cities. We focus on how providers characterize their responsibilities, how they understand the importance of responding to new immigrants, and what they describe as the challenges and opportunities presented by recent immigration to their cities. Despite differences in Portland and Olympia, we find that providers in both cities combine a sense of moral responsibility to help immigrants, with an emphasis on the economic and cultural resources immigrants bring to cities. These insights expand recent immigration scholarship from a focus on immigrants alone to include the perspectives and logics of social service workers who are often their first points of contact in new places. PMID:25110469

  16. In Other Words: Translating or "Para-Phrasing" as a Family Literacy Practice in Immigrant Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Reynolds, Jennifer; Dorner, Lisa; Meza, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Reports on ethnographic research that explores the range of ways in which Spanish-English bilingual immigrant youth interpret English language texts for their families. Focuses on interpretations of written text for close family members, done at home, and charts the domains of these multiple literacies. Argues that bilingual youth's experiences as…

  17. Household food insecurity status and Hispanic immigrant children’s body mass index and adiposity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence rates of food insecurity and obesity among children of Hispanic immigrants, there has been a dearth of research on the direct relationship between food insecurity and obesity among this population. Further, prior research examining the association between food insecurity ...

  18. Mothers' Citizenship Status and Household Food Insecurity among Low-Income Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Chen, Jen-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Recent data have shown that children of immigrant noncitizens experience more persistent and higher levels of food insecurity than the children of citizens following welfare reform. However, little is known about the range of factors that might explain different rates of food insecurity in the different populations. In this study, the authors used…

  19. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudmundsson, Kristjan G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants.

  20. A Few Observations on Health Service for Immigrants at a Primary Health Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Icelandic society is rapidly changing, from being an ethnically homogeneous population towards a multicultural immigrant society. In the hope of optimizing the service for immigrants at the health care centre, we decided to evaluate health care utilization by immigrants. Methods. As a case control study we invited all immigrants that attended the health care centre during a two-week period to participate. Paired controls of Icelanders were invited for comparison. Results. There were 57 immigrants, 48 females and 9 males, from 27 countries. Significantly more of the immigrant women were married, P < 0.001. Interpreters were needed in 21% of the consultations. The immigrants often attended the clinic and had the same diagnoses as did the nonimmigrants. The immigrants evaluated the quality of the service in Iceland as 4.3 and the service in their homeland as 1.68, P < 0.001. Conclusion. Immigrants attending a health care centre in Iceland came from all over the world, had the same diagnoses, and attended the clinic as often per annum as the nonimmigrants. Only one-fifth of them needed translators. The health and health care utilization of immigrants were similar to those of nonimmigrants. PMID:27563465

  1. Discursive Roles and Responsibilities: A Study of Interactions in Chinese Immigrant Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Agnes Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines features of communication in American households where Chinese is used as a heritage language against the backdrop of global migration and technological advancement. It aims to elucidate how meaning emerges and evolves through repeated and varied performance by multiple participants over time, through mundane and iterative…

  2. User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Russel, Kory; Tilmans, Sebastien; Kramer, Sasha; Sklar, Rachel; Tillias, Daniel; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service. After three months, changes in these households' satisfaction with their sanitation situation, along with feelings of pride, modernity and personal safety, were compared to 248 households in two comparison cohorts. Following the service pilot, 71 per cent of participating households opted to continue with the container-based sanitation service as paying subscribers. The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents' desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services.

  3. Government dependence of Chinese and Vietnamese community organizations and fiscal politics of immigrant services.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Winston

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.

  4. Heading South: Why Mexican Immigrants in California Seek Health Services in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Steven P.; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn; Castañeda, Xochitl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Identify factors that explain why some Mexican immigrants in California use health services in Mexico. Methods California Health Interview Survey 2001 data were analyzed for medical care, dental care, and/or prescription drug purchases in Mexico in the previous year. Logistic regressions estimated the effect on use of need, availability, accessibility, and acceptability among immigrants from Mexico. Results An estimated 952,000 California adults used medical, dental, or prescription services in Mexico during the past year, 488,000 of whom were Mexican immigrants. Long-stay Mexican immigrants had the highest rate (15%), followed by short-stay Mexican immigrants (11.5%), U.S.-born Mexican Americans (5.4%) and U.S.-born non-Latino whites (2.1%). Predictors of use by immigrants included need, no insurance, delay seeking care, more recent immigration, limited English, and nonphysician provider use. Living closer to the border increased use, although half of immigrants seeking services lived more than 120 miles from the border. Mexican immigrants with long stays in the U.S. have a somewhat different pattern of predictors from those with short stays. Conclusions Mexican immigrants are the most likely to seek medical, dental, and prescription services in Mexico. A large number, but small percentage, of U.S.-born non-Latino whites purchase prescription drugs there. While proximity facilitates use, access and acceptability barriers in the U.S. medical care system encourage immigrants to seek care in Mexico who would be helped by expanded binational health insurance. PMID:19434002

  5. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  6. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Immigration and Naturalization Service... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 61, App. C Appendix C to Part 61—Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures..., construction, and maintenance of new and existing INS facilities. All activities concerning the Immigration...

  7. New Immigrants and the Social Service Agency: Changing Relations at SRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ken C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the organization and operation of an immigration social service agency in Garden City, Kansas, with attention to relations among the staff and between the staff and the Asian-American and Hispanic-American clientele. (DM)

  8. Library Services for Immigrants: A Report on Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Citizenship and Immigration Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public libraries in the United States have a long history of providing resources and education to immigrants. This tradition may be traced to Andrew Carnegie's support for public libraries as a place for immigrant self-education, enlightenment, and the study of democracy and English. This role is especially relevant today as the immigrant…

  9. 78 FR 19568 - Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor Carriers and Related Registration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... specialized service or equipment normally required for such commodities is not within the definition of...'' or other specialized services, FMCSA may investigate whether the broker meets the definition of HHG... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Limited Service Exclusion for Household Goods Motor...

  10. Exclusionary policies in urban development: Under-servicing migrant households in Brazilian cities

    PubMed Central

    Feler, Leo; Henderson, J. Vernon

    2012-01-01

    Localities in developed countries often enact regulations to deter low-income households from moving in. In developing countries, such restrictions lead to the emergence of informal housing sectors. To deter low-income migrants, localities in developing countries withhold public services to the informal housing sector. Using a large sample of Brazilian localities, we examine migration and exclusion, focusing on the public provision of water to small houses where low-income migrants are likely to live. Withholding water connections reduces the locality growth rate, particularly of low-education households. In terms of service provision, during dictatorship in Brazil, we find evidence of strategic exclusion, where localities appear to withhold services to deter in-migration. We also find evidence of strategic interactions among localities within metro areas in their setting of service levels: if one locality provides more services to migrant households, other localities respond by withholding service. PMID:22707807

  11. The relationship between somatization and posttraumatic symptoms among immigrants receiving primary care services.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Catino, Elena; Pucci, Daniela; Carrer, Sara; Colosimo, Francesco; Lafuente, Montserrat; Mazzetti, Marco; Maisano, Bianca; Geraci, Salvatore

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and somatization are related in studies on complex trauma, though this relation is rarely studied in immigrants. The relationship between somatization and self-reported traumatic experiences and posttraumatic symptoms in patients attending a primary care service for immigrants was studied. The sample consisted of 101 patients attending a primary healthcare service dedicated to immigrants. Participants completed two self-assessment questionnaires specifically designed for use in transcultural research: the Bradford Somatic Inventory and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Both were translated and back-translated into eight languages. Somatization was significantly related to traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. In primary care centers for immigrants, physicians should give particular attention to somatization as a possible sign of unreported posttraumatic symptoms.

  12. Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Derr, Amelia Seraphia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Immigrants face stressors unique to the experience of migration that may exacerbate or cause mental health problems but access care at rates far below the general population, leaving them at risk of untreated mental health conditions. This review synthesizes current findings on mental health service utilization among immigrants to inform future research efforts addressing disparities in access to care. Methods A systematic literature search of seven databases yielded 62 articles that met inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed reports of empirical studies based in the United States with an explicit focus on immigrant mental health service use. Each article was evaluated, and information was extracted by using a structured abstracting form. Results Studies have shown that immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and Africa use mental health services at lower rates than nonimmigrants, despite an equal or greater need. Lower usage has been found to be more pronounced among men, the uninsured, and the undocumented. Structural barriers to service use reported included lack of insurance, high cost, and language barriers. Studies have shown that social support is particularly important for immigrants and that those who seek help for mental health concerns tend to turn first to family, friends, or religious leaders. Conclusions Important areas for future research on disparities in mental health service use among immigrants include expanding research and analytic design to emphasize understudied groups and the heterogeneity of immigrant experiences over time, studying interventions that foster collaboration between formal and informal service sectors, and examining the role of social support in problem recognition and treatment initiation. PMID:26695493

  13. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  14. The importance of goods and services consumption in household greenhouse gas calculators.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M

    2001-11-01

    Despite the fact that lifestyles, in particular goods and services consumption, play a key role for global inequity and unsustainability of greenhouse gas emissions, these issues are often inadequately addressed in information and education materials such as household greenhouse gas calculators. Often, only limited individual responsibility for climate change can be concluded, and this is restricted to the reader's immediate surroundings such as the household and the private car, while goods and services consumption are almost always ignored. As a consequence, recommendations for reducing personal emissions concentrate on the relatively minor aspect of electricity and fuel use, while missing the more important issue of reducing goods and services consumption as an efficient way to abate climate change. These shortcomings are illustrated using the example of a recently published household greenhouse gas emissions questionnaire. An example for a comprehensive greenhouse gas calculator is also presented.

  15. Couples' reports of household decision-making and the utilization of maternal health services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Story, William T; Burgard, Sarah A

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the association between maternal health service utilization and household decision-making in Bangladesh. Most studies of the predictors of reproductive health service utilization focus on women's reports; however, men are often involved in these decisions as well. Recently, studies have started to explore the association between health outcomes and reports of household decision-making from both husbands and wives as matched pairs. Many studies of household decision-making emphasize the importance of the wife alone making decisions; however, some have argued that joint decision-making between husbands and wives may yield better reproductive health outcomes than women making decisions without input or agreement from their partners. Husbands' involvement in decision-making is particularly important in Bangladesh because men often dominate household decisions related to large, health-related purchases. We use matched husband and wife reports about who makes common household decisions to predict use of antenatal and skilled delivery care, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Results from regression analyses suggest that it is important to consider whether husbands and wives give concordant responses about who makes household decisions since discordant reports about who makes these decisions are negatively associated with reproductive health care use. In addition, compared to joint decision-making, husband-only decision-making is negatively associated with antenatal care use and skilled delivery care. Finally, associations between household decision-making arrangements and health service utilization vary depending on whose report is used and the type of health service utilized.

  16. Mental Health and Service Issues Faced by Older Immigrants in Canada: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Thomson, Mary Susan; Seifi, Sadaf Grace

    2015-12-01

    RÉSUMÉ Une population vieillissante et la croissance de la population sur la base de l'immigration nécessitent que la recherche, la pratique et la politique doivent se concentrer sur la santé mentale des immigrants âgés, surtout parce que leur santé mentale semble se détériorer au fil du temps. Cette revue se concentre sur: Qu'est-ce que l'on sait sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé mentale chez les immigrants âgés, et quels sont les obstacles à l'accès aux services de santé mentale confrontés par les immigrants âgés? Les résultats révèlent que (1) les déterminants sociaux décisifs de la santé mentale sont la culture, le sexe et les services de santé; (2) que les immigrants plus âgés utilisent les services de santé mentale de moins que leurs homologues nés au Canada à cause des obstacles tels que, par exemple, les croyances et les valeurs culturelles, un manque de services culturellement et linguistiquement appropriées, des difficultés financières, et l'âgisme; et (3) quelles que soient les sous-catégories dans cette population, les immigrants âgés éprouvent des inégalités en matière de la santé mentale. La preuve des recherches disponibles indique que de combler les lacunes des service de santé mentale devrait devenir une priorité pour la politique et la pratique du système de soins de santé au Canada.

  17. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  18. [Barriers in access and utilization of health services among immigrants: the perspective of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Silva, António Carlos; Cargaleiro, Helena; Martins, Maria O

    2011-01-01

    The growing international migration has reinforcing the importance of a greater adequacy of health services in order to respond effectively to immigrants' needs. Previous studies indicate that several difficulties in the access and utilization of health services persist for some immigrant groups. The objective of this study was to understand the perspective of different health professionals' groups about the barriers in access and utilization of services by immigrants. In a transversal study a questionnaire was applied to 320 primary health care professionals of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. Differences between professional groups were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. To determine which groups diverged more in their perceptions, mean ranks of each group were compared. Of the total participants, 64.2% evaluated their knowledge and competencies to deal with immigrants as reasonable however, 15.2% evaluated it as bad. Around one third of professionals admitted to be unaware of the legislation which regulates migrants' access to services. The largest proportion considered that, at the individual level, the frequent change of residence, the lack of economic resources, the cultural and religious beliefs and traditions, the fear of denunciation when the immigrant is undocumented, the lack of knowledge about legislation and services, and the linguistic differences influence access and utilization of health services. Most considered as barriers at the professionals' and services' level the limited sociocultural skills, the complex bureaucratic procedures, the cost and the lack of interpreters. The divergences in the perception of these factors occurred mainly between office workers and the other professionals. The perceptions of health professionals about the barriers in access and utilization of services by immigrants highlight opportunities for intervention in the context of cultural diversity. Given the different perceptions among the professional groups, which may be

  19. Social Service Utilization, Sense of Community, Family Functioning and the Mental Health of New Immigrant Women in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiaobing; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 296 new immigrant women in Hong Kong, this study investigated how social service utilization, family functioning, and sense of community influenced the depressive symptoms of new immigrant women. Results of the structural equation modeling suggested that family functioning and sense of community were both significantly and negatively associated with the depression of new immigrant women. Utilization of community services also influenced the depression of immigrant women indirectly through the mediating effect of sense of community. Implications of the research findings for mental health intervention were discussed. PMID:23629592

  20. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Live-in household domestic service workers. 656.19 Section 656.19 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... English shall be accompanied by a written translation into English certified by the translator as to...

  1. Operationalisation of service quality in household waste collection.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Nico Alexander; Gellenbeck, Klaus; Nelles, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Since 2007, there has been intensive discussion at European and national levels concerning the standardisation of services including those in the sector of waste management. The drafts of the European standard prEN 16250 and the German preliminary standard DIN SPEC 1108 are intended to establish a uniform definition of corresponding services and their (minimum) service levels. Their binding application in practice requires that systematic inspections be provided to ascertain to what degree a service has been carried out as agreed upon. However, both standardisation projects give only a few examples of potential quality characteristics and offer no concrete information concerning methods of measurement. Because intersectoral or cross-service quality inspections do not exist, there is a need for the development of specific quality inspections. The study introduced in this article examines the question of how the service quality of door-to-door waste collection can be systematically measured. To this end, the quality concept applied to the process of waste collection was first concretised and then operationalised using indicators. Based upon this, the methods of the quality inspections were developed and subjected to a trial of their applicability in a German waste management company. The methods for measuring and evaluating take into account, in addition to the different boundary conditions of collection, also the possible customer influence on the collection process and consequently on the service performed by the collection crew. In order to avoid time- and therefore cost-intensive exhaustive surveys, a multilevel random-controlled selection of survey units was developed, too. Based on the analysis of the measurement data, it was possible to determine specific time requirement values for the regular performance of the data surveys, as well as minimum sample sizes as a function of the number of container locations of the waste collection tours. On the basis of this

  2. 75 FR 58961 - U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Service. VAWA--Violence Against Women Act. I. Background DHS proposed to adjust the USCIS benefits fee... $105 for a child under the age of 16. DHS has decided also to permit the fee for an Application for... certain spouses and children of lawful permanent residents who have had a petition for an immigrant...

  3. Sociocultural Determinants of HIV/AIDS Risk and Service Use among Immigrant Latinos in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, W. Patrick; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Jolly, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Using a community-based participatory research approach to problem identification, the objective of this study is to explore sociocultural determinants of HIV/AIDS risk and service use among immigrant Latino…

  4. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  5. 75 FR 54642 - Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... national security. USCIS developed CIDR, hosted on DHS classified networks, in order to make information... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; United States Citizenship and Immigration Services... Department of Homeland Security proposes to establish a new Department of Homeland Security system of...

  6. Fostering Cultural Humility among Pre-Service Teachers: Connecting with Children and Youth of Immigrant Families through Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Darren; Lianne, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article documents a community-initiated service-learning project within a teacher education program. A social justice model guided the initiative to raise critical awareness on power and privilege while countering deficit-model thinking. Partnering with community agencies serving immigrant children and youth, the faculty researcher worked…

  7. Changes in use of county public health services following implementation of Alabama's immigration law.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Blackburn, Justin; Manzella, Bryn; Welty, Elisabeth; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-11-01

    Several states have enacted legislation restricting undocumented immigrants' access to publicly funded health benefits not protected by federal law. Using electronic health records from 140,856 county health department visits, we assessed the monthly change in Latino patients' visits compared to non-Latinos 12 months before and after implementation of Alabama's immigration law. We used ICD-9 diagnosis codes to determine whether visits included services exempt under the law: immunizations, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and communicable diseases, and family planning. Differences between groups in the mean percent change were assessed with t-tests. Among children younger than 18 years, there were no significant differences by ethnicity. Visits among Latino adults decreased by 28% for communicable diseases, 25% for STIs, and 13% for family planning; this was significantly different from changes among non-Latino adults (p <.05). State-level legislation may reduce immigrants' access to protected benefits, which could adversely affect the broader public's health.

  8. User perceptions of and willingness to pay for household container-based sanitation services: experience from Cap Haitien, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Russel, Kory; Tilmans, Sebastien; Kramer, Sasha; Sklar, Rachel; Tillias, Daniel; Davis, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Household-level container-based sanitation (CBS) services may help address the persistent challenge of providing effective, affordable sanitation services for which low-income urban households are willing to pay. Little is known, however, about user perceptions of and demand for household CBS services. This study presents the results of a pilot CBS service programme in Cap Haitien, Haiti. One hundred and eighteen households were randomly selected to receive toilets and a twice-weekly collection service. After three months, changes in these households’ satisfaction with their sanitation situation, along with feelings of pride, modernity and personal safety, were compared to 248 households in two comparison cohorts. Following the service pilot, 71 per cent of participating households opted to continue with the container-based sanitation service as paying subscribers. The results from this study suggest that, in the context of urban Haiti, household CBS systems have the potential to satisfy many residents’ desire for safe, convenient and modern sanitation services. PMID:26640322

  9. The Work Kids Do: Mexican and Central American Immigrant Children's Contributions to Households and Schools in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2001-01-01

    Research on Mexican and Central American immigrant children illuminates their everyday work as helpers in the home, community, and school. Their participation is shaped by gender dynamics. Their work can be viewed in multiple ways as volunteerism, learning opportunities, and cultural and linguistic brokering. (Contains 57 references.) (SK)

  10. Socioeconomic Status, Parental Investments, and the Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Low-Income Children from Immigrant and Native Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, R.S.; Biesanz, J.C.; Chien, N.; Howes, C.; Benner, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes and if these relations are mediated by the quality of children's home environment and moderated by family nativity status. Data come from 1459 low-income families (n=257 and 1202 immigrant and native families,…

  11. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-02-04

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth.

  12. Prevalence of Breastfeeding: Findings from the First Health Service Household Interview in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Tian, Danping; Deng, Jing; Hu, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or younger had been breastfed at some point and 44.9% been breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months of life. After controlling for setting urban/rural setting, gender and child age, children from households with average family income were more likely to be breastfed than those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 2.28). Children from households with higher and the highest family income were less likely to be exclusively breastfed in the first 6 months of life compared to those from households with the lowest family income (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusions: It is encouraging that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants in the first 6 months of life in Hunan Province, China is approaching the goal of 50% proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, more efforts are needed to further promote exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. PMID:28165407

  13. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yalin; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly. PMID:25546279

  14. 77 FR 47415 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Services, Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) program is a fee- based intergovernmental... Entitlements (SAVE) program is to provide a fee-based intergovernmental service, which assists federal, state... Immigration Services (USCIS)--004--Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program System...

  15. The Desire to Acquire: Forecasting the Evolution of Household Energy Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Steven

    People are constantly inventing and adopting new energy-using devices to make their lives more comfortable, convenient, connected, and entertaining. This study aggregates 134 energy-using household devices, not including major appliances, into categories based on the energy service they provide. By 2006, there were 43 energy-using devices in the average U.S. household that used over 4,700 kWh of electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. A fixed effects panel model was used to examine the relationship of demand for energy-using devices to energy price, household income, and the cost of these devices. This analysis finds that the elasticity of demand for these devices with respect to energy price is -0.52 with a 90% confidence interval of -1.04 to -0.01. The elasticity of demand to income is 0.52 (a 90% confidence interval of [-0.42, 1.46]. The cost of these devices was also statistically significant.

  16. Household Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compiled to give readers information on current research in household production, this special issue focuses on the family as a provider of goods and services. It includes five feature articles, a summary of a survey of American farm women, and a brief analysis of sources of time-use data for estimating the value of household production. Covered…

  17. Avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders: state and local policies for OAA units on aging.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria C

    2009-07-01

    The diversification and aging of the US population has been at the root of many political and policy debates in recent years. Of particular interest has been the place of immigrants in an aging society, and what rights these immigrants are entitled to. The objective of this article is to describe the current avenues and barriers to access of services for immigrant elders and examine potential solutions for reform. The article begins with a historical overview of the policy issue, followed by the current status of the issue in the United States and suggestions for reform.

  18. Household energy consumption in the United States, 1987 to 2009: Socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Robert J.

    This dissertation examines household energy consumption in the United States over the period of 1987 to 2009, specifically focusing on the role of socioeconomic status, demographic composition, and energy services profiles. The dissertation makes use of four cross-sections from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey data series to examine how household characteristics influence annual energy consumption overall, and by fuel type. Chapter 4 shows that household income is positively related to energy consumption, but more so for combustible fuel consumption than for electricity consumption. Additionally, results for educational attainment suggest a less cross-sectional association and more longitudinal importance as related to income. Demographic composition matters, as predicted by the literature; household size and householder age show predicted effects, but when considered together, income explains any interaction between age and household size. Combustible fuels showed a far greater relationship to housing unit size and income, whereas electricity consumption was more strongly related to educational attainment, showing important differences in the associations by fuel type. Taken together, these results suggest a life course-based model for understanding energy consumption that may be strongly linked to lifestyles. Chapter 5 extends the findings in Chapter 4 by examining the patterning of physical characteristics and behaviors within households. The chapter uses Latent Class Analysis to examine a broad set of energy significant behaviors and characteristics to discover five unique energy services profiles. These profiles are uniquely patterned across demographic and socioeconomic compositions of households and have important effects on energy consumption. These profiles are likely byproducts of the lifestyles in which the household takes part, due to factors such as their socioeconomic status and household demographic composition. Overall, the dissertation

  19. Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Porche, Michelle V.; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We present the prevalence of political violence (PV) of immigrant Latinos in the US, and perceived need for and correlates of mental health services use among this population. Methods We use the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a nationally representative epidemiological survey of US Latinos, including a probability sample of 1630 immigrant Latinos. We use a conceptual framework that assumes a strong role of social and cultural factors in understanding the risk for psychopathology and mental health service use. Results Eleven percent of all immigrant Latinos reported PV exposure and 76% described additional lifetime traumas. Among those with a history of PV, an increased likelihood of using mental health services was associated with female gender, English language proficiency, experiencing personal assaults, higher perceived discrimination, and having an anxiety or substance disorder. Specific subgroups of Latinos, including men and Mexican immigrants, were less likely to access mental health services after experiencing PV. Perceived need for mental health services use is the strongest correlate of any lifetime and last 12 months service use. Conclusions The strong consequences of PV suggest the need for systematic screening and referral strategies. Specific outreach interventions focused on perceptions of need could be helpful for subgroups of Latinos including men who are particularly underrepresented in mental health services but who exhibit significant trauma histories. PMID:18850369

  20. Public Assistance Use among U.S.-Born Children of Immigrants. Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomby, Paula; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    U.S.-born children of immigrants may be less likely to receive some social services than are children of native-born immigrants, if foreign-born parents who are themselves ineligible are less likely to apply on their children's behalf. Researchers used retrospective data from a sample of about 2,400 low-income, predominantly Hispanic households in…

  1. Utilization of health services in a resource-limited rural area in Kenya: Prevalence and associated household-level factors

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Anthony K.; Agoi, Felix; Mahoney, Megan R.; Lakhani, Amyn; Mang’ong’o, David; Nderitu, Esther; Armstrong, Robert; Macfarlane, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background and methods Knowledge of utilization of health services and associated factors is important in planning and delivery of interventions to improve health services coverage. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with health services utilization in a rural area of Kenya. Our findings inform the local health management in development of appropriately targeted interventions. We used a cluster sample survey design and interviewed household key informants on history of illness for household members and health services utilization in the preceding month. We estimated prevalence and performed random effects logistic regression to determine the influence of individual and household level factors on decisions to utilize health services. Results and conclusions 1230/6,440 (19.1%, 95% CI: 18.3%-20.2%) household members reported an illness. Of these, 76.7% (95% CI: 74.2%-79.0%) sought healthcare in a health facility. The majority (94%) of the respondents visited dispensary-level facilities and only 60.1% attended facilities within the study sub-counties. Of those that did not seek health services, 43% self-medicated by buying non-prescription drugs, 20% thought health services were too costly, and 10% indicated that the sickness was not serious enough to necessitate visiting a health facility. In the multivariate analyses, relationship to head of household was associated with utilization of health services. Relatives other than the nuclear family of the head of household were five times less likely to seek medical help (Odds Ratio 0.21 (95% CI: 0.05–0.87)). Dispensary level health facilities are the most commonly used by members of this community, and relations at the level of the household influence utilization of health services during an illness. These data enrich the perspective of the local health management to better plan the allocation of healthcare resources according to need and demand. The findings will also contribute in the development of

  2. Dental health behavior in a migrant perspective: use of dental services of Pakistani immigrants in Norway.

    PubMed

    Selikowitz, H S; Holst, D

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the utilization pattern of dental services in a group of Pakistani immigrants in Norway. Use was related to sociodemographic characteristics, level of urbanization in Pakistan, knowledge and belief about dental diseases and evaluated and perceived dental health. A total of 160 immigrants were clinically examined and interviewed by a structured questionnaire. The effect change analysis was performed, and separate analyses were performed for men and women. Altogether 60% had visited the dentist during the last 3 yr. While 69% coming from the cities had been to the dentist in Norway, this was the case for only 38% of those from the villages of Pakistan. Pain was given as the main reason for dental visits, and the data indicated insufficient ability to perform self-assessment of own dental health. The independent variables could explain more of the variance in use of dental services among the Pakistani men (R2 = 40%) than among the women (R2 = 21%). While number of decayed teeth and level of urbanization were among the strongest predictors among the men, dental behavior in Pakistan and number of years in Norway were of importance among the women. The latter variable indicated that the women in terms of dental behavior had a higher degree of acculturation than the men, leading to a change in traditional health behavior.

  3. The relationship between psychosocial status of immigrant Latino mothers and use of emergency pediatric services.

    PubMed

    Zambrana, R E; Ell, K; Dorrington, C; Wachsman, L; Hodge, D

    1994-05-01

    Consistent empirical evidence has shown that low-income Latino populations tend to underutilize health care services and do not have a usual source of care. This article identifies and describes the sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics of Latino immigrant mothers who use emergency pediatric services, assesses the association of maternal characteristics with perceived barriers to care, and examines key predictors of total number of pediatric visits in a year. A survey was carried out to obtain data on reason for emergency room visit, usual sources of care, child's health, and mother's physical and psychosocial health. The results revealed a clear pattern of delayed care for acute problems in the children, a high number of reported barriers to pediatric care, and high mental distress reported by mothers.

  4. [Health behavior, preventative medicine, early detection, and utilization of women's health services among Ethiopian women immigrants in Israel].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nivi; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2013-01-01

    Immigrants differ in morbidity and mortality characteristics, as well as health services and preventative medicine utilization, compared with the non-immigrant population. As the Length of stay in the host country increases, these patterns become similar to the Local population, due to the acculturation process. Immigrant women's prenatal care is often partial and inadequate, usually occurring late in pregnancy, their contraceptive use is lower and the rate of abortions is higher. They have less screening tests for cancer detection, are diagnosed at advanced stages and their survival and cure probabilities are lower Facilitators and barriers to immigrant women's health behaviors include cultural beliefs and perceptions, length of stay in the host country, degree of acculturation, Language barriers, accessibility, primary physician involvement, role burdens, knowledge and awareness. Ethiopian women experienced a sharp transition in a variety of life aspects following their immigration to Israel. Studies show that Ethiopian women's health and health behavior are typical to those encountered among immigrant women. Their birth patterns are becoming similar to local women as their years in Israel increase, and veteran's patterns are closer to the local population. Data regarding contraceptive use is lacking; the abortion rate is four times higher in comparison with Israeli-born Jewish women, and preventive medicine, referral and early detection rates for cancer are lower. Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are at high risk regarding their health. Understanding the underlying causes, the changes that occur as time in Israel increases, and identifying the accessibility barriers to services experienced by these women, will assist in planning cultural and needs sensitive services, including health promotion programs.

  5. Support networks for Chinese older immigrants accessing English health and social care services: the concept of Bridge People.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiayang; Cook, Glenda; Cattan, Mima

    2017-03-01

    As Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom age, they experience an increasing need to access health and care services. It has, however, been reported that older Chinese immigrants have difficulties in accessing these services. This study explored the experiences of this population in using health and care services and the strategies that they adopted to address their difficulties. A grounded theory method with a two-staged research design was used. Stage 1 explored the participants' experiences of ageing and use of health and social care services through focus group interviews. Stage 2 investigated the strategies individuals used to support access to and use of services through individual interviews. Forty-four older Chinese people and 15 supporters participated in interviews during August 2011 and May 2013. These older Chinese immigrants were challenged in knowing about and in accessing services. Their difficulties were attributed to language barriers, lack of information and instrumental support, and emotional and cultural issues regarding use of health and care services. Their supporters facilitated access to services and acted as a bridge between the service and the user; therefore, they were given the title 'Bridge People'. Bridge People have different backgrounds: family and friends, public sector workers and staff from community-based Chinese organisations. The defining attributes of these supporters were: bilinguality, bicultural, multifunctionality and accessibility. There is no charge for this support; and the relationship between the Bridge Person and recipient involves trust and influence over decisions regarding use of health and care services. Bridge People should be recognised and identified by health, social care and housing services to promote engagement and use of services by older immigrant Chinese people.

  6. Implementation of Congressional intent: a study of amnesty policy and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

    PubMed

    Arp, W; Baver, S L

    1994-01-01

    Despite the passage of the Immigration and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) the United States Border Patrol arrested about 1 million illegal aliens crossing the border in 1990. This phenomenon suggests that the IRCA has failed to control illegal immigration to the United States. Structural analysis of its implementation by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was analyzed. Under an agreement with the INS to process illegal workers, community-based organizations in Arizona and New York became certified Qualified Designated Entities (QDEs). In 1988 the INS carried out a study to measure the impact of IRCA and solicited data from 9 QDEs. Data were obtained from 308 illegal aliens who failed to apply for amnesty and another 286 temporary legal residents. In the New York study information was collected from the QDEs between 1987 and 1989, and also in the summer of 1989 a group of 171 amnesty applicants were surveyed. All QDEs stated that implementation was hampered by excessive documentation, lack of strong family unification provisions, the financial cost of seeking legalization, and a fear of the INS. The Arizona and New York studies indicated that excessive documentation, fear of the INS (46% in New York), and fear of family separation (47% in New York) were the major factors why the targeted people did not come forward. Instead of seeking a proper balance between the written words of IRCA and the intent of Congress, INS developed guidelines that ignored the relevant facts presented by respected QDEs and Latino groups. In reality, INS sought to prevent illegal entry through amnesty offices throughout the United States. The eligibility requirements issued by the INS for amnesty served to limit and constrain participation in that program.

  7. Inequalities in the use of health services between immigrants and the native population in Spain: what is driving the differences?

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-02-01

    In Spain, a growing body of literature has drawn attention to analysing the differences in health and health resource utilisation of immigrants relative to the autochthonous population. The results of these studies generally find substantial variations in health-related patterns between both population groups. In this study, we use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique to explore to what extent disparities in the probability of using medical care use can be attributed to differences in the determinants of use due to, e.g. a different demographic structure of the immigrant collective, rather than to a different effect of health care use determinants by nationality, holding all other factors equal. Our findings show that unexplained factors associated to immigrant status determine to a great extent disparities in the probability of using hospital, specialist and emergency services of immigrants relative to Spaniards, while individual characteristics, in particular self-reported health and chronic conditions, are much more important in explaining the differences in the probability of using general practitioner services between immigrants and Spaniards.

  8. Limited English proficiency as a barrier to mental health service use: a study of Latino and Asian immigrants with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri; Parmelee, Patricia; Allen, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Language barriers pose problems in mental health care for foreign-born individuals in the United States. Immigrants with psychiatric disorders may be at particular risk but are currently understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of limited English proficiency (LEP) on mental health service use among immigrant adults with psychiatric disorders. Drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), Latino and Asian immigrant adults aged 18-86 with any instrument-determined mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder (n = 372) were included in the present analysis. Results from hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that having health insurance, poor self-rated mental health, and more psychiatric disorders were independently associated with higher probability of mental health service use in the Latino group. After controlling for all background characteristics and mental health need factors, LEP significantly decreased odds of mental health service use among Latino immigrants. None of the factors including LEP predicted mental health service use among Asian immigrants, who were also the least likely to access such services. LEP was a barrier to mental health service use among Latino immigrants with psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that future approaches to interventions might be well advised to include not only enhancing the availability of bilingual service providers and interpretation services but also increasing awareness of such options for at least Latino immigrants. In addition, further investigation is needed to identify factors that can enhance access to mental health care services among Asians.

  9. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  10. 78 FR 43893 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Immigration Services--011 E-Verify Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of... Homeland Security system of records titled ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Citizenship...

  11. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  12. "It is an Issue of not Knowing Where to Go": Service Providers' Perspectives on Challenges in Accessing Social Support and Services by Immigrant Mothers of Children with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Haque, Nasim; Sheehan, Sinead; Jones, Gail

    2015-12-01

    In Canada little is known about the challenges immigrant mothers of children with disabilities encounter in accessing formal and informal social support. This paper presents the perspectives of service providers on the mothers' challenges. Data was collected from 27 service providers in Toronto, Canada in 2012 through in-depth interviews. The interview guide was informed by published literature on families of children with special needs. Level one analyses entailed descriptive analyses; and level two consisted of applying House's 4 domains of social support to organize the themes. Following House's domains, challenges to (1) Structural support, (2) Instrumental support, (3) Emotional support, and (4) Perception of support were identified. Among providers who work with families of children with disabilities there is recognition of the mothers' particular challenges in light of their immigration status. Language and communication are significant barriers for immigrant mothers in accessing social support.

  13. FERPA and the Immigration and Naturalization Service: A Guide for University Counsel on Federal Rules for Collecting, Maintaining and Releasing Information about Foreign Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatcheressian, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses college and university obligations to collect, maintain, and provide information about foreign students to the government. Explores federal immigration rules relating to foreign students and examines the interaction between the Immigration and Naturalization Service's (INS) regulations and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of…

  14. Factors associated with self-reported use of dental health services among older Greek and Italian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Calache, Hanny; Minichiello, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss utilization of dental health services by older Greek and Italian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Their study involved 374 Greek and 360 Italian adults who completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Nearly 41% of Greek and 45% of Italian respondents had used dental services in the previous year. As barriers to care, Greek participants most often cited waiting lists and waiting time in the office. Italian participants most often identified cost, length of waiting lists and language barriers. Multivariate analyses associated recent use of dental services with number of teeth, oral health knowledge, age and occupation before retirement for both groups, as well as living arrangements among Greek participants and perceived barriers among Italian participants. Findings highlight the need for oral health promotion programs targeted toward older adults from immigrant populations and reductions of the structural barriers that prevent these adults from seeking oral health care.

  15. Immigration in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogen, Elizabeth

    This book examines the effects of immigration in New York City (New York) today, with particular attention to those "new immigrants" who arrived after 1965. Immigrant interaction with the city's public and private social services is emphasized. Data were drawn from interviews and from the 1980 U.S. Census. Part I: "The…

  16. Household's willingness to pay for heterogeneous attributes of drinking water quality and services improvement: an application of choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauda, Suleiman Alhaji; Yacob, Mohd Rusli; Radam, Alias

    2015-09-01

    The service of providing good quality of drinking water can greatly improve the lives of the community and maintain a normal health standard. For a large number of population in the world, specifically in the developing countries, the availability of safe water for daily sustenance is none. Damaturu is the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It hosts a population of more than two hundred thousand, yet only 45 % of the households are connected to the network of Yobe State Water Corporation's pipe borne water services; this has led people to source for water from any available source and thus, exposed them to the danger of contracting waterborne diseases. In order to address the problem, Yobe State Government has embarked on the construction of a water treatment plant with a capacity and facility to improve the water quality and connect the town with water services network. The objectives of this study are to assess the households' demand preferences of the heterogeneous water attributes in Damaturu, and to estimate their marginal willingness to pay, using mixed logit model in comparison with conditional logit model. A survey of 300 households randomly sampled indicated that higher education greatly influenced the households' WTP decisions. The most significant variable from both of the models is TWQ, which is MRS that rates the water quality from the level of satisfactory to very good. 219 % in simple model is CLM, while 126 % is for the interaction model. As for MLM, 685 % is for the simple model and 572 % is for the interaction model. Estimate of MLM has more explanatory powers than CLM. Essentially, this finding can help the government in designing cost-effective management and efficient tariff structure.

  17. Exploring the potential of Product Service Systems to achieve household waste prevention on new housing developments in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gottberg, Annika; Longhurst, Philip J; Cook, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Product service systems (PSS) are cleaner product concepts which have been developed to achieve improvements in resource productivity which may be realized from modern trends in service delivery. However, there is a paucity of research on the waste prevention performance of PSS in UK household markets. This paper reports the findings of exploratory research which begins to address this gap in knowledge. An exploratory waste prevention assessment was completed on four experimental PSS which were developed in conjunction with a major UK house-builder for delivery on their new housing developments. The results of the assessment show that the selected PSS concepts have potential to prevent high value and harmful Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) arising in UK household waste streams. Consistent with the canon of exploratory research, the assessment also identifies a number of factors which are thought to influence PSS waste prevention performance. It is recognized that further research is needed to gain an in-depth understanding of these factors as well as to define policy measures which enable the conditions in which PSS prevent household waste on new housing developments in the UK to be created.

  18. Empowering immigrant youth in Chicago: utilizing CBPR to document the impact of a Youth Health Service Corps program.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Maria J; Sacks, Tina K; Perez, Miriam; Nixon, John P; Asis, Dale; Coleman, Walter L

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Youth Health Service Corps as a health promotion program, (2) examine the use of CBPR within the immigrant community, and (3) discuss preliminary findings using a model on critical youth empowerment.

  19. 20 CFR 656.19 - Live-in household domestic service workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... children, and ages of the children, residing in the household; and (iv) That free board and a private room...; (iii) That the alien is free to leave the employer's premises during all non-work hours except the... performed by the alien; (vi) The total amount of any money to be advanced by the employer with details...

  20. 77 FR 47411 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... system by ensuring that immigration benefits are not granted to individuals that may pose a threat to... inquiries, investigative referrals, law enforcement requests, and case determinations involving benefit... immigration benefits. Benefits may include adjustment of immigration status (granting lawful...

  1. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks.

  2. Examining the relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and mental health service use of immigrants in Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Objective While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants’ postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Study design Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999–2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Participants Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501 417 pairs). Primary and secondary outcome measures For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Results Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants—males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents—both sexes: 13.1%, p<0.001). Living in more deprived circumstances was associated with greater use of mental health services, but increases were smaller for immigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. Conclusions This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants’ care use for non

  3. Uninsured immigrant and refugee children presenting to Canadian paediatric emergency departments: Disparities in help-seeking and service delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Cécile; Laurin-Lamothe, Audrey; Rummens, Joanna Anneke; Meloni, Francesca; Steinmetz, Nicolas; Alvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Access to health care for medically uninsured immigrant and refugee children is a public health concern due to the consequences of delayed or substandard care for child development and health. OBJECTIVE: To explore possible differences in help-seeking and service delivery across migratory statuses, institutions and provinces. METHODS: A review was undertaken of 2035 emergency files of immigrant, refugee and undocumented children without provincial health care coverage who sought care at three major paediatric hospitals in Montreal (Quebec) and Toronto (Ontario) during 2008 and 2009. RESULTS: Refugee claimant children with Interim Federal Health Program benefits consulted for less urgent problems than the overall hospital population, except in one hospital that had a multicultural paediatric ambulatory clinic. Undocumented children and new permanent resident immigrant children within the three-month waiting period for provincial health care coverage were over-represented in the very urgent triage category and presented more often for injuries, trauma and mental health problems than did refugee claimant children. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Wide interhospital differences suggest that the predicament of limited access to health care of these groups of vulnerable medically uninsured children needs to be addressed through further research to inform policies and develop training. PMID:24426806

  4. From Symptom Recognition to Services: How South Asian Muslim Immigrant Families Navigate Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegatheesan, Brinda; Fowler, Susan; Miller, Peggy J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three South Asian Muslim immigrant families who have a young child with autism. It describes the early period of their child's disability as the families encountered four critical issues in their lives: a complex disability, the culturally diverse conceptualizations of the disability, family-professional…

  5. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service: Dysfunctional Not by Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    is for show, politics and press releases. Kiddie porn cases are done like fast food investigations so Assistant Secretary Myers can look like a deer...drugs, drugs, kiddie porn , strategic, drugs. HQ’s forcing immigration priorities, but SACS are fighting it. How do you account for 3 groups working

  6. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  7. Effect of acculturation and health beliefs on utilization of health care services by elderly women who immigrated to the USA from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Yarova, Lyubov A; Krassen Covan, Eleanor; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, researchers explored what conditions influence women's use of professional health care services, and how sociocultural environments and acculturation affect utilization of health care services. We recruited 15 women in the Ukraine, 15 women who immigrated from the former Soviet Union, and 10 female U.S. citizens. Data include open-ended interviews, a "general information" questionnaire, and the Language, Identity and Behavioral Acculturation scale. Acculturation levels and length of residency in the United States were not consistent predictors of health-seeking behaviors for immigrants. The stronger predictor of health beliefs and health related behaviors among all participants was their mothers' health beliefs and health related behaviors.

  8. Participation in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program as Reported by Documented and Undocumented Farm Worker Adults in the Households.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Medel-Herrero, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Debate surrounds the provision of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits to undocumented immigrants. Few studies are available to estimate use of WIC services by documented and undocumented households using nationally representative data. The authors analyzed data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) annual cross-sections from 1993 through 2009 (N = 40,896 person-years). Household documentation status is defined by the status of the adults in the household, not children. Simple mean differences, logistic regressions, and time charts described household participation in WIC over 2-year intervals. Without adjustments for covariates, 10.7% of undocumented farm workers' households and 12.4% of documented households received WIC benefits, yielding an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.94). Logistic regressions revealed that for the same number of children in the household, participation by undocumented persons was higher than participation by documented persons. Time charts and logistic regressions with interaction terms showed a stronger correspondence between participation in WIC and number of children <6 years old in undocumented households than documented households. Undocumented farm workers' households were only a little less likely to participate in WIC than documented farm workers' households, and undocumented households' participation was especially responsive to the presence of children. These results are consistent with the legal requirements for WIC participation, which do not distinguish between documented and undocumented households. These results may be helpful in the debate surrounding the effects of undocumented workers on WIC participation and costs.

  9. The Influence of Immigrant Parent Legal Status on U.S.-Born Children's Academic Abilities: The Moderating Effects of Social Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Kalina M.; Sibley, Erin; Taubin, Patricia; Murcia, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between immigrant parent legal status and academic performance among U.S.-born children, ages 7-10. Building on previous research and a social ecological framework, the study further explored how social service use moderates the relationship between parent legal status and academic performance.…

  10. Examining My Window and Mirror: A Pedagogical Reflection from a White Mathematics Teacher Educator about Her Experiences with Immigrant Latina Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinec-Craig, Crystal A.

    2014-01-01

    In this pedagogical reflection, a White mathematics teacher educator describes what she learned from three Latina pre-service teachers who were recent immigrants from Mexico while they completed an elementary mathematics methods course. Using Rochelle Gutierrez's (2012) metaphor of a window and mirror, the author interrogates her own identity and…

  11. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeConcini, Christina; Piller, Jeanine S.; Fisher, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Outlines historical legislation affecting immigration to the United States, explains current laws and how they affect immigration, summarizes the process for obtaining citizenship, describes the experience of immigrants with the legal system, introduces the work of pro bono (free) legal services for immigrants, and presents related teaching…

  12. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.6 Section 302-12.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  13. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.6 Section 302-12.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  14. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? 302-12.7 Section 302-12.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  15. Households, Migration and Labor Market Participation: The Adaptation of Mexicans to Life in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of extended family and other non-nuclear family households serves as an important mechanism in the adaptation of Mexican immigrants in San Diego. Different types of households are important at different times in the migration process, and immigration status influences the patterns of household variation. (KH)

  16. Health and Medical Care among the Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Kalil, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Using data spanning 1996-2009 from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study investigates children's (average age 8.5 years) physical health, dental visits, and doctor contact among low-income children (n = 46,148) in immigrant versus native households. Immigrant households are further distinguished by household…

  17. Household energy conservation: a review of the federal residential conservation service

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.

    1984-09-01

    Most electric and gas utilities provide free or low-cost energy audits to their residential customers, usually as part of the federal Residential Conservations Service (RCS). RCS programs in the few states where competent evaluations were done show incremental energy savings for participants of approximately 3.5 percent. Assessing the economic worth of RCS programs is particularly difficult (and very site-specific) because of factors such as future fuel prices, differences between marginal and average fuel prices, discount rates, and differences in how programs are implemented. The meager evidence on RCS program cost-effectiveness suggests that the economic benefits are generally small. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Access and utilisation of social and health services as a social determinant of health: the case of undocumented Latin American immigrant women working in Lleida (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Gastaldo, Denise; Molina-Luque, Fidel; Otero-García, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal.

  19. Immigrant women’s experiences of maternity-care services in Canada: a protocol for systematic review using a narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canada’s diverse society and statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that the synthesis of knowledge related to the health care experiences of immigrants is essential to realize the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for tailoring of services to user needs. We are therefore assessing the experiences of immigrant women in Canada accessing maternity-care services. We are focusing on: 1) accessibility and acceptability (as an important dimension of access) to maternity-care services as perceived and experienced by immigrant women, and 2) the birth and postnatal outcomes of these women. Methods The aim of this study is to use a narrative synthesis, incorporating both a systematic review using narrative synthesis of reports of empirical research (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method designs), and a literature review of non-empirically based reports, both of which include ‘grey’ literature. The study aims to provide stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. To achieve this, we are using integrated knowledge translation, partnering with key stakeholders to ensure topic relevancy and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy and practice/programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process are being conducted (database search retrieved 1487 hits excluding duplicates) to provide evidence to contribute jointly to both the narrative synthesis and the non-empirical literature review. The narrative synthesis will be informed by the previous framework published in 2006 by Popay et al., using identified tools for each of its four elements. The non-empirical literature review will build upon the narrative-synthesis findings and/or identify omissions or gaps in the empirical research literature. The integrated knowledge

  20. Household Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Richard R.; Rathje, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a theoretical model for archaeologists which relates household functions to variations in household size and organization. Household functions are defined as resource production and distribution, transmission of property, and family reproduction. The applicability of this model to a project on Mayan archaeology is discussed. (AM)

  1. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in connection... the United States to work as an agent, employee, or contractor of the Government of Iran or a business entity or other organization in Iran. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran...

  2. 31 CFR 560.505 - Activities and services related to certain nonimmigrant and immigrant categories authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Department of Homeland Security. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran in connection... the United States to work as an agent, employee, or contractor of the Government of Iran or a business entity or other organization in Iran. (2) U.S. persons are authorized to export services to Iran...

  3. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  4. [Immigration dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Latuch, M

    1998-10-01

    Recent trends in immigration to Poland are reviewed, including both voluntary migration and migration forced by extreme political or economic circumstances. Data are also presented on illegal immigrants and on their countries of origin.

  5. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres. PMID:26950568

  6. Detainees, staff, and health care services in immigration detention centres: a descriptive comparison of detention systems in Sweden and in the Benelux countries.

    PubMed

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J; Bjerneld, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Background Immigration detention has been shown to negatively affect the health and well-being of detainees. The aim of the study was to describe and compare policies and practices that could affect the health and well-being of immigrant detainees in the Benelux countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) to those in Sweden. Design This was a case study. Data were collected in two phases using a questionnaire developed particularly for this study. In the first phase, authorities in the Benelux countries responded to the questionnaire via email. During the second phase, a research team visited detention centres in the Benelux countries to observe and further explore, strengthening findings through triangulation. Data on Swedish detention centres were collected in previous studies. Results Compared to the Benelux countries, Sweden has limited health care provision available in the detention centres. Swedish detention centres did not have mental health care professionals working at the centres and had fewer restrictions within the centres with regard to access to mobile phone, internet, and various recreational activities. Compared to Sweden, the detention centres in the Benelux countries have more staff categories providing services to the detainees that are provided with relevant and timely on-the-job training. All the countries, except Belgium, provide subsistence allowances to detainees. Conclusion Despite the Common European Asylum System framework, differences exist among the four European Union member states in providing services to immigrant detainees. This study highlights these differences, thereby providing a window on how these diverse approaches may serve as a learning tool for improving services offered to immigrant detainees. In Sweden, the health care available to detainees and training and recruitment of staff should be improved, while the Benelux countries should strive to reduce restrictions within detention centres.

  7. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  8. U.S. Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Examines America's responsibility, in a period of economic recession, to the poor of other countries and to the illegal immigrants within the U.S. The author concludes that resident illegal aliens should have their status legalized and be offered social services, while policies for new immigrants should be reformed to encourage legal immigration…

  9. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  10. Educating Immigrants: The Community College Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szelenyi, Katalin; Chang, June C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines issues related to the immigrant population at the community college, focusing on first-generation immigrants, including naturalized citizens, legal and illegal permanent residents, and individuals who are in the process of legalizing their immigration status. Considers questions of access, educational attainment, institutional services,…

  11. Determinants of the variations in self-reported health status among recent and more established immigrants in Canada.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Rajendra Prasad; Rosenberg, Mark Warren

    2014-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants are normally in better health on arrival compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. However, the health conditions of new immigrants deteriorate after a few years of their arrival in Canada. This phenomenon is popularly termed the "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE) in the immigrant health literature. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to understand HIE, the causes are subject to ongoing discussion. Unlike previous studies, this study explored the possible causes behind the variations in the health status of recent and more established immigrants comparing 2001 and 2010 Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHS). Four different hypotheses - namely lifestyle change, barriers to health care services, poor social determinants of health, and work related stress - were tested to understand variations in health status. The study concludes that there is a statistically significant difference in the socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes of immigrants having less than and more than 10 years of residency in Canada. Logistic regression models show that the health conditions of immigrants are associated with age, sex, ethnic origin, smoking habit, Body Mass Index (BMI), total household income, number of consultations made with a family doctor per year and work related stress.

  12. Guarded self-disclosure predicts psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.

  13. What Is the Economic Burden of Subsidized HIV/AIDS Treatment Services on Patients in Nigeria and Is This Burden Catastrophic to Households?

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Chiegil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. Methods An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities’ during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES) and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits) as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively. Results The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (p<0.0001). Rural dwellers incurred more CHE for all categories of costs compared to urban dwellers, but the costs were statistically significant for only outpatient costs. Conclusion ART subsidization is not enough to eliminate economic burden of treatment on HIV patients. Service decentralization to reduce travel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to

  14. Assessing upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Kateri; Auger, Louis-Pierre; Cormier, Marie-France; Vachon, Christine; St-Onge, Sabrina; Mathieu, Jean; Noreau, Luc; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to assess upper extremity capacity as a potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). A cross-sectional study was set in an outpatient neuromuscular clinic where 200 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of DM1 (121 women; mean age: 47 y) were selected from the registry of a neuromuscular clinic to participate. Housing-related activities were assessed using the "housing" section of the Assessment of Life Habits Questionnaire (LIFE-H). The upper extremity assessment included grip strength (Jamar dynamometer), lateral pinch strength (pinch gauge), gross dexterity (Box and Block Test) and fine dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). Correlations with the LIFE-H item "housing" were stronger for grip and lateral strength (r = 0.62; 0.61). When difficulties were present in "housing", the cut-off score associated with lateral pinch strength was 4.8 kg (sensitivity: 75.6%; specificity: 79.2%). Grip strength presented cut-off scores that clinically differed by gender. In conclusion, potential indicator of needs related to household activities for rehabilitation services with valid assessment tools were developed for people with DM1 who experience difficulties in housing-related activities. These criteria will assist health professionals in their attempt to refer DM1 patients to rehabilitation services at the appropriate time.

  15. Detention of Immigrant Children.

    PubMed

    Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J

    2017-03-13

    Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services.

  16. Impact of Immigration on the School District Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Data on illegal immigration from Mexico into Texas provide accurate information on the impact of this immigration on the generally underfunded and understaffed border school districts in the state. Immigration and Naturalization Service statistics show 20 million illegal immigrants in the United States. A more scientific estimate is 4 million, 2.7…

  17. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  18. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (<3 people/household) were 4 times as likely in natural areas as large households. Longer residency in natural areas predicted less environmentally oriented attitudes, suggesting that living in natural areas does not foster more concern for nature. Because populaces are rapidly aging, growing more educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results

  19. Familial influences on poverty among young children in black immigrant, U.S.-born black, and nonblack immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2011-05-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants.

  20. Welfare Reform and Older Immigrants: Food Stamp Program Participation and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Jung, Hyo Jin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The welfare reform bill of 1996 severely constrained noncitizens' eligibility for the Food Stamp Program (FSP). This study examined the effects of eligibility restrictions on older immigrants' FSP participation and food insecurity. We paid special attention to household composition and household eligibility as well as older immigrants'…

  1. Fewer scientists immigrating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent decline in the number of scientists and engineers immigrating to the United States could indicate that a surge throughout the 1980s and early 1990s may have been temporary.The number of people with science and engineering degrees admitted to the United States on permanent visas with work certificates dropped 26% between 1993 and 1994—from 23,534 to 17,403—according to a new National Science Foundation (NSF) data brief that analyzes information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A lack of demand for employment-based admissions caused the decline, according to the INS.

  2. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and customarily purchase food and prepare meals together for home consumption. (b) Special household... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household...

  3. Immigration, ethnicity, and the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alan M

    2010-04-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 coincided with a major wave of immigration to the United States. More than 23.5 million newcomers arrived between 1880 and the 1920s, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Canada, and Mexico. During earlier epidemics, the foreign-born were often stigmatized as disease carriers whose very presence endangered their hosts. Because this influenza struck individuals of all groups and classes throughout the country, no single immigrant group was blamed, although there were many local cases of medicalized prejudice. The foreign-born needed information and assistance in coping with influenza. Among the two largest immigrant groups, Southern Italians and Eastern European Jews, immigrant physicians, community spokespeople, newspapers, and religious and fraternal groups shouldered the burden. They disseminated public health information to their respective communities in culturally sensitive manners and in the languages the newcomers understood, offering crucial services to immigrants and American public health officials.

  4. Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    The products you use for cleaning, carpentry, auto repair, gardening, and many other household uses can contain ingredients that can harm you, your family, and the environment. These include Oven and drain ... absorbed through the skin. People respond to toxic substances in different ways. At high ...

  5. Immigrants and Immigration in Israeli Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yitzhaki, Moshe; Richter, Nava

    Millions of people have immigrated to Israel throughout the 1900s and before. Immigration waves are considered the most important social, political, and economical turning points in the history of Israel. This study analyzes the content of Israeli children's books dealing with immigrants and immigration to determine the image of immigrants and…

  6. Food Insecurity and Risk of Poor Health Among US-Born Children of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Berkowitz, Carol; Casey, Patrick H.; Cook, John; Cutts, Diana; Jacobs, Ruth Rose; Heeren, Timothy; de Cuba, Stephanie Ettinger; Coleman, Sharon; Meyers, Alan; Frank, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the risk of household food insecurity and reported fair or poor health among very young children who were US citizens and whose mothers were immigrants compared with those whose mothers had been born in the United States. Methods. Data were obtained from 19 275 mothers (7216 of whom were immigrants) who were interviewed in hospital-based settings between 1998 and 2005 as part of the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program. We examined whether food insecurity mediated the association between immigrant status and child health in relation to length of stay in the United States. Results. The risk of fair or poor health was higher among children of recent immigrants than among children of US-born mothers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.55; P < .03). Immigrant households were at higher risk of food insecurity than were households with US-born mothers. Newly arrived immigrants were at the highest risk of food insecurity (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 2.16, 2.77; P < .001). Overall, household food insecurity increased the risk of fair or poor child health (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.57, 1.93; P < .001) and mediated the association between immigrant status and poor child health. Conclusions. Children of immigrant mothers are at increased risk of fair or poor health and household food insecurity. Policy interventions addressing food insecurity in immigrant households may promote child health. PMID:19106417

  7. How Do Tougher Immigration Measures Affect Unauthorized Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees’ intent to return to the United States in the near future. PMID:23532619

  8. How do tougher immigration measures affect unauthorized immigrants?

    PubMed

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Puttitanun, Thitima; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2013-06-01

    The recent impetus of tougher immigration-related measures passed at the state level raises concerns about the impact of such measures on the migration experience, trajectory, and future plans of unauthorized immigrants. In a recent and unique survey of Mexican unauthorized immigrants interviewed upon their voluntary return or deportation to Mexico, almost a third reported experiencing difficulties in obtaining social or government services, finding legal assistance, or obtaining health care services. Additionally, half of these unauthorized immigrants reported fearing deportation. When we assess how the enactment of punitive measures against unauthorized immigrants, such as E-Verify mandates, has affected their migration experience, we find no evidence of a statistically significant association between these measures and the difficulties reported by unauthorized immigrants in accessing a variety of services. However, the enactment of these mandates infuses deportation fear, reduces interstate mobility among voluntary returnees during their last migration spell, and helps curb deportees' intent to return to the United States in the near future.

  9. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  10. 75 FR 54528 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Exemptions United States Citizenship and Immigration Services-012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository... pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 for the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services- 012 Citizenship and Immigration Data Repository System of Records system of records and this proposed...

  11. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  12. Changes in Access to Health Services of the Immigrant and Native-Born Population in Spain in the Context of Economic Crisis †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Malmusi, Davide; Ronda, Elena; Ballesta, Mónica; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze changes in access to health care and its determinants in the immigrant and native-born populations in Spain, before and during the economic crisis. Methods: Comparative analysis of two iterations of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006 and 2012). Outcome variables were: unmet need and use of different healthcare levels; explanatory variables: need, predisposing and enabling factors. Multivariate models were performed (1) to compare outcome variables in each group between years, (2) to compare outcome variables between both groups within each year, and (3) to determine the factors associated with health service use for each group and year. Results: unmet healthcare needs decreased in 2012 compared to 2006; the use of health services remained constant, with some changes worth highlighting, such as the decline in general practitioner visits among autochthons and a narrowed gap in specialist visits between the two populations. The factors associated with health service use in 2006 remained constant in 2012. Conclusion: Access to healthcare did not worsen, possibly due to the fact that, until 2012, the national health system may have cushioned the deterioration of social determinants as a consequence of the financial crisis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of health policy responses to the crisis after 2012. PMID:25272078

  13. Immigration and the public transfer system: some empirical evidence for Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "Do immigrants subsidize the native population or vice versa? Is immigration a cost factor or a net benefit for the public transfer system? On the basis of the 1990 Swiss Consumer Survey, an attempt is made to answer these questions empirically.... The degree of participation of foreigners in the Swiss welfare state is estimated.... To this end, the public transfer balance (difference between government revenue and government expenditure) is empirically estimated for both native and foreign households. The method chosen covers public monetary transfers as well as the supply of goods and services by the government (real transfers). Social security insurance, redistribution through taxes, infrastructure investment (club goods) and immaterial goods such as the legal system (public goods) are thus covered."

  14. Immigration's Aftermath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that many children of immigrants are growing up under severely disadvantaged conditions. Poor schools, tough neighborhoods, and lack of role models related to parental poverty make it difficult for these children to achieve academically. Assimilation under these conditions leads to poverty and permanent disadvantage. Asserts that family…

  15. Two Decades of Immigration: Has the Sky Fallen Yet? Pat Brown Institute of Public Affairs State of Immigration Report. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modarres, Ali

    This report provides a demographic analysis of immigration to the United States and California, using information from the Immigration and Naturalization Service annual reports and digital database for 1990-98. It features details on the Asian immigrant population for the 1990s. From 1820-1998, about 62 million immigrants came to America. Nearly…

  16. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  17. From refugees to immigrants: the legalization strategies of Salvadoran immigrants and activists.

    PubMed

    Coutin, S B

    1998-01-01

    "The legalization strategies pursued by Salvadoran immigrants and activists from the 1980s to the present demonstrate that migrants' and advocates' responses to policy changes reinterpret law in ways that affect future policy. Law is critical to immigrants' strategies in that [U.S.] legal status is increasingly a prerequisite for rights and services and that immigration law is embedded in other institutions and relationships. Immigration law is defined, however, not only when it is first formulated but also as it is implemented, enabling the immigrants who are defined according to legal categories to shape the definitions that categorization produces. Immigrants and activists also take formal legal and political actions, such as lobbying Congress and filing class action suits. Through such formal and informal policy negotiations, immigrants seek to shape their own and their nations' futures."

  18. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  19. The Economics of U.S. Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The economic gains from immigration are much like those from international trade: The economy benefits overall from immigration, but there are distributional effects that create both winners and losers. Immigration is different from trade, however, in that the physical presence of the people who provide the goods and services that drive the…

  20. 8 CFR 336.2 - Hearing before an immigration officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing before an immigration officer. 336... HEARINGS ON DENIALS OF APPLICATIONS FOR NATURALIZATION § 336.2 Hearing before an immigration officer. (a..., the Service shall schedule a review hearing before an immigration officer, within a reasonable...

  1. CONTACT WITH HEALTH-CARE SERVICE EXPECTATION AND REALITY OF SITUATION EXPERIENCED BY IMMIGRANTS SEEKING SWEDISH HEALTH-CARE

    PubMed Central

    Krupic, Ferid; Sadic, Sahmir; Fatahi, Nabi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate how immigrants from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo experienced contact with Swedish health-care regarding meeting with health-care professionals. Material and Methods: Eighteen participants, nine men and nine women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia and Kosovo participated in focus group interviews (FGI). Data were collected from April 2013 to April 2014 through three group interviews using open-ended questions. A qualitative approach, incorporating a critical incident technique (CIT) was used. Results: The findings highlighted patient’s negative experiences regarding the Swedish health care system. Their main complaints concerned delayed ambulances, lack of doctors in outpatient clinics, long journeys to the hospital and long waiting time at the emergency department. Lack of information about the disease, difficulties seeing a doctor in the department, poor language skills and insufficient interpreters were some of other difficulties that mentioned by participants. Conclusions: In order to provide satisfactory health care to patient with different ethnic backgrounds, it is important to be aware of their vulnerable situation and their limit capacity to express their needs. This research could be a starting point in developing strategies for reducing ethnicity-based misunderstandings and inequalities in the health-care system. PMID:27147923

  2. For Love of Family and Family Values: How Immigrant Motivations Can Inform Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacenti, David

    2009-01-01

    This article consists of more than fifty interviews with Spanish and Yucatec-Mayan men from Yucatan, Mexico, to the United States. Based on interview responses, I contend that Yucatec-Mayan immigrants support Jeffrey Cohen's (2004) "household model" and use a ch'i'ibal-centered, or family-centered, decision-making process to frame…

  3. [Immigration and immigrants in South Africa].

    PubMed

    Bouillon, A

    1998-01-01

    "The reversal of [South Africa's] pro-active (white) immigration policy in 1990 has been supplemented by an unprecedented level of repression of ¿illegal' immigration. Although they have never been recognised as such, black immigrants are the most numerous component of the South African immigrant population. After giving an account of this situation, this article endeavours to take stock of the immigrant population as a whole, by covering the whole range of permanent, temporary, refugee and ¿illegal' immigrant status and populations." (EXCERPT)

  4. Undocumented Latina immigrants in Orange County, California: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, L R; Hubbell, F A; Mishra, S I; Valdez, R B

    1997-01-01

    "This article examines a unique data set randomly collected from Latinas (including 160 undocumented immigrants) and non-Hispanic white women in Orange County, California, including undocumented and documented Latina immigrants, Latina citizens, and non-Hispanic white women. Our survey suggests that undocumented Latinas are younger than documented Latinas, and immigrant Latinas are generally younger than U.S.-citizen Latinas and Anglo women. Undocumented and documented Latinas work in menial service sector jobs, often in domestic services. Most do not have job-related benefits such as medical insurance.... Despite their immigration status, undocumented Latina immigrants often viewed themselves as part of a community in the United States, which significantly influenced their intentions to stay in the United States. Contrary to much of the recent public policy debate over immigration, we did not find that social services influenced Latina immigrants' intentions to stay in the United States."

  5. Tracing Early Chinese Immigration into the United States: The Use of I.N.S. Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubitz, Shawn

    1988-01-01

    Examines the Chinese Exclusion Case Files of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), which documented the influx of Chinese immigrants from 1882-1923, the time when Chinese immigration was first limited and ultimately stopped altogether. These files contain data on thousands of immigrants, documenting their experience, aspirations, and…

  6. Selectivity of Undocumented Mexico-U.S. Migrants and Implications for U.S. Immigration Reform. Impacts of Immigration in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Proposed United States immigration reforms are founded on the assumption that illegal immigration can be significantly curbed by reducing economic incentives to migrate. Effects of these reforms, however, are not the same for all undocumented workers. Data from 61 rural Mexican households in Michoacan were used to explore which undocumented…

  7. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the following.... Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. BILLING CODE 9111-97-P...

  8. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    PubMed

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  9. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  10. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  11. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  12. 7 CFR 254.5 - Household eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Household eligibility. 254.5 Section 254.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... 253.7. (b) Urban places. No household living in an urban place in Oklahoma shall be eligible for...

  13. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  14. 76 FR 60070 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Services to collect and maintain records on an individual after he or she submits a benefit request and/or...) addresses the activities undertaken by USCIS after Applicants or Representatives submit a benefit request..., territorial, foreign, or international government agencies. This sharing will only take place after...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  16. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  17. 28 CFR Appendix C to Part 61 - Immigration and Naturalization Service Procedures Relating to the Implementation of the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... seq.), the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq.). Section... Enhancement of Environmental Quality (March 5, 1970, as amended by Executive Order 11991, May 24, 1977). 2... Naturalization Service's compliance with NEPA shall be coordinated with Central Office Engineering staff....

  18. 76 FR 70739 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... armed groups; work in penal or detention systems, weapons distribution, combat training, etc.) Health Information (e.g., vaccinations, referrals, communicable disease, physical or mental disorder, prostitution... the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. The effect of immigrant generation on smoking.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Pan, Jocelyn; Jun, Hee-Jin; Osypuk, Theresa L; Emmons, Karen M

    2005-09-01

    Immigrants to the US are not only an increasingly significant demographic group but overall they also have lower socioeconomic status (SES) than the native-born. It is known that tobacco use is a major health risk for groups that have low SES. However, there is some evidence that tobacco use among certain immigrant groups is lower than among the respective native-born ethnic group, and that immigrant assimilation is positively related to tobacco use. We investigated the relationship between immigrant generation and daily smoking, using the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), 1995-96, a national data set representative of the US general and immigrant populations. Our multivariate logistic regression analysis of the relationship between immigrant generation and daily smoker status (n = 221,798) showed that after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, SES variables (i.e. equivalized household income, education, occupation), and central-city residence, the odds of being a daily smoker were highest among US-born individuals of US-born parents (reference group) and lowest among foreign-born individuals (95% CI: 0.54-0.62). Being a second-generation immigrant (i.e. US born) with two immigrant parents also conferred a protective effective from smoking (95% CI: 0.64-0.77). However, having only one foreign-born parent was not protective against smoking. Testing for interaction effects, we also found that being foreign born and being second generation with two immigrant parents were especially protective against smoking among females (vis-à-vis males); racial/ethnic minorities (vis-à-vis whites); and low-income individuals (vis-à-vis high-income individuals). We discuss possible mechanisms that may explain the protective effect against smoking of being foreign born and being second generation with two immigrant parents, including differences in the stage of the tobacco epidemic between immigrants' countries of origin and the US, the

  20. The Effect of Household and Community on School Attrition: An Analysis of Thai Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinek, Kim; Punpuing, Sureeporn

    2012-01-01

    We analyze school attrition among youth in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. We find that family investments in schooling are shaped by both household and local community contexts. There is an enrollment advantage for girls across different households and communities. We find that youth whose mothers have migrated and youth in immigrant households…

  1. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  2. To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services field office in Kodiak, Alaska.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2010-03-19

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  4. A participatory action research approach for identifying health service needs of Hispanic immigrants: implications for occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Martinez, Louise I; Casas-Byots, Clemencia

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Recently, the field of Community Occupational Therapy has started to enter into new research areas, one being participatory research. This paper illustrates a participatory research methodology adapted by community residents and a research team to identify the service needs of an underserved Hispanic population as well as set action agendas to meet their needs. In order to plan and implement health programs, community residents participated actively in the needs assessment, action agenda development and brainstorming of solutions to address health and community needs and concerns. Concerns identified included the lack of affordable bilingual dentists and youth involvement in gangs, drugs, and alcohol. The results of the needs assessment were shared and discussed during five public forums in which 180 Hispanics from the community discussed the dimensions of the issues and alternative solutions. This process resulted in an agenda of health issues and ideas for improvement from the perspective of Hispanics. We emphasized the advantages of using participatory methodologies when developing health and community services within Hispanic communities. Additionally, the implications for advancing a Scholarship of Practice agenda for Community Occupational Therapy are discussed.

  5. School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…

  6. Serving immigrant families and children in New York City's child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Zeinab; van Straaten, Justine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the efforts and special initiatives of New York City's Administration for Children's Services to improve services to immigrant and English language learner populations. Children's Services convened an immigration issues advisory subcommittee, created special tools for child welfare staff, collaborated with legal agencies to assist foster children with immigration status adjustments, improved agency data collection, and launched an agency-wide training initiative on immigration issues. The challenges encountered by Children's Services offer important insight for child welfare agencies in other jurisdictions designing strategies to strengthen their services for immigrant communities.

  7. All about U.S. immigration statistics.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, M

    1989-01-01

    The quality of data collected by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is assessed, with a focus on differences between U.S. and U.N. definitions of immigrants, emigrants, and refugees. The author suggests that "gaps in migration data collected for the U.S. limit their usefulness for studying international migration and estimating national population change. For example, no information is collected on emigration of legal permanent residents or U.S. citizens, nor is there any direct information on the immigration of U.S. citizens. Data collected on legal immigrants are based on a legal and administrative definition that often conflicts with the demographic definition of an immigrant."

  8. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities.

  9. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosso, Randy

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) provides millions of Americans with the means to purchase food for a nutritious diet. This report presents characteristics of food stamp households nationwide in fiscal year 2001. Information on household characteristics comes from FSP household data collected by the federal Food and Nutrition Service for quality…

  10. Health care utilization by immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giuliana; Ponzo, Michela; Andrés, Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Healthcare utilization studies show how well documented disparities between migrants and non-migrants. Reducing such disparities is a major goal in European countries. However, healthcare utilization among Italian immigrants is under-studied. The objective of this study is to explore differences in healthcare use between immigrant and native Italians. Cross-sectional study using the latest available (2004/2005) Italian Health Conditions Survey. We estimated separate hurdle binomial negative regression models for GP, specialist, and telephone consultations and a logit model for emergency room (ER) use. We used logistic regression and zero-truncated negative binomial regression to model the zero (contact decision) and count processes (frequency decisions) respectively. Adjusting for risk factors, immigrants are significantly less likely to use healthcare services with 2.4 and 2.7 % lower utilization probability for specialist and telephone consultations, respectively. First- and second-generation immigrants' probability for specialist and telephone contact is significantly lower than natives'. Immigrants, ceteris paribus, have a much higher probability of using ERs than natives (0.7 %). First-generation immigrants show a higher probability of visiting ERs (1 %). GP visits show no significant difference. In conclusion Italian immigrants are much less likely to use specialist healthcare and medical telephone consultations than natives but more likely to use ERs. Hence, we report an over-use of ERs and under-utilization of preventive care among immigrants. We recommend improved health policies for immigrants: promotion of better information dissemination among them, simplification of organizational procedures, better communications between providers and immigrants, and an increased supply of health services for the most disadvantaged populations.

  11. Mental-Health Aid for Immigrant Children Lags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    As educators and experts assess the quality of student mental-health services in light of the deadly shootings last April 16, the Virginia Tech gunman's immigrant background is focusing attention on what immigration workers say is a lack of services tailored to such groups. Mental-health professionals say that, in general, even school districts…

  12. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Care: Making a Case for Policy Reform.

    PubMed

    Edward, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole.

  13. The Mutual Relationship Between Immigrants' Disrupted Everyday Activities and Their Health: A Grounded Theory of Experiences of Korean Immigrants Settling in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hagyun; Hocking, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For Asian immigrants, immigration has the potential to disrupt all familiar routines. That is a threat to their health and well-being. This grounded theory study explored how immigrants adjust to a new environment by analyzing the experiences of 25 Korean immigrants in New Zealand. The findings suggest that immigration is a stress-inducing phenomenon that requires adjustment of valued activities and adversely affects their health. In response, participants worked on regaining control over disrupted activities by opting for two world perspectives. The study helps social workers to develop effective interventions and services for immigrants to better handle health problems.

  14. Family Functioning and Early Learning Practices in Immigrant Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…

  15. U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mexican Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Rural Mexico's economy currently relies heavily on illegal migrants to the United States. Severing the link between rural Mexican households and U.S. labor markets would require restructuring not only affecting U.S. industries, which are the focus of federal immigration reform, but also migrant-sending economies in Mexico. If effectively enforced,…

  16. Higher education and children in immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M

    2011-01-01

    The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary

  17. [Immigrants in the labor market].

    PubMed

    Pugliese, E

    1990-04-01

    This is an analysis by occupation of foreigners working in Italy. "A relationship can frequently be observed between country of origin, religion, sex, and employment. Then, those who immigrate into Italy from Islamic countries are largely single males; most of them work as hawkers. At the opposite end, women, still prevalently employed in domestic service, come from Catholic countries, or from Catholic minorities within countries with different predominant religions. Besides these two categories, more traditional and majoritarian, there are the employed in agriculture, services, and, only recently, industry. The article points to the highly intense dynamics of immigration and to the ever-changing relative weight of different nationalities, main settlements, and prevalent activities themselves in the various regions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  19. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  20. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  1. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  2. Immigrant Education. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on immigrant education that focus on successful school programs and educational policy issues. In "Immigrant Education from the Administrators' Perspective" (Pam McCollum, Juanita Garcia), three principals of south Texas secondary schools with successful immigrant programs discuss their views on the…

  3. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  4. Household Budgets as a Social Indicator of Poverty and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Johan H.

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a universally accepted method of calculating poverty, household expenditure can be used to provide an indication of inequality of wealth and serve as an indicator of poverty. Household expenditure comprises expenditure of private households on goods and services, irrespective of their durability. The portion of household budgets…

  5. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Macera, Margherita; Sagnelli, Caterina; Zampino, Rosa; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million people chronically infected and 600000 deaths per year due to acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitis or, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration from countries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a low HBV endemicity warrants particular attention to prevent the spread of HBV infection to the native population. This review article analyzes the epidemiology and virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in immigrant populations and in their host countries, and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent the spread of this infection. Among the immigrants from different geographical areas, those from South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalences of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, in accordance with the high endemicity of the countries of origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infection in immigrants reflect those of the geographical areas of origin: HBV genotype A and D predominate in immigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those from Asia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literature data on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAg-positive immigrants are scanty. The management of HBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult and requires expert personnel and dedicated structures for their assistance. The social services, voluntary operators and cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimized psychological and clinical intervention. PMID:26730274

  6. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion.

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration.

  7. Immigration and Prosecutorial Discretion

    PubMed Central

    Apollonio, Dorie; Lochner, Todd; Heddens, Myriah

    2015-01-01

    Immigration has become an increasingly salient national issue in the US, and the Department of Justice recently increased federal efforts to prosecute immigration offenses. This shift, however, relies on the cooperation of US attorneys and their assistants. Traditionally federal prosecutors have enjoyed enormous discretion and have been responsive to local concerns. To consider how the centralized goal of immigration enforcement may have influenced federal prosecutors in regional offices, we review their prosecution of immigration offenses in California using over a decade's worth of data. Our findings suggest that although centralizing forces influence immigration prosecutions, individual US attorneys' offices retain distinct characteristics. Local factors influence federal prosecutors' behavior in different ways depending on the office. Contrary to expectations, unemployment rates did not affect prosecutors' willingness to pursue immigration offenses, nor did local popular opinion about illegal immigration. PMID:26146530

  8. Immigration and health care reform: shared struggles.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Deborah B

    2007-01-01

    The connection between health care and immigration share overlaping key areas in policy reform. General concern, anger, and fear about immigration has been spreading nationwide. While illegal immigrants' use of expensive emergency department services does add to the cost for uncompensated care, this expenditure is not a primary cost driver but more a symptom of little or no access to preventative or primary health care. As a result of federal inaction, more state politicians are redefining how America copes with illegal residents including how or whether they have access to health care. The overlap of immigration and health care reform offers an opportunity for us to enter the next round of debate from a more informed vantage point.

  9. America's immigration "problem.".

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves.

  10. [Immigrants and the labor market: a new age of immigration?].

    PubMed

    Dechaux, J

    1991-04-01

    Trends in migration to France since the 1974 legislation restricting immigration are described. The author notes that the growing integration of pre-1974 immigrants into the labor force and society is accompanied by a growth in illegal immigration. He concludes that the present situation concerning immigrant labor remains fluid, and that the characteristics of immigrants are extremely diverse. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  11. Immigration and HIV infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Oppenheim, S

    1994-02-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine areas in which additional education regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed by the undocumented and recently immigrated HIV-infected population, and to obtain preliminary information on the ability of this community to access medical treatment for HIV. Information regarding health status, immigration status, and the use of medical services was obtained from all HIV-infected undocumented and recently immigrated individuals who sought services from a Southern California nonprofit agency between July 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990. A total of 54 such individuals presented for services. Thirteen individuals reported participating in shared needle usage for the administration of medication or vitamins, in addition to other known risk factors for HIV. Only one of these 13 individuals had access to nonemergency medical care. Additional research is necessary to determine the reasons for these needle sharing behaviors. Educational outreach is needed to address these behaviors as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission.

  12. Immigration to the U.S.: the unfinished story.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, L F; Gradner, R W

    1986-11-01

    Annual totals of new immigrants and refugees in the US may now be up to the record highs of over a million immigrants counted in 6 years between 1905 and 1914. Since 1979, legal immigrants have averaged 566,000 a year (570,009 in 1985), newly arrived refugees and asylees approved have averaged 135,000, and the "settled" illegal immigrant population is growing by up to 1/2 million a year, according to some estimates. 1/2 of illegal immigrants are persons who entered the US legally but then overstayed the terms of temporary visas. Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehensions of illegal aliens, projected at a record 1.8 million for fiscal year 1986, indicate a sharp increase in illegal border crossers, driven by Mexico's and Central America's mounting population and economic pressures and lured by the prospect of jobs with employers who through a loophole in US immigration law can hire illegal aliens without penalty. The Census Bureau estimates that net immigration now accounts for 28% of US population growth and will account for all growth by the 2030's if fertility stays at the current low 1.8 births per woman. Public opinion strongly favors crubs on illegal immigration and legalization of illegal aliens long resident in the US, and in 1986 Congress enacted legislation to reduce illegal immigration to the US. Asians and Latin Americans now make up over 80% of legal immigrants and Latin Americans comprised 77% of illegal immigrants counted in the 1980 census. Asians far outstrip Latin American immigrants in education, occupational status, and income and might be expected to assimilate in the same manner as earlier immigrant group did. Hispanic immigrants so far appear to favor cultural pluralism, maintaining their own culture and the Spanish language. Research in California indicates that recent Hispanic immigrants (legal and illegal) have helped preserve low-wage industries and agriculture. Illegal immigrants appear to draw more on public health and

  13. Legal versus illegal U.S. immigration and source country characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bratsberg, B

    1995-01-01

    "Based on micro data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on legal immigrants as well as on legalization applications that followed the passage of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986], this study exploits the variation in legal and illegal immigration flows across seventy source countries to examine the sensitivity of immigration flows to underlying source country characteristics. The study finds that earnings in the source country and the distance from the United States form significant deterrents of both legal and illegal immigration flows. We also find that illegal immigration is more sensitive to such factors than is legal immigration." The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on U.S. immigration from Mexico is also assessed.

  14. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5 Pre-immigration trusts. (a)...

  15. Transformative Learning of Mentors from an Immigrant Workplace Connections Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia; Butterwick, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    Mentorship programs have been deployed within immigrant and settlements services to integrate newcomers to the Canadian labor market. These programs are often assessed for their impacts on immigrant mentees. Little attention has been paid to how they may have influenced mentors. In this context, this study, from the perspective of transformative…

  16. Latino Immigration: Preparing School Psychologists to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J.; Carrillo, Gerardo L.; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A.; Lasser, Jon

    2016-01-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the…

  17. Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

  18. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  19. 76 FR 73475 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ..., 207, 208, 211, 212, 213a, 244; 245, 324; 335 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business... to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to transform its business processes. The... Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I, 76 FR 53764 (Aug. 29, 2011). The final rule removed...

  20. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  1. The Impact of Immigration Enforcement by Local Police on the Civil Rights of Latinos. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.

    This paper discusses the provisions of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA) (sections 642 and 133) and outlines some concerns with the new Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) Quick Response Team initiative. It also examines the current relationships among local police, the INS, and local Latino…

  2. On the Borders: The Arrival of Irregular Immigrants in Malta--Some Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the issue of the continual arrival of irregular immigrants in Malta and the problems that ensue. The view generally held is that we need to respond to the needs of irregular immigrants by providing services. However, with reference to some of Jacques Derrida's ideas, I argue in this paper that the "other"/immigrant is…

  3. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  4. Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants’ residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans’ and Central Americans’ prospects for successful incorporation, but also underscore the rigidity of the black/nonblack divide structuring American residential contexts. PMID:24090862

  5. Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant and Arabic Women: Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major disabling mood disorder that affects women during childbearing years. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the prevalence and risk factors for PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries and compare it with prevalence and risk factors for PPD among Arab women in their home countries. 26 studies, published between 1995 and 2013 have been included. In this review, prevalence of PPD among Arab women in their countries ranged 10-37%, and the prevalence of PPD among immigrant women in industrialized countries ranged 11.2-60%. Lack of social support, stressful life events, low income, and intimate partner violence were risk factors associated with development of PPD among both Arab women and immigrant women. Immigration stress and lack of access to health care services were found among immigrant women. Lack of social support was more predominant in studies on immigrant women.

  6. Changing U.S. immigration law and the occupational selectivity of Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lobo, A P; Salvo, J J

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between US immigration laws and their impact on the immigration of Asian professionals. The article relied on a 1996 Population Association presentation. Data were obtained from the US Immigration and Naturalization Service on legally admitted immigrants to the US. The authors describe the paths to admission, trends in immigration of professionals during 1972-94, and the Immigration Act of 1965 and its 4 amendments. Standardization-decomposition techniques are used to explain the relative differences in professional immigration across 1972-77, 1978-91, and 1992-94. The crude professional rate for all Asians declined by 19% during 1972-91. 62% of the decline was due to changes in the class of admission composition, and 25% was due to a decline in the class-specific professional rates. During 1992-94, the Asian crude professional rate increased 7%, most of which was due to changes in class composition, with the exception of Korean rates. Only the Vietnamese experienced a decline in rates. The 1965 law allowed for equity between countries in admission. The paths of immigration were family ties, job skills, or refugee status. During 1972-77, Chinese took advantage of family reunification, and Indians entered on employment preferences. The legal changes affected the size and share of each class of admission. The revisions indirectly affected the occupational selectivity of immigrant groups. 27% of the flow of Asians during 1972-77 was accounted for by employment preferences. Professionals were 44% of Asian immigrants during 1972-77, 26% during 1978-91, and 33% during 1992-94.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Immigration Policies on Health Status Among Undocumented Immigrants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D.; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations. PMID:24375382

  8. The Impact of Local Immigration Enforcement Policies on the Health of Immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence M.; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Downs, Mario; Lawlor, Emma; Martinez, Omar; Sun, Christina J.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Reboussin, Beth A.; Hall, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to understand how local immigration enforcement policies affect the utilization of health services among immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in North Carolina. Methods. In 2012, we analyzed vital records data to determine whether local implementation of section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Secure Communities program, which authorizes local law enforcement agencies to enforce federal immigration laws, affected the prenatal care utilization of Hispanics/Latinas. We also conducted 6 focus groups and 17 interviews with Hispanic/Latino persons across North Carolina to explore the impact of immigration policies on their utilization of health services. Results. We found no significant differences in utilization of prenatal care before and after implementation of section 287(g), but we did find that, in individual-level analysis, Hispanic/Latina mothers sought prenatal care later and had inadequate care when compared with non-Hispanic/Latina mothers. Participants reported profound mistrust of health services, avoiding health services, and sacrificing their health and the health of their family members. Conclusions. Fear of immigration enforcement policies is generalized across counties. Interventions are needed to increase immigrant Hispanics/Latinos’ understanding of their rights and eligibility to utilize health services. Policy-level initiatives are also needed (e.g., driver’s licenses) to help undocumented persons access and utilize these services. PMID:25521886

  9. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  10. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  11. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Thomas W; Bressler, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents.

  12. Improving health in the Arctic region through safe and affordable access to household running water and sewer services: an Arctic Council initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Thomas W.; Bressler, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Important health disparities have been documented among the peoples of the Arctic and subarctic, including those related to limited access to in-home improved drinking water and sanitation services. Although improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has been a focus of the United Nations for decades, the Arctic region has received little attention in this regard. A growing body of evidence highlights inequalities across the region for the availability of in-home drinking WASH services and for health indicators associated with these services. In this review, we highlight relevant data and describe an initiative through the Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group to characterize the extent of WASH services in Arctic nations, the related health indicators and climate-related vulnerabilities to WASH services. With this as a baseline, efforts to build collaborations across the Arctic will be undertaken to promote innovations that can extend the benefits of water and sanitation services to all residents. PMID:27132632

  13. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  14. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Mitigation by Alternative Household Wastewater Management Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Household wastewater, especially from conventional septic systems, is a major contributor to nitrogen pollution. Alternative household wastewater management technologies provide similar sewerage management services but their life cycle costs and nitrogen flow implications remain ...

  16. Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners

    PubMed Central

    Keister, Lisa A.; Aronson, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants. Methods Because no single survey dataset contains top wealth holders and data about country of origin, this paper uses two publicly-available data sets: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Multiple imputation is used to impute country of birth from the SIPP into the SCF. Descriptive statistics are used to demonstrate reliability of the method, to estimate the prevalence of immigrants among top wealth holders, and to document patterns of asset ownership among affluent immigrants. Results Significant numbers of top wealth holders who are usually classified as white natives may be immigrants. Many top wealth holders appear to be European and Canadian immigrants, and increasing numbers of top wealth holders are likely from Asia and Latin America as well. Results suggest that of those in the top one percent of wealth holders, approximately 3% are European and Canadian immigrants, .5% are from Mexico or Cuban, and 1.7% are from Asia (especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and India). Ownership of key assets varies considerably across affluent immigrant groups. Conclusion Although the percentage of top wealth holders who are immigrants is relatively small, these percentages represent large numbers of households with considerable resources and corresponding social and political influence. Evidence that the propensity to allocate wealth to real and financial assets varies

  17. Household products: a review.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, Marc A

    2003-10-01

    Household products include detergents, cleaners and polishes, bleaches, disinfectants and sterilizers, dust removers, antistatics and deodorizers, office materials, removers, and products for clothing. Many of these contain chemicals that present a risk to those who come into contact with them. This contact may be through inhalation or dermal exposure for human adults, or by ingestion for children. Pets are exposed through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. An emerging class of household products is the fabric refreshers, which may pose a hazard to humans and pets. This review explores the major chemicals expected in typical fabric refreshers, "and their potential hazards to household pets.

  18. The Immigrant Worker and the Danish Public Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bulletin for Libraries, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A summary of a survey conducted in 1973 of Danish library services available to immigrant workers and their families, especially those speaking Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and the languages used in Yugoslavia. (Author/KP)

  19. Immigration and immigrant generations in population projections.

    PubMed

    Edmonston, B; Passel, J S

    1992-11-01

    This paper proposes a new model for population projections. This model projects an initial population under conditions of fertility, mortality, and international migration (like standard cohort-component models), but considers the population arrayed by generation. The model incorporates 4 generations: a foreign-born first generation (the immigrants), a second generation (sons and daughters of immigrants), a third generation (grandsons and granddaughters of immigrants), and fourth-and-higher generations. The model requires fertility, mortality, and migration equations by generation, which take a somewhat different form than in conventional cohort-component population projection. Consideration of the model also makes apparent that assignment of births to generations may not follow a simple form: the paper presents a method for including the empirical description of intergenerational births within the generational framework. As an example, the authors examine the next century of population growth for the Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic populations in the US, comparing their growth rates and their composition within the total US population. With annual net immigration of 950,000, the total US population of 249 million in 1990 will top 400 million in 2070 and reach about 432 million in 2090. Thus, the level of immigration and emigration assumed in these projections suggests considerable population growth for the next hundred years. The racial/ethnic composition of the US will shift markedly during the next century, as described in the paper.

  20. Variations in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants: the role of documentation status.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Fang, Hai; Garza, Jeremiah; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Wallace, Steven P; Rizzo, John A; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify differences in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants by documentation status. Cross-sectional survey data are analyzed to identify differences in healthcare access and utilization across Mexican immigrant categories. Multivariable logistic regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition are used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components. Mexican immigrants ages 18 and above who are immigrants of California households and responded to the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (2,600 documented and 1,038 undocumented immigrants). Undocumented immigrants from Mexico are 27% less likely to have a doctor visit in the previous year and 35% less likely to have a usual source of care compared to documented Mexican immigrants after controlling for confounding variables. Approximately 88% of these disparities can be attributed to predisposing, enabling and need determinants in our model. The remaining disparities are attributed to unobserved heterogeneity. This study shows that undocumented immigrants from Mexico are much less likely to have a physician visit in the previous year and a usual source of care compared to documented immigrants from Mexico. The recently approved Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will not reduce these disparities unless undocumented immigrants are granted some form of legal status.

  1. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  2. Educating Recent Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles all related to the theme of education for recent legal and illegal immigrants. In "Golden Lord with Us from the Main Forest: Some Thoughts on the Education of Recent Immigrants," Aurelio M. Montemayor reflects on his experiences growing up in a bilingual, bicultural extended family of…

  3. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  4. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They…

  5. 10 Myths about Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Tolerance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Myths about immigration and immigrants are common. This article presents a few of the most frequently heard misconceptions, along with information to help teachers and their students separate fact from fear. Teachers should debunk the misinformation students bring to school--and help them think for themselves. They must guide students to find a…

  6. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  7. Immigrant women and the emergency department: the juncture with welfare and immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Ivey, S L; Kramer, E J

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act and the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act and their potential impact on immigrant women's access to medical services. Current federal mandates assuring access to emergency medical services and new restrictions on financing of health care under federal programs such as Medicaid and Medicare would appear to be on a collision course. Both acts specifically reaffirm federal law on delivery of emergency services without addressing the financing of that care. Unfunded mandates in an era of diminished ability to shift costs onto insured patients are problematic for the institutions that provide uncompensated care. Specific protections for victims of domestic violence are also discussed.

  8. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  9. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  10. Common household poisonings.

    PubMed

    Dymowski, J J; Uehara, D T

    1987-12-01

    Readily available household products represent a source of potential toxicity when ingested accidentally by children. Despite the large number of patients seen by physicians and a familiarity with many of these substances, patient management often remains a difficult problem. The current literature is reviewed with respect to appropriate management of ingestions of household cleaners, caustics, hydrocarbons, insecticides, rodenticides, plants, and other products often taken by children.

  11. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  12. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  13. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  14. 45 CFR 96.82 - Required report on households assisted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required report on households assisted. 96.82 Section 96.82 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.82 Required report on households assisted. (a)...

  15. Increasing HIV testing among African immigrants in ireland: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Asibon, Aba; O'Connor, Gerard; Carson, Richard; Cowan, Ethan; McKinley, Philip; Leider, Jason; Mallon, Patrick; Calderon, Yvette

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, immigrants constitute 63% of new cases of heterosexually transmitted HIV among individuals born outside Ireland. Current strategies to encourage testing can be ineffective if immigrants perceive them as culturally insensitive. We obtained qualitative data to explore challenges to voluntary HIV-testing for immigrants in Ireland. Content analysis was undertaken to identify and describe pertinent themes. Widespread beliefs that HIV is primarily a disease of African immigrants were identified as challenges that constrain access to testing and care. The organization and location of testing services, attitude of health workers, and beliefs regarding mandatory HIV-testing for immigrants seeking access to welfare benefits were also identified. Immigrants in Ireland encounter a variety of structural, cultural and personal constraints to HIV testing. Opportunities exist in the Irish Health system to increase testing among immigrants through greater acknowledgement of cultural sensitivities of immigrant groups.

  16. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  17. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  18. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says.…

  19. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  20. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  1. The living arrangements of older immigrants from the former Soviet Union: a comparison of Israel and the United States.

    PubMed

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Lowenstein, Ariela; Tavares, Jane L; Coyle, Caitlin; Mutchler, Jan E; Katz, Ruth; Khatutsky, Galina

    2012-12-01

    With the unprecedented emigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) during the 1990s as context, this study described the living arrangements of older FSU immigrants living in Israel and the US. Living arrangement choices represented an important strategy for coping with the migration process. Census data from Israel and the US were employed to examine the relationships among living arrangements (independent households, multigenerational households, and extended households) and personal characteristics, including duration of residence, Jewish identity, education, and home ownership. Results showed that the less time older immigrants lived in the host country, the more likely they lived in a multigenerational or extended household. The residency length and household relationship was stronger in Israel than in the US. Also, older FSU immigrants who owned their own home and who lived in a metropolitan area were more likely to live in a complex household than in an independent household. We discussed how the economic and social environments in each country contributed to the variability in living arrangement options among these older immigrants.

  2. [Mental health care for immigrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schouler-Ocak, M

    2015-11-01

    Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.

  3. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  4. Immigrants in community colleges.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Robert T; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and civic engagement should thus be a national priority. Community colleges offer one particularly important venue for achieving this objective. Because they are conveniently located, cost much less than four-year colleges, feature open admissions, and accommodate students who work or have family responsibilities, community colleges are well suited to meet the educational needs of immigrants who want to obtain an affordable postsecondary education, learn English-language skills, and prepare for the labor market. The authors explore how community colleges can serve immigrant students more effectively. Already, more immigrant students attend community colleges than any other type of post-secondary institution. But community colleges could attract even more immigrant students through outreach programs that help them to apply and to navigate the financial aid system. Federal reforms should also allow financial aid to cover tuition for English as a Second Language courses. Community colleges themselves could raise funds to provide scholarships for immigrants and undocumented students. Although there are many good ideas for interventions that can boost enrollment and improve the performance of immigrant students in community colleges, rigorous research on effective programs is scant. The research community and community colleges need to work together closely to evaluate these programs with a view toward what works and why. Without such research, policy makers will find it difficult to improve the role of community colleges in increasing the educational achievement of immigrant students.

  5. Immigration measures, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Government of Norway undertook the following immigration measures: 1) it merged the Office of Immigration, which deals with asylum matters, and the Government Refugee Agency, which handles reception and settlement, into a new Directorate for Immigration under the Ministry of Local Government and Labour; 2) it instituted visa requirements for Chileans; and 3) it established a new reception program, under which five regional reception centers are to be created accommodating 200 to 300 people each, where asylum seekers will be placed until they have completed their police interview and a municipality has agreed to accept them.

  6. Immigration, assimilation and growth.

    PubMed

    Durkin, J T

    1998-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the welfare effects of immigration and its subsequent effect on ethnic diversity in a model featuring human capital spillovers which depend on the degree of ethnic heterogeneity, variation rates of time preference across individuals and endogenous levels of immigration and assimilation. In the model, an increase in ethnic diversity reduces the spillovers effect for the majority. Nonetheless, immigration can be welfare improving for the majority ethnic group even if it increases the degree of diversity as long as it raises the average human capital level and/or growth rate by increasing the proportion of people with low rates of time preference."

  7. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  8. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings.

  9. Changing Household Dynamics: Children's American Generational Resources in Street Vending Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Emir

    2013-01-01

    This article prompts a re-visioning of segmented assimilation theory by examining the household dynamics and consequences that occur when Latino immigrant children and youth become active contributors to family street vending businesses. Based on participant observation and 20 in-depth interviews with Latino children who work with their immigrant…

  10. One century of foreign immigration to the United States: 1880-1979.

    PubMed

    Carlson, A W

    1985-09-01

    Due to declining fertility rates and increased numbers of immigrants, legal foreign immigration now comprises 1/4 of the US's annual population growth. This article uses 1900-1979 Immigration and Naturalization Service data on immigrants' intended destination to examine immigration policy and its effect on immigrants and the American people. From the US's beginnings to the 1880s, immigrants came mainly from Great Britain, Germany, and other Northern and Western European countries, in the 1890s; over 70% of immigrants came from Italy, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and Germany. Immigration had peaked at over 1 million persons a year at the outbreak of World War I, then declined sharply, and rose again greatly during the first 2 decades of the 20th Century. The first significant legislation to restrict ethnic groups was in the early 1880s with the Chinese Exclusion Act; In 1924, Congress passed the 2nd Immigration and Naturalization Act which used the 1890 census to set quotas for ethnic groups, and later used the 1920 census to fix quotas in the national origins system; both pieces of legislation favored Northern and Western Europeans. Immigration declined drastically during the 1930s and early 1940s, but the Displaced Persons Act, the War Brides Act, and 1950s legislation allowed more Asian refugees and some other ethnic groups to enter the country. The nationality origins quotas were eliminated in 1965, and were followed by dramatic changes in immigration character as persons from formerly low quota nations flooded into the US. 1976 and 1978 legislation made immigration still more equitable, and the Refugee Act of 1980 allowed admittance of 50,000 refugees with no regard for geographic or ideological biases. A preference system, in operation since 1924, has favored relatives of citizens and immigrants with certain skills. Females presently outnumber male immigrants, average immigrant age is 26.2 years, and over 1/2 of the immigrants since 1950 have been housewives

  11. Determinants of employment of recently arrived Mexican immigrant wives.

    PubMed

    Greenlees, C S; Saenz, R

    1999-01-01

    The work force participation of married, Mexican-origin immigrant women who came to the US in the 1980s was investigated. Determinants of employment utilized in this study are the women's human capital stock, household resources, and labor market structural factors. Nine hypotheses were derived from the analytical model and were examined through logistic regression. Findings showed that all human capital resource and structural labor market factors were significantly related to employment. On the other hand, four of the five family household factors namely: the age and presence of children in the household, husband's income, husband's employment, and non-labor income were significantly related to employment. Furthermore, the positive factors indicating the likelihood of being employed in 1989 for Mexican immigrant wives are: 1) being 25-54 years of age; 2) higher educational levels; 3) speaking fluent English; 4) lower levels of husband's income and non-labor income; 5) employment of husband in 1989; 6) absence of children under age 6 at home; 7) lower non-Hispanic female unemployment rates; 8) higher work force proportion employed in immigrant female-dependent occupations; 9) lower proportions of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) population being of Mexican origin; and 10) smaller MSA populations.

  12. Food Insecurity and Food Resource Utilization in an Urban Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Howard P; Zajfen, Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    Risk and prevalence of food insecurity and use of food security resources are important but incompletely understood factors in immigrant health. Key informant interviews and a survey (N = 809) of housing units were conducted in a San Diego, California neighborhood with a high proportion of immigrant and low income families. The difference in food insecurity between immigrant and non-immigrant households was non-significant (20.1 vs. 15.7 %, p = n.s.), though immigrant families were more likely to use food security resources such as SNAP (32.7 vs. 22.9 %, p < .01) and food pantries (28.2 vs. 19.7 %, p < .001). Among immigrants, neither national origin nor years in the United States predicted food insecurity or use of most food security resources. In immigrant families, food insecurity often remains a challenge long after immigration, suggesting a potentially increasing need for food security resources as immigration into the United States continues.

  13. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant's fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  14. Intersection of Canadian policy parameters affecting women with precarious immigration status: a baseline for understanding barriers to health.

    PubMed

    Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Hanley, Jill; Lach, Lucyna; Khanlou, Nazilla; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Agnew, Vijay

    2005-10-01

    Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from this precarious status. Federal immigration and health policies create direct barriers to health through regulation of immigrants' access to services as well as unintended secondary barriers. These direct and secondary policy barriers intersect with each other and with socio-cultural barriers arising from the migrant's socioeconomic and ethno-cultural background to undermine equitable access to health for immigrant women living in Canada.

  15. 7 CFR 273.32 - Households who return to TANF during the transitional period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS The Transitional Benefits Alternative § 273.32 Households who return to TANF during the transitional period. If a household receiving transitional benefits returns to...

  16. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  17. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  18. 7 CFR 274.6 - Replacement issuances and cards to households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM... issuances to a household when the household reports that food purchased with Program benefits was destroyed... the date food purchased with Program benefits is destroyed in a household misfortune. (ii) No limit...

  19. Development of a Culturally Specific Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.

    2007-01-01

    A rapid increase in the number of Chinese immigrants and the specific challenges faced by low-income Chinese immigrant youth attending urban schools warrant culturally sensitive school-based interventions and services. However, research and services are limited for this population because of cultural biases in traditional career theories and the…

  20. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and

  1. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  2. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  3. Immigration detention and faith-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susanna; Bell, Holly; Busch-Armendariz, Noël

    2015-04-01

    Immigration detention is a hot contemporary issue in the United States, with over 33,000 individuals held in detention facilities daily and reports of poor conditions and human rights abuses. Building on a growing body of theory exploring the role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in social services provision, and seeking to address a gap in the literature concerning services provided to immigrants in detention, this qualitative study explored the responses of FBOs to immigration detainees. Twenty in-depth interviews with volunteers and staff members of FBOs as well as field notes from participant observation were analyzed using thematic coding techniques. Findings suggest that FBOs are active leaders in this area of social work practice and provide significant resources to isolated and vulnerable detained immigrants in a variety of ways. Simultaneously, they face challenges surrounding access and constricted activity. The study indicates that considerable scope exists for expanding and enhancing faith-based and other social work engagement in this crucial field.

  4. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  5. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  6. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  7. [Immigration policies in Argentine law].

    PubMed

    Vichich, N P

    1988-12-01

    This paper analyzes contents of Argentine immigration laws in different periods of Argentine history and refers those contents to the State which enforced the corresponding immigration policies and to the socioeconomic structure they support. The Argentine constitution (1852) and subsequent immigration laws define 2 principal guidelines in population and immigration policies: 1) from 1852 until 1955 immigrants are seen as a part of socioeconomic growth, and 2) after 1955 the theory of national security prevails over considerations of an economic nature. With the return to democracy it should be possible to redefine immigration policies considering the country's demographic requirements and the migrants' own needs.

  8. Minors in Immigration Proceedings: Problems of Child Welfare and Immigration Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Susan S.; Weiss-Fagen, Patricia

    This document comprises a report on the status and needs of undocumented minor aliens detained by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and proposes a national policy regarding their care and treatment. Information was gathered from 26 site visits in the following states: (1) Arizona; (2) California; (3) Florida; (4) Nevada; (5) Texas;…

  9. Association between household food insecurity and annual health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Cheng, Joyce; de Oliveira, Claire; Dachner, Naomi; Gundersen, Craig; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Household food insecurity, a measure of income-related problems of food access, is growing in Canada and is tightly linked to poorer health status. We examined the association between household food insecurity status and annual health care costs. Methods: We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18–64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals’ direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. Results: Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. Compared with total annual health care costs in food-secure households, adjusted annual costs were 16% ($235) higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% confidence interval [CI] 10%–23% [$141–$334]), 32% ($455) higher in households with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 25%–39% [$361–$553]) and 76% ($1092) higher in households with severe food insecurity (95% CI 65%–88% [$934–$1260]). When costs of prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program were included, the adjusted annual costs were 23% higher in households with marginal food insecurity (95% CI 16%–31%), 49% higher in those with moderate food insecurity (95% CI 41%–57%) and 121% higher in those with severe food insecurity (95% CI 107%–136%). Interpretation: Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. Policy interventions at the provincial or federal level designed to reduce household food

  10. Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this literature review is to provide a critical overview of existing research on the health of immigrant youth within the last decade. Although the review focuses primarily on Canada, the findings have implications for public health planning, policy, and settlement/immigration services in other immigrant-receiving countries. The main objectives are: (i) to locate relevant literature written in the past 10 years (January 1998-January 2008); (ii) to undertake a critical review of retrieved studies; (iii) to highlight gaps in the current state of our knowledge and make recommendations for future research directions. The review focuses on the influence of migration experience on health of youth.

  11. The message of 187: facing up to illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, P H

    1995-01-01

    The author makes the case that the adoption of Proposition 187, the anti-illegal immigrant initiative, in California in 1994 was "an expression of public frustration with a government and civil society that seem out of touch and out of control, and with external convulsions that our borders can no longer contain." He suggests that the general public is increasingly concerned about the services provided to illegal aliens and their costs, and that responsible leadership should admit that illegal immigration, even at current levels, is not an unmitigated evil, and be prepared to set and enforce immigration limits.

  12. Sensitivity of Household Transmission to Household Contact Structure and Size

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, Achla; Lewis, Bryan; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Objective Study the influence of household contact structure on the spread of an influenza-like illness. Examine whether changes to in-home care giving arrangements can significantly affect the household transmission counts. Method We simulate two different behaviors for the symptomatic person; either s/he remains at home in contact with everyone else in the household or s/he remains at home in contact with only the primary caregiver in the household. The two different cases are referred to as full mixing and single caregiver, respectively. Results The results show that the household’s cumulative transmission count is lower in case of a single caregiver configuration than in the full mixing case. The household transmissions vary almost linearly with the household size in both single caregiver and full mixing cases. However the difference in household transmissions due to the difference in household structure grows with the household size especially in case of moderate flu. Conclusions These results suggest that details about human behavior and household structure do matter in epidemiological models. The policy of home isolation of the sick has significant effect on the household transmission count depending upon the household size. PMID:21829625

  13. Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Natives' attitudes toward immigrants and immigration policy are important factors in the context of reception of immigrants since they contribute to a warm or chilly welcome, which potentially shapes immigrant and ethnic identities and inter-group relations. Public opinion polls show a recent “warming” of Americans' traditional ambivalence about immigration. Empirical research on attitudes toward immigrants and racial groups formed by recent waves of immigrants resonate with the dynamic nature of Blumer's (1958) theory of prejudice as a sense of relative group position. To better understand this dynamism, research that intentionally contrasts study sites on conflict and contact conditions and the presence of absence of symbolic politics, as well as research with different native-born racial and ethnic groups, would reveal a broader range of natives' attitude formation processes and the role they play in immigrant reception. PMID:26966338

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION...

  15. America's Newcomers: An Immigrant Policy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Ann, Ed.

    This handbook contains five research papers and extensive reference materials on general immigration, immigrant policy, and related federal and state programs. "Immigration and Immigrant Policy" (Jonathan C. Dunlap) presents an historical overview of U.S. immigration, 1820s-1980s; defines various immigrant statuses and eligibility of each for…

  16. Long-term Impact of Integration of Household Water Treatment and Hygiene Promotion with Antenatal Services on Maternal Water Treatment and Hygiene Practices in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Loharikar, Anagha; Russo, Elizabeth; Sheth, Anandi; Menon, Manoj; Kudzala, Amose; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Ayers, Tracy; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A clinic-based program to integrate antenatal services with distribution of hygiene kits including safe water storage containers, water treatment solution (brand name WaterGuard), soap, and hygiene education, was implemented in Malawi in 2007 and evaluated in 2010. We surveyed 389 participants at baseline in 2007, and found and surveyed 232 (60%) participants to assess water treatment, test stored drinking water for residual chlorine (an objective measure of treatment), and observe handwashing technique at follow-up in 2010. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (67% versus 36%; P < 0.0001), treat drinking water with WaterGuard (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001), purchase and use WaterGuard (21% versus 1%; P < 0.001), and demonstrate correct handwashing technique (50% versus 21%; P < 0.001) at the three-year follow-up survey than at baseline. This antenatal-clinic-based program may have contributed to sustained water treatment and proper handwashing technique among program participants. PMID:23243106

  17. Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

  18. Legacies of Immigration: Children of Immigrants' Experiences Navigating Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration, as a continuous phenomenon, extends beyond a singular migratory event that an individual experiences. The purpose of this research project was to explore the college experiences of second-generation immigrants and how their family relationships, immigrant histories, and socioeconomic status directly and indirectly shaped their…

  19. Children of Immigrants: Immigration Trends. Fact Sheet No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuny, Karina; Chaudry, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of publications on children of immigrants. The series updates the Urban Institute's May 2006 fact sheet that described the characteristics of children of immigrants in the early 2000s. The current series profiles the population of children of immigrants in the United States using data from the 2007 American…

  20. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  1. Bilingual "Educación" in the Home: Everyday Mexican Immigrant Family Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    As we embrace the increasing numbers of young Mexican immigrant children and their families present in our schools, it is important for educators to better understand the many family educational practices present in these households. This article examines the strategies and resources utilized by two Mexican-born and two U.S.-born Mexican immigrant…

  2. Reading and Math Achievement among Low-Income Urban Latino Youth: The Role of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmannova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a household-based, stratified random sample of youth and their caregivers from low-income inner-city neighborhoods, this study examined the variability in the academic achievement of Latino youth. The results indicate a significant advantage in reading achievement for first- and second-generation immigrant youth, as compared to the…

  3. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  4. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  5. [The fight against clandestine immigration].

    PubMed

    Sayah, J

    1995-01-01

    The history of recent French legislation on immigration is discussed. The author examines the consequences of stricter immigration laws, suggesting that they force more people into illegality and thus increase public suspicion of and action against foreigners.

  6. Health care providers' perspective of the gender influences on immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Joyce M; Donnelly, Tamphd T

    2007-10-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders. Evidence has shown that immigrant women experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. Informed by the post-colonial feminist perspective, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provide mental health services to immigrant women. In-depth interviews were used to obtain information about immigrant women's mental health care experiences. The primary goal was to explore how contextual factors intersect with race, gender, and class to influence the ways in which immigrant women seek help and to increase awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health care needs of the immigrant women. The study's results reveal that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties accessing mental health care due to insufficient language skills, unfamiliarity/unawareness of services, and low socioeconomic status; (b) participants identified structural barriers and gender roles as barriers to accessing the available mental health services; (c) the health care relationship between health care providers and women had profound effects on whether or not immigrant women seek help for mental health problems.

  7. A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Busetta, Annalisa; Cetorelli, Valeria; Wilson, Ben

    2017-03-16

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  8. The Effect of Immigration on Religious Belief and Practice: A Theologizing or Alienating Experience?

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Higgins, Monica Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the New Immigrant Survey, we examine the religious beliefs and practices of new legal immigrants to the United States. We find that Christian immigrants are more Catholic, more Orthodox, and less Protestant than American Christians, and that those immigrants who are Protestant are more likely to be evangelical. In addition to being more Catholic and more Orthodox than American Christians, the new immigrants are also paradoxically less Christian, with a fifth reporting some other faith. Detailed analysis of reported church attendance at places of origin and in the United States suggest that immigration is a disruptive event that alienates immigrants from religious practice rather than “theologizing” them. In addition, our models clearly show that people who join congregations in the United States are highly selected and unrepresentative of the broader population of immigrants in any faith. In general, congregational members were more observant both before and after emigration, were more educated, had more cumulative experience in the United States, and were more likely to have children present in the household and be homeowners and therefore yield biased representations of all adherents to any faith. The degree of selectivity and hence bias also varies markedly both by religion and nationality. PMID:23606773

  9. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  10. Building Partnerships with Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Andrea; Kugler, Eileen Gale

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, immigrant-rich Annandale High School in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., launched a focused effort to bring more parents of students from immigrant families into school leadership. Nearly half of the parents of Annandale High students are immigrants to the United States--and they come from more than 80 different countries.…

  11. Immigration: One of Today's Enigmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Ellen G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the issues and questions involved in the current debate on immigration policy. Discusses recent amendments to the immigration laws, closing the borders to the unskilled and poor. Outlines the four types of potentially acceptable immigration applicants and considers the economic impact of the current policy. (MJP)

  12. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    PubMed

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs.

  13. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    PubMed

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  14. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

  15. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers) and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day) within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on inexpensive staple foods and

  16. Prevalence of postpartum depression among immigrant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Shiri, Rahman; Vigod, Simone; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were threefold: to estimate the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women, compare this prevalence to non-immigrant women, and determine risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ResearchGate and Google Scholar databases from 1950 until October 2014. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria of which 22 (12 cross-sectional and 10 prospective cohort) contributed data for meta-analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms in immigrant women was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17-23%, 18 studies, N = 13,749 women). Immigrant women were twice more likely to experience depressive symptoms in the postpartum period than non-immigrant women (pooled unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.10 [95% CI 1.62-2.73, 15 studies, N = 50,519 women] and adjusted OR = 2.18 [95% CI 1.60-2.96, 7 studies, N = 35,557 women]). There was, however, evidence of publication bias with the pooled adjusted OR reduced to 1.63 (95% CI 1.22-2.17) after adjustment for bias. Risk factors associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant women included shorter length of residence in the destination country, lower levels of social support, poorer marital adjustment, and perceived insufficient household income. This study suggests that postpartum depression is a common condition among immigrant women. Moreover, immigrant women are at higher risk of postpartum depression than non-immigrant women. Further prospective studies on the risk factors of postpartum depression among immigrant women verified by a clinical diagnosis are needed.

  17. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  18. Mental Health and Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the psychosocial implications of immigration. Immigration is a complex, emotionally charged process which involves leaving behind old values, relationships, security, and resettling in an unknown culture with a new set of norms and boundaries. Some studies report a higher incidence of psychiatric illness in a migrant population than among the native born. Preventive and early therapeutic intervention is mandatory. In order to facilitate acculturation and eventual adaptation, the host society should promote easy access to the health-care systems, educational facilities, housing requirements and community organizations. PMID:21267172

  19. The health of immigrants and refugees in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Morton

    2005-01-01

    Canada admits between more than 200,000 immigrants every year. National policy emphasizes rigorous selection to ensure that Canada admits healthy immigrants. However, remarkably little policy is directed to ensuring that they stay healthy. This neglect is wrong-headed: keeping new settlers healthy is just, humane, and consistent with national self-interest. By identifying personal vulnerabilities, salient resettlement stressors that act alone or interact with predisposition in order to create health risk, and the personal and social resources that reduce risk and promote well-being, health research can enlighten policy and practice. However, the paradigms that have dominated immigrant health research over the past 100 years--the "sick" and "healthy immigrant," respectively--have been inadequate. Part of the problem is that socio-political controversy has influenced the questions asked about immigrant health, and the manner of their investigation. Beginning with a review of studies that point out the shortcomings of the sick immigrant and healthy immigrant paradigms, this article argues that an interaction model that takes into account both predisposition and socio-environmental factors, provides the best explanatory framework for extant findings, and the best guide for future research. Finally, the article argues that forging stronger links between research, policy and the delivery of services will not only help make resettlement a more humane process, it will help ensure that Canada benefits from the human capital that its newest settlers bring with them.

  20. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  1. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-12-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV.

  2. Parameters of Household Composition as Demographic Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data, such as Census statistics, enable the re-enactment of household lifecourse through the construction of the household composition matrix, a tabulation of persons in households by their age and by the age of their corresponding household-heads. Household lifecourse is represented in the household composition matrix somewhat…

  3. Estimating rural households' willingness to pay for health insurance.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ali; Willis, Ken; Taghvaei, Ali Akbar; Rafeian, Mojtaba

    2004-10-01

    In many developing countries limited health budgets are a serious problem. Innovative ways to raise funds for the provision of health services, for example, through health care insurance, have a high priority. Health care insurance for rural households shields such patients from unexpected high costs of care. However, there are questions about whether, and how much, rural households are willing to pay to purchase such insurance, as well as the factors determining willingness to pay. In recent years the Iranian government has tried to improve health and medical services to rural areas through a health insurance program. This study was conducted to estimate rural households' demand and willingness to pay for health insurance. A contingent valuation method (CVM) was applied using an iterative bidding game technique. Data has been collected from a sample of 2,139 households across the country.

  4. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.2... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.2... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.2... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.2... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.2 - Service counsel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.2... disposition by the immigration judge. The duties of the Service counsel include, but are not limited to,...

  9. Mexican immigration and health care: a political economy perspective.

    PubMed

    Chavez, L R

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the case of Mexican immigrants in the United States and their access to medical services within a political economy of health framework. Such an approach stresses that the provision of health care is independent of health factors per se and that access to health care is not equally distributed throughout a population. The first section reviews the three major concepts influencing medical anthropologists working within a political economy framework: the social origins of illness; the allocation of health resources; and fieldwork in Third World countries. The analysis then focuses upon the reasons for limiting immigrants' access to health care, followed by an examination of the socioeconomic characteristics of Mexican immigrants, including an undocumented immigration status, which limit their access to health care. Finally, the consequences of limited access to health services are suggested, including a low utilization of preventive health services resulting from the high cost of care combined with the immigrants' generally low income, lack of medical insurance and fear of using U.S. health services.

  10. Latino immigration: Preparing school psychologists to meet students' needs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Joslin, Jacqueline J; Carrillo, Gerardo L; Guzman, Veronica; Vega, Desireé; Plotts, Cynthia A; Lasser, Jon

    2016-06-01

    As the population of immigrant Latino students continues to rise, school psychologists serving Latino children and families must develop the knowledge and skills necessary to provide high-quality psychological services to culturally and linguistically diverse students from immigrant families. Following a review of the relevant literature on the educational, social, and emotional needs of immigrant Latino children, we describe Project SUPERB (Scholars Using Psychology and Education to Reach Bilinguals), a grant-funded initiative to address the shortage of bilingual (Spanish-English) school psychologists. We discuss important issues regarding training and preparation to develop the competencies necessary for effective assessment, intervention, and collaboration in the context of school settings to help immigrant children achieve success. Finally, we identify ways in which school psychologists may adopt a leadership role in working with schools and families to promote positive outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. [Focus on Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Chester, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This journal issue consists of articles and other information about immigration issues, as well as discussions of the utility of racial and ethnic categories. "An International Perspective on Migration" (Cathi Tactaquin) examines the intertwined economic, political, and environmental causes of international migration; discusses how…

  12. Dynamics of immigration control.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic implications of US border control policies and internal enforcement measures for the pattern of illegal immigration and the sectoral allocation of clandestine foreign workers. Efforts to counteract illegal immigration into the US have been increasing steadily following the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The purpose of the Act is to reduce illegal immigration with the aid of three instruments: 1) employer sanctions; 2) increased controls along the border; and 3) a legalization program designed to meet the existing demand for agricultural labor in geographic locations that are in proximity of Mexico, the principal source of clandestine foreign labor. The effect of tougher border control measures increases the cost of illegal entry, discouraging clandestine inflows. On the other hand, these measures induce migrants to increase their own anti-detection efforts, reducing the probability of detection and the deportation rate. If the latter effect should dominate, the steady-state stock of clandestine foreign labor will actually increase in response to more vigorous border control measures. Explicit consideration of the role of networks in the clandestine labor market suggests the need for a drastic policy change. This policy change should target illegal migration in areas with high concentrations of clandestine foreign workers. Complementary measures should accompany this policy change to prevent unbalanced enforcement measures.

  13. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  14. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  15. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  16. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  17. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  18. 8 CFR 286.8 - Establishment of pilot programs for the charging of a land border fee for inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.8 Establishment of pilot... charge fees for immigration inspection services to be collected by the Commissioner. Individual ports-of... inspection services and to recover the cost of: (a) Hiring additional immigration inspectors, including...

  19. Cultural factors and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.

  20. Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: a case study of Jarva, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Andersson, Mari

    2013-05-01

    The recycling behaviour of multicultural householders was investigated in the urban area of Järva, northwest Stockholm, Sweden, which is home to a significant proportion of immigrants from different parts of the world. Different ethnic minorities currently make up an important proportion of the urban population in Sweden, but little is known about their recycling behaviour and attitudes. Using quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interviews) methodology, possible determinants of recycling behaviour were investigated among Järva householders. It was found that attitude toward the importance of recycling had a positive correlation and was the main determinant of recycling behaviour among these householders. In contrast, environmental concern, satisfaction with the facilities provided, recycling confidence, community identity and socio-demographical factors showed no correlation with their recycling behaviour. Other results of the study indicated a need to investigate the specific behaviour of multicultural householders regarding source-separated collection and the recycling of hazardous, electronic and bulky wastes.

  1. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  2. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  3. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  4. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  5. 8 CFR 299.2 - Distribution of Service forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of Service forms. 299.2 Section 299.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION FORMS § 299.2 Distribution of Service forms. The distribution of official Immigration and...

  6. Impact of Alabama's immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2014-03-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama's 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children's access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women's increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions.

  7. [Immigration and economic development in Eastern Asia].

    PubMed

    Lim, L L

    1994-01-01

    This work describes recent trends in East Asian migration and their economic effects. The great waves of emigration of the past have largely ceased from Japan and the "dragons" of East Asia, and all have become countries of illegal immigration, return of emigrants, and legal entry of professionals. All the countries except Hong Kong have maintained strict immigration policies in order to protect their traditional and homogeneous societies and the employment and income of their own citizens. But despite active encouragement of industrial displacement to countries with cheap and abundant manpower, the labor shortages in these countries have become so severe that they have had to tolerate increased immigration. There is little evidence that immigrants have taken the jobs of natives or caused their incomes to decrease. They appear to complement shrinking local labor forces in these countries of drastically reduced fertility. The annual growth of the active population is predicted to decline from 523,000 in the 1980s to 227,000 in the 1990s in Japan, from 231,000 to 149,000 in Taiwan, and from 400,000 to 300,000 in Korea. Full employment was achieved in Japan in the early 1960s, in Taiwan in the late 1960s, in Hong Kong in the early 1970s, and in Korea in the late 1980s. Full employment was the major factor prompting relaxed immigration controls in these countries. The foreign workers are concentrated in less skilled jobs in dirty or dangerous industries that are shunned by the local population. Opponents of liberalized immigration policies cite the supplementary expenditures for infrastructure and services necessitated by the workers as well as for integration of workers desiring longterm settlement, especially if they are of different ethnicity. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about the overall positive or negative impact of immigration in East Asia without specifying the perspective from which the analysis is made--economic or social, short or long term, from

  8. The impact of AIDS, immigration and housing overcrowding on tuberculosis deaths in São Paulo, Brazil, 1994-1998.

    PubMed

    Antunes, J L; Waldman, E A

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the distribution of tuberculosis (TB) mortality by area in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 1998, and to evaluate its statistical association with several population characteristics. We surveyed TB deaths grouped by residential area, at the district level, and we calculated the rates for these areas standardized by gender and age groups. We applied simultaneous autoregressive--SAR regression analysis (autocorrelated errors model) in order to fit a "stepwise" model correlating TB deaths with the variables of interest. Significant associations were found between TB mortality rates and AIDS mortality rates, overcrowding at the household level, social development (expressed by a socioeconomic index), and rates of foreign immigration and immigration from other Brazilian States. Regression analysis allowed us to estimate the frequency of TB deaths virtually attributable to co-infection with HIV at 22.37% (95% confidence interval: 12.15-41.17%). TB death rates and utilization of public health services were not statistically associated, suggesting a reduced effectiveness of programs directed at control of the disease. The correlation between TB death rates and deprivation, measured by the socioeconomic index, indicates higher mortality in underprivileged areas. The significance of the association between housing overcrowding and TB deaths, in contrast to the absence of association with district-level overcrowding, indicates that prolonged contact is needed for disease transmission. Although the influx of foreigners and national migrants to the city diminished after the 1980s, immigration rates have been significantly correlated with TB mortality, suggesting greater vulnerability of these population segments to the disease.

  9. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  10. Formation of Foreign Communicative Competence of Adult Immigrants in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovets, Olesya

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of forming foreign communicative competence of adult immigrants has been substantiated. The topicality of this issue for Ukraine has been defined. The experience of Global Talent Bridge, an initiative of World Education Services that is dedicated to helping skilled immigrants fully utilize their talents and education in the United…

  11. A Handbook for Immigrant Parents: Protect the Educational Rights of Your Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    This handbook for immigrant parents outlines the legal rights of immigrant children to educational services. All children in the United States have a right to attend school. Schools may require proof of residency and vaccination before enrollment, but a signed sworn statement attesting to the child's age may be substituted for a birth certificate.…

  12. Psychosocial Empowerment and Social Support Factors Associated with the Employment Status of Immigrant Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramirez, Manuel; Martinez, Manuel F.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Albar, Maria-Jesus; Dominguez, Eugenia; Santolaya, Francisco J.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the role that psychosocial empowerment and social support factors play in the employment status of immigrants who participate in job-readiness programs financed by the European Social Funds and the Welfare Services of Andalusia, a region in the south of Spain. The goal of these programs is to find new ways to improve immigrants'…

  13. Immigrant Parents' Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Care Practices in the Finnish Multicultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastikka, Anna-Leena; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of immigrant families is increasing in Finland, the research on their perspectives on early childhood and care (ECEC) services is scarce. The objective of this small-scale case study was to increase the understanding of immigrant families' perspectives on ECEC practices. Through the qualitative content analysis of…

  14. Differences between native and immigrant women in Taiwan in factors associated with caesarean section: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shiue-Shan; Lin, Chen-Li; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-10-04

    This study aimed to examine the association of social support, social factors, and maternal complications with caesarean deliveries in native and immigrant women, and to explore the association between acculturation and caesarean deliveries in immigrant women in Taiwan. This prospective panel study was conducted from August 2012 through April 2014 and included 222 native and 147 immigrant pregnant women in Taiwan. Caesarean rates did not differ significantly between native and immigrant women, including the overall caesarean rate (28.8%, 32.0%), medically indicated caesarean (22.5%, 24.5%), and caesarean without medical indications (6.3%, 7.5%). Results of multiple logistic regression models revealed that maternal complications and household activity support were positively associated with caesarean deliveries. Both native and immigrant women with high levels of informational support were less likely to receive caesareans. Immigrant women who were older than 35 years, had a middle level socioeconomic status, and perceived a high level of acceptance of caesarean in Taiwan were more likely to have caesarean deliveries. Informational support was a protective factor for caesarean delivery, whereas household activity support offered by the family was positively associated with caesarean delivery. Perceived acceptance level in mainstream society could affect immigrant women's use of caesarean delivery.

  15. American household structure in transition.

    PubMed

    Glick, P C

    1984-01-01

    The number of U.S. households rose by 58 percent between 1960 and 1983, with nontraditional household types accounting for most of the increase. Whereas the number of households containing married couples with children younger than 18 rose by only four percent over the period, one-parent households increased by 175 percent; one-person households, by 173 percent; and households composed of unmarried couples, by 331 percent. In 1983, households maintained by married couples constituted six in 10 U.S. households; the second most common household type--adults living alone--accounted for about one-quarter of all households. Lone parents living with their children represent nearly one in 10 households. Almost all of these parents are women--of whom two-thirds are separated or divorced, one-quarter have never been married, and fewer than one in 10 are widows. Among adults living alone, women aged 45 and older predominate; but the rate at which the practice has been adopted since 1960 has been greatest among those under age 45. Most of the growth in the number of one-person households occurred during the 1970s. The increase in cohabitation--most of it also in the 1970s--has similarly been concentrated in the younger age-groups. The living arrangements of children younger than 18 have changed accordingly over the two decades. Since 1960, the number of children living with two parents has declined by nearly one-fifth, and the number living with one parent--generally the mother--has more than doubled.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  17. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  19. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  20. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  1. Adding immigrants to microsimulation models.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Forecasts of the financial status of Social Security's Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) programs and forecasts of the effects of various OASDI policy options on Americans would be improved if information about the earnings and labor force behavior of various population subgroups were included in projection models. Focusing on the projection of immigrant earnings, this article proffers a conceptual basis for incorporating immigration into microsimulation models. Key results from research on immigrant earnings, as described in the first article in this trilogy--"Research on Immigrant Earnings"--are linked to methods for forecasting individual earnings in microsimulation models. The research on immigrant earnings also inspires new methods for forecasting earnings in microsimulation models as well as the projection of immigrant emigration. Forecasting immigrant earnings and emigration is discussed in the context of a "closed system"--that is, forecasts are only made for a given population, which is represented in the base sample of the microsimulation model. The third article in our trilogy--"Incorporating Immigrant Flows into Microsimulation Models"--explores how to project immigrant earnings in the context of an "open system," which includes future immigrants.

  2. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.

  3. Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Survey of Children's Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA. PMID:24288488

  4. Informal payments and intra-household allocation of resources for health care in Albania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Informal payments for health care services can impose financial hardship on households. Many studies have found that the position within the household can influence the decision on how much is spent on each household member. This study analyses the intra-household differences in spending on informal payments for health care services by comparing the resources allocated between household heads, spouses and children. Methods Pooled data from two cross sectional surveys, the Albanian Living Standard Measurement Survey 2002 and 2005, are used to analyse both the probability and the amount paid in inpatient and outpatient health care services. A generalised Hausman specification test is used to compare the coefficients of probit and OLS models for nuclear and extended households. Results We find that due to the widespread informal payments there are no significant differences between households in the incidence of informal payments for households' members, but there are more differences in the amount paid informally. Results suggest that households strategically allocate their resources on health care by favouring individuals with higher earning potential who have invested more in human capital. Extended households pay higher amounts for spouses with higher education compared to nuclear households. On the other hand, nuclear households choose to pay higher amounts for children with a higher level of education compared to extended households. Conclusions The differences between households should be taken into account by public policies which should compensate this by redistribution mechanisms targeting disadvantaged groups. Governments should implement effective measures to deal with informal patient payments. JEL Codes: I10, I19, D10 PMID:22270038

  5. Experiences of Latino Immigrant Families in North Carolina Help Explain Elevated Levels of Food Insecurity and Hunger1

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Shoaf, John I.; Tapia, Janeth; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Clark, Heather M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Household food insecurity is higher among minority households in the U.S., but few data exist on households of recent minority immigrants, in part because such households are difficult to sample. Four studies of a total of 317 Latino immigrant families were conducted in different regions and during different seasons in North Carolina. A Spanish translation of the 18-item U.S. Food Security Survey Module was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger. In 3 of the studies, a total of 76 in-depth interviews were conducted to gather information on immigrants' experiences of food insecurity. Households in the 4 studies classified as food secure ranged from 28.7 to 50.9%, compared with 82.4% in the U.S. in 2004. Food insecurity without hunger ranged from 35.6% to 41.8%, compared with 13.3% in the U.S. The highest rates of hunger reported were 18.8% (moderate hunger) and 16.8% (severe hunger) in an urban sample. Qualitative data indicate that food insecurity has both quantitative and qualitative effects on diet. Immigrants experience adverse psychological effects of food insecurity. They report experiencing a period of adjustment to food insecurity leading to empowerment to resolve the situation. Reactions to food insecurity differ from those reported by others, possibly because immigrants encounter a new and not chronic situation. Overall, these findings suggest that immigrant Latinos experience significant levels of food insecurity that are not addressed by current governmental programs. PMID:16988139

  6. Experiences of Latino immigrant families in North Carolina help explain elevated levels of food insecurity and hunger.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Shoaf, John I; Tapia, Janeth; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Clark, Heather M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2006-10-01

    Household food insecurity is higher among minority households in the U.S., but few data exist on households of recent minority immigrants, in part because such households are difficult to sample. Four studies of a total of 317 Latino immigrant families were conducted in different regions and during different seasons in North Carolina. A Spanish translation of the 18-item U.S. Food Security Survey Module was used to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger. In 3 of the studies, a total of 76 in-depth interviews were conducted to gather information on immigrants' experiences of food insecurity. Households in the 4 studies classified as food secure ranged from 28.7 to 50.9%, compared with 82.4% in the U.S. in 2004. Food insecurity without hunger ranged from 35.6% to 41.8%, compared with 13.3% in the U.S. The highest rates of hunger reported were 18.8% (moderate hunger) and 16.8% (severe hunger) in an urban sample. Qualitative data indicate that food insecurity has both quantitative and qualitative effects on diet. Immigrants experience adverse psychological effects of food insecurity. They report experiencing a period of adjustment to food insecurity leading to empowerment to resolve the situation. Reactions to food insecurity differ from those reported by others, possibly because immigrants encounter a new and not chronic situation. Overall, these findings suggest that immigrant Latinos experience significant levels of food insecurity that are not addressed by current governmental programs.

  7. The economic consequences of immigration.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Tienda, M

    1987-02-06

    Available research supports several major conclusions about the economic consequences of immigration. (i) The aggregate impacts of foreign workers on the earnings and employment of native workers are quite small, but differ for selected population subgroups and high ethnic density labor markets. (ii) Immigrants who arrived during the 1970s are less skilled than earlier arrivals, and their earnings will remain substantially below those of natives throughout their working lives. (iii) The evidence on immigrants' receipt of public assistance income is inconclusive.

  8. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples.

  9. Michigan Household Hazardous Substance Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Janet; Stone Nancy

    Common household hazardous substances include cleansers, drain cleaners, automotive products, paints, solvents, and pesticides. This handbook was designed to serve as a resource for people frequently contacted by the public for information on household hazardous substances and wastes. Included in the handbook are: (1) an introduction to Michigan's…

  10. The Division of Household Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna D.; Huber, Joan

    A study was conducted to test the following hypotheses concerning division of household labor (DOHL) between husbands and wives: (1) the division of household labor is somewhat affected by the availability of time, especially the wife's time; (2) there are strong effects of relative power, as measured by market-related resources, marital…

  11. Food insecurity and its sociodemographic correlates among Afghan immigrants in Iran.

    PubMed

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Ghazi-Tabatabie, Mahmoud; Sadeghi, Rasoul; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal

    2013-09-01

    The study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and its sociodemographic determinants among Afghan immigrants in two major cities of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 310 adult females from immigrant Afghan households in Tehran (n=155) and Mashhad (n=155), who were recruited through multistage sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, using a questionnaire. Food security was measured by a locally-adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. More than 60% suffered from moderate-to-severe food insecurity, 37% were mildly food-insecure while about 23% were food-secure. Food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in female-headed households, households whose head and spouse had lower level of education, belonged to the Sunni sect, and those with illegal residential status, unemployment/low job status, not owning their house, low socioeconomic status (SES), and living in Mashhad. Prevalence of food insecurity was relatively high among Afghan immigrants in Iran. This calls for the need to develop community food security strategies for ensuring their short- and long-term health.

  12. Adolescent mothers leaving multigenerational households.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.

  13. Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Cécile; Drapeau, Aline

    2004-12-01

    Although the distinction between independent immigrants and refugees has an impact on policy, services, and public opinion because it implies differences in resettlement needs, few recent studies have documented the validity of this assumption. In this population-based survey of recent migrants in Quebec (N = 1871), immigration status (refugee, independent, or sponsored immigrant) is examined in relation to premigration exposure to political violence and refugees' emotional distress, assessed with the SCL-25. A higher percentage of refugees reported exposure to political violence in their homeland, but the percentages of exposed independent (48%) and sponsored (42%) immigrants were unexpectedly high. Emotional distress was significantly higher among Chinese respondents who had witnessed acts of violence and in subjects from Arab countries who reported persecution. These results suggest that service providers and policy makers should not assume that independent immigrants have not been exposed to political violence before their migration.

  14. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  15. Hebrew language usage: determinants and effects on earnings among immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1998-01-01

    "This paper uses the 1983 Census of Israel to analyze Hebrew speaking skills and the effects of Hebrew fluency on the earnings of adult male immigrants. Hebrew fluency increases with a longer duration in Israel, the presence of children in the household, marrying after immigration, living in an area in which a smaller proportion speak one's mother tongue, a younger age at migration, a higher level of schooling and varies by country of birth. Earnings increase monotonically with the use of Hebrew. Speaking English as a second language is associated with higher earnings, even when country of origin is held constant."

  16. Educational Progression of Second-Generation Immigrants and Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colding, Bjorg; Husted, Leif; Hummelgaard, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides important new insights into the reasons for the observed gap in educational attainment between children of immigrants and natives in Denmark using a dynamic discrete model of educational choices to determine at what stages of their educational careers children of immigrants face barriers to educational progression and how…

  17. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  18. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  19. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  20. Engaging Immigrant Students. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lynn; Bloomdahl, Susana Contreras

    2011-01-01

    For an educator who speaks only English, engaging immigrant English language learners (ELL) in the classroom can be a significant challenge. As a former classroom teacher, elementary school principal and guidance counselor, the authors have worked with immigrant student populations in K-12 schools. They have found that a good way to overcome the…

  1. Towards an Environmentalist Immigration Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alternatives, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This article presents Zero Population Growth - Canada's recommendations on immigration policy. It suggests that immigration be used to stabilize population by establishing a ceiling and specifying a selection procedure. Also Canada should not base its economy on imported skilled and nonskilled labor and employers should not hire illegal…

  2. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  3. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  4. Health Selection Among New Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Akresh, Ilana Redstone

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify the extent of health selection (i.e., the degree to which potential immigrants migrate, or fail to migrate, on the basis of their health status) among contemporary US immigrant groups and evaluate the degree that selection explains variation in self-rated health among US legal permanent residents. Methods. Data came from the New Immigrant Survey 2003 cohort. We estimated the extent of positive and negative health selection through a unique series of questions asking immigrants in the United States to evaluate their health and compare it to that of citizens in their country of origin. Results. The extent of positive health selection differed significantly across immigrant groups and was related to compositional differences in the socioeconomic profiles of immigrant streams. Conclusions. The salience of socioeconomic status and English-language ability in explaining health differentials across immigrant groups reinforces the importance of further research on the role of these factors in contributing to the health of immigrants above and beyond the need for additional attention to the health selection process. PMID:18309141

  5. Fighting for Immigrant Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2007-01-01

    On the morning of Dec. 12, 2006, hundreds of federal agents from Immigration and Customs Enforcement descended upon six Swift and Co. meat-packing plants in Texas, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota and Utah affecting communities. These federal crackdowns on illegal immigrants reverberate in schools too, forcing superintendents to confront some…

  6. Immigrant Identity in Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Candice C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I report research on representations of immigrant identities in one university where teacher candidates matriculated in undergraduate and graduate degree programs. The case study occurred in a community where immigrants were highly visible. A content analysis of curriculum for teacher preparation provided a view of factors that…

  7. [Antecedents of and reflections on immigration policy in the United States].

    PubMed

    Velazquez Flores, R

    1994-01-01

    The background and determinants of US migration policy regarding Mexico are analyzed. Examination of migration policy through World War II demonstrates the coexistence of efforts to assure an adequate labor force by stimulating immigration with xenophobic fears and efforts to restrict immigration of specific groups. More recent policy measures--the 1952 McCarran-Walter Act prohibiting work in the US without migration documents, the 1954 "Operation Wetback" program to deport illegal immigrants, and the 1986 Simpson-Rodino law sanctioning employers who hire illegal immigrants--represented juridical and political responses to an essentially economic and social problem. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of the early 1990s largely ignored the difficult issue of illegal immigration, missing an opportunity for bilateral consideration of the problem. In early 1994, the US government increased the budget for border surveillance and initiated other actions to curb illegal immigration. Three states with large undocumented Mexican immigrant populations sued the Federal government for reimbursement of their expenditures, and California's Proposition 187 called for denying educational and medical services to family members of illegal immigrants. US migration policy has always attempted to stop the flow of illegal immigrants. The large numbers still present demonstrate that blockades, deportations, and other measures have been only partially successful.

  8. Accessibility and use of primary healthcare for immigrants living in the Niagara Region.

    PubMed

    Lum, Irene D; Swartz, Rebecca H; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2016-05-01

    Although the challenges of accessing and using primary healthcare for new immigrants to Canada have been fairly well documented, the focus has primarily been on large cities with significant immigrant populations. The experiences of immigrants living in smaller, less diverse urban centres remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of immigrants living in a small urban centre with regards to the primary healthcare system. A total of 13 immigrants living in the Greater Niagara Region participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded and analyzed for emergent themes using NVivo. Five factors were found to impact primary care access and use: lack of social contacts, lack of universal healthcare coverage during their initial arrival, language as a barrier, treatment preferences, and geographic distance to primary care. Overall findings suggest that immigrants moving to smaller areas such as the Niagara Region face similar barriers to primary care as those moving into large cities. Some barriers, however, appear to be specific to the context of smaller urban centres, further exacerbated by living in a small city due to a smaller immigrant population, fewer services for immigrants, and less diversity in practicing physicians. More research is required to understand the contextual factors inhibiting primary care access and use among immigrants moving to smaller urban centres, and determine effective strategies to overcome these barriers.

  9. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  10. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  11. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  12. 26 CFR 1.679-5 - Pre-immigration trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pre-immigration trusts. 1.679-5 Section 1.679-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-5...

  13. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  14. Immigrant Students and Secondary School Reform: Compendium Of Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Shelley; Carolino, Barbara; Amen, Kali-Ahset; Smith; Kimberly Ball, Ed

    2004-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), through the Immigrant Students and Secondary School Reform project, seeks to strengthen the capacity of state education agencies and districts to improve delivery of educational services to English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in high schools undergoing reform. This compendium was developed…

  15. 76 FR 53763 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ...The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is amending its regulations to enable U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) to migrate from a paper file-based, non-integrated systems environment to an electronic customer-focused, centralized case management environment for benefit processing. This transformation process will allow USCIS to streamline benefit processing, eliminate the......

  16. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Kerstin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents the effects of increasingly restrictive immigration and border policies on Mexican migrant workers in the United States. Methods Drawing on data from the Mexican Migration Project we create a data file that links age, education, English language ability, and cumulative U.S. experience in three legal categories (documented, undocumented, guest worker) to the occupational status and wage attained by migrant household heads on their most recent U.S. trip. Results We find that the wage and occupational returns to various forms of human capital generally declined after harsher policies were imposed and enforcement dramatically increased after 1996, especially for U.S. experience and English language ability. Conclusion These results indicate that the labor market status of legal immigrants has deteriorated significantly in recent years as larger shares of the migrant workforce came to lack labor rights, either because they were undocumented or because they held temporary visas that did not allow mobility or bargaining over wages and working conditions. PMID:21857750

  17. Identifying Sources of Health Care Underutilization Among California’s Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies show that immigrants face significant barriers in accessing health care. These barriers may be particularly pronounced for newer immigrants, who may face additional obstacles in navigating the health care system. Understanding the sources of health care disparities between recent and non-recent immigrants may allow for better design of policies and interventions to address the vulnerabilities unique to different subgroups of immigrants defined by their length of residency. This study employs descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression to estimate the likelihood of accessing and utilizing health care services based on immigration-related factors after controlling for predisposing, enabling, and health care need factors. We also employ a regression-based decomposition method to determine whether health care differences between recent and non-recent immigrants are statistically significant and to identify the primary drivers of healthcare differences between recent and non-recent immigrants. The findings support the hypothesis that significant disparities in health care access and utilization exist between recent and non-recent immigrants. We found that health care access and utilization differences between recent and non-recent immigrants were driven primarily by enabling resources, including limited English proficiency (LEP), insurance status, public assistance usage, and poverty level. These results indicate that not only are newer immigrants more likely to underutilize health care, but also that their underutilization is driven primarily by their lack of insurance, lack of adequate financial resources, and inability to navigate the health care system due to LEP. The results further indicate that immigrants with prolonged LEP may be less likely to have a usual source of care and more likely to report delays in obtaining medical treatments, than even recent immigrants with LEP. PMID:26561540

  18. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  19. The immigrant paradox on internalizing symptoms among immigrant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Anica G

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant paradox on health outcomes among UK's immigrant adolescents will greatly complement the research on immigrants that has already been established there by economists and interdisciplinary fields. This study used the first Longitudinal Study of Young People in England 2004-2010 database (N = 15,770) to determine a) whether there was evidence of the immigrant paradox on internalizing mental health symptoms between first generation (n = 753) and second plus generation (n = 3042) 14/15 year old immigrant adolescents in England and b) whether differences (if any) were moderated by ethnicity group membership (Black African, Black Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Asian Other, White Immigrant). Findings demonstrate that overall first generation adolescent immigrants had statistically fewer internalizing symptoms as compared to second plus generation, and that this was especially true for Black African adolescents. Effect sizes measures however indicated that these differences were negligible. Implications for protective factors and future studies are briefly discussed.

  20. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    PubMed

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  1. Iranian Household Financial Protection against Catastrophic Health Care Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, M Nekoei; Banshi, M; Javar, M Akbari; Amiresmaili, M; Ganjavi, S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protecting households against financial risks is one of objectives of any health system. In this regard, Iran’s fourth five year developmental plan act in its 90th article, articulated decreasing household’s exposure to catastrophic health expenditure to one percent. Hence, this study aimed to measure percentage of Iranian households exposed to catastrophic health expenditures and to explore its determinants. Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was carried out retrospectively. Households whose financial contributions to the health system exceeded 40% of disposable income were considered as exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare expenditures were examined by logistic regression and chi-square test. Results: Of 39,088 households, 80 were excluded due to absence of food expenditures. 2.8% of households were exposed to catastrophic health expenditures. Influential factors on catastrophic healthcare were utilizing ambulatory, hospital, and drug addiction cessation services as well as consuming pharmaceuticals. Socioeconomics characteristics such as health insurance coverage, household size, and economic status were other determinants of exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. Conclusion: Iranian health system has not achieved the objective of reducing catastrophic healthcare expenditure to one percent. Inefficient health insurance coverage, different fee schedules practiced by private and public providers, failure of referral system are considered as probable barriers toward decreasing households’ exposure to catastrophic healthcare expenditures. PMID:23193508

  2. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  3. Occupational stratification, job-mismatches, and child poverty: understanding the disadvantage of Black immigrants in the US.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kevin J A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the implications of occupational stratification and job mismatches for the welfare of children, using data from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey. The results show that Black children of immigrants have household heads that are more likely to have occupations with low SEI scores than children in US-born households. More importantly, they demonstrate that intersections between parental job-mismatches and employment in the bottom rather than upper levels of the occupational distribution have important implications for understanding poverty differences among children. Job mismatches within occupations with low SEI scores are associated with greater poverty risks among Black than White, Asian, or Hispanic children of immigrants. However, racial poverty disparities are considerably lower among children with household heads in the highest occupational strata.

  4. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  9. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  14. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  15. The Changing Face of Immigration Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on laws that influence U.S. immigration, such as the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (1996), the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996), the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (1996), and the Legal Immigration and Family Equity Act (2000). Includes discussion…

  16. Zapotec Immigration: The San Lucas Quiavini Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Felipe H.; Munro, Pamela

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 20 Zapotec immigrants from Oaxaca (Mexico) to Los Angeles examined their immigration experiences and adjustment to life in the United States. Discussion covers immigration from Oaxaca; living conditions, illiteracy, education, and language usage in the village of San Lucas Quiavini; immigration patterns; ethnicity and Oaxacan…

  17. A Guide to Immigration Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Immigration Forum, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains fact sheets and issue briefs on immigration and immigrants. Fact sheets, most of which are presented in 1994 and 1997 versions, contain brief summaries of information on immigration law and regulations, the status of immigrants, their countries of origin, and where they settle. These fact sheets make it clear that most…

  18. Teacher Education and Immigrant Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faltis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980s, well more than half of all immigrants and children of recent immigrants are of people of color. Many recent immigrants of color communicate in their daily lives via a language (or via languages) other than English, and many immigrant children of color are emerging bilinguals, who acquire hybrid varieties of English. While almost…

  19. Counseling Immigrant Students in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Karen D.; Davis, Terah

    2014-01-01

    According to the 2010 United States Census, one out of every five children live in an immigrant family with either one or both parents being immigrants. This paper will explore the unique needs of children of immigrants who come to school as immigrant students. A discussion of the use of Reality Therapy as a counseling approach with this…

  20. Tax Filing and Other Financial Behaviors of EITC-Eligible Households: Differences of Banked and Unbanked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee; Livermore, Michelle; Davis, Belinda Creel

    2011-01-01

    Holding a bank account is crucial to the income-maximizing and asset-building of households. This study uses 2008 survey data of EITC-eligible households assisted at Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) sites to document their tax filing behavior and use of Alternate Financial Services (AFS). Specifically, the differences in tax filing and AFS…

  1. National Pilot Program on Household Employment (January 16, 1967-March 15, 1971). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, Hester P.; Jones, Annie B.

    To determine the feasibility of different approaches in restructuring the household employment occupation to make it more attractive and rewarding, eight experimental and demonstration projects provided training, counseling, and placement services for women who were interested in household occupations. All of the programs sought to improve the…

  2. An exploration of somatization among Asian refugees and immigrants in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, E H; Carter, W B; Kleinman, A M

    1985-01-01

    The clinical records of Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Laotian, and Mien patients in primary care were reviewed to determine the prevalence of somatization, its associated patient characteristics, and the manifested illness behavior. Patients in this study were generally poor, unemployed, and spoke little English. Somatization accounted for 35 per cent of illness visits. These visits were also more costly. Refugees had a higher rate of somatization (42.7 per cent) than immigrants (27.1 per cent). Although sociodemographic characteristics did not strongly differentiate patients with somatization from others, ethnicity and indicators of decreased resources such as large households with low income, households headed by single women, or a limited English proficiency were associated with somatization in certain ethnic groups. Somatization is thus an important health problem among Asian refugees and immigrants. PMID:4025659

  3. Revealing the full extent of households' experiences of HIV and AIDS in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hosegood, Victoria; Preston-Whyte, Eleanor; Busza, Joanna; Moitse, Sindile; Timaeus, Ian M

    2007-09-01

    Households experience HIV and AIDS in a complex and changing set of environments. These include health and welfare treatment and support services, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, and individual and household social and economic circumstances. This paper documents the experiences of 12 households directly affected by HIV and AIDS in rural KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, between 2002 and 2004. The households were observed during repeated visits over a period of more than a year by ethnographically trained researchers. Field notes were analysed using thematic content analysis to identify themes and sub-themes. This paper focuses on three dimensions of household experience of HIV and AIDS that have received little attention in HIV and AIDS impact studies. First, that experience of HIV and AIDS is cumulative. In an area where population surveys report HIV prevalence rates of over 20% in adults, many households face multiple episodes of HIV-related illness and AIDS deaths. We describe how these challenges affect perceptions and responses within and outside households. Second, while over 50% of all adult deaths are due to AIDS, households continue to face other causes of illness and death. We show how these other causes compound the impact of AIDS, particularly where the deceased was the main income earner and/or primary carer for young children. Third, HIV-related illness and AIDS deaths of household members are only part of the households' cumulative experience of HIV and AIDS. Illness and death of non-household members, for example, former partners who are parents of children within the households or relatives who provide financial support, also impact negatively on households. We also discuss how measuring multiple episodes of illness and deaths can be recorded in household surveys in order to improve quantitative assessments of the impact of HIV and AIDS.

  4. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receipts at the time of transaction in accordance with § 274.8(b)(7). (e) Access to retail stores. (1) The EBT system shall provide for minimal disruption of access to and service in retail stores by eligible... equipped with POS devices shall be made available to SNAP households during all retail store hours...

  5. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Benefit redemption by eligible households. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF...

  6. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Benefit redemption by eligible households. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF...

  7. 7 CFR 274.7 - Benefit redemption by eligible households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Benefit redemption by eligible households. 274.7 Section 274.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF...

  8. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM...) The State agency shall determine eligibility for the Food Distribution Program on a household...

  9. 7 CFR 253.7 - Certification of households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for dual participation. (2) Choice of programs. Households eligible for either the Food Stamp Program... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD DISTRIBUTION...

  10. Children Who Are Newcomers: Social Service Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Shirley

    1983-01-01

    Examines the nature and quality of social services and support extended to children who enter the United States as legal or illegal immigrants or refugees, unaccompanied or with their families. Explores problems encountered by immigrant and refugee programs, and policy issues relating to services for newcomers. (Author/MJL)

  11. Immigration: an international economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R

    1984-01-01

    The creation of an effective US immigration policy has been complicated by the diversity of political interests and the absence of reliable statistics to determine the magnitude of the impact on the American economy. Estimates of the number of illegal aliens in the US range from 1 to 12 million. While political biases and complexities and data inadequacies complicate this analysis, some generalizations seem to be confirmed by worldwide experience. There are 2 mutually-supportive, short-run ways to reduce the flow of undocumented workers: 1) to better police US borders and shorelines and 2) to remove the motive for entry by making it illegal for employers to hire workers who are not authorized to work in the US. To give employers an easy defense and to facilitate their compliance with immigration laws, an effective worker identification system should be developed. To avoid the civil liberties, international relations, and human problems associated with mass deportations, illegal immigrants who entered the US before January 1, 1981 and who have been in continuous residence for at least 1 year, should be permitted to remain in the US as permanent resident aliens. The US should not adopt a new guest worker program. The proper sequence of changes in immigration policy is very important. Dealing with illegal immigration is essential; all these measures should be in place before an amnesty is granted. Because it is important to have friendly relations with neighboring countries and because the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is to reduce the wide disparities in employment opportunities between countries, the US should work with other countries to control illegal immigration, but should not link control to energy, trade, or other policies. It is particularly important to discuss immigration control plans with other countries, especially Mexico, and to do everything consistent with US interests to minimize the adverse impact of our immigration policies on our

  12. Political instability and illegal immigration.

    PubMed

    Campos, J E; Lien, D

    1995-01-01

    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country.

  13. An elusive concept: the changing definition of illegal immigrant in the practice of immigration control in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Couper, K; Santamaria, U

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines changing concepts of immigration practice in the UK. Immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the UK. The burden of proof of legality of status is increasingly on the immigrant, against a background of administrative rather than criminal justice. The changing and broadening definition of illegal immigration in the UK is part of a set of policies, which are governmental responses to what is conceived of as public opinion. THE GUARDIAN suggested that the Home Office has tightened up its application of the rules as the price to the Tory Right for their silence over further changes to the immigration law, thus demonstrating the political aspects of the concept of illegality. The Home Office replied that the UK was now one of the most densely populated countries in Europe and that, in terms of services, the country simply could not support all those who would like to come there. Nor can more than a certain number of newcomers be absorbed by any host community without the risk of friction. However, the host community is now multi-ethnic, and there is a black vote. The growth of administrative justice against which there is little effective appeal, the retrospective application of the 1971 Immigration Act, the ever-widening definition of the concept of illegality along with the fact that there is no time limit under the 1971 Act for one of the most common offenses, that of over-staying, have given rise to an increasing number of campaigns in support of individuals or families. These campaigns against the deportation of "illegal" immigrants may be an indication of a change in public opinion.

  14. Improving Occupational Safety and Health Among Mexican Immigrant Workers: A Binational Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E.; Tonda, Josana

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S. PMID:24179277

  15. Contextualizing the Trauma Experience of Women Immigrants From Central America, South America, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kaltman, Stacey; de Mendoza, Alejandra Hurtado; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women. PMID:22144133

  16. Improving occupational safety and health among Mexican immigrant workers: a binational collaboration.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael A; Check, Pietra; Eggerth, Donald E; Tonda, Josana

    2013-11-01

    Latino immigrants are 50% more likely than all workers in the United States to experience a fatal injury at work. Occupational safety and health (OSH) organizations often find that the approaches and networks they successfully use to promote OSH among U.S.-born workers are ineffective at reaching Latino immigrants. This article describes the collaboration between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) to promote OSH among Mexican immigrant workers. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs operates 50 consulates throughout the U.S. that provide four million discrete service contacts with Mexican citizens annually. The focus of this ongoing collaboration is to develop the internal capacity of Mexican institutions to promote OSH among Mexican immigrants while simultaneously developing NIOSH's internal capacity to create effective and sustainable initiatives to better document and reduce occupational health disparities for Mexican immigrants in the U.S.

  17. Challenges of recruiting ESL immigrants into cancer education studies: reflections from practice notes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maria D; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    Changing population demographics and immigration patterns have resulted in increasing numbers of Canadians who report speaking a language other than French or English. Inclusion of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) immigrants in cancer education research is critical if disparities in access and use of preventive health care services are to be addressed. This article describes the challenges experienced recruiting and interviewing older ESL immigrant women for a colon cancer prevention study. Factors influencing the recruitment and interview of ESL immigrant women were identified through regular team meetings, interviews, and reflective practice notes. Issues included the importance of community contacts, language barriers, and the motivations of the women for participating. Recommendations for recruitment and inclusion of ESL immigrants in cancer education research are provided.

  18. Initial acculturation and HIV risk among new Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Decena, Carlos Ulises; Oliver-Velez, Denise

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research on the initial stage of acculturation of new immigrants is crucial for identifying AIDS prevention policies and priorities for this vulnerable population. METHODS: This study employed an exploratory approach and qualitative data collection methods to identify and describe social and behavioral factors influencing risk for HIV infection among recent Hispanic immigrants (<3 years in the United States). Immigrants from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, the Dominican Republic and Mexico were interviewed in urban, suburban and semirural settings in the New York Metropolitan Area. Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews (N=51), focus groups (N=11; total number of participants=86) and individual interviews with health and social service providers (N=26). RESULTS: Initial stages of acculturation for immigrants reflect both retention and change in attitudes and behaviors involving their mental health, gender role norms, social and sexual behavior, and alcohol and other drug use. Current living environments may introduce conditions affecting HIV risk and prevention, while sustained connections to countries of origin may support retention of attitudes and behaviors with positive and negative risk implications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific epidemiological, environmental, economic, social and psychosocial factors are identified that provide the context for risk and prevention. The challenges and opportunities faced by these new communities must be distinguished from those of more acculturated immigrant populations if culturally appropriate interventions are to be developed. PMID:16080455

  19. Female "birds of passage" a decade later: gender and immigration in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kofman, E

    1999-01-01

    "First, this article critically assesses the dominant accounts of the sequence of labor migration and family reunification and argues that it is time to reclaim the heterogeneity of women's past migratory experiences in our understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration. Second, it examines family migration, covering diverse forms of family reunification and formation which, although the dominant form of legal immigration into Europe since the 1970s, has received relatively little attention. Third, it explores the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union and argues for the necessity of taking account of the reality of changing patterns of employment, households and social structures to advance our understanding of European immigration."

  20. Hunger in legal immigrants in California, Texas, and Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, J; Gupta, S K; Tran, P; Cook, J T; Meyers, A F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in low-income legal immigrants. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Latino and Asian legal immigrants attending urban clinics and community centers in California, Texas, and Illinois with a food security questionnaire. RESULTS: Among 630 respondents, 40% of the households were food insecure without hunger and 41% were food insecure with hunger. Independent predictors of hunger were income below federal poverty level (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72, 4.30), receipt of food stamps (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.57, 4.09), Latino ethnicity (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.49, 3.82), and poor English (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.82). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hunger among low-income legal immigrants is unacceptably high. Access to food assistance programs is important for the health and well-being of this population. PMID:11030002

  1. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers.

  2. The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; Lee, Yongwoo

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly…

  3. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean

  4. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups.

  5. The New Latino South and the Challenge to Public Education: Strategies for Educators and Policymakers in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The lack of resources devoted to educating Latinos in emerging immigrant communities is generating negative educational outcomes and de facto educational segregation in the South. While Latino immigrants continue to dominate employment in the meat processing, service, and construction sectors in these communities, they are underrepresented on…

  6. The Effect of Household Smoking Bans on Household Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods. We used data from a May–June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, households with smokers (n = 456) to determine the simultaneous association between smoking levels in the home and the presence of home restrictions on smoking. Results. We found that home smoking rules predicted smoking in the home but smoking in the home had no effect on home smoking restrictions. Conclusions. Absent in-home randomized experiments, a quasi-experimental causal inference suggesting that home smoking rules result in lower home smoking levels may be plausible. PMID:24524533

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  9. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  10. Immigration Oversight and Fairness Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Roybal-Allard, Lucille [D-CA-34

    2009-02-26

    03/16/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Coping with a New Health Culture: Acculturation and Online Health Information Seeking Among Chinese Immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weirui; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    As a culturally diverse country, the U.S. hosts over 39 million immigrants who may experience various cultural and linguistic obstacles to receiving quality health care. Considering online sources an important alternative for immigrants to access health information, this study investigates how Chinese immigrants in the U.S. seek health information online. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Chinese immigrants who currently live in the U.S. to understand how acculturation strategies they use to adapt to the host society influence their Internet-based health information seeking behaviors. Our findings revealed that the language and web sources immigrants choose to use can be predicted by the acculturation strategies they utilize to cope with the new culture. This study serves as a timely and imperative call for further consideration of the role that acculturation plays in determining how immigrants seek health information and utilize the healthcare services of their host society.

  12. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  13. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  14. The influence of culture on immigrant women's mental health care experiences from the perspectives of health care providers.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Joyce Maureen; Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2007-05-01

    It is well documented that serious mental health problems such as depression, schizophrenia, and post migration stress disorders exist among immigrant women. Informed by Kleinman's explanatory model, this qualitative exploratory study was conducted with seven health care providers who provided mental health services to immigrant women. Analysis of the data revealed that (a) immigrant women face many difficulties when accessing mental health care services due to cultural differences, social stigma, and unfamiliarity with Western biomedicine, (b) spiritual beliefs and practices that influence immigrant women's mental health care practices, and (c) the health care provider-client relationship, which exerts great influence on how immigrant women seek mental health care. The study also revealed that cultural background exerts both positive and negative influences on how immigrant women seek mental health care. We suggest that although cultural knowledge and practices influence immigrant women's coping choices and strategies, awareness of social and economic differences among diverse groups of immigrant women is necessary to improve the accessibility of mental health care for immigrant women.

  15. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  16. Incorporating immigrant flows into microsimulation models.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Building on the research on immigrant earnings reviewed in the first article of this series, "Research on Immigrant Earnings," the preceding article, "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models," linked research results to various issues essential for incorporating immigrant earnings into microsimulation models. The discussions of that article were in terms of a closed system. That is, it examined a system in which immigrant earnings and emigration are forecast for a given population represented in the base sample in the microsimulation model. This article, the last in the series, addresses immigrant earnings projections for open systems--microsimulation models that include projections of future immigration. The article suggests a simple method to project future immigrants and their earnings. Including the future flow of immigrants in microsimulation models can dramatically affect the projected Social Security benefits of some groups.

  17. The foundation of kinship: households.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Donna L; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-07-01

    Men's hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women's roles as critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions could emerge. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species, creating what we term "kinship ecologies." We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women's contributions, bonds men to women, and bonds generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history.

  18. The foundation of kinship: Households

    PubMed Central

    Leonetti, Donna L.; Chabot-Hanowell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as critical to household formation, pair bonding and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households evolved. With conscious recognition of household social units, variable cultural constructions of human kinship systems could emerge that were sensitive to environmental and technological conditions. Kinship dramatically altered the organization of resource access for our species creating what we term “kinship ecologies.” We present simple mathematical models to show how hunting leads to dependence on women’s contributions, bonds men to women and generations together. Kinship, as it organized transfers of food and labor energy centered on women, also became integrated with the biological evolution of human reproduction and life history. PMID:21799658

  19. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy.

  20. Ethnic enclave resources and predictors of depression among Arizona's Korean immigrant elders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Young; Domanski, Margaret Dietz; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-07-01

    This is the first study examining predictors of depression among Arizona's Korean immigrant elders not residing in ethnic enclaves. A snowball sample of 120 elders, aged 64 and over, completed the study interview. The proportion of respondents reporting depression was 38.1%, higher than the incidence reported among counterparts in New York City's immigrant ethnic enclaves. Multiple regression analyses (R2=.44) indicate that English language proficiency had the most powerful effect on explaining depression. Discussion centers on why programs aimed at reducing language barriers among socially isolated immigrant elders need to be a first priority in service provision.

  1. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  2. 8 CFR 3.0 - Executive Office for Immigration Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executive Office for Immigration Review 3.0... IMMIGRATION REVIEW § 3.0 Executive Office for Immigration Review Regulations of the Executive Office for Immigration Review relating to the adjudication of immigration matters before immigration judges (referred...

  3. 8 CFR 3.0 - Executive Office for Immigration Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Executive Office for Immigration Review 3.0... IMMIGRATION REVIEW § 3.0 Executive Office for Immigration Review Regulations of the Executive Office for Immigration Review relating to the adjudication of immigration matters before immigration judges (referred...

  4. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  5. Postpartum mental health of immigrant mothers by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vigod, Simone N; Bagadia, Ashlesha J; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Fung, Kinwah; Sultana, Anjum; Dennis, Cindy-Lee E

    2017-04-04

    Immigrant women are at high risk for postpartum mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to understand how rates of postpartum mental health contact differ among immigrant women by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status. We conducted a population-based cohort study of immigrant mothers in Ontario, Canada, with children born from 2008 to 2012 (N = 123,231). We compared risk for mental health contact (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospitalization) in the first postpartum year by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status, generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East were more likely to have outpatient mental health contact than a referent group of immigrants from North America or Europe (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14); those from East Asia and the Pacific, Southern Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa were less likely (0.64, 0.61-0.68; 0.78, 0.74-0.83; 0.88, 0.81-0.94). Refugees were more likely to have contact than non-refugees (1.10, 1.04-1.15); those in Canada <5 years were less likely than longer-term immigrants (0.83, 0.79-0.87). Refugees were more likely to have an emergency department visit (1.81, 1.50-2.17) and a psychiatric hospitalization than non-refugees (1.78, 1.31-2.42). These findings have implications for targeted postpartum mental health service delivery targeting certain immigrant groups and particularly refugees.

  6. Making Psychology a Household Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  7. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  8. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  9. 78 FR 31398 - Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... 8332] Visas: Documentation of Immigrants Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended AGENCY.... Section 203(e)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) requires the Department of State to... CFR Part 42 Immigration, Passports and visas. Accordingly, for the reasons set forth in the...

  10. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  11. Disparities in Quality of Healthcare of Children from Immigrant Families in the US.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Rocío; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine disparities in quality of pediatric primary care among children from immigrant families in the US. Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 83,528 children ages 0-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, weighted logistic regression was used to assess the effect of immigrant family type on five indicators of quality of healthcare across children's racial/ethnic groups. Analyses controlled for indicators of child's access to care, family socio-economic characteristics, and primary language spoken in the household. Unadjusted estimates revealed a pattern of decreasing disparities from immigrant children to second-generation children, native-born children of immigrant parents, and to third-generation children, native-born children of native-born parents. Controlling for confounders showed that the positive effect of generational status on the quality of healthcare of children from immigrant families varied across indicators and among racial/ethnic groups. Not even third-generation Hispanic and Black children reached parity with third-generation White children on reported amount of time that providers devoted to their care and on providers' sensitivity to their family's values and customs. In contrast, disparities in reports of providers listening carefully to caregivers disappeared after adjusting for confounders, and only families headed by immigrant parents reported receiving less specific health-related information than the families of native-born White children. Our study suggests that it is important to develop interventions that help healthcare professionals to learn how different types of immigrant families perceive the interactions with the healthcare system and how to deliver care that increases the satisfaction of children from different racial/ethnic groups.

  12. Disparities in Quality of Healthcare of Children from Immigrant Families in the US

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Rocío; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine disparities in quality of pediatric primary care among children from immigrant families in the US. Drawing from a nationally representative sample of 83,528 children ages 0–17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, weighted logistic regression was used to assess the effect of immigrant family type on five indicators of quality of healthcare across children’s racial/ethnic groups. Analyses controlled for indicators of child’s access to care, family socio-economic characteristics, and primary language spoken in the household. Unadjusted estimates revealed a pattern of decreasing disparities from immigrant children to second-generation children, native-born children of immigrant parents, and to third-generation children, native-born children of native-born parents. Controlling for confounders showed that the positive effect of generational status on the quality of healthcare of children from immigrant families varied across indicators and among racial/ethnic groups. Not even third-generation Hispanic and Black children reached parity with third-generation White children on reported amount of time that providers devoted to their care and on providers’ sensitivity to their family’s values and customs. In contrast, disparities in reports of providers listening carefully to caregivers disappeared after adjusting for confounders, and only families headed by immigrant parents reported receiving less specific health-related information than the families of native-born White children. Our study suggests that it is important to develop interventions that help healthcare professionals to learn how different types of immigrant families perceive the interactions with the healthcare system and how to deliver care that increases the satisfaction of children from different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25987471

  13. Immigration, labor force integration and the pursuit of self-employment.

    PubMed

    Mata, F; Pendakur, R

    1999-01-01

    A correspondence analysis was used to examine the entire working life cycle of Canadian-born male age-education cohorts and immigrant male age-education cohorts who arrived during 1945-61. Data were drawn from the 1961 and 1971 census databases as well as the 1981 and 1991 public individual files. Findings support the existence of a split labor market based on immigrant status, particularly at the low end of the schooling spectrum. In 1961, immigrants with low levels of schooling were closely associated with the wage construction sector, whereas Canadian-born males below the high school level would most likely gravitate towards consumer services. Meanwhile, immigrants with a high school education were likely to be in consumer services; whereas, Canadian-born males with a high school education were closely aligned with public administration and distributive services. Moreover, immigrants with higher levels of schooling were less likely to work in ethnically dominated markets, while immigrants with low schooling moved into the self-employed construction sector. The existence of a split in the labor market was evident among workers with lower levels of schooling compared with university-educated workers.

  14. The effect of household poverty on tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Siroka, A; Law, I; Macinko, J; Floyd, K; Banda, R P; Hoa, N B; Tsolmon, B; Chanda-Kapata, P; Gasana, M; Lwinn, T; Senkoro, M; Tupasi, T; Ponce, N A

    2016-12-01

    pSETTING: Households in Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia.OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between household socio-economic level, both relative and absolute, and individual tuberculosis (TB) disease.

  15. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  16. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S M S; Hoque, A T M Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy=0.236, p<0.05), education level (r xy=0.244, p<0.05) and monthly income (r xy=0.671, p<0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US dollars 0.3 to US dollars 0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this

  17. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sujauddin, Mohammad Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-07-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r{sub xy} = 0.236, p < 0.05), education level (r{sub xy} = 0.244, p < 0.05) and monthly income (r{sub xy} = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them

  18. The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Europe , immigrant children consistently underperformed in reading. This disparity suggests that immigrant children will have lower literacy rates, less...OF IMMIGRATION IN EUROPE by Andrew J. Sheehan Lars W. Lilleby December 2012 Thesis Advisor: Gordon McCormick Second Reader: Anna...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lars W. Lilleby

  19. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-04

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries.

  20. Development in Children of Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Cowden, John D; Kreisler, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    Children of immigrant families experience developmental processes in the contexts of migration and settlement, presenting immigration-specific challenges. Child health providers can use awareness of the cultural-ecological model of immigrant child development to explore how acculturation, ethnic identity formation, and bilingualism affect the children and families under their care. Cross-cultural strategies for evaluating and supporting immigrant child development are presented to guide the provider in clinical interactions and community efforts.

  1. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  2. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  3. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... step-parent(s); and (iii) A child (other than a foster child) under 18 years of age who lives with and is under the parental control of a household member other than his or her parent. A child must be... household to select an adult parent of children (of any age) living in the household, or an adult who...

  4. Appliance Ownership and Household Work Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; McCullough, Jane L.

    1986-01-01

    Data from 2,100 two-parent, two-child households were analyzed to determine the relationships of demographic variables, ownership of 11 appliances, and time spent in four categories of household tasks. Little evidence was found that appliance ownership is related to less time being spent in household tasks. (Author/CT)

  5. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a... year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2) Definition of high...

  6. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a... year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2) Definition of high...

  7. 22 CFR 42.33 - Diversity immigrants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diversity immigrants. 42.33 Section 42.33... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Immigrants Subject to Numerical Limitations § 42.33 Diversity immigrants. (a... year during which an alien possesses diversity visa eligibility. (2) Definition of high...

  8. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for...

  9. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for...

  10. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for...

  11. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for...

  12. 49 CFR 1572.105 - Immigration status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immigration status. 1572.105 Section 1572.105... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.105 Immigration status. (a) An individual... to an order of removal under the immigration laws of the United States is not eligible to apply for...

  13. The Transnationalization of Families: Immigrant Separations & Reunifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Todorova, Irina; Louie, Josephine

    This study examined how children experienced immigrant separations when families migrated in a stepwise fashion. The study offers evidence that separation between children and one or both parents during the migratory process is common to a majority of immigrant children. Data came from the Longitudinal Immigrant Student Adaptation Study, which…

  14. Immigrant Youth Mental Health, Acculturation, and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frabutt, James M.

    2006-01-01

    One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…

  15. Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G., Ed.; Portes, Alejandro, Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading scholars in immigration studies shows how the children of immigrants in diverse groups are faring and assimilating in the United States. The 10 papers are (1) "Introduction--Ethnogenesis: Coming of Age in Immigrant America" (Ruben G. Rumbaut and Alejandro Portes); (2) "The Demographic Diversity…

  16. Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

    Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

  17. How Do Immigrants Affect Us Economically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Julian L.

    This document summarizes the key data and main findings of the book, "The Economic Consequences of Immigration into the United States." All immigrants, not only those who are illegal, are included in the discussion. Immigrants, it is concluded, raise the standard of living of the residents of the host country, rather than lowering it as is…

  18. Immigration Stress: Families in Crisis. Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon County Schools, Tallahassee, FL.

    This resource guide has been compiled to assist teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) in meeting the needs of immigrant families. Its purpose is to help reduce immigrant stress by making important information readily available to immigrant families. The guide is divided into the major categories of socialization, education,…

  19. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  20. The Mixed Economic Progress of Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeni, Robert F.; And Others

    This report examines whether the economic well-being of male immigrants to the United States improves substantially over time, details differences in economic progress of immigrants from different countries of origin, and assesses the impact of educational attainment on immigrants' earnings. Analyses are based on Public Use Micro Samples of the…