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Sample records for immigrant women compared

  1. Postpartum Contraception: a Comparative Study of Berlin Women with and without Immigration Background

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Brenne, S.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.; Borde, T.

    2015-01-01

    Research Questions: Are there differences in postpartum contraceptive use between women with and without immigration background? Do women more commonly use contraception following a high-risk pregnancy or caesarean section? What role does current breastfeeding play and, amongst immigrants, what is the effect of acculturation level on the frequency of contraceptive use? Study Population and Methods: Data collection was carried out as part of a larger study in three Berlin delivery units using standardised interviews (questionnaires covering e.g. sociodemographics, immigration history/acculturation and use of antenatal care); telephone interviews comprising 6 questions on postpartum contraception, breastfeeding and postpartum complications were conducted on a sample of the study population six months after delivery. Results: 247 women with, and 358 women without a background of immigration were included in the study (total study population n = 605, response rate 81.1 %). 68 % of 1st generation immigrants, 87 % of 2nd/3rd generation women and 73 % of women without immigration background (non-immigrants) used contraception. In the logistical regression analysis 1st generation immigrants were less likely than non-immigrants to be using contraception six months postpartum, and 1st generation immigrants with low acculturation level were significantly less likely to use contraception than 2nd/3rd generation women with low acculturation level. Conclusion: In the extended postpartum period there was no major difference in contraceptive use between immigrants in general and non-immigrants. It remains unclear whether the differing contraceptive behaviour of 1st generation immigrants is the result of less access to information, sociocultural factors or differing contraceptive requirements and further targeted, qualitative study is required. PMID:26500367

  2. Immigrant women and their health.

    PubMed

    Aroian, K J

    2001-01-01

    Immigrant women's health is a relatively new research area. At the beginning of the 1990s, nurse scholars concluded that there was insufficient research on this topic. They recommended broadening the overly narrow research foci on immigrant women's childbearing and on select populations, developing national data bases, identifying high-risk groups, and developing population-specific interventions. This chapter reviews 292 research articles published in journals during the 1990s about adult immigrant women's health. It: (1) summarizes research findings on topics that were the major foci of research conducted in the 1990s, (2) evaluates progress over the last decade in the research agenda proposed above, and (3) makes recommendations for research in the new millennium. PMID:11439781

  3. [New immigrant women and health].

    PubMed

    Vissandjée, B; Carignan, P; Bourdeau-Marchand, M

    1999-04-01

    The Canadian health care system serves an increasingly ethnically diverse clientele, especially in major urban centres. Sustained inflows of immigrants demand that social and health care services partially revise their mission to help these newcomers maintain their health following arrival in Canada, since their health generally tends to deteriorate over time. This poses a special challenge for women who have immigrated recently, because their health is often jeopardized by vulnerability linked to their socioeconomic status. Responding in a culturally appropriate way to each person's needs entails a choice of health promotion and disease prevention strategies. While this choice is based on specific definitions of the concepts, it also must reflect immigrant women's perceptions of what constitutes promotion, prevention and health. The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of their perceptions and use of preventive social and health care services. Our respondents reported that health is the absence of psychological and physical problems and that health promotion is associated primarily with a good diet, physical exercise, control of stress, and continuing to lead an active life (work, education). They believe that disease prevention lies primarily in overcoming financial problems and gaining access to a healthy diet and medical care. These views are similar to North American concepts. Research could confirm the similarities and differences between immigrant women and host populations. Nursing interventions would support culturally appropriate comprehensive action that addresses the individual, family, community and social aspects.

  4. Comparing written and oral measures of comprehension of cancer information by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer; Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-09-01

    The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Cloze test are commonly used tools to measure comprehension of health information (i.e., health literacy); however, little is known about their use in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) populations. In this study, we compared written (Cloze test) and oral (Teach Back) measures of colon cancer information comprehension among ESL Chinese immigrant women to Canada. Performances on colon cancer-specific measures were compared to a general measure of health literacy (S-TOFHLA). On the S-TOFHLA, Cloze, and Teach Back, respectively, the following percentage of participants had adequate comprehension: 62.1%, 14.8%, and 89.7%. Correlation between performance on the Cloze and Teach Back was significant albeit weakly so (r = 0.38, p = 0.04); performances on the S-TOFHLA and Teach Back were not correlated. Measures of health literacy skill that require written English language skills may not be appropriate for measuring understanding of health information for ESL populations.

  5. Alcohol Consumption Patterns in Immigrant and Later Generation Mexican American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, M. Jean

    1987-01-01

    Immigrant Mexican women's drinking patterns were compared with those of Mexican women in Mexico, other United States Latinas, later-generation Mexican-American women, and male immigrants. Changes in the direction of greater permissiveness and rationalization of alcohol use among later-generation Mexican-American women are demonstrated. (JMM)

  6. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

  7. Weight Status of Mexican Immigrant Women: A Comparison With Women in Mexico and With US-Born Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L.; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. Methods. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001–2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Results. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Conclusions. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a “healthy immigrant” effect. PMID:23865649

  8. Higher Education Learning Experiences among Vietnamese Immigrant Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hsing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociocultural approach to adult learning and poststructural feminist theories, this study draws on interviews with 11 married Vietnamese women to explore the higher education learning experiences of Vietnamese immigrant women in Taiwan. On the basis of their husbands' permission and support, Vietnamese immigrant women embraced the…

  9. Immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care: a systematic and comparative review of studies in five countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care is critical if receiving country care systems are to respond appropriately to increasing global migration. This systematic review aimed to compare what we know about immigrant and non-immigrant women’s experiences of maternity care. Methods Medline, CINAHL, Health Star, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for the period 1989–2012. First, we retrieved population-based studies of women’s experiences of maternity care (n = 12). For countries with identified population studies, studies focused specifically on immigrant women’s experiences of care were also retrieved (n = 22). For all included studies, we extracted available data on experiences of care and undertook a descriptive comparison. Results What immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care proved similar: safe, high quality, attentive and individualised care, with adequate information and support. Immigrant women were less positive about their care than non-immigrant women. Communication problems and lack of familiarity with care systems impacted negatively on immigrant women’s experiences, as did perceptions of discrimination and care which was not kind or respectful. Conclusion Few differences were found in what immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care. The challenge for health systems is to address the barriers immigrant women face by improving communication, increasing women’s understanding of care provision and reducing discrimination. PMID:24773762

  10. Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Women in Breast Health Education.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Erwin, Deborah O; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C

    2015-09-01

    This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion.

  11. Mental health of intermarried immigrant women and their children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hea; Park, Yong Chon; Hwang, Jaeuk; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Ahn, Donghyun

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to examine the mental health status of immigrant women through international marriages and its effects on emotional and behavioral problems of children. Seventy-four intermarried immigrant women and 86 native Korean women were enrolled from the same district of Seoul metropolitan area. The mental health problems of study participants and their children were examined. Increased risks of having a higher level of anxiety were observed in immigrant women compared to native Korean women. Children of the immigrant group were likely to have more internalizing and externalizing behavioral symptoms than those of the native group. This pattern was more apparent in children of mothers with higher levels of anxiety. The present study found a higher risk for mild anxiety in intermarried immigrants than in native Korean women. Furthermore, considering that immigrant children seemed to have more emotional and behavioral problems relative to native children if their mothers have higher levels of anxiety, special attention should be paid to prevention and early intervention for mental health problems of intermarried immigrant women.

  12. Pregnancy and delivery practices and beliefs of Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Granot, M; Spitzer, A; Aroian, K J; Ravid, C; Tamir, B; Noam, R

    1996-06-01

    This exploratory, qualitative study compared traditional and biomedical pregnancy and delivery practices from the perspective of Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel. Findings documented that certain beliefs, such as the belief that nonmedical factors (i.e., moral behavior, God, and proper nutrition) were responsible for pregnancy outcomes, were relatively unaffected by immigration. After immigration to Israel, Ethiopian women, however, chose to deliver their babies in the hospital rather than import traditional home delivery practices from their homeland. Despite many negative aspects of labor and delivery in Israel, Ethiopian immigrant women felt that it was worth enduring negative Israeli health care practices in order to have "clean," "safe," and expert deliveries. Findings from this study assist health care professionals to provide more culturally sensitive care to this immigrant group.

  13. Neighborhood Immigrant Concentration, Acculturation, and Cultural Alienation in Former Soviet Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Birman, Dina; Zenk, Shannon; Wang, Edward; Sorokin, Olga; Connor, Jorgia

    2009-01-01

    Several acculturation theories note the importance of surrounding context, but few studies describe neighborhood influences on immigrant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among neighborhood immigrant concentration, acculturation, and alienation for 151 women aged 44-80 from the former Soviet Union who lived in the…

  14. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success. PMID:26251953

  15. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  16. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women. PMID:26605954

  17. Development of the Stress of Immigration Survey: A Field Test Among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Nápoles, Anna Maria; Gregorich, Steven; Paul, Steven; Lee, Kathryn A; Stewart, Anita L

    2016-01-01

    The Stress of Immigration Survey (SOIS) is a screening tool used to assess immigration-related stress. The mixed methods approach included concept development, pretesting, field testing, and psychometric evaluation in a sample of 131 low-income women of Mexican descent. The 21-item SOIS screens for stress related to language, immigrant status, work issues, yearning for family and home country, and cultural dissonance. Mean scores ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 (a scale of 1-5, higher is more stress). Cronbach α values were more than 0.80 for all subscales. The SOIS may be a useful screening tool for detecting high levels of immigration-related stress in low-income Mexican immigrant women.

  18. Intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country’s formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the “victimhood of women from conservative developing countries” and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families. PMID:23984223

  19. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  20. Caesarean Section Frequency among Immigrants, Second- and Third-Generation Women, and Non-Immigrants: Prospective Study in Berlin/Germany

    PubMed Central

    David, Matthias; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; Henrich, Wolfgang; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Razum, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objective The frequency of caesarean section delivery varies between countries and social groups. Among other factors, it is determined by the quality of obstetrics care. Rates of elective (planned) and emergency (in-labor) caesareans may also vary between immigrants (first generation), their offspring (second- and third-generation women), and non-immigrants because of access and language barriers. Other important points to be considered are whether caesarean section indications and the neonatal outcomes differ in babies delivered by caesarean between immigrants, their offspring, and non-immigrants. Methods A standardized interview on admission to delivery wards at three Berlin obstetric hospitals was performed in a 12-month period in 2011/2012. Questions on socio-demographic and care aspects and on migration (immigrated herself vs. second- and third-generation women vs. non-immigrant) and acculturation status were included. Data was linked with information from the expectant mothers’ antenatal records and with perinatal data routinely documented in the hospital. Regression modeling was used to adjust for age, parity and socio-economic status. Results The caesarean section rates for immigrants, second- and third-generation women, and non-immigrant women were similar. Neither indications for caesarean section delivery nor neonatal outcomes showed statistically significant differences. The only difference found was a somewhat higher rate of crash caesarean sections per 100 births among first generation immigrants compared to non-immigrants. Conclusion Unlike earlier German studies and current studies from other European countries, this study did not find an increased rate of caesarean sections among immigrants, as well as second- and third-generation women, with the possible exception of a small high-risk group. This indicates an equally high quality of perinatal care for women with and without a migration history. PMID:25985437

  1. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  2. Disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women giving birth in six industrialised countries

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, ML; Glazier, RH; Gagnon, AJ; Mortensen, LH; Nybo Andersen, A-M; Janevic, T; Guendelman, S; Thornton, D; Bolumar, F; Río Sánchez, I; Small, R; Davey, M-A; Hjern, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess disparities in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among immigrant women from various world regions giving birth in six industrialised countries. Design Cross-country comparative study of linked population-based databases. Setting Provincial or regional obstetric delivery data from Australia, Canada, Spain and the USA and national data from Denmark and Sweden. Population All immigrant and non-immigrant women delivering in the six industrialised countries within the most recent 10-year period available to each participating centre (1995–2010). Methods Data was collected using standardised definitions of the outcomes and maternal regions of birth. Pooled data were analysed with multilevel models. Within-country analyses used stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcome measures Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and pre-eclampsia with prolonged hospitalisation (cases per 1000 deliveries). Results There were 9 028 802 deliveries (3 031 399 to immigrant women). Compared with immigrants from Western Europe, immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America & the Caribbean were at higher risk of pre-eclampsia (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.63, 1.80 and 1.63; 95% CI: 1.57, 1.69) and eclampsia (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.61, 2.79 and 1.55; 95% CI: 1.26, 1. 91), respectively, after adjustment for parity, maternal age and destination country. Compared with native-born women, European and East Asian immigrants were at lower risk in most industrialised countries. Spain exhibited the largest disparities and Australia the smallest. Conclusion Immigrant women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America & the Caribbean require increased surveillance due to a consistently high risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. PMID:24758368

  3. Immigrant Women and Counseling the Invisible Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana; Chronister, Krista M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 10.4% of the U.S. population, or approximately 28 million individuals, are immigrants (Schmidley, 2001). The amount of information on recent immigrants in psychological literature is sparse (Hovey, 2000; Pernice, 1994; Yoshihama & Horrucks, 2002), however, and there is even less information about the impact of…

  4. Engaging Immigrant and Refugee Women in Breast Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Gondek, Matthew; Shogan, May; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G.; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Erwin, Deborah O.; Griswold, Kim; Mahoney, Martin C.

    2016-01-01

    This project assessed the impact of a community-based educational program on breast cancer knowledge and screening among Buffalo (NY) immigrant and refugee females. Program participants completed language-matched pre- and post-test assessments during a single session educational program; breast cancer screening information was obtained from the mobile mammography unit to which participants were referred. Pre- and post-test knowledge scores were compared to assess changes in responses to each of the six individual knowledge items, as well as overall. Mammogram records were reviewed to identify Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores. The proportion of correct responses to each of the six knowledge items increased significantly on the post-program assessments; 33 % of women >40 years old completed mammograms. The findings suggest that a health education program for immigrant and refugee women, delivered in community-based settings and involving interpreters, can enhance breast cancer knowledge and lead to improvements in mammography completion. PMID:25385693

  5. Comparing disability amongst immigrants and native-born in Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Simone, Dylan

    2015-11-01

    Given high levels of immigration into Canada and the associated requirement to understand the health needs of new arrivals, an extensive literature has developed over the past decade that has explored immigrant health issues, including the 'healthy immigrant effect'. Surprisingly, however, issues of disability within the immigrant population have received much less attention. Using data from Statistics Canada, 2006a, 2006b Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS), this paper examines disability and its covariates amongst immigrants relative to non-immigrants in Canada. Compared with their native-born counterparts, recent immigrant arrivals (within the past 10 years) were less likely to report disability and less likely to report a severe disability than the native-born. However, differences in the rates and covariates of disabilities between males and female immigrants were observed, which are partially explained by socioeconomic and sociodemographic effects. The conclusion explores potential reasons why differentials in disability rates are observed, and points to future research directions.

  6. Coverage of Cervical Cancer Screening in Catalonia for the Period 2008–2011 among Immigrants and Spanish-Born Women

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Roura, Esther; Ibañez, Raquel; Peris, Mercè; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Sanjosé, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Female immigration in Catalonia, Spain, increased dramatically in the last 10 years. The Public Health system in the Region, provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status. Methods: The study analyzes the cytologies registered among women aged 25–65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC) for any reason (n = 1,242,230) during 2008–2011. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP) that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center, and cytology results. Results: During the period 2008–2011, 642,643 smears were performed in a total of 506,189 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2 and 39% respectively). Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.5 and 2.9% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia had a high access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers. PMID:24392348

  7. The Occupational Prestige of Women Immigrants: A Comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Teresa A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data on the occupational prestige of women workers in Cuba or Mexico who immigrated to the United States showed that immigrant women do not fare so well as immigrant men in converting their resources into occupational prestige. Differences between Mexican and Cuban women, however, are larger than gender differences. (KH)

  8. Social support and happiness in immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women.

  9. Social support and happiness in immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Fuentes, Juan Manuel; Hombrados-Mendieta, María Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The association between perceived social support and happiness was investigated in women who are members of various associations in Malaga (Spain) that work with immigrant women. Based on the Social Convoy model, the association between sources of support, frequency of support, satisfaction with support, and happiness reported by women were examined. The main social support predictor of happiness was satisfaction with the support received. Thus, the best predictors of happiness were emotional support from the family and instrumental support from the indigenous population and associations. The best predictor of frequency of support was the frequency of informational support received from social services. These results may prove useful for developing lines of action or interventions centred on the social network and the functions that social support can fulfil among immigrant women. PMID:22897099

  10. Breast Self-Examination among Chinese Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wang, Caroline C.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly among the fast-growing demographic group of Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). In this study, the authors assessed the awareness of breast self-exam (BSE) and factors predicting practice of BSE among Chinese immigrant women living in San Francisco. Three hundred and ninety-seven women…

  11. Transgressive vs Conformative: Immigrant Women Learning at Contingent Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Srabani; Shan, Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The paper seeks to explore workers' learning in relation to the racialized and gendered organization of contingent work. Design/methodology/approach--This paper is informed by Marxist theorization of labour power and learning. It draws on the interview data of 24 highly educated immigrant women from the research project "Skilled In…

  12. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  13. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  14. Immigrant Latino Neighborhoods and Mortality among Infants Born to Mexican-Origin Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Methods Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002–2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 Census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Results Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1000 live births vs. 4.6, p=.002)). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.01–1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.99–1.67). Conclusions In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos. PMID:25430802

  15. Immigrant Latino neighborhoods and mortality among infants born to Mexican-origin Latina women.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002-2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1,000 live births vs. 4.6, p = .002). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 1.01-1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 0.99-1.67). In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos.

  16. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  17. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  18. Acculturation and conflict in Mexican immigrants' intimate partnerships: the role of women's labor force participation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Rao, Pamela; Gentry, Amanda; Marín, Antonio; Arcury, Thomas A

    2009-10-01

    This study explores women's workforce participation as a potential agent for acculturation, and how it shapes conflict dynamics within intimate partnerships among Mexican immigrants. Analysis of in-depth interview data from 20 immigrant Mexican women and men believed to be in violent relationships indicated that women's employment following migration created several sources of intracouple conflict by challenging gender-based norms and behaviors surrounding the division of household labor, financial decision making, and how women and men interact within intimate relationships. Immigrant Latino women tended to embrace an assimilation strategy for acculturation, whereas immigrant Latino men embrace a separation strategy. PMID:19706779

  19. Immigrant women in Australia: resources, family and work.

    PubMed

    Evans, M D

    1984-01-01

    Using the 1% public use sample of individual records from the 1981 census and adopting direct standardization for age and sex regression techniques, this paper describes differences among native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking countries, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Third World, in areas of labor participation, unemployment, occupational status, entrepreneurship, and income. While Eastern European women are the most likely to be in the labor force, are the most likely to be unemployed and are the highest paid, Mediterranean women are the least likely to be in the labor force, have fairly low unemployment rates and occupy the lowest status positions and receive the lowest wages. Native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking and Third World countries and Northwestern Europe are intermediate between these 2 extremes on most dimensions. Some of the differences are not large. In particular, labor force participation only ranges from 49% to 59% and self employment from 9% to 14%. The most apparent differences in work patterns of the various groups of immigrants stem from differences in their own resources and constranits, or from different modes of adaptation to the Australian society, rather than from differential treatment in the labor market. Although family roles affect aspects of work differently, in general, marriage reduces labor force participation by more than 10% among all groups, except for East Europeans and the Mediterraneans, among whom it has no effect. While East European women hold on to their jobs as a potential source of livelihood in the event of divorce which is common among this group, the Mediterraneans view jobs as a means of achieving a measure of economic security. The effect of length of stay in Australia on labor market participation is somewhat larger for women from non-English speaking countries, whose adaptation process includes a slow improvement in language

  20. Immigrant women in Australia: resources, family and work.

    PubMed

    Evans, M D

    1984-01-01

    Using the 1% public use sample of individual records from the 1981 census and adopting direct standardization for age and sex regression techniques, this paper describes differences among native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking countries, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Third World, in areas of labor participation, unemployment, occupational status, entrepreneurship, and income. While Eastern European women are the most likely to be in the labor force, are the most likely to be unemployed and are the highest paid, Mediterranean women are the least likely to be in the labor force, have fairly low unemployment rates and occupy the lowest status positions and receive the lowest wages. Native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking and Third World countries and Northwestern Europe are intermediate between these 2 extremes on most dimensions. Some of the differences are not large. In particular, labor force participation only ranges from 49% to 59% and self employment from 9% to 14%. The most apparent differences in work patterns of the various groups of immigrants stem from differences in their own resources and constranits, or from different modes of adaptation to the Australian society, rather than from differential treatment in the labor market. Although family roles affect aspects of work differently, in general, marriage reduces labor force participation by more than 10% among all groups, except for East Europeans and the Mediterraneans, among whom it has no effect. While East European women hold on to their jobs as a potential source of livelihood in the event of divorce which is common among this group, the Mediterraneans view jobs as a means of achieving a measure of economic security. The effect of length of stay in Australia on labor market participation is somewhat larger for women from non-English speaking countries, whose adaptation process includes a slow improvement in language

  1. Acculturative stress and inflammation among Chinese immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ross, Eric A.; Pathak, Harsh B.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Tseng, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among Chinese immigrant populations, increasing duration of US residence is associated with elevated risk for various chronic diseases. Although lifestyle changes following migration have been extensively studied in immigrant populations, less understood is the psychosocial impact of acculturative stress upon biological markers of health. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine associations between acculturative stress and inflammatory markers in a Chinese immigrant population. Methods Study participants (n=407 foreign-born Chinese American women) completed questionnaires assessing levels of stress, including acculturative stress and positive and negative life events in the past year. Participant height and weight were measured using standard protocols and blood samples were drawn for assessment of circulating serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2). Results Higher levels of acculturative stress were significantly associated with higher levels of CRP (B=0.07, 95% CI=0.01-0.13, p=0.031) and sTNFR2 (B=0.02, 95% CI=0.004-0.03, p=0.012), adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). The latter association was no longer statistically significant when overall acculturation (i.e., identification with American culture) was included in the model. Life events were not associated with CRP or sTNFR2. Conclusions This study shows that acculturative stress is associated with inflammation markers in a Chinese immigrant population. These findings suggest that immigrant health trajectories may be adversely influenced by psychological distress associated with the demands of acculturation. Replication in other immigrant samples is needed to fully establish the biological correlates and clinical consequences of acculturation stress. PMID:24846001

  2. Cultural Beliefs and Understandings of Cervical Cancer Among Mexican Immigrant Women in Southeast Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Maupin, Jonathan N.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Watson, Lisa C.; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Ferris, Daron G.

    2014-01-01

    Rural Mexican immigrant women in the U.S. are infrequently screened and experience health disparities from cervical cancer. We explored cancer-related cultural beliefs in this population. We administered a cross-sectional survey to 39 Mexican immigrant women due for screening. We conducted univariate and bivariate analyses of participants’ characteristics, Pap test history, cancer-related knowledge and beliefs, and cultural consensus analysis about causes of cervical cancer and barriers to screening. For all the cultural consensus tasks, there was consensus (Eigenratios >3:1) among survey participants. Comparing the rankings of risk factor clusters, clusters related to sexual behaviors were ranked more severely than clusters related to genetic or other behavioral factors. There was agreement on ideas of cervical cancer causation and barriers to screening among these women. Hence, improved methods of disseminating important health information and greater access to care are needed, particularly in relationship to stigma about sex and birth control practices. PMID:25274023

  3. Promoting Immigrant Women's Cardiovascular Health Redesigning Patient Education Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Guruge, Sepali

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death among women from low- to middle-income countries. The most common cardiovascular nursing intervention is that of patient education. However, the applicability of this intervention is questionable, as these educational initiatives are typically designed and evaluated using samples of "white" homogeneous males. Using the social determinants of health framework, this discursive article identifies specific strategies for redesigning existing cardiovascular education interventions to enhance their applicability to immigrant women. The recommendations will allow nurses to enhance the educational support offered resulting in the reduction and/or prevention of cardiovascular-related symptoms and/or complications. PMID:26517345

  4. Psychosocial and sociocultural aspects of infertility--a comparison between Austrian women and immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Julia; Kirchengast, Sylvia; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Huber, Johannes

    2004-09-01

    The polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting female fertility. In this study we examined psychosocial parameters caused by infertility in PCOS women with different socio-cultural background. Symptomatology of PCOS, body composition characteristics as well as psychosocial parameters were examined in 49 PCOS infertility patients of the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Vienna, who originated from two different socio-cultural subgroups--Austrian women and Moslem immigrant women. In the appearance of the symptoms the typical heterogeneity of PCOS could be found in both subgroups with no differences. However, differences in the psychosocial aspects were impressive. Women from Islamic background do have a very high reproductive pressure. The Moslem immigrant PCOS women suffer more from infertility than Austrian women do. PMID:15509089

  5. Psychological distress is associated with inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea is inadequate. And the mediation of acculturation stress can contribute to problems in their eating practices and dietary intakes. This study examines an association between psychological distress and inadequate dietary intake in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea. A cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data (n=570) from the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea. Daily nutrient intakes were compared according to the quartiles of distress scores assessed by the Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form. One-way analysis of variance and chi(2) tests were used to compare eating practices and nutrient intake across quartiles of psychological distress. Subjects in the highest stress scores were more likely to skip breakfast and to change their dietary habits after living in Korea than those in groups with low stress scores. Analyses of the subjects' Mini Dietary Assessments revealed that those with the highest stress scores were less likely to consume milk or dairy products, eat regular meals, or have balanced diets than those with the lowest stress scores. Nutrient intakes were found to be inadequate in the subjects, and those with the highest stress scores showed lower consumptions of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and folate compared to those with the lowest scores. The prevalence of underweight (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] <18.5) increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of psychological distress scores. Psychological distress in Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in Korea was negatively associated with dietary intake. These findings can assist dietetics practitioners working with minority immigrants because such information is important in designing appropriate strategies for dietary counseling. A follow-up study should address the underlying mechanisms of the observed

  6. Cultural framework, anger expression, and health status in Russian immigrant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Edmondson, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of anger expression and cultural framework in predicting Russian immigrant women's physical and psychological health status. One hundred Russian immigrant women between the ages of 30 and 65 completed questionnaires assessing anger expression, cultural framework, and health status. All research questions were addressed using hierarchical regression procedures. The results are discussed in terms of implications for understanding immigration experiences of Russian women who migrate from countries that are more collectivistic and less individualistic than the United States.

  7. Intergenerational Fertility Among Hispanic Women: New Evidence of Immigrant Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    PARRADO, EMILIO A.; MORGAN, S. PHILIP

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, rapid growth of the U.S. Hispanic population has raised concerns about immigrant adaptation, including fertility. Empirical research suggests that Hispanics, especially Mexicans, might not be following the historical European pattern of rapid intergenerational fertility decline (and convergence toward native levels). If confirmed, continued high Hispanic fertility could indicate a broader lack of assimilation into mainstream American society. In this paper, we reexamine the issue of Hispanic and Mexican fertility using an approach that combines biological and immigrant generations to more closely approximate a comparison of immigrant women with those of their daughters’ and granddaughters’ generation. Contrary to cross-sectional results, our new analyses show that Hispanic and Mexican fertility is converging with that of whites, and that it is similarly responsive to period conditions and to women’s level of education. In addition, we employ a mathematical simulation to illustrate the conditions under which cross-sectional analyses can produce misleading results. Finally, we discuss the import of the fertility convergence we document for debates about immigrant assimilation. PMID:18939666

  8. Increasing screening mammography among immigrant and minority women in Canada: a review of past interventions.

    PubMed

    Schoueri-Mychasiw, Nour; Campbell, Sharon; Mai, Verna

    2013-02-01

    Screening mammograms are important to detect breast cancer at earlier and more treatable stages. Immigrant and minority women report low participation rates due to barriers related to cultural beliefs and norms, privacy/modesty, and language. This review examines whether screening mammogram interventions in Canada and other countries with comparable health-care systems have addressed the needs of these women. Our systematic literature search identified studies that focused on increasing screening mammogram participation among immigrant and/or minority women. We used the Health Belief Model and the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to guide our critical synthesis of the reviewed interventions and the recommendations for the future. Eight studies met the search criteria. Overall, interventions showed some increase in mammogram participation rates. The barriers targeted were relatively similar across studies and there was a focus on increasing cues to screening. This review illustrates that it is essential to develop and implement programs to overcome the unique barriers to screening mammography if we are to increase participation among immigrants and minority women. We suggest other potentially effective health promotion strategies as a starting point for discussion and future research.

  9. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes. PMID:12321472

  10. Labor market outcomes of immigrant women in the United States: 1970 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, R F

    1998-01-01

    42% of immigrant workers in the US are women. Data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses are analyzed in the study of differences in labor market outcomes between US-born and immigrant women, and among immigrant women born in different countries or regions of the world. There was little difference between US-born and immigrant women as a whole in 1970. However, over the next 20 years, immigrants women's labor force participation rate and weekly earnings relative to natives became lower, and their unemployment rates became higher. By 1990, the wage gap was 14%. At the same time, the share of self-employed women and the amount of time worked among employed women were almost the same for immigrant women and the US-born throughout the period 1970-90. Immigrants born in the UK, Canada, Europe, Japan, Korea, China, the Philippines, and the Middle East have had steady or improved wages and unemployment relative to US-born women. Immigrants from Mexico and Central America have experienced relatively high unemployment and low earnings, with the wage gap reaching 35% in 1990. Disparities in the number of completed years of schooling explains a substantial share of the observed differences in labor market outcomes.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Italian and immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Paba, P; Morosetti, G; Criscuolo, A A; Chiusuri, V; Marcuccilli, F; Sesti, F; Piccione, E; Perno, C F; Ciotti, M

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent worldwide. Prevalence varies according to the geographic regions, and is highest in developing countries. Geographic differences exist also in the detection rate of oncogenic types in malignant cervical lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV infection as well as the spectrum of HPV types was evaluated in Italian and immigrant women of the urban area of Rome. Several risk factors (age at first intercourse, number of partners, smoking, pregnancy, age at first pregnancy, contraception, education, and menarche) were taken into consideration. Overall, there was a high prevalence of HPV infection in the two groups studied. No significant differences were observed in the spectrum of HPV types detected. HPV 16 and 18 were the types detected more frequently in both groups. Interestingly, HPV 54 and 70 were found only in the immigrants. Whether this finding reflects a recent introduction of these HPV types in the population studied remains to be established. Monitoring of HPV types in the population is advisable, especially in countries like Italy which is a destination and a gateway for immigrants directed towards north and central Europe. The introduction of high risk HPV variants may have a clinical impact and affect the diagnostic procedures.

  12. Afghan immigrant women's knowledge and behaviors around breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehra; Bloom, Joan; Shirazi, Aida; Popal, Rona

    2013-01-01

    Background This community-based participatory research was conducted to provide a preliminary understanding of how Afghan women in Northern California view their breast health. Methods Results were based on demographics and in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 53 non-English-speaking first-generation immigrant Muslim Afghan women 40 years and older. Results Findings showed low levels of knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and low utilization of early-detection examinations for breast cancer among participants. Conclusions The findings also suggest a significant need for a community-based breast health education program that recognizes the unique social, cultural, and religious dynamics of the Muslim Afghan community. PMID:23225210

  13. Bone health in immigrant Hispanic women living in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Joyce E; Cooper, Cheryl M; Bone, Mary A; Saade, Guillermo; Holiday, David B

    2010-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious national public health problem, and is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades, especially in women. A limitation of bone health research exists since few studies have involved Hispanic women, and even fewer, Hispanic immigrant women. For this study we examined the effects of anthropometric, behavioral, and health history variables on bone mineral density (BMD) in 84 immigrant Hispanic women, age 40 and above. BMD was assessed at the spine, femur, and forearm using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Demographic information, health histories, and behavioral risk factors were obtained from a questionnaire. In the younger group (mean age = 44.1 years) 61% had spinal osteopenia, and in the postmenopausal group (mean age = 53.0 years) 59% had osteopenia and 13% had osteoporosis. Femur sites were free of osteoporosis. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 31.8 ± 6.1 and mean waist girth was 95.6 ± 12.5 cm, indicating overall and abdominal obesity. Partial correlations indicated a significant positive relationship between body fat variables and total femur BMD values. ANOVAs revealed no differences in BMD values at any bone site across tertile levels for calcium intake or for physical activity. However, supplemental and dietary calcium intakes were very low and few participants engaged in regular physical activity outside of work and activities of daily living (ADL). In light of the expected increase in osteoporosis in this population and the prevalence of spinal osteopenia in the younger participants, education about the health risks of osteoporosis should be made available to this group. PMID:20012477

  14. The effect of immigration and acculturation on victimization among a national sample of Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of immigrant status, acculturation, and the interaction of acculturation and immigrant status on self-reported victimization in the United States among Latino women, including physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatened violence. In addition, immigrant status, acculturation, gender role ideology, and religious intensity were examined as predictors of the count of victimization among the victimized subsample. The Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study surveyed 2,000 adult Latino women who lived in high-density Latino neighborhoods in 2008. The present study reports findings for a subsample of women who were victimized in the United States (n = 568). Immigrant women reported significantly less victimization than U.S.-born Latino women in bivariate analyses. Multivariate models showed that Anglo orientation was associated with greater odds of all forms of victimization, whereas both Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with lower odds of all forms of victimization. Latino orientation was more protective for immigrant women than for U.S.-born Latino women with regard to sexual victimization. Among the victimized subsample, being an immigrant, Anglo acculturation, and masculine gender role were associated with a higher victimization count, whereas Latino orientation and religious intensity were associated with a lower victimization count. The findings point to the risk associated with being a U.S. minority, the protective value of Latino cultural maintenance, and the need for services to reach out to Anglo acculturated Latino women. PMID:23148902

  15. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).

  16. Contextualizing the Trauma Experience of Women Immigrants From Central America, South America, and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Kaltman, Stacey; de Mendoza, Alejandra Hurtado; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women. PMID:22144133

  17. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  18. The occupational prestige of women immigrants: a comparison of Cubans and Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T A

    1984-01-01

    This study analyzes the occupational prestige of women workers born in Cuba and Mexico, who were at least 25 years of age at the time of immigration to the US. The empirical results indicate that the process of converting resources (examples, age, schooling, US residence) differ by both sex and nationality, with the Mexican males and females being more similar to each other than to Cubans, and vice versa. Mexicans have a more favorable 'conversion' of resources into prestige, but a lower level of resources. Immigrant women appear to be somewhat more disadvantaged relative to immigrant men, than are women workers in general, and both groups of women enjoy lower occupational prestige than their male counterparts. Unlike the case of male immigrants, US work experience tends to decrease the prestige scores for females. So does southern residence. The pattern of achieving occupational prestige is unique among women immigrants, despite nationality differences. The data suggest that the social mobility process for female immigrants differ from the process for males, perhaps because of cultural barriers that make entry to 'pink collar' jobs difficult. For instance, the widespread segregation of the labor market makes it more difficult for these women than for males to acquire useful information leading to better jobs. Their US experience thus need not be of much value. 2ndly, the existing jobs require immigrant women to learn English or other new skills at their own expense, or to turn their foreign credentials into those acceptable for the US market. Finally, relative concentration in the South may negatively women's occupational prestige, more so than men's. Immigrant women are also handicapped by a view of themselves as 'supplementary earners', and are more apprehensive about job market changes due to an unfamiliarity with American customs. Family responsibilities often hinder immigrant women's upward mobility, locking them into routine jobs with few avenues for

  19. Differences in the Frequency of Use of Epidural Analgesia between Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and Non-Immigrant Women in Germany – Explanatory Approaches and Conclusions of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruschke, I.; Ramsauer, B.; Borde, T.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The starting point of this study was the considerably lower rate of epidural analgesia use among women of Turkish origin in Germany compared to non-immigrant women in the German Research Foundation (DFG)-funded study entitled “Perinatal Health and Migration Berlin”. The study aimed to identify possible differences in the womenʼs attitudes towards epidural analgesia. Methods: Exploratory study with semi-structured interviews, interviews lasting 17 minutes on average were conducted with 19 women of Turkish origin and 11 non-immigrant women at a Berlin hospital. The interviews were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results: Immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany more frequently ascribe meaning to the pain associated with vaginal delivery. They more frequently categorically reject the use of epidural analgesia, 1) for fear of long-term complications such as paralysis and back pain and 2) based on the view that vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia is not natural. Information on epidural analgesia is frequently obtained from a variety of sources from their social setting, in particular, by word of mouth. The women in both groups stated that they would take the decision to use epidural analgesia independent of their partnerʼs opinion. Discussion: The differences in epidural analgesia use rates observed correspond to the womenʼs attitudes. For the immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany, the attitude towards using epidural analgesia is based in part on misinformation. In order to enable the women to make an informed decision, epidural analgesia could receive a stronger focus during childbirth courses.

  20. Differences in the Frequency of Use of Epidural Analgesia between Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and Non-Immigrant Women in Germany – Explanatory Approaches and Conclusions of a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Petruschke, I.; Ramsauer, B.; Borde, T.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The starting point of this study was the considerably lower rate of epidural analgesia use among women of Turkish origin in Germany compared to non-immigrant women in the German Research Foundation (DFG)-funded study entitled “Perinatal Health and Migration Berlin”. The study aimed to identify possible differences in the womenʼs attitudes towards epidural analgesia. Methods: Exploratory study with semi-structured interviews, interviews lasting 17 minutes on average were conducted with 19 women of Turkish origin and 11 non-immigrant women at a Berlin hospital. The interviews were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Results: Immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany more frequently ascribe meaning to the pain associated with vaginal delivery. They more frequently categorically reject the use of epidural analgesia, 1) for fear of long-term complications such as paralysis and back pain and 2) based on the view that vaginal delivery with epidural analgesia is not natural. Information on epidural analgesia is frequently obtained from a variety of sources from their social setting, in particular, by word of mouth. The women in both groups stated that they would take the decision to use epidural analgesia independent of their partnerʼs opinion. Discussion: The differences in epidural analgesia use rates observed correspond to the womenʼs attitudes. For the immigrant women of Turkish origin in Germany, the attitude towards using epidural analgesia is based in part on misinformation. In order to enable the women to make an informed decision, epidural analgesia could receive a stronger focus during childbirth courses. PMID:27681522

  1. The migration process as a stress factor in pregnant immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez Ramírez, Francisca; García-García, Inmaculada; Peralta-Ramírez, Maria Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Spain has seen a significant increase of the immigrant population in the past two decades. There are 5.6 million registered immigrants in this country, and 63% of them range in age between 16 and 41 years; 47% of the immigrant population are women. This situation requires additional health care, particularly as it pertains to the sexual and reproductive health of female immigrants. The objective of our study was to determine if there were differences between women of Spanish origin and immigrant women in terms of obstetric outcomes (obstetric history, gestational age at end of gestation, and at delivery) and various psychological variables during the immediate postpartum period. This was a cross-sectional study-we evaluated 30 women of Spanish origin and 30 immigrant women during the immediate postpartum period. During the 4 months after delivery, we proceeded to gather perinatal data for the study participants from their health records, partograms, and nursing assessment notes. Additionally, and following the immediate postpartum period, participants filled out the Stress Perception and Stress Vulnerability Questionnaires, as well as the Optimism Scale. Immigrant women have greater perception of stress (p = .00) and vulnerability to stress (p = .001) than do Spanish women. However, no group differences were found in obstetric variables.

  2. A postcolonial feminist perspective inquiry into immigrant women's mental health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Maureen O'Mahony, Joyce; Truong Donnelly, Tam

    2010-07-01

    The number of immigrants coming to Canada has increased in the last three decades. As a result, there is greater emphasis on health care providers and the health care system to provide culturally appropriate and equitable care. It is well documented that many immigrant women suffer from serious mental health problems and experience difficulties in accessing and using mental health services. In this paper we advocate for new ways of research inquiry in exploring immigrant women's mental health care experiences, ones that move beyond the individual experiences of health and illness toward recognition that the health of immigrant women must be addressed within the social, cultural, economic, historical, and political context of their lives. Drawing on past research we demonstrate how the postcolonial feminist perspective can be used to illuminate the ways in which race, gender, and class relations influence social, cultural, political, and economic factors, which, in turn, shape the lives of immigrant women. We suggest that postcolonial feminism provides an analytic lens to (a) generate transformative knowledge about immigrant women's mental health care experiences; (b) improve equitable health care; and (c) increase understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the immigrant women's health care needs. PMID:20521913

  3. Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Nguyen, Giang; Stringer, Lynn; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    To develop successful physical activity promotion programs for midlife immigrant women, especially for Korean immigrant midlife women, concrete theoretical bases are needed. However, virtually no theoretical frameworks and/or theories exist that can explain the influences of immigration transition on the physical activity experience of midlife immigrant women in general or Korean immigrant midlife women in specific. The purpose of this article is to present a situation-specific theory on physical activity experience of Korean immigrant midlife women (SPAKIM) with its development process. An integrative approach was used to develop the theory based on the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity (MAPA) theory, the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and two studies on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The proposed theory includes nature of transitions, nonmodifiable and modifiable transition conditions, contexts of daily life, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts, and each major concept includes several related subconcepts. Because several concepts of the theory were developed mainly based on the literature review, the major concepts and related subconcepts need to be further developed and evaluated in future studies.

  4. [The monitoring of pregnancy in immigrant women with traditional beliefs].

    PubMed

    Lichère, F

    1991-01-01

    About eight to twelve per cent of immigrant women in France who come mainly from Islamic countries are often reluctant to have their pregnancy medically supervised. This attitude is responsible for the increase of perinatal pathology which is higher in percentage than the national norm. It can be explained by these women's individual and group history and is based on the following three notions: the woman herself: her attachment to traditional practices, geographical and ethnical origin, level of education, prospects in life, and above all, a knowledge of the French language. the couple themselves: the family structure, submission of the wife to the husband, and his open-mindedness. the social group which maintains the couple's interdependent relationship with it. To this horizontal dimension, pregnancy adds a vertical measure, which is the relationship with the "suprahuman" world where the child comes from. This relation is expressed by a number of protection and purification rituals, and various prescribed practices such as keeping the pregnancy secret, special food, cravings, etc. Thus pregnancy becomes a real "Work" (for the future mother in the most noble meaning of the word) because she knows her formative influence over the child she bears: her thoughts, her feelings, her way of life, breathing, eating, communicating with her child and his environment; she consciously participates in the psychic and physical qualities of the child to be born.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2019721

  5. Development and pilot test of pictograph-enhanced breast health-care instructions for community-residing immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok

    2012-08-01

    Current written text-based health-care instructions are not suitable for presenting lengthy, complex breast health-care instructions and are difficult for immigrant women with limited literacy skills. The aims of this study were to develop breast health-care instructions enhanced by pictographs (simple line drawings representing health-care actions) and pilot test the instructions in a sample of six immigrant women with limited literacy skills. Based on the Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, pictographs were developed in addition to low-literacy text. The text and the pictographs were then pilot tested with six immigrant women in community health centres for clarity, comprehension and acceptability through face-to-face interviews. Participants perceived that the drawings were engaging and enhanced clarity of the intended health-care messages. The black and white simple line drawings were well received by participants of varying race and ethnicity. The pictograph-based approach might be an effective tool in developing health-care instructions for immigrant women with limited literacy skills. Future research is needed to compare the effect of pictograph-enhanced instructions with written text-based instructions on adherence to instructions and health outcomes.

  6. Puerto Rican-Born Women in the United States: Contextual Approach to Immigration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Venera; Van Hook, Mary; Matthew, Lenore

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on how acculturative stress and psychological distress affect Puerto Rican-born women residing in the United States. Mediation path analysis was used to estimate relationships between contextual factors, acculturative stress, and psychological distress. The fit of the data to the final model was adequate as estimated using chi-square analysis, comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis Index, and root-mean-square error of approximation. Racial discrimination (b = 0.38, p = .01), difficulties visiting family abroad (b = 0.26, p = .03), and age at immigration (b = 0.19, p = .03) were positively associated with acculturative stress. The factor English skills (b = -0.31, p = .02) was negatively associated with acculturative stress. Racial discrimination had the strongest effect on acculturative stress, followed by English skills, difficulties visiting family abroad, and age at immigration. Racial discrimination (b = 0.39, p = .01) and financial constraints (b = 0.30, p = .01) were positively associated with psychological distress. Racial discrimination affected the women's psychological distress the most, followed by economic contexts (financial constraints). This study informs practitioners in considering the significant contextual factors relevant to the psychological distress of Puerto Rican-born women.

  7. Intersection of Canadian policy parameters affecting women with precarious immigration status: a baseline for understanding barriers to health.

    PubMed

    Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline; Hanley, Jill; Lach, Lucyna; Khanlou, Nazilla; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Agnew, Vijay

    2005-10-01

    Canadian federal policy provides a framework for the immigration and health experiences of immigrant women. The official immigration category under which a migrant is admitted determines to what degree her right to remain in the country (immigration status) is precarious. Women immigrants fall primarily into the more dependent categories and they experience barriers to access to health services arising from this precarious status. Federal immigration and health policies create direct barriers to health through regulation of immigrants' access to services as well as unintended secondary barriers. These direct and secondary policy barriers intersect with each other and with socio-cultural barriers arising from the migrant's socioeconomic and ethno-cultural background to undermine equitable access to health for immigrant women living in Canada. PMID:19813291

  8. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Azerkan, Fatima; Widmark, Catarina; Sparén, Pär; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women’s perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Methods Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme was “Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders”. Investigation of women’s rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. Conclusions The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women

  9. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health.

  10. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  11. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector.

    PubMed

    Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker's needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers. PMID:26600083

  12. Professionals' perceptions of support resources for battered immigrant women: chronicle of an anticipated failure.

    PubMed

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Goicolea, Isabel; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby M; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of service providers in Spain regarding their daily professional encounters with battered immigrant women and their perception of this group's help-seeking process and the eventual abandonment of the same. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 43 professionals involved in providing support to battered immigrant women. We interviewed social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, and public health professionals from Spain. Through qualitative content analysis, four categories emerged: (a) frustration with the victim's decision to abandon the help-seeking process, (b) ambivalent positions regarding differences between immigrant and Spanish women, (c) difficulties in the migratory process that may hinder the help-seeking process, and (d) criticisms regarding the inefficiency of existing resources. The four categories were cross-cut by an overarching theme: helping immigrant women not to abandon the help-seeking process as a chronicle of anticipated failure. The main reasons that emerged for abandoning the help-seeking process involved structural factors such as economic dependence, loss of social support after leaving their country of origin, and limited knowledge about available resources. The professionals perceived their encounters with battered immigrant women to be frustrating and unproductive because they felt that they had few resources to back them up. They felt that despite the existence of public policies targeting intimate partner violence (IPV) and immigration in Spain, the resources dedicated to tackling gender-based violence were insufficient to meet battered immigrant women's needs. Professionals should be trained both in the problem of IPV and in providing support to the immigrant population.

  13. Professionals' perceptions of support resources for battered immigrant women: chronicle of an anticipated failure.

    PubMed

    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Goicolea, Isabel; Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby M; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of service providers in Spain regarding their daily professional encounters with battered immigrant women and their perception of this group's help-seeking process and the eventual abandonment of the same. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 43 professionals involved in providing support to battered immigrant women. We interviewed social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, and public health professionals from Spain. Through qualitative content analysis, four categories emerged: (a) frustration with the victim's decision to abandon the help-seeking process, (b) ambivalent positions regarding differences between immigrant and Spanish women, (c) difficulties in the migratory process that may hinder the help-seeking process, and (d) criticisms regarding the inefficiency of existing resources. The four categories were cross-cut by an overarching theme: helping immigrant women not to abandon the help-seeking process as a chronicle of anticipated failure. The main reasons that emerged for abandoning the help-seeking process involved structural factors such as economic dependence, loss of social support after leaving their country of origin, and limited knowledge about available resources. The professionals perceived their encounters with battered immigrant women to be frustrating and unproductive because they felt that they had few resources to back them up. They felt that despite the existence of public policies targeting intimate partner violence (IPV) and immigration in Spain, the resources dedicated to tackling gender-based violence were insufficient to meet battered immigrant women's needs. Professionals should be trained both in the problem of IPV and in providing support to the immigrant population. PMID:24288189

  14. Metabolic syndrome and its related factors among Asian immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Jung A; An, Jisook

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among Asian immigrant women in Korea based on sociodemographics and health behavior-related characteristics. The sample included 271 women from the Philippines, China, Vietnam, and other Asian countries through marriage. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and health examination. Among 67 immigrants who had complete data for determination of metabolic syndrome, 1.5% reported having metabolic syndrome, and 44.4% of the entire sample had reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is four times higher than their Korean-born counterparts. After controlling for age, there were significant differences in body mass index, depending on the country of origin, and weight change since immigration. Immigrants who had gained weight since immigration also had higher systolic blood pressure and triglycerides. As well as weight change, immigrants who always consumed high-fat diets were at risk of higher triglycerides. Immigrants living in urban areas had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In order to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome, interventions should be directed toward the prevention of weight gain and lower fat intake after immigrating to Korea.

  15. Immigration distress and associated factors among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Anderson, Debra

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the types and predictors of immigration distress among Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey with face-to-face interviews was conducted for data collection. A convenient sample of 203 Vietnamese women in transnational marriages in southern Taiwan was recruited. The Demographic Inventory measured the participants' age, education, employment status, religion, length of residency and number of children, as well as their spouse's age, education, employment status and religion. The Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale measured the level of distress and had six subscales: loss, novelty, occupational adjustment, language accommodation, discrimination and alienation. Among the 203 participants, 6.4% had a high level of immigration distress; 91.1% had moderate distress; and 2.5% had minor distress. Higher mean scores were found for the loss, novelty and language accommodation subscales of the Demand of Immigration Specific Distress scale. Participant's (r = 0.321, p < 0.01) and spouse's (r = 0.375, p < 0.01) unemployment, and more children (r = 0.129, p < 0.05) led to greater immigration distress. Length of residency in Taiwan (r = 0.576, p < 0.001) was an effective predictor of immigration distress. It indicated that the participants who had stayed fewer years in Taiwan had a higher level of immigrant distress. Health care professionals need to be aware that the female newcomers in transnational marriages are highly susceptible to immigration distress. The study suggests that healthcare professionals need to provide a comprehensive assessment of immigration distress to detect health problems early and administer culturally appropriate healthcare for immigrant women in transnational marriages.

  16. Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Lien, Mei-Huei; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in immigrant women. A total of 239 immigrant women were selected from four administrative regions in Central Taiwan. Questionnaires concerning perceived discrimination, family functioning (including family cohesion and family adaptability), depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics were completed by either women themselves (N = 120) or their husbands (N = 119). The moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression symptoms was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that a higher level of perceived discrimination among immigrant women is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Family functioning serves as a moderator between the relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, but the moderating effect of family adaptability was evident only in data reported by immigrant women. The results indicate that perceived discrimination has negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family functioning for depression. Findings suggest that providers should consider addressing immigrant women's mental health needs through declining their psychosocial distress at multiple ecological levels.

  17. [Contraception in immigrant women: influence of sociocultural aspects on the choice of contraceptive method].

    PubMed

    Paraíso Torras, B; Maldonado Del Valle, M D; López Muñoz, A; Cañete Palomo, M L

    2013-01-01

    There are currently 6 million immigrants living in Spain. Half of them are women, the majority of whom are of childbearing age. These women, who suffer high rates of induced abortion, form a special group who require a special approach to their reproductive health. In order to study the use of contraceptive methods in this population, a review was made of 1100 clinical histories from our Sexual Health and Reproduction Clinic. Latin American women were the most prevalent group who came to seek information about contraception, followed by Eastern Europeans and Moroccans. Fewer Asian and Sub-Saharan women sought these services. The contraceptives most frequently used were the intrauterine device (used mostly by Latin American and Eastern European women), and combined oral contraception, most used by Moroccan women. It is important to advise the immigrant women about contraceptive methods, taking into account their preferences, in order to improve adherence to the method. PMID:23583187

  18. [Contraception in immigrant women: influence of sociocultural aspects on the choice of contraceptive method].

    PubMed

    Paraíso Torras, B; Maldonado Del Valle, M D; López Muñoz, A; Cañete Palomo, M L

    2013-01-01

    There are currently 6 million immigrants living in Spain. Half of them are women, the majority of whom are of childbearing age. These women, who suffer high rates of induced abortion, form a special group who require a special approach to their reproductive health. In order to study the use of contraceptive methods in this population, a review was made of 1100 clinical histories from our Sexual Health and Reproduction Clinic. Latin American women were the most prevalent group who came to seek information about contraception, followed by Eastern Europeans and Moroccans. Fewer Asian and Sub-Saharan women sought these services. The contraceptives most frequently used were the intrauterine device (used mostly by Latin American and Eastern European women), and combined oral contraception, most used by Moroccan women. It is important to advise the immigrant women about contraceptive methods, taking into account their preferences, in order to improve adherence to the method.

  19. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention.

  20. Workplace health promotion--strategies for low-income Hispanic immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Abbott, Perla; Etnyre, Annette; Gilliland, Irene; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David; Cook, Jennifer; Mikan, Vanessa; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Sethness, Renee; Muñoz, Laura; Lowry, Jolynn; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2008-05-01

    Addressing health disparities for vulnerable populations in the United States is a national goal. Immigrant Hispanic women, at increased risk for heart disease, face obstacles in receiving adequate health care. Health promotion, especially for Hispanic women, is hindered by language, access to care, lack of insurance, and cultural factors. Innovative health education approaches are needed to reach this population. This article describes the development and evaluation of a culturally sensitive cardiac health education program based on findings from a study of 21 older immigrant Hispanic women employed as housekeepers at a small university in south Texas. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures had decreased 17 months after the intervention. PMID:18578188

  1. Views of mammography screening among U.S. Black and Hispanic immigrant women and their providers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Phyllis M; Torres, Shioban; Beltran, Jeanette; Cohen-Boyar, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    Views of ethnic immigrant women's experiences about mammography screening are important to determine barriers to cancer screening. We explored perceptions and barriers about mammography screening and breast health services among Haitian, Hispanic, Portuguese, and Somali women (n = 51) using semistructured interviews. Providers (n = 19) offered insight into health system barriers. Content analysis was conducted using qualitative data from the 2011 Komen Massachusetts needs assessment. Grounded theory was employed to explore themes and patterns in narratives. Six themes represented knowledge, health care, culture, spirituality, survivorship, and health systems improvement. Results may inform breast health policies that impact ethnic immigrant women in Massachusetts.

  2. Using critical ethnography to explore issues among immigrant and refugee women seeking help for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Joyce Maureen; Donnelly, Tam Truong; Este, Dave; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin

    2012-11-01

    Critical ethnography was used as a pragmatic research methodology to explore the postpartum depression (PPD) experiences of immigrant and refugee women. We examined the social, political, economic, and historical factors that affected the help-seeking behavior of these women during PPD episodes. The critical ethnography method allowed participants to share their experiences with each other and afforded opportunities to the researchers to acknowledge and validate, rather than simply observe and record, their testimony. This study of PPD thus increased our awareness and understanding of the health issues of immigrant and refugee women.

  3. Breast-Feeding in Immigrant Women: The Role of Social Support and Acculturation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    1998-01-01

    A postpartum questionnaire assessed influences of social support and acculturation on breast-feeding among 962 low-income immigrant women in New York. More acculturated women were two times less likely to intend to breast-feed but reported more social support. Predictors of breastfeeding were intent, nonsmoking, role models, and certain attitudes,…

  4. Against the Odds: An Exploratory Study of Mexican Immigrant Women with Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the experiences of Mexican immigrant women holding a vocational certificate from a technical school in Mexico. Interviews with eight Mexican women living in San Francisco and rural Idaho indicated that vocational education did not ensure success as measured by common social science indicators. However, the informants were highly…

  5. Complicating the Entrepreneurial Self: Professional Chinese Immigrant Women Negotiating Occupations in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    A core mode of governance in the era of neoliberalism is through the production of "entrepreneurial self". This paper explores how the "entrepreneurial self" is produced for 21 Chinese immigrant women in Canada. The women displayed extraordinary entrepreneurialism by investing in Canadian education. Becoming entrepreneurial,…

  6. Periconception diet does not vary by duration of US residence for Mexican immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Welmerink, Diana B; Sinco, Brandy R; Welch, Kathleen B; Schumann, Christina Y; Uhley, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the influence of duration of residence in the United States on periconception dietary intake of pregnant Mexican immigrant women, using baseline data from Healthy Mothers on the Move, a randomized control trial conducted with 234 women from 2004 to 2006 in Detroit, MI. Average maternal age was 27.3±5.2 years (range=18 to 41 years) with 5.99±4.76 years of US residence (range=0 to 36 years). Women's usual dietary intake during the past 12 months was recorded on a validated food frequency questionnaire (17.3 weeks average gestation). Intakes of selected micronutrients, macronutrients, and food groups were compared by US residence categories (≤5, 6 to 10, or ≥11 years) using analysis of covariance. The percent of women with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement and the percent not meeting US dietary guidelines were calculated. There was no association between dietary intake and duration of US residence in this population. Percentages of women with dietary intake below the Estimated Average Requirement were: 12.0% for folate, 7.7% for vitamin C, 23.9% for calcium, 11.2% for protein, and 5.1% for carbohydrates. US dietary guidelines were not met for fruit by 17.5% and for vegetables by 74.8% of women. Typical diets were high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Of the 2,195 kcal average daily energy intake, >25% came from saturated fats, trans fats, and added sugars that may replace nutrients important for healthy fetal growth and development and women's health. Interventions to improve intake before, during, and after pregnancy are important in this population, regardless of duration of US residence.

  7. "No me ponían mucha importancia": care-seeking experiences of undocumented Mexican immigrant women with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Juliet T; Malone, Ruth E; Thompson, Lisa M; Rehm, Roberta S

    2012-01-01

    This interpretive phenomenological study explored the health care-seeking experiences of undocumented Mexican immigrant women. Interviews and observations were conducted with 26 uninsured Mexican immigrant women with a chronic illness residing in California. Participant narratives revealed that their health care seeking experiences were often characterized by a lack of recognition of their human plight and devaluation of their personhood. Both structural and social barriers to care exist for immigrant women. Modifying current policies to allow undocumented immigrants more options to access care could help reduce stigma, reduce suffering, and encourage clinicians to recognize their humanity and their legitimate medical needs.

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion toward Immigrants and Immigration Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Rita J.; Lynch, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Studied public attitudes toward immigration in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, and the United States) for 1970 through 1995 as part of a larger, ongoing study. Countries with major differences in statutes, policies, and practices related to immigration nevertheless share many attitudes and beliefs about…

  9. Employment Satisfaction and Health Outcomes among Professional Iraqi refugees as compared to Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Aldhalimi, Abir; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the U.S. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic Regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment per se. PMID:24683383

  10. Intersectionalities of influence: researching the health of immigrant and refugee women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing recognition of the complexity surrounding multiple axes or dimensions of social identity and how they intersect to influence the health of immigrant and refugee women. The concept of intersectionalities of influence is particularly relevant in addressing diversity in nursing research. The purpose of this paper is to theorize and operationalize the concept in mental health promotion research with immigrant and refugee women. At the conceptual level, the authors propose an approach to inquiry that is informed by critical scholarship and draws from postcolonial and feminist perspectives. At the operational level, they apply an ecosystemic framework to help locate individual health issues within the familial, community, and social realms. They introduce Participatory Action Research as a way of putting these concepts into action within the research process. Their aim is to introduce a new way of inquiry that can benefit immigrant and refugee women while furthering the nursing agenda for community-based research.

  11. A Participatory Photonovel as a Linguistic Tool for Educating ESL-Speaking Immigrant Women about Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmon, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Issues such as the linguistic and informational barriers to health care must be addressed if immigrant women are to achieve optimum health status for themselves and their families. This study used a participatory photonovel as a tool to educate ESL-speaking immigrant women about health information. This research illustrates five ESL-speaking…

  12. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score.

  13. Hands That Shape the World: Report on the Conditions of Immigrant Women in the U.S. Five Years after the Beijing Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights, Oakland, CA.

    This report details the challenges that immigrant women in the United States have faced since the 1995 United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing, China. It presents a compilation of research and synthesis by immigrants' rights activists and organizations. Data come from immigrant women's testimony. The following topics are featured:…

  14. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study.

  15. [Marriage and immigrants from Turkey and Morocco].

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, E; Manting, D

    1997-10-01

    "In this article marriage and immigration of Turkish and Moroccan persons residing in the Netherlands are analysed on the basis of data extracted from the municipal population registers.... About 56 thousand married Turkish and Moroccan women of the first generation living in the Netherlands were marriage-related immigrants compared with 24 thousand married men.... Most male marriage-related immigrants married women who were born in the Netherlands or immigrated there as a child. Many female marriage-related immigrants joined a spouse who was already 18 years or over at the moment of immigration." (EXCERPT)

  16. What factors explain disparities in mammography rates among Asian American immigrant women? A population-based study in California

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to compare rates of screening mammography among immigrant women in five Asian American ethnic groups in California, and ascertain the extent to which differences in mammography rates among these groups are attributable to differences in known correlates of cancer screening. METHODS Using 2009 data from the California Health Interview Survey, we compared the rates of mammography among Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese immigrants 40 years and older. To assess the impact of Asian ethnicity on participation in screening, we performed multiple logistic regression analysis with models that progressively adjusted for acculturation, socio-demographic characteristics, access to health care and breast cancer risk factors, and examined the predicted probabilities of screening after adjusting for these factors. FINDINGS Participation in screening mammography differed according to ethnicity, with Filipina and Vietnamese Americans having the highest rates and Korean Americans having the lowest rates of lifetime and recent (past two years) screening. These differences decreased substantially after adjusting for acculturation, socio-demographic factors and risk factors of breast cancer but differences still remained, most notably for Korean Americans, who continued to have the lowest predicted probability of screening even after adjustment for these factors. CONCLUSIONS This analysis draws attention to low mammography screening rates among Asian American immigrants, especially recent immigrants who lack health insurance. Given that their breast cancer incidence is rising with length of stay in the United States, it is very important to increase regular mammography screening in these groups. PMID:24183415

  17. Converting to Belong: Immigration, Education and Nationalization among Young "Russian" Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiterman, Elena; Rapoport, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines religious conversion to Judaism among young "Russian" immigrant girls in Israel. Looking into the process of conversion in religious boarding schools for girls only ("Ulpana") and in the broader context of the Israeli nation-state, we examine the strategies the educators contrive in inculcating religiosity among the girls, how…

  18. The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001).

  19. The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001). PMID:25012470

  20. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  1. Book Bridges: A Family Literacy Program for Immigrant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakaluk, Beverley L.; Wynes, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes Book Bridges, a community-based family literacy program which aims to increase literacy for parents and children through composing and sharing family stories. Discusses how immigrant mothers' experiences in a reading workshop, writing workshop, and literature circles combined to support the development of English literacy, personal…

  2. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  3. Women's Networks and the Social Needs of Mexican Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary I.

    1990-01-01

    Reports on the persistence of a two-tiered economic and political system that routinely excludes Mexican immigrants. Focuses on the predominantly female employees of a wholesale nursery in Carpinteria (California), who have adapted the Mexican tradition of "confianza"-based relationships to form networks that facilitate communication and coping…

  4. Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

  5. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Birpreet, Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women's health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studies on the topic. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were divided into six areas of focus: physical health; mental health; abuse; health promotion and chronic disease prevention; barriers to healthcare access and utilization; and health beliefs, behaviours, and practices. Our results show that the health of older immigrant women is affected by the interplay of various social determinants of health including the physical and social environment; economic conditions; cultural beliefs; gendered norms; and the healthcare delivery system. Our results also revealed that older immigrant women tend to have more health problems, underutilize preventive services, such as cancer screening, and experience more difficulties in accessing healthcare services. PMID:26273480

  6. Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

  7. Sex Education and Cultural Values: Experiences and Attitudes of Latina Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…

  8. The Relationship between Print Literacy, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress among Mexican Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintron, Alexander Modesto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine print literacy, acculturation, and acculturative stress among one-hundred and six Mexican immigrant women participating in a family literacy program. The two hypotheses were: (1.) There is a relationship between (a) print literacy as measured by the Print Literacy Questionnaire and (b) acculturation as…

  9. Moving across Borders: Immigrant Women's Encounters with Globalization, the Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara; Hamdon, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The (un)reality of open/porous borders is starkly represented/manifested in the experiences of immigrant women in lifelong learning contexts. While globalization effectively destroys some borders, it simultaneously creates new ones. State institutions respond to global reconfigurations of borders at local levels by establishing policies that…

  10. Pilot evaluation of a health promotion program for African immigrant and refugee women: the UJAMBO Program.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Bishop, Hillary; Saia, Kelley; Crosby, Sondra; Mudymba, Francine Tshiwala; Hashi, Nimo Ibrahim; Raj, Anita

    2013-02-01

    The UJAMBO Program was a series of one session group workshops with Congolese and Somali women in the United States built around a DVD using African immigrant women's stories which provided basic information about mammography, pap smears and mental health services for trauma. The current study is an evaluation of the UJAMBO program addressing the impact on participants'knowledge of these health services and their intentions to use these services.

  11. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels.

  12. The importance of social context in understanding and promoting low-income immigrant women's health.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the social context and realities of Cape Verdean women in the U.S. as well as other immigrant and ethnic/racial groups is important to promote their overall health and well-being more effectively. The aim of this study was to gain a contextual understanding from the perspectives of health promoters who work with marginalized women. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine Cape Verdean women health promoters about their perspectives and experiences of health promotion practice with immigrant women in their community. Using a Glaserian grounded theory approach to analysis, six salient themes describing women's social context emerged: community and domestic violence, loss and isolation, economic injustice, immigration-related issues and abuse, unequal gender-based power relations, and cultural taboos. These findings challenge health researchers and practitioners to understand health problems and health promotion not only at an individual level, but at multiple levels of influence including interpersonal, family, neighborhood, and structural levels. PMID:19202249

  13. Prevalence and correlates of obesity and overweight among asian immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sook Ja; Choi, Hye Young; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Jung A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as associations between obesity and overweight and demographic, sociocultural, and lifestyle factors among Asian immigrant women in Korea. Data were collected from physical measurements and standardized questionnaires from 287 adult women from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries. The mean BMI (body mass index) was 22.0 kg/m(2); 15.0% of the sample were obese (BMI ≥ 25.0), and 17.1% were overweight (23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0). The highest obesity proportion was found in Filipino (22.0%) and the lowest in Vietnamese women (7.8%). Adjusted for demographic, sociocultural, and lifestyle variables, individuals with greater length of residence (5+ years; odds ratio = 3.22, P = .010) were more likely to be obese or overweight. For prevention of excess body weight, public health efforts need to be targeted to immigrants starting at arrival in Korea.

  14. Community Health Advocate-Identified Enablers of HIV Testing for Latina Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Massengale, Kelley E; Morrison, Sharon D; Sudha, S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to identify enablers or facilitators of HIV testing among Latina immigrant women through qualitative interviews with five community health advocates (CHAs). CHAs act as cultural bridges between Latinos and service providers. We employed a single case-study design using the PEN-3 model as a conceptual framework for situating HIV testing behaviors within cultural and structural contexts of Latina immigrant women's lives. A cross-case analysis of themes revealed that intrinsic enablers of HIV testing included individual trust, confidentiality, intergenerational family participation, and peers. The extrinsic enablers were local community outreach, bicultural/bilingual testing staff, service location and mass media outlets. These results have implications for the cultural competency of health and social service providers, instituting and revising HIV testing outreach interventions, and the earlier identification of women who may have been infected. They offer important insights for promoting other health behaviors among the Latino communities. PMID:27427927

  15. Unwalkable Neighborhoods, Poverty, and the Risk of Diabetes Among Recent Immigrants to Canada Compared With Long-Term Residents

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gillian L.; Creatore, Maria I.; Moineddin, Rahim; Gozdyra, Peter; Weyman, Jonathan T.; Matheson, Flora I.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study was designed to examine whether residents living in neighborhoods that are less conducive to walking or other physical activities are more likely to develop diabetes and, if so, whether recent immigrants are particularly susceptible to such effects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on diabetes incidence among recent immigrants (n = 214,882) relative to long-term residents (n = 1,024,380). Adults aged 30–64 years who were free of diabetes and living in Toronto, Canada, on 31 March 2005 were identified from administrative health databases and followed until 31 March 2010 for the development of diabetes, using a validated algorithm. Neighborhood characteristics, including walkability and income, were derived from the Canadian Census and other sources. RESULTS Neighborhood walkability was a strong predictor of diabetes incidence independent of age and area income, particularly among recent immigrants (lowest [quintile 1 {Q1}] vs. highest [quintile 5 {Q5}] walkability quintile: relative risk [RR] 1.58 [95% CI 1.42–1.75] for men; 1.67 [1.48–1.88] for women) compared with long-term residents (Q1 to Q5) 1.32 [1.26–1.38] for men; 1.24 [1.18–1.31] for women). Coexisting poverty accentuated these effects; diabetes incidence varied threefold between recent immigrants living in low-income/low walkability areas (16.2 per 1,000) and those living in high-income/high walkability areas (5.1 per 1,000). CONCLUSIONS Neighborhood walkability was inversely associated with the development of diabetes in our setting, particularly among recent immigrants living in low-income areas. PMID:22988302

  16. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  17. Oral health disparities of children among Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C; Yen, Y Y; Chang, C S; Ting, C C; Chen, P H; Chen, C C; Peng, W D; Chen, F L; Hu, C Y; Huang, H L

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the oral health disparities and oral health care needs of children whose parents are Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages. We used the baseline data of the Lay Health Advisor Approach to Promote Oral Health Program (LHA-POHP) to explore the disparities in oral health between immigrant and native children, and the factors associated with their oral health. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted to collect data from mothers and their preschool children in Southern Taiwan in 2011. A total of 590 (440 natives, 150 immigrants) children aged 4-6 years and their mothers completed the questionnaire and oral examination. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the association between children's oral health and their related factors. The caries index was 6.05 in immigrant children and 3.88 in native children (p < 0.001). The caries prevalence of maxillary anterior teeth in the labial surfaces was higher among immigrants, ranging from 14.7 to 22%. The factor associated with children's caries index was maternal tooth brushing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-41.05). When the mothers did not direct children to brush teeth after eating sweets, their children were more likely to have decayed teeth (aOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.04-12.03). Children's filled teeth were related to their dental regular check-ups (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.10). Disparities in oral health among immigrant and native children were observed. The findings suggest that culturally adequate oral health promotion intervention programs should be implemented for immigrants.

  18. Notes on the Incorporation of Third World Women into Wage-Labor Through Immigration and Off-Shore Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen-Koob, Saskia

    1984-01-01

    Immigration and off-shore production have evolved into mechanisms for the massive incorporation of Third World women into wage-labor. There is a systemic relation between this globalization and feminization of wage labor. (KH)

  19. The School Performance of Immigrant Minorities: A Comparative View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1987-01-01

    Working class immigrant youth are frequently more successful in school than nonimmigrant students of similar background if they receive all their schooling in their new homeland. This article explores the forces that allow the children of Punjabi Sikh farm families to succeed academically in spite of severe handicaps. (VM)

  20. Socioeconomic position and lower dietary moderation among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Fang, Carolyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of education and occupation, as indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), with dietary intake and diet quality in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Design Cross-sectional. Data collection included four days of dietary recalls and information on education and current occupation for participants and their spouses. Setting Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects 423 Chinese immigrant women recruited 10/05-4/08. Results In multivariate models, both higher education level and occupation category were significantly associated with higher energy density and intake of energy and sugar. Education was additionally associated with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (p=0.01) and lower dietary moderation (p=0.01). With joint categorization based on both education and occupation, we observed significant trends indicating higher energy density (p=0.004) and higher intake of energy (p=0.001) and sugar (p=0.04), but less dietary moderation (p=0.02) with higher SEP. Conclusions In this sample of US Chinese immigrants, higher SEP as indicated by education level and occupation category was associated with differences in dietary intake, and with less dietary moderation. While higher SEP is typically linked to healthier diet in higher income nations, in these immigrants the association of SEP with diet follows the pattern of their country of origin – a lower-income country undergoing the nutrition transition. PMID:21806866

  1. Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Machen, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe.

  2. Traveling with faith: the creation of women's immigrant aid associations in nineteenth and twentieth-century France.

    PubMed

    Machen, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the efforts of French Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish women to morally, spiritually, and physically protect immigrant and migrant women and girls in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Women of faith worried about the dangers posed by the white slave trade, and they feared the loss of spiritual consciousness among women living far from their families and their places of worship. In response to these concerns, they developed numerous faith-based international organizations aimed at protecting vulnerable working-class immigrants. Upper-class women's work in immigrant aid societies allowed them to take on much greater social and religious leadership roles than they had in the past. Likewise, the intricate, international networks that these women developed contributed to the building of international cooperation throughout Europe. PMID:22145183

  3. Intimate partner violence among Iraqi immigrant women in Metro Detroit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Judith E

    2011-08-01

    Violence against women is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant Iraqi women, and to explore the association between IPV and self-rated health. A pilot study using a previously published, self-report questionnaire was carried out among a convenience sampling of 55 Iraqi women in greater Detroit. The overall prevalence of controlling behavior, threatening behavior, and physical violence was 93, 76, and 80%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the women reported having poor or fair health, and 90% reported experiencing one or more types of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-rated health was inversely related to exposure to threatening behavior and physical violence, and positively related to knowledge of one's legal rights. The prevalence of IPV in this sample was high. Results indicated a significant association between exposure to IPV and women's physical health and psychosomatic symptoms.

  4. Barriers affecting access to and use of formal social supports among abused immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Sepali; Humphreys, Janice

    2009-09-01

    Social support is critical for women dealing with intimate partner violence (IPV).When support from their informal sources, such as family, friends, and neighbours, is limited, women tend to access services provided by health professionals, social workers, and settlement workers. In this qualitative descriptive study, community leaders who were also first-generation immigrants describe the complexities of immigrant women's access to and use of formal supports to deal with IPV in Canada.The findings show that a number of factors negatively shape the experiences of these women: lack of familiarity with services, inappropriate services and intervention strategies, lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, lack of portability and coordination of services, confidentiality concerns, and discriminatory and racist practices embedded in services and service delivery. In order to improve care for women dealing with IPV in the post-migration context, health professionals must collaborate with social workers and settlement workers to address structural barriers that limit women's access to and use of formal social support.

  5. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  6. Interpersonal Abuse and Depression among Mexican Immigrant Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Emily; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for a bi-directional relationship of depression and type 2 diabetes suggests that social distress plays a role in depression among people with diabetes. In this work, we examine the relationship between subjective distress and depression in 121 first and second generation Mexican immigrant women seeking diabetes care at a safety-net hospital in Chicago. We used a mixed-methods approach including narrative interview, survey, and finger stick blood HbA1c data. Using grounded theory analysis we identified seven life stressors from narrative interviews: interpersonal abuse, stress related to health, family, neighborhood violence, immigration status, and work, and feeling socially detached. Women reported unusually high rates of interpersonal abuse (65%) and disaggregated physical abuse (54%) and sexual abuse (23%). We evaluated depression using CES-D cut-off points of 16 and 24 and assessed rates to be 49% and 34%, respectively. We found that interpersonal abuse was a significant predictor of depression (CESD≥24) in bivariate (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.58–10.0) and multivariate (OR 5.51; 95% CI 1.85,16.4) logistic regression analyses. These findings suggest that interpersonal abuse functions as an important contributor to depression among low-income Mexican immigrant women and should be recognized and addressed in diabetes care. PMID:22173630

  7. Patient participation: A qualitative study of immigrant women and their experiences

    PubMed Central

    Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nyström, Maria; Dahlberg, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Patient participation in healthcare is a neglected area of interest in the rather extensive amount of research on immigrant so-called Selma patients in Swedish health care as well as worldwide. The aim is to explore the phenomenon “patient participation” in the context of the Swedish health care from the perspective of immigrants non-fluent in Swedish. A phenomenological lifeworld approach was chosen. Data were collected from patients within a municipal home care setting in Sweden. Eight women agreed to participate. In seven interviews, an interpreter was necessary for the translation of the interview. Five authorized interpreters were used. Data were analysed in accordance to a descriptive phenomenological method for caring research. The analysis led to an essence of the phenomenon with three constituents, “to experience participation,” “to refrain from participation,” and “to be deprived of participation.” Patient participation from the perspective of immigrant women means that patients are involved and active in their own health and caring processes. For these women, it is particularly important to have the opportunity to express themselves. Patient participation presupposes professional caregivers who act in a way that increases the patients' opportunities to take part. A skilled interpreter is often necessary in order to enable the patient participation. PMID:20640027

  8. Maternal education and adverse birth outcomes among immigrant women to the United States from Eastern Europe: a test of the healthy migrant hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Savitz, D A; Janevic, M

    2011-08-01

    Immigrant women to the U.S. often have more favorable birth outcomes than their native-born counterparts, including lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight, a phenomenon commonly attributed to a healthy migrant effect. However, this effect varies by ethnicity and country of origin. No previous study has examined birth outcomes among immigrants from the post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe, a group which includes both economic migrants and conflict refugees. Using data on 253,363 singletons births from New York City during 1995-2003 we examined the risk of preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks) or delivering a term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant among immigrants from Russia and Ukraine (RU), Poland, and former Yugoslavia Republics (FYR) relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites (NHW). Women in all three Eastern European groups had significantly later entry into prenatal care, were more likely to be Medicaid recipients, and had lower educational attainment than US-born NHW. In binomial regression analyses adjusting for age, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy weight, women from RU and FYR had lower risk of PTB than US-born NHW, whereas women from Poland had similar risk. Lower SGA risk was found among women from Poland and FYR, but not RU. When stratified by education, women with <12 years of education from all Eastern European groups had a reduced risk of PTB relative to US-born NHW. An educational gradient in PTB and SGA risk was less pronounced in all Eastern European groups compared to US-born NHW. The healthy migrant effect is present among immigrants from Eastern Europe to the U.S., especially among women with less education and those from the former Yugoslavia, a group that included many conflict refugees.

  9. Sex in the New World: an empowerment model for HIV prevention in Latina immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Gómez, C A; Hernández, M; Faigeles, B

    1999-04-01

    In 1996, nearly 60% of U.S. AIDS cases among Latinas were attributed to unprotected sex with men. Economic disadvantage, language barriers, and strong cultural gender norms regarding sex exacerbate the risk for HIV infection among Latina immigrant women. Through a collaboration among scientists and providers, this study was designed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted empowerment program for Latina immigrant women on HIV risk behaviors. Women (N = 74) were followed for the first 6 months of their participation and attended up to nine distinct types of activities (e.g., information meetings, friendship circles, and workshops). Although the program was not developed to specifically target HIV risk behaviors, women showed significant increases in sexual communication comfort, were less likely to maintain traditional sexual gender norms, and reported changes in decision-making power. Targeting broader sociocultural issues may increase the necessary skills for Latina women to prevent HIV infection from their sexual partners. Successful collaborations between scientists and providers are critical in developing effective, community-relevant interventions. PMID:10097964

  10. “They See Us As Machines:” The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker’s needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers. PMID:26600083

  11. Exploring ways to overcome barriers to mammography uptake and retention among South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Jandu, Barinder; Albagli, Andrea; Angus, Jan E; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2013-01-01

    South Asians comprise one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in North America. Evidence indicates that South Asian (SA) immigrant women are vulnerable to low rates of breast cancer screening. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge pertaining to socioculturally tailored strategies to guide the uptake of screening mammography in the SA community. In 2010, the authors conducted semi-structured focus groups (FG) to elicit perspectives of health and social service professionals on possible solutions to barriers identified by SA immigrant women in a recent study conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Thirty-five health and social services staff members participated in five FG. The discussions were audio taped and detailed field notes were taken. All collected data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using techniques of constant comparison within and across the group discussions. Three dominant themes were identified: (i) 'Target and Tailor' focused on awareness raising through multiple direct and indirect modes or approaches with underlying shared processes of involving men and the whole family, use of first language and learning from peers; (ii) 'Enhancing Access to Services' included a focus on 'adding ancillary services' and 'reinforcement of existing services' including expansion to a one-stop model; and (iii) 'Meta-Characteristics' centred on providing 'multi-pronged' approaches to reach the community, and 'sustainability' of initiatives by addressing structural barriers of adequate funding, healthcare provider mix, inter-sectoral collaboration and community voice. The findings simultaneously shed light on the grassroot practical strategies and the system level changes to develop efficient programmes for the uptake of mammography among SA immigrant women. The parallel focus on the 'Target and Tailor' and 'Enhancing Access to Services' calls for co-ordination at the policy level so that multiple sectors work jointly to streamline resources

  12. Gender and cultural patterns of suicidal behavior: young Hindustani immigrant women in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy.

  13. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  14. Breast Cancer Screening Practices Among First-Generation Immigrant Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Szalacha, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about breast cancer, screening practices, and factors associated with mammography use among first-generation immigrant Muslim women in Chicago, IL. Methods: A convenience sample of 207 first-generation immigrant Muslim women (Middle Eastern 51%; South Asian 49%) completed a culturally adapted questionnaire developed from established instruments. The questionnaire was administered in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic, or English, based on participant preference. Internal-consistency reliability was demonstrated for all scales (alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.91). Associations between enabling, predisposing, and need variables and the primary outcome of mammography use were explored by fitting logistic regression models. Results: Although 70% of the women reported having had a mammogram at least once, only 52% had had one within the past 2 years. Four factors were significant predictors of ever having had a mammogram: years in the United States, self-efficacy, perceived importance of mammography, and intent to be screened. Five factors were significant predictors of adherence (having had a mammogram in the past 2 years): years in the United States, having a primary care provider, perceived importance of mammography, barriers, and intent to be screened. Conclusions: This article sheds light on current screening practices and identifies theory-based constructs that facilitate and hinder Muslim women's participation in mammography screening. Our findings provide insights for reaching out particularly to new immigrants, developing patient education programs grounded in culturally appropriate approaches to address perceived barriers and building women's self-efficacy, as well as systems-level considerations for ensuring access to primary care providers. PMID:24865517

  15. Food choices and practices during pregnancy of immigrant and Aboriginal women in Canada: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2) with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3). The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge translation plan has been

  16. Disparities in Mammography Rate Among Immigrant and Native-Born Women in the U.S.: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionately low mammography rates among U.S. immigrants have been of persistent concern. In light of policies to increase access to screening, this study identifies differences in factors associated with screening among immigrant and native-born women in 2000 and 2008. Data from immigrant and native-born women aged 40+ years in the 2000 and 2008 National Health Interview Surveys were included in descriptive and multivariate regression analyses. Mammography rates rose from 60.2 to 65.5 % among immigrant women, remaining lower than the 68.9 % rate among native-born in 2008. Among immigrants, short length of residency and lower education were associated with lower screening rates in 2000 but not in 2008, while public insurance coverage was positively associated with screening only in 2008. In contrast to immigrants, among the native-born education and income were associated with mammography receipt in 2008, and in both groups health care access was associated with greater screening rates. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing access to mammography may be positively affecting immigrant screening disparities. Access to primary care and public insurance coverage are likely to be very important in maintaining and furthering improvements in mammography rates. PMID:23430466

  17. Ethnic enclaves and gestational diabetes among immigrant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined.

  18. Health Behaviors, Disparities and Deterring Factors for Breast Cancer Screening of Immigrant Women - A Challenge to Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Alcazar-Bejerano, Ivy Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background This literature review was made to provide comprehensive to provide comprehensive understanding of health disparities as well as factors and barriers to cancer screening of immigrant women in multicultural societies. Methods: Published articles from 1990–2013 were searched using databases such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Science Direct showing evidence of contributing factors and barriers to breast cancer screening practices of immigrant women in developed and developing countries. Based on the inclusion criteria, a total of 45 qualified articles were included in the review process. Results: Articles included were quantitative and qualitative, written in English for publication, and subjects were middle-aged, married immigrant women. The identified influential factors and barriers that prevent immigrant women from cancer screening were categorized as individual, socio-cultural and behavioral factors. Socioeconomic status, education level and knowledge, availability of health insurance and acculturation were among the individual factors. Presence of social support and recommendation from health care professionals were strongly associated with compliance with cancer screening. Cultural beliefs and practices as well as behavioral factors were among the barriers that deter women from participating in cancer screening. Conclusion: To alleviate the negative factors and barriers that affect the participation of high-risk immigrant women, a client-centered assessment and intervention approach with specific regard to cultural beliefs and practices should be considered by health care professionals. Joint effort of individuals, community, health care professionals and government institutions are recommended to further address the continuous rise of breast cancer mortality worldwide. PMID:26064855

  19. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  20. Using Photovoice, Latina Transgender Women Identify Priorities in a New Immigrant-Destination State

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Garcia, Manuel; Abraham, Claire; Sun, Christina J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the immigrant Latino/a transgender community in the southeastern United States. This study used photovoice, a methodology aligned with community-based participatory research, to explore needs, assets, and priorities of Latina transgender women in North Carolina. Nine immigrant Latina male-to-female transgender women documented their daily experiences through photography, engaged in empowerment-based photo-discussions, and organized a bilingual community forum to move knowledge to action. From the participants’ photographs and words, 11 themes emerged in three domains: daily challenges (e.g., health risks, uncertainty about the future, discrimination, and anxiety about family reactions); needs and priorities (e.g., health and social services, emotional support, and collective action); and community strengths and assets (e.g., supportive individuals and institutions, wisdom through lived experiences, and personal and professional goals). At the community forum, 60 influential advocates, including Latina transgender women, representatives from community-based organizations, health and social service providers, and law enforcement, reviewed findings and identified ten recommended actions. Overall, photovoice served to obtain rich qualitative insight into the lived experiences of Latina transgender women that was then shared with local leaders and agencies to help address priorities. PMID:27110226

  1. Family planning practices and attitudes among former Soviet new immigrant women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Remennick, L I; Amir, D; Elimelech, Y; Novikov, Y

    1995-08-01

    One hundred young new immigrant women from the former U.S.S.R. now living in Israel answered a detailed semi-open questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in fertility and birth control issues. A collective family planning profile of these women is largely in line with that of the urban population of Slavonic U.S.S.R., combining early marriage, early and low fertility, the latter achieved by both abortion and contraception. Most respondents and their partners tried to prevent unwanted pregnancies, usually starting from traditional methods and switching over time to modern ones. An IUD remained most popular contraceptive among parous women, while use of the pill, very rare in the U.S.S.R., has almost doubled upon migration, mostly among younger women. Still, they kept some misleading ideas on the pros and cons of traditional versus modern methods, suggesting lack of adequate information also upon migration. Like their ex-compatriots, our women preferred to solve their birth control problems without external professional involvement. Contrary to the expected, free abortion ideology was not universally advocated by our respondents, and most were fully aware of abortion limitations in Israel. While rationally condemning abortion in both moral and health terms, most respondents still use it, this gap between beliefs and practice being indicative of their readiness to adopt efficient contraception. This switch occurs faster in women actively involved with host society via work or studies. Younger women were found to be more flexible and advanced in their family planning practices than were older ones, while almost no differences were related to education and origin within the U.S.S.R. This exploratory study suggests that any investment into promotion of healthy fertility control practices among new immigrants will be cost-effective in the near future. PMID:7481951

  2. Educational and Mothering Discourses and Learner Goals: Mexican Immigrant Women Enacting Agency in a Family Literacy Program. Research Brief #8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    Family literacy programs promote certain ideas about literacy and parenting. This study examined how Mexican immigrant women in a family literacy program used mainstream ideas, or discourses, of mothering and parent involvement in education to pursue their own personal and academic goals. The findings revealed that women were at times faced with…

  3. Non-English Speaking Background Immigrant Women in the Workforce. Working Papers on Multiculturalism Paper No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorso, Caroline

    This report presents the findings of a study into the experiences of non-English speaking background (NESB) migrant women in the Australian workforce. The fieldwork, which involved interviewing over 100 immigrant women living and working in Sydney, was carried out in 1988 and 1989. The study also involved an extensive review of Australian and…

  4. Immigrant and refugee social networks: determinants and consequences of social support among women newcomers to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hynie, Michaela; Crooks, Valorie A; Barragan, Jackeline

    2011-12-01

    Recent immigrants and refugees (newcomers) vary on many dimensions but do share similar challenges. Newcomers must rebuild social networks to obtain needed social support but often face social exclusion because of their race, language, religion, or immigrant status. In addition, most have limited access to personal, social, and community resources. Effects of situational and personal variables on the benefits and limitations associated with the social networks of female newcomers were explored through interviews and focus groups with 87 women from 7 communities. Using thematic analysis, the authors identify 5 sources of informal support across all 7 communities, which were almost exclusively limited to co-ethnic relationships, and the types of support, limitations, and reciprocity within each. Perceived support was strongest from family and close friends and, when support from close relationships was unavailable, from primary care providers. The results suggest that co-ethnic peer support networks may be overwhelmed in newcomer communities because of their limited size and resources.

  5. "Women Must Endure According to Their Karma." Cambodian Immigrant Women Talk About Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Mell, Molly; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne

    2005-01-01

    Asian populations living in the United States share similar cultural values that influence their experiences with domestic violence. However, it is critical to recognize how differential cultural beliefs in the context of immigration and adjustment to life in the United States affect attitudes, interpretations, and response to domestic violence.…

  6. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  7. Mental health problems and acculturative issues among married immigrant women in Korea: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Through this research the author explored immigrant women's mental health problems with the goal of deepening understanding to develop a framework for preventing mental disorders and improving their mental health. A qualitative research design was used to examine the women's lived experiences. The data were collected from February 2014 to October 2014. Twenty women were recruited from multicultural community service centers. Inclusion criteria were the ability to communicate and the absence of acute physical or psychological problems; participants were excluded if they were under 18 years old or separated. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with participants regarding their experiences of living in Korean society. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. A conceptual framework-Embracing Cultural Conflict Model-was constructed based on the personal-family-community context as well as the paradigm of the immigrant woman using eleven concepts. The conceptual framework suggests that multicultural programs and services should take into account a historical understanding of Korean society and family, address problem-solving strategies including improving mental health literacy, build support from both the Korean family and family of origin, and offer multicultural activities to satisfy homeland-related cultural needs.

  8. Conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening among diverse groups of immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg

  9. Contacts and Conflicts; The Asian Immigration Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    In this curriculum guide to the Asian immigration experience, the topics discussed include: major immigration periods, early contributions of Asian immigrants, Chinese immigration, Japanese immigration, Filipino immigration, Korean immigration, early Asian women in America, Asian immigration to Hawaii, anti-Asian hostility, the exploitation of…

  10. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  11. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  12. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    PubMed

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  13. Violence against Women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Roche, Brenda; Catallo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women is a serious health and social problem for women worldwide. Researchers have investigated the broad physical and mental health consequences of violence against women but few have focused on immigrant and refugee women. We assessed the history of violence and the impairment of physical and mental health among 60 women participants from the Iranian and Sri Lankan Tamil communities in Toronto, Canada. Our survey findings revealed that the participants had experienced various types of violence throughout their lifespan, with psychological abuse by a spouse/partner occurring most frequently in the past 12 months. Commonly reported types of abuse included insulting, criticizing, and intimidation by partner (psychological abuse); slapping, hitting, and shoving (physical abuse); and forced sexual intercourse and sexually degrading acts (sexual abuse) by a partner/spouse. We found that a substantial proportion of the participants also had experienced physical and mental health impairment, which could be a result of the various types of violence they had experienced throughout their lifespan. Research and practice implications are provided. PMID:22685644

  14. Becoming Resilient: Promoting the Mental Health and Well-Being of Immigrant Women in a Canadian Context

    PubMed Central

    MacDonnell, Judith A.; Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Bokore, Nimo; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on grounded theory findings that are relevant to promoting the mental health and well-being of immigrant women in Canada. The findings illustrate how relationships among settlement factors and dynamics of empowerment had implications for “becoming resilient” as immigrant women and how various health promotion approaches enhanced their well-being. Dimensions of empowerment were embedded in the content and process of the feminist health promotion approach used in this study. Four focus groups were completed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada with 35 racialized immigrant women who represented diverse countries of origin: 25 were from Africa; others were equally represented from South Asia (5), Asia (5), and Central or South America and the Caribbean (5). Participants represented diverse languages, family dynamics, and educational backgrounds. One focus group was conducted in Somali; three were conducted in English. Constructivist grounded theory, theoretical sampling, and a critical feminist approach were chosen to be congruent with health promotion research that fostered women's empowerment. Findings foreground women's agency in the study process, the ways that immigrant women name and frame issues relevant to their lives, and the interplay among individual, family, community, and structural dynamics shaping their well-being. Implications for mental health promotion are discussed. PMID:22754696

  15. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

  16. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  17. Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services provided by midwives among rural immigrant women in Spain: midwives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Garcia, Laura; Goicolea, Isabel; Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Sanz-Barbero, Belen

    2013-01-01

    Background There is insufficient information regarding access and participation of immigrant women in Spain in sexual and reproductive health programs. Recent studies show their lower participation rate in gynecological cancer screening programs; however, little is known about the participation in other sexual and reproductive health programs by immigrant women living in rural areas with high population dispersion. Objectives The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions of midwives who provide these services regarding immigrant women's access and participation in sexual and reproductive health programs offered in a rural area. Design A qualitative study was performed, within a larger ethnographic study about rural primary care, with data collection based on in-depth interviews and field notes. Participants were the midwives in primary care serving 13 rural basic health zones (BHZ) of Segovia, a region of Spain with high population dispersion. An interview script was designed to collect information about midwives’ perceptions on immigrant women's access to and use of the healthcare services that they provide. Interviews were recorded and transcribed with participant informed consent. Data were analyzed based on the qualitative content analysis approach and triangulation of results with fieldwork notes. Results Midwives perceive that immigrants in general, and immigrant women in particular, underuse family planning services. This underutilization is associated with cultural differences and gender inequality. They also believe that the number of voluntary pregnancy interruptions among immigrant women is elevated and identify childbearing and childrearing-related tasks and the language barrier as obstacles to immigrant women accessing the available prenatal and postnatal healthcare services. Conclusions Immigrant women's underutilization of midwifery services may be linked to the greater number of unintended pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, and the

  18. The 2005 reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act: why congress acted to expand protections to immigrant victims.

    PubMed

    Conyers, John

    2007-05-01

    The author provides an overview of the history of congressional involvement with the Violence Against Women Act's (VAWA) provisions to protect immigrant victims of domestic violence and other forms of violence against women. He also outlines the reasoning behind, and purpose of, the most recent enhancements in legal protections for immigrant victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking, and foreign fiancés and spouses that were included in the recently reauthorized VAWA 2005, also describing the bipartisan work that resulted in this newest piece of legislation. PMID:17478671

  19. Expression and treatment of depression among Haitian immigrant women in the United States: clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Guerda; Desilva, Angela M; Subrebost, Kelly L; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Gonzalez-Eastep, Diana; Manning, Natasha; Prosper, Vanessa; Prater, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Existing research demonstrates that culture has a profound impact on the expression and manifestation of mental illness, especially on depressive disorders among ethnically diverse populations. Currently, little research has focused on the Haitian population, despite the growing number of Haitians living in the United States. This paper discusses clinical observations of the expression of depression among Haitian immigrant women living in the United States. Specifically, this paper examines three distinctive types of depression (pain in the body, relief through God, and fighting a winless battle), explains their symptoms, and provides case examples to illustrate the expression of each type of depression. Additionally, the paper describes treatment processes for each type of depression and makes recommendations to mental health providers with respect to each type of depression. The information provided in this paper highlights the importance of a more systematic and scientific investigation of depression among Haitian women, men, and youths in the United States. PMID:17503679

  20. What Health Care Reform Means for Immigrants: Comparing the Affordable Care Act and Massachusetts Health Reforms.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tiffany D

    2016-02-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines the ACA reform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide.

  1. HIV/AIDS and immigrant Cape Verdean women: contextualized perspectives of Cape Verdean community advocates.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2007-03-01

    This research explored Cape Verdean community advocates' understandings of the structural and social realities that contribute to the increased HIV/AIDS risk of Northeastern U.S.-based immigrant Cape Verdean women. A community perspective informed the analysis of the multi-layered contextual barriers that these advocates identified as limiting the effectiveness of individual-level HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention models. Qualitative content analysis of interviews with nine community advocates revealed several thematic clusters including challenges to (1) perceived institutional and community realities; (2) traditional gender relations; and, (3) traditional ways of thinking. These findings challenge universalist cognitive-behavioral change models of HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention and are critically discussed to better understand the complex realities faced by Cape Verdean immigrant women. A liberatory community psychology perspective framed the research process and contributed to reconceptualizing HIV/AIDS risk as a community problem that requires interventions not simply at the individual and relational levels, but also at the structural level.

  2. Logo-autobiography and its effectiveness on depressed Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunhee; Bernstein, Kunsook S; Roh, Soonhee; Chen, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of logo-autobiography (LA) as a therapeutic modality for Korean immigrant women suffering from depression and perceiving their lives as meaningless. A nonrandomized quasi-experimental study was conducted with pretest, posttest, and a 4-week follow-up test. Forty subjects--20 with antidepressants and 20 without--were divided quarterly and assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group reported a significant lower score on depressive symptoms (F = 6.832, p = .013; F = 19.800, p ≤ .001) and a higher score on meaning of life (F = 12.294, p = .001; F = 12.232, p = .001) than did the control group immediately after completing the LA and a 4-week follow-up. The LA was more effective for the subjects in the nonmedication group than in the medication group. In conclusion, LA is effective in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing a sense of meaning in life among Korean immigrant women suffering from depression.

  3. Imagined Anatomy and Other Lessons from Learner Verification Interviews with Mexican Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer; Kelly, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify clearer, learner-preferred, educational approaches for aspects of cervical cancer education found to be difficult to understand for low literacy, Mexican, immigrant women. Setting Kansas City, Kansas; Garden City, Kansas; San Antonio, Texas. Participants Forty-five Mexican immigrant women in the United States for five years or less, ninth grade education or less, and predominantly Spanish speaking. Methods Interviews were conducted to evaluate preference and best comprehension among options for specific cervical cancer educational elements, including reproductive system terminology, the purpose of Pap tests and meaning of results, Human Papilloma Virus, and illustrations of anatomy and PAP procedure. Results We identified terminology, translation, content, and illustrations preferred by participants and areas of inadequate existing knowledge needed for comprehension of concepts being taught. Analogies, illustrations, and introduction of medical terms in conjunction with equivalent common Spanish terms were effective ways of building bridges from existing knowledge to new knowledge. Participants desired detailed information and shared new information with others Conclusion We learned the importance of assessing patients’ existing body knowledge. The detail desired by participants challenged common simplification approaches to teaching low literacy learners. Participant willingness to share information challenged ideas of cultural taboo. Results provide evidence for more effective delivery of women’s health education and call for further research on best approaches to teaching low literacy learners. PMID:23030624

  4. Patients’ perception of differences in general practitioners’ attitudes toward immigrants compared to the general population: Qualicopc Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Globally, the number of immigrants is rising every year, so that the number of immigrants worldwide is estimated at 200 million. In Slovenia, immigrants comprise 6.5% of the overall population. Immigrants bring along to a foreign country their cultural differences and these differences can affect immigrants’ overall health status and lead to chronic health conditions. The aim of this study was to identify patients’ perception of general practitioners’ (GPs’) attitudes toward immigrants in Slovenia. Methods This study was based on the Qualicopc questionnaire. We used the questions that targeted patients’ experience with the appointment at their GP on the day that the study was carried out. Results There were no differences in GPs’ accessibility based on groups included in our study (p>0.05). Compared to the non-immigrant population, first-generation immigrants answered that their GPs were impolite (p=0.018) and that they did not take enough time for them (p=0.038). In addition, they also experienced more difficulties understanding their GP’s instructions (p<0.001). Second-generation immigrants experienced more negative behaviour from GPs, and first-generation immigrants had more difficulties understanding GPs’ instructions. Conclusion There may be some differences in patients’ perception of GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants in comparison with the general Slovenian population. However, based on the perception of the immigrants that do benefit from the medical care it is not possible to judge the GPs’ attitudes towards immigrants as worse compared to their attitude towards the non-immigrant population. Indeed, there may be other reasons why the patients answered the way they did. PMID:27703534

  5. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  6. Promoters and barriers to work: a comparative study of refugees versus immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Hikmet; Kanno, Samer S.; Abo-Shasha, Rami; AlSaqa, Mazen M.; Fakhouri, Monty; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immigrants in general and refugees in specific are at risk for unemployment with detrimental effects on health and social well-being. Prior work has identified a series of barriers preventing employment among immigrants and refugees. However, these studies either fail to have a comparison group, or it is improper. The objective of this study is to compare unemployment determinants among culturally comparable Iraqi immigrants and refugees. Method A convenience sample of Iraqis residing in Michigan, who came to US after 2003, were surveyed covering socio-demographic aspects, prior and current job history, perceived barriers and facilitators to get a job, discrimination, and health. Results results show that refugees were twice as likely to be unemployed. Lack of language skills was a bigger barrier among refugees. The results indicate that immigrants are more successful than refugees in securing a job, even after taking their pre-migration and professional experiences into consideration. Conclusion This comparative study showed that refugees were more likely to have a difficult time in successfully finding a job. More attention is needed to help minimize the barriers that refugees face in the employment process. PMID:25745518

  7. Hwabyung: the construction of a Korean popular illness among Korean elderly immigrant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pang, K Y

    1990-12-01

    The cultural construction of Hwabyung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, is explored among a sample of 20 elderly Korean immigrant women in the United States. Hwabyung results when distressed emotions associated with the specifically Korean way of perceiving and reacting to intolerable and tragic life situations cause bodily symptoms by interfering with the harmony of "Ki" (vital energy). Korean elderly immigrants report a broad range of symptoms associated with Hwabyung; they less frequently report the epigastric mass, which had been considered the cardinal symptom by cosmopolitan and traditional medical writers. Hwabyung is treated holistically with psychosocial support from family, spiritual comfort, home and popular remedies, traditional Korean medicine, and biomedical treatments. Hwabyung provides a way of conceptualizing and resolving emotional distress through somatization among Korean elderly immigrant women.

  8. Gender differences in immigrant health: the case of Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants.

    PubMed

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Reynolds, Megan M

    2012-03-01

    This article draws on theories of gender inequality and immigrant health to hypothesize differences among the largest immigrant population, Mexicans, and a lesser known population of Middle Easterners. Using data from the 2000-2007 National Health Interview Surveys, we compare health outcomes among immigrants to those among U.S.-born whites and assess gender differences within each group. We find an immigrant story and a gender story. Mexican and Middle Eastern immigrants are healthier than U.S.-born whites, and men report better health than women regardless of nativity or ethnicity. We identify utilization of health care as a primary mechanism that contributes to both patterns. Immigrants are less likely than U.S.-born whites to interact with the health care system, and women are more likely to do so than men. Thus, immigrant and gender health disparities may partly reflect knowledge of health status rather than actual health.

  9. "Kull wahad la haalu": Feelings of isolation and distress among Yemeni immigrant women in San Francisco's Tenderloin.

    PubMed

    Volk, Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Recently arrived Yemeni immigrant women in San Francisco's Tenderloin neighborhood face a series of challenges as they go about living their everyday lives in a poor and crime-ridden neighborhood. They experience feelings of isolation and distress because of their limited English skills, their conservative Islamic dress that draws comments and unfriendly looks, and their household chores as mothers of often large families, which keep them busy at home. Despite living in close proximity to other Yemeni immigrants, these women feel profoundly lonely. In this study, based on interviews with 15 recently arrived Yemeni women, I show different "idioms of distress" that connect the women's emotional states to experiences of physical space and the body. I also raise methodological and epistemological questions about conducting anthropological work in communities whose members experience profound isolation.

  10. Acculturation and associated effects on abused immigrant women's safety and mental functioning: results of entry data for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nava, Angeles; McFarlane, Judith; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2014-12-01

    Intimate partner violence has negative effects on women's safety and wellbeing. When immigrant women are victimized the danger and poor health may intensify. The purpose was to determine the impact of acculturation on severity of violence, danger for murder, mental health functioning, and safety behaviors of abused immigrant women. Entry data of a 7-year prospective study of 106 abused immigrant women who were first time users of safe shelter or justice services is presented. The interview included the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, Danger Assessment, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Safety Behavior Checklist, and Acculturation for Hispanics instruments. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation between acculturation and safety behaviors and BSI scores was established. Higher acculturation scores were associated with significantly more practiced safety behaviors and higher levels of depression. Understanding the specific needs of abuse immigrant women associated with acculturation is imperative to develop interventions to interrupt abuse and promote safety and mental well-being.

  11. Developing a Sociological Imagination by Doing Sociology: A Methods-Based Service-Learning Course on Women and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The author addresses the development and implementation of a service-learning project for an undergraduate course in which students interview immigrant women, incorporate the interviewees' experiences into an analytical paper, and present the findings at the end of the semester. Students are required to use C. Wright Mills's concepts of history…

  12. Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie; Geronimus, Arline; Bound, John; Griffith, Derek; Gee, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, but not all, suggest that immigrant health worsens with duration of residence in the U.S. Cohort effects may explain the inconsistent findings; not only are cohort effects confounded with duration, but the timing of entry into the US may also create qualitatively different migration experiences. The present study tests for duration and cohort patterns among Asian immigrants to the United States across six year-of-entry cohorts (pre-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005). Data come from the Asian American sample (n=44,002) from the 1994-2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey. The data show cohort differences for self-rated health, such that more recent cohorts showed improved baseline health compared to older cohorts. After accounting for cohorts, there was no significant change in self-rated health by duration. Older cohorts actually showed improving self-rated health with longer duration. Obesity showed the opposite pattern; there were no differences across cohorts, but duration in the United States correlated with higher obesity. These results imply that immigrant health is not simply an issue of duration and adaptation, but underscore the utility of considering cohorts as broader contexts of migration. Collectively, the results encourage future research that more carefully examines the etiological mechanisms that drive immigrant health. PMID:25879262

  13. Measuring health literacy among immigrants with a phonetic primary language: a case of Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B

    2011-04-01

    While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills.

  14. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian immigrants organizing to promote environmental and social justice.

    PubMed

    Gute, David M; Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-11-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries.

  15. Household Structure, Family Ties, and Psychological Distress among US-born and Immigrant Latino Women

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alcántara, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Latino women endorse the highest rates of past-month depressive symptoms relative to Latino men and to non-Latino White men and women. Yet, research into the specific domains of family life that reduce or engender psychological distress among Latinas is sparse. We examine the hypothesis that indicators of household structure and family ties will relate to psychological distress among Latinas in the USA, and that these associations will vary by nativity status. We employed nationally representative data of Latina adults (N = 1,427) from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Nativity-stratified regression analyses revealed that strained family ties (i.e., family burden, family cultural conflict) were associated with greater levels of past-month psychological distress for both US-born and immigrant Latinas. Yet, the effect of household structures on psychological distress differed by nativity status. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lower levels of household income were associated with greater psychological distress; and having children/adolescents in the household was associated with lower levels of psychological distress among US-born Latinas. In contrast, for immigrant Latinas, being out of the labor force was associated with greater levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that dynamics of both the household and family context predict differential as well as similar mental health outcomes across segments of the Latina population in the USA. These findings underscore the need to understand the pathways by which different facets of family life—structural and social domains—relate to mental health status among subgroups of Latinas. Our results also have implications for the development of tailored interventions to meet the specific needs of Latinas. PMID:23421842

  16. Breastfeeding offers protection against obesity in children of recently immigrated Latina women.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Sofia G; Heyman, Melvin B; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-06-01

    Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relatively unacculturated Latina mothers. Maternal characteristics at birth, including length of stay in the United States, breastfeeding habits at 4-6 weeks of age, 6 months, and 1 year, and anthropometric measurements were obtained for a cohort of 196 children participating in a prospective study. At 1 year of age 39.0% of infants were being breastfed. Being breastfed at 1 year of age was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in both univariate (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.83) and multivariate models (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.93) adjusting for maternal BMI, marital status, education level, country of origin, age, years of living in the United States, and child's birth weight at 3 years of age, regardless of mother's acculturation status using length of stay in the United States as a proxy for acculturation. The association with breastfeeding persisted at 4 years of age as a protective factor for obesity (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.80). Breastfeeding for longer than 12 months provides a significant protective effect on the development of obesity in early childhood in a cohort of children of high-risk recently immigrated Latina women in San Francisco who were relatively unacculturated to the United States. PMID:24249439

  17. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier. PMID:25810922

  18. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  19. Self-rated health and health problems of undocumented immigrant women in the Netherlands: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Schoevers, M A; van den Muijsenbergh, M E T C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2009-12-01

    In this descriptive study, 100 female undocumented immigrants aged > or =18 years were interviewed about their health condition. The objective was to gain insight into the health situation and specific health problems of undocumented women. Sixty-five per cent of these undocumented women rated their health as 'poor' (moderate or bad) and 91 per cent spontaneously mentioned having current health problems. When provided with a list of 26 common health problems, subjects reported on average 11.1 complaints. Gynaecological and psychological complaints were very prevalent, but seldom mentioned spontaneously. Also obstetric problems were numerous. Undocumented women may not present important symptoms to physicians when they encounter them. We conclude that physicians should actively ask about psychological and gynaecological problems in this patient group. Special training on the health problems of undocumented female immigrants for health providers is recommended. PMID:20029430

  20. Daily and Cultural Issues of Postnatal Depression in African Women Immigrants in South East London: Tips for Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion “that you have to get on with it.” The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  1. Daily and cultural issues of postnatal depression in african women immigrants in South East london: tips for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Titilayo; Moreno-Leguizamon, Carlos Julio

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal depression has profound effects on the quality of life, social functioning, and economic productivity of women and families. This paper presents the findings of an earlier exploration of the perception of postnatal depression in African women immigrants in South East London. The aims of this research were twofold: firstly, to establish cultural elements related to postnatal depression through women's narratives regarding their daily life situations, including the nuances and complexities present in postnatal depression, and secondly, to help health professionals understand and acknowledge postnatal depression signs in these immigrant women and some of the cultural ambiguities surrounding them. The study used a qualitative approach mainly through the implementation of two focus groups. Thematic analysis of the women's narratives suggested that almost half of the participants in the study struggle with some signs of postnatal depression. The women did not perceive the signs as related to illness but as something else in their daily lives, that is, the notion "that you have to get on with it." The study also highlights the fact that the signs were not identified by health visitors, despite prolonged contact with the women, due to the lack of acknowledgement of women's silence regarding their emotional struggle, household and family politics, and intercultural communication in health services. PMID:23056936

  2. Walking a tightrope: the many faces of violence in the lives of racialized immigrant girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Yasmin

    2005-07-01

    This article explores a hidden yet pervasive form of violence that marks the lives of young women from racialized immigrant communities in western Canada. It argues for an intersectional analysis that takes into consideration their heightened vulnerability to systemic and institutional forms of violence. Situated at the intersections of race, class, gender, and age, these young women walk a tightrope between the violence of racism they experience from the host and/or dominant society and the pressures to conform imposed from within their communities. Challenging previous culturalist explanations, the article suggests that racism constitutes a significant form of structural violence experienced by these young women.

  3. Women's Higher Education in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P., Ed.; Slaughter, Sheila, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays on the effect of national policies and practices on women's access to higher education, the type of courses in which women are enrolled, women's roles as academics, and how the outcomes of higher education affect women in the academic workforce and the economy. Various countries are represented in the…

  4. Bonds to the homeland: Patterns and determinants of women's transnational travel frequency among three immigrant groups in Germany.

    PubMed

    Iarmolenko, Svitlana; Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-04-01

    Technology developments have changed immigrants' adaptation patterns in modern societies, allowing immigrants to sustain dense, complex connections with homeland while adjusting in the host country, a new phenomenon termed transnationalism. As empirical studies on immigrant transnationalism are still scarce, the purpose of this study was to investigate mean levels and determinants of a core component of transnationalism-transnational travel. Hypotheses were based on context of exiting homeland, living conditions in Germany and demographic and sociocultural variables. Transnational travel behaviour was assessed as frequency of return trips in three immigrant groups in Germany: ethnic Germans, Russian Jews and Turks. Interviews were conducted with 894 women participants from these groups. Results showed substantial transnational travel behaviour in all groups with Turks reporting higher levels than ethnic Germans and Russian Jews. Interindividual differences in transnational travel within groups were also examined. Results indicated similarities (e.g. network size in home country related positively to transnational travel frequency in all groups) and group-specific associations (e.g. co-ethnic identifying related positively to transnational travel frequency among Turks, but negatively for the other groups). Our study highlights the need for a new understanding of immigration and emphasises the consideration of group-specific mechanisms in transnational travel behaviour.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Change of Gender Roles: The Case of Pilipino Women Immigrants in Midwest City, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pido, Antonio J. A.

    This paper examines the social status of women in Filipino culture and the way this is affected by exposure to American culture when they immigrate. First, the status of women in the Philippine social structure is discussed. Perceptions of the role of education are analyzed and statistics given for the enrollment of women in colleges. The results…

  6. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-12-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently little information about how the combined effects of the refugee experience and the U.S. health environment are related to health practices of refugees in the years and decades after resettlement. We examined cross-sectional survey data for Cambodian refugee and immigrant women 35 to 60 years old (n = 160) from an established refugee community in Lowell, Massachusetts, to examine the potential contributors to health behaviors and outcomes among refugees and immigrants postresettlement. In our representative sample, we found that smoking and betel nut use were very low (4% each). Fewer than 50% of respondents walked for at least 10 minutes on 2 or more days/week. Using World Health Organization standards for overweight/obese for Asians, 73% of respondents were overweight/obese and 56% were obese, indicating increased risk of chronic disease. Depression was also high in this sample (41%). In multivariate models, higher acculturation and age were associated with walking more often; lower education and higher acculturation were related to higher weight; and being divorced/separated or widowed and being older were related to higher risk of depression. The interrelated complex of characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes of refugees merits a multifaceted approach to health education and health promotion for long-term refugee health.

  7. Long-Term Refugee Health: Health Behaviors and Outcomes of Cambodian Refugee and Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Peterman, Jerusha L; Toof, Robin; Liang, Sidney L; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C

    2015-12-01

    Refugees in the United States have high rates of chronic disease. Both long-term effects of the refugee experience and adjustment to the U.S. health environment may contribute. While there is significant research on health outcomes of newly resettled refugees and long-term mental health experiences of established refugees, there is currently little information about how the combined effects of the refugee experience and the U.S. health environment are related to health practices of refugees in the years and decades after resettlement. We examined cross-sectional survey data for Cambodian refugee and immigrant women 35 to 60 years old (n = 160) from an established refugee community in Lowell, Massachusetts, to examine the potential contributors to health behaviors and outcomes among refugees and immigrants postresettlement. In our representative sample, we found that smoking and betel nut use were very low (4% each). Fewer than 50% of respondents walked for at least 10 minutes on 2 or more days/week. Using World Health Organization standards for overweight/obese for Asians, 73% of respondents were overweight/obese and 56% were obese, indicating increased risk of chronic disease. Depression was also high in this sample (41%). In multivariate models, higher acculturation and age were associated with walking more often; lower education and higher acculturation were related to higher weight; and being divorced/separated or widowed and being older were related to higher risk of depression. The interrelated complex of characteristics, health behaviors, and health outcomes of refugees merits a multifaceted approach to health education and health promotion for long-term refugee health. PMID:26157042

  8. Predicting health literacy among English-as-a-second-Language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada: comprehension of colon cancer prevention information.

    PubMed

    Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-06-01

    Inadequate health literacy has been identified as a barrier to the utilization of health-care services, including cancer screening. This study examined predictors of health literacy among 106 older Chinese immigrant women to Canada and how colon cancer information presented in their first versus second language affected health literacy skill. Only 38.7% of the women had adequate health literacy based on Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults, and 54.3% had adequate comprehension of the colon cancer information. Comprehension of the cancer information was significantly lower among women who received the information in English compared with those who received the information in Chinese. Age, acculturation, self-reported proficiency reading English, and education were significant predictors of health literacy but varied depending on the measure of health literacy used and language of the information. Presentation of cancer prevention information in one's first rather than second language improves health literacy but does not eliminate comprehension difficulties for older ESL Chinese immigrants.

  9. Quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with pain in Denmark: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlis, Camilla; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine quality of life and coping strategies among immigrant women living with chronic pain. Design Qualitative content analysis based on in-depth semistructured interviews. Setting A clinic specifically targeting immigrants at a larger university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants Non-western female immigrant patients suffering from chronic pain (n=13). Main outcome measures Experiences of the impact of chronic pain on quality of life. Results Chronic pain was perceived to have an extensive, adverse effect on all aspects of quality of life, including physical health, mental well-being and social relations. This included the ability to maintain activities of daily living and the ability to work. Chronic pain was further experienced as a cause of emotional distress, depression and altered personalities, which all had great consequences on women's social interactions, causing change and loss of social relations. A variety of coping strategies were used to cope with the pain, manage its consequences, and restore a level of health that would enable women to function and fulfil social roles. Many participants coped with the pain by altering everyday life, keeping daily activities to a minimum and taking pain-killing drugs, offering temporary relief. Seeking healthcare was another coping strategy used as an active means to assert agency and as a temporary distraction from pain. However, accessing healthcare also involved a risk of disagreement and disappointments. Conclusions Chronic pain had a severe negative impact on quality of life and necessitated alterations in everyday life and active health-seeking strategies. Implications for practice imply a need for a more holistic approach to immigrant women with chronic pain, including a family-centred approach. Further research is needed to explore similarities or differences in and between populations with diverse ethnic, socioeconomic and psychosocial backgrounds, and to assess how ethnicity and

  10. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Immigrant Boys and Girls: Comparing Native Dutch and Moroccan Immigrant Adolescents across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paalman, Carmen; van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; van de Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and externalizing problems in 159 Moroccan and 159…

  11. Experiences of African immigrant women living with HIV in the U.K.: implications for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Ndirangu, Eunice W; Evans, Catrin

    2009-04-01

    In the U.K. immigrant women from Africa constitute an increasingly large proportion of newly diagnosed cases of HIV. A significant minority of these are refugees and asylum seekers. Very little is known about their experiences of living with HIV/AIDS, their psychosocial needs or their views of health care provision. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored these issues by interviewing eight African women living with HIV in the British city of Nottingham. Women's ability to live positively with HIV was found to be strongly shaped by their migration history, their legal status, their experience of AIDS-related stigma and their Christian faith. Significantly, health services were represented as a safe social space, and were highly valued as a source of advice and support. The findings indicate that non-judgemental, personalised health care plays a key role in encouraging migrant African women to access psychosocial support and appropriate HIV services.

  12. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan.

  13. Evaluating the satisfaction of immigrant women from a rural community regarding family functioning and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying; Sun, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Transnational marriages in Taiwan are largely mediated by marriage brokers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of immigrant women with their family function and health-related quality of life in a rural township in southern Taiwan. Data were collected from January 1, 2006 to November 31, 2006, and 157 immigrants agreed to participate in the study, with a 79.3% response rate. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The interviewers also collected information on the immigrants' and husbands' demographics, self-reported mental conditions, family function using a Family APGAR questionnaire (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve), and health-related quality of life. Marriage arranged through a marriage broker and having emotional distress were factors that were strongly associated with lower Family APGAR scores. Based on multiple regression models, higher Family APGAR scores were more positively related to vitality and mental health scales. Self-reported mental conditions, including feeling economic distress, emotional distress, loneliness, and having sleep problems, were negatively associated with most scales of the health-related quality of life. Female migrants' mental health was significantly related to their health-related quality of life. These findings suggest that migrant women must be educated regarding the importance of mental health by physicians and hygiene authorities in Taiwan. PMID:23517512

  14. Depression among Korean immigrant elders living in Canada and the United States: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kang, Suk-Young; Kim, Isok

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrant elders in North America experience a high level of depression. This study explored the correlates of depression among a sample of 245 Korean immigrant elders living in metropolitan cities in Canada (n = 128) and a southwestern state in the United States (n = 117), using a stress-coping framework. Results revealed discrepancies between the 2 subgroups. Years since immigration and number of health concerns were positively associated, and English proficiency was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Korean immigrant elders in the United States; only health status was significant among Korean immigrant elders in Canada. Implications of the study are presented.

  15. Intervention Tailoring for Chinese American Women: Comparing the Effects of Two Videos on Knowledge, Attitudes and Intentions to Obtain a Mammogram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Schwartz, Marc D.; Luta, George; Maxwell, Annette E.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial to compare a culturally tailored video promoting positive attitudes toward mammography among Chinese immigrant women to a linguistically appropriate generic video and print media. Intervention development was guided by the Health Belief Model. Five hundred and ninety-two…

  16. Psychological acculturation and juvenile delinquency: comparing Moroccan immigrant families from a general and pretrial detention population.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Veen, Violaine C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    Although several theoretical notions have been proposed predicting a relationship between acculturation orientation and juvenile delinquency, the available empirical research is scarce and limited. To extend former research, in this study, we used latent class analyses to compare bidimensional psychological acculturation orientation of Moroccan immigrant boys in pretrial detention with those of Moroccan boys in the general population. We also examined their parents' acculturation orientation. We found that boys in pretrial detention were clearly overrepresented in the integrated psychological acculturation class and underrepresented in the separated psychological acculturation class when we compared them with the boys in the general population. Highly similar results were found for their parents. In contrast, boys in pretrial detention were as likely to be faced with an intergenerational acculturation gap as boys from the general population.

  17. Cervical cancer screening with clinic-based Pap test versus home HPV test among Somali immigrant women in Minnesota: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sewali, Barrett; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Askhir, Asli; Belinson, Jerome; Vogel, Rachel I; Joseph, Anne; Ghebre, Rahel G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is more common in the Somali immigrant population than the general population in the United States (US). There are low rates of cervical cancer screening among Somali women. This study compares cervical cancer screening test completion rates for a home human papilloma virus (HPV) test and standard clinic Pap test. Sixty-three Somali immigrant women aged 30–70 years who had not undergone cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years were randomly assigned to a home HPV test group (intervention) or a clinic Pap test group (control). Test completion rates were measured at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore factors associated with test completion (intention-to-treat analysis). Participants in the HPV test group were 14 times more likely to complete the test compared to those in the Pap test group (P = 0.0002). Women who reported having friends/family members to talk about cancer screening were approximately three times more likely to complete any screening test than those who did not (P = 0.127) and participants who reported residing in the US longer were more likely to complete a screening test (P = 0.011). Future research should explore the potential of using the home-based HPV test kits as an initial approach to cervical cancer screening. Impact: The use of a self-sampling HPV kit has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening in under-served communities in the US. PMID:25653188

  18. Comparative analysis of premature mortality among urban immigrants in Bremen, Germany: a retrospective register-based linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Nataliya; Brand, Tilman; Brünings-Kuppe, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Luttmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. Design This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004–2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for premature deaths (immigrants from Turkey, those from the FSU and the general population. Results The SDRs for premature deaths of the two immigrant groups were lower compared to those of the general population. The SMRs remained under 1. Using the indicator of YPLL, we observed higher age-standardised YPLL rates among immigrant populations, particularly among males from the FSU compared to females and population groups 4238/100 000, 95% CI (4119 to 4358). Regarding main causes of premature death, we found larger contributions of infant mortality and diseases of the respiratory system among Turkish immigrants, and of injuries and poisonings, and mental and behavioural disorders among immigrants from the FSU. Conclusions While the overall trends favour the immigrant populations, the indicator of YPLL and cause-specific results indicate areas where the healthcare systems responsiveness may need to be improved, including preventive services. Further work with broader databases providing a similar level of differentiation is necessary to substantiate these findings. PMID:27000782

  19. Beliefs about causes of colon cancer by English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women to Canada.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Jennifer Elizabeth; Todd, Laura E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-12-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for Canadians. Immigrants underutilize screening and may be at greater risk of late stage diagnosis and death from the disease. This mixed-methods study investigated the self-reported causes of colon cancer by 66 English-as-a-Second-Language Chinese immigrant women to Canada after reading a fact sheet which listed two causes of colon cancer (polyps and cause unknown) and six ways to help prevent colon cancer (lifestyle, diet, weight, smoking, alcohol, and screening). Women correctly named or described both causes (6.1%) or one cause (22.7%), could not name or describe either cause (19.7%), or named or described causes not included on the fact sheet (54.5%). The most common causes reported by participants were "risk factors": diet (53.0%), family history (28.8%), and lifestyle (22.7%). Women confused cause with risk factor and infrequently mentioned screening. Possible reasons for their reported beliefs are discussed.

  20. Comparing the Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Becker, Selwyn W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Definitions and Omissions of Heroism" by Jeffery W. Martens which is a comment on the original article "The Heroism of Women and Men" by Selwyn W. Becker and Alice H. Eagly. Becker and Eagly welcome the opportunity to discuss the questions about defining heroism that Martens raised in his comment on their…

  1. Community Health Worker Perspectives on Recruitment and Retention of Recent Immigrant Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsuk; Heo, Grace Jeongim; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the recruitment and retention strategies used by community health workers who enrolled Korean Americans in a church-based, randomized trial to promote mammogram and Papanicolaou tests and retained them for 6 months. We conducted 4 focus groups with 23 community health workers. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Themes were identified in relation to recruitment: personal networks, formal networks at churches, building on trust and respect, and facilitating a nonthreatening environment. Themes were identified for retention: trust and peer support. Qualified, well-trained community health workers can recruit and retain hard-to-reach immigrant women in a randomized trial by using multiple culturally sensitive strategies.

  2. Examining breast cancer screening barriers among Central American and Mexican immigrant women: fatalistic beliefs or structural factors?

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Miller, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined "cancer fatalism" (the belief that cancer is predetermined, beyond individual control, and necessarily fatal) as a major barrier to breast cancer screening among Latinas. The authors examine perceptions of breast cancer, its causes, and experiences with screening among Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Mexican, and Bolivian immigrant women in Washington, DC. Two salient themes emerged: (a) perceptions of breast cancer causes and breast cancer screening; and (b) structural factors are the real barriers to breast cancer screening. Findings demonstrate participants' awareness and motivation to get screened and elucidate structural barriers that are obscured by the discourse of fatalism and hinder breast cancer screening.

  3. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life. PMID:25788801

  4. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with…

  5. How to express mental health problems: Turkish immigrants in Berlin compared to native Germans in Berlin and Turks in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Vardar, A; Kluge, U; Penka, S

    2012-06-01

    The paper explores expressions used by Turkish immigrants in Berlin to delineate psychiatric illnesses and psychological problems. These are compared to expressions used by native Germans in Berlin and Turks in Istanbul to assess possible cultural differences in articulating mental disorders. For this purpose, results of a Free Listing carried out with the three above mentioned groups are presented. The data suggest that relevant items which are connected to mental health issues vary between the groups as well as within the groups, thus showing dependency on factors such as education. For the group of Turkish immigrants the data further suggest that this group connects psychic stress to family problems. Concerning help seeking, Turkish immigrants, like members of the other groups, mention professional psychological/psychiatric help as useful for solving mental health problems.

  6. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  7. Comparing sociodemographic factors associated with disability between immigrants and the Chilean-born: are there different stories to tell?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-12-04

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.

  8. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E.; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile. PMID:23211607

  9. "Hay Que Seguir Luchando": Struggles that Shaped English Language Learning of Four Cuban Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John S.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Newly arrived from Cuba, Angelica, Dora, Marina, and Damaris attempted to negotiate new surroundings and immigrant identities, building a sense of home for themselves and their families. Data from qualitative interviews, classroom observations, and focus group conversations revealed hopes that by acquiring English language skills, they would…

  10. The Comparative Experiences of Women in Control

    PubMed Central

    Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C.; Wiecha, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants’ experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

  11. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  12. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  13. Hispanic immigrant women's perspective on healthy foods and the New York City retail food environment: A mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoosun; Quinn, James; Florez, Karen; Jacobson, Judith; Neckerman, Kathryn; Rundle, Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Much has been written about the role of dietary acculturation in the epidemic of obesity among Hispanic immigrants in the United States. Yet little is known about the role of beliefs and preferences in immigrants' dietary practices and their relationship to the retail food environment in which the practices occur. We conducted a mixed-methods convergence study of these issues. Twenty-eight foreign-born Hispanic adult women, recruited from families enrolled in a childhood asthma study and mainly living in New York City took part in 60-90 min, semi-structured interviews regarding their dietary beliefs, preferences, and practices. The findings were then used to formulate hypotheses for analyses of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data collected from the 345 New York Hispanic women enrolled in the asthma study. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine whether characteristics of the retail food environment within 0.5 km of the home predicted diet, adjusting for individual and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics. In the interviews, healthy food was rarely discussed in terms of nutritional content. Instead, considerations of freshness, as indicated by time since harvest or slaughter and thus local sourcing; purity, as indicated by the absence of preservatives and processing; and naturalness, as indicated by chemical free farming practices, were the primary axes around which healthy food was defined. Quantitative results were consistent with the qualitative findings: 1) the presence of a farmers' market within the home neighborhood was associated with consumption of more total servings per day of fruit, vegetables, and juice, and 2) the presence of a farmers' market and/or a livestock market was associated with consumption of more servings per day of meat. Proximity to supermarkets or medium-sized grocery stores was not associated with consumption. The results suggest that the availability of fresh produce and meat from local farms may

  14. The health status of latino immigrant women in the United States and future health policy implications of the affordable care act.

    PubMed

    de Leon Siantz, Mary Lou; Castaneda, Xochitl; Benavente, Viola; Peart, Tasha; Felt, Emily

    2013-09-01

    Immigrant women of Mexican birth face unique health challenges in the United States. They are at increased risk for developing many preventable health conditions due in part to limited access to healthcare and benefits, legal status, and inadequate income. Increased vulnerability of women has established a growing need to focus on their healthcare needs because of their role, position, and influence in the family. The purpose of this article is to review factors that impact the health status of Mexican-born women living in the United States and review policy implications of the Affordable Care Act for this population. Mexican-born women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States. Therefore, they comprise the group that will need health coverage in the greatest proportion. As a result, there will be a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare services and culturally sensitive providers.

  15. Differences in Attitudes towards Women among Three Groups of Filipinos: Filipinos in the Philippines, Filipino American Immigrants, and U.S. Born Filipino Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enrile, Annalisa; Agbayani, Pauline T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between acculturation and attitudes towards women. The study focuses on 390 native Filipino, immigrant Filipino, and U.S. born Filipino American undergraduate students. Early research on acculturation has assumed that as people become acculturated to their host cultures, their own culture of origin weakens.…

  16. An Interactional Perspective on the Relationship of Immigration to Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative Sample of Help-Seeking Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…

  17. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  18. "Yes, I Feel Stronger with More Confidence and Strength:" Examining the Experiences of Immigrant Latina Women (ILW) Participating in the Si, Yo Puedo Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs Fuchsel, Catherine L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011-2013, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted to examine the experiences of 36 immigrant Latina women who participated in a culturally specific 11-week curriculum--Sí Yo Puedo--in a psycho-educational group format. Using action research as a research design, four groups were conducted over a 2-year period at a community health clinic…

  19. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  20. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  1. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries. PMID:26431705

  2. Communication and cultural issues in providing reproductive health care to immigrant women: health care providers' experiences in meeting the needs of [corrected] Somali women living in Finland.

    PubMed

    Degni, Filio; Suominen, Sakari; Essén, Birgitta; El Ansari, Walid; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2012-04-01

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  3. Stressors, coping resources, functioning, and role limitations among older korean immigrants: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; GlenMaye, Linnea Flynn

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the differential impacts of stressors and coping resources on the functioning and roles of 246 older Korean immigrant men and women. Older Korean immigrant women were significantly more likely than men to have acculturation and socioeconomic stressors, physical/social functioning problems, and role limitations. English-language barriers and lack of transportation were significantly related to lower functioning and higher role limitations of older Korean women compared to those of older men. Providing social and health care services with bilingual and transportation services to older Korean immigrant women is recommended to increase their physical/social functioning and role performance. PMID:24483283

  4. Influence of Culture and Community Perceptions on Birth and Perinatal Care of Immigrant Women: Doulas’ Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the perceptions of doulas practicing in Washington State regarding the influence of cultural and community beliefs on immigrant women’s birth and perinatal care, as well as their own cultural beliefs and values that may affect their ability to work interculturally. The findings suggest that doulas can greatly aid immigrant mothers in gaining access to effective care by acting as advocates, cultural brokers, and emotional and social support. Also, doulas share a consistent set of professional values, including empowerment, informed choice, cultural relativism, and scientific/evidence-based practice, but do not always recognize these values as culturally based. More emphasis on cultural self-awareness in doula training, expanding community doula programs, and more integration of doula services in health-care settings are recommended. PMID:24453465

  5. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous.

  6. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  7. Explanatory models of major depression and implications for help-seeking among immigrant Chinese-American women.

    PubMed

    Ying, Y W

    1990-09-01

    This study explores the explanatory models of major depression in a group of 40 recently immigrated Chinese-American women, and demonstrates the significant relationship between problem conceptualization and help-seeking behavior. Respondents are presented a vignette depicting major depression, from which they are asked to conceptualize the problem described and answer questions regarding its cause, impact and potential sources for help-seeking. Those who provide a psychological conceptualization are likely not to suggest professional services, but to turn to themselves and family and friends for assistance. On the other hand, those who hold a physical conceptualization are likely to seek out medical services. Implications for effective mental health service delivery to this population are discussed.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.

  9. Mother–Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother–infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother–infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother–infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants’ behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother–infant interactions. PMID:23275761

  10. Purity and passion: risk and morality in Latina immigrants' and physicians' beliefs about cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R G; Chavez, L R; Hubbell, F A

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines how physicians' beliefs about risk factors for cervical cancer compare with Mexican and Salvadoran immigrant women's views (hereafter Latina immigrants). Between August 15, 1991 and August 15, 1992, we conducted ethnographic interviews with 39 Mexican immigrant women, 28 Salvadoran immigrant women, and 30 physicians in northern Orange County, California. Physicians and Latina immigrants converge on their beliefs that sexual behavior is a predominant risk factor for cervical cancer. They diverge, however, on their reasons. Latina immigrants' perceptions of health risks are embedded in a larger set of cultural values centering around gender relations, sexuality, and morality. Latina immigrants also emphasized men's behavior as risk factors. Physicians' views, on the other hand, are largely based on the epidemiology of cervical cancer risk factors. They emphasized beginning sexual relations at an early age, multiple sexual partners, and infection with sexually transmitted viruses. Some physicians, however, displayed moral interpretations of the sex-based risk factors for cervical cancer through the use of the culturally-loaded term "promiscuous" in place of "multiple sexual partners," through specific references to morality, and through characterizations of women at risk for cervical cancer. Both the physicians and the Latina immigrants in our study paid considerably less attention to socioeconomic factors. Our results have important implications for physicians who provide health care for Latina immigrants. Physicians should be clear to point out that women need not be "promiscuous" to get cervical cancer.

  11. The Educational Gradient in Intermarriage: A Comparative Analysis of Immigrant Groups in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    A common claim in the literature is that higher-educated persons are more likely to marry outside their ethnic/racial group than lower-educated persons. We re-examine this "educational gradient" with a multilevel analysis of 46 immigrant groups in the Current Population Survey. We find that there are positive effects not only of individual…

  12. Where Immigrant Students Succeed: A Comparative Review of Performance and Engagement in PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This report examines how immigrant students performed, mainly in mathematics and reading, but also in science and problem-solving skills in the PISA 2003 assessment, both in comparison with native students in their adopted country and relative to other students across all countries covered in the report (the "case countries"). In addition, the…

  13. Katie Gaebel at the Intersections of Resistance: Turkish Immigrant Women in German Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaebel, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two main guiding questions: first, what are the experiences of Turkish women in the German educational system; second, to what extent do state policies, cultural pressure, and personal choice influence the decision to pursue higher education? Using intersectionality as a methodology, this paper elucidates how women navigate…

  14. Ameliorating the Stress of Immigrant Women's Poverty: Coping Using Children's School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between gender, race, and poverty and its effect on children's education is multidimensional and complex, but there are certain generalizations that can be made. The first is that women worldwide are known to be poorer than men (Buvinic and Gupta, 1997). Women in the US are 25-30% more likely to be poorer than men (U.S. Bureau of…

  15. Intervention tailoring for Chinese American women: comparing the effects of two videos on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to obtain a mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Schwartz, Marc D.; Luta, George; Maxwell, Annette E.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial to compare a culturally tailored video promoting positive attitudes toward mammography among Chinese immigrant women to a linguistically appropriate generic video and print media. Intervention development was guided by the Health Belief Model. Five hundred and ninety-two immigrant Chinese Americans from the metropolitan Washington, DC, and New York City areas completed telephone interviews before and after intervention. Changes in knowledge, Eastern views of health care (fatalism and self-care), health beliefs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers) and screening intentions were measured. Results showed that both videos improved screening knowledge, modified Eastern views of health care, reduced perceived barriers and increased screening intentions relative to print media (all P < 0.05). The generic video increased screening intention twice as much as the cultural video, although subgroup analysis showed the increase was only significant in women aged 50–64 years. Only Eastern views of health care were negatively associated with screening intentions after adjusting for all baseline covariates. These data suggest that a theoretically guided linguistically appropriate video that targets women from various ethnic groups is as efficacious in modifying attitudes toward mammography screening as a video that is exclusively tailored for Chinese immigrant women. PMID:22327806

  16. An Analysis of Findings Comparing Women and Men as Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jan D.; Hollander, Edwin P.

    Psychological literature seemingly provides contradictory answers to the question of whether women and men are equally effective as leaders. There are generally two approaches used to answer this question: assign males and females the role of leader, keeping certain extraneous factors constant, and then compare leader or group effectiveness; or…

  17. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  18. Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian Women Have to Say About Changes to Their Lifestyle That May be Associated with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M.; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is “less natural,” there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

  19. Immigrating to the US: what Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women have to say about changes to their lifestyle that may be associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2013-04-01

    Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is "less natural," there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

  20. Employment income of immigrants in metropolitan areas of Canada, 1980.

    PubMed

    Verma, R B; Basavarajappa, K G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the economic achievements of immigrant groups and compares them with those of the Canadian-born population. Employment income in this study is income for members of the labor force who worked 40 weeks or more, full time, during 1980. The information is from the 1981 Census. The 15 birthplace groups considered in this study are classified into 2 major groups: those from traditional sources and those from non-traditional or new sources. Traditional sources are the US, UK, and Europe. The new sources are Africa, Asia, South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. More than 1/2 of the immigrants from traditional sources arrived before 1960, whereas more than 1/2 of immigrants from new sources arrived after 1970. The analysis is only for those areas called Census Metropolitan Areas. Results of analysis show that 1) immigrant men and women in metropolitan areas earned 1.9% and 5.9% respectively less than their Canadian-born counterparts; 2) when differences in age and educational attainment were considered, incomes of immigrant men and women were about 7.5% below those of their Canadian-born counterparts; 3) the new immigrant groups earned far less than those of the Canadian-born counterparts; 4) traditional-source immigrants' incomes were equal to or slightly higher than Canadians'; and 5) as length of residence increases, most immigrant groups improve their relative economic position and achieve incomes comparable to Canadians'. The authors discuss the economic adaptation of immigrants in the light of various models: assimilation, Marxist class conflict, ethnic stratification and segmentation, structural pluralism, and structural change. No theory can be applied to the economic adaptation of all types of immigrants. Finally, refugees and sponsored relatives, who are not admitted on the basis of education and occupational need, are likely to have more difficulties than independent immigrants. PMID:12282409

  1. S&E immigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite an overall decline in immigration to the United States in 1993, the number of scientists and engineers (S&Es) entering the country continued to rise, with women representing 21.3% of the total admitted with permanent resident status. According to the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 23,534 S&Es were admitted to the United States on permanent visas in 1993, 3.1% more than in 1992. Of that total, 5,020 were women. S&Es made up 2.6% of the total U.S. immigration in 1993. The slight 1993 increase followed a large jump in 1992 of 62% over the previous year.

  2. Determinants of female and male condom use among immigrant women of Central American descent.

    PubMed

    Salabarría-Peña, Yamir; Lee, Jerry W; Montgomery, Susanna B; Hopp, Helen W; Muralles, Arnulfo A

    2003-06-01

    This study was designed to determine factors that influence female and male condom use among Central American women, applying the theory of planned behavior. A cross-sectional design was employed and a sample of 175 Central American women, 18-50 years old, was recruited from a community-based clinic in Los Angeles County. Participants in this study were interviewed face-to-face. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control explained 41% and 45% of the variation in the intention to use male and female condoms, respectively. Respondents' friends and mothers influenced their subjective norms. Beliefs regarding sexual sensation and sexually transmitted infection/pregnancy prevention affected respondents' attitudes toward condoms. Trust issues were also a major factor affecting attitudes toward female condoms. Condom use and sex negotiation skills predicted control over condoms. Results of this study can be used to design HIV/AIDS prevention programs that help women feel control over condom use and their sexual behavior.

  3. [The U.S. census: source for an international history of immigrant women, family, and gender?].

    PubMed

    Gabaccia, D R

    1996-08-01

    "The author discusses the fruitful use of nominal lists for a gendered analysis of international migration. [U.S.] studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s produced interesting information as to female work for wages outside the home, but found the census a flawed source for work done by women within their homes. Combination with other nominal sources [has revealed] the role played by women in the organization and maintenance of kin and neighborhood networks. The approach to the Italian diaspora abroad requires the linkage of different nominal sources at origin and in the different places of destination." (EXCERPT)

  4. Birth Experiences of Immigrant Latina Women in a New Growth Community.

    PubMed

    Niebler, Meagan; Documét, Patricia I; Chaves-Gnecco, Diego; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    A woman's birth experience can impact the physical and mental well-being of mothers long after the birth of their child. Little is known about the experiences of Latina women in areas with small, yet growing Latino populations. To understand Latina's perceptions of their childbirth experience and to see how insurance status impacts that experience, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a non-proportional quota sampling of ten Latina women, five with and five without health insurance. Most women reported a positive global experience; the birth of a healthy child was the most important factor influencing birth experiences for all of them. Locus of control and support from medical providers and loved ones also shaped experiences. Uninsured women reported lower levels of perceived control and support, which did impact their birthing experience. These differences could be influenced by social status and position. Medical provider, hospital, and policy recommendations are made which could lead to improvements in uninsured Latinas' childbirth experiences. PMID:27294734

  5. Domestic Dramas: Mexican American Music as an Archive of Immigrant Women's Experiences, 1920s-1950s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Magdalena L.

    2012-01-01

    Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…

  6. Patterns of missing data in ethnic minority health research: a survey project with Russian-speaking immigrant women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Amanda M; Mosack, Katie E; Wendorf, Angela R; Sokolova, Liliya

    2013-01-01

    We explored cultural-level variables and their associations with missing data in a group of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Elderly hypertensive women (N = 105) completed a health survey. Prevalence of missing data and z scores were calculated to determine which survey items and measures were more likely to have missing data. Hierarchical linear regressions were performed to test whether cultural variables predicted the rate of missing data beyond individual variables. Culture variables associated with survey nonresponse and missing data were related to depression, anxiety, medication beliefs and practices, attitudes toward physicians, and cultural and behavioral identity. An interpretation of the patterns of missing data and strategies to reduce the likelihood of missing data in this population are discussed. Cultural norms likely influence patients' orientations toward their health care providers. Providers would do well to normalize difficulties with medical adherence and encourage patients to ask questions about such directives. We recommend that researchers consider the cultural appropriateness of survey items and consider alternative methods (i.e., qualitative designs) for culturally sensitive topics such as mental health and sexuality.

  7. Immigrants, Labor Markets, and the State, a Comparative Approach: France and the United States, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collomp, Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Proposes a comparison of immigration to France and the United States during the period (1880-1930) when industrialization called for a mass working-class migration. Reports that collective immigration in France led to treating foreigners as individuals, while U.S. immigration was understood as an individual act but led to the collective expression…

  8. The Metabolic Syndrome and Mammographic Breast Density in a Racially Diverse and Predominantly Immigrant Sample of Women

    PubMed Central

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Schmitt, Karen; Desperito, Elise; Oskar, Sabine; Potter, Alan J.; Engmann, Natalie J.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome (MetS, clustering of elevated blood pressure, triglycerides and glucose, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), abdominal obesity) has been associated with increased breast cancer risk, but less is known about its association with mammographic breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Methods We collected data on risk factors, body size and blood pressure via in-person interviews and examinations, and measured glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-C from dried blood spots from women recruited through a mammography screening clinic (n=373; 68% Hispanic, 17% African American; 63% foreign born). We performed linear regression models to examine the associations of each MetS component and the MetS cluster (≥ 3 components) with percent density and dense breast area, measured using a computer-assisted technique and Cumulus software. Results About 45% of women had the MetS, with the prevalence of the individual components ranging from 68% for abdominal obesity to 33% for elevated triglycerides. The prevalence of the MetS increased with higher body mass index (BMI) and postmenopausal status, but did not vary substantially by ethnicity, immigrant generational status, parity, age at menarche or alcohol consumption. Low HDL-C (< 50 mg/dL), but not the MetS cluster or the other MetS components, was associated with larger dense breast area after adjusting for age, BMI, fasting time, and educational attainment (β=8.77, 95% CI=2.39, 15.14). The MetS and its individual components were not associated with BMI-adjusted percent density. Conclusions HDL-C alone may have an influence on dense breast tissue that is independent of BMI, and may be in the same direction as its association with breast cancer risk. PMID:26169301

  9. Conflict sources and responses in mother-daughter relationships: perspectives of adult daughters of aging immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Usita, Paul M; Du Bois, Barbara C

    2005-01-01

    Mother-daughter conflict sources and responses among immigrant families are not well understood. In the research reported here, in-depth interview data about conflict were collected from 11 adult daughters of Japanese immigrant mothers. Conflict sources were mothers' unsolicited advice, daughters and mothers not living up to expectations of the other, and daughters' independence of mothers. Responses to conflict included voicing concerns, displaying loyalty, and utilizing the assistance of family. Comparisons between immigrant and nonimmigrant mother-daughter dyads' conflict experiences are discussed, and suggestions for future research on mother-daughter conflict within the immigrant context are provided. PMID:15914425

  10. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  11. Postprandial ghrelin is elevated in black compared with white women.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Bragdon, Edith E; Hinderliter, Alan L; West, Sheila G

    2004-09-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide that signals hunger, is normally suppressed after meals. Subnormal suppression of postprandial ghrelin, previously noted in obese, insulin-resistant individuals, may contribute to increased food intake. Given the ethnic disparities in obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular morbidity in the United States, the present study compared a single postprandial ghrelin measure in 43 women (22 white, 21 black). Each completed a rigorously controlled 4-d dietary intervention designed to maintain weight and constant daily sodium and potassium intake (220 mEq Na, 40 mEq K). Two hours after consuming a test meal of identical content, blood samples were drawn to assess postprandial ghrelin, leptin, and norepinephrine; resting cardiovascular function was measured; and a 24-h urinary cortisol sample was obtained. Independent of body mass index, postprandial ghrelin was significantly higher in black vs. white women, and higher ghrelin was associated with higher cortisol in blacks, who failed to show the expected inverse relation between ghrelin and central obesity seen in whites. Higher ghrelin was correlated with higher blood pressure but lower norepinephrine in obese women. These findings suggest subnormal postprandial ghrelin suppression (or faster ghrelin rebound) in black women, especially the obese, that might play a role in their increased prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disorders.

  12. The Other Side: How does Informed Choice Affect Induced Abortions among Reproductive-Age Immigrant Women in China—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chuanning; Wu, Junqing; Li, Yuyan; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Honglei; Li, Yi-Ran; Han, Ying; Tong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to explore how informed choice on contraceptive methods influenced induced abortions among reproductive-age immigrant women in China. A total of 3230 participants were recruited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Information on informed choice was collected by questionnaires. The annual incidence rate (spells) of induced abortions was 0.46 (1500/3230) among the participants. The sequence from the highest score to the lowest was long-term, short-term and natural contraceptive methods (p < 0.0001). Significant differences of rates in induced abortions were found in region, occupation, length of the first immigration up to now (year), purpose for immigration, number of children, marital status, sex preference, contraceptive methods, deciders of contraceptive methods and side effects. In the zero-inflated negative binomial model, the joint impacts showed when a participant with one child employed condoms or family planning service providers as the deciders of contraceptive methods introduced intrauterine devices, the occurrence of induced abortions was more likely to be reduced. Women who underwent side effects using pills were more likely to have had induced abortions. PMID:27783059

  13. SORTING OUT THE COMPETING EFFECTS OF ACCULTURATION, IMMIGRANT STRESS & SOCIAL SUPPORT ON DEPRESSION: A REPORT ON KOREAN WOMEN IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Background This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N=592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. 65% of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were conducted in Korean. Analyses include descriptive reports, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modeling. Results Findings suggest that acculturation did not have a direct impact on depression and was not associated with social support. However, acculturation was associated with reduced immigrant stress which, in turn, was related to decreased levels of depression. Immigrant stress and social support were the principal direct influences on depression, mediating the effect for most other predictors. Conclusions Stressful experiences associated with immigration may induce depressive feelings. Interventions should facilitate acculturation thereby reducing immigrant stress and expand peer networks to increase social support to assuage depression. PMID:19829202

  14. Comparing racial and immigrant health status and health care access in later life in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Prus, Steven G; Tfaily, Rania; Lin, Zhiqiu

    2010-09-01

    Little comparative research exists on health experiences and conditions of minority groups in Canada and the United States, despite both countries having a racially diverse population with a significant proportion of immigrants. This article explores race and immigrant disparities in health and health care access across the two countries. The study focus was on middle and old age given the change and increasing diversity in health and health care policy, such as Medicare. Logistic regression analysis of data from the 2002-2003 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health shows that the joint effect of race and nativity on health outcomes - health differences between native and foreign-born Whites and non-Whites - is largely insignificant in Canada but considerable in the U.S. Non-White native and foreign-born Americans within both 45-to-64 and 65-and-over age groups experience significant disadvantage in health status and access to care, irrespective of health insurance coverage, demographic, socio-economic, and lifestyle factors.

  15. Immigrant Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study between Different Immigrant Groups and a Sample of Swedish Students. Educational and Psychological Interactions No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Horst

    A study sought information about the success of the Swedish 9-year compulsory comprehensive school for students with home language other than Swedish. Immigrant adolescents and a sample of Swedish students answered a questionnaire discussing their lines of study after comprehensive school and the students' views on the home language instruction…

  16. Comparative Explorations of the Black and Immigrant Experience: Teaching Ethnic Studies at Alverno College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazo, Dimitri D.

    This paper describes an ethnic studies course taught at Alverno College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The course is offered as a two semester, hour elective in the Weekend College which provides women an opportunity to complete a college degree by attending classes on weekends only. The course meets for three hours every other weekend for a total of…

  17. Factors shaping workplace segregation between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Strömgren, Magnus; Tammaru, Tiit; Danzer, Alexander M; van Ham, Maarten; Marcińczak, Szymon; Stjernström, Olof; Lindgren, Urban

    2014-04-01

    Research on segregation of immigrant groups is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas toward other important places, such as the workplace, where immigrants can meet and interact with members of the native population. This article examines workplace segregation of immigrants. We use longitudinal, georeferenced Swedish population register data, which enables us to observe all immigrants in Sweden for the period 1990-2005 on an annual basis. We compare estimates from ordinary least squares with fixed-effects regressions to quantify the extent of immigrants' self-selection into specific workplaces, neighborhoods, and partnerships, which may bias more naïve ordinary least squares results. In line with previous research, we find lower levels of workplace segregation than residential segregation. The main finding is that low levels of residential segregation reduce workplace segregation, even after we take into account intermarriage with natives as well as unobserved characteristics of immigrants' such as willingness and ability to integrate into the host society. Being intermarried with a native reduces workplace segregation for immigrant men but not for immigrant women.

  18. Violence Reported by the Immigrant Population Is High as Compared with the Native Population in Southeast Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado-Yohar, S.; Tormo, M. J.; Salmeron, D.; Dios, S.; Ballesta, M.; Navarro, C.

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants constitute a population vulnerable to the problem of violence. This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of violence reported by the immigrant population in the Murcian Region of Spain and characterize the related factors, taking the country population as reference. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a representative…

  19. Welcome to America, welcome to college: Comparing the effects of immigrant generation and college generation on physical science and engineering career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Students enter college with social, cultural, and economic resources (well described Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital) that significantly impact their goals, actions, and successes. Two important determinants of the amount and type of resources available to students are their immigrant generation and college generation status. Drawing on a national sample of 6860 freshmen enrolled in college English, we compare and contrast the effects of immigrant generation with those of college generation status on physical science and engineering career intentions to explore some of the challenges faced by the first in the family to become an American and/or go to college.

  20. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  1. Changes in health selection of obesity among Mexican immigrants: a binational examination.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie; Fleischer, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Health selection is often measured by comparing the health of more recent immigrants to the native born of their new host country. However, this comparison fails to take into account two important factors: (1) that changes in the health profile of sending countries may impact the health of immigrants over time, and (2) that the best comparison group for health selection would be people who remain in the country of origin. Obesity represents an important health outcome that may be best understood by taking into account these two factors. Using nationally-representative datasets from Mexico and the US, we examined differences in obesity-related health selection, by gender, in 2000 and 2012. We calculated prevalence ratios from log-binomial models to compare the risk of obesity among recent immigrants to the US to Mexican nationals with varying likelihood of migration, in order to determine changes in health selection over time. Among men in 2000, we found little difference in obesity status between recent immigrants to the US and Mexican non-migrants. However, in 2012, Mexican men who were the least likely to migrate had higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrants, which may reflect emerging health selection. The trends for women, however, indicated differences in obesity status between recent Mexican immigrants and non-migrants at both time points. In both 2000 and 2012, Mexican national women had significantly higher obesity prevalence than recent immigrant women, with the biggest difference between recent immigrants and Mexican women who were least likely to migrate. There was also indication that selection increased with time for women, as the differences between Mexican nationals and recent immigrants to the US grew from 2000 to 2012. Our study is among the first to use a binational dataset to examine the impact of health selectivity, over time, on obesity.

  2. International migration to Canada: the post-birth health of mothers and infants by immigration class.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Anita J; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Wahoush, Olive; Saucier, Jean-François; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Stanger, Elizabeth; Palmer, Becky; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    There are over 214 million international migrants worldwide, half of whom are women, and all of them assigned by the receiving country to an immigration class. Immigration classes are associated with certain health risks and regulatory restrictions related to eligibility for health care. Prior to this study, reports of international migrant post-birth health had not been compared between immigration classes, with the exception of our earlier, smaller study in which we found asylum-seekers to be at greatest risk for health concerns. In order to determine whether refugee or asylum-seeking women or their infants experience a greater number or a different distribution of professionally-identified health concerns after birth than immigrant or Canadian-born women, we recruited 1127 migrant (and in Canada <5 years) women-infant pairs, defined by immigration class (refugee, asylum-seeker, immigrant, or Canadian-born). Between February 2006 and May 2009, we followed them from childbirth (in one of eleven birthing centres in Montreal or Toronto) to four months and found that at one week postpartum, asylum-seeking and immigrant women had greater rates of professionally-identified health concerns than Canadian-born women; and at four months, all three migrant groups had greater rates of professionally-identified concerns. Further, international migrants were at greater risk of not having these concerns addressed by the Canadian health care system. The current study supports our earlier findings and highlights the need for case-finding and services for international migrant women, particularly for psychosocial difficulties. Policy and program mechanisms to address migrants' needs would best be developed within the various immigration classes.

  3. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  4. “Being Flexible and Creative”: A Qualitative Study on Maternity Care Assistants' Experiences with Non-Western Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Boerleider, Agatha W.; Francke, Anneke L.; van de Reep, Merle; Manniën, Judith; Wiegers, Therese A.; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies conducted in developed countries have explored postnatal care professionals' experiences with non-western women. These studies reported different cultural practices, lack of knowledge of the maternity care system, communication difficulties, and the important role of the baby's grandmother as care-giver in the postnatal period. However, not much attention has been paid in existing literature to postnatal care professionals' approaches to these issues. Our main objective was to gain insight into how Dutch postnatal care providers - ‘maternity care assistants’ (MCA) - address issues encountered when providing care for non-western women. Methods A generic qualitative research approach was used. Two researchers interviewed fifteen MCAs individually, analysing the interview material separately and then comparing and discussing their results. Analytical codes were organised into main themes and subthemes. Results MCAs perceive caring for non-western women as interesting and challenging, but sometimes difficult too. To guarantee the health and safety of mother and baby, they have adopted flexible and creative approaches to address issues concerning traditional practices, socioeconomic status and communication. Furthermore, they employ several other strategies to establish relationships with non-western clients and their families, improve women's knowledge of the maternity care system and give health education. Conclusion Provision of postnatal care to non-western clients may require special skills and measures. The quality of care for non-western clients might be improved by including these skills in education and retraining programmes for postnatal care providers on top of factual knowledge about traditional practices. PMID:24622576

  5. Power, Resistance, and Emotional Economies in Women's Relationships with Mothers-in-Law in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Kristy Y.; Pyke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This interview study interrogates how cultural values of filial piety inform Chinese American daughters-in-law's understanding of their relationship and power dynamics with immigrant Chinese American mothers-in-law. Ideals of filial respect accord limited authority to mothers-in-law, who engage other mechanisms of power, such as their domestic…

  6. The Structure of Women's Employment in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Becky; Hook, Jennifer Lynn

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze social survey data from 19 countries using multi-level modeling methods in an effort to synthesize structural and institutional accounts for variation in women's employment. Observed demographic characteristics show much consistency in their relationship to women's employment across countries, yet there is significant…

  7. Women in addictions treatment: comparing VA and community samples.

    PubMed

    Davis, Tania M; Carpenter, Kelly M; Malte, Carol A; Carney, Molly; Chambers, Sharon; Saxon, Andrew J

    2002-07-01

    Despite increasing awareness of gender issues in substance use treatment, women with substance use disorders (SUD) and gender-specific treatment remain understudied. This study examines differences, including identification of comorbid issues and patients' perceived treatment needs, between women in different SUD treatment settings: an intensive VA outpatient program (VA; N = 76) and a private residential/outpatient program (Residence XII; N = 308). In both settings the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was administered at intake; ASI data were collected from retrospective chart review. Results support previous findings that women entering SUD treatment endorse high rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidity, and past abuse. Women in VA SUD treatment experienced more impairment on indices of medical, psychiatric, and employment issues whereas the private agency sample had higher alcohol and family/social composite scores. The differences between and similarities among the two treatment groups have implications for design of women-specific SUD treatment programs.

  8. Breast cancer--a comparative study between Malaysian and Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Ng, E H

    1996-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian and Singaporean women. A study done to compare the epidemiology of the disease, as well as to compare the rate of conservative surgery between Malaysian and Singaporean women was carried out. The results show that the median age at presentation was the same in both countries, and the incidence was lower among the Malays. However, there was a significant difference in the stage at presentation and the tumour size; Singaporean women presented at earlier stages and with smaller tumours compared to Malaysian women. This led to a lower rate of conservation surgery in Malaysian women.

  9. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  10. Research on immigrant earnings.

    PubMed

    Duleep, Harriet Orcutt; Dowhan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    As the first in a trio of pieces devoted to incorporating immigration into policy models, this review of research on immigrant earnings trajectories brings to light several findings. Controlling for demographic and human capital characteristics, immigrants often start their U.S. lives at substantially lower earnings, but experience faster earnings growth than natives with comparable years of education and experience. The extent to which the earnings trajectories of immigrants and natives differ varies by country of origin, with the source-country's level of economic development being a key determinant of the size of the U.S.-born/ foreign-born difference. The earnings profiles of immigrants from economically developed countries such as Japan, Canada, or Western Europe resemble those of U.S. natives who are of the same age and education level. In contrast, the earnings of immigrants from developing nations tend to start well below those of U.S. natives with comparable education levels and experience, but rise more rapidly than their U.S. counterparts. Comparing the earnings profiles of immigrants of similar age, sex, and years of schooling, over time and across groups, a strong inverse relationship emerges between their initial earnings and their subsequent U.S. earnings growth. In other words, the lower (higher) the initial earnings are, the higher (lower) the earnings growth. These and other research results have important implications for the projection of immigrant earnings and emigration in microsimulation models, as discussed in the two articles following this one: (1) "Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models" and (2) "Incorporating Immigrant Flows into Microsimulation Models".

  11. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes.

  12. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes. PMID:12348991

  13. Cancer mortality patterns among Turkish immigrants in four European countries and in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Arnold, Melina; Razum, Oliver; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Deboosere, Patrick; Mackenbach, Johan Pieter; Kunst, Anton Eduard

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study on cancer mortality among Turkish immigrants, for the first time, traditional comparisons in migrant health research have been extended simultaneously in two ways. First, comparisons were made to cancer mortality from the immigrants' country of origin and second, cancer mortality among Turkish immigrants across four host countries (Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands) was compared. Population-based cancer mortality data from these countries were included. Age-standardized mortality rates were computed for the local-born and Turkish population of each country. Relative differences in cancer mortality were examined by fitting country-specific Poisson regression models. Globocan data on cancer mortality in Turkey from 2008 were used in order to compare mortality rates of Turkish immigrants with those from their country of origin. Turkish immigrants had lower all-cancer mortality than the local-born populations of their host countries, and mortality levels comparable to all-cancer mortality rates in Turkey. In the Netherlands and France breast cancer mortality was consistently lower in Turkish immigrants women than among local-born women. Lung cancer mortality was slightly lower in Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands and France but varied considerably between migrants in these two host countries. Stomach cancer mortality was significantly higher in Turkish immigrants when compared to local-born French and Dutch. Our findings indicate that exposures both in the country of origin and in the host country can have an effect on the cancer mortality of immigrants. Despite limitations affecting any cross-country comparison of mortality, the innovative multi-comparison approach is a promising way to gain further insights into determinants of trends in cancer mortality of immigrants.

  14. Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116

  15. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism

    PubMed Central

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G. T.; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals’ sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile—as measured with benevolent sexism items—related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions—that is, more positive attitudes—among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters. PMID:26283985

  16. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism.

    PubMed

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G T; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals' sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile-as measured with benevolent sexism items-related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions-that is, more positive attitudes-among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters.

  17. Intermarriage among New Immigrants in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    The study uses the New Immigrant Survey data collected in 2003 to fill a void in the existing literature on the regional variations in exogamy among the new first generation immigrants in the United States. It further improves on some methodological issues in existing studies. Our empirical results show that immigrants from different regions of origin indeed vary significantly in their choice of spouse, even after controlling for other important predictors of exogamy. Latino females are the most exogamous of all groups while Latino males as well are more exogamous than their Asian male counterparts and do not differ much from male immigrants from Europe, Central Asia and the residual “other” category. The results are somewhat counterintuitive given the history of European immigration to the US, and the higher level of structural assimilation attained by Asians in the US compared to Latinos. The contradictory results therefore, point towards a rapid assimilation of Latin Americans into the US society. On the other hand, first generation Asians demonstrated the lowest level of all types of exogamy in general, except Asian women were not the most endogamous compared to Europeans, Central Asians and “other” residual category. The finding, once again is inconsistent with the history of European immigration. Finally, although Latinos are more exogamous, they preferred a Hispanic spouse than a non-Hispanic, which could be attributed to the common Spanish language shared by them. In contrast, lack of a common language among Asians might be contributing to their lowest intermarriage rate with other Asians, irrespective of gender.

  18. The career status of deaf women. A comparative look.

    PubMed

    MacLeod-Gallinger, J E

    1992-10-01

    Discrepancies in labor force, occupation, and earnings outcomes were observed between men and women in a follow-up study of 4,900 deaf high school graduates who had responded to annual surveys conducted from 1982 to 1989. Reasons for the disparities were sought by further examination of the postsecondary programs undertaken, degrees earned, labor force activities, jobs held, and socioeconomic status. Despite efforts to expand career awareness and postsecondary programs for deaf people, deaf women continue to pursue a relatively narrow range of programs, leading to stereotypical female careers. Moreover, when women earn less than a bachelor's degree, they experience high underemployment and unemployment relative to deaf men and hearing peers. Without concerted intervention, this condition may be exacerbated as the labor market demands that workers be more professionally and technically trained in career areas where deaf females are yet underrepresented. PMID:1471588

  19. Comparing Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Techniques for College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Thomas W.

    1970-01-01

    Questionnaires assessed attitudes of women living in an apartment building off campus, in regard to feelings of freedom and responsibility when they created their own them. Responses support contention that housing is an educational facility which through its environment may enhance intellectual activity. (Author/CJ)

  20. Access to health-care in Canadian immigrants: a longitudinal study of the National Population Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh; Quesnel-Vallee, Amelie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Tousignant, Pierre; Lynch, John

    2011-01-01

    Immigrants often lose their health advantage as they start adapting to the ways of the new society. Having access to care when it is needed is one way that individuals can maintain their health. We assessed the healthcare access in Canadian immigrants and the socioeconomic factors associated with access over a 12-year period. We compared two measures of healthcare access (having a regular doctor and reporting an unmet healthcare need in the past 12 months) among immigrants and Canadian-born men and women, aged more than 18 years. We applied a logistic random effects model to evaluate these outcomes separately, in 3081 males and 4187 females from the National Population Health Survey (1994-2006). Adjusting for all covariates, immigrant men and women (white and non-white) had similar odds of having a regular doctor than the Canadian-born individuals (white immigrants: males OR: 1.32, 95% C.I.: 0.89-1.94, females OR: 1.14, 95% C.I.: 0.78-1.66; non-white immigrants: males OR: 1.28, 95% C.I.: 0.73-2.23, females OR: 1.23, 95% C.I.: 0.64-2.36). Interestingly, non-white immigrant women had significantly fewer unmet health needs (OR: 0.32, 95% C.I.: 0.17-0.59). Among immigrants, time since immigration was associated with having access to a regular doctor (OR per year: 1.02, 95% C.I.: 1.00-1.04). Visible minority female immigrants were least likely to report an unmet healthcare need. In general, there is little evidence that immigrants have worse access to health-care than the Canadian-born population.

  1. Female immigrants and labor in colonial Malaya: 1860-1947.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M

    1989-01-01

    "The role of Chinese and Indian women as immigrants and workers in colonial Malaya is examined using data from censuses, immigration records, official reports and secondary sources. The article discusses the main types of work of female immigrants and their contribution to the economic development of colonial Malaya during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in an attempt to redress the neglect of female immigrants' economic role in Malaya's history. Comparisons between male and female immigrants' labor and between Chinese and Indian immigrants, are drawn to highlight the different conditions of migration and labor for the different groups of immigrants." PMID:12315959

  2. The Effect of Acculturation and Immigration on the Victimization and Psychological Distress Link in a National Sample of Latino Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Sabina, Chiara; Bell, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Distinct bodies of research have examined the link between victimization and psychological distress and cultural variables and psychological health, but little is known about how cultural variables affect psychological distress among Latino victims. Substantial research has concluded that Latino women are more likely than non-Latino women to…

  3. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families.

  4. Culture, parenting, and child behavioral problems: a comparative study of cross-cultural immigrant families and native-born families in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Yi-Jin; Wang, Lee; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the interplay of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic/socioeconomic factors on children's behavioral problems, especially within culturally mixed families in Chinese society. This study compares the presence of behavioral problems between children from families with an immigrant mother and those from native-born families in a randomly selected sample of 957 children aged 6 to 12 years from three counties in central Taiwan. Behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents and the Teacher's Report Form. Parenting styles were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument completed by children. Children of immigrant mothers had higher scores for all behavioral syndromes based on the parent's report. However, in the teacher's report a difference was only observed for withdrawn/depressed syndrome. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely, and children with high paternal care were less likely, to have internalizing and total problems in the parent's report. For the teacher's report, only high education in fathers was associated with decreased internalizing and total problems in children. These findings suggest that children growing up in a cross-cultural environment with an immigrant mother, as opposed to a native-born Taiwanese family environment, are more likely to have higher internalizing problems and total behavioral problem scores, due to a number of cultural, parenting, and sociodemographic factors. Children's behaviors appear to be more influenced by fathers' than mothers' parenting styles, regardless of family type. The study findings imply that unequal health and social conditions exist between cross-cultural and native-born families. PMID:24803539

  5. Highest prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in institutionalized women compared with noninstitutionalized women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruyere, Olivier; Decock, Caroline; Delhez, Melanie; Collette, Julien; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    The reduced capacity of older skin to synthesize vitamin D(3) under the influence of ultraviolet light makes older persons at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The risk could even be increased in institutionalized persons owing to their lower sunshine exposure. It has been reported that an inadequate vitamin D level is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover, and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum vitamin D levels in institutionalized, postmenopausal, osteoporotic women. Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was performed in 445 institutionalized, osteoporotic women from nine countries (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain and UK). For each institutionalized woman, three age-matched, noninstitutionalized, osteoporotic controls were also included. Four cutoffs of 25(OH)D inadequacy were fixed: less than 80, less than 75, less than 50 and less than 30 nmol/l. Mean age was 79.7 years (standard deviation [SD] = 5.8) for the institutionalized women and 79.5 years (SD = 5.5) for the noninstitutionalized women (p = 0.45). Significantly fewer institutionalized women received vitamin D supplements (13.2 vs 24.0%; p < 0.0001). In women without vitamin D supplements, the level of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in institutionalized women (56.9 [SD = 23.9] nmol/l) compared with noninstitutionalized women (63.2 [SD = 22.0] nmol/l; p < 0.0001). In institutionalized women (without vitamin D supplements), the prevalence of 25(OH)D inadequacy was 10.4, 41.2, 80.3 and 84.2% when considering cutoffs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/l, respectively. In the control group, the prevalence was 2.7, 22.9, 74.4 and 81.7%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy was significantly higher in institutionalized women when considering the 75, 50 and 30 nmol/l cutoffs but not when considering the 80 nmol/l cutoff. This study highlights a high

  6. Perceptions of Depression and Access to Mental Health Care Among Latino Immigrants: Looking Beyond One Size Fits All.

    PubMed

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah; Arriola, Nora B; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Compared with non-Latino Whites, Latino immigrants have a lower prevalence of depression. However, they are also less likely to seek professional mental health services. Our objective was to compare and contrast perceptions of depression and access to mental health care among four of the largest Latino immigrant subgroups in Florida (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and Colombian). We conducted a total of 120 interviews (30 men and women from each subgroup). Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that participants across the four groups were aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and had similar perceptions of depression. However, notable differences by subgroup emerged with regard to perceptions of access to mental health care. We suggest that the variation stems from differences in life experiences and the immigration context. Understanding the variances and nuances of Latino immigrants' cultural construction of depression and immigration experience will enable practitioners to better serve this community.

  7. Comparing the prevalence of smoking in pregnant and nonpregnant women, 1985 to 1986.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Kendrick, J S; Binkin, N J

    1989-01-01

    The 1990 health objectives for the nation state that pregnant women should be only half as likely to smoke as nonpregnant women. To assess progress toward meeting this objective, we used cross-sectional data from the 26 states in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 1985 and 1986. We compared the prevalence of self-reported smoking among pregnant (N = 836) and nonpregnant (N = 18,025) women aged 18 to 45 years. Overall, pregnant women were 70% as likely to be current smokers as nonpregnant women (prevalence ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.8), while blacks showed the largest pregnancy-associated reduction in the prevalence of smoking (prevalence ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 0.9). Most of the difference in smoking prevalence occurred not because pregnant women were less likely to have ever smoked, but because pregnant women were more likely to have quit smoking than nonpregnant women. However, unmarried pregnant white women were 40% more likely to smoke than their nonpregnant counterparts (prevalence ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.7). We conclude from this analysis that the 1990 health objective for smoking among pregnant women is unlikely to be achieved. Clinicians providing care to pregnant women need to pay increased attention to smoking cessation.

  8. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  9. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    PubMed

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  10. Immigrant Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    In an August 14, 2008 story, the New York Times reported that ethnic and racial minorities will likely be a majority of the U.S. population by 2042. Many of the blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and others constituting this emerging majority will be immigrants or the children of immigrants; the number of foreigners hitting these shores is projected to…

  11. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  12. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  13. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  14. A comparative study of sexual function, behavior, and cognitions of women with lifelong vaginismus.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Rebecca A; Reissing, Elke D

    2013-11-01

    Vaginismus is classified as a sexual dysfunction, yet limited research is available on the sexual function and behavior of women with this condition. Comparing women with lifelong vaginismus to women with lifelong dyspareunia and women with no pain during intercourse, this study explored sexual function, anxiety, and behavior along with cognitions related to vaginal penetration. A total of 152 women completed an online survey that included a series of validated questionnaires. Main findings indicated that, relative to both comparison groups, women in the vaginismus group reported a more limited range of sexual behavior across the lifespan and more maladaptive cognitions related to fear of losing control of one's body and the situation during penetration. Compared to the no-pain group, both symptomatic groups reported more difficulties across several indicators of sexual function, more limited sexual behavior in the past year and past month, and more maladaptive cognitions related to vaginal penetration. However, women with vaginismus reported more sexual desire and less difficulty with lubrication compared to women with dyspareunia. Numerous sexual problems extending beyond vaginal penetration difficulties were confirmed, suggesting a need for broader treatment approaches not limited to the experience of vaginal penetration. Results were discussed as they relate to the fear-avoidance model of vaginismus.

  15. Ego identity and perceived family functioning: comparing at-risk native-born and immigrant Ethiopian adolescents in Israel.

    PubMed

    Romi, Shlomo; Simcha, Getahun

    2009-01-01

    Ego identity and perceived family functioning among at-risk Ethiopian-born (EB) adolescents in Israel and their native-born counterparts were examined. Results showed similar ego-identity ratings. Contrary to the Israeli-born (IB), distress and detachment among the Ethiopian-born are unrelated to poor family functioning. The importance of family-as-support among the Ethiopian-born may discourage removing children from home for rehabilitation, and encourage the development of programs to strengthen bonds between at-risk adolescents and their families in this and other immigrant communities.

  16. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  17. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Comparative study of the intestinal absorption of three salts of calcium in young and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Praet, J P; Peretz, A; Mets, T; Rozenberg, S

    1998-04-01

    A daily ingestion of 1000 to 1500 mg elemental calcium associated with vitamin D supplement is presently considered to be the adequate and least expensive therapy for senile osteoporosis. There exists only scarce data about calcium absorption with available calcium salts in elderly patients. We have compared the digestive absorption of calcium (Ca) citrate in soluble and solid form and calcium gluconolactate-carbonate in 15 young and 20 elderly, healthy women using the oral calcium loading test. The subjects were divided into two groups. In the first group, the absorption of solid Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) both in young (n = 7) and elderly women (n = 10). In the second group, the absorption of soluble Ca citrate (1000 mg Ca element) was compared to the absorption of Ca gluconolactate-carbonate (1000 mg Ca element) in young (n = 8) and elderly (n = 10) women. In the preload phase, basal calciuria was increased in elderly women (p < 0.01) although basal calcemia was similar in young and elderly women. After oral administration of the calcium salts, an increase in plasma Ca was observed in both groups which was greater for soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate than for solid Ca citrate. In young women, the increase in plasma calcium was significantly higher with soluble Ca citrate compared to Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05). In elderly women, the postload calciuria was significantly higher for soluble Ca citrate (p < 0.05) and Ca gluconolactate (p < 0.05) compared to solid Ca citrate. A similar pattern was observed in young women, although it was not significant. In conclusion, an oral load of 1000 mg soluble Ca citrate and Ca gluconolactate-carbonate induces significant biochemical changes suggesting a better digestive absorption compared to Ca citrate in solid form, both in young and elderly women. We did not observe different response, between young and old patients. PMID

  19. The Science and Politics of Comparing Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    1995-01-01

    Considers claims from sex-comparative research that sex-related differences are small, unusually unstable across studies, very often artifactual, and inconsistent with the content of gender stereotypes. The article contends that feminism created a political climate that has led to research that inaccurately minimizes psychological gender…

  20. [Factors related to birth weight: a comparison of related factors between newborns of Spanish and Colombian immigrant women in Spain].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; González-Zapata, Laura Inés; Agudelo-Suarez, Andrés A; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study is to establish differentials in birth weight (BW) and related factors, in term newborns (NB) of Spanish (SP) and Colombian (CO) immigrant mothers living in Spain, between 2001-2005. Data on the NB population of SP and CO mothers was retrieved from the National Statistical Bulletin of Birth in Spain. We analysed the association with BW (Low birth weight -LBW- insufficient weight -IW- macrosomia), by the nationality of the mother; taking into account variables such as the intergenesic interval, maternal age, number of live children, maternal occupation and sex of NB. The analysis was based on frequencies and the estimation of simple and adjusted odds ratios (OR) by means of logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A higher prevalence of LBW was found in SP mothers (3.4%) than in their CO counterparts (2.1%). In SP mothers a higher risk of LBW (aOR 1.89, 950% CI 1.65- 2.16) and IW (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.51- 1.57) was observed. In CO mothers a higher percentage of macrosomia was found (8.0%). Also, a higher percentage of LBW was observed in female new borns (SP4.1%; CO 2.7%) as well as IW (PI (SP 25.6%; CO 19.6%) (p < 0.001). Mothers aged > 40 years and having 4 or more children were associated with LBW in both nationalities. As a conclusion, NB of Colombian mothers presented a lower prevalence of LBW and IW, which could be explained by the healthy migrant effect.

  1. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  2. Older Russian Immigrants' Experiences in Learning English: Motivation, Methods, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated older Russian immigrants' reasons for studying English, their learning strategies, and barriers to their progress. Ten men and women in their 60s and 70s were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings indicated that the participants' motivation for learning English was to…

  3. Testosterone and mood dysfunction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome compared to subfertile controls.

    PubMed

    Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out.

  4. Age-related arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Morgan, R Garrett; Ives, Stephen J; Cawthon, Richard M; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, Dirk; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Richardson, Russell S; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Telomere uncapping increases with advancing age in human arteries and this telomere uncapping is associated with increased markers of senescence, independent of mean telomere length. However, whether there are sex specific differences in arterial telomere uncapping is unknown. We found that telomere uncapping (serine 139 phosphorylated histone γ-H2A.X in telomeres) in arteries was ~2.5 fold greater in post-menopausal women (n=17, 63±2 years) compared with pre-menopausal women (n=11, 30±2 years, p=0.02), while there was only a trend towards greater telomere uncapping in older men (n=26, 66±2 years) compared with young men (n=11, 31±2, p=0.11). Senescence markers, p53 bound to the p21 gene promoter and p21 gene expression, were 3-4 fold greater in post-menopausal compared with pre-menopausal women (p=0.01-0.02), but only 1.5-2 fold greater in older compared with young men (p=0.02-0.08). Blood glucose was related to telomere uncapping in women, while systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and serum creatinine were related to telomere uncapping in men. Mean arterial telomere length decreased similarly in women and men with age (p<0.01). Thus, the age-related increase in arterial telomere uncapping and senescence is greater in women than men, despite similar age-related reductions in mean telomere length in both sexes.

  5. Comparing Sexual Function and Quality of Life in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Shafti, Vida; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders that is associated with different metabolic, reproductive and psychological consequences. The main aim of this study was to compare the sexual function and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women. Materials and methods: This is a causal-comparative study in which 129 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified as the research group. The control group consisted of 125 healthy women. The sampling method was convenient and was done using Rotterdam criteria. Women of both research and control groups responded to the FSFI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using MANOVA. Results: According to findings, all of quality of life subscales except environment domain were significantly lower in research group than healthy group (p < 0.01), but none of sexual function subscales were significantly different between two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Women with PCOS in term of some quality of life parameters have lower performance than healthy women. Therefore, it seems to be essential to increase awareness about symptoms and psychological consequences and referring process in order to take advantage of the advisory services.

  6. Comparing Sexual Function and Quality of Life in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Shafti, Vida; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders that is associated with different metabolic, reproductive and psychological consequences. The main aim of this study was to compare the sexual function and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women. Materials and methods: This is a causal-comparative study in which 129 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified as the research group. The control group consisted of 125 healthy women. The sampling method was convenient and was done using Rotterdam criteria. Women of both research and control groups responded to the FSFI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using MANOVA. Results: According to findings, all of quality of life subscales except environment domain were significantly lower in research group than healthy group (p < 0.01), but none of sexual function subscales were significantly different between two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Women with PCOS in term of some quality of life parameters have lower performance than healthy women. Therefore, it seems to be essential to increase awareness about symptoms and psychological consequences and referring process in order to take advantage of the advisory services. PMID:27648099

  7. Psychometric Evaluation of the Arabic Language Version of the Demands of Immigration Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.; Kaskiri, Eleni A.; Templin, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends prior work with the Russian-language version of the Demands of Immigration Scale (DIS) with former Soviet immigrants and evaluates the reliability and validity of the Arabic-language version of the DIS with Arab immigrants. Three hundred and ninety-four Arab immigrant women completed the Arabic DIS and two measures of mood.…

  8. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity. PMID:26502554

  9. Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity.

  10. Serum leptin measured in early pregnancy is higher in women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brandie D; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Roberts, James M; Haggerty, Catherine L

    2015-03-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery <37 weeks gestation) were examined using generalized linear models adjusting for body mass index, gestational age at blood draw, maternal age, smoking, and socio-occupational status. As leptin is increased in obese women and the risk of preeclampsia increases with body mass index, we used the Sobel test to examine whether leptin is a mediator of this relationship. After adjustments, leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia (30.5 [24.6]; P=0.0117) and term preeclampsia (30.4 [24.9]; P=0.0228) compared with controls (20.9 [28.3]). There was no significant difference between preterm preeclampsia (30.6 [23.4]; P=0.2210) and controls. Leptin is a possible mediator of the association between body mass index and preeclampsia (P=0.0276). Leptin concentrations are higher in women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls and may mediate some of the relationship between body mass index and preeclampsia.

  11. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable

    PubMed Central

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5–7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies. PMID:26392533

  12. Compared to men, women view professional advancement as equally attainable, but less desirable.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wilmuth, Caroline Ashley; Brooks, Alison Wood

    2015-10-01

    Women are underrepresented in most high-level positions in organizations. Though a great deal of research has provided evidence that bias and discrimination give rise to and perpetuate this gender disparity, in the current research we explore another explanation: men and women view professional advancement differently, and their views affect their decisions to climb the corporate ladder (or not). In studies 1 and 2, when asked to list their core goals in life, women listed more life goals overall than men, and a smaller proportion of their goals related to achieving power at work. In studies 3 and 4, compared to men, women viewed high-level positions as less desirable yet equally attainable. In studies 5-7, when faced with the possibility of receiving a promotion at their current place of employment or obtaining a high-power position after graduating from college, women and men anticipated similar levels of positive outcomes (e.g., prestige and money), but women anticipated more negative outcomes (e.g., conflict and tradeoffs). In these studies, women associated high-level positions with conflict, which explained the relationship between gender and the desirability of professional advancement. Finally, in studies 8 and 9, men and women alike rated power as one of the main consequences of professional advancement. Our findings reveal that men and women have different perceptions of what the experience of holding a high-level position will be like, with meaningful implications for the perpetuation of the gender disparity that exists at the top of organizational hierarchies.

  13. Colorectal cancer screening among Chinese American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen; Chapman, Christopher; Vallina, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors determining fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake in Chinese American immigrants. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design with convenience sampling. An educational session on colorectal cancer screening (CRS) was provided to the participants during a health fair, and each participant was offered a no-cost FOBT kit. Data was collected over two consecutive years during three different health fairs. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. A total of 113 participants were recruited and 72% of them returned the FOBT kit. There was a significant association between having a primary-care physician (PCP) and having CRS in the past, even after controlling for age, gender and the length of time in the US (P = .009). Participants who visited a doctor for health maintenance were less likely to participate in the FOBT, compared to participants who never visited a doctor or who only visited a doctor when they were sick (P = .001). The length of time in the US had a significant effect on having a PCP (P = .002). However, having a PCP or having CRS in the past was not associated with participating in the screening and so was feeling at risk for CRC. In fact, 49% of Chinese women and 45% of Chinese men felt no risk of CRC. Future research and interventions that address knowledge deficits and focus on recent immigrants and their access to health care may have the potential to increase CRS among Chinese American immigrants.

  14. The Role of Relevancy and Social Suffering in “Generativity” Among Older Post-Soviet Women Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Kate; Rubinstein, Robert; Ermoshkina, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper examines generativity, social suffering, and culture change in a sample of 16 women aged 65 years or older who emigrated from the former Soviet Union. Key concerns with generativity are identity, which can be strongly rooted in one’s original cultural formation, and a stable life course, which is what ideally enables generative impulses to be cultivated in later life. Design and Methods: To better understand how early social suffering may affect later life generativity, we conducted two 90-min interviews with each of our participants on their past experiences and current views of generativity. Results: The trauma of World War II, poor quality of life in the Soviet Union, scarcity of shelter and supplies, and fear of arrest emerged as common components in social suffering, which affected their identity. Implications: Overall, the theme of broken links to the future—the sense that their current lives were irrelevant to future generations—was strong among informants in their interviews, pointing to the importance of life course stability in relation to certain forms of generativity. PMID:24184859

  15. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    PubMed

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  16. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  17. Post-immigration Changes in Social Capital and Substance Use Among Recent Latino Immigrants in South Florida: Differences by Documentation Status.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, E; Trepka, M J; Kanamori, M; Gollub, E; Fennie, K; Li, T; Albatineh, A N; De La Rosa, M

    2015-12-01

    Changing social capital among recent Latino immigrants (RLIs) influences substance use post-immigration. This was a longitudinal study of 476 South/Central American RLIs examining social capital and substance use changes pre to post-immigration. Self-reported measures of social capital and substance use were compared between surveys administered within 1 year of immigration and 2 years post-immigration. Post-immigration, social capital, hazardous drinking and illicit drug use decreased. Women were less likely to engage in hazardous drinking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) .32, p < .001], and less likely to use illicit drugs (AOR .67, p = .01). Documented individuals with higher levels of 'business' social capital had increased odds of illicit drug use (AOR 2.20, p < .05). Undocumented individuals with higher levels of 'friend and others' social capital had decreased risk for hazardous drinking and illicit drug use (AOR .55, p < .01; AOR .56, p < .05). Documentation status moderated the relationship between social capital and substance use. RLIs can be targeted for primary prevention of substance abuse.

  18. Comparative evaluation of raloxifene versus estrogen: Progestin on symptomatology, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Dogiparthi, Anuradha; Aggarwal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Malhotra, Sarla

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of raloxifene and estrogen progesterone (E + P) combination on symptoms, endometrium, and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled and allocated to three groups namely E + P, raloxifene, and controls. These groups were given 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone, 60 mg raloxifene and no therapy, respectively. Symptomatology and lipid profile were evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months. Endometrial thickness was evaluated at 6 and 12 months, and endometrial biopsy was repeated at 12 months. The demographic profile of the women in the three different groups was comparable. In addition, the symptomatology, lipid profile, mean endometrial thickness, and endometrial biopsy categorization were comparable. E + P and raloxifene were equally effective in improving the postmenopausal symptoms and lipid profile. E + P had stimulatory effect on the endometrium, whereas raloxifene was found to be neutral. PMID:21799632

  19. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Oestradiol in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kilim, Srinivas; Chandala, Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the menopausal status and related hormonal variation of oestradiol with plasma lipid concentrations. Material and Methods: Fifty premenopausal women and fifty postmenopausal women subjects were selected. Data was collected through clinical evaluation from questionnaires and laboratory investigations. Plasma oestradiol and lipid profile determinations were done by using competitive binding immunoassay methods and enzymatic methods respectively. Student’s T test and Pearson’s test of correlation were used for the statistical analysis. P-values of < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels in post-menopausal women. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased in post-menopausal women. The calculated atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio) was significantly increased in post-menopausal women as compared to that in premenopausal women. Oestradiol concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in post-menopausal women. Discussion: Oestrogen changes the vascular permeability by increasing nitrous oxide production. It maintains a healthy lipoprotein profile. It stabilizes the endothelial cells, enhances antioxidant effect and alters fibrinolysis protein. All these cardioprotective mechanisms are lost in menopause. Postmenopausal women develop an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Menopause leads to changes in lipid profile by reducing HDL, and elevating Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, thus increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These changes are caused by reduced oestrogen concentrations which are seen in menopause. PMID:24086849

  20. Awareness and Attitude towards Breastfeeding among Two Generations of Indian Women: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Deeksha; Sardana, Parnita; Saxena, Aashish; Dogra, Luvdeep; Coondoo, Ambika; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Present study was aimed to analyze the impact of education, employment and financial independence in breastfeeding practices among Indian women. Methodology Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 256 women (128 pairs) in the final analysis. A pair means – a) pregnant lady (in her third trimester) representing younger generation and b) her mother/mother in law representing the elder generation. Results We found that the overall awareness regarding ‘breast milk’ being the best food for baby was excellent (overall 97.3%; younger generation: 96.9%; elder generation: 97.7%). Overall knowledge regarding the correct technique (28.9% younger generation and 21.9% elder generation) and frequency of breastfeeding (20.3% of younger generation and 34.4% of elder generation) was very poor. Less than 60% (younger generation: 57.8%; elder generation: 58.6%) were aware that the only major contraindication for breastfeeding is a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On comparing responses obtained from the two generations of women, difference was not statistically significant among most of the issues related to breastfeeding. With regards to the attitude, despite better awareness, only 94.5% women in younger generation and 89.1% women in elder generation were planning to give mother’s milk as the first feed to the newborn. Similarly, less than 75% of women were ready to breast-feed the newborn immediately after birth. This was contradictory to the fact that 86% of pregnant women were aware that the baby should be breast-fed within an hour of birth. Conclusion Awareness with regards to breastfeeding issues had not changed significantly with the educational progress of Indian women. Despite the good level of awareness in the society regarding breastfeeding, attitude to practice the same is lacking. PMID:25993040

  1. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. METHODS A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus–positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. RESULTS There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (P<.001). Among women who underwent anoscopy, no anal dysplasia was detected in the low-risk group, whereas 13.4% in the high-risk group had anal dysplasia with 4.2% having anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (P<.001). CONCLUSION Human immunodeficiency virus–negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. PMID:26551180

  2. Review of comparative responses of men and women to heat stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most of their present knowledge regarding human responses to thermal stress is primarily a result of research conducted on male subjects. Recently, as women have moved into the industrial workplace and forefront of athletic activity, attention has turned to comparative responses of men and women. Very limited research on preadolescent children suggests no physiological thermoregulatory sex differences except for a slightly higher sweat rate in lean boys as compared to lean girls of a similar age. Boys also tended to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Current beliefs regarding men and women are: (1) women, as a population, are less tolerant to a given imposed heat stress however, if cardiovascular fitness level, body size, and acclimation state are standardized, the differences tend to disappear; (2) women have a lower sweat rate than men of equal fitness, size, and acclimation which is disadvantageous in hot-dry environments, but advantageous in hot-wet environments; and (3) menstrual cycle effects are minimal. It is concluded that aerobic capacity, surface area-to-mass ratio, and state of acclimation are more important than sex in determining physiological responses to heat stress.

  3. Did the decline continue? Comparing the labor-market quality of United States immigrants from the late 1970s and late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A

    1996-02-01

    "The issue addressed in this paper is whether or not the decline in immigrant labor-market quality in the U.S. observed in the late 1960s and 1970s continued in the 1980s." The data are from the Immigration and Naturalization Service and are provided for the years 1979-1980 and 1989-1990. "Given the rise in earnings inequality that has occurred in the United States over the 1980s, the returns to immigration for the more highly skilled will have increased relative to the low skilled, ceteris paribus. For this reason, it is possible that the skill decline of immigrants may have halted in the 1980s as immigrants of differing skill levels respond to the altered circumstances they would face in the United States. The empirical results show that the skill decline did indeed halt...." PMID:12291406

  4. Framing unauthorized immigrants: the effects of labels on evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Reidar; Van der Veer, Kees; Larsen, Knud S; Eilertsen, Dag-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the U.S. media, unauthorized immigrants are often interchangeably referred to as "illegal aliens," "illegal immigrants," and undocumented immigrants." In spite of formal equivalence, these terms carry different connotations, but the effects of these labels on people's attitudes toward immigrants are not well documented. In this replication study, 274 undergraduate students in psychology responded to one of three randomly distributed versions of a 20-item scale measuring attitudes toward unauthorized immigration. The items in the three scale versions varyingly referred to immigrants using the three terms. Results showed differences in attitudes toward unauthorized immigration between all experimental conditions. The label "illegal immigrants" yielded significantly less positive attitudes compared to the label "undocumented immigrants," and respondents exposed to the label "illegal aliens" showed the most positive attitudes. Furthermore, the effects of the experimental conditions were not moderated by the respondents' patriotism, sex, or own immigrant background.

  5. Ethnic enclaves and the earnings of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Gough, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    A large literature in sociology concerns the implications of immigrants' participation in ethnic enclaves for their economic and social well-being. The "enclave thesis" speculates that immigrants benefit from working in ethnic enclaves. Previous research concerning the effects of enclave participation on immigrants' economic outcomes has come to mixed conclusions as to whether enclave effects are positive or negative. In this article, we seek to extend and improve upon past work by formulating testable hypotheses based on the enclave thesis and testing them with data from the 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS), employing both residence-based and workplace-based measures of the ethnic enclave. We compare the economic outcomes of immigrants working in ethnic enclaves with those of immigrants working in the mainstream economy. Our research yields minimal support for the enclave thesis. Our results further indicate that for some immigrant groups, ethnic enclave participation actually has a negative effect on economic outcomes.

  6. Mortality among immigrants in England and Wales by major causes of death, 1971-2012: A longitudinal analysis of register-based data.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Matthew; Kulu, Hill

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has found a migrant mortality advantage among immigrants relative to the UK-born population living in England and Wales. However, while all-cause mortality is useful to show differences in mortality between immigrants and the host population, it can mask variation in mortality patterns from specific causes of death. This study analyses differences in the causes of death among immigrants living in England and Wales. We extend previous research by applying competing-risks survival analysis to study a large-scale longitudinal dataset from 1971 to 2012 to directly compare causes of death. We confirm low all-cause mortality among nearly all immigrants, except immigrants from Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (who have high mortality). In most cases, low all-cause mortality among immigrants is driven by lower mortality from chronic diseases (in nearly all cases by lower cancer mortality and in some cases by lower mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD)). This low all-cause mortality often coexists with low respiratory disease mortality and among non-western immigrants, coexists with high mortality from infectious diseases; however, these two causes of death contribute little to mortality among immigrants. For men, CVD is the leading cause of death (particularly among South Asians). For women, cancer is the leading cause of death (except among South Asians, for whom CVD is also the leading cause). Differences in CVD mortality over time remain constant between immigrants relative to UK-born, but immigrant cancer patterns shows signs of some convergence to the cancer mortality among the UK-born (though cancer mortality is still low among immigrants by age 80). The study provides the most up-to-date, reliable UK-based analysis of immigrant mortality.

  7. Does Occupational Mobility Influence Health among Working Women? Comparing Objective and Subjective Measures of Work Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Shippee, Tetyana P.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational mobility is highly valued in American society, but is it consequential to women's health? Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results, but most measured occupational mobility by identifying transitions across occupational categories. Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, this study (1) compares objective and subjective…

  8. Achievement and High School Completion Rates of Hispanic Students with No English Language Skills Compared to Hispanic Students with Some English Language Skills Attending the Same High School in an Immigrant Responsive City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine achievement and high school completion rates of Hispanic students (n = 13) with no English language skills compared to Hispanic students (n = 11) with some English language skills attending the same high school in an immigrant responsive city. All students were in attendance in the research school…

  9. Nursing Practice With Incarcerated Women: A Focused Comparative Review of the Nursing and Feminist Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Nurses who practice with criminalized women will recognize this group as profoundly marginalized through multiple, intersecting mechanisms. The number of women imprisoned in North America, Latin America, Australia, and Western Europe continues to rise as it has for the past 20 years or more. As a nurse who has practiced almost exclusively with marginalized people, I have met and cared for many women whose health is made vulnerable by race, poverty, homelessness, mental health issues, and other factors. Many of them have been repeatedly incarcerated, experiencing chronically destabilizing cycles of getting arrested, going to jail, getting out, being homeless, getting arrested again, and repeating the cycle. To better understand the implications for nursing with respect to criminalized women, a focused review of the nursing and feminist scholarly literature on incarcerated women was conducted. The predominant themes and trends from both bodies of literature are presented and cross-compared. An analysis of what each body of scholarly work can offer to the other, including implications for nursing practice, concludes the literature review.

  10. Nursing Practice With Incarcerated Women: A Focused Comparative Review of the Nursing and Feminist Literature.

    PubMed

    Hardill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Nurses who practice with criminalized women will recognize this group as profoundly marginalized through multiple, intersecting mechanisms. The number of women imprisoned in North America, Latin America, Australia, and Western Europe continues to rise as it has for the past 20 years or more. As a nurse who has practiced almost exclusively with marginalized people, I have met and cared for many women whose health is made vulnerable by race, poverty, homelessness, mental health issues, and other factors. Many of them have been repeatedly incarcerated, experiencing chronically destabilizing cycles of getting arrested, going to jail, getting out, being homeless, getting arrested again, and repeating the cycle. To better understand the implications for nursing with respect to criminalized women, a focused review of the nursing and feminist scholarly literature on incarcerated women was conducted. The predominant themes and trends from both bodies of literature are presented and cross-compared. An analysis of what each body of scholarly work can offer to the other, including implications for nursing practice, concludes the literature review. PMID:26204484

  11. A Comparative Study on Knowledge about Reproductive Health among Urban and Rural Women of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Monoarul; Hossain, Sharmin; Rumana Ahmed, Kazi; Sultana, Taslima; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of knowledge on reproductive health among urban and rural women of selected area of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 200 women selected purposively from different rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire by face to face interview. Knowledge level was analyzed according to poor, moderate and good knowledge by pre-defined knowledge scoring. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 26 years and majority (66%) of them was housewives. Most of them (61%) had completed their primary level education. Around three-fourth of them belongs to lower-middle income group. Overall level of reproductive health knowledge was more evident among urban reproductive aged women than rural counterparts (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant knowledge gap was found regarding family planning (p = 0.005), care during pregnancy (p < 0.001), safe motherhood (p = 0.002), newborn care (p = 0.009) and birth spacing (p <0.001) between urban and rural women. Family members were the major source of information in both groups. Conclusion: A wide knowledge gap was found between Bangladeshi urban and rural respondents regarding their reproductive behaviors. Government and concerned organizations should promote and strengthen various health education programs to focus on reproductive health, especially among reproductive aged women in rural area. PMID:25904966

  12. CHANGES IN PRE- TO POST- IMMIGRATION HIV RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG RECENT LATINO IMMIGRANTS

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined pre- to post-immigration HIV risk behavior trajectories among recent Latino immigrants in Miami-Dade County (Florida). We identified socio-demographic factors associated with these trajectories and collected retrospective pre-immigration HTV risk behavior data at baseline from a sample of 527 Caribbean, South American, and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on participants' post-immigration HIV risk behaviors. Results indicated overall decreases in pre- to post-immigration condom use. In the sample, recent Latino immigrants with lower education, younger age, and higher incomes had steeper decreases in pre- to post-immigration condom use. We also found differences in the risk behavior trajectories of males and females. Latino women reported significant increases in the number of sexual partners post immigration, while men reported decreases in the number of sexual partners after immigrating to the U.S. PMID:25646729

  13. Northern Horizons: Latinas in the New Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Korrol, Virginia

    Many Latin American immigrants have encountered new social problems, including language barriers, stereotypes associated with being hispanic, special insecurities experienced by women, role changes, isolation, and alienation from families. Attitudes about return migration appear to be different in men and women. Men more often wish to return to…

  14. Comparing the pharmacokinetics of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-release combination in nonpregnant women of reproductive age and women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason; Hankins, Gary; Koren, Gideon

    2013-03-01

    Although Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination) is widely used in Canada, its pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy has never been described. The objective of this study was to compare the PK of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination in pregnant versus nonpregnant women. The apparent clearances (CL) of doxylamine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the active metabolite of vitamin B(6) ) during the first-trimester pregnancy in women who participated in a Diclectin randomized trial were compared with those of healthy, adult, nonpregnant women who participated in a voluntary PK trial. Eighteen nonpregnant women were compared with 50 pregnant women who were treated with Diclectin. There was no difference in the apparent CL of doxylamine in women in their first trimester of pregnancy when compared with nonpregnant women on day 4 (median = 196.7 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .065), day 8 (median = 248.4 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .82), and day 15 (median = 200.9 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .55). No difference was found in the apparent CL of PLP on day 15 (median = 342.3 vs 314.7 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .92). There was no pregnancy-induced effect in the apparent CL of either doxylamine or PLP in women during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the existence of morning sickness.

  15. Pre- to Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Trajectories among Recent Latino Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario; Blackson, Timothy C.; Sastre, Francisco; Rojas, Patria; Li, Tan; Dillon, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The escalation of alcohol use among some Latino immigrant groups as their time in the United States increases has been well-documented. Yet, little is known about the alcohol use behaviors of Latino immigrants prior to immigration. This prospective longitudinal study examines pre- to post-immigration alcohol use trajectories among a cohort of recent Latino immigrants. Retrospective pre-immigration data were collected at baseline from a sample of 455 Cuban, South American and Central American Latinos ages 18–34 who immigrated to the U.S. less than one year prior. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on their post-immigration alcohol use in the past 90 days. We hypothesized (a) overall declines in pre- to post-immigration alcohol among recent Latino immigrants and (b) gender/documentation specific effects, with higher rates of alcohol use among males and undocumented participants compared to their female and documented counterparts. Growth curve analyses revealed males had higher levels of pre-immigration alcohol use with steeper declines in post-immigration alcohol use compared to females. Declines in alcohol use frequency were observed for documented, but not undocumented males. No changes in pre- to post-immigration alcohol use were found for documented or undocumented females. This study contributes to the limited knowledge of pre- to post-immigration alcohol use patterns among Latinos in the United States. Future research is needed to identify social determinants associated with the alcohol use trajectories of recent Latino immigrants, as it may inform prediction, prevention, and treatment of problem-drinking behaviors among the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. PMID:25243834

  16. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  17. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings.

  18. Self-perceived social status and health in older Hong Kong Chinese women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Lynn, H; Leung, J; Wong, S Y

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social factors are determinants of health, as are psychosocial factors. The present study compared self-perceived social status and its relation to health, health related quality of life and lifestyle in older women with men, adjusting for age, education level and maximum lifetime income. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 4,000 men and women aged 65 years and over in a community in the North Eastern part of Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region in China. Participants were asked to rate their community status, education, income and occupation, on two ladders, each with ten rungs. The distributions of the two ladder scores differed, showing that although participants may not have been ranked highly in terms of money, education and job respectability, they may have ranked their community standing highly. Women and older participants tended to rank their community standing highly in spite of lower ratings in the objective measures. A social gradient in self-perceived social status, independent of objective socioeconomic measures, was noted for physical performance and health-related quality of life, rather than related to presence of specific chronic diseases or lifestyle. However, the different ratings of the two ladders suggested that mechanisms by which the gradient operates may differ between women and men. Further studies are needed to explore the health and psychosocial consequences of the gender difference in self-rated social status. PMID:19042217

  19. The Association of English Functional Health Literacy and the Receipt of Mammography among Hispanic Women Compared to Non-Hispanic U.S.-Born White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Hajar; Kenzik, Kelly M.; Dewalt, Darren A.; Huang, I-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic women in the U.S., and mammography is the recommended screening for early diagnosing and preventing breast cancer. Several barriers exist to influence mammography utilization including poor health literacy. However, it is unclear whether the effect of health literacy on mammography utilization is consistent between Hispanic women and non-Hispanic White women. The main objective of this study was to examine association between functional health literacy and the receipt of mammography among Hispanic women compared to non-Hispanic White women in the U.S. Methods A cross-sectional design using participants engaged in the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Study sample comprised of 4,249 Hispanic and non-Hispanic U.S.-born White women ≥ 40 years of age who completed the functional health literacy assessment. Regression analyses were performed to test the association between health literacy and receipt of mammography. Among Hispanic women, analyses considered the influence of language-preference acculturation. Results Equal percentages of Hispanic (59.3%) and non-Hispanic White (60.6%) women received mammography. After adjusting for covariates, health literacy was positively associated with receiving mammography among U.S.-born White women (β = 0.14, p<0.001), but negatively associated with mammography among Hispanic women (β = -0.13, p<0.001). Analyses stratified by acculturation status revealed that higher health literacy was associated with lower mammography among language-preference acculturated Hispanic women (β = -0.48, p<0.001), yet an opposite result among less acculturated Hispanic women (β = 0.08, p<0.001). Conclusion Functional health literacy has different associations with mammography depending upon ethnicity. Language-preference acculturation may explain the differing association. PMID:27732660

  20. Attitudes toward unauthorized immigrants, authorized immigrants, and refugees.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kate E; Marx, David M

    2013-07-01

    Rates of human migration are steadily rising and have resulted in significant sociopolitical debates over how to best respond to increasing cultural diversity and changing migration patterns. Research on prejudicial attitudes toward immigrants has focused on the attitudes and beliefs that individuals in the receiving country hold about immigrants. The current study enhances this literature by examining how young adults view authorized and unauthorized immigrants and refugees. Using a between-groups design of 191 undergraduates, we found that participants consistently reported more prejudicial attitudes, greater perceived realistic threats, and greater intergroup anxiety when responding to questions about unauthorized compared with authorized immigrants. Additionally, there were differences in attitudes depending on participants' generational status, with older-generation participants reporting greater perceived realistic and symbolic threat, prejudice, and anxiety than newer-generation students. In some instances, these effects were moderated by participant race/ethnicity and whether they were evaluating authorized or unauthorized immigrants. Lastly, perceived realistic threat, symbolic threat, and intergroup anxiety were significant predictors of prejudicial attitudes. Overall, participants reported positive attitudes toward refugees and resettlement programs in the United States. These findings have implications for future research and interventions focused on immigration and prejudice toward migrant groups.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Associated Factors in a Sample of Colombian Immigrant Population in Spain.

    PubMed

    Colorado-Yohar, Sandra Milena; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Huerta, José M; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2016-08-01

    Immigrants are vulnerable to Intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aims at characterising IPV among Colombian immigrants, and to identify its associated factors. Cross-sectional study on 336 Colombian immigrants (46 % women), aged 15-70 years, living in Spain. Self-reported questionnaire information on IPV suffered throughout the last year was collected face-to-face. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with IPV. Almost 30 % of participants reported IPV, without differences by gender (p = 0.339). Partner's alcohol consumption was associated with a higher frequency of being victim of IPV in both sexes. In women, low educational level, and discrimination were further associated to IPV. Younger age, and poorer self-perceived health in Spain as compared to Colombia were factors associated in men. Results showed similarly high levels of IPV among immigrant men and women. Alcohol consumption, education, discrimination, age, and poor self-perceived health were factors associated to IPV. PMID:26670923

  2. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  3. Mexican immigrant mothers' expectations for children's health services.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lauren; Redman, Richard W

    2007-10-01

    Women of Mexican descent living in the United States raise children who use health care services. What do immigrant Mexican mothers expect from children's health care services? And how do their expectations for children's health services compare to acculturated Mexican American mothers' expectations? This focused ethnographic study, based on repeated interviews with 28 mothers of varying acculturation levels, describes their expectations and experiences with children's health care services in the United States. Findings support a shared core of expectations for both Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers, and differences in health care access and financing, time spent in health care encounters, and cultural and linguistic expectations for care. Health care providers can use this information to approach Mexican-descent mothers and children with their expectations in mind, and craft a negotiated plan of care congruent with their expectations.

  4. Immigration and Status Exchange in Australia and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta; Cobb-Clark, Deborah; Sinning, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the status exchange hypothesis for Australia and the United States, two Anglophone nations with long immigration traditions whose admission regimes place different emphases on skills. Using log-linear methods, we demonstrate that foreign-born spouses trade educational credentials via marriage with natives in both Australian and U.S. marriage markets and, moreover, that nativity is a more salient marriage barrier for men than for women. With some exceptions, immigrant spouses in mixed nativity couples are better educated than native spouses in same nativity couples, but status exchange is more prevalent among the less-educated spouses in both countries. Support for the status exchange hypothesis is somewhat weaker in Australia partly because of lower average levels of education compared with the United States and partly because of less sharply defined educational hierarchy at the postsecondary level. PMID:23226914

  5. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W.; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  6. Pain Sensitisation in Women with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Nora; Jespersen, Anders; Bartels, Else Marie; Christensen, Anton W; Bliddal, Henning; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. In some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, joint pain persists without signs of inflammation. This indicates that central pain sensitisation may play a role in the generation of chronic pain in a subgroup of RA. Our aim was to assess the degree of peripheral and central pain sensitisation in women with active RA compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods. 38 women with active RA (DAS28 > 2.6) and 38 female HC were included in, and completed, the study. Exclusion criteria were polyneuropathy, pregnancy, and no Danish language. Cuff Pressure Algometry measurements were carried out on the dominant lower leg. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain sensitivity during tonic painful stimulation were recorded. Results. Women with active RA had significantly lower pain threshold (p < 0.01) and pain tolerance (p < 0.01) than HC. The mean temporal summation- (TS-) index in RA patients was 0.98 (SEM: 0.09) and 0.71 (SEM: 0.04) in HC (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Patients with active RA showed decreased pressure-pain threshold compared to HC. In addition, temporal summation of pressure-pain was increased, indicating central pain sensitization, at least in some patients. Defining this subgroup of patients may be of importance when considering treatment strategies. PMID:26266046

  7. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    women. This is the first longitudinal study to investigate neural and humoral responses during pregnancy in Asians and Caucasians. The key finding was that Asians had attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responsiveness during pregnancy compared to Caucasians. These results may provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms for racial differences in the prevalence of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  8. The New Asian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  9. Exploring female genital cutting among west African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Akinsulure-Smith, Adeyinka M

    2014-06-01

    Although many African women immigrate to the United States from countries with high prevalence rates for female genital cutting (FGC), there has been limited research exploring the incidence and impact of FGC among this growing immigrant population. This pilot study sought to examine the experiences of FGC among West African immigrant women in the US. Of the 23 participants, 7 reported a history of FGC, with Muslim participants reporting significantly higher rates of FGC than Christians (Fisher's Exact = .045). Most of the women who had experienced FGC were from Sierra Leone (Fisher's Exact = .027). Limitations of the study are discussed along with suggestions for future research aimed at understanding the impact of FGC, reducing the prevalence and demand for FGC among African immigrant women and improving the health and quality of life of women who have undergone the procedure.

  10. Comparative Effectiveness of Combined Digital Mammography and Tomosynthesis Screening for Women with Dense Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Cevik, Mucahit; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Sprague, Brian L.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Stout, Natasha K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of combined biennial digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening, compared with biennial digital mammography screening alone, among women with dense breasts. Materials and Methods An established, discrete-event breast cancer simulation model was used to estimate the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of biennial screening with both digital mammography and tomosynthesis versus digital mammography alone among U.S. women aged 50–74 years with dense breasts from a federal payer perspective and a lifetime horizon. Input values were estimated for test performance, costs, and health state utilities from the National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, Medicare reimbursement rates, and medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the implications of varying key model parameters, including combined screening sensitivity and specificity, transient utility decrement of diagnostic work-up, and additional cost of tomosynthesis. Results For the base-case analysis, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained by adding tomosynthesis to digital mammography screening was $53 893. An additional 0.5 deaths were averted and 405 false-positive findings avoided per 1000 women after 12 rounds of screening. Combined screening remained cost-effective (less than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained) over a wide range of incremental improvements in test performance. Overall, cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the additional cost of tomosynthesis. Conclusion Biennial combined digital mammography and tomosynthesis screening for U.S. women aged 50–74 years with dense breasts is likely to be cost-effective if priced appropriately (up to $226 for combined examinations vs $139 for digital mammography alone) and if reported interpretive performance metrics of improved specificity with tomosynthesis are met in routine practice. © RSNA, 2014 Online

  11. Feminized Intergenerational Mobility Without Assimilation? Post-1965 U.S. Immigrants and the Gender Revolution.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Nawyn, Stephanie J; Benetsky, Megan J

    2015-10-01

    Women in the United States have made significant socioeconomic advances over the last generation. The second generation of post-1965 immigrants came of age during this "gender revolution." However, assimilation theories focus mainly on racial/ethnic trajectories. Do gendered trajectories between and within groups better capture mobility patterns? Using the 1980 decennial census and the 2003-2007 Current Population Survey (CPS), we observe the socioeconomic status of Latino and Asian immigrant parents and their second-generation children 25 years later. We compare the educational, occupational, and earnings attainment of second-generation daughters and sons with that of their immigrant mothers and fathers. We simultaneously compare those socioeconomic trajectories with a U.S.-born white, non-Latino reference group. We find that second-generation women experience greater status attainment than both their mothers and their male counterparts, but the earnings of second-generation women lag behind those of men. However, because white mainstream women experienced similar intergenerational mobility, many gaps between the second generation and the mainstream remain. These patterns remain even after we control for parenthood status. With feminized intergenerational mobility occurring similarly across race, the racial/ethnic gaps observed in 1980 narrow but persist into the next generation for many outcomes. Both gender and race shape mobility trajectories, so ignoring either leads to an incomplete picture of assimilation.

  12. Feminized Intergenerational Mobility Without Assimilation? Post-1965 U.S. Immigrants and the Gender Revolution.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Nawyn, Stephanie J; Benetsky, Megan J

    2015-10-01

    Women in the United States have made significant socioeconomic advances over the last generation. The second generation of post-1965 immigrants came of age during this "gender revolution." However, assimilation theories focus mainly on racial/ethnic trajectories. Do gendered trajectories between and within groups better capture mobility patterns? Using the 1980 decennial census and the 2003-2007 Current Population Survey (CPS), we observe the socioeconomic status of Latino and Asian immigrant parents and their second-generation children 25 years later. We compare the educational, occupational, and earnings attainment of second-generation daughters and sons with that of their immigrant mothers and fathers. We simultaneously compare those socioeconomic trajectories with a U.S.-born white, non-Latino reference group. We find that second-generation women experience greater status attainment than both their mothers and their male counterparts, but the earnings of second-generation women lag behind those of men. However, because white mainstream women experienced similar intergenerational mobility, many gaps between the second generation and the mainstream remain. These patterns remain even after we control for parenthood status. With feminized intergenerational mobility occurring similarly across race, the racial/ethnic gaps observed in 1980 narrow but persist into the next generation for many outcomes. Both gender and race shape mobility trajectories, so ignoring either leads to an incomplete picture of assimilation. PMID:26358700

  13. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  14. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude.

  15. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  16. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Poblador-Pou, Beatriz; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Kumar, Bernadette N.; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations. Methodology This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i) to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii) to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique. Results Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37–0.39) for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57–0.59) for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66–0.68) for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages. Conclusions Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of

  17. Unauthorized immigrants spend less than other immigrants and US natives on health care.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Jim P; Wilson, Fernando A; Su, Dejun

    2013-07-01

    Unauthorized immigrants and other immigrants who have been in the United States for less than five years have few options for accessing health care through public programs. In light of the ongoing national debate about immigration reform and the impact of the Affordable Care Act on immigrants, we examined differences in health care spending by nativity and legal status using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data for the period 2000-09. We found that unauthorized, legal, and naturalized immigrants together accounted for $96.5 billion in average annual health care spending, compared to slightly more than $1 trillion for US natives. Unauthorized immigrants' share of health care spending was $15.4 billion-the smallest of the groups. Just 7.9 percent of unauthorized immigrants benefited from public-sector health care expenditures (receiving an average of $140 per person per year), compared to 30.1 percent of US natives (who received an average of $1,385). Policy solutions could include extending coverage to unauthorized immigrants for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases or granting them access to the Affordable Care Act's insurance marketplaces, which start in 2014. The final version of federal immigration reform might also include strategies to expand immigrants' access to health care.

  18. Art Therapy and Experiences of Acculturation and Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linesch, Debra; Ojeda, Angelica; Fuster, Maria Elena; Moreno, Stephanie; Solis, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an expanded case study methodology that was used to explore the value that art therapy processes have in expression and understanding of the complications of immigration and acculturation. Data collected from two art therapy groups of Hispanic/Latino youth and immigrant women at an urban parish were analyzed to develop an…

  19. A Qualitative Inquiry of Latino Immigrants' Work Experiences in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Mendoza, Monique M.; Ojeda, Lizette; He, Yuhong; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Medina, Veronica; Ladehoff, Julie Wagner; Jordan, Shiloh

    2011-01-01

    Latino immigrants are the largest source of immigrant workers in the United States. In this study, 11 first-generation Latino immigrants (8 men, 3 women) living in the Midwest were interviewed about their work experiences. Interview data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Five domains…

  20. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared to inactive obese women

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Todd Cade, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive ((OBI) age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3kg/m2, body fat percentage in late gestation: 37.7 ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active ((OBA) age: 28.9 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 34.0±3.7kg/m2, body fat in late gestation: 36.6 ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Results Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared to OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 6.3 ±2.5mg/L, p=0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r=0.43, p=0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r=0.39, p=0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r=0.36, p=0.04). Conclusions Maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  1. Immigration and Student Achievement: Evidence from Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether immigrant students in Switzerland perform poorly compared to their native counterparts and provides some explanations. Using a national sample of the 2000 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) database, we first analyze the impact of immigrant status on pupils' achievement. We find a…

  2. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of a Faith-Based HIV Intervention for African American Women: Importance of Enhancing Religious Social Capital

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, LaShun R.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Er, Deja L.; Conner, Anita C.; Renfro, Tiffaney L.; Rubtsova, Anna A.; Hardin, James W.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of P4 for Women, a faith-based HIV intervention. Methods. We used a 2-arm comparative effectiveness trial involving 134 African American women aged 18 to 34 years to compare the effectiveness of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–defined evidence-based Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA) HIV intervention with P4 for Women, an adapted faith-based version of SISTA. Participants were recruited from a large black church in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments at baseline and follow-up. Results. Both SISTA and P4 for Women had statistically significant effects on this study’s primary outcome—consistent condom use in the past 90 days—as well as other sexual behaviors. However, P4 for Women also had statistically significant effects on the number of weeks women were abstinent, on all psychosocial mediators, and most noteworthy, on all measures of religious social capital. Results were achieved by enhancing structural social capital through ministry participation, religious values and norms, linking trust and by reducing negative religious coping. High intervention attendance may indicate the feasibility of conducting faith-based HIV prevention research for African American women. Conclusions. P4 for Women enhanced abstinence and safer sex practices as well as religious social capital, and was more acceptable than SISTA. Such efforts may assist faith leaders in responding to the HIV epidemic in African American women. PMID:24134367

  4. NATURALIZATION OF U.S. IMMIGRANTS: HIGHLIGHTS FROM TEN COUNTRIES.

    PubMed

    Woodrow-Lafield, Karen A; Xu, Xiaohe; Kersen, Thomas; Poch, Bunnak

    2004-06-01

    The saga of U.S. immigrant naturalization is merely sketched for about 25 million immigrants entered in three decades of renewed immigration. This study documents naturalization outcomes for immigrants from ten major countries of origin, using administrative records on immigrants and naturalizations. Following the 1978-1987 admission cohorts for the first decade or more of permanent residence, this study finds significant covariate effects on the timing of naturalization by origin, mode of entry, and immigrant visa class, net other influences of demographic and background characteristics. Immigrants from the Philippines, Vietnam, and China, naturalized more quickly than immigrants from India, Korea, Cuba, Colombia, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Those who adjusted from statuses as nonimmigrants, refugees, or asylees became naturalized citizens more quickly. Those immigrants with employment-sponsorship naturalized faster than family-sponsored immigrants. Spouses of citizens, spouses of permanent residents, spouses of siblings of citizens, and spouses of sons and daughters of citizens naturalized faster than some other immigrants. Gender was not significant in the multivariate analysis but further research will more fully explore sex-specific variation in the timing of naturalization given likely variation in women's representation by origin and admission categories.

  5. Divorce and immigration: the social integration of immigrant divorcees in Israel.

    PubMed

    Damian, N

    1985-12-01

    This paper attempts to supply information on what motivated some 7000 Jewish divorcees to leave their countries of origin in the last decade and settle in Israel. The study also examines the differences in social integration of immigrant divorcees who came to Israel from different political systems--authoritarian or democratic regimes. Finally, the study examines the extent to which immigrant divorcees, who generally arrive in Israel with children, are to be considered as a "high risk" social group requiring special attention and particular aid. Of the 287,487 immigrants aged 15 years and over who arrived in Israel between 1970-1980, 53.7% were women (sex ratio: 860 males per 1000 females), and 3.6% were divorced. The findings indicate that there are significant differences between divorcees from Anglophone and Eastern European countries in their motivation for immigrating to Israel. The former decide to immigrate primarily for individual reasons--generally after divorce--expecting that immigration will increase chances of remarriage. In contrast, those who came from Eastern Europe are motivated by political, economic, and ideological reasons; the issue of immigration often sparks the divorce crisis. Divorcees from Anglophone countries are less socially isolated, more likely to meet veteran Israelis, and more satisfied with their life in Israel. Eastern European divorcees usually restrict their social contact to encounters with other immigrants from their country of origin, are less satisfied with their life in Israel, and feel themselves more isolated and frustrated. Despite the difficulties encountered by this group, it was found that there are no marked differences between divorcees and married immigrant women in social integration. In Israel, immigrant divorcees cannot be considered as a "high risk" social group.

  6. Being "in a Limbo": Perceptions of Immigration, Identity and Adaptation of Immigrant Students in South Africa and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Theresa; Fox, Jill; Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2016-01-01

    Much research is available that details student experiences of immigration and adaptation to receiving countries and schools, but few studies analyze the metaphors used by immigrant students (IS) when talking about the immigration experience, or offer a comparative lens through which to view identity negotiation in two very different contexts. The…

  7. Psychosocial experiences in women facing fertility problems--a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Oddens, B J; den Tonkelaar, I; Nieuwenhuyse, H

    1999-01-01

    In a survey involving 281 patients awaiting assisted reproduction treatment at five centres in three countries, and 289 population controls, we investigated whether the patients had experienced more negative emotional feelings and negative emotional impact during periods when they were attempting to conceive as compared with the controls, and whether there was any difference in their well-being at the time of consultation. The study was performed in the context of currently divergent views as to the burden of fertility problems. The survey was carried out using questionnaires of the self-administration type. Women with fertility problems did in fact consistently report a higher prevalence of negative emotions than the controls with reference to the periods during which they had been trying to conceive. Patients reported more changes in interpartner relationships (either negative or positive). Sexuality was negatively affected among the patients. At the time of consultation, the patients had less favourable scores than the controls on scales for depressed mood, memory/concentration, anxiety and fears, as well as for self-perceived attractiveness. One in four (24.9%) of the patients had scores indicating depressive disorders as compared with only 6.8% of the controls. Current well-being was even more markedly affected in patients with previous unsuccessful in-vitro fertilization (IVF) experience. The 'infertility' life event was perceived as severe by both patients and controls. Both prior to consultation and during diagnosis and treatment, women with fertility problems had a higher prevalence of reported negative psycho-emotional experiences than women without fertility problems. PMID:10374131

  8. Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Alberer, Martin; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Schunk, Mirjam; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Beissner, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of imported infectious diseases (IDs) among patients consulting the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2014 after being in the sub-/tropics. The analysis investigated complete data sets of 16,817 diseased German travelers (2,318 business travelers, 4,029 all-inclusive travelers, and 10,470 backpackers) returning from Latin America (3,225), Africa (4,865), or Asia (8,727), and 977 diseased immigrants, originating from the same regions (112, 654 and 211 respectively). The most frequent symptoms assessed were diarrhea (38%), fever (29%), and skin disorder (22%). The most frequent IDs detected were intestinal infections with species of Blastocystis(900),Giardia(730),Campylobacter(556),Shigella(209), and Salmonella(183). Also frequently observed were cutaneous larva migrans (379), dengue (257), and malaria (160). The number of IDs with significantly elevated proportions was higher among backpackers (18) and immigrants (17), especially among those from Africa (18) and Asia (17), whereas it was lower for business travelers (5), all-inclusive travelers (1), and those from Latin America (5). This study demonstrates a large spectrum of imported IDs among returning German travelers and immigrants, which varies greatly based not only on travel destination and origin of immigrants, but also on type of travel. PMID:26903611

  9. Context and Culture in the Socialization and Development of Personal Achievement Values: Comparing Latino Immigrant Families, European American Families, and Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.; Quiroz, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    We documented cross-cultural similarities and differences in values concerning personal achievement between Latino immigrant parents, a group of multiethnic teachers, and European American parents. We also explored intergenerational similarities and differences between parents and their fifth-grade children. The theoretical premise was that…

  10. Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics.

    PubMed

    Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Alberer, Martin; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Schunk, Mirjam; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Beissner, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spectrum of imported infectious diseases (IDs) among patients consulting the University of Munich, Germany, between 1999 and 2014 after being in the sub-/tropics. The analysis investigated complete data sets of 16,817 diseased German travelers (2,318 business travelers, 4,029 all-inclusive travelers, and 10,470 backpackers) returning from Latin America (3,225), Africa (4,865), or Asia (8,727), and 977 diseased immigrants, originating from the same regions (112, 654 and 211 respectively). The most frequent symptoms assessed were diarrhea (38%), fever (29%), and skin disorder (22%). The most frequent IDs detected were intestinal infections with species of Blastocystis(900),Giardia(730),Campylobacter(556),Shigella(209), and Salmonella(183). Also frequently observed were cutaneous larva migrans (379), dengue (257), and malaria (160). The number of IDs with significantly elevated proportions was higher among backpackers (18) and immigrants (17), especially among those from Africa (18) and Asia (17), whereas it was lower for business travelers (5), all-inclusive travelers (1), and those from Latin America (5). This study demonstrates a large spectrum of imported IDs among returning German travelers and immigrants, which varies greatly based not only on travel destination and origin of immigrants, but also on type of travel.

  11. Immigrants' experiences of maternity care in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yukari; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2013-08-01

    Language and cultural differences can negatively impact immigrant women's birth experience. However, little is known about their experiences in Japan's highly homogenous culture. This cross-sectional study used survey data from a purposive sampling of immigrant women from 16 hospitals in several Japanese prefectures. Meeting the criteria and recruited to this study were 804 participants consisting of 236 immigrant women: Chinese (n = 83), Brazilian (n = 62), Filipino (n = 43), South Korean (n = 29) and from variety of English speaking nations (n = 19) and 568 Japanese women. The questionnaire was prepared in six languages: Japanese (kana syllables), Chinese, English, Korean, Portuguese, and Tagalog (Filipino). Associations among quality of maternity care, Japanese literacy level, loneliness and care satisfaction were explored using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. The valid and reliable instruments used were Quality of Care for Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Questionnaire, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Japanese version, the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale-Japanese version and Care satisfaction. Care was evaluated across prenatal, labor and delivery and post-partum periods. Immigrant women scored higher than Japanese women for both positive and negative aspects. When loneliness was strongly felt, care satisfaction was lower. Some competence of Japanese literacy was more likely to obstruct positive communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness. Immigrant women rated overall care as satisfactory. Japanese literacy decreased communication with healthcare providers, and was associated with loneliness presumably because some literacy unreasonably increased health care providers' expectations of a higher level of communication.

  12. Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Chai, Sheau C; Saadat, Raz L; Payton, Mark E; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2011-09-01

    Aside from existing drug therapies, certain lifestyle and nutritional factors are known to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Among the nutritional factors, dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) is the most effective fruit in both preventing and reversing bone loss. The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which dried plum reverses bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. We recruited 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. Qualified participants (n 160) were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g/d) or dried apple (comparative control). Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body was assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Physical activity recall and 1-week FFQ were obtained at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to examine physical activity and dietary confounders as potential covariates. Dried plum significantly increased BMD of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover.

  13. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  14. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  15. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation.

    PubMed

    Fincher, R

    1997-02-01

    An analysis of Australian immigration policy since the Second World War is presented. The emphasis is on the gender and age of preferred immigrants, rather than on their race or place of birth. "The author proposes that selection of immigrant settlers in Australia since World War 2 has been gendered as well as racialised, often combining particular sexisms with particular racisms and specifying the ways that ethnicity and gender should coexist in immigrants of different age groups. She notes implications for immigrants once in Australia (especially women) of the category under which they have entered the country. And she suggests that a new phase relating immigration to redefinition of the Australian nation, in which the temporary migration of skilled workers is preferred to their permanent migration, may be beginning; a phase whose modes of regulation and outcomes are as distinctively gendered as were those of their predecessors."

  16. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent wage disparity between documented and undocumented Mexican immigrant men, and a 9 percent documented-undocumented wage disparity for Mexican immigrant women. We also find that in comparison to authorized Mexicans, undocumented Mexican immigrants have lower returns to human capital and slower wage growth. PMID:25414526

  17. Long-term consequences of female genital mutilation in a European context: self perceived health of FGM women compared to non-FGM women.

    PubMed

    Andro, Armelle; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Lesclingand, Marie

    2014-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) concerns an estimated half a million women in Europe. The studies based in countries where migrant women have settled highlight the need for more accurate information on FGM health consequences, in a European health care context. Excision and Handicap (ExH) is a multi-centric survey based on case-control methodology and conducted in France to assess the long-term consequences of FGM, sampling both FGM and non-FGM adult women. The interviews were conducted in 74 mother-and-child health centres and hospital departments providing gynaecological and family planning services in five French regions. The two groups were compared on health indicators (self-perceived health, illnesses, symptoms) and functioning indicators (daily, sexual and reproductive life) for cases (n = 678) and controls (n = 1706). Multivariate logistic models highlighted FGM-related health problems. Among women living in France, FGM was significantly associated with poor health indicators: gynaecological and urinary infections (OR = 2.0), sleep disorders (OR = 1.4), intense pain (OR = 1.5), difficulties in daily life (OR = 1.5) and in sexual life (OR = 1.7) or tearing during childbirth (OR = 1.6). Our results suggest that, even in a favourable healthcare context, FGM exposes women to long-term health problems, including in areas neglected in previous research. They confirm the need to establish recommendations to help physicians understand these women's needs.

  18. Illnesses among recently immigrated children.

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, Heidi

    2005-04-01

    The number of children immigrating to the United States has increased steadily during the last decade. American families are adopting a significant portion of these children, more than 20,000. Recently immigrated children face many different health risks when compared to children born in the United States. They are subject to many infectious diseases no longer seen commonly in the United States such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. They are more likely to have inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable illnesses. Recent immigrants have a higher likelihood of having malnutrition and developmental delay. Finally, many will have suffered psychological trauma in either institutions or refugee camps. These children require specialized testing, care, and treatment in the pediatric office. PMID:15825138

  19. Rate of cervical cancer screening associated with immigration status and number of years since immigration in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Amole; Chen, Yue

    2013-04-01

    Cervical cancer screening is a vital public health measure intended to reduce the morbidity and mortality from what is a largely preventable cancer. Previous Canadian studies have documented that immigrants have significantly lower Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates than women born in Canada. However, the impact of number of years since immigration is less clear. Data were taken from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey. Responses from 16, 706 women living in Ontario, Canada were included. The focus was on self-reported Pap testing rates within the last 3 years, immigrant status and number of years since immigration. A robust Poisson regression model was used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for covariates. The results demonstrated that recent immigrant women (less than 10 years in Canada) were less likely to have had a Pap test in the past 3 years than those who were Canadian-born (PR = 0.77; 95 % CI: 0.71, 0.84). In contrast, immigrants who had lived in Canada for 10 years or longer showed similar compliance with recommended Pap testing intervals as non-immigrants. Higher income, higher level of education, younger age and being married were independently associated with better Pap testing rates. A strategy targeting recent immigrants to Canada is needed to promote Pap testing in this population and reduce their risk of invasive cervical cancer.

  20. Comparability of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Between Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Boerner, Laura M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers studying eating disorders in men often use eating-disorder risk and symptom measures that have been validated only on women. Using a sample of 215 college women and 214 college men, this article reports on the validity the Eating Disorder Inventory2 (EDI-2), one of the best-validated among women and the most widely used risk and…

  1. Immigration, Diversity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorenko, Elena L., Ed.; Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited volume presents an overview of research and policy issues pertaining to children from birth to 10 who are first- and second-generation immigrants to the U.S., as well as native-born children of immigrants. The contributors offer interdisciplinary perspectives on recent developments and research findings on children of immigrants. By…

  2. The Ideal Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgadillo, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    The public discourse about immigration in the United States has long been fraught with xenophobia and racism. Since 9/11, moreover, the immigration issue has been firmly linked to questions of national security in the public imagination. In this recent period, the state has asserted extraordinary controls over immigrants and citizens that affect…

  3. A New Immigration Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Anne

    This book focuses on the issue of immigration to the United Kingdom (U.K.). Causes of migration, such as economic opportunities and emergency political refuge, are discussed in terms of the need for the government to devise an effective and just immigration system. Immigration laws of Norway, Sweden, Australia, Canada, and the U.K. are outlined,…

  4. A prospective, randomized study on hepatotoxicity of anastrozole compared with tamoxifen in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Jianlun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Li; Hu, Rui; Liu, Jian; Deng, Yongchuan; Chen, Dedian; Zhao, Yangbing; Sun, Shengrong; Ma, Rong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Jinping; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xijing; Li, Yafen; He, Pingqing; Li, Enxiao; Xu, Zheli; Wu, Yaqun; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xiaojia; Huang, Tao; Liang, Zhongxiao; Wang, Shui; Su, Fengxi; Lu, Yunfei; Zhang, Helong; Feng, Guosheng; Wang, Shenming

    2014-09-01

    Tamoxifen and anastrozole are widely used as adjuvant treatment for early stage breast cancer, but their hepatotoxicity is not fully defined. We aimed to compare hepatotoxicity of anastrozole with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Three hundred and fifty-three Chinese postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer were randomized to anastrozole or tamoxifen after optimal primary therapy. The primary end-point was fatty liver disease, defined as a liver-spleen ratio <0.9 as determined using a computed tomography scan. The secondary end-points included abnormal liver function and treatment failure during the 3-year follow up. The cumulative incidence of fatty liver disease after 3 years was lower in the anastrozole arm than that of tamoxifen (14.6% vs 41.1%, P < 0.0001; relative risk, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21-0.45). However, there was no difference in the cumulative incidence of abnormal liver function (24.6% vs 24.7%, P = 0.61). Interestingly, a higher treatment failure rate was observed in the tamoxifen arm compared with anastrozole and median times to treatment failure were 15.1 months and 37.1 months, respectively (P < 0.0001; HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20-0.37). The most commonly reported adverse events were 'reproductive system disorders' in the tamoxifen group (17.1%), and 'musculoskeletal disorders' in the anastrozole group (14.6%). Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole displayed less fatty liver disease, suggesting that this drug had a more favorable hepatic safety profile than tamoxifen and may be preferred for patients with potential hepatic dysfunction.

  5. Pre- to post-immigration sexual risk behaviour and alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants in Miami.

    PubMed

    Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840

  6. Differences in mortality by immigrant status in Italy. Results of the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Barbara; Zengarini, Nicolás; Broccoli, Serena; Caranci, Nicola; Spadea, Teresa; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Cacciani, Laura; Petrelli, Alessio; Ballotari, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Grisotto, Laura; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Despite a rapid increase in immigration from low-income countries, studies on immigrants' mortality in Italy are scarce. We aimed to describe differences in all and cause-specific mortality among immigrants and Italians residing in Turin and Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy), two cities participating in the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS). We used individual data from the municipal population registers linked to the cause of death registers. All people aged 1-64 years residing between 2001 and 2010 were enrolled (open cohort) and followed up until 2013. The mortality of citizens from high migratory pressure countries (as a whole, and for each macro-area group) was compared with that of Italians; differences were estimated by Poisson regression adjusted by age and calendar year mortality rate ratios (MRRs), and by age-standardized mortality ratios for the analysis of cause-specific mortality. Compared with Italians, immigrants had lower overall mortality (MRR for men: 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.75-0.90; for women: 0.71, 95 % CI: 0.63-0.81). Sub-Saharan Africans experienced a significant higher mortality than Italians (MRR for men 1.29, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.61; for women: 1.70, 95 % CI: 1.22-2.36). Higher mortality for immigrants compared to Italians was observed for infectious diseases, congenital anomalies, some site-specific tumours and homicide mortality. Our study showed heterogeneity in mortality across the macro-areas of origin, and in particular Sub-Saharan Africans seemed to be a vulnerable population. The extension to other cohorts of IN-LiMeS will allow the health status of immigrants and vulnerable groups to be studied and monitored in more depth. PMID:27461270

  7. Health status and preventative behaviors of immigrants by gender and origin: a Portuguese cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Martins, Maria O

    2013-09-01

    Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P < 0.001). Gender differences were also found across preventative behaviors. Among women and men, reported good health was associated with younger age, African and Brazilian origin (compared to Eastern European), secondary/higher education, no chronic disease, and concern about eating habits. Among women, good health was also associated with perceived sufficient income, no experience of mental illness, and regular physical exercise. When developing health programs to improve immigrants' health, special attention must be given to existing gender inequalities, and socioeconomic and cultural context, in accordance with their experience of living in the host country over time.

  8. PORTRAYALS OF COLOMBIAN AND VENEZUELAN IMMIGRANT ORGANISATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    SANCHEZ-R, MAGALY; AYSA-LASTRA, MARIA

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the public images of Colombian and Venezuelan immigrant organisations in the United States. Immigrant organisations’ webpages and the expression of their main aims and goals serve to identify their major concerns as they create public images not only for the organisation but for the immigrant community itself. To interpret the immigrant organisations’ public images and their goals, we offer a multilevel study that considers immigrants’ contexts of exit, which are related to the motivation of migrate and the particular sociodemographic makeup of immigrant groups. This paper adds the Venezuelan immigrant experience to the literature on immigrant organisations. PMID:25324586

  9. Immigration to Spain: implications for a unified European Union immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, L

    1998-01-01

    A unified immigration policy is one of the prerequisites for establishing the free movement of people within the European Union (EU). This paper considers the difficulties in establishing a joint policy on the free movement of people within the EU by focusing upon changing immigration policies in Spain. By comparing Spain, a country of only recent, small-scale immigration, to Germany, a country with a longer history of non-European immigration, obstacles to developing and effectively implementing coordinated immigration policies among EU members can be elucidated. The administrative control of entry, estimates of legal and illegal immigrants in the country, and the status of bilateral relations with Morocco are examined in order to highlight the political difficulties encountered in a unified immigration policy both within Spanish society and for the EU. Spain is both a threshold to the EU and a destination. Border control may be the easiest part of implementing a joint immigration policy in the EU. It is more difficult to control settlement. In addition, high rates of unemployment may result among the native host country populations as immigrants more readily accept low-skilled, low-paying jobs.

  10. Association between mental health and fall injury in Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mo, Frank; Yi, Qilong; Morrison, Howard; Mao, Yang

    2013-10-01

    The study was to determine the association between mental health and the incidence of injury among Canadian immigrants and non-immigrants. We used data from 15,405 individuals aged 12 years or more, who were living in British Columbia, Canada, and participated in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We calculated a 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury based on self-reporting. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association of the 12-month cumulative incidence of fall injury with immigration status and mental health before and after adjustment for covariates. The results show that self-reported mood and anxiety disorders were significantly associated with an increased incidence of fall injury. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.38) for mood disorder and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.13) for anxiety disorder. Immigrant status was a significant effect modifier for the association between mental health and fall injury, with stronger associations in immigrants than in non-immigrants especially in elderly people. People with poor self perceived health were more likely to have a fall injury. Both mental health and general health were related to fall injury. There was a stronger association between mental health and fall injury in immigrants compared with non-immigrants in the elderly. More attention should be paid to mental health in immigrants associated with fall injury.

  11. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  12. Response to antiretroviral therapy (ART): comparing women with previous use of zidovudine monotherapy (ZDVm) in pregnancy with ART naïve women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term zidovudine monotherapy (ZDVm) remains an option for some pregnant HIV-positive women not requiring treatment for their own health but may affect treatment responses once antiretroviral therapy (ART) is subsequently started. Methods Data were obtained by linking two UK studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Treatment responses were assessed for 2028 women initiating ART at least one year after HIV-diagnosis. Outcomes were compared using logistic regression, proportional hazards regression or linear regression. Results In adjusted analyses, ART-naïve (n = 1937) and ZDVm-experienced (n = 91) women had similar increases in CD4 count and a similar proportion achieving virological suppression; both groups had a low risk of AIDS. Conclusions In this setting, antenatal ZDVm exposure did not adversely impact on outcomes once ART was initiated for the woman’s health. PMID:24593018

  13. The Mental Health of Black Caribbean Immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; González, Hector M.; Neighbors, Harold; Baser, Raymond; Jackson, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrant (“Caribbean Black”) and African American populations and the correlates of psychiatric disorders among the Caribbean Black population. Methods. We conducted descriptive and age-adjusted analyses of the data from the National Survey of American Life—an in-person household mental health survey of noninstitutionalized US Blacks. We assessed psychiatric disorders as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results. Compared with African American men, Caribbean Black men had higher risks for 12-month rates of psychiatric disorders. Caribbean Black women had lower odds for 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders compared with African American women. Risks varied by ethnicity, immigration history, and generation status within the Caribbean sample. First-generation Caribbean Blacks had lower rates of psychiatric disorders compared with second- or third-generation Caribbean Blacks, and, compared with first-generation Carribbean Blacks, third-generation Caribbean Blacks had markedly elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions. Mental health risks were associated with ethnic diversity within the US Black population. Increased exposure to minority status in the United States was associated with higher risks for psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrants, which possibly reflects increased societal stress and downward social mobility associated with being Black in America. PMID:17138909

  14. Explaining immigrant naturalization.

    PubMed

    Yang, P Q

    1994-01-01

    "Prior research on immigrant naturalization has focused mainly on the effects of immigrants' adaptation experiences and demographic characteristics on their propensity to naturalize. This article proposes a broader analytical framework which incorporates immigrants' individual characteristics and larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. The framework is tested for a cohort of recent immigrants, using the PUMS data from the 1980 U.S. census. The results show that economic, political, social, cultural and geographical conditions in the country of origin, and immigrants ethnic communities and urban concentration in the country of destination, to a large extent influence immigrants' propensity for naturalization and that, net of the contextual factors, many of the immigrants' adaptation and demographic characteristics are also significant predictors of citizenship acquisition."

  15. Diabetes among Ethiopian Immigrants to Israel: Exploring the Effects of Migration and Ethnicity on Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Freedman, Laurence; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes prevalence among ethnic minorities and immigrants often differs from the majority indigenous population. We compared diabetes prevalence, incidence and risk among Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian Jews. Within these main groups, we controlled for the effect of migration on diabetes risk by comparing the subgroups of Ethiopian and former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants, and compared both with Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews. Methods The study cohort included adult Ethiopian (n = 8,398) and age-matched non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 15,977) and subgroups: Ethiopian immigrants (n = 7,994), FSU immigrants (n = 1,541) and Israeli-born non-Ethiopian Jews (n = 10,828). Diabetes prevalence, annual incidence, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for sex and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-components, were determined in three age groups (<50yrs, 50-59yrs, and ≥60yrs). Comparisons of body mass index (BMI) at diabetes incidence were made. Results Younger (<50yrs) Ethiopians had higher prevalence rates, 3.6% (95%CI: 3.1–4.1) and annual incidence, 0.9% (95%CI: 0.8–1.0) than non-Ethiopians, 2.7% (95%CI: 2.3–3.0) and 0.5% (95%CI: 0.4–0.6), respectively. These differences were particularly pronounced among Ethiopian women. Diabetes risk among Ethiopians was higher and adjustment for MetS-components was important only for BMI, which further increased hazard ratio (HR) estimates associated with Ethiopian ethnicity from 1.81 (95% CI:1.50–2.17) to 2.31 (95% CI:1.91–2.79). The same differences were seen when comparing Ethiopian to FSU immigrants. BMI before incident diabetes was lower among younger Ethiopian immigrants than younger FSU immigrants and Israeli-born. Conclusions Ethiopian ethnicity is associated with increased diabetes risk, which is age and BMI dependent. Young Ethiopians<50yrs, particularly women, had the greatest increase in risk. Lower BMI cut-offs should be defined to reflect diabetes risk among Ethiopians. PMID:27300299

  16. America's immigration "problem.".

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1989-01-01

    Immigration has traditionally aroused strong passions in the US. Though Americans profess pride in their history as a nation of immigrants, each new wave of immigrants is met with strenuous opposition. Sassen points out that this opposition underestimates the US's capacity to absorb more people and fails to appreciate the political and economic forces that give rise to immigration. The outcry over rising illegal immigration culminated in the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. So far, the law's effectiveness has been limited. 1.8 million immigrants applied to regularize their status. However, there is growing evidence that the employer sanctions program is resulting in discrimination against minority workers who are US citizens, and in various abuses against undocumented workers. Meanwhile, illegal immigration continues to rise. The 1986 law, like earlier laws, is based o a faulty understanding of immigration causes. The US played a crucial role in the 1960s and 1970s in developing today's global economic system. This system contributed to the creation of pools of potential immigrants and to the formation of links between the industrialized and developing countries. In sum, foreign investment and promotion of export-oriented growth i the US in developing countries has served to increase immigration to the US. A workable US immigration policy would be based o the recognition that the US bears a certain amount of responsibility for international labor migrations. The precise features of a fair immigration policy will have to be elaborated. However, it is clear that US immigration policy will continue to be counterproductive as long as it places the responsibility for the formation of international migrations exclusively upon the migrants themselves. PMID:12316282

  17. Severe Neonatal Morbidity Among Births to Refugee Women.

    PubMed

    Wanigaratne, Susitha; Cole, Donald C; Bassil, Kate; Hyman, Ilene; Moineddin, Rahim; Shakya, Yogendra; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2016-10-01

    Background Despite being considered high risk, little is known about the perinatal health of refugees in developed countries. Our objectives were to examine whether: (1) the healthy migrant effect applies to infants born to refugee women with respect to severe neonatal morbidity (SNM); (2) refugee status was a risk factor for SNM among immigrants; (3) refugee sponsorship status was a risk factor for SNM by comparing asylum-seekers to sponsored refugees; and (4) refugees were at greater risk of specific SNM subtypes. Methods Immigration records (1985-2010) linked to Ontario hospital data (2002-2010) were used to examine SNM. We calculated adjusted risk ratios (ARR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for SNM and unadjusted risk ratios with 99 % CI for SNM subtypes using log-binomial regression. Results There were borderline differences in SNM among refugees (N = 29,755) compared to both non-immigrants (N = 860,314) (ARR = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.89, 0.99) and other immigrants (N = 230,847) (ARR = 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.18) with a larger difference comparing other immigrants to non-immigrants (ARR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.81, 0.85). Asylum-seekers did not differ from sponsored refugees (ARR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.90, 1.27). Though rare, several SNM subtypes were significant with large effect sizes. Conclusion With respect to SNM risk, the healthy migrant effect clearly applies to non-refugee immigrants, but is weaker for refugees and may not apply. Among immigrants, refugee status was a weak risk factor for SNM and may not be clinically important. Sponsorship status was not associated with greater risk of SNM. Further investigation of several SNM subtypes is warranted. PMID:27395384

  18. Severe Neonatal Morbidity Among Births to Refugee Women.

    PubMed

    Wanigaratne, Susitha; Cole, Donald C; Bassil, Kate; Hyman, Ilene; Moineddin, Rahim; Shakya, Yogendra; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2016-10-01

    Background Despite being considered high risk, little is known about the perinatal health of refugees in developed countries. Our objectives were to examine whether: (1) the healthy migrant effect applies to infants born to refugee women with respect to severe neonatal morbidity (SNM); (2) refugee status was a risk factor for SNM among immigrants; (3) refugee sponsorship status was a risk factor for SNM by comparing asylum-seekers to sponsored refugees; and (4) refugees were at greater risk of specific SNM subtypes. Methods Immigration records (1985-2010) linked to Ontario hospital data (2002-2010) were used to examine SNM. We calculated adjusted risk ratios (ARR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for SNM and unadjusted risk ratios with 99 % CI for SNM subtypes using log-binomial regression. Results There were borderline differences in SNM among refugees (N = 29,755) compared to both non-immigrants (N = 860,314) (ARR = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.89, 0.99) and other immigrants (N = 230,847) (ARR = 1.10, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.18) with a larger difference comparing other immigrants to non-immigrants (ARR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.81, 0.85). Asylum-seekers did not differ from sponsored refugees (ARR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.90, 1.27). Though rare, several SNM subtypes were significant with large effect sizes. Conclusion With respect to SNM risk, the healthy migrant effect clearly applies to non-refugee immigrants, but is weaker for refugees and may not apply. Among immigrants, refugee status was a weak risk factor for SNM and may not be clinically important. Sponsorship status was not associated with greater risk of SNM. Further investigation of several SNM subtypes is warranted.

  19. Prognostic factors and disease-specific survival among immigrants diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Simberg-Danell, Caroline; Lyth, Johan; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Frohm-Nilsson, Margareta; Carstensen, John; Hansson, Johan; Eriksson, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) among immigrants in Europe. We aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and disease-specific survival among first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden. This nationwide population-based study included 27,235 patients from the Swedish Melanoma Register diagnosed with primary invasive CMM, 1990-2007. Data were linked to nationwide, population-based registers followed up through 2013. Logistic regression and Cox regression models were used to determine the association between immigrant status, stage and CMM prognosis, respectively. After adjustments for confounders, first generation immigrants from Southern Europe were associated with significantly more advanced stages of disease compared to Swedish-born patients [Stage II vs. I: Odds ratio (OR) = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.61-3.50. Stage III-IV vs I: OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.08-5.37]. The ORs of stage II-IV versus stage I disease were increased among men (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.3; p = 0.020), and women (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.6-9.1; p < 0.001) in a subgroup of immigrants from former Yugoslavia compared to Swedish-born patients. The CMM-specific survival was significantly decreased among women from former Yugoslavia versus Swedish-born women [hazard ratio (HR)=2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.2; p = 0.043]. After additional adjustments including stage, the survival difference was no longer significant. No survival difference between the second generation immigrant group and Swedish-born patients were observed. In conclusion, a worse CMM-specific survival in women from former Yugoslavia was associated with more advanced stages of CMM at diagnosis. Secondary prevention efforts focusing on specific groups may be needed to further improve the CMM prognosis. PMID:27004457

  20. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD) age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40%) had a university degree with a mean (±SD) official education of 10.8 (±4.9) years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential. PMID:23173572

  1. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school. PMID:26048254

  2. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING CONVENTIONAL AND SINGLE-PORT LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Marisa de Carvalho; TAKEUTI, Tharsus Dias; TERRA, Guilherme Azevedo; RIBEIRO, Betânia Maria; RODRIGUES-JÚNIOR, Virmondes; CREMA, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Surgical trauma triggers an important postoperative stress response characterized by significantly elevated levels of cytokines, an event that can favor the emergence of immune disorders which lead to disturbances in the patient's body defense. The magnitude of postoperative stress is related to the degree of surgical trauma. Aim: To evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines in patients submitted to conventional and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy before and 24 h after surgery. Methods: Forty women with symptomatic cholelithiasis, ranging in age from 18 to 70 years, participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: 21 submitted to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 19 to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: Evaluation of the immune response showed no significant difference in IFN-γ and IL-1β levels between the groups or time points analyzed. With respect to TNF-α and IL-4, serum levels below the detection limit (10 pg/ml) were observed in the two groups and at the time points analyzed. Significantly higher postoperative expression of IL-17A was detected in patients submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels (p=0.0094). Conclusions: Significant postoperative expression of IL-17 was observed in the group submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels, indicating that surgical stress in this group was higher compared to the conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27759779

  4. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness-based relapse prevention with relapse prevention for women offenders at a residential addiction treatment center.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Warner, Kaitlin; Sully, Betsy; Barricks, Adria; Stauffer, Connie; Thompson, Brian L; Luoma, Jason B

    2014-04-01

    Reincarceration rates are high among substance-involved criminal offenders. This study (conducted during 2010-2011 in an urban area and funded by a Washington State University-Vancouver mini-grant) used a randomized design to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) as compared to relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addictions treatment program for women referred by the criminal-justice system (N = 105). At 15-week follow up, regression analyses found women in MBRP, compared to RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days and fewer legal and medical problems. Study limitations and future research directions for studying the efficacy of MBRP are discussed.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among West African Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    AKINSULURE-SMITH, ADEYINKA M.; CHU, TRACY; KEATLEY, EVA; RASMUSSEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of African immigrants arriving to the United States has increased significantly, there has been little investigation regarding their experiences of intimate partner violence or coping strategies. This study used focus groups and individual interviews to explore intimate partner violence among 32 heterosexual West African immigrants. Results suggest that although cultural expectations influence their coping strategies, West African–born men and women face different realities, with women reporting multiple instances of abuse and a sense of frustration with the existing options for assistance. Although participants discussed multilevel support structures within the immediate West African community to address intimate partner violence, all of these options maintained a gender hierarchy, leaving women dissatisfied. Challenges and barriers to partner violence resolution and coping strategies are identified. Results are examined in terms of their implications for addressing the needs of this underserved population. Implications for future research and services are discussed and highlighted. PMID:23730146

  6. The new immigration: implications for poverty and public assistance utilization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L; Tienda, M

    1987-01-01

    Central to the controversy over the new immigration is the worry that it has promoted an increase in the level of poverty and welfare utilization among immigrants. This study documents and explains immigrant-native trends and differentials in poverty and public assistance utilization during the period from 1960-1980. Results show that there is ample evidence that the level of poverty among immigrants, particularly recent immigrants, increased over the 1960-1980 period. However, there was little indication of a commensurate rise in the propensity of families to receive public assistance. There is also little evidence of a disproportionate and increasing burden of immigrants on public assistance coffers as the new immigration proceeds. Recent immigrants are no more likely to receive welfare than otherwise comparable natives. Regarding average annual public assistance income among welfare families, the empirical results suggest that immigrants differ little from natives in their degree of utilization. Like immigrants of previous waves, the new immigrants appear to be industrious and able to capitalize on their labor force potential to keep them out of poverty. This conclusion derives from findings that 1) in both the tabular and multivariate context, multiple earners kept a greater % of immigrant than native families out of poverty, and 2) immigrants showed a relative disinclination to use welfare as an income maintenance strategy. Still, the decline over time in ameliorative impact of multiple earners should be a source of concern. Also central to the concern over the new immigration is the increasing prevalence of nonwhites among immigrant cohorts. The sizable Hispanic component of the new immigration is particularly controversial. Among the most consistent findings of this study is the apparent deterioration in the economic status of white immigrants and the noticeable lack of any similar deterioration among Hispanic families. For example, among all the groups

  7. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  8. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  9. A comparative study of pregnancy outcome in teenage girls and mature women.

    PubMed

    Thame, M; Wilks, R; Matadial, L; Forrester, T E

    1999-06-01

    The objective was to compare the pregnancy outcome of teenage girls and mature women. The design was a retrospective study of births from January to December 1990, based on the antenatal clinic and the labour ward, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. Teenage mothers, 13 to 19 years old, and a control group of mothers, 22 to 23 years old, were selected from the records of 2,394 live, singleton births between 200 and 305 days' gestation. The main outcome measures were birth weight, crown heel length, head circumference, head circumference:length ratio, ponderal index and placental weight. The results showed that in the teenage group, weight, body mass index at booking, haemoglobin concentration in each trimester, and minimum haemoglobin level during pregnancy were lower than in the control group. Systolic blood pressure in the first and the second trimesters was lower than in controls, but there was no significant difference in the third trimester nor in the delivery systolic blood pressure. Babies of teenage mothers had lower birth weights and smaller head circumferences than the babies of the control group, but there was no significant difference between the groups in crown heel length, ponderal index, head circumference:length ratio, and placental weight. These data support the hypothesis that teenaged girls are not physically mature and, as a consequence, their offspring have lower birth weights and smaller head circumferences. PMID:10492605

  10. Neonatal outcomes for immigrant vs. native-born mothers in Taiwan: an epidemiological paradox.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Fu, Jung-Chung; Liu, Jihong; Probst, Janice C; Lin, Duey-Perng

    2011-02-01

    In Taiwan, immigrant women by marriage face social discrimination due to widespread impressions that they give birth to low birth weight, high-risk, high cost babies due to their lower socioeconomic status, shorter stature, and lower pre-pregnant weight than native-born Taiwanese women. This study compared crude and adjusted birth outcomes of immigrant mothers (Chinese and Vietnamese) relative to native-born Taiwanese, and tested for the phenomenon of an epidemiological paradox of favorable neonatal outcomes among immigrants. Data from patient charts of all singleton live births during 2002-2007, weighing ≥500 and <4,000 g, and ≥20 weeks gestational age at a regional hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, were used. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis controlling for maternal characteristics (demographics, national origin, obstetric and prenatal factors) and neonatal characteristics (birth weight, gestational age). Of 3,267 births satisfying the inclusion criteria, 19.0% were to Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Crude birth weight was lowest for Taiwanese mothers, who also had the highest rate of preterm delivery (<37 weeks). The adjusted birth weight for Chinese and Vietnamese mothers was 87.7 and 74.7 g higher, respectively than native-born Taiwanese (both P < 0.001). Chinese and Vietnamese mothers also had lower odds of preterm birth (ORs 0.46 and 0.47, respectively). Findings support paradoxically better neonatal outcomes among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Findings can be used to initiate public education to reverse the widespread negative perceptions and attitudes towards immigrant spouses in Taiwan. PMID:20432059

  11. Differences within: A comparative analysis of women in the physical sciences --- Motivation and background factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine Patricia Traudel

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical focus in the United States due to economic concerns and public policy (National Academy of Sciences, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). Part of this focus has been an emphasis on encouraging and evaluating career choice and persistence factors among underrepresented groups such as females in the physical sciences (Hill et al., 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The majority of existing STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following questions: 1. On average, do females who select chemistry or physics doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? 2. Do such variables as racial and ethnic background, age, highest level of education completed by guardians/parents, citizenship status, family interest in science, first interest in general science, first interest in the physical sciences, average grades in high school and undergraduate studies in the physical sciences, and experiences in undergraduate physical science courses explain a significant amount of variance in female physical scientists' years to Ph.D. completion? These questions are analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey dataset through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists. Logistic regression analyses are performed to uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their background, interest, academic achievement, and experiences ranging prior to elementary school through postsecondary education. Significant variables that positively predict a career choice in chemistry or physics include content specific high school and undergraduate academic achievement and positive

  12. Health status of older immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Filice, John K

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to the Canadian-born in terms of age and gender using multiple measures of health status including self-assessed health. Second, we identify the factors associated with health status using the determinants of health framework. In both cases, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist and whether they are explained primarily by socio-economic, socio-demographic, or lifestyle factors that may point to problems with the Canadian health care system. Findings indicate that there is a relative comparability in the health status of older immigrants, even after controlling for age.

  13. [Immigrant caregivers: characteristics of the care provided to dependent elders].

    PubMed

    Galiana-Gómez de Cádiz, Maria José; de la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen; Donet-Montagut, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    In Spain, care in dependency has traditionally fallen to family members but this situation is changing. The existence of a model based on the family's contribution used to enable dependent elders to remain at home; however, social changes such as the crisis of the informal caregiving system, which has been extensively discussed in the literature is leading to the collapse of this situation. In an attempt to respond to this crisis, society has resorted to contracting immigrant women to carry out family care. Responsibility and caregiving is thus transferred to these women and is financially remunerated. Thus, family caregiving of the elderly provided by immigrants is presented as an important resource for care. The care of dependent elderly individuals is often the only opportunity for immigrant women who arrive in Spain in search of better conditions to become incorporated into the labor market. The dispersion of studies on immigrant care highlights the invisibility of this phenomenon. Based on a literature review, the present study highlights the situation of the family care provided by immigrant women and outlines the characteristics of this type of care. The relationship between caregiving and the conditions in which this care takes place is described. Given their situation, immigrant caregivers have a heavy burden of care and limited respite from caregiving responsibilities.

  14. Breast Health Intervention Effects on Knowledge and Beliefs Over Time Among Chinese American Immigrants--a Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Nguyen, Thuan; Menon, Usha

    2015-09-01

    Chinese American immigrant women, nonadherent with mammography in the past 12 months, (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to change knowledge and beliefs and increase mammogram use. This report describes intervention effects on changes in knowledge and beliefs between the control and educational groups over four time points (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months). Variables measured included knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived general barriers to mammography, perceived benefits to mammography, and four cultural barriers to mammography (crisis orientation, modesty, use of Eastern medicine, reliance on others). At all three post-intervention time points, women in the education group had significantly higher knowledge scores than those in the control group, regardless of whether they had completed a mammogram during the study. Women in the education group reported higher perceived susceptibility to breast cancer at 3-month post-intervention. At 3- and 6-month post-intervention, regardless of mammogram screening completion, women reported lower concerns about modesty related to mammography when compared to the control group. By the 12-month post-intervention, women in the education group reported significantly fewer perceived barriers than the control group. A targeted breast health program successfully changed breast health knowledge and beliefs that were sustained for up to 6-12 months. Education targeted to women's knowledge and beliefs has significant potential for decreasing disparity in mammogram use among Chinese American immigrant women.

  15. Disparities in reported prenatal care advice from health care providers among women of Mexican origin in California.

    PubMed

    Sarnoff, R; Adams, E; Shauffler, H; Abrams, B

    2001-04-01

    Poorer birth outcomes have been documented among U.S.-born women of Mexican descent when compared with Mexican immigrant women. Behavioral changes that are associated with acculturation may contribute to these deteriorating outcomes. Prenatal health promotion advice can alter prenatal risk behaviors. The growing diversity of the U.S. population during the 1990s heightens the importance of examining the cultural relevance of current health promotion practices. This study examines disparities in the reported receipt of health behavior advice during pregnancy among U.S.-born women of Mexican origin and Mexican immigrant women in California. Data for the analysis are from the 1994-95 California Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The study sample includes 1,423 women of Mexican descent. All participants had a live birth in California between January 1994 and December 1995. Women were interviewed about the prenatal counseling they received related to diet, smoking, and alcohol use. Logistic regression was used to analyze the likelihood of reporting advice after controlling for sociodemographic and health system characteristics. Immigrant women were more likely than the U.S.-born to report receipt of prenatal advice on smoking, alcohol, and diet (OR = 1.83, p < .05) despite evidence of the lower prevalence of related health risks among Mexican-born women. Culturally appropriate prenatal counseling would emphasize the maintenance of traditional protective behaviors among less acculturated foreign-born women, and the prevention or cessation of those risk behaviors among the more acculturated women.

  16. Comparing women pharmacy consumers’ experiences with weight loss treatment in Victoria and Nottingham: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent increase in weight management services available in pharmacies across Australia and England. The aim of this study was to determine the following between women in Victoria and Nottingham: similarities and differences of what weight management options are preferred by women pharmacy consumers; how they feel about pharmacists providing advice in this area; and what they desire in a weight management program. Method Women pharmacy consumers were randomly approached by a researcher in community pharmacies in Victoria and Nottingham and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their own weight management experiences. The questionnaire was self-completed or researcher-administered and was comprised of four main sections that focused on the participant’s general health, previous weight loss experiences, their ideal weight management program and their demographics. Data was entered in SPSS 19 and logistic regression was used to identify any differences in weight loss experiences between women. Results The participant rates were high: 86% (n = 395/460) in Victoria and 98% in Nottingham (n = 215/220). Overall, women in Victoria and Nottingham were similar with comparable demographics. Approximately 50% (250/507) of women were in the overweight or obese body mass index category, with over 70% (n = 436/610) of women having attempted to lose weight in the past. The majority of women (n = 334/436) felt comfortable receiving advice from pharmacists. In the logistic regression analysis women in Nottingham were found to be significantly less likely to have utilised a pharmacy weight management program in the last five years (OR: 0.23 CI: 0.08, 0.63) and were significantly less likely to want an ideal weight management program located in a pharmacy (OR: 0.49 CI: 0.30, 0.82) compared to women in Victoria. No significant associations between location and feeling comfortable with a pharmacist advising on weight loss or wanting a pharmacist in an

  17. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  18. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  19. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  20. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  1. Workplace concentration of immigrants.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-12-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer-employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37 % of an immigrant's coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14 % of a native-born worker's coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks.

  2. Psychosocial interventions for pregnant women in outpatient illicit drug treatment programs compared to other interventions

    PubMed Central

    Terplan, Mishka; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Locke, Abigail; Longinaker, Nyaradzo; Lui, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background Illicit drug use in pregnancy is a complex social and public health problem. The consequences of drug use in pregnancy are high for both the woman and her child. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate effective treatments. There is evidence for the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in drug treatment but it is unclear whether they are effective in pregnant women. This is an update of a Cochrane review originally published in 2007. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in pregnant women enrolled in illicit drug treatment programmes on birth and neonatal outcomes, on attendance and retention in treatment, as well as on maternal and neonatal drug abstinence. In short, do psychosocial interventions translate into less illicit drug use, greater abstinence, better birth outcomes, or greater clinic attendance? Search methods We conducted the original literature search in May 2006 and performed the search update up to January 2015. For both review stages (original and update), we searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trial's register (May 2006 and January 2015); the Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 1); PubMed (1996 to January 2015); EMBASE (1996 to January 2015); and CINAHL (1982 to January 2015). Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing any psychosocial intervention vs. a control intervention that could include pharmacological treatment, such as methadone maintenance, a different psychosocial intervention, counselling, prenatal care, STD counselling and testing, transportation, or childcare. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We performed analyses based on three comparisons: any psychosocial intervention vs. control, contingency management (CM) interventions vs. control, and motivational interviewing based (MIB) interventions vs. control. Main results

  3. Women in migration.

    PubMed

    Morokvasic, M

    1984-01-01

    This special issue reflects the belated but growing scholarly appreciation of the specificity and importance of women in migration. Aside from the sheer numerical significance of female migration documented in this issue, women migrants encounter problems and make special contributions which render comprehension of their specificity critical to an understanding of international migration in general. In an introductory essay, Morokvasic surveys the state of knowledge concerning women in migration. The focus then shifts, in Part II, to regional and national case studies which collectively elucidate the multifaceted dimensions of the women in migration research issue through time and space. In Part III, an international comparison of female immigrants and their labor market characteristics reveals striking similarities but also important differences. The US Canada and Australia can be discretely compared through 5 census-based quantitative analyses. The role of migrant women in the labor market is also the theme of Part IV. But the 5 studies comprising this section are based on survey research or on discernible global trends in migration and employment. Part V is devoted to the theme of female rural to urban migration in the Third World.

  4. Migration of women to cities: the Asian situation in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S E; Smith, P C; Fawcett, J T

    1984-01-01

    Contrary to the popular notion that women migrate only as part of families, and therefore, the causes and consequences of their migration are those of their spouses' or families,' studies of migration in some Asian countries have reported indications of increasing numbers of young women joining the migrant flow to the cities. Many of the women go on their own to find employment in the service, manufacturing and informal sectors, as factory and assembly line workers, as in Southeast Asia. The Philippines has the highest level of female participation in rural-urban migration. However, there is no consistent selectivity of 1 sex over the other in the migration process within subregions, except perhaps in the South Asian countries such as India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka which show male selectivity in migration to the cities. In East Asia, women also form a majority among migrants to the cities in South Korea. Japan appears to have male dominant migrant streams, while the pattern in Taiwan and Malaysia seem to be in transition toward increasing female migration. Female migration appears to be associated with: 1) female participation in agriculture; 2) availability of job opportunities for women in the cities; and 3) sociocultural restrictions on the mobility of women. In keeping with this typology by Boserup (1970), the present study finds a positive correlation between employment opportunities for women in the cities and female migration, as in the case of Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Taiwan. In Thailand and the Philippines, women face a flexible attitude toward their roles and few cultural restrictions on their movement, whereas, in Taiwan and Malaysia, benefits of development and monetary attractions have weakened previously strong traditional forces. Alternatively, where cultural and religious constraints on freedom of movement continue to exist for women, along with few economic opportunities, as in the South Asian countries, a relatively low level of

  5. Migration of women to cities: the Asian situation in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S E; Smith, P C; Fawcett, J T

    1984-01-01

    Contrary to the popular notion that women migrate only as part of families, and therefore, the causes and consequences of their migration are those of their spouses' or families,' studies of migration in some Asian countries have reported indications of increasing numbers of young women joining the migrant flow to the cities. Many of the women go on their own to find employment in the service, manufacturing and informal sectors, as factory and assembly line workers, as in Southeast Asia. The Philippines has the highest level of female participation in rural-urban migration. However, there is no consistent selectivity of 1 sex over the other in the migration process within subregions, except perhaps in the South Asian countries such as India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka which show male selectivity in migration to the cities. In East Asia, women also form a majority among migrants to the cities in South Korea. Japan appears to have male dominant migrant streams, while the pattern in Taiwan and Malaysia seem to be in transition toward increasing female migration. Female migration appears to be associated with: 1) female participation in agriculture; 2) availability of job opportunities for women in the cities; and 3) sociocultural restrictions on the mobility of women. In keeping with this typology by Boserup (1970), the present study finds a positive correlation between employment opportunities for women in the cities and female migration, as in the case of Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Taiwan. In Thailand and the Philippines, women face a flexible attitude toward their roles and few cultural restrictions on their movement, whereas, in Taiwan and Malaysia, benefits of development and monetary attractions have weakened previously strong traditional forces. Alternatively, where cultural and religious constraints on freedom of movement continue to exist for women, along with few economic opportunities, as in the South Asian countries, a relatively low level of

  6. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in

  7. Differences in pathological and clinical features of breast cancer in Arab as compared to Jewish women in Northern Israel.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Jamal; Sikorsky, Natalya; Basher, Walid; Sharabi, Adi; Friedman, Eitan; Steiner, Mariana

    2012-08-15

    Breast cancer (BC) does not affect ethnic groups equally. BC mortality is higher in Israeli Palestinian Arab women than among Israeli Jewish women. This study aims to compare clinical, biological and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in the two populations. Records of 1,140 women with BC treated at Northern Israel between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed: 872 Jews and 268 Arabs. Age at diagnosis, tumor stage, pathological differentiation, estrogen receptor (ER) and HER-2 expression were evaluated. The main age at diagnosis was 49.9 years for Arabs and 59.4 years for Jews (p < 0.0001). Mean tumor size was < 2 cm in 25% of Arabs and 53% of Jews (p < 0.0001). Lymph node metastases presented in 64.6% of Arabs and 37.2% of Jews (p < 0.0001). Stage I disease was 19% in Arab and 49.2% in Jewish women while Stages III and IV disease was 42% and 11.3% respectively (p < 0.001). ER was positive in 69% of Arabs and in 78.5% of Jews (p < 0.001). Poorly differentiated tumors were found in 28.8% of Arabs vs. 12.8% in Jews (p < 0.0001). Overexpression of HER-2 was present in 35.4% of Arab and 22% of Jewish women (p < 0.001). We found that race is an important predictive factor for breast cancer. Arab women are diagnosed at younger age, with more advanced stage and biologically more aggressive disease than in Jewish women. Socioeconomic factors alone are not sufficient to explain significant effects of race on tumor characteristics. Findings suggest a different genetic susceptibility in the two populations which needs further research.

  8. Hormones and dementia – a comparative study of hormonal impairment in post-menopausal women, with and without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Robusto-Leitao, Olívia; Ferreira, H

    2006-01-01

    Context Women seem to be more vulnerable to dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD), than men. There is controversy among studies correlating estrogen deficit to cognitive impairment. Because of the sudden drop of estrogens in menopause, this hormonal deficit could represent one of the risk factors for the larger incidence and prevalence of AD in post-menopausal women. Rationale We therefore wanted to find out if post-menopausal women with dementia, or even in a prior stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), would have a more significant deficit of estrogens than post-menopausal women without dementia, or any other type of cognitive problem. Objectives The aim of this study was to detect possible differences of the sex hormone levels among post-menopausal women, simultaneously affected by MCI or dementia, in comparison with a control group without cognitive impairment. Design, setting, and participants A small, multicenter, prospective study was performed on 82 post-menopausal women (41 cases, 41 controls), aged 45–81 years, to investigate their sex hormone balance. The diagnosis of dementia was made according to ICD 9 or 10 and DSM III-R or IV appropriate to the time interval. The diagnosis of probable AD followed the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. MCI met the Paquid-study criteria. Blood was analyzed in qualified centers for LH, FSH, and 17-β-estradiol. All women went through a thorough psychiatric examination and those with a suspected hormonal impairment were examined by a gynecologist. Results 15 cases (36.6%) had impaired hormonal function, compared with 8 controls (19.5%). Of the 15 cases with hormonal impairment, 9 had MCI. Conclusions These preliminary data stress a considerable difference between the sex hormone status of these two populations, showing a tendency towards a more accentuated estrogen deficit linked to cognitive deficit. Enlarging the sample and following the evolution could bring more interesting data. PMID:19412464

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Young

    2012-12-01

    This study estimates the prevalence patterns of overweight and obesity of new immigrants in the US. The 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) was used to generate representative estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity among new immigrants overall and by place of origin subgroup. More than 45% of new immigrants are either overweight or obese. Overall, the higher prevalences of both overweight and obesity were found in Latin/Caribbean immigrants, older age group, those with longer years of US residence, and current residents of the West region. Men have a higher overweight prevalence and women have a slightly higher obesity prevalence. The overweight prevalence was higher for immigrants living above the poverty level, but there was not much difference in the obesity prevalence by poverty level. There was notable heterogeneity in overweight and obesity prevalences within and across place of origin groups by age, poverty level, years of US residence, and current resident regions. The study suggests further investigation on the determinants of weight status by place of origin and the importance of tailored interventions for each group.

  10. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  11. Market Penalties for Foreign Degrees Among College Educated Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, Caren A.; Warren, John Robert

    2014-01-01

    Are college degrees earned abroad worth less in the American economy than degrees earned in the United States? Do the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the country or region in which it was earned? Do these processes differ for men and women? We use data on 18,365 college-educated immigrants from the National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG) to address these questions. Female immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to be employed than immigrant women who earned their degrees in the US. When employed, both female and male immigrants with foreign degrees are less likely to work in a job related to their highest college degree. Among employed female immigrants, the wage returns to foreign degrees are about 17% less than for U.S. degrees; among male immigrants, this figure is about 11%. For both female and male immigrants, the labor market penalties associated with holding a foreign degree vary as a function of the region from which the foreign degree was obtained. PMID:23521999

  12. [Comparative study of the urinary excretion of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    José Ramón, Vielma; Mora Mora, Marylú; Marino Alarcón, Oscar; Hernández, Gladys; Josefina Linares, Ledy; Urdaneta Romero, Haideé; Arévalo González, Evelia

    2012-03-01

    In order to compare the possible relationship between urinary concentrations of boron, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in serum and urine of postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis, we selected 45 postmenopausal women over 47 years of age, divided into two groups: group I clinically healthy postmenopausal women and group II postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, without chronic kidney and hepatic diseases or diabetes mellitus. We determined the boron (B), phosphorus (P), total calcium (Ca) and total magnesium (Mg) in the urine of two hours, by atomic emission spectroscopy with induction-coupled plasma (ICPA-ES). Total calcium and total magnesium in serum were determined by atomic flame absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inorganic phosphorus in serum, and creatinine in serum and urine, by molecular absorption spectrometry. The preliminary results suggest the existence of a significant difference (p < 0.05) in boron and phosphorus concentrations in the urine of two hours between the groups. The model of linear regression analysis used showed a relationship between urinary concentrations of boron/creatinine index and calcium/ creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphorus/creatinine indexes in the urine of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  13. Lung function impairment in women exposed to biomass fuels during cooking compared to cleaner fuels in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Vipin; Iqbal, S M; Srivastava, L P; Kesavachandran, C; Siddique, M J A

    2013-11-01

    A national survey has shown that approximately 75-80% use of fire wood and chips, 10% of dung cake rural women in Uttar Pradesh, India. Considering the respiratory health risk of biomass fuel exposure to women, a cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between cooking smoke and lung function impairments. The present study showed significant decline in air flow limitation based on reduced PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with biomass fuels compared to PEFR (4.26 | sec(-1)) and FEV1 (1.73 | sec(-1)) in women cooking with cleaner fuels. The noxious gases and particles generated from biomass fuels during cooking reported in earlier studies may be the reason for the slight decline in airway status PEFR (3.69 | sec(-1)) and lung volumes FEV1 (1.34 | sec(-1)). The higher mean bio-fuels exposure index (52.5 hr-yrs) can attribute to reduced lung function in rural women.

  14. Retrospective study of the functional recovery of men compared with that of women with long-term facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Sex is likely to play an important part in reanimation of the face after paralysis, with women being superior in terms of resistance to neural injury and regeneration. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the sex of the patient on the recovery of facial paralysis after surgical reanimation by comparing the degree of restored movement between men and women with long-standing paralysis that was reanimated by transfer of the hypoglossal nerve or cross-face nerve grafting. Between 1999 and 2010 we operated on 174 patients with facial paralysis. Of these we studied 26 cases (19 women and 7 men) with complete long-standing paralysis reanimated with either cross-face nerve grafting (n=14) or transfer of the hemihypoglossal nerve (n=12). The degree of movement restored was recorded in each case. Statistical analysis showed that in cases with long-standing paralysis women had significantly more movement restored than men for both cross-face nerve grafting (p=0.02) and hypoglossal transposition (p=0.04). We conclude that, after a neural injury, women tend to maintain the viability of the facial musculature longer than men, which suggests that they are more resistant to both denervation and the development of muscular atrophy. Whether this phenomenon can be explained by neural or muscular processes, or both, warrants further studies.

  15. Bone density and body composition on the Pacific rim: a comparison between Japan-born and U.S.-born Japanese-American women.

    PubMed

    Kin, K; Lee, J H; Kushida, K; Sartoris, D J; Ohmura, A; Clopton, P L; Inoue, T

    1993-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, spine, and proximal femur and the percentage of body fat in 151 U.S.-born Japanese-American women and 137 Japan-born immigrant Japanese-American women living in San Diego, California were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. These data were compared with unpublished data from Japanese women obtained in previous studies in Hamamatsu, Japan. The age-adjusted BMD for the spinal level, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and total body, respectively, of U.S.-born Japanese-American women were 10.2, 9.8, 9.9, 9.2, and 2.7% higher than those of native Japanese women. The U.S.-born Japanese-American women had significantly higher body fat than immigrant Japanese-American women. Furthermore, the immigrant women had higher BMD and higher body fat than their native Japanese counterparts; however, no significant total-body BMD differences were found among the three groups after age, height, and weight were adjusted. The U.S.-born Japanese-American women had BMD values equivalent to those of white normals at the spine and femur. Significant life-style differences between U.S.-born and immigrant Japanese-American women were noted. Weight, exercise, early menarche, and years of lifetime estrogen exposure correlated positively with BMD. The significant negative correlates of BMD were age, smoking, and percentage of body fat. Our study presents data suggesting that immigration to the United States has produced a higher BMD in Japanese-American women that is attributable to changes in life-style and diet. PMID:8352068

  16. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

  17. Leaving no children or families outside: the challenges of immigration.

    PubMed

    Pumariega, Andres J; Rothe, Eugenio

    2010-10-01

    This study addresses potentially stressful events that accompany the process of immigration for children and their families. Acculturation stress, combined with service disparities, may contribute to a higher risk for psychopathology among immigrant children and youth, as compared to their parents. Culturally informed, evidence-based treatment and preventive interventions that meet the mental health and cultural needs of immigrant children and families have the potential to minimize this higher risk of adverse mental health consequences. PMID:20950291

  18. A Comparison of the Parent-Child Interactions between Russian Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families in a Rural Setting in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jimalee L.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parent/child interactions between Russian immigrant and non-immigrant families in a rural Missouri school setting. A questionnaire was administered to 30 American families and 30 Russian immigrant families. Data concerning developmental level upon kindergarten entry were gathered from kindergarten…

  19. Exploring potential use of internet, E-mail, and instant text messaging to promote breast health and mammogram use among immigrant Hispanic women in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Dang, Catherine M; Estrada, Sylvia; Bresee, Catherine; Phillips, Edward H

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of death in Hispanic women (HW). Internet, e-mail, and instant text messaging may be cost-effective in educating HW about breast health and in reducing breast cancer mortality. We surveyed 905 HW women attending a free health fair about their technology use, acculturation, insurance status, mammography use, and breast cancer knowledge. Data were analyzed by t test or χ(2) tests. Mean age was 51.9 ± 14.2 years (range, 18 to 88 years). Ninety-two per cent were foreign-born. Most had completed some high school (39%) or elementary (38%) education. Most (62%) were uninsured. The majority spoke (67%) and read (66%) only Spanish. Only 60 per cent of HW older than 40 years had a recent mammogram. HW older than 40 years who had not had a recent mammogram were younger (mean 54.9 ± 10.8 vs 58 ± 10.4 years) and less likely to have health insurance (25 vs 44%; P < 0.001). Most HW never use the Internet (58%) or e-mail (64%). However, 70 per cent have mobile phones (66% older than 40 years), and 65 per cent use text messaging daily (58% older than 40 years, P = 0.001). In fact, 45 per cent wish to receive a mammogram reminder by text. Text messaging may be an inexpensive way to promote breast health and screening mammography use among uninsured HW.

  20. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  1. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  2. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  3. Immigrant America. A Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Alejandro; Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This book aims to synthesize the major aspects of recent immigration to the United States, focusing on the diversity of origins of today's immigrants and their contexts of exit and on the diversity of their adaptation experiences and contexts of incorporation. The book consists of seven chapters. Chapter 1, "Who They Are and Why They Come,"…

  4. Immigration: Coming to America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  5. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Philip Q.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a broad analytical framework in the study of immigrant naturalization that incorporates an immigrant's individual characteristics with the larger social contexts in the country of origin and the country of destination to explain the likelihood of citizenship acquisition. Results testing of this framework show that such considerations are…

  6. Irelands' Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culleton, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    In industrialised Western nations generally, and European Union (EU) nations particularly, immigration is an issue of considerable concern and debate. In the EU, however, discussion of immigration has tended to centre on a number of policy issues, from reliance on welfare provision, to labour force participation, to healthcare provision, to…

  7. Immigrants and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olneck, Michael R.

    The ways in which educators and schools in the United States have responded to the children of immigrants are explored, and the patterns, causes, and consequences of educational outcomes on immigrants are reviewed. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of historians and social scientists. Results of scholarship…

  8. Immigrants in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suarez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suarez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and…

  9. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  10. Family class immigrants to Canada 1981-1984: part 2: some aspects of social adaptation.

    PubMed

    Samuel, T J

    1988-09-01

    This paper examines the adaptation of Family Class immigrants in Canada in the acquisition of language proficiency, geographic mobility, education and training, government services used, and sponsorship of other Family Class immigrants. The data were acquired in a 1983 telephone survey of 1400 immigrants in 5 metropolitan areas (Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver). In the sample, 1) 2/5 were male; 2) 40% were age 35 or over; 3) 69% of the men and 64% of the women reported good or excellent spoken English; and 4) the average family size varied by origin, from 2.5 to 4.7, with the average being 3.9. Close to 75% from South Asia, Central and South America, the Middle East, Africa, and Western Europe and 50% from other parts of Europe had excellent or good fluency in spoken English. No ability to speak English was 3 times greater for immigrants aged 55-64 compared to those aged 18-24. More than 46% of the sample reported having taken classes in Canada that lasted more than 2 weeks. English courses predominated with occupational courses close behind, followed by general education courses. In 68% of cases, occupational courses helped immigrants improve their occupational ability. Immigrants perceived English courses to be slightly more helpful in finding employment (36%) than occupational courses (33%). 3/4 of the sample lived in the same dwelling as 12 months before; 23% had moved to a different dwelling in the same municipality. 2/3 moved to live in a better dwelling or neighborhood or because they bought a house. 4/5 of Family Class immigrants did not receive any services from Canada Employment Centres. Over 95% reported that a nuclear family member acted as their sponsor. The propensity to sponsor a relative varies by age, sex, marital status, occupation, income, length of time in Canada, number and type of relatives, and country of origin. Their sponsorship rate is not higher than rates reported in other studies. The author concludes that contrary

  11. Neighborhood changes in concentrated immigration and late stage breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ik; Johnson, Timothy P; Barrett, Richard E; Campbell, Richard T; Dolecek, Therese A; Warnecke, Richard B

    2011-02-01

    Immigrant women are at greater risk for late stage breast cancer diagnosis. The rapid increase in the US foreign-born population and new immigration patterns lead us to investigate the association between changes in immigrant population and the likelihood of distant metastasis stage at diagnosis of breast cancer among women in Cook County, Illinois. Analyses employed Illinois State Cancer Registry data for 42,714 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1994 and 2003 in conjunction with 1990 and 2000 Census tract data. We find that concentration of and increases in immigrant populations within neighborhoods contributed to the risk of late stage breast cancer diagnosis. These findings suggest that, although some health indicators for immigrant populations have improved in recent years, important health disparities in breast cancer diagnosis still remain at the neighborhood level. They further suggest that cancer screening and follow-up resources should be directed to areas experiencing rapid increases in immigrant populations.

  12. Stress, Place, and Allostatic Load Among Mexican Immigrant Farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    McClure, Heather H; Josh Snodgrass, J; Martinez, Charles R; Squires, Erica C; Jiménez, Roberto A; Isiordia, Laura E; Eddy, J Mark; McDade, Thomas W; Small, Jeon

    2015-10-01

    Cumulative exposure to chronic stressors has been shown to contribute to immigrants' deteriorating health with more time in US residence. Few studies, however, have examined links among common psychosocial stressors for immigrants (e.g., acculturation-related) and contexts of immigrant settlement for physical health. The study investigated relationships among social stressors, stress buffers (e.g., family support), and allostatic load (AL)--a summary measure of physiological "wear and tear"--among 126 adult Mexican immigrant farm workers. Analyses examined social contributors to AL in two locales: (1) White, English-speaking majority sites, and (2) a Mexican immigrant enclave. Our six-point AL scale incorporated immune, cardiovascular, and metabolic measures. Among men and women, older age predicted higher AL. Among women, lower family support related to higher AL in White majority communities only. Findings suggest that Latino immigrants' cumulative experiences in the US significantly compromise their health, with important differences by community context. PMID:25724150

  13. ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration].

    PubMed

    Livi-bacci, M

    1994-01-01

    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in

  14. An audiotaped mental health evaluation tool for Hispanic immigrants with a range of literacy levels.

    PubMed

    Boiko, Patricia; Katon, Wayne; Guerra, Juan C; Mazzoni, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Debilitating mental illness is treatable if found. There is no validated self-administered mental illness evaluation tool for immigrant Hispanic farm workers with variable literacy levels. This study tested sensitivity and specificity of an audiotaped survey developed for low literacy levels compared with standard interview instruments. Subjects from 11 migrant camps completed a self-administered audiotaped survey in Spanish to diagnose major depression, substance abuse, panic and generalized anxiety, and domestic violence. Primary care clinics assisted in finding camps and provided follow-up treatment. For 154 men and 156 women, the audio tool was most sensitive for major depression and specific for anxiety disorder, alcohol abuse, and domestic violence. Seventy percent of those diagnosed with major depression received appropriate treatment. This study validated an inexpensive, self-administered audio tool to evaluate the mental health of immigrant Hispanic farm workers with a wide range of literacy levels. PMID:15744475

  15. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  16. Immigration and urban change.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, R

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between the new immigration (migrants who have arrived in the US since 1965) and the changing economic and ecological characteristics of the cities in which they have settled. The author concentrates on New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, and Miami, which together contain 46% of all 1965-1980 immigrants. The new immigration began with the Hart-Cellar Act in 1965, which abolished the old country of origins quota, affirmed family connections as the principal basis for admission to permanent residence in the US, and increased the total numbers of immigrants to be admitted to the US. The undocumented immigrant population also has grown, to an estimated 2-4 million. Recent migrants 1) are overwhelmingly found in metropolitan areas (and disproportionately in central cities), and 2) only occasionally significantly alter the demography of an area. Almost half of the undocumented population counted in 1980 lived in California. The recent wave of newcomers converged on cities just when the cities appeared to be undergoing their period of most severe decline. The new immigrants have converged on those cities that are both post-industrial and heavily oriented toward international business services. The author develops a framework that emphasizes the interaction between supply-side developments that create vacancies for immigrants and those demand-side consequences of their arrival that make immigration a self feeding process. As with labor market developments, compositional changes are likely to have had an important effect on the linkage between the changing internal geography of the immigrant-receiving areas and the settlement patterns of the newcomers. A supply-side account may be the best explanation for why housing vacancies opened for immigrants and gentrifiers simultaneously during the slack housing markets of the 1970s.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Women Superintendents in Rural and Urban Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Grady, Marilyn L.

    This paper reports on the leadership qualities of rural and urban women superintendents. Telephone interviews with 51 randomly selected female superintendents in 29 states examined perceived sources of job satisfaction, the benefits accrued on the job, sense of self-fulfillment in the workplace, and personal strengths. The most frequent responses…

  18. Comparing women's assessment of midwifery and medical care in Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, M; Blais, R; Joubert, P; Gagnon, C

    2001-01-01

    In 1990, the province of Québec, Canada, adopted a law that authorized the evaluation of the practice of midwifery through pilot projects before its legalization. A key objective of this evaluation, as defined by the law, was the documentation of women's assessment of maternity care, especially with regard to humanization and continuity of care. Two to 3 months after birth, 933 midwifery clients and 1,000 physicians' clients, matched on several characteristics, responded to a mailed questionnaire (response rates were 93% and 76%, respectively). Results showed that women from both groups were generally satisfied with the care they received, although women who received midwifery care were assessed as more positive on every issue surveyed. Objective measures supported impressions that were also confirmed through qualitative data analysis: midwifery clients had a greater number of and longer prenatal visits, their care was perceived to be more personalized, and a greater number of midwives' clients breastfed their infants. However, the interpretation of these results must take into account that the two groups had different personal expectations and values with regard to health and health care. These findings are enlightening in evaluating women's needs, expectations, and satisfaction with health care services and should be included in future development of maternity care, including idwifery services, in Québec and other locations.

  19. Some Issues in Comparing Women and Men as Leaders. Technical Report No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Edwin P.; Yoder, Jan

    The document reviews literature relevant to male/female leadership effectiveness and outlines research needs in this area. Three factors which contribute to successful leadership include leadership role, leadership style, and situational characteristics. Literature concerning leadership role reveals that in mixed-sex groups, women are less likely…

  20. The Image of Women in the American and Indian TV Commercials: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    Sexual harassment and exploitation exist in every culture no matter how advanced and civilized that culture is. The difference is only in degree rather than in kind. One example of such fulmination and exploitation can be found in the media. In order to see to what extent the abuse of women persists in the media of two very large and very…

  1. The Comparative Functionality of Formal and Non-Formal Education for Women: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Vivian Lowery

    This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…

  2. CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

  3. Immigrant College Students' Academic Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow on college campuses across the nation; yet, little is known about the experiences of immigrant students. This paper examines differences in perceived academic obstacles between immigrant students and non-immigrant students at six large, public research universities (n = 56,000). The…

  4. Empower Educators to Teach Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sara; Kugler, Eileen Gale; Tesh, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, U.S. immigration has changed significantly, yet the way we teach about immigration in schools has changed little. The American Immigration Council has developed a two-year program on Long Island, an area experiencing an increase of new arrivals and anti-immigrant sentiment. The program empowers teachers with the knowledge to…

  5. The Human Face of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, nativists opposed immigration, period. The sharp distinction between "legal" and "illegal" immigrants emerged fairly recently, according to immigration historian David Reimers, a professor of history at New York University. "Basically, by the mid-90s 'legal' immigration was no longer an issue," he says. "The hot-button issue became…

  6. Immigration: A Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banit, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that teachers often need information on a variety of topics. Provides a list of recommended resources on immigration in the United States. Includes a "dictionary" of immigration-related topics, court case summaries related to immigration law and education, and teacher resources on the topic of immigration. (CFR)

  7. Latino Immigration, Education, and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Immigration is often framed as a problem, yet it is also a time of remarkable opportunity. While immigrants come to the United States from all over the world, the author focuses on the unique and urgent issues related to Latino immigration. Immigrant Latinos have changed the face of America and U.S. schools. Approximately one in five K-12 students…

  8. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Rivera Drew, Julia A

    2011-02-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants.

  9. Human capital, gender, and labor force incorporation: The case of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Rivera Drew, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Women immigrating to the United States from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) were expected to incorporate seamlessly into the US labor force because of their strong educational and professional backgrounds. Using 2000 Census data, we find that FSU women were less successful than both FSU men and other non-Hispanic white female immigrants. After controlling for other factors, FSU women were more likely to rely on public assistance and less likely to be employed. If employed, they worked in less prestigious occupations and earned much less. These findings draw attention to the particular difficulties of incorporation of this wave of relatively advantaged immigrants. PMID:24009398

  10. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness-based relapse prevention with relapse prevention for women offenders at a residential addiction treatment center.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Warner, Kaitlin; Sully, Betsy; Barricks, Adria; Stauffer, Connie; Thompson, Brian L; Luoma, Jason B

    2014-04-01

    Reincarceration rates are high among substance-involved criminal offenders. This study (conducted during 2010-2011 in an urban area and funded by a Washington State University-Vancouver mini-grant) used a randomized design to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) as compared to relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addictions treatment program for women referred by the criminal-justice system (N = 105). At 15-week follow up, regression analyses found women in MBRP, compared to RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days and fewer legal and medical problems. Study limitations and future research directions for studying the efficacy of MBRP are discussed. PMID:24611849

  11. Challenges of recruiting ESL immigrants into cancer education studies: reflections from practice notes.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maria D; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    Changing population demographics and immigration patterns have resulted in increasing numbers of Canadians who report speaking a language other than French or English. Inclusion of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) immigrants in cancer education research is critical if disparities in access and use of preventive health care services are to be addressed. This article describes the challenges experienced recruiting and interviewing older ESL immigrant women for a colon cancer prevention study. Factors influencing the recruitment and interview of ESL immigrant women were identified through regular team meetings, interviews, and reflective practice notes. Issues included the importance of community contacts, language barriers, and the motivations of the women for participating. Recommendations for recruitment and inclusion of ESL immigrants in cancer education research are provided.

  12. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for over 2 years. Half of the HIV-infected subjects were obese, and these were matched with 30 obese HIV-negative controls. All subjects had no history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism.HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P < 0.05 for both) compared with men but had similar CD4+ count (median 701 cells/μL), smoking and hepatic C prevalence, and body mass index (BMI) (median 30.3 kg/m). However, women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not

  13. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Sterling, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART. We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for over 2 years. Half of the HIV-infected subjects were obese, and these were matched with 30 obese HIV-negative controls. All subjects had no history of diabetes, statin use, or heavy alcohol use. Fasting insulin sensitivity was measured using homeostatic model assessment 2 (HOMA2), and adipose tissue was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to quantitate fasting plasma branched chain and aromatic amino acids predictive of incident diabetes, and C3 and C5 acylcarnitinines and organic acids indicative of impaired energy metabolism. HIV-infected women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P < 0.05 for both) compared with men but had similar CD4+ count (median 701 cells/μL), smoking and hepatic C prevalence, and body mass index (BMI) (median 30.3 kg/m2). However, women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P < 0.01), and lower plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine (P < 0.01 for all), and lower C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (P < 0.01 for all), in multivariable regression models after adjusting for DEXA fat mass index, age, race, CD4+ count, smoking, and ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite

  14. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  15. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  16. Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994–2001. Study Design Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9–10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their

  17. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  18. A randomized trial comparing vaginal misoprostol versus Foley catheter with concurrent oxytocin for labor induction in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Culver, James; Strauss, Robert A; Brody, Seth; Dorman, Karen; Timlin, Sally; McMahon, Michael J

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intracervical Foley catheter with concurrent use of oxytocin versus vaginal misoprostol for labor induction in nulliparous women. Nulliparous women with Bishop score <6 who presented for labor induction were randomized to either 25 microg vaginal misoprostol every 4 hours followed by oxytocin, if indicated, or intracervical Foley catheter with simultaneous use of oxytocin. Among the 162 patients enrolled, 79 (49%) received misoprostol and 83 (51%) received Foley/oxytocin. We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the misoprostol group and Foley/oxytocin group in the incidence of cesarean delivery (35% versus 29%; p = 0.37). The induction-to-delivery time was significantly shorter in the Foley/oxytocin group (18 versus 24 hours; p < 0.01). No differences in intrapartum complications, neonatal outcomes, or maternal morbidity were found. When compared with vaginal misoprostol, intracervical Foley catheter combined with oxytocin has a similar efficacy and safety profile for labor induction in nulliparous women. Foley/oxytocin results in a shorter induction-to-vaginal delivery time compared with misoprostol.

  19. Changing blood lead levels and oxidative stress with duration of residence among Taiwan immigrants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Te; Wu, Chin-Ching; Lin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2013-12-01

    Immigrants lack appropriate health care access and other resources needed to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental health risks. Little is known about the impact of lead exposure and oxidative stress among immigrants. Thus, this study was to examine the differences between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress levels of immigrants and non-immigrants, and to investigate the determinants of increased BLLs or oxidative stress levels among immigrants. We collected demographic data of 239 immigrant women and 189 non-immigrant women who resettled in the central area of Taiwan. Each study participant provided blood samples for genotyping and for measuring blood metal levels and oxidative stress. Recent immigrants were at risk for elevated BLLs. Decreased BLLs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased blood selenium levels were significantly associated with duration of residence in Taiwan. Elevated BLLs and MDA in recent immigrants may serve as a warning sign for the health care system. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living environments, thereby improving the health of immigrants.

  20. Foot loading characteristics of Chinese bound feet women: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yaodong; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Jianshe; Ren, Xuejun; Feng, Neng

    2015-01-01

    The custom of bound feet among Chinese women has existed for almost a century. This practice has influenced the daily life of Chinese women, especially during everyday locomotion. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the loading patterns of bound feet. Specifically, the plantar pressure and center of pressure were analyzed for peak pressure, contact area, force time integral, center of pressure displacement velocity and trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction via a comparison with normal feet. The key outcomes from this work were that the forefoot and rearfoot of bound feet bear the whole loading during stance phase. The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories. This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability. A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

  1. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C; van Engen, Marloes L

    2003-07-01

    A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.

  2. Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C; van Engen, Marloes L

    2003-07-01

    A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness. PMID:12848221

  3. Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S J

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the legal systems in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and the protection of migrant domestic workers who are vulnerable to domestic violence and abuse. Migration in the last 10 years in Asia has increasingly included female migrants who are usually employed in domestic services, the entertainment industry, and health care services. This work places women migrants in a vulnerable position in the isolation of households, away from public oversight. Labor laws are not applied to domestic workers, who are considered of low societal value. In Hong Kong, domestic work is covered under the labor laws, but the societal perception is that housework is not really work. Employer-employee relationships are more clear cut in institutional settings. Most domestic workers live with their employers. They are outsiders to families and must maintain professional relationships within an intimate environment. The isolation within a household discourages development of support systems and contacts with women doing similar work. There is a power struggle between women of unequal stature concerning the operation of the household and the interrelationships with family members. The power dynamic, the nature of the family structure, and culture are all interrelated. The first year's income covers the cost of securing foreign employment, and workers are vulnerable in this first year due to their debts. Employers protect their investment by working them to capacity or using fear and physical confinement to secure obedience. Workers are humiliated and immobilized. The comparison between the three countries illustrates the potential for protecting migrant domestic workers. Singapore and Taiwan lack sufficient legal and social support for migrant women, and Hong Kong must use a more comprehensive approach for integrating power dynamics, employment, work regulations, and labor status.

  4. Latino Immigrants’ Biological Parents’ Histories Of Substance Use Problems In Their Country Of Origin Predict Their Pre- And Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Blackson, Timothy C.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Li, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed whether recent young adult (ages 18–34) Latino immigrants’ biological parents’ histories of substance use problems (BPHSUP) in their country of origin predict their alcohol use problems at pre- and post-immigration to the United States (U.S.). Methods BPHSUP in their country of origin was assessed via interviews conducted by bilingual Latino researchers with recent Latino immigrants primarily from Cuba, Central and South America recruited through respondent driven sampling at the time of their immigration to southeastern U.S. Three-waves of data were collected to document Latino immigrants’ severity of alcohol use problems at pre-immigration and two annual post-immigration follow-up assessments. BPHSUP +/− status was used as a predictor of Latinos’ (N=452; 45.8% female, 54.2% male) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores at pre- and post-immigration with age, education and income as covariates as wells as odds ratios for AUDIT classifications of hazardous use, harmful use and dependence. Results BPHSUP+ status predicted Latino immigrants’ higher AUDIT scores pre- and post-immigration by gender (p<.01) compared to Latino immigrants of BPHSUP− status controlling for age, education and income. BPHSUP+ status predicted odds ratios of 3.45 and 2.91 for alcohol dependence AUDIT classification for men and women respectively (T3). Conclusions This study documents that BPHSUP +/− status in their country of origin predict their young adult Latino offspring’s severity of alcohol use problems pre-and post-immigration. These results may inform (1) community-based health care providers to screen recent young adult Latino immigrants for their BPHSUP+/− status and severity of alcohol use problems to redirect trajectories away from alcohol use disorders toward more normative post-immigration outcomes through culturally relevant prevention services and (2) future research advantages of differential

  5. Impact of Alabama's immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir; Scarinci, Isabel C

    2014-03-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews in May to July 2012 to evaluate the effect of Alabama's 2011 omnibus immigration law on Latina immigrants and their US- and foreign-born children's access to and use of health services. The predominant effect of the law on access was a reduction in service availability. Affordability and acceptability of care were adversely affected because of economic insecurity and women's increased sense of discrimination. Nonpregnant women and foreign-born children experienced the greatest barriers, but pregnant women and mothers of US-born children also had concerns about accessing care. The implications of restricting access to health services and the potential impact this has on public health should be considered in local and national immigration reform discussions.

  6. Reflections on immigration to Europe in light of U.S. immigration history.

    PubMed

    Archdeacon, T J

    1992-01-01

    Trends in international migration in Europe and the United States are analyzed and compared, with a focus on concern about the presence of migrants in the receiving country. Consideration is given to the acculturation of migrants in the United States, including a historical outline of that process as it occurred during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Cultural pluralism and the newest wave of immigration are also described. Implications for European immigration are assessed. PMID:12285271

  7. Educational Progress and Parenting among Mexican Immigrant Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Kalil, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential for educational investments in Mexican immigrant mothers to enhance their management of their children's pathways through the educational system in the United States, which often disadvantages them. We tested this hypothesis with data on 816 Mexican immigrant women and their children from the Early Childhood…

  8. Immigrant Parents' Investments in Their Children's Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…

  9. Experiences of Finnish Teachers Working with Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Compared with many European countries, Finland has a shorter history of immigration. During the last 20?years, Finland has become a more multicultural society. Together with rising levels of immigration, teachers' concerns regarding how to manage an increasingly diverse school population have arisen. There are an increasing number of students…

  10. Literacy and Capital in Immigrant Youths' Online Networks across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva

    2014-01-01

    Communication technologies are playing an increasingly prominent role in facilitating immigrants' social networks across countries and the transnational positioning of immigrant youth in their online language and literacy practices. Drawing from a comparative case study of the digital literacy practices of immigrant youth of Chinese descent,…

  11. Palestinian and Jewish Israeli-Born Immigrants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Yinon; Tyree, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on Arab and Jewish immigration to the United States from Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. It explains how Jewish and Arab immigrants from these areas were identified and compares the socioeconomic characteristics of the two immigrant populations. (GLR)

  12. Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among Spanish Immigrant Populations.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Luis; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Pulido, Jose; Molist, Gemma; Rosales-Statkus, María Elena; Ruíz-García, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-06-17

    In recent years, the immigrant population has substantially increased in Spain. However, there is a lack of information in the knowledge of alcohol abuse among Spanish immigrants. We describe the epidemiology of alcohol abuse among foreign-born immigrants versus Spanish natives. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the European Survey of Health on the General Population of Spain of 2009. A sample of 22,188 subjects was analyzed (of whom, 3,162 were foreign). Proxies of problematic alcohol consumption were the prevalence of excessive average consumption and the prevalence of excessive episodic consumption (binge drinking). Descriptive analysis of the population, determination of area of origin with major alcohol consumption and related factors for each kind of consumption, separating immigrant and native population, were performed. The immigrant profile was heterogeneous, though predominantly aged between 35 and 54, and were living with their family and working. 3.4% of immigrants and 3.2% of natives were considered excessive drinkers; 8.9% and 10%, respectively, reported binge drinking in the last year. Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe, and Latin America, Andean countries had significantly a higher report of frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking compared to native. On the contrary, born in Africa was a protective factor. Unemployment was the most relevant related factor, being more important in the immigrant population. The excessive alcohol consumption in immigrants is dissimilar; the interventions must be adapted to their social situation, environments and areas of origin.

  13. Comparative study analysing women's childbirth satisfaction and obstetric outcomes across two different models of maternity care

    PubMed Central

    Conesa Ferrer, Ma Belén; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo García, César; Martínez Roche, M Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the differences in obstetrical results and women's childbirth satisfaction across 2 different models of maternity care (biomedical model and humanised birth). Setting 2 university hospitals in south-eastern Spain from April to October 2013. Design A correlational descriptive study. Participants A convenience sample of 406 women participated in the study, 204 of the biomedical model and 202 of the humanised model. Results The differences in obstetrical results were (biomedical model/humanised model): onset of labour (spontaneous 66/137, augmentation 70/1, p=0.0005), pain relief (epidural 172/132, no pain relief 9/40, p=0.0005), mode of delivery (normal vaginal 140/165, instrumental 48/23, p=0.004), length of labour (0–4 hours 69/93, >4 hours 133/108, p=0.011), condition of perineum (intact perineum or tear 94/178, episiotomy 100/24, p=0.0005). The total questionnaire score (100) gave a mean (M) of 78.33 and SD of 8.46 in the biomedical model of care and an M of 82.01 and SD of 7.97 in the humanised model of care (p=0.0005). In the analysis of the results per items, statistical differences were found in 8 of the 9 subscales. The highest scores were reached in the humanised model of maternity care. Conclusions The humanised model of maternity care offers better obstetrical outcomes and women's satisfaction scores during the labour, birth and immediate postnatal period than does the biomedical model. PMID:27566632

  14. Lifestyle physical activity behavior among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes than Whites. This was a cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for 7 days. Just over half (51.8 %) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 min moderate-intensity or ≥75 min vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6,904.3, which is in the "low active" classification. Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed.

  15. Intergenerational transmission of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) through birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Pulver, Ariel; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-12-01

    This review examines intergenerational differences in birth weight among children born to first-generation and second-generation immigrant mothers and the extent to which they vary by country of origin and receiving country. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest from inception to October 2014 for articles that recorded the mean birth weight (in grams) or odds of low birth weight (LBW) of children born to immigrant mothers and one subsequent generation. Studies were analyzed descriptively and meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. We identified 10 studies (8 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies) including 158,843 first and second-generation immigrant women. The United States and the United Kingdom represented the receiving countries with the majority of immigrants originating from Mexico and South Asia. Six studies were meta-analyzed for mean birth weight and seven for low birth weight. Across all studies, there was found to be no statistically significant difference in mean birth weight between first and second-generation children. However, the odds of being LBW were 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15, 1.27] times greater among second-generation children. Second-generation children of Mexican descent in particular were at increased odds of LBW (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28, 1.69]). In the United States, second-generation children were at 34% higher odds of being LBW (OR = 1.34 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.58]) when compared to their first-generation counterparts. This effect was slightly smaller in the United Kingdom (OR = 1.18 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.23]). In conclusion, immigration to a new country may differentially influence low birth weight over generations, depending on the mother's nativity and the country she immigrates to.

  16. Intergenerational transmission of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) through birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Pulver, Ariel; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2015-12-01

    This review examines intergenerational differences in birth weight among children born to first-generation and second-generation immigrant mothers and the extent to which they vary by country of origin and receiving country. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and ProQuest from inception to October 2014 for articles that recorded the mean birth weight (in grams) or odds of low birth weight (LBW) of children born to immigrant mothers and one subsequent generation. Studies were analyzed descriptively and meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. We identified 10 studies (8 retrospective cohort and 2 cross-sectional studies) including 158,843 first and second-generation immigrant women. The United States and the United Kingdom represented the receiving countries with the majority of immigrants originating from Mexico and South Asia. Six studies were meta-analyzed for mean birth weight and seven for low birth weight. Across all studies, there was found to be no statistically significant difference in mean birth weight between first and second-generation children. However, the odds of being LBW were 1.21 [95% CI, 1.15, 1.27] times greater among second-generation children. Second-generation children of Mexican descent in particular were at increased odds of LBW (OR = 1.47 [95% CI, 1.28, 1.69]). In the United States, second-generation children were at 34% higher odds of being LBW (OR = 1.34 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.58]) when compared to their first-generation counterparts. This effect was slightly smaller in the United Kingdom (OR = 1.18 [95% CI, 1.13, 1.23]). In conclusion, immigration to a new country may differentially influence low birth weight over generations, depending on the mother's nativity and the country she immigrates to. PMID:26492459

  17. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  18. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  19. Female predominance of immigration to the United States since 1930: a first look.

    PubMed

    Houstoun, M F; Kramer, R G; Barrett, J M

    1984-01-01

    Immigration patterns in the US in the last 50 years have defied the conventional wisdom that most international migrants are young, working-age males. Since 1930 more than 1/2 of all immgrants to the US have been women, and 2/3 have been women or children. Data show that the persistently large number of marriages of foreign-born or native-born US residents to alien women, coupled with increasing government regulation of immigration and a strong policy bias against the seperation of spouces and children, has resulted in the preponederance of women and children in immigration since 1930. The shift in the sex and age distribution of immgrants in the US in 1930 can also be attributed to the effectiveness of the 1924 quota laws in drastically reducing the enormous influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, when the remaing flow was dominated by wives and children. Traditional sex role behavior has played a significant role in determining both the level and patterns of immigration to the US--while large inflows of economically motivated males induced 2nd flows of women and children before 1930, the 1940s saw the flow of foreign-born wives and children of US servicemen in the wake of Korean and Vietnam wars. An analysis of the Immigration and Naturalization Service data tapes for the 3.6 million fiscal 1972-79 arriving immigrants shows that almost 1/4 are children under 15. Except in this age group, females outnumber males in all other age groups. While immigrants are predictably younger than the US born population regardless of sex, immigrant women are more likely to be married than men, and both are more likely to be married than their US born peers. Immigrant women are substantially less likely to report labor market experience than immigrant men. Unlike US workers, immigrants tend to cluster at the top or bottom of the occupational scale, regardless of sex. Immigrant women are also clustered in the sterotypical female dominated occupations.

  20. Intimate partner violence and immigration laws in Canada: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Alaggia, Ramona; Regehr, Cheryl; Rishchynski, Giselle

    2009-01-01

    Immigrant women face numerous, and sometimes insurmountable, barriers in reporting and seeking services for intimate partner violence (IPV). A number of these obstacles relate to immigration laws, policies and legal processes they encounter due to their immigration status and sponsorship relationship. The present study was conducted in Canada, in an urban centre that boasts one of the largest immigrant populations in the world. Using a focus group methodology within a participatory action research framework, this investigation sought to identify factors that facilitate or impede women from coming forward and disclosing IPV, and traced their help-seeking actions. Qualitative data from helping professionals and women reveal that in cases of sponsorship breakdown due to IPV, the criteria required for a viable immigration application are unrealistic, and in many cases impossible to meet in situations of domestic abuse. These data indicate that despite claims to the contrary, laws and policies related to immigration have remained stable for over a decade. Systemic and structural barriers that these create for abused women are still clearly present in immigration laws and policies. The result is that many women stay in abusive relationships, often with their children, for prolonged periods of time accruing serious negative mental health effects. Implications are discussed to help inform policy and practice.