Science.gov

Sample records for immiscible elements ag-fe

  1. Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.

    1987-04-01

    A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.

  2. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  3. Partitioning of elements between silicate melt and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate melts, with implications to the origin of natrocarbonatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Dorfman, Alexander M.; Dulski, Peter; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Danyushevsky, Leonid V.; Jeffries, Teresa; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-02-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of 42 elements between synthetic silicate melts and immiscible fluoride, chloride, carbonate, phosphate and sulfate liquids was studied at temperatures of 650-1100 °C, pressures 72-100 MPa, with 0-11 wt.% H2O. One series of experiments was performed in a rotating internally-heated autoclave where separation of the immiscible liquids was assisted by centrifugal forces. An analogous series of experiments was done in static rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels. The experimentally determined liquid-liquid distribution coefficients (D's) vary over several orders of magnitude, as a result of variable Coulombic interactions between cations and anions. For alkaline, alkaline earth and rare earth elements ther is a strong and systematic dependence of the liquid/liquid D values on the ionic potential Z/r for all the examined systems. In contrast, highly charged cations (e.g., HFSE) show no systematic relationships between the D's and Z/r. New experimental constraints on the carbonate/silicate liquid-liquid D values presented here confirm that rare metals such as Nb, Zr, REE, Th and U concentrate in silicate liquids, and therefore carbonatites that carry economical rare metal mineralization are not likely to have formed by liquid immiscibility. The comparison between experimentally-determined carbonate-silicate liquid-liquid D values and bulk-rock natrocarbonatite vs. nephelinite compositions at the Oldoinyo Lengai in Tanzania reveals significant discrepancies for Cs, Rb, Ba, Be, Zn, heavy REE, Ti, Mo and W, thus rendering a simple, one-stage immiscibility model for Oldoinyo Lengai questionable.

  4. Quantum stability and superconductivity of ultrathin alloy films made from from bulk immiscible elements: Pb and Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Eun Ju; Ozer, Mustafa M; Jia, Yu; Duscher, Gerd J M; Thompson, James R; Zhang, Zhenyu; Weitering, Harm H

    2011-01-01

    Pb and Ga are immiscible in bulk form. Here, we show that atomically-smooth Pb_(1-x)Ga_x (x ~0.06) alloy films can be stabilized on a Si(111)-7x7 substrate by quantum confinement. Similar to the case of pure Pb, the alloy films follow a bilayer-by-bilayer growth mode but the resulting quantum growth morphology is remarkably different. Their superconducting transition temperatures indicate hole doping, supporting the notion that Ga atoms are substitutionally incorporated. The critical current densities are very high and exhibit a unique non-monotonic temperature dependence. This critical current anomaly is a direct consequence of the exceptional film morphology and is attributed to a superconducting transition inside two-monolayer thick vortex pinning centers.

  5. Late-magmatic immiscibility during batholith formation: assessment of B isotopes and trace elements in tourmaline from the Land's End granite, SW England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune B.; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn E.; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Raanes, Morten P.

    2015-06-01

    Quartz-tourmaline orbicules are unevenly distributed in the roof segment of the Land's End granite, SW England. This study shows that the orbicules formed from an immiscible hydrous borosilicate melt produced during the late stages of crystallization, and differentiates tourmaline formed by dominantly magmatic and dominantly hydrothermal processes. Trace elements and boron isotope fractionation can be tracked in tourmaline, and create a timeline for crystallization. Tourmaline from the granite matrix has higher V, Cr and Mg content and is isotopically heavier than the later crystallizing inner orbicule tourmaline. Overgrowths of blue tourmaline, occurring together with quartz showing hydrothermal cathodoluminescence textures, crystallized from an aqueous fluid during the very last crystallization, and are significantly higher in Sr and Sn, and isotopically heavier. Tourmaline associated with Sn mineralization is also high in Sr and Sn, but has boron isotopic compositions close to that of the magmatic tourmaline, and is not formed by the same fluids responsible for the blue overgrowths. The ore-forming fluids precipitating tourmaline and cassiterite are likely derived from the same magma source as the granite, but exsolved deeper in the magma chamber, and at a later stage than orbicule formation. Tourmaline from massive quartz-tourmaline rocks is concentrically zoned, with major and trace element compositions indicating crystallization from a similar melt as for the orbicules, but shows a more evolved signature.

  6. Gamma ray irradiated AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with enhanced gas sensor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiuhua; Shi, Zhijie; Yao, Shangwu; Liao, Fan; Ding, Juanjuan; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-11-15

    AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and irradiated by various doses of gamma ray. The products were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectrum and transmission electron microscope. The results revealed that the crystal structure, morphology and size of the samples remained unchanged after irradiation, while the intensity of UV–Vis spectra increased with irradiation dose increasing. In addition, gamma ray irradiation improved the performance of gas sensor based on the AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles including the optimum operating temperature and sensitivity, which might be ascribed to the generation of defects. - Graphical abstract: Gamma ray irradiation improved the performance of gas sensor based on the AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles including sensitivity and optimum operating temperature, which might be ascribed to the generation of defects. - Highlights: • AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and irradiated with gamma ray. • AgFeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were employed to fabricate gas sensors to detect ethanol. • Gamma ray irradiation improved the sensitivity and optimum operating temperature.

  7. Studies on immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of immiscible liquids of different densities in zero-gravity and to determine the rate of coalescence like droplets, a demonstration experiment was performed on the Skylab 4 mission. Dispersions of oil-in-water and of water-in-oil were prepared by the astronauts and their appearance photographed over a time span of 10 hours. The experiment indicated that all emulsions were stable over this period and that the coalescent rate was at least 3 times 10 to the 5th power times smaller on Skylab than on earth. The recorded melting of a cylindrical piece of ice on Skylab 3 is used to study the mode of heat transfer for the latent heat of melting in low-gravity.

  8. Solid solution alloy nanoparticles of immiscible Pd and Ru elements neighboring on Rh: changeover of the thermodynamic behavior for hydrogen storage and enhanced CO-oxidizing ability.

    PubMed

    Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Takata, Masaki; Toh, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Sumi, Naoya; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Pd(x)Ru(1-x) solid solution alloy nanoparticles were successfully synthesized over the whole composition range through a chemical reduction method, although Ru and Pd are immiscible at the atomic level in the bulk state. From the XRD measurement, it was found that the dominant structure of Pd(x)Ru(1-x) changes from fcc to hcp with increasing Ru content. The structures of Pd(x)Ru(1-x) nanoparticles in the Pd composition range of 30-70% consisted of both solid solution fcc and hcp structures, and both phases coexist in a single particle. In addition, the reaction of hydrogen with the Pd(x)Ru(1-x) nanoparticles changed from exothermic to endothermic as the Ru content increased. Furthermore, the prepared Pd(x)Ru(1-x) nanoparticles demonstrated enhanced CO-oxidizing catalytic activity; Pd0.5Ru0.5 nanoparticles exhibit the highest catalytic activity. This activity is much higher than that of the practically used CO-oxidizing catalyst Ru and that of the neighboring Rh, between Ru and Pd.

  9. Magnetic hyperthermia in brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brollo, M. E. F.; Orozco-Henao, J. M.; López-Ruiz, R.; Muraca, D.; Dias, C. S. B.; Pirota, K. R.; Knobel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Heating efficiency of multifunctional Ag@Fe3O4 brick-like nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field was investigated by means of specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements, and compared with equivalent measurements for plain magnetite and dimer heteroparticles. The samples were synthesized by thermal decomposition reactions and present narrow size polydispersity and high degree of crystallinity. The SAR values are analyzed using the superparamagnetic theory, in which the basic morphology, size and dispersion of sizes play key roles. The results suggest that these novel brick-like nanoparticles are good candidates for hyperthermia applications, displaying heating efficiencies comparable with the most efficient plain nanoparticles.

  10. The nature and barium partitioning between immiscible melts - A comparison of experimental and natural systems with reference to lunar granite petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, C. R.; Taylor, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Elemental partitioning between immiscible melts has been studied using experimental liquid-liquid Kds and those determined by analysis of immiscible glasses in basalt mesostases in order to investigate lunar granite petrogenesis. Experimental data show that Ba is partitioned into the basic immiscible melt, while probe analysis results show that Ba is partitioned into the granitic immiscible melt. It is concluded that lunar granite of significant size can only occur in a plutonic or deep hypabyssal environment.

  11. Facile synthesis of nano silver ferrite (AgFeO₂) modified with chitosan applied for biothiol separation.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-12-01

    Silver iron oxide nanoparticles (AgFeO2 NPs) with narrow size distribution have been synthesized, characterized and was applied for biothiols separation. AgFeO2 and AgFeO2 modified chitosan (AgFeO2@CTS NPs) were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and then characterized by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Different biological thiols (dithiothreitol, glutathione, thiabendazole, and sulfamethizole) were investigated and characterized using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The new material displays dual functionality; 1) for separation and 2) can be served as the matrices for SALDI-MS. Data showed a clear background in the case of nanomaterials compared to conventional matrices (mefenamic acid and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) for MALDI-MS).

  12. Excitation of plasmons in Ag/Fe/W structure by spin-polarized electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Samarin, Sergey N.; Kostylev, Mikhail; Williams, J. F.; Artamonov, Oleg M.; Baraban, Alexander P.; Guagliardo, Paul

    2015-09-07

    Using Spin-polarized Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy (SPEELS), the plasmon excitations were probed in a few atomic layers thick Ag film deposited on an Fe layer or on a single crystal of W(110). The measurements were performed at two specular geometries with either a 25° or 72° angle of incidence. On a clean Fe layer (10 atomic layers thick), Stoner excitation asymmetry was observed, as expected. Deposition of a silver film on top of the Fe layer dramatically changed the asymmetry of the SPEELS spectra. The spin-effect depends on the kinematics of the scattering: angles of incidence and detection. The spin-dependence of the plasmon excitations in the silver film on the W(110) surface and on the ferromagnetic Fe film is suggested to arise from the spin-active Ag/W or Ag/Fe interfaces.

  13. Thermodynamic estimation of minor element distribution between immiscible liquids in Fe-Cu-based metal phase generated in melting treatment of municipal solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Nakajima, K.; Sakanakura, H.; Matsubae, K.; Bai, H.; Nagasaka, T.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two liquids separation of metal occurs in the melting of municipal solid waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of PGMs etc. between two liquid metal phases is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quite simple thermodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag originated from WEEE are found to be concentrated into Cu-rich phase. - Abstract: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become an important target in managing material cycles from the viewpoint of not only waste management and control of environmental pollution but also resource conservation. This study investigated the distribution tendency of trace elements in municipal solid waste (MSW) or incinerator ash, including valuable non-ferrous metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ti, V, W, Zr), precious group metals (PGMs) originated from WEEE (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt), and others (Al, B, Pb, Si), between Fe-rich and Cu-rich metal phases by means of simple thermodynamic calculations. Most of the typical alloying elements for steel (Co, Cr, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ti, V, and W) and Rh were preferentially distributed into the Fe-rich phase. PGMs, such as Au, Ag, and Pd, were enriched in the Cu-rich phase, whereas Pt was almost equally distributed into both phases. Since the primary metallurgical processing of Cu is followed by an electrolysis for refining, and since PGMs in crude copper have been industrially recovered from the resulting anode slime, our results indicated that Ag, Au, and Pd could be effectively recovered from MSW if the Cu-rich phase could be selectively collected.

  14. Chaotic advection of immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmayr-Lee, Benjamin; Beller, Daniel; Yasuda, Sohei

    2012-02-01

    We consider a system of two immiscible fluids advected by a chaotic flow field. A nonequilibrium steady state arises from the competition between the coarsening of the immiscible fluids and the domain bursting caused by the chaotic flow. It has been established that the average domain size in this steady state scales as a inverse power of the Lyapunov exponent. We examine the issue of local structure and look for correlations between the local domain size and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field. For a variety of chaotic flows, we consistently find the domains to be smallest in regions where the FTLE field is maximal. This raises the possibility of making universal predictions of steady-state characteristics based on Lyapunov analysis of the flow field.

  15. Influence of biocompatible metal ions (Ag, Fe, Y) on the surface chemistry, corrosion behavior and cytocompatibility of Mg-1Ca alloy treated with MEVVA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Bian, Dong; Wu, Yuanhao; Li, Nan; Qiu, Kejin; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Mg-1Ca samples were implanted with biocompatible alloy ions Ag, Fe and Y respectively with a dose of 2×10(17)ionscm(-2) by metal vapor vacuum arc technique (MEVVA). The surface morphologies and surface chemistry were investigated by SEM, AES and XPS. Surface changes were observed after all three kinds of elemental ion implantation. The results revealed that the modified layer was composed of two sublayers, including an outer oxidized layer with mixture of oxides and an inner implanted layer, after Ag and Fe ion implantation. Y ion implantation induced an Mg/Ca-deficient outer oxidized layer and the distribution of Y along with depth was more homogeneous. Both electrochemical test and immersion test revealed accelerated corrosion rate of Ag-implanted Mg-1Ca and Fe-implanted Mg-1Ca, whereas Y ion implantation showed a short period of protection since enhanced corrosion resistance was obtained by electrochemical test, but accelerated corrosion rate was found by long period immersion test. Indirect cytotoxicity assay indicated good cytocompatibility of Y-implanted Mg-1Ca. Moreover, the corresponding corrosion mechanisms involving implanting ions into magnesium alloys were proposed, which might provide guidance for further application of plasma ion implantation to biodegradable Mg alloys.

  16. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing. PMID:26078996

  17. Compact Ag@Fe3O4 Core-shell Nanoparticles by Means of Single-step Thermal Decomposition Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brollo, Maria Eugênia F.; López-Ruiz, Román; Muraca, Diego; Figueroa, Santiago J. A.; Pirota, Kleber R.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    A temperature pause introduced in a simple single-step thermal decomposition of iron, with the presence of silver seeds formed in the same reaction mixture, gives rise to novel compact heterostructures: brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles. This novel method is relatively easy to implement, and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining a multifunctional heteroparticle in which a noble metal is surrounded by magnetite. Structural analyses of the samples show 4 nm silver nanoparticles wrapped within compact cubic external structures of Fe oxide, with curious rectangular shape. The magnetic properties indicate a near superparamagnetic like behavior with a weak hysteresis at room temperature. The value of the anisotropy involved makes these particles candidates to potential applications in nanomedicine.

  18. Absorption spectra and near-electric field enhancement effects of Au- and Ag-Fe3O4 dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benyang; Qu, Shiliang

    2014-02-01

    Absorption efficiencies and near-electric field enhancement factors of Au- and Ag-Fe3O4 dimers have been calculated with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and electrostatics approximation (EA). The influences of metal nanoparticle size, incident wavelength and incident polarization angle on the enhancement factor are systematically investigated. It is found that the electric field enhancement effect on magnetite cube is positive above the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength in the longitudinal mode (LM), while being negative in nonresonant region in the transverse mode (TM). The maximum enhancement factors derived from SPR may be achieved in the LM. Most importantly, when we accurately evaluate the enhancement factors of the dimers, the presence of the magnetite nanocube must be taken into account because the cube significantly alters the amplitude distribution of the enhanced electric field of the metal nanosphere especially in SPR region. This study helps to understand and design the plasmonic nanostructures for the applications with strong photon-particle interactions.

  19. Measuring Interfacial Tension Between Immiscible Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Glass capillary tube technique measures interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids. Yields useful data over fairly wide range of interfacial tensions, both for pairs of liquids having equal densities and pairs of liquids having unequal densities. Data on interfacial tensions important in diverse industrial chemical applications, including enhanced extraction of oil; printing; processing foods; and manufacture of paper, emulsions, foams, aerosols, detergents, gel encapsulants, coating materials, fertilizers, pesticides, and cosmetics.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Immiscible Organic Transport at the Hyde Park Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, M.; Sykes, J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional two-phase mathematical model based on Darcy's law and conservation of mass for each liquid is presented. The numerical model is based on a generalized method of weighted residuals in conjunction with the finite element method and linear quadrilateral isoparametric elements. To alleviate numerical problems associated with hyperbolic equations, upstream weighting of the spatial terms in the model has been incorporated. The theoretical and numerical accuracy of the model is verified by comparison of simulation results with those from an existing one-dimensional two-phase flow simulator. The finite element model is used to simulate the migration of an immiscible organic solvent in groundwater, from a chemical waste disposal site located north of Niagara Falls, New York. The effects of uncertainty regarding porous media heterogeneities and anisotropy are examined, and it is concluded that the extent of immiscible contaminant migration is greatly sensitive to these parameters.

  1. Boosted Hyperthermia Therapy by Combined AC Magnetic and Photothermal Exposures in Ag/Fe3O4 Nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Das, R; Rinaldi-Montes, N; Alonso, J; Amghouz, Z; Garaio, E; García, J A; Gorria, P; Blanco, J A; Phan, M H; Srikanth, H

    2016-09-28

    Over the past two decades, magnetic hyperthermia and photothermal therapy are becoming very promising supplementary techniques to well-established cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. These techniques have dramatically improved their ability to perform controlled treatments, relying on the procedure of delivering nanoscale objects into targeted tumor tissues, which can release therapeutic killing doses of heat either upon AC magnetic field exposure or laser irradiation. Although an intense research effort has been made in recent years to study, separately, magnetic hyperthermia using iron oxide nanoparticles and photothermal therapy based on gold or silver plasmonic nanostructures, the full potential of combining both techniques has not yet been systematically explored. Here we present a proof-of-principle experiment showing that designing multifunctional silver/magnetite (Ag/Fe3O4) nanoflowers acting as dual hyperthermia agents is an efficient route for enhancing their heating ability or specific absorption rate (SAR). Interestingly, the SAR of the nanoflowers is increased by at least 1 order of magnitude under the application of both an external magnetic field of 200 Oe and simultaneous laser irradiation. Furthermore, our results show that the synergistic exploitation of the magnetic and photothermal properties of the nanoflowers reduces the magnetic field and laser intensities that would be required in the case that both external stimuli were applied separately. This constitutes a key step toward optimizing the hyperthermia therapy through a combined multifunctional magnetic and photothermal treatment and improving our understanding of the therapeutic process to specific applications that will entail coordinated efforts in physics, engineering, biology, and medicine. PMID:27589410

  2. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes.

    PubMed

    Misztal, Marek K; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam; Fursund, Jens; Christensen, Brian Bunch; Bærentzen, J Andreas; Bridson, Robert

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization operations improve element quality and avoid element inversion. In the context of multiphase flow, we guarantee that every element is occupied by a single fluid and, consequently, the interface between fluids is represented by a set of faces in the simplicial complex. This approach ensures that the underlying discretization matches the physics and avoids the additional book-keeping required in grid-based methods where multiple fluids may occupy the same cell. Our Lagrangian approach naturally leads us to adopt a finite element approach to simulation, in contrast to the finite volume approaches adopted by a majority of fluid simulation techniques that use tetrahedral meshes. We characterize fluid simulation as an optimization problem allowing for full coupling of the pressure and velocity fields and the incorporation of a second-order surface energy. We introduce a preconditioner based on the diagonal Schur complement and solve our optimization on the GPU. We provide the results of parameter studies as well as a performance analysis of our method, together with suggestions for performance optimization. PMID:23836703

  3. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes.

    PubMed

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam; Fursund, Jens; Christensen, Brian Bunch; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Bridson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization operations improve element quality and avoid element inversion. In the context of multiphase flow, we guarantee that every element is occupied by a single fluid and, consequently, the interface between fluids is represented by a set of faces in the simplicial complex. This approach ensures that the underlying discretization matches the physics and avoids the additional book-keeping required in grid-based methods where multiple fluids may occupy the same cell. Our Lagrangian approach naturally leads us to adopt a finite element approach to simulation, in contrast to the finite volume approaches adopted by a majority of fluid simulation techniques that use tetrahedral meshes. We characterize fluid simulation as an optimization problem allowing for full coupling of the pressure and velocity fields and the incorporation of a second-order surface energy. We introduce a preconditioner based on the diagonal Schur complement and solve our optimization on the GPU. We provide the results of parameter studies as well as a performance analysis of our method, together with suggestions for performance optimization. PMID:24201322

  4. Formation of AgFeO2, α-FeOOH, and Ag2O from mixed Fe(NO3)3-AgNO3 solutions at high pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation of ternary oxide silver ferrite (AgFeO2), iron oxyhydroxide goethite (α-FeOOH) and silver(I) oxide (Ag2O) from mixed Fe(NO3)3-AgNO3 solutions in a whole [Ag+]:[Fe3+] concentration ratio range at high pH was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer, FT-IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopies and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Strong alkalis organic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or inorganic NaOH were used as precipitating agents. Monodispersed lath-like α-FeOOH particles were formed from a pure Fe(NO3)3 solution. The presence of Ag+ ions influenced the formation of the delafossite-type ternary oxide AgFeO2 beside α-FeOOH. The positions of XRD and Mössbauer lines did not suggest any significant incorporation of Ag+ ions into the α-FeOOH structure. AgFeO2 was formed in the precipitation system with the equimolar initial [Ag+]:[Fe3+] concentration ratio. The size and shape of AgFeO2 particles, as well as their structural polytype (2H or 3R), were dependent on reaction temperature, aging time and alkali used. In systems with an excess of Ag+ ions mixtures of AgFeO2 and Ag2O were formed. Single phase Ag2O precipitated from a pure AgNO3 solution.

  5. Evaporative mass transfer behavior of a complex immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    McColl, Colleen M; Johnson, Gwynn R; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult's law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium.

  6. Evaporative Mass Transfer Behavior of a Complex Immiscible Liquid

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Colleen M.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult’s law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium. PMID:18614196

  7. Evaporative mass transfer behavior of a complex immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    McColl, Colleen M; Johnson, Gwynn R; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult's law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium. PMID:18614196

  8. Magmatic (silicates/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magma chamber margins : Evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Torok, K.

    1996-01-01

    incompatible elements.

  9. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  10. Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Bali, Enikő; Audétat, Andreas; Keppler, Hans

    2013-03-14

    In the deep, chemically reducing parts of Earth's mantle, hydrous fluids contain significant amounts of molecular hydrogen (H2). Thermodynamic models of fluids in Earth's mantle so far have always assumed that molecular hydrogen and water are completely miscible. Here we show experimental evidence that water and hydrogen can coexist as two separate, immiscible phases. Immiscibility between water and hydrogen may be the cause of the formation of enigmatic, ultra-reducing domains in the mantle that contain moissanite (SiC) and other phases indicative of extremely reducing conditions. Moreover, the immiscibility between water and hydrogen may provide a mechanism for the rapid oxidation of Earth's upper mantle immediately following core formation.

  11. Probabilistic model for immiscible separations and extractions (ProMISE).

    PubMed

    de Folter, Joost; Sutherland, Ian A

    2011-09-01

    Chromatography models, liquid-liquid models and specifically Counter-Current Chromatography (CCC) models are usually either iterative, or provide a final solution for peak elution. This paper describes providing a better model by finding a more elemental solution. A completely new model has been developed based on simulating probabilistic units. This model has been labelled ProMISE (probabilistic model for immiscible phase separations and extractions), and has been realised in the form of a computer application, interactively visualising the behaviour of the units in the CCC process. It does not use compartments or cells like in the Craig based models, nor is it based on diffusion theory. With this new model, all the CCC flow modes can be accurately predicted. The main advantage over the previously developed model, is that it does not require a somewhat arbitrary number of steps or theoretical plates, and instead uses an efficiency factor. Furthermore, since this model is not based on compartments or cells like the Craig model, and is therefore not limited to a compartment or cell nature, it allows for an even greater flexibility. PMID:21211802

  12. Immiscible displacement of oil with surfactant system

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J. E.

    1985-12-03

    In accordance with the present invention it has been found that improved recovery of oil from a subsurface earth formation can be attained by injecting into the formation a surfactant system comprising a carboxylate surfactant, a cosurfactant and an electrolyte in concentrations and proportions to form an immiscible three-phase system with the reservoir oil comprising a predominantly oil phase, a microemulsion phase and an aqueous phase. The carboxylate surfactant is preferably selected from the group consisting of branched aliphatic carboxylates and mononuclear aromatic carboxylates. Where aliphatic carboxylates are utilized as a surfactant, it is preferred that the polar organic material utilized as a cosurfactant have a solubility in water less than about ten grams per hundred grams of water ost about 20/sup 0/ C. and, when an aromatic carboxylate is utilized as a surfactant, it is preferred that the polar organic material utilized as a cosurfactant have a water solubility greater than about ten grams per hundred grams of water at about 20/sup 0/ C. In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, it has been found that surfactant systems containing carboxylate surfactants will recover optimum amounts of oil when a base is added to the surfactant system to adjust the pH to a value at which the surfactant system results nin optimum oil recovery.

  13. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  14. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues.Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2

  15. Effect of wettability on adverse mobility immiscible floods

    SciTech Connect

    Vives, M.T.; Chang, Y.C.; Mohanty, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    Many immiscible displacements in reservoirs occur at adverse mobility. Effect of wettability on these displacements is not well understood and often ignored in reservoir simulation. Recent macroscopic theories of viscous fingering treat adverse immiscible flows similar to miscible flows, the mixing in the fingered region being controlled by a Todd-Longstaff-type functional form. The wettability of the medium is taken into account only through the use of appropriate relative permeabilities. The goal of this paper is to understand the macroscopic bypassing in adverse mobility immiscible floods. Immiscible displacements are conducted in a quarter 5-spot model in both drainage and imbibition modes at similar effective mobility ratios and viscous-to-gravity numbers. The level of bypassing and gravity override is visualized and measured. Tertiary water-alternating-gas (WAG) displacements are also conducted at various WAG ratios and viscosity ratios. Fractional flow analysis and numerical simulation are used to understand these displacements. Experiments show that macroscopic viscous fingering is present in adverse viscosity immiscible displacements where no saturation shock is expected from 1-D fractional flow theory. Bypassing due to both fingering and gravity override is higher in the drainage mode than in the imbibition mode, with other key parameters being the same. Optimum WAG ratio in water-wet rock is a function of oil/solvent viscosity ratio. The macroscopic flow theory needs to include capillarity and viscous fingering to match these experimental findings.

  16. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOEpatents

    Spauschus, Hans O.; Starr, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  17. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  18. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters. PMID:26130294

  19. Hydrogenation with monolith reactor under conditions of immiscible liquid phases

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved for the hydrogenation of an immiscible mixture of an organic reactant in water. The immiscible mixture can result from the generation of water by the hydrogenation reaction itself or, by the addition of, water to the reactant prior to contact with the catalyst. The improvement resides in effecting the hydrogenation reaction in a monolith catalytic reactor from 100 to 800 cpi, at a superficial velocity of from 0.1 to 2 m/second in the absence of a cosolvent for the immiscible mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrogenation is carried out using a monolith support which has a polymer network/carbon coating onto which a transition metal is deposited.

  20. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters. PMID:26130294

  1. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-07-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters.

  2. Containerless low gravity processing of glass forming and immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Briggs, Craig; Robinson, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedimentation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the 100 meter drop tube under low gravity, containerless conditions to determine the feasibility of producing dispersed structures. Three alloy compositions were utilized. Alloys containing 10 percent by volume of the gold-rich hypermonotectic phase exhibited a tendency for the gold-rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the samples. This wetting tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. Alloys containing 80 and 90 percent by volume of the gold-rich phase possessed completely different microstructures from the 10 percent samples when processed under low-g, containerless conditions. Several samples exhibited microstructures consisting of well dispersed 2 to 3 microns diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix.

  3. Mixing of immiscible polymers using nanoporous coordination templates.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takashi; Kaseda, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Yotaro; Inukai, Munehiro; Toriyama, Takaaki; Takahara, Atsushi; Jinnai, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of methodologies for the mixing of immiscible substances is highly desirable to facilitate the development of fundamental science and materials technology. Herein we describe a new protocol for the compatibilization of immiscible polymers at the molecular level using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) as removable templates. In this process, the typical immiscible polymer pair of polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was prepared via the successive homopolymerizations of their monomers in a PCP to distribute the polymers inside the PCP particles. Subsequent dissolution of the PCP frameworks in a chelator solution affords a PSt/PMMA blend that is homogeneous in the range of several nanometers. Due to the unusual compatibilization, the thermal properties of the polymer blend are remarkably improved compared with the conventional solvent-cast blend. This method is also applicable to the compatibilization of PSt and polyacrylonitrile, which have very different solubility parameters.

  4. Electroanalytical Ventures at Nanoscale Interfaces Between Immiscible Liquids.

    PubMed

    Arrigan, Damien W M; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-12

    Ion transfer at the interface between immiscible electrolyte solutions offers many benefits to analytical chemistry, including the ability to detect nonredox active ionized analytes, to detect ions whose redox electrochemistry is accompanied by complications, and to separate ions based on electrocontrolled partition. Nanoscale miniaturization of such interfaces brings the benefits of enhanced mass transport, which in turn leads to improved analytical performance in areas such as sensitivity and limits of detection. This review discusses the development of such nanoscale interfaces between immiscible liquids and examines the analytical advances that have been made to date, including prospects for trace detection of ion concentrations.

  5. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  6. Highly efficient and recyclable triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants and reduction of hexavalent chromium ions.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yunxia; Xu, Sichao; Wang, Shuan; Ding, Hualin; Pan, Shusheng; Wang, Guozhong; Li, Guanghai; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-05-21

    Herein, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of the well-defined triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanospheres with burr-shaped hierarchical structures, in which the multiple distinct functional components are integrated wonderfully into a single nanostructure. In comparison with commercial TiO2 (P25), pure TiO2 microspheres, Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 and annealed Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites, the as-obtained amorphous triple-shelled Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 hierarchical nanospheres exhibit a markedly enhanced visible light or sunlight photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of methylene blue and photoreduction of hexavalent chromium ions in wastewater. The outstanding photocatalytic activities of the plasmonic photocatalyst are mainly due to the enhanced light harvesting, reduced transport paths for both mass and charge transport, reduced recombination probability of photogenerated electrons/holes, near field electromagnetic enhancement and efficient scattering from the plasmonic nanostructure, increased surface-to-volume ratio and active sites in three dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructures, and improved photo/chemical stability. More importantly, the hierarchical nanostructured Ag@Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 photocatalysts could be easily collected and separated by applying an external magnetic field and reused at least five times without any appreciable reduction in photocatalytic efficiency. The enhanced photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability, in combination with the magnetic recyclability, make these multifunctional nanostructures promising candidates to remediate aquatic contaminants and meet the demands of future environmental issues. PMID:24710730

  7. Ultrathin-skinned asymmetric membranes by immiscible solvents treatment

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.

    1989-11-28

    Improved semipermeable asymmetric fluid separation membranes useful in gas, vapor and liquid separations are disclosed. The membranes are prepared by substantially filling the pores of asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membranes having a finely porous layer on one side thereof with a water immiscible organic liquid, followed by contacting the finely porous layer with water.

  8. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  9. Silicate-natrocarbonatite liquid immiscibility in 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite, Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania: Melt inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharygin, Victor V.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Zaitsev, Anatoly N.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2012-11-01

    Primary silicate-melt and carbonate-salt inclusions occur in the phenocrysts (nepheline, fluorapatite, wollastonite, clinopyroxene) in the 1917 eruption combeite-wollastonite nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. Silicate-melt inclusions in nepheline clearly show liquid immiscibility phenomena expressed in the presence of carbonate globules in silicate glass. The coexistence of inclusions with markedly different proportions of silicate glass + vapor-carbonate globule in the core of nepheline phenocrysts, the presence of carbonate-salt inclusions in fluorapatite and our heating experiments strongly suggest that their entrapment began at temperatures higher than 1130 °C in an intermediate chamber when initial carbonated nephelinite melt was heterogeneous and represented a mixture of immiscible liquids. Silicate-natrocarbonatite melt immiscibility took place at high temperature and immiscible nephelinite and carbonatite liquids coexisted over a wide temperature range from ≥ 1130 °C to 600 °C. Homogenization of a carbonate globule (dissolution of the gas bubble in carbonate melt) at 900-940 °C indicates that after separation from silicate magma the natrocarbonatite represented homogeneous liquid in the 900-1130 °C temperature range, whereas below these temperatures immiscible melts of different composition and fluid phase have separated from it. The bulk composition of homogeneous natrocarbonatite melt may be estimated as ≈ 20% CaF2, 40-60% (Na,K)2CO3 and 20-40% CaCO3 based on the coexistence of nyerereite, calcite and fluorite and the rapid phase transition (carbonate aggregate → carbonate liquid) at 550-570 °C observed in vapor-carbonate globules of nepheline-hosted silicate-melt inclusions and on the Na2CO3-CaCO3-CaF2 phase diagram. Silicate glasses of nepheline-hosted immiscible inclusions drastically differ from host nephelinite in the abundance of major and trace elements. They are high peralkaline ((Na + K)/Al — up to 9.5) and virtually free of water (H2

  10. Flow and Reactive Transport of Miscible and Immiscible Solutions in Fractured & Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryerson, F. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2012-12-01

    Miscible and immiscible flows are important phenomena encountered in many industrial and engineering applications such as hydrothermal systems, oil and gas reservoirs, salt/water intrusion, geological carbon sequestration etc… Under the influence of gravity, the flow of fluids with sufficiently large density ratios may become unstable leading to instabilities, mixing and in some instances reactions at the interfacial contact between fluids. Flow is governed by a combination of momentum and mass conservation equations that describe the flow of the fluid phase and a convection-diffusion equation describing the change of concentration in the fluid phase. When hydrodynamic instabilities develop it may be difficult to use standard grid-based methods to model miscible/immiscible flow because the domains occupied by fluids evolve constantly with time. In the current study, adaptive mesh refinement finite elements method has been used to solve for flow and transport equations. Furthermore, a particle tracking scheme has also been implemented to track the kinematics of swarm of particles injected into the porous fractured media to quantify surface area, sweeping zones, and their impact on porosity changes. Spatial and temporal moments of the fingering instabilities and the development of reaction zones and the impact of kinetic reaction at the fluid/solution interfaces have also been analyzed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Compositions of magmas and carbonate silicate liquid immiscibility in the Vulture alkaline igneous complex, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovova, I. P.; Girnis, A. V.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononkova, N. N.; Stoppa, F.; Rosatelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a study of melt and fluid inclusions in minerals of an olivine-leucite phonolitic nephelinite bomb from the Monticchio Lake Formation, Vulture. The rock contains 50 vol.% clinopyroxene, 12% leucite, 10% alkali feldspars, 8% hauyne/sodalite, 7.5% nepheline, 4.5% apatite, 3.2% olivine, 2% opaques, 2.6% plagioclase, and < 1% amphibole. We distinguished three generations of clinopyroxene differing in composition and morphology. All the phenocrysts bear primary and secondary melt and fluid inclusions, which recorded successive stages of melt evolution. The most primitive melts were found in the most magnesian olivine and the earliest clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The melts are near primary mantle liquids and are rich in Ca, Mg and incompatible and volatile elements. Thermometric experiments with the melt inclusions suggested that melt crystallization began at temperatures of about 1200 °C. Because of the partial leakage of all primary fluid inclusions, the pressure of crystallization is constrained only to minimum of 3.5 kbar. Combined silicate-carbonate melt inclusions were found in apatite phenocrysts. They are indicative of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility, which occurred during magma evolution. Large hydrous secondary melt inclusions were found in olivine and clinopyroxene. The inclusions in the phenocrysts recorded an open-system magma evolution during its rise towards the surface including crystallization, degassing, oxidation, and liquid immiscibility processes.

  12. Covalent Fusion of layered Incompatible Gels in Immiscible Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santidan; Singh, Awaneesh; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    We carry out dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to model a two layered stackable gel where the gels are incompatible and are present in immiscible solvent. The bottom layer of the gel is created first and then a solution of new initiators, monomers and cross-linkers is introduced on top of it. These components then undergo polymerization and form the second gel layer. We study all possible combinations of free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanisms with the two layers of the gel. For example, the bottom layer gel is created via ATRP, whereas the top layer gel follows FRP. Our focus is to do a systematic study of all these combinations and find out the factors responsible for combining two incompatible gels in immiscible solvents.

  13. Streaming potential-modulated capillary filling dynamics of immiscible fluids.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-02-21

    The pressure driven transport of two immiscible electrolytes in a narrow channel with prescribed surface potential (zeta potential) is considered under the influence of a flow-induced electric field. The latter consideration is non-trivially and fundamentally different from the problem of electric field-driven motion (electroosmosis) of two immiscible electrolytes in a channel in a sense that in the former case, the genesis of the induced electric field, termed as streaming potential, is the advection of ions in the absence of any external electric field. As the flow occurs, one fluid displaces the other. Consequently, in cases where the conductivities of the two fluids differ, imbibition dynamically alters the net conductivity of the channel. We emphasize, through numerical simulations, that the alteration in the net conductivity has a significant impact on the contact line dynamics and the concomitant induced streaming potential. The results presented herein are expected to shed light on multiphase electrokinetics devices.

  14. Direct Numerical Simulations of Immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Accurate simulations of multi-mode immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) are presented with the recently developed generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (GCHNS) equations method. In immiscible turbulent flows, besides the viscous cut-off scale, there are two additional characteristic length scales, which also affect the flow. One is the so-called ``cut-off'' length scale caused by the presence of surface tension and the other is the physical interface thickness. While in some practical applications the interface thickness can be large, in many other cases this thickness approaches the molecular scales. Accurate results can be obtained for these cases if the interface thickness is maintained smaller than all the cut-off scales of the flow, but still much larger than the molecular scales (e.g. mean free path). Our study shows that, as long as the scale-separation (e.g. the ratio of Kolmogorov scale to the interface thickness) is above a certain value (4 to 6 for the RTI problem considered in this study), the numerical results are fully converged with respect to the interface thickness. The results are used to study the physics of multi-mode immiscible RTI and contrasted to those obtained for the miscible case.

  15. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOEpatents

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  16. Nonlinear dressed states at the miscibility-immiscibility threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, E.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamical evolution of spatial patterns in a complex system can reveal the underlying structure and stability of stationary states. As a model system we employ a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate at the transition from miscible to immiscible with the additional control of linear interconversion. Excellent agreement is found between the detailed experimental time evolution and the corresponding numerical mean-field computations. Analyzing the dynamics of the system, we find clear indications of stationary states that we term nonlinear dressed states. A steady-state bifurcation analysis reveals a smooth connection of these states with dark-bright soliton solutions of the integrable two-component Manakov model.

  17. Coalescence of Immiscible Liquid Metal Drop on Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Li, Jie; Wang, Long; Duan, Yunrui; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the wetting and coalescence of liquid Al and Pb drops on four carbon-based substrates. We highlight the importance of the microstructure and surface topography of substrates in the coalescence process. Our results show that the effect of substrate on coalescence is achieved by changing the wettability of the Pb metal. Additionally, we determine the critical distance between nonadjacent Al and Pb films required for coalescence. These findings improve our understanding of the coalescence of immiscible liquid metals at the atomistic level. PMID:27667589

  18. Dynamics and electrorheology of sheared immiscible fluid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Takahiro; Shitara, Kyohei; Ohta, Takao

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the electrorheological effect in immiscible fluid mixtures with dielectric mismatch. By taking the electric field effect into account, which couples to the dynamics of domain morphology under flow, we propose a set of electrorheological constitutive equations valid under the condition where the relative magnitude of the flow field is stronger than that of the electric field. Through comparison with recent experiments, we point out a unique dynamical stress response inherent in situations where the cross-coupling between different fields is essential.

  19. Immiscible solvents enabled nanostructure formation for efficient polymer photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Michael Yang, Yang; You, Jingbi; Richard, Eric; Li, Gang

    2014-07-25

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) fabricated via solution processing are an attractive way to realize low cost solar energy harvesting. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices are the most successful design, but their morphology is less controllable. In this manuscript, we describe a simple approach to realize 'ordered' BHJ morphology using two immiscible solvents with different boiling point and a quasi-bilayer approach. Tunable fine structures were demonstrated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) model systems, and the devices with optimized fine structure showed a 33% efficiency enhancement compared to those with a planar bilayer structure.

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of immiscible fluids in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisch, H.; Mitrovic, D.; Nordbotten, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    The time development of an interface separating two immiscible fluids of different densities in heterogeneous two-dimensional porous media is studied. The governing equations are simplified with the help of approximate Green's functions which allow computation of the shape of the interface directly without resolving the fluid flow in the entire domain. The new formulation is amenable to numerical approximation, and the reduction in dimension leads to a significant gain in efficiency in the numerical simulation of the interfacial dynamics. Several test cases are investigated, and the numerical solutions are compared to known exact solutions and experimental data.

  1. Interfacial tension in immiscible mixtures of alkali halides.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Vera; Rukavishnikova, Irina V; Stepanov, Victor P; Tkachev, Nikolai K

    2010-02-01

    The interfacial tension of the liquid-phase interface in seven immiscible reciprocal ternary mixtures of lithium fluoride with the following alkali halides: CsCl, KBr, RbBr, CsBr, KI, RbI, and CsI was measured using the cylinder weighing method over a wide temperature range. It was shown that for all mixtures the interfacial tension gradually decreases with growing temperature. The interfacial tension of the reciprocal ternary mixtures at a given temperature increases both with the alkali cation radius (K(+) < Rb(+) < Cs(+)) and with the radius of the halogen anion (Cl(-) < Br(-) < I(-)). PMID:20094678

  2. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  3. Seismoelectric couplings in a poroelastic material containing two immiscible fluid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2015-08-01

    A new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been recently proposed to detect saturation fronts in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires however a complete modelling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluid phases, one being usually electrically insulating (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of Biot dynamic theory, valid for porous media containing two immiscible Newtonian fluids, with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of effective volumetric charge densities dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability and saturation of each fluid phase. The coupled partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method. We also derive analytically the transfer function connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P wave (coseismic electrical field) and we study the influence of the water content on this coupling. We observe that the amplitude of the co-seismic electrical disturbance is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in amplitude with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions (interface effect) occurring at the water table. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones are sharp enough. A relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the water table through seismoelectric measurements. Indeed, in this case, the coseismic electrical disturbances are vanishingly small compared to the seismoelectric interface response.

  4. The rotating movement of three immiscible fluids - A benchmark problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, M.; Oude, Essink G.H.P.; Langevin, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A benchmark problem involving the rotating movement of three immiscible fluids is proposed for verifying the density-dependent flow component of groundwater flow codes. The problem consists of a two-dimensional strip in the vertical plane filled with three fluids of different densities separated by interfaces. Initially, the interfaces between the fluids make a 45??angle with the horizontal. Over time, the fluids rotate to the stable position whereby the interfaces are horizontal; all flow is caused by density differences. Two cases of the problem are presented, one resulting in a symmetric flow field and one resulting in an asymmetric flow field. An exact analytical solution for the initial flow field is presented by application of the vortex theory and complex variables. Numerical results are obtained using three variable-density groundwater flow codes (SWI, MOCDENS3D, and SEAWAT). Initial horizontal velocities of the interfaces, as simulated by the three codes, compare well with the exact solution. The three codes are used to simulate the positions of the interfaces at two times; the three codes produce nearly identical results. The agreement between the results is evidence that the specific rotational behavior predicted by the models is correct. It also shows that the proposed problem may be used to benchmark variable-density codes. It is concluded that the three models can be used to model accurately the movement of interfaces between immiscible fluids, and have little or no numerical dispersion. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrusive rocks viewed from fitness landscape diagrams: Evolution and immiscibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneresse, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    We introduce the hard-soft acid-base concepts to magma evolution. Those concepts and their derived chemical parameters provide a new insight into mantle- and continental-derived magmas. Hence magma evolution represents a free suite of chemical reactions, thus showing natural chemical trends. They should be controlled by the principles of maximum hardness and minimum electrophilicity that rule chemical reactions. When plotting into a fitness landscape diagram, rocks suites define two major tendencies. Mantle-derived rocks present all character of an closed chemical system. Conversely, rocks contaminated within the continental crust define two other trends, depending on whether they have affinities toward a silica pole or an alkaline one. They both show the character of an open chemical system. When plotting major igneous minerals onto that diagram shows the importance of olivine, silica and alkali-bearing oxides. It points to the development of immiscibility, depending on the path along which magmas evolve. It thus provides explanation to experimentally observed immiscibility.

  6. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis; Horwitz, Jeremy A.

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  7. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    system, compositions near it show a number of phase changes and large amounts of crystallization with small temperature changes, generally in the range 1100-1150 C. Similar low-temperature, high-alkali immiscibility was discovered in a few exploratory runs in the equivalent systems with Rb or Cs substituting for K. But not in those with Li or Na. A review of the compositions and general behavior of systems involving immiscibility, both stable and metastable, and of the evidence for natural immiscibility. indicates that it may be a much more common feature than generally thought. Several examples of natural immiscibility are detailed; most yield a felsic. alkali-aluminosilicate melt and a mafic melt. from a wide variety of generally basaltic parental magmas, both under- and over saturated. Unfortunately, the best line of evidence for immiscibility in terrestrial rocks, a sharply defined meniscus between two compositionally disparate glasses, is by its very nature self-destructing, since it is effectively eliminated by either crystallization or gravitative separation and coalescence into separate magmas. Verification of operation of the exosolutionor 'splitting' process on a large scale will probably require careful study of isotopic and trace element partitioning in both laboratory and field. ?? 1978.

  8. Nanostructured hybrid of immiscible gold and silicon and its effect on proliferation and adhesion of fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid biomaterials are a combination of two or more different materials that work synergistically to produce superior properties. Nano structuring of such hybrid materials has also posed complications. In this study, we present, for the first time a nanofibrous hybrid of gold and silicon fabricated by femtosecond laser synthesis for tissue engineering applications. The formation of a completely new phase, Au3Si (212) is reported. The formation mechanism is explained by vapor condensation. Particle sizes of 2-10 nm and 37-49 nm for gold and gold concentrations of 35-78% are achieved. The effect of this hybrid on cell growth was assessed using fibroblasts and osteoblasts. There was a significant decrease in both osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation with the increase of gold in the hybrid nanostructure. This novel hybrid nanofibrous matrix provides a method to effectively control the proliferation and adhesion of cells. Femtosecond laser synthesis presents a new standard by which not only a single element biomaterial but also multiple immiscible element hybrid biomaterials can be fabricated. This technique provides a paradigm shift in the fabrication of novel nanostructured immiscible hybrid biomaterials. PMID:24749400

  9. A novel coarsening mechanism of droplets in immiscible fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    In our daily lives, after shaking a salad dressing, we see the coarsening of oil droplets suspended in vinegar. Such a demixing process is observed everywhere in nature and also of technological importance. For a case of high droplet density, domain coarsening proceeds with inter-droplet collisions and the resulting coalescence. This phenomenon has been explained primarily by the so-called Brownian-coagulation mechanism: stochastic thermal forces exerted by molecules induce random motion of individual droplets, causing accidental collisions and subsequent interface-tension-driven coalescence. Contrary to this, here we demonstrate that the droplet motion is not random, but hydrodynamically driven by the composition Marangoni force due to an interfacial tension gradient produced in each droplet as a consequence of composition correlation among droplets. This alters our physical understanding of droplet coarsening in immiscible liquid mixtures on a fundamental level.

  10. Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Phillips, J. C.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10-4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.

  11. Thermocapillary convection in two immiscible liquid layers with free surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, Takao; Koster, Jean N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermocapillary convection is studied in two immiscible liquid layers with one free surface, one liquid/liquid interface, and differential heating applied parallel to the interfaces. An analytical solution is introduced for infinite horizontal layers. The defining parameter for the flow pattern is lambda, the ratio of the temperature coefficient of the interfacial tension to that of the surface tension. Four different flow patterns exist under zero gravity conditions. 'Halt' conditions which halt the fluid motion in the lower encapsulated liquid layer have been found. A numerical experiment is carried out to study effects of vertical end walls on the double layer convection in a 2D cavity. The halt condition obtained from the analytical study is found to be valid in the limit of small Reynolds numbers. The flow in the encapsulated liquid layer can be suppressed substantially.

  12. Long term stability of immiscible ferrofluid/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouin, Bernard; Posada, David; Hirsa, Amir

    2010-11-01

    Recently we have demonstrated pinned-contact, coupled droplet pairs of aqueous ferrofluids in air that can form electromagnetically-activated capillary switches and oscillators. The great variety of available ferrofluids, however, enables the use of immiscible oil-based ferrofluid droplets in a water environment to obtain the same behavior. Such immersed ferrofluid oscillators exhibit natural frequencies (for 5 mm devices) of about 10 Hz. Here we report on the observation of a gradual increase in the resonant frequency of the system in time. Experimental observations suggest that the drift in the natural frequency is a consequence of changes occurring at the ferrofluid/water interface. The interfacial structure of such a complex system (water, oil, surfactant, iron particles) is examined along with its evolution in time, using various microscopy techniques.

  13. Study on processing immiscible materials in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reger, J. L.; Mendelson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate mixing immiscible metal combinations under several process conditions. Under one-gravity, these included thermal processing, thermal plus electromagnetic mixing, and thermal plus acoustic mixing. The same process methods were applied during free fall on the MSFC drop tower facility. The design is included of drop tower apparatus to provide the electromagnetic and acoustic mixing equipment, and a thermal model was prepared to design the specimen and cooling procedure. Materials systems studied were Ca-La, Cd-Ga and Al-Bi; evaluation of the processed samples included the morphology and electronic property measurements. The morphology was developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses. Electronic property characterization of the superconducting transition temperatures were made using an impedance change-tuned coil method.

  14. Application of the boundary integral method to immiscible displacement problems

    SciTech Connect

    Masukawa, J.; Horne, R.N.

    1988-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the boundary integral method (BIM) to fluid displacement problems to demonstrate its usefulness in reservoir simulation. A method for solving two-dimensional (2D), piston-like displacement for incompressible fluids with good accuracy has been developed. Several typical example problems with repeated five-spot patterns were solved for various mobility ratios. The solutions were compared with the analytical solutions to demonstrate accuracy. Singularity programming was found to be a major advantage in handling flow in the vicinity of wells. The BIM was found to be an excellent way to solve immiscible displacement problems. Unlike analytic methods, it can accommodate complex boundary shapes and does not suffer from numerical dispersion at the front.

  15. Silicate liquid immiscibility in lunar magmas, evidenced by melt inclusions in lunar rocks.

    PubMed

    Roedder, E; Weiblen, P W

    1970-01-30

    Examination of multiphase melt inclusions in 91 sections of 26 lunar rocks revealed abundant evidence of late-stage immiscibility in all crystalline rock sections and in soil fragments and most breccias. The two individual immiscible silicate melts (now glasses) vary in composition, but are essentially potassic granite and pyroxenite. This immiscibility may be important in the formation of the lunar highlands and tektites. Other inclusions yield the following temperatures at which the several minerals first appear on cooling the original magma: ilmenite (?) liquidus, 1210 degrees C; pyroxene, 1140 degrees C; plagioclase, 1105 degrees C; solidus, 1075 degrees C. The glasses also place some limitations on maximum and minimum cooling rates.

  16. Partitioning of Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th and U between immiscible carbonate and silicate liquids: Evaluating the effects of P2O5,F, and carbonate composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Walker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have reported carbonate liq./silicate liq. partition coefficients (D) for a standard suite of trace elements (Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, and U) and Ra and Pa as well. In brief, we have found that immiscible liquid partitioning is a strong function of temperature. As the critical temperature of the carbonate-silicate solvus is approached, all partition coefficients approach unity. Additionally, for the overwhelming majority of the partitioning elements, InD is a linear function of 'ionic field strength,' z/r, where z is the charge of the partitioned cation and r is its ionic radius.

  17. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it

  18. Immiscible phase incorporation during directional solidification of hypermonotectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Merrick, Roger A.

    1993-01-01

    Solidification processes in immiscible samples were investigated by directly observing the events taking place at the solid-liquid interface during directional solidification. Visualization of these events was made possible through the use of a transparent metal analog system and a temperature gradient stage assembly fitted to an optical microscope. The immiscible transparent analog system utilized was the succinonitrile-glycerol system. This system has been shown to exhibit the same morphological transitions as observed in metallic alloys of monotectic composition. Both monotectic and hypermonotectic composition samples were directionally solidified in order to gain an improved understanding of the manner in which the excess hypermonotectic liquid is incorporated into the solidifying structure. The processing conditions utilized prevented sedimentation of the excess hypermonotectic liquid by directionally solidifying the samples in very thin (13 microns), horizontally oriented cells. High thermal gradient to growth rate ratios (G/R) were used in an effort to prevent constitutional supercooling and the subsequent formation of L(sub 2) droplets in advance of the solidification front during the growth of fibrous composite structures. Results demonstrated that hypermonotectic composites could be produced in samples up to two weight percent off of the monotectic composition by using a G/R ratio greater than or equal to 4.6 x 10(exp 4) C(s)/mm(sup 2) to avoid constitutional supercooling. For hypermonotectic samples processed with G/R ratios below 4.6 x 10(exp 4) C(s)/mm(sup 2), constitutional supercooling occurred and resulted in slight interfacial instability. For these samples, two methods of incorporation of the hypermonotectic liquid were observed and are reported. The correlation between the phase spacing, lambda, and the growth rate, R, was examined and was found to obey a relationship generally associated with a diffusion controlled coupled growth process. For

  19. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  20. Field and modelling studies of immiscible fluid flow above a contaminated water-table aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Hess, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method was developed for measuring the spatial distribution of immiscible liquid contaminants in the subsurface. Fluid saturation distributions measured at a crude-oil spill site were used to test a numerical multiphase flow model.

  1. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ57Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ57Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ57Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted. PMID:26620121

  2. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted. PMID:26620121

  3. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  4. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ57Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ57Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ57Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  5. Thermally induced collision of droplets in an immiscible outer fluid.

    PubMed

    Davanlou, Ashkan; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) have attracted wide attention and are identified as a promising solution for sample transport, filtration, chemical reactions, separation and detection. Despite their popularity, the selection of an appropriate mechanism for droplet transport and coalescence has always been a challenge. This paper investigates the use of Marangoni flow as a mechanism for levitating and transporting droplets on immiscible liquid films at higher speeds than is possible currently. For the first time, we show that it is possible to realize the natural coalescence of droplets through Marangoni effect without any external stimulation, and deliver the coalesced droplet to a certain destination through the use of surface tension gradients. The effects of shape and size on collision outcome are studied. Regions of coalescence and stretching separation of colliding droplets are delineated based on Weber number and impact number. In addition, the effect of viscosity on post collision regimes is studied. The findings in this fundamental study can be beneficial to many applications such as welding, drug delivery and microfluidics devices in controlling small droplets and targeting them to various locations. PMID:25948547

  6. Thermally induced collision of droplets in an immiscible outer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davanlou, Ashkan; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-05-01

    Micro-total analysis systems (μTAS) have attracted wide attention and are identified as a promising solution for sample transport, filtration, chemical reactions, separation and detection. Despite their popularity, the selection of an appropriate mechanism for droplet transport and coalescence has always been a challenge. This paper investigates the use of Marangoni flow as a mechanism for levitating and transporting droplets on immiscible liquid films at higher speeds than is possible currently. For the first time, we show that it is possible to realize the natural coalescence of droplets through Marangoni effect without any external stimulation, and deliver the coalesced droplet to a certain destination through the use of surface tension gradients. The effects of shape and size on collision outcome are studied. Regions of coalescence and stretching separation of colliding droplets are delineated based on Weber number and impact number. In addition, the effect of viscosity on post collision regimes is studied. The findings in this fundamental study can be beneficial to many applications such as welding, drug delivery and microfluidics devices in controlling small droplets and targeting them to various locations.

  7. Characteristic impedance of a microchannel with two immiscible microfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Consider the case of a microcapillary of radius R with two microfluidic immiscible. The micro-capillary region 0 < r < R1 is occupied by the microfluidic less dense and less viscous; while the microcapillary region R1 <0 < R is occupied by the microfluidic more dense and more viscous. Determine the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary in this case when both microfluidics are driven by the same pressure gradient as the boundary condition at the wall of the microcapillary is of the non-Newtonian slip. The Navier Stokes equation is solved for both microfluidic methods using the Laplace transform. The velocity profiles are expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Similarly, the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary is expressed by a complex formula Bessel functions. Obtain the analytical results are important for designing engineering microdevices with applications in pharmaceutical, food engineering, nanotechnology and biotechnology in general in particular. For future research it is interesting to consider the case of boundary conditions with memory effects.

  8. Rebound of continuous droplet streams from an immiscible liquid pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doak, William J.; Laiacona, Danielle M.; German, Guy K.; Chiarot, Paul R.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the rebound of high velocity continuous water droplet streams from the surface of an immiscible oil pool. The droplets have diameters and velocities of less than 90 μm and 15 m/s, respectively, and were created at frequencies up to 60 kHz. The impact and rebound of continuous droplet streams at this scale and velocity have been largely unexplored. This regime bridges the gap between single drop and jet impacts. The impinging droplets create a divot at the surface of the oil pool that had a common characteristic shape across a wide-range of droplet and oil properties. After impact, the reflected droplets maintain the same uniformity and periodicity of the incoming droplets but have significantly lower velocity and kinetic energy. This was solely attributed to the generation of a flow induced in the viscous oil pool by the impacting droplets. Unlike normally directed impact of millimeter-scale droplets with a solid surface, our results show that an air film does not appear to be maintained beneath the droplets during impact. This suggests direct contact between the droplets and the surface of the oil pool. A ballistic failure limit, correlated with the Weber number, was identified where the rebound was suppressed and the droplets were driven through the oil surface. A secondary failure mode was identified for aperiodic incoming streams. Startup effects and early time dynamics of the rebounding droplet stream were also investigated.

  9. The immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijuan; Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Ji, Zesheng; Meng, Yulin; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    We have used two models based on the valence force field and the regular solution model to study the immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy, and have got the spinodal and binodal curves of InAlN. Analyzing the spinodal decomposition curves, we obtain the appropriate concentration region for the epitaxial growth of the InN-AlN pseudobinary alloy. At a temperature most common for the epitaxial growth of InAlN (1000 K), the solubility of InN is about 10%. Then we introduce the mismatch strain item into the Gibbs free energy, and the effect of different substrates is taken into consideration. Considering Si, Al2O3, InN, GaN, AlN as a substrate respectively, it is found that all the five systems are stabilized with the upper critical solution temperature largely reduced. Finally, InN and GaN are potential substrates for In-rich InAlN, while AlN and GaN substrates are recommended in the Al-rich region. Si and Al2O3 may be ideal substrates for thin InAlN film. PMID:27221345

  10. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases.

  11. Electrically induced displacement transport of immiscible oil in saline sediments.

    PubMed

    Pamukcu, Sibel; Shrestha, Reena A; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Mateus, Eduardo P

    2016-08-01

    Electrically assisted mitigation of coastal sediment oil pollution was simulated in floor-scale laboratory experiments using light crude oil and saline water at approximately 1/10 oil/water (O/W) mass ratio in pore fluid. The mass transport of the immiscible liquid phases was induced under constant direct current density of 2A/m(2), without water flooding. The transient pore water pressures (PWP) and the voltage differences (V) at and in between consecutive ports lined along the test specimen cell were measured over 90days. The oil phase transport occurred towards the anode half of the test specimen where the O/W volume ratio increased by 50% over its initial value within that half-length of the specimen. In contrast, the O/W ratio decreased within the cathode side half of the specimen. During this time, the PWP decreased systematically at the anode side with oil bank accumulation. PWP increased at the cathode side of the specimen, signaling increased concentration of water there as it replaced oil in the pore space. Electrically induced transport of the non-polar, non-conductive oil was accomplished in the opposing direction of flow by displacement in absence of viscous coupling of oil-water phases. PMID:27064863

  12. Hot water flushing for immiscible displacement of a viscous NAPL.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Denis M; Sleep, Brent E

    2007-05-14

    Thermal remediation techniques, such as hot water flooding, are emerging technologies that have been proposed for the removal of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface. In this study a combined laboratory and modeling investigation was conducted to determine if hot water flooding techniques would improve NAPL mass removal compared to ambient temperature water flushing. Two experiments were conducted in a bench scale two-dimensional sandbox (55 cmx45 cmx1.3 cm) and NAPL saturations were quantified using a light transmission apparatus. In these immiscible displacement experiments the aqueous phase, at 22 degrees C and 50 degrees C, displaced a zone with initial NAPL saturations on the order of 85%. The interfacial tension and viscosity of the selected light NAPL, Voltesso 35, are strongly temperature-dependent. Experimental results suggest that hot water flooding reduced the size of the high NAPL saturation zone, in comparison to the cold water flood, and yielded greater NAPL mass recovery (75% NAPL removal vs. 64%). Hot water flooding did not, however, result in lower residual NAPL saturations. A numerical simulator was modified to include simultaneous flow of water and organic phases, energy transport, temperature and pressure. Model predictions of mass removal and NAPL saturation profiles compared well with observed behavior. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the utility of hot water flooding improves with the increasing temperature dependence of NAPL hydraulic properties.

  13. Phase Change Effects on Immiscible Flow Displacements in Radial Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report a systematic simulation of immiscible fluid-fluid displacements in radial injection in the presence of phase change. Due to the presence of two fluid-fluid interfaces in the system, a special treatment has been adopted. To track the leading interface position, two highly accurate methods including Level Set and Immersed Interface Method were used, while for locating the trailing interface an energy equation was adopted assuming the existence of a constant thin condensate layer. Dimensional analysis led to three important dimensionless groups including capillary number (Ca), Jacob number (Ja) and viscosity ratios (M) of the three fluids. Simulation results indicate significant influences of these parameters on the development of the instability and the interfacial morphology of fingers. Increasing Ca or M tends to amplify the interfacial instability, fingertip splitting, and results in longer fingers. In contrast, increasing Ja has stabilizing effects due to an increase of the thickness of the condensate layer. On the other hand at lower viscosity ratios as well as lower Ca, because of compensation effects of the phase change, both leading and trailing interfaces are found to be less unstable. Moreover accumulated condensate and oil saturation depletion curves show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, when the Ca increases. Although viscosity ratio and Ja have similar effects on the accumulated condensate, they do not show any effect on the oil depletion saturation.

  14. Immiscibility in the Nickel Ferrite-Zinc Ferrite Spinel Binary

    SciTech Connect

    SE Ziemniak; AR Gaddipati; PC Sander; SB Rice

    2006-06-21

    Immiscibility in the trevorite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) - franklinite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel binary is investigated by reacting 1:1:2 molar ratio mixtures of NiO, ZnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a molten salt solvent at temperatures in the range 400-1000 C. Single phase stability is demonstrated down to about 730 C (the estimated consolute solution temperature, T{sub cs}). A miscibility gap/solvus exists below Tcs. The solvus becomes increasingly asymmetric at lower temperatures and extrapolates to n - values = 0.15, 0.8 at 300 C. A thermodynamic analysis, which accounts for changes in configurational and magnetic ordering entropies during cation mixing, predicts solvus phase compositions at room temperature in reasonable agreement with those determined by extrapolation of experimental results. The delay between disappearance of magnetic ordering above T{sub C} = 590 C (for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and disappearance of a miscibility gap at T{sub cs} is explained by the persistence of long-range ordering correlations in a quasi-paramagnetic region above T{sub C}.

  15. Morphology and Rheology of Model Immiscible Blends with Interfacial Crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLeo, Candice L.; Velankar, Sachin S.

    2008-07-01

    Reactive compatibilization—generating a compatibilizer by an interfacial chemical reaction between polymers in different phases—is a well-established method in the polymer blend industry. In this paper we explore immiscible polymer blends in which both reactive species are multifunctional, and thus form a crosslinked network at the interface. Experiments were conducted on blends of ˜30% polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) drops in a polyisoprene (PI) matrix. Optical microscopy of a reactively blended sample show clustering of non-spherical drops and non-smooth drop surfaces, suggesting that a crosslinked "skin" covers the interface of the drops and a crosslink network spans across multiple drops. The reactively blended sample also shows many unusual rheological features including a high viscosity and high creep recovery at low stress, overshoots in viscosity in creep experiments, and gel-like oscillatory behavior. However, at high stress, the viscosity of the reactively blended sample is comparable to the viscosity of a blend compatibilized with a diblock copolymer, suggesting that that interfacial crosslinking by multifunctional chains does not adversely affect processability.

  16. Nanodroplets of immiscible fluid pairs adopt nonspherical shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilemski, Gerald; Hrahsheh, Fawaz

    2015-03-01

    To help understand recent experimental results for nonane/water condensation [Pathak, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224318 (2014)], the structure of water/nonane nanodroplets was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of SPC/E water and a unified atom model of nonane. Because nonane and water are essentially immiscible fluids that only partially wet each other, one might expect unusual nanodroplet structures to arise. Indeed, nonspherical, phase-separated Russian Doll (RD) structures were found to occur for these nanodroplets over the entire temperature range studied in the MD simulations, 220K - 300K. An idealized, but realistic lens-on-sphere model for the observed RD structures consists of a spherical nonane lens that partially wets a spherical water droplet. This model was used to analyze the experimental small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The simulated contact angle of nonane on water was found to be quite sensitive to the value of the Lennard-Jones energy parameter ɛOC for the cross-interaction between oxygen and carbon atoms. The standard geometric mean approximation for ɛOCyielded contact angles in the range 70o- 80o, while a 19% increase in ɛOCreduced the simulated contact angle close to the experimental value of 33.6o at 295 K. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET-1033387.

  17. Wave propagation through porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng

    by the inclusion of relative acceleration vectors as independent constitutive variables. The resulting momentum balance equations governing immiscible two-phase flows in deformable porous media then account for the reaction of fluids to an acceleration of the solid matrix. A mathematical model was proposed to quantify the impact of elastic wave excitation on a fluid-containing porous medium by formulating a boundary value problem for a core sample packed with unconsolidated sand permeated by water, a simpler system than current laboratory experiments investigating seismic stimulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Formation of Interfacial Janus Nanomicelles by Reactive Blending and Their Compatibilization Effects on Immiscible Polymer Blends.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hengti; Fu, Zhiang; Dong, Wenyong; Li, Yongjin; Li, Jingye

    2016-09-01

    Micellization of in situ formed graft copolymers during reactive blending is commonly observed. Numerous studies have been carried out to minimize the formation of micelles and enhance emulsification efficiency. Herein, we investigated the formation of interfacial Janus nanomicelles (JNMs) and their compatibilization effects on immiscible polymer blends when reactive graft copolymers (RGCs) are used as compatibilizers. Poly(styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) RGCs were synthesized and used as compatibilizers for immiscible poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) blends. Numerous nanomicelles were formed in situ during melt blending by grafting of PLLA onto the RGCs. The formation and location of JNMs depended not only on the molecular architecture of the RGCs but also on the melt processing sequence and molecular weight of the components. Interfacial JNMs can effectively improve the miscibility of polymer blends, thereby enhancing the performance of immiscible polymer blends. PMID:27505259

  19. Synthesis of new metastable nanoalloys of immiscible metals with a pulse laser technique.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska-Warkocka, Zaneta; Pyatenko, Alexander; Krok, Franciszek; Jany, Benedykt R; Marszalek, Marta

    2015-05-08

    The generation of nanoalloys of immiscible metals is still a challenge using conventional methods. However, because these materials are currently attracting much attention, alternative methods are needed. In this article, we demonstrate a simple but powerful strategy for the generation of a new metastable alloy of immiscible metals. Au(1-x)Ni(x) 3D structures with 56 at% of nickel in gold were successfully manufactured by the pulsed laser irradiation of colloidal nanoparticles. This technology can be used for preparing different metastable alloys of immiscible metals. We hypothesise that this technique leads to the formation of alloy particles through the agglomerations of nanoparticles, very fast heating, and fast cooling/solidification. Thus, we expect that our approach will be applicable to a wide range of inorganic solids, yielding even new metastable solids that fail to be stable in the bulk systems, and therefore do not exist in Nature.

  20. Identification of Gravity-Related Effects on Crystal Growth From Melts With an Immiscibility Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Sayir, A.; Farmer, S.

    1999-01-01

    This work involves an experimental-numerical approach to study the effects of natural and Marangoni convections on solidification of single crystals from a silicate melt with a liquid-liquid immiscibility gap. Industrial use of crystals grown from silicate melts is becoming increasingly important in electronic, optical, and high temperature structural applications. Even the simplest silicate systems like Al203-SiO2 have had, and will continue to have, a significant role in the development of traditional and advanced ceramics. A unique feature of crystals grown from the silicate systems is their outstanding linear electro-optic properties. They also exhibit exceptionally high optical rotativity. As a result, these crystals are attractive materials for dielectric, optical, and microwave applications. Experimental work in our laboratory has indicated that directional solidification of a single crystal mullite appears to be preceded by liquid-liquid phase separation in the melt. Disruption of the immiscible state results in crystallization of a two phase structure. There is also evidence that mixing in the melt caused by density-driven convection can significantly affect the stability of the immiscible liquid layers and result in poly-crystalline growth. On earth, the immiscible state has only been observed for small diameter crystals grown in float zone systems where natural convection is almost negligible. Therefore, it is anticipated that growth of large single crystals from silicate melts would benefit from microgravity conditions because of the reduction of the natural convective mixing. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of transport processes on the phase separation in the melt during growth of a single crystal while addressing the following issues: (1) When do the immiscible layers form and are they real?; (2) What are the main physical characteristics of the immiscible liquids?; and (3) How mixing by natural or Marangoni convection

  1. Solidification Processing of Immiscible Liquids in the Presence of Applied Ultrasonic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Shinwood; Grugel, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    Uniform microstructural development during solidification of immiscible liquids on Earth is hampered by inherent density differences between the phases. Microgravity processing minimizes settling but segregation still occurs due to gravity independent wetting and coalescence phenomena. Experiments with the transparent organic, metal analogue, succinonitrile-glycerol system were conducted in conjunction with applied ultrasonic energy. The processing parameters associated with this technique have been evaluated in view of optimizing dispersion uniformity. Experimental results to evaluate microstructural phase distributions, based on other liquid-liquid immiscibility systems, will also be presented.

  2. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  3. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  4. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  5. Effects of crucible wetting during solidification of immiscible Pb-Zn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Henry C., III; Probst, Hubert B.

    1988-01-01

    Many industrial uses for liquid phase miscibility gap alloys are proposed. However, the commercial production of these alloys into useful ingots with a reasonable amount of homogeneity is arduous because of their immiscibility in the liquid state. In the low-g environment of space gravitational settling forces are abated, thus solidification of an immiscible alloys with a uniform distribution of phases becomes feasible. Elimination of gravitational settling and coalescence processes in low-g also makes possible the study of other separation and coarsening mechanisms. Even with gravitational separation forces reduced, many low-g experiments have resulted in severely segregated structures. The segregation in many cases was due to preferential wetting of the crucible by one of the immiscible liquids. The objective was to analyze the wetting behavior of Pb-Zn alloys on various crucible materials in an effort to identify a crucible in which the fluid flow induced by preferential wetting is minimized. It is proposed that by choosing the crucible for a particular alloy so that the difference in surface energy between the solid and two liqud phases is minimized, the effects of preferential wetting can be diminished and possibly avoided. Qualitative experiments were conducted and have shown the competitive wetting behavior of the immiscible Pb-Zn system and 13 different crucible materials.

  6. Effects of crucible wetting during solidification of immiscible Pb-Zn alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, H. C., III; Probst, H. B.

    1989-01-01

    Many industrial uses for liquid phase miscibility gap alloys are proposed. However, the commercial production of these alloys into useful ingots with a reasonable amount of homogeneity is arduous because of their immiscibility in the liquid state. In the low-g environment of space gravitational settling forces are abated, thus solidification of an immiscible alloy with a uniform distribution of phases becomes feasible. Elimination of gravitational settling and coalescence processes in low-g also makes possible the study of other separation and coarsening mechanisms. Even with gravitational separation forces reduced, many low-g experiments have resulted in severely segregated structures. The segregation in many cases was due to preferential wetting of the crucible by one of the immiscible liquids. The objective was to analyze the wetting behavior of Pb-Zn alloys on various crucible materials in an effort to identify a crucible in which the fluid flow induced by preferential wetting is minimized. It is proposed that by choosing the crucible for a particular alloy so that the difference in surface energy between the solid and two liquid phases is minimized, the effects of preferential wetting can be diminished and possibly avoided. Qualitative experiments were conducted and have shown the competitive wetting behavior of the immiscible Pb-Zn system and 13 different crucible materials.

  7. Morphology Evolution of Polypropylene in Immiscible Polymer Blends for Fabrication of Nanofibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs) with different melting index were extruded through a two-strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios by controlling the drawing speed. The morphologies of iPP fibers e...

  8. Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

  9. Fabrication of 3D microstructures from interactions of immiscible liquids with a structured surface.

    PubMed

    Balowski, Joseph J; Wang, Yuli; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2013-08-14

    A new lithography technique is presented that exploits the interactions of immiscible liquids with a structured surface. This highly parallel, "low-tech" method requires no dedicated equipment and easily produces curved and/or multi-level structures out of a variety of photoactive and non-photoactive materials. PMID:23798498

  10. Upscaling immiscible two-phase flows in an adaptive frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinopoulos, Theofilos

    We derive the two-scale limit of a linear or nonlinear saturation equation with a flow-based coordinate transformation. This transformation consists of the pressure and the streamfunction. In this framework the saturation equation is decoupled to a family of one-dimensional nonconservative transport equations along streamlines. This simplifies the derivation of the two-scale limit. Moreover it allows us to obtain the convergence independent of the assumptions of periodicity and scale separation. We provide a rigorous estimate on the convergence rate. We combine the two-scale limit with Tartar's method to complete the homogenization. To design an efficient numerical method, we use in averaging approach across the streamlines on the two-scale limit equations. The resulting numerical method for the saturation has all the advantages in terms of adaptivity that methods have. We couple it with a moving mesh along the streamlines to resolve the shock more efficiently. We use the multiscale finite element method to upscale the pressure equation because it gives access to the fine scale velocity, which enters in the saturation equation; through the basis functions. We propose to solve the pressure equation in the coordinate frame of the initial pressure and saturation, which is similar to the modified multiscale finite element method. We test our numerical method in realistic permeability fields, such is the Tenth SPE Comparative Solution Project permeabilities, for accuracy and computational cost.

  11. Droplet condensation and growth on nanotextured surfaces impregnated with an immiscible liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam; Smith, Jonathan; Dhiman, Rajeev; Varanasi, Kripa

    2012-02-01

    For effective dropwise condensation, a surface that sheds droplets easily is desirable due to the enhancement in accompanying heat transfer. Incorporating nano-textures on the surface can enhance the droplet shedding or spreading. We demonstrate that droplet shedding can be further influenced by impregnating the nano-textured surface with a liquid which is immiscible with respect to the droplet. In this study, the dynamics of dropwise condensation on such immiscible liquid impregnated nano-textured surfaces have been investigated in pure quiescent water vapor conditions. Condensation experiments were conducted using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope by controlling the chamber water vapor pressure and substrate temperature. We show preferential sites for condensation and different modes under which droplets grow, depending upon the surface chemistry, surface texture, and the impregnating liquid properties. Concurrently, we show an evolution of apparent contact angles during the condensation process on the impregnated surfaces.

  12. Mussel adhesion-employed water-immiscible fluid bioadhesive for urinary fistula sealing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Lim, Seonghye; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Kang, Seok Ho; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-12-01

    Urinary fistulas, abnormal openings of a urinary tract organ, are serious complications and conventional management strategies are not satisfactory. For more effective and non-invasive fistula repair, fluid tissue adhesives or sealants have been suggested. However, conventional products do not provide a suitable solution due to safety problems and poor underwater adhesion under physiological conditions. Herein, we proposed a unique water-immiscible mussel protein-based bioadhesive (WIMBA) exhibiting strong underwater adhesion which was employed by two adhesion strategies of marine organisms; 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA)-mediated strong adhesion and water-immiscible coacervation. The developed biocompatible WIMBA successfully sealed ex vivo urinary fistulas and provided good durability and high compliance. Thus, WIMBA could be used as a promising sealant for urinary fistula management with further expansion to diverse internal body applications. PMID:26352517

  13. Effect of using miscible and immiscible healing agent on solid state self-healing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makenan, Siti Mastura; Jamil, Mohd Suzeren Md.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using various healing agent which are miscible; poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin), and immiscible; poly(ethylene-co-acetate) and poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid), on self-healing resin system. The specimens were analysed by Fourier-transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), and izod test. Optical image of the sample morphology was observed using optical microscope. Healing efficiencies (HE) were evaluated using izod test. The concept of healing recovery was proved based on the use of miscible and immiscible healing agent. From the results, it can be concluded that the healable resin with miscible healing agent has the highest HE within the third healing cycle.

  14. Structures of immiscible Al-In alloys solidified under microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potard, C.

    1981-01-01

    Four samples of the immiscible Al-In system having monotectic and hypermonotectic compositions were solidified under microgravity during the NASA-SPAR IX flight of January 20th, 1981. The experimental thermal and physico-chemical conditions actually achieved have been analysed. Radiographic and metallographic observations of the samples show a non-regular dispersed primary phase inside the monotectic matrix. These observations are commented on the basis of capillarity and solidification aspects.

  15. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich liquids in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Lennart A.; Wang, Meng; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Roberts, R. James; Veksler, Ilya V.; Cawthorn, R. Grant; Holtz, François

    2016-06-01

    The Bushveld Complex (South Africa) is the largest layered intrusion on Earth and plays a considerable role in our understanding of magmatic differentiation and ore-forming processes. In this study, we present new geochemical data for apatite-hosted multiphase inclusions in gabbroic cumulates from the Bushveld Upper Zone. Inclusions re-homogenized at high-temperature (1060-1100 °C) display a range of compositions in each rock sample, from iron-rich (35 wt.% FeOtot; 28 wt.% SiO2) to silica-rich (5 wt.% FeOtot; 65 wt.% SiO2). This trend is best explained by an immiscible process and trapping of contrasted melts in apatite crystals during progressive cooling along the binodal of a two-liquid field. The coexistence of both Si-rich and Fe-rich immiscible melts in single apatite grains is used to discuss the ability of immiscible melts to segregate from each other, and the implications for mineral and bulk cumulate compositions. We argue that complete separation of immiscible liquids did not occur, resulting in crystallization of similar phases from both melts but in different proportions. However, partial segregation in a crystal mush and the production of contrasting phase proportions from the Fe-rich melt and the Si-rich melt can be responsible for the cyclic evolution from melanocratic (Fe-Ti-P-rich) to leucocratic (plagioclase-rich) gabbros which is commonly observed in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex where it occurs at a vertical scale of 50 to 200 m.

  16. Numerical simulation of immiscible viscous fingering using adaptive unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Salinas, P.; Percival, J. R.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C.; Muggeridge, A. H.; Jackson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Displacement of one fluid by another in porous media occurs in various settings including hydrocarbon recovery, CO2 storage and water purification. When the invading fluid is of lower viscosity than the resident fluid, the displacement front is subject to a Saffman-Taylor instability and is unstable to transverse perturbations. These instabilities can grow, leading to fingering of the invading fluid. Numerical simulation of viscous fingering is challenging. The physics is controlled by a complex interplay of viscous and diffusive forces and it is necessary to ensure physical diffusion dominates numerical diffusion to obtain converged solutions. This typically requires the use of high mesh resolution and high order numerical methods. This is computationally expensive. We demonstrate here the use of a novel control volume - finite element (CVFE) method along with dynamic unstructured mesh adaptivity to simulate viscous fingering with higher accuracy and lower computational cost than conventional methods. Our CVFE method employs a discontinuous representation for both pressure and velocity, allowing the use of smaller control volumes (CVs). This yields higher resolution of the saturation field which is represented CV-wise. Moreover, dynamic mesh adaptivity allows high mesh resolution to be employed where it is required to resolve the fingers and lower resolution elsewhere. We use our results to re-examine the existing criteria that have been proposed to govern the onset of instability.Mesh adaptivity requires the mapping of data from one mesh to another. Conventional methods such as consistent interpolation do not readily generalise to discontinuous fields and are non-conservative. We further contribute a general framework for interpolation of CV fields by Galerkin projection. The method is conservative, higher order and yields improved results, particularly with higher order or discontinuous elements where existing approaches are often excessively diffusive.

  17. Liquid immiscibility in a CTGS (Ca3TaGa3Si2O14) melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Zhao, Hengyu; Koyama, Chihiro; Maeda, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Uda, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have indicated that Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) grows congruently from a stoichiometric melt when using the Czochralski (Cz) technique, the occurrence of a secondary phase during growth when using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique has been reported. We have examined the detailed growth mechanism of μ-PD grown CTGS as well as its congruency. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) at an elevated temperature up to 1650 °C shows no peaks associated with the presence of a secondary phase, whereas a secondary phase related peak was detected at an elevated temperature up to 1490 °C with the same heating rate. Back-scattered electron images (BEIs) revealed the occurrence of Ca3Ta2Ga4O14 (CTG) as a secondary phase. The secondary phase appears at the very early stage of growth, which is not possible to explain by a eutectic reaction. The experimental results suggest that liquid immiscibility was present in the melt at around 1490 °C during the growth of s-CTGS. Liquid immiscibility produces Si-rich and Si-poor melts, from which different phases with different compositions are solidified. The μ-PD technique poses a more static environment in the melt than that of Cz technique due to low melt convection and the lack of stirring, which enables liquid immiscibility to emerge.

  18. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Rabia; Ahmed, Sohail; Mazhar, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad; Khan, Nawazish Ali; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  19. Complex nanoprecipitate structures induced by irradiation in immiscible alloy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shipeng; Bellon, P.; Averback, R. S.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the fundamentals of compositional patterning induced by energetic particle irradiation in model A-B substitutional binary alloys using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The study focuses on a type of nanostructure that was recently observed in dilute Cu-Fe and Cu-V alloys, where precipitates form within precipitates, a morphology that we term “cherry-pit” structures. The simulations show that the domain of stability of these cherry-pit structures depends on the thermodynamic and kinetic asymmetry between the A and B elements. In particular, both lower solubilities and diffusivities of A in B compared to those of B in A favor the stabilization of these cherry-pit structures for A-rich average compositions. The simulation results are rationalized by extending the analytic model introduced by Frost and Russell for irradiation-induced compositional patterning so as to include the possible formation of pits within precipitates. The simulations indicate also that the pits are dynamical structures that undergo nearly periodic cycles of nucleation, growth, and absorption by the matrix.

  20. Tin-carbon clusters and the onset of microscopic level immiscibility: Experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J; Landau, A; Zemel, E; Kolodney, E

    2015-09-21

    We report the experimental observation and computational analysis of the binary tin-carbon gas phase species. These novel ionic compounds are generated by impact of C60(-) anions on a clean tin target at some kiloelectronvolts kinetic energies. Positive Sn(m)C(n)(+) (m = 1-12, 1 ≤ n ≤ 8) ions were detected mass spectrometrically following ejection from the surface. Impact induced shattering of the C60(-) ion followed by sub-surface penetration of the resulting atomic carbon flux forces efficient mixing between target and projectile atoms even though the two elements (Sn/C) are completely immiscible in the bulk. This approach of C60(-) ion beam induced synthesis can be considered as an effective way for producing novel metal-carbon species of the so-called non-carbide forming elements, thus exploring the possible onset of molecular level miscibility in these systems. Sn2C2(+) was found to be the most abundant carbide cluster ion. Its instantaneous formation kinetics and its measured kinetic energy distribution while exiting the surface demonstrate a single impact formation/emission event (on the sub-ps time scale). Optimal geometries were calculated for both neutral and positively charged species using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for identifying global minima, followed by density functional theory (DFT) structure optimization and energy calculations at the coupled cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level. The calculated structures reflect two distinct binding tendencies. The carbon rich species exhibit polyynic/cummulenic nature (tin end capped carbon chains) while the more stoichiometrically balanced species have larger contributions of metal-metal bonding, sometimes resulting in distinct tin and carbon moieties attached to each other (segregated structures). The Sn2C(n) (n = 3-8) and Sn2C(n)(+) (n = 2-8) are polyynic/cummulenic while all neutral Sn(m)C(n) structures (m = 3-4) could be described as small tin clusters (dimer

  1. Liquid immiscibility between arsenide and sulfide melts: evidence from a LA-ICP-MS study in magmatic deposits at Serranía de Ronda (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Ortega, L.; Lunar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The chromite-Ni arsenide (Cr-Ni-As) and sulfide-graphite (S-G) deposits from the Serranía de Ronda (Málaga, South Spain) contain an arsenide assemblage (nickeline, maucherite and nickeliferous löllingite) that has been interpreted to represent an arsenide melt and a sulfide-graphite assemblage (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and graphite) that has been interpreted to represent a sulfide melt, both of which have been interpreted to have segregated as immiscible liquids from an arsenic-rich sulfide melt. We have determined the platinum-group element (PGE), Au, Ag, Se, Sb, Bi and Te contents of the arsenide and sulfide assemblages using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to establish their partitioning behaviour during the immiscibility of an arsenide melt from a sulfide melt. Previous experimental work has shown that PGE partition more strongly into arsenide melts than into sulfide melts and our results fit with this observation. Arsenide minerals are enriched in all PGE, but especially in elements with the strongest affinity for the arsenide melt, including Ir, Rh and Pt. In contrast and also in agreement with previous studies, Se and Ag partition preferentially into the sulfide assemblage. The PGE-depleted nature of sulfides in the S-G deposits along with the discordant morphologies of the bodies suggest that these sulfides are not mantle sulfides, but that they represent the crystallization product of a PGE-depleted sulfide melt due to the sequestering of PGE by an arsenide melt.

  2. MASS-REMOVAL AND MASS-FLUX-REDUCTION BEHAVIOR FOR IDEALIZED SOURCE ZONES WITH HYDRAULICALLY POORLY-ACCESSIBLE IMMISCIBLE LIQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Brusseau, M. L.; Difilippo, Erica L.; marble, justin C.; Oostrom, Mart

    2008-04-01

    A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to investigate aqueous dissolution and mass-removal behavior for systems wherein immiscible liquid was non-uniformly distributed in physically heterogeneous source zones. The study focused specifically on characterizing the relationship between mass flux reduction and mass removal for systems for which immiscible liquid is poorly accessible to flowing water. Two idealized scenarios were examined, one wherein immiscible liquid at residual saturation exists within a lower-permeability unit residing in a higher-permeability matrix, and one wherein immiscible liquid at higher saturation (a pool) exists within a higher-permeability unit adjacent to a lower-permeability unit. The results showed that significant reductions in mass flux occurred at relatively moderate mass-removal fractions for all systems. Conversely, minimalmass flux reduction occurred until a relatively large fraction of mass (>80%) was removed for the control experiment, which was designed to exhibit ideal mass removal. In general, mass flux reduction was observed to follow an approximately one-to-one relationship with mass removal. Two methods for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior, one based on system-indicator parameters (ganglia-to-pool ratio) and the other a simple mass-removal function, were used to evaluate the measured data. The results of this study illustrate the impact of poorly accessible immiscible liquid on mass-removal and mass-flux processes, and the difficulties posed for estimating mass-flux-reduction/mass-removal behavior.

  3. Capillary pinning and blunting of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Juanes, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    Gravity-driven flows in the subsurface have attracted recent interest in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. After injection, the CO2 will spread and migrate as a buoyant gravity current relative to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 spreading and migration is poorly understood. We previously studied the early time evolution of an immiscible gravity current, showing that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the macroscopic fluid-fluid interface and that this can eventually stop the flow. Here we study the full lifetime of such a gravity current. Using tabletop experiments in packings of glass beads, we show that the horizontal extent of the pinned region grows with time and that this is ultimately responsible for limiting the migration of the current to a finite distance. We also find that capillarity blunts the leading edge of the current, which contributes to further limiting the migration distance. Using experiments in etched micromodels, we show that the thickness of the blunted nose is controlled by the distribution of pore-throat sizes and the strength of capillarity relative to buoyancy. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. By applying this model to representative aquifers, we show that capillary pinning and blunting can exert an important control on gravity currents in the context of geological CO2 storage.

  4. Carbonatitic and granitic melts produced under conditions of primary immiscibility during anatexis in the lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; Ziemann, Martin A.; Wälle, Markus; O'Brien, Patrick J.

    2016-11-01

    Carbonatites are peculiar magmatic rocks with mantle-related genesis, commonly interpreted as the products of melting of CO2-bearing peridotites, or resulting from the chemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas, either through extreme differentiation or secondary immiscibility. Here we report the first finding of anatectic carbonatites of crustal origin, preserved as calcite-rich polycrystalline inclusions in garnet from low-to-medium pressure migmatites of the Oberpfalz area, SW Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). These inclusions originally trapped a melt of calciocarbonatitic composition with a characteristic enrichment in Ba, Sr and LREE. This interpretation is supported by the results of a detailed microstructural and microchemical investigation, as well as re-melting experiments using a piston cylinder apparatus. Carbonatitic inclusions coexist in the same cluster with crystallized silicate melt inclusions (nanogranites) and COH fluid inclusions, suggesting conditions of primary immiscibility between two melts and a fluid during anatexis. The production of both carbonatitic and granitic melts during the same anatectic event requires a suitable heterogeneous protolith. This may be represented by a sedimentary sequence containing marble lenses of limited extension, similar to the one still visible in the adjacent central Moldanubian Zone. The presence of CO2-rich fluid inclusions suggests furthermore that high CO2 activity during anatexis may be required to stabilize a carbonate-rich melt in a silica-dominated system. This natural occurrence displays a remarkable similarity with experiments on carbonate-silicate melt immiscibility, where CO2 saturation is a condition commonly imposed. In conclusion, this study shows how the investigation of partial melting through melt inclusion studies may unveil unexpected processes whose evidence, while preserved in stiff minerals such as garnet, is completely obliterated in the rest of the rock due to metamorphic re

  5. The influence of gravity level during directional solidification of immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Schmale, A. L.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    During directional solidification of immiscible (hypermonotectic) alloys it is theoretically possible to establish a stable macroscopically-planar solidification front, and thus avoid sedimentation. Unfortunately, convective instabilities often occur which interfere with the directional solidification process. In this paper, stability conditions are discussed and results presented from directional solidification studies carried out aboard NASA's KC-135 zero-g aircraft. Samples were directionally solidified while the effective gravity level was varied from approximately 0.01 g for 25 s to 1.8 g for 45 s. Dramatic variations in microstructure were observed with gravity level during solidification.

  6. Nonequilibrium dynamics induced by miscible-immiscible transition in binary Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Yujiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kunimi, Masaya; Saito, Hiroki; Hirano, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We have observed and characterized the nonequilibrium spatial dynamics of a two-component 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) that is controllable switched back and forth between the miscible and immiscible phases of the phase separation transition by changing the internal states of the 87Rb atoms. The subsequent evolution exhibits large scale oscillations of the spatial structure that involve component mixing and separation. We show that the larger total energy of the miscible system results in a higher oscillation frequency. This investigation introduces a new technique to control the miscibility and the spatial degrees of freedom in atomic BECs.

  7. Melt inclusion evidence of second immiscibility within a magma derived non-silicate phase (Mt Vesuvius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulignati, P.; Kamenetsky, V.; Marianelli, P.; Sbrana, A.

    2003-04-01

    Processes of melt immiscibility occurring during late magmatic differentiation play important role in the generation of many magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits and may activate and control the style of volcanic eruptions. The exsolution of a non-silicate, volatile-rich phase from the phonolitic magma occurred at the peripheral parts of the 79AD Vesuvius magma chamber. The results of our work suggest that this immiscible phase can further experience another unmixing event that occurs in essentially "post-magmatic" environment. Heating/cooling experiments were carried out on the cogenetic multiphase (clear daughter crystals + vapour bubble(s) + interstial liquid) inclusions, hosted in K-feldspar of cognate felsic xenoliths, representative of rocks in the peripheral parts of the magma chamber. During heating, solid phases begin to dissolve at about 150^oC and melt completely at 530^oC. These low temperatures of melting argue for a non-silicate composition of daughter minerals, and thus bulk inclusion content. The remaining vapour bubble dissolves at 880^oC. During subsequent cooling, vapour bubble nucleates at 785^oC and increases in size. Unmixing of at least two melt phases occurs instantaneously at 500^oC in all studied inclusions. Globules of one melt float freely in the matrix of another melt, change their shape and size, coalesce and split apart continuously down to 100--150^oC. The movements of globules slow down with decreasing temperature until final solidification at 40--50^oC. The similarity of observed phase transformations inside inclusions suggests their homogeneous trapping at magmatic temperatures. By analogy with results of the study of xenoliths from the Vesuvius 472AD eruption (Fulignati et al., 2001) we interpret unmixed phases as globules of the Na-K chloride melt set in the matrix of Ca-carbonate melt. We infer that immiscibility between low viscosity, highly fugitive non-silicate melts may significantly influence partitioning of metals

  8. Solidification Processing of Immiscible Liquids in the Presence of Applied Ultrasonic Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Kim, S.

    2001-01-01

    Uniform microstructural distribution during solidification of immiscible liquids (e.g., oil and water; aluminum and lead) on Earth is hampered by inherent density differences between the phases. Microgravity processing minimizes settling but segregation still occurs due to gravity independent wetting and coalescence phenomena. Experiments with the transparent organic, metal analogue, succinonitrile-glycerol system were conducted in conjunction with applied ultrasonic energy. The processing parameters associated with this technique have been evaluated in view of optimizing dispersion uniformity. Characterization of the experimental results in terms of a modeling effort will also be presented,

  9. Nonequilibrium dynamics induced by miscible–immiscible transition in binary Bose–Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Yujiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kunimi, Masaya; Saito, Hiroki; Hirano, Takuya

    2016-07-01

    We have observed and characterized the nonequilibrium spatial dynamics of a two-component 87Rb Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) that is controllable switched back and forth between the miscible and immiscible phases of the phase separation transition by changing the internal states of the 87Rb atoms. The subsequent evolution exhibits large scale oscillations of the spatial structure that involve component mixing and separation. We show that the larger total energy of the miscible system results in a higher oscillation frequency. This investigation introduces a new technique to control the miscibility and the spatial degrees of freedom in atomic BECs.

  10. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray, or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraggedakis, D.; Kouris, Ch.; Dimakopoulos, Y.; Tsamopoulos, J.

    2015-08-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our volume-of-fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First, the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then, it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow, or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray, and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results [I. Cohen et al., "Two fluid drop snap-off problem: Experiments and theory," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1147-1150 (1999)]. Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our result provides deeper insights into the mechanism of the pattern transitions and is in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow [Ch. Kouris and J. Tsamopoulos, "Core-annular flow in a periodically constricted circular tube, I. Steady state, linear stability and energy analysis," J. Fluid Mech. 432, 31-68 (2001) and Ch. Kouris et al., "Comparison of spectral and finite element methods applied to the study of interfacial instabilities of the core-annular flow in an undulating tube," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 39(1), 41-73 (2002)], segmented flow [E. Lac and J. D. Sherwood, "Motion of a drop along the centreline of a capillary in a pressure-driven flow," J. Fluid Mech. 640, 27-54 (2009)], and churn flow [R. Y. Bai et al., "Lubricated pipelining—Stability of core annular-flow. 5. Experiments and comparison with theory," J. Fluid Mech. 240, 97-132 (1992)].

  11. Immiscible Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckelmann, Jens; Luning, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    layers of liquids. The setup of both demonstrations is such that one homogeneous layer in a multiphasic mixture separates into two new layers upon shaking. The solvents used are methanol, toluene, petroleum ether or "n"-pentane, silicone oil, perfluoroheptanes,…

  12. Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds through Solid-state Foaming of Immiscible Polymer Blends

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changchun; Ma, Liang; Li, Wei; Yao, Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20-70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:21904025

  13. Peralkaline nephelinite-natrocarbonatite immiscibility and carbonatite assimilation at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.

    2009-11-01

    This study presents petrographic and compositional data for coexisting peralkaline silicate glass and quenched natrocarbonatite melt in nepheline phenocrysts from the 24 September 2007 and July 2008 eruptions of the natrocarbonatite volcano Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). Data are also given for peralkaline residual glass in combeite nephelinite ash clasts occurring in the March-April 2006 large volume natrocarbonatite flow. These data are considered to demonstrate the occurrence of liquid immiscibility between strongly peralkaline Fe-rich nephelinite melt and natrocarbonatite at Oldoinyo Lengai. Compositional data for coexisting silicate-carbonate pairs in conjunction with previous experimental studies suggest that the size of the field of liquid immiscibility for carbonated nephelinitic magmas is a function of their peralkalinity. It is shown that peralkaline combeite wollastonite nephelinite was present at Oldoinyo Lengai prior to, and during, the 24 September 2007 ash eruption. It is postulated that the driving force for this major eruption was assimilation and decomposition of previously emplaced solid natrocarbonatite. Assimilation resulted in the formation of the unusual hybrid nepheline-andradite-melilite-combeite-phosphate magma represented by the 24 September 2007 ash.

  14. The mechanism of Bi nanowire growth from Bi/Co immiscible composite thin films.

    PubMed

    Volobuev, Valentine V; Dziawa, Piotr; Stetsenko, Alexander N; Zubarev, Eugene N; Savitskiy, Boris A; Samburskaya, Tatyana A; Reszka, Anna; Story, Tomasz; Sipatov, Alexander Yu

    2012-11-01

    Single crystalline Bi nanowires were grown by extrusion from Bi/Co thin films. The films were obtained by thermal evaporation in high vacuum. The average diameter, length and density of obtained nanowires were 100 nm, 30 microm and 6.5 x 10(5) cm(-2), respectively. The non-catalyzed self-organized process of whisker formation on the surface of immiscible composite thin film was exploited for nanowire growth. It was shown that the whiskers had formed during and after a thin film deposition. The value of residual stresses in a whole thin film coating as well as in its bismuth component was measured using X-ray diffraction technique. It was revealed that local compressive stresses, that had induced the whisker growth, had been formed by a segregation of Bi layers into Bi globules. A simple model of the whisker formation to minimize free energy in the Bi/Co system was proposed taking into account interfacial and elastic deformation energies. The obtained results can be utilized for growing of nanowires of other low-melting-point metals and semiconductors from immiscible composite thin films. PMID:23421254

  15. Preparation and Friction Force Microscopy Measurements of Immiscible, Opposing Polymer Brushes

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Müser, Martin H.; Vancso, G. Julius

    2014-01-01

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication, we have shown via molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy experiments, that using an immiscible polymer brush system terminating the substrate and the slider surfaces, respectively, can eliminate such interdigitation. As a consequence, wear in the contacts is reduced. Moreover, the friction force is two orders of magnitude lower compared to traditional miscible polymer brush systems. This newly proposed system therefore holds great potential for application in industry. Here, the methodology to construct an immiscible polymer brush system of two different brushes each solvated by their own preferred solvent is presented. The procedure how to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from a flat surface and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is described. PNIPAM is solvated in water and PMMA in acetophenone. Via friction force AFM measurements, it is shown that the friction for this system is indeed reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the miscible system of PMMA on PMMA solvated in acetophenone. PMID:25590429

  16. Liquid immiscibility and core-shell morphology formation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, R.; Zhang, J.F.; Zhang, S.G. Li, J.G.

    2013-07-15

    The effects of composition on liquid immiscibility, macroscopic morphology, microstructure and phase transformation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys were investigated. Three types of morphology, the core-shell type, the stochastic droplet type and uniform dispersion type, of Al–Bi–Sn particles prepared by a jet breakup process were distinguished, and the relationships between which were discussed. The phase transformation behaviors of the Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied by thermal analysis, in agreement with the microstructural observation and microanalysis. The liquid immiscibility and formation of the core-shell morphology in Al–Bi–Sn alloys are easily achieved when the composition lies in the liquid miscibility gap. The particles exhibit a high melting point Al-rich core with a low melting point Sn–Bi-rich solder shell, showing promise for application as high-density electronic packaging materials. - Highlights: • The liquid demixing, morphology and microstructure in Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied. • Three types of morphology were classified and discussed. • The conditions for formation of the core-shell morphology were obtained. • The phase transition behaviors agree with the microstructure characterization. • The Al/Sn–Bi core-shell particles show promise for use in electronic packaging.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of morphological transitions in PbTe/CdTe immiscible material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mińkowski, Marcin; Załuska-Kotur, Magdalena A.; Turski, Łukasz A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    The crystal growth of the immiscible PbTe/CdTe multilayer system is analyzed as an example of a self-organizing process. The immiscibility of the constituents leads to the observed morphological transformations such as an anisotropy driven formation of quantum dots and nanowires and to a phase separation at the highest temperatures. The proposed model accomplishes a bulk and surface diffusion together with an anisotropic mobility of the material components. We analyze its properties by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and show that it is able to reproduce all of the structures observed experimentally during the process of the PbTe/CdTe growth. We show that all of the dynamical processes studied play an important role in the creation of zero-, one-, two-, and, finally, three-dimensional structures. The shape of the structures that are grown is different for relatively thick multilayers, when the bulk diffusion cooperates with the anisotropic mobility, as compared to the annealed structures for which only the isotropic bulk diffusion decides about the process. Finally, it is different again for thin multilayers when the surface diffusion is the most decisive factor. We compare our results with the experimentally grown systems and show that the proposed model explains the diversity of observed structures.

  18. Unsteady immiscible multiphase flow validation of a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, S.; Pellerin, N.; Reggio, M.; Trépanier, J.-Y.

    2014-03-01

    The lattice Boltzmann modeling of immiscible multiphase flows needs to be further validated, especially when density variation occurs between the different flow phases. From this perspective, the goal of this research is to introduce the multiple-relaxation-time operator into a lattice Boltzmann model in order to improve its numerical stability in the presence of large density and viscosity ratios. Essentially, this research shows that the introduction of this operator greatly improves the numerical stability of the approach compared to the original single-relaxation-time collision operator. In many lattice Boltzmann research studies, multiphase lattice Boltzmann methods are validated using a reduced number of test cases, and unsteady flow test cases are frequently omitted before much more complex flow configurations are simulated. In this context, several test cases are proposed to evaluate the behavior of a lattice Boltzmann method for simulating immiscible multiphase flows with high density and viscosity ratios. These are: (1) two-phase Couette flow; (2) three-phase Laplace law; (3) three-phase Zalesak disk; (4) two-phase flow between oscillating plates; (5) two-phase capillary wave; and (6) the two-phase oscillating cylindrical bubble. The first two involve a steady regime, and the remaining four an unsteady regime.

  19. Preparation and friction force microscopy measurements of immiscible, opposing polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Müser, Martin H; Vancso, G Julius

    2014-12-24

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication, we have shown via molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy experiments, that using an immiscible polymer brush system terminating the substrate and the slider surfaces, respectively, can eliminate such interdigitation. As a consequence, wear in the contacts is reduced. Moreover, the friction force is two orders of magnitude lower compared to traditional miscible polymer brush systems. This newly proposed system therefore holds great potential for application in industry. Here, the methodology to construct an immiscible polymer brush system of two different brushes each solvated by their own preferred solvent is presented. The procedure how to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from a flat surface and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is described. PNIPAM is solvated in water and PMMA in acetophenone. Via friction force AFM measurements, it is shown that the friction for this system is indeed reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the miscible system of PMMA on PMMA solvated in acetophenone.

  20. Particle velocimetry analysis of immiscible two-phase flow in micromodels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Sophie; Soulaine, Cyprien; AlSaud, Moataz Abu; Kovscek, Anthony; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2016-09-01

    We perform micro-PIV measurements in micromodels using very simple optical equipment combined with efficient image acquisition and processing. The pore-scale velocity distributions are obtained for single-phase flow in porous media with a typical pore size of 5-40 μm at a resolution of 1.8 μm × 1.8 μm vector grid. Because the application of micro-PIV in micromodels is not standard, extensive effort is invested into validation of the experimental technique. The micro-PIV measurements are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of single-phase flows, for which the modeling is well established once the detailed pore geometry is specified and therefore serves as a reference. The experimental setup is then used with confidence to investigate the dynamics of immiscible two-phase flow in micromodels that represent natural complex porous media (e.g., sandstone). For unstable immiscible two-phase flow experiments, micro-PIV measurements indicate that the flow is highly oscillatory long before the arrival of the invading interface. The dynamics are accompanied with abrupt changes of velocity magnitude and flow direction, and interfacial jumps. Following the passage of the front, dissipative events, such as eddies within the aqueous phase, are observed in the micro-PIV results. These observations of complex interface dynamics at the pore scale motivate further measurement of multiphase fluid movement at the sub-pore scale and requisite modeling.

  1. Real-Time Observation on Evolution of Droplets Morphology Affected by Electric Current Pulse in Al-Bi Immiscible Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Tongmin; Cao, Fei; Fu, Hongwang; Fu, Yanan; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of Bi-rich droplets morphology in a solidifying Al-Bi immiscible alloy was directly observed using a synchrotron microradiography technique. The electric current pulse (ECP) was applied to control the solidification process of Al-Bi immiscible alloy. It was found that the electromagnetic pinch force and Marangoni force induced by ECP and temperature gradient, respectively, can significantly affect the distribution of Bi-rich droplets. The electromagnetic pinch force drove the droplets from the center to side; meanwhile, the Marangoni force lifted the droplets from the bottom to the top. As a result, the droplets finally distributed with a manner of "inverted triangle."

  2. Numerical modeling of immiscible two-phase flow in micro-models using a commercial CFD code

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadia, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-the-shelf CFD software is being used to analyze everything from flow over airplanes to lab-on-a-chip designs. So, how accurately can two-phase immiscible flow be modeled flowing through some small-scale models of porous media? We evaluate the capability of the CFD code FLUENT{trademark} to model immiscible flow in micro-scale, bench-top stereolithography models. By comparing the flow results to experimental models we show that accurate 3D modeling is possible.

  3. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terphthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were melt extruded through a two strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios. PTT fibers were obtained by removal of the CAB matrix from the drawn extrudates, a...

  4. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were melt extruded through a two strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios. PTT fibers were obtained by removal of the CAB matrix from the drawn extrudates, a...

  5. Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

  6. Thermo-Gelation of Surface-Modified Polyethylene Microgels from Fragmentation and Immiscible Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Gerald H.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    2008-07-01

    Polyethylene microgels were created by swollen-state grinding and ultrasonic fragmentation of bulk crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) suspended in squalane, and by the extraction of crosslinked-polyethylene micro-domains from an immiscible blend of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS). Crosslinking of the polyethylene micro-domains in the blend was achieved by exposure to an electron beam. Suspensions of both microgels in squalane exhibit thermal gelation upon cooling where both G' and G″ increase by up to five-orders in magnitude when probed using small-angle oscillatory shear. We propose that this phenomenon is attributed to weak short-range interactions among the particles whereby surface terminal chains on the microgels can co-crystallize forming inter-particle bonds. However, these interactions are mild enough that the systems may be reverted to its original state by applying higher shear stresses at elevated temperatures.

  7. Heat transfer between stratified immiscible liquid layers driven by gas bubbling across the interface

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Irvine, T.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of molten core debris in the CORCON and VANESA computer codes as overlying, immiscible liquid layers is discussed as it relates to the transfer of heat and mass between the layers. This initial structure is identified and possible configurations are discussed. The stratified, gas-sparged configuration that is presently employed in CORCON and VANESA is examined and the existing literature for interlayer heat transfer is assessed. An experiment which was designed to measure interlayer heat transfer with gas sparging is described. The results are presented and compared to previously existing models. A dimensionless correlation for stratified, interlayer heat transfer with gas sparging is developed. This relationship is recommended for inclusion in CORCON-MOD2 for heat transfer between stratified, molten liquid layers. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Flow observation in two immiscible liquid layers subject to a horizontal temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Satoshi; Munakata, Tetsuo; Nishio, Masahiro; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2002-02-01

    Marangoni convection, driven by an interfacial instability due to a surface tension gradient, has become a significant problem in the crystal growth on the ground or in a microgravity environment. To suppress and control the convection is important for material processing. Especially in the crystal growth by liquid encapsulated czochralski or liquid encapsulated floating zone technique, in which the melt is encapsulated with an immiscible medium, Marangoni convection can occur on the liquid-liquid interface and on the gas-liquid free surface. In the present paper, experiments were carried out with a double liquid layer of silicone oil and fluorinert both in an open-boat system and in an enclosed system. Flow in a cavity subject to a horizontal temperature gradient was observed. An interactive flow near the interface was measured by using particle image velocimetry technique. The measured flow field seemed to agree sufficiently with the numerical prediction.

  9. Generalization of the DLA process with different immiscible components by time-scale coarse graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, E. B.; Ryabov, A. B.; Loskutov, A.

    2007-10-01

    In the framework of the mean-field approximation we propose a new approach to the description of the growth of fractal structures which are formed as a result of the process of diffusion limited aggregation. Our approach is based on the coarse graining of the time scale which takes into account the property of discreteness of such structures. The obtained system of partial differential equations allows us to evaluate numerically the fractal dimension and the cluster density depending on the distance from the cluster center. The results are in a quite good agreement with values found by the direct numerical simulations. The proposed approach is generalized for the case of the cluster description with different immiscible particles.

  10. Flux-dependent percolation transition in immiscible two-phase flows in porous media.

    PubMed

    Ramstad, Thomas; Hansen, Alex; Oren, Pål-Eric

    2009-03-01

    Using numerical simulations, we study immiscible two-phase flow in a pore network reconstructed from Berea sandstone under flow conditions that are statistically invariant under translation. Under such conditions, the flow is a state function which is not dependent on initial conditions. We find a second-order phase transition resembling the phase inversion transition found in emulsions. The flow regimes under consideration are those of low surface tension-hence high capillary numbers Ca-where viscous forces dominate. Nevertheless, capillary forces are imminent, we observe a critical stage in saturation where the transition takes place. We determine polydispersity critical exponent tau=2.27+/-0.08 and find that the critical saturation depends on how fast the fluids flow.

  11. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for immiscible fluids at high Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Fakhari, Abbas; Lee, Taehun

    2013-02-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method for immiscible multiphase flows with large density ratio is extended to high Reynolds number flows using a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, and its stability and accuracy are assessed by simulating the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The MRT model is successful at damping high-frequency oscillations in the kinetic energy emerging from traveling waves generated by the inclusion of curvature. Numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with prior studies using adaptive mesh refinement techniques applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. Effects of viscosity and surface tension, as well as density ratio, are investigated in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. It is shown that increasing the Reynolds number results in a more chaotic interface evolution and eventually shattering of the interface, while surface tension is shown to have a stabilizing effect.

  12. Boiling of the interface between two immiscible liquids below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becoming heated above its bulk boiling point. On the contrary, we address the case where both liquids remain below their bulk boiling points. In this paper we construct the theoretical description of the boiling process and discuss the actualisation of the case we consider for real systems.

  13. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Composite Growth in Immiscible Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation and mathematical modeling for immiscible alloys subjected to ultrasonic influence are presented. It is known that in inoculated light alloy melts, ultrasonic treatment creates a new type of cast structure with extremely fine grains of uniform composition. This effect is produced across a wide range of freezing rates and technologies. However, it has not been demonstrated that the process can be successfully applied during controlled directional solidification processing. In this work we present the results from a set of directional solidification experiments and suggest describing the droplet size versus ultrasonic frequency and amplitude using an energy approach, followed with a more detailed analysis through numerical modeling of the ultrasonic field.

  14. Electroanalytical behavior of poly-L-lysine dendrigrafts at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Grégoire; Flynn, Shane; Johnson, Colm; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the electrochemical behavior of nonredox-active poly-L-lysine dendrigraft molecules of four different generations was investigated at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). The influence of the dendrigraft generation on the electrochemical response, sensitivity of the calibration curves, and limit of detection was studied. Cyclic voltammetry at the ITIES revealed that the sensitivity increased (1840 to 25 800 nA μM(-1)) and the limit of detection decreased (11.10 to 0.65 μM) as the dendrigraft generation increased from generation G2 through to generation G5, respectively. The results are compared to those for protein voltammetry at the ITIES. Our studies suggest that the sensitivity expected for a synthetic ionized macromolecule can be predicted on the basis of its net charge and its diffusion coefficient. However, electrochemistry at the ITIES demonstrates a greater sensitivity toward proteins, which is attributed to their tertiary structure.

  15. Boiling of the interface between two immiscible liquids below the bulk boiling temperatures of both components.

    PubMed

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becoming heated above its bulk boiling point. On the contrary, we address the case where both liquids remain below their bulk boiling points. In this paper we construct the theoretical description of the boiling process and discuss the actualisation of the case we consider for real systems. PMID:25403831

  16. Analysis of heavy-oil immiscible CO/sub 2/ tertiary coreflood data

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Earlougher, R.C. Sr.; Spivak, A.; Costa, A.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of tertiary, immiscible, CO/sub 2/ corefloods of Wilmington field Pliocene reservoir rock containing heavy oil (+- 14/sup 0/ API (+-0.97 g/cm/sup 3/) and +-480 cp (+-480 mPa . s)). An initial set of corefloods defined the recovery potential of the CO/sub 2/ injection, while a series of later tests served to define the process more accurately as applied in the field. In an attempt to understand the displacement mechanism, simulator matching of one of the later, more refined groups of corefloods was performed. The corefloods and simulator work indicate that the incremental recovery is more than can be accounted for by oil-viscosity reduction and crude-oil swelling. The improved performance is attributed to more favorable displacement characteristics and the presence of a free gas saturation in the cores.

  17. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics pore-scale simulations of unstable immiscible flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Bandara, Dunusinghe Mudiyanselage Uditha C.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Oostrom, Martinus; Palmer, Bruce J.; Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted a series of high-resolution numerical experiments using the Pair-Wise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) multiphase flow model. First, we derived analytical expressions relating parameters in the PF-SPH model to the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we used the model to study viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media for a wide range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios. We demonstrated that the steady state saturation profiles and the boundaries of viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement regions compare favorably with micromodel laboratory experimental results. For displacing fluid with low viscosity, we observed that the displacement pattern changes from viscous fingering to stable displacement with increasing injection rate. When a high viscosity fluid is injected, transition behavior from capillary fingering to stable displacement occurred as the flow rate was increased. These observation also agree with the results of the micromodel laboratory experiments.

  18. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  19. Effect of Particles on Rheology and Morphology of Immiscible PI/PDMS Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thareja, Prachi; Velankar, Sachin S.

    2008-07-01

    We present the effects of several interfacially-active particles on the rheology of model immiscible polymer blends of polyisoprene (PI) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a droplet-matrix morphology. The particles are capable of adsorbing at the PI/PDMS interface, and hence addition of these particles is expected to significantly affect the breakup and coalescence of drops and consequently the drop size. Using rheology (specifically, strain recovery upon cessation of shear) as a tool to probe morphological evolution, we show that none of the particles are able to prevent coalescence of the drops, at least at a particle loading of 0.5 vol.%. Remarkably however, some particle types strongly promote coalescence in some blends.

  20. A Three-dimensional Numerical Study of Immiscible Droplet Deformation in a right angle bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Purushotam; Horwitz, Jeremy; Vanka, Surya

    2013-11-01

    We present a numerical study of deformation of an immiscible droplet in a right angle bend. We have used volume-of-fluid method to track the interface and variable density Navier-Stokes equations to solve for the flow field. A second-order accurate fractional step algorithm is used to integrate the equations. The VOF is also coupled to a level-set method to get a smoothed interface shape for surface tension calculations. We study the effects of density and viscosity ratios (between droplet and carrier fluids), Reynolds number, Capillary number and aspect ratio between droplet and duct size on the deformation characteristics. We investigate the elongation of the droplet in axial direction and the stretching or contraction of the droplet in the lateral direction. Depending on the value of above mentioned parameters droplet can take different shapes, namely, spherical, bullet and parachute. At moderately higher Reynolds numbers we also observe satellite droplet breaking from the original droplet.

  1. Equilibrium solutions for immiscible two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in perturbed harmonic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattinson, R. W.; Billam, T. P.; Gardiner, S. A.; McCarron, D. J.; Cho, H. W.; Cornish, S. L.; Parker, N. G.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the mean-field equilibrium solutions for a two-species immiscible Bose-Einstein condensate confined by a harmonic confinement with additional linear perturbations. We observe a range of equilibrium density structures, including ball and shell formations and axially or radially separated states, with a marked sensitivity to the potential perturbations and the relative atom number in each species. Incorporation of linear trap perturbations, albeit weak, are found to be essential to match the range of equilibrium density profiles observed in a recent 87Rb-133Cs Bose-Einstein condensate experiment [McCarron , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.011603 84, 011603(R) (2011)]. Our analysis of this experiment demonstrates that sensitivity to linear trap perturbations is likely to be an important factor in interpreting the results of similar experiments in the future.

  2. Stochastic growth dynamics and composite defects in quenched immiscible binary condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-K.; Pattinson, R. W.; Billam, T. P.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.; Huang, T.-M.; Lin, W.-W.; Gou, S.-C.; Parker, N. G.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2016-02-01

    We study the sensitivity of coupled condensate formation dynamics on the history of initial stochastic domain formation in the context of instantaneously quenched elongated harmonically trapped immiscible two-component atomic Bose gases. The spontaneous generation of defects in the fastest condensing component, and subsequent coarse-graining dynamics, can lead to a deep oscillating microtrap into which the other component condenses, thereby establishing a long-lived composite defect in the form of a dark-bright solitary wave. We numerically map out diverse key aspects of these competing growth dynamics, focusing on the role of shot-to-shot fluctuations and global parameter changes (initial state choices, quench parameters, and condensate growth rates), with our findings also qualitatively confirmed by realistic finite-duration quenches. We conclude that phase-separated structures observable on experimental time scales are likely to be metastable states whose form is influenced by the stability and dynamics of the spontaneously emerging dark-bright solitary wave.

  3. Structure formation in immiscible two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in perturbed harmonic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattinson, Robert; Parker, Nick; Proukakis, Nick; Liu, I.-Kang; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Gardiner, Simon; McCarron, Daniel; Cho, Hung-Wen; Cornish, Simon; Billam, Tom

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the mean-field equilibrium solutions for a trapped two-species 87Rb-133Cs immiscible Bose-Einstein condensate, and show that the density profiles observed in a recent Bose-Einstein experiment (D. J. McCarron et al. Phys. Rev. A 84, 011603 (2011)), which include ball and shell formations and axially/radially separated states, can be reproduced when accounting for weak linear perturbations. We also demonstrate the importance of the coupled growth of the two condensates by a simple finite temperature model which reveals such structures to be generally metastable in the presence of dissipation, with our findings confirmed by the more accurate Stochastic Projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  4. An Experimental Study on the Influence of Viscosity Ratio During Immiscible Displacements in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durant, K. A.; Duchateau, C.; Kovscek, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological sequestration in saline aquifers is a process that reduces carbon dioxide emissions and has become increasingly significant because it may help to mitigate global climate change and enhance energy sustainability. Understanding the flow behavior and stability of partially miscible fluids - such as carbon dioxide and water - in porous media is the main goal of this research. Additionally, prediction of unstable flows in porous media presents an ongoing challenge for engineers and scientists; therefore, this research also has positive implications in areas such as enhanced oil recovery and the development of chemical reactors. In order to improve the knowledge base of this intricate problem, stability and flow characteristics must be examined experimentally in three ways: (i) immiscible flows in homogeneous porous media, (ii) effects of heterogeneity, and (iii) the impact of partial miscibility of the fluids. This study focused specifically on immiscible flows and was accomplished by saturating a 2-D homogeneous, silicon-etched micromodel with UV sensitive dyed water and subsequently injecting heptane to displace the water. Heptane is more viscous than carbon dioxide; therefore various concentrations of glycerin were added to the aqueous phase to alter the viscosity ratio so that the heptane-water displacement in the micromodel was comparable to the carbon dioxide-water displacement in an aquifer. As the heptane moved through the micromodel, a high-speed camera system imaged the gradual displacement changes, seen due to the color changes in the UV dyed water. The extent of fingering in the micromodel is the physical characteristic used to determine stability. It is found that high flow rates and glycerin concentrations cause viscous fingering while low flow rates and glycerin concentrations result in capillary fingering.

  5. Immiscible Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Fluids Under Subduction Zone Conditions and Implications for the Deep Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Daniel, I.; Cardon, H.; Montagnac, G.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subducting slabs recycle rocks into the deep Earth releasing fluids which may cause partial melting and possible oxidation of the mantle wedge. Recent theoretical studies1 indicate that at pressures greater than about 3.0 GPa these fluids could contain high concentrations of organic and inorganic C-species with a wide range of C-oxidation states at equilibrium. If so, such fluids could play an important role in the deep carbon cycle, including the formation of diamond. However, direct experimental observations of the speciation in the fluids are needed. We studied 1.0 M aqueous Na-formate and 1.0 M Na-acetate solutions in the diamond anvil cell using Raman spectroscopy at 300 ºC and 3.0 GPa for up to 60 hours. Our preliminary results indicate that formate rapidly decomposed to bicarbonate/carbonate species and methane, with no detectable H2. Acetate decomposed much more slowly. Within the first two hours of heating, crystals of Na2CO3 precipitated in the fluid, and kept growing while immiscible droplets of hydrocarbon appeared and persisted throughout the experiments at elevated temperature and pressure. In the aqueous fluid, acetate and HCO3- were present during the first 6 hours, and then CO32- and acetate after 20 hours of heating. The final HCO3- /CO32- ratio was constant indicating a constant pH. This is the first in situ observation of persistent immiscible fluid hydrocarbons formed from an aqueous precursor at upper mantle pressures. Our results suggest that Earth's subduction zone fluids at high pressures might involve fluid hydrocarbon species as well as inorganic and organic aqueous C-species, which considerably broadens the picture of deep carbon sources, cycles and sinks. [1] Sverjensky et at. (2014), Nat. Geosci. 7, 909-913.

  6. Nanoscale Phase Immiscibility in High-ZT Bulk Lead Telluride Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Steven Neal

    Renewable energy initiatives have increased interest in thermoelectric materials as an option for inexpensive and environmentally friendly waste heat-to-power generation. Unfortunately, low efficiencies have limited their wide-scale utilization. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric materials wherein natural phase immiscibility is manipulated to selectively generate nanoscale inclusions of a second phase that improve their efficiency through reductions in lattice thermal conductivity. The PbTe-PbS system exhibits natural phase separation by nucleation and growth or spinodal decomposition phase transformations depending on composition and temperature treatment. Through rapid quenching, nearly ideal solid solution alloys of PbTe-PbS are observed by powder X-ray diffraction. However, characterization by solid-state NMR and IR reflectivity show that solid solutions are obtained for rapidly quenched samples within the nucleation and growth region of the phase diagram, but samples within the spinodal decomposition region exhibit very slight phase immiscibility. We report the temperatures of phase separation using high temperature powder X-ray diffraction. Microscopy reveals that phase separation in PbTe-PbS naturally produces nanoinclusions. A decrease in lattice thermal conductivity is observed as a result of the solid solution-to-nanostructured phase transformation in this materials system, increasing thermoelectric figure of merit. Sn addition to PbTe-PbS produces a pseudobinary system of PbTe-PbSnS 2. This materials system produces microscale lamellae that effectively reduce lattice thermal conductivity. Unfortunately, the PbSnS2 inclusions also scatter electrons, reducing electrical conductivity and producing only a minimal increase in thermoelectric figure of merit. We additionally investigate PbSnS2 as prepared through Bridgman crystal growth. PbTe-PbS doped with Na appears to increase the kinetic rate of

  7. Determination of local atomic arrangements in a bulk-immiscible surface alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Kristine Rose

    Surface alloys are two-dimensional phases confined to near-surface regions, and are known to form from atomic species that are immiscible in the bulk. In order to achieve a better understanding of this phenomenon, it is necessary to be able to accurately determine the bond lengths present within the surface alloy. The present work focuses on surface alloying in the bulk-immiscible Au-Ni system, which forms surface alloy phases that are amongst the most studied to date. First principles electronic density functional theory calculations were conducted for both "monomer" (single Au atom), and "dimer" (pair of Au atoms) surface alloying models for the Au-Ni(110) surface. Both of the models exhibited surface interlayer contractions and expansions similar to those reported for a Ni(110) surface. The resulting atomic positions corresponded to Au-Ni bond lengths of 2.61-2.80 A in the monomer model and 2.54-2.84 A in the dimer model. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) measurements were taken from Au-Co11Ni89(110) surface alloys. The software program FEFF8 was used in combination with the first principles calculated atomic positions for the surface alloy models to simulate the SEXAFS from each of the surface alloy models. Fits were conducted from these models resulting in the determination of Au-Ni bond lengths of 2.55-2.74 A with the monomer model, and 2.46-2.76 A with the dimer model. The present work features the first theoretical first principles study of all of the sub-monolayer structures of the Au-Ni(110) system. This work was also the first to employ DFT calculated atomic positions as initial models for simulating theoretical SEXAFS spectra to assist in the fitting of experimental measurements. In doing this, the theoretical calculations allowed for a much better starting point in the fits, while the results from the fits gave an indication to the strengths and weaknesses of the surface calculations, since they highlighted an apparent slight

  8. A Study of Undercooling Behavior Of Immiscible Metal Alloys in the Absence of Crucible-Induced Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Li, Delin; Workman, Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the question: Would eliminating the crucible eliminate the wall-induced nucleation of one of the liquid phases in an immiscible alloy and result in undercooling of the liquid into the metastable region thereby producing significant differences in the separation process and the microstructure upon solidification. Another primary objective of this research is to study systems with a metastable miscibility gap and to directly determine the metastable liquid miscibility gap by undercooling experiments. Nucleation and growth of droplets in these undercooled metallic liquid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Results of this investigation indicate that containerless processing of immiscibles may not promote the undercooling of the single-phase liquid into the metastable region. Although no recalescence event was observed for this liquid-liquid transition, undercooling did occur across the miscibility gap for the solidification of the Ti phase that eventually separated.

  9. Silicate-carbonate-salt liquid immiscibility and origin of the sodalite-haüyne rocks: study of melt inclusions in olivine foidite from Vulture volcano, S. Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panina, Liya I.; Stoppa, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Melt inclusions in clinopyroxenes of olivine foidite bombs from Serra di Constantinopoli pyroclastic flows of the Vulture volcano (Southern Italy) were studied in detail. The rocks contain abundant zoned phenocrysts and xenocrysts of clinopyroxene, scarce grains of olivine, leucite, haüyne, glass with microlites of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The composition of clinopyroxene in xenocrysts (Cpx I), cores (Cpx II), and in rims (Cpx III) of phenocrysts differs in the content of Mg, Fe, Ti, and Al. All clinopyroxenes contain two types of primary inclusion-pure silicate and of silicate-carbonate-salt composition. This fact suggests that the phenomena of silicate-carbonate immiscibility took place prior to crystallization of clinopyroxene. Homogenization of pure silicate inclusions proceeded at 1 225 - 1 190°C. The composition of conserved melts corresponded to that of olivine foidite in Cpx I, to tephrite-phonolite in Cpx II, and phonolite-nepheline trachyte in Cpx III. The amount of water in them was no more than 0.9 wt.%. Silicate-carbonate inclusions decrepitated on heating. Salt globules contained salts of alkali-sulphate, alkali-carbonate, and Ca-carbonate composition somewhat enriched in Ba and Sr. This composition is typical of carbonatite melts when decomposed into immiscible fractions. The formation of sodalite-haüyne rocks from Vulture is related to the presence of carbonate-salt melts in magma chamber. The melts conserved in clinopyroxenes were enriched in incompatible elements, especially in Cpx III. High ratios of La, Nb, and Ta in melts on crystallization of Cpx I and Cpx II suggest the influence of a carbonatite melt as carbonatites have extremely high La/Nb and Nb/Ta and this is confirmed by the appearance of carbonatite melts in magma chamber. Some anomalies in the concentrations and relatives values of Eu and especially Ga seems typical of Italian carbonatite related melts. The mantle source for initial melts was, most likely, rather uniform

  10. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    PubMed

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-01

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods. PMID:22814365

  11. Pore Scale Spatial Analysis of Two Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Haim; Roberts, Paul V.

    1991-06-01

    A conceptual model is introduced describing the spatial distribution of two immiscible fluids in the pore space of sphere packings. The model is based on the ideal soil concept of homogeneous arrangement of identical spheres but is generalized to include random packing. It quantitatively analyzes the interfacial area between wetting and nonwetting fluids and between the fluids and the solid spheres, as a function of the saturation degree. These relationships depend on the packing arrangement of the spheres, the sphere radius, and the fluid-solid contact angle. The model focuses on the region of low saturation of the wetting phase, where the wetting phase is comprised of pendular rings. When the nonwetting phase appears as ganglia, the model assumes single-chamber ganglia. Three-dimensional graphical illustrations are provided. Three potential applications are pointed out: (1) to quantify the water-air interface in the unsaturated zone; (2) to analyze connate water interfacial area in petroleum reservoirs and to assess the effect of surfactants during enhanced oil recovery; and (3) to estimate the interface between groundwater and floating nonaqueous phase liquids above the water table.

  12. SPAR 5 experiment no. 74-30 agglomeration in immiscible liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S.; Markworth, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of gravity, cooling rate, and composition on the macro-and microstructure of liquid phase immiscible alloys were researched. Aluminum indium alloys of compositions 30, 40, 70, and 90 weight percent indium were processed aboard two sounding rocket flights, SPAR 2 and SPAR 5. Radiographic and metallographic examination of the SPAR 2 flight and ground base samples showed the expected separation at lg of the ground base alloys into indium rich and aluminum rich layers. The flight alloys produced an aluminum rich core surrounding by indium rich metal. The results obtained from the SPAR 5 40 and 70 weight percent indium alloys were essentially identical to those from SPAR 2. The 30 and 90 weight percent indium alloys also showed massive separation into configuration similar to the 40 and 70 weight percent indium alloys. The 90 weight percent indium alloy showed additional evidence that surface tension induced droplet migration had occurred in this alloy which could at least in part account for the observed structures.

  13. Impact of Nanoparticles on the Microstructure and Properties of Immiscible Polymer Blends: Preliminary Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, G.; Acierno, D.

    2010-06-01

    The control of the morphology represents one of the most important aspects in designing polymer blends. A particular arrangement of the phases known as co-continuity can be promoted within a narrow range of compositions and using appropriate expedients during the mixing process. The distinguishing feature of co-continuous morphologies is the mutual interpenetration of the phases, which is often desirable as it may result in a remarkable combination of functional and structural properties of the blend constituents. Besides acting on the composition and processing conditions, adding nanoparticles in polymer systems with an existing phase-separated morphology such as polymer blends represents an innovative way to promote co-continuity in blends with low amounts of either phase. In the present work we focus on this topic, investigating the ability of nanoparticles to affect the morphology and properties of different kinds of immiscible polymer blends. In addition, the implications of the microstructural changes promoted by the filler on the high-temperature mechanical behavior of the blends are discussed.

  14. An overview of instability and fingering during immiscible fluid flow in porous and fractured media

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Neuman, S.P.; Taniguchi, M.

    1995-04-01

    Wetting front instability is an important phenomenon affecting fluid flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils and rocks. It causes the development of fingers which travel faster than would a uniform front and thus bypass much of the medium. Water saturation and solute concentration in such fingers tend to be higher than in the surrounding medium. During infiltration, fingering may cause unexpectedly rapid arrival of water and solute at the water-table. This notwithstanding, most models of subsurface flow and transport ignore instability and fingering. In this report, we survey the literature to assess the extent to which this may or may not be justified. Our overview covers experiments, theoretical studies, and computer simulations of instability and fingering during immiscible two-phase flow and transport, with emphasis on infiltration into soils and fractured rocks. Our description of instability in an ideal fracture (Hele-Shaw cell) includes an extension of existing theory to fractures and interfaces having arbitrary orientations in space. Our discussion of instability in porous media includes a slight but important correction of existing theory for the case of an inclined interface. We conclude by outlining some potential directions for future research. Among these, we single out the effect of soil and rock heterogeneities on instability and preferential flow as meriting special attention in the context of nuclear waste storage in unsaturated media.

  15. In situ study of heavy ion irradiation response of immiscible Cu/Fe multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D. C.; Li, J.; Hattar, K.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies show that immiscible metallic multilayers with incoherent interfaces can effectively reduce defect density in ion irradiated metals by providing active defect sinks that capture and annihilate radiation induced defect clusters. Although it is anticipated that defect density within the layers should vary as a function of distance to the layer interface, there is, to date, little in situ TEM evidence to validate this hypothesis. In this study monolithic Cu films and Cu/Fe multilayers with individual layer thickness, h, of 100 and 5 nm were subjected to in situ Cu ion irradiation at room temperature to nominally 1 displacement-per-atom inside a transmission electron microscope. Rapid formation and propagation of defect clusters were observed in monolithic Cu, whereas fewer defects with smaller dimensions were generated in Cu/Fe multilayers with smaller h. Furthermore in situ video shows that the cumulative defect density in Cu/Fe 100 nm multilayers indeed varies, as a function of distance to the layer interfaces, supporting a long postulated hypothesis.

  16. Getting in shape: molten wax drop deformation and solidification at an immiscible liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Lindberg, Seth E; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-05-01

    The controlled production of non-spherical shaped particles is important for many applications such as food processing, consumer goods, adsorbents, drug delivery, and optical sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation and simultaneous solidification of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface of higher density. By varying initial temperature and viscoelasticity of the molten drop, drop size, impact velocity, viscosity and temperature of the bath fluid, and the interfacial tension between the molten wax and bath fluid, spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath and were arrested into non-spherical solidified particles in the form of ellipsoid, mushroom, disc, and flake-like shapes. We constructed cursory phase diagrams for the various particle shapes generated over a range of Weber, Capillary, Reynolds, and Stefan numbers, governed by the interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal effects. We solved a simplified heat transfer problem to estimate the time required to initiate the solidification at the interface of a spherical molten wax droplet and cooling aqueous bath after impact. By correlating this time with the molten wax drop deformation history captured from high speed imaging experiments, we elucidate the delicate balance of interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal forces that determine the final morphology of wax particles.

  17. Drop Fragmentation at Impact onto a Bath of an Immiscible Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuissier, H.; Sun, C.; Prosperetti, A.; Lohse, D.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of a drop onto a deep bath of an immiscible liquid is studied with emphasis on the drop fragmentation into a collection of noncoalescing daughter drops. At impact the drop flattens and spreads at the surface of the crater it transiently opens in the bath and reaches a maximum deformation, which gets larger with increasing impact velocity, before surface tension drives its recession. This recession can promote the fragmentation by two different mechanisms: At moderate impact velocity, the drop recession converges to the axis of symmetry to form a jet which then fragments by a Plateau-Rayleigh mechanism. At higher velocity the edge of the receding drop destabilizes and shapes into radial ligaments which subsequently fragment. For this latter mechanism the number N∝We3 and the size distribution of the daughter drops p(d)∝d-4 as a function of the impact Weber number We are explained on the basis of the observed spreading of the drop. The universality of this model for the fragmentation of receding liquid sheets might be relevant for other configurations.

  18. Indications of fluid immiscibility in glass from West Clearwater Lake impact crater, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dence, M. R.; Von Engelhardt, W.; Plant, A. G.; Walter, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Glass from the West Clearwater Lake hypervelocity impact crater contains numerous spheroids, 10 to 500 microns across, which appear to have formed at high temperatures as fluids immiscible in the enclosing melt. The spheroids are distinguished from small, normal, largely void gas vesicles, which are also present, by being completely filled in all cases; by having fillings which vary in composition from spheroid to spheroid, even between spheroids in close association; and by indications that the present fillings are representative of the contents present before the matrix melt chilled. Most of the spheroids are classified petrographically into three types. The preservation of spheroids in the West Clearwater Lake glass is attributed mainly to the position of the glass masses within the breccias lining the crater floor. It is considered that the glass in this location did not achieve free flight but, as part of a large mass, cooled relatively slowly through the high temperature regime in which the spheroids were generated, and then, when detached, chilled rapidly to preserve a record of this transient stage in their history.

  19. Interfacial dynamics of two immiscible fluids in spatially periodic porous media: The role of substrate wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-07-01

    We delineate the contact line dynamics of two immiscible fluids in a medium having spatially periodic porous structures. The flow is driven by an external applied pressure gradient. We bring out the combined consequences of the solid fraction distribution and the substrate wettability on the resulting dynamics of the contact line, by employing phase-field formalism. We capture the sequence of spatiotemporal events leading to formation of liquid bridges by trapping a small amount of displaced phase fluid between two consecutive porous blocks, as dictated by the combinations of substrate wettability and solid fraction. We also demonstrate the existence of a regime of complete interfacial recovery, depending on the parametric space of the governing parameters under concern. Our results essentially demonstrate the intricate mechanisms by virtue of which the wettabilities of the substrates alter the dynamical evolutions of interfaces and the subsequent shapes and sizes of the adsorbed dispersed phases, bearing far-ranging consequences in several practical applications ranging from oil recovery to groundwater flow.

  20. Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-07-15

    Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.

  1. Influence of microwave heating on liquid-liquid phase inversion and temperature rates for immiscible mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alvin; Tadesse, Solomon; Nunes, Janine; Reznik, Aron

    2011-01-01

    Time dependencies of component temperatures for mixtures of immiscible liquids during microwave heating were studied for acetonitrile-cyclohexane and water-toluene. For the first time, we report microwave induced liquid-liquid phase inversion for acetonitrile-cyclohexane mixture: acetonitrile layer was initially at the bottom of the mixture, after 10 sec of microwave heating its density decreased and it inverted to the top of the mixture for the remainder of the microwave heating. This phase inversion could not be achieved by conventional radiant heating. The maximum rate of temperature growth for the polar component of the mixtures was 2 - 5 times larger than for the non-polar component. This suggests that microwave energy is absorbed by polar liquids (water or acetonitrile) and heat is transferred into the non-polar liquid (toluene or cyclohexane) in the mixture by conduction (in case of cyclohexane) or conduction and convection (in case of toluene). Comparison between experimental data and semi-empirical mathematical models, proposed in [Kennedy et at., 2009] showed good correlation. Average relative error between theoretical and experimental results did not exceed 7%. These results can be used to model the temperature kinetics of components for other multiphase mixtures.

  2. Capillarity and capillary waves in immiscible two-fluid channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yecko, Philip

    2005-11-01

    The configuration of two immiscible fluids undergoing sheared Couette-Poiseuille flow in a straight channel is analyzed as a linearized stability problem, both from the point of view of eigenvalues and energy growth resulting from the non-normality of the stability operator. Only mild density contrasts (0.75

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of rate-dependent two-phase immiscible flow

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, F.R.; Puckett, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions are obtained with both Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for calculating saturation profiles in two-phase immiscible displacements in the presence of capillary pressure effects. The one-dimensional (1D) simulator WFLOOD is described with Lagrangian and Eulerian options for refined calculations of saturation distributions throughout all stages of a linear coreflood. WFLOOD calculations are presented to demonstrate typical waterflood performance in a 1-m (3.3-ft) core with two different capillary-pressure functions at high and low flow rates. Steady-state and dynamic brine-tetradecane displacement experiments are described with Clashach sandstone cores that have radioactive ferrocene in the oil phase to measure saturation by a new nucleonic method. Some of the nonuniform character of these cores has been revealed by measurements. The PORES reservoir simulation model is used for a theoretical analysis of the experiments in which the nonuniform initial saturation distributions must be represented. It is shown that PORES, used in conjunction with measured steady-state relative permeabilities and measured static capillary pressure data, reproduces the time-dependent saturation profiles to within the accuracy of the measurements at high and low flood rates. The Lagrangian treatment in WFLOOD provides a theoretical benchmark that defines the levels of numerical dispersion present in the PORES Eulerian finite-difference calculations.

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies of rate dependent two-phase immiscible flow

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, F.R.; Maddison, G.P.; Puckett, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    Theoretical predictions are obtained using both Eulerian and Lagrangian methods for calculating saturation profiles in two phase immiscible displacements in the presence of capillary effects. The one-dimensional simulator WFLOOD is described with Lagrangian and Eulerian options for refined calculations of saturation distributions throughout all stages of a linear core flood. WFLOOD calculations are presented to demonstrate typical waterflood performance in a one metre core using two different capillary pressure functions at high and low flow rates. Steady state and dynamic brine/tetradecane displacement experiments are described using Clashach sandstone cores with radioactive ferrocene in the oil phase for the measurement of saturation by a nucleonic method. The PORES reservoir simulation model provides a theoretical analysis of the experiments in which the non-uniform initial saturation distributions must be represented. It is shown that PORES, used in conjunction with measured steady state relative permeabilities and static capillary data, reproduces the time-dependent saturation profiles to within the accuracy of the measurements at high and low flow rates. The Lagrangian option in WFLOOD provides a theoretical benchmark which defines the levels of numerical dispersion present in the PORES Eulerian finite difference calculations.

  5. Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.

  6. Immiscible fluids in mixed wet porous media: the role of wettability correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murison, Julie; Semin, Benoit; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Herminghaus, Stephan; Schroeter, Matthias; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Various phenomena observed during immiscible displacement in a porous medium can be related to pore wall wettability. Petroleum engineers traditionally quantify the overall wettability of a rock sample in terms of the Ammot-Harvey or USBM index. To establish a link between these gloabl quantities and the pore-scale distribution of surface energies, we developed a series of model porous media. Using a variety of preparation methods, we are able to create dense beds of glass beads with the same average surface energy, differing only in the typical extension of the wetting and non-wetting surface domains. Experimental measurements of capillary pressure saturation curves for repeated imbibition and drainage show that the work dissipated in a complete cycle is monotonically increasing with the correlation length ξ of the surface energies. To test whether capillary hysteresis can be linked to specific features of the front morphology, we visualized the distribution of liquids by means of X-ray microtomography. The Minkowski measures volume, surface area, and Euler number are employed to characterize the interfacial shape. Differences of the front morphology during imbibition and drainage match with trends observed for the hysteresis loop opening.

  7. HIV Viral RNA Extraction in Wax Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension (IFAST) Devices

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Scott M.; LaVanway, Alex J.; Pezzi, Hannah M.; Guckenberger, David J.; Anderson, Meghan A.; Loeb, Jennifer M.; Beebe, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of viral load is critical for proper management of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive patients. Unfortunately, in the developing world, significant economic and geographical barriers exist, limiting access to this test. The complexity of current viral load assays makes them expensive and their access limited to advanced facilities. We attempted to address these limitations by replacing conventional RNA extraction, one of the essential processes in viral load quantitation, with a simplified technique known as immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST). Furthermore, these devices were produced via the embossing of wax, enabling local populations to produce and dispose of their own devices with minimal training or infrastructure, potentially reducing the total assay cost. In addition, IFAST can be used to reduce cold chain dependence during transportation. Viral RNA extracted from raw samples stored at 37°C for 1 week exhibited nearly complete degradation. However, IFAST-purified RNA could be stored at 37°C for 1 week without significant loss. These data suggest that RNA isolated at the point of care (eg, in a rural clinic) via IFAST could be shipped to a central laboratory for quantitative RT-PCR without a cold chain. Using this technology, we have demonstrated accurate and repeatable measurements of viral load on samples with as low as 50 copies per milliliter of sample. PMID:24613822

  8. Zener Pinning of Grain Boundaries and Structural Stability of Immiscible Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koju, R. K.; Darling, K. A.; Kecskes, L. J.; Mishin, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Immiscible Cu-Ta alloys produced by mechanical alloying are currently the subject of intensive research due to their mechanical strength combined with extraordinary structural stability at high temperatures. Previous experimental and simulation studies suggested that grain boundaries (GBs) in Cu-Ta alloys are stabilized by Ta nano-clusters coherent with the Cu matrix. To better understand the stabilization effect of Ta, we performed atomistic computer simulations of GB-cluster interactions in Cu-Ta alloys with various compositions and GB velocities. The study focuses on a single plane GB driven by an applied shear stress due to the shear-coupling effect. The results of the simulations are in close quantitative agreement with the Zener model of GB pinning. This agreement and the large magnitude of the unpinning stress confirm that the structural stability of these alloys is due to the drastically decreased GB mobility rather than a reduction in GB energy. For comparison, we simulated GB motion in a random solid solution. While the latter also reduces the GB mobility, the effect is not as strong as in the presence of Ta clusters. GB motion in the random solution itself induces precipitation of Ta clusters due to short-circuit diffusion of Ta in GBs, suggesting a possible mechanism of cluster formation inside the grains.

  9. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  10. Large-scale liquid immiscibility at the top of the Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed study of the top 625 m of the Bushveld Complex has revealed two distinct sections of cumulate rocks, the contact between which occurs over a limited stratigraphic range (< 50 m). The ~300 m-thick lower section consists of magnetite-bearing ferrodiorite with cumulus olivine Fo30, plagioclase An45, clinopyroxene En35 and several intercolated layers of magnetitite and nelsonite (apatite- Fe-Ti oxide rocks). In situ analysis shows that cumulus apatite in the lower section contains relatively low REE concentrations and no chondrite-normalized Eu anomaly. In contrast, overlying ~325 m-thick section consists of ferrodioritie cumulates (olivine Fo12-5, plagioclase An40, clinopyroxene En25-10) but contains much less magnetite, more ilmenite, and cumulus orthoclase and quartz. In addition, cumulus apatite of the upper section displays 3x higher REE concentrations than apatite of the lower section and a strong negative Eu anomaly. To explain the above observations, we propose that large-scale silicate liquid immiscibility resulted in the physical separation of a dense, Fe-rich magma to form the lower part of the sequence and a buoyant Si-rich magma to form the upper part of the sequence. This hypothesis is consistent not only with the change in proportions of cumulus phases but also the abrupt change in apatite REE contents. Liquid-liquid partitioning experiments have shown that during immiscibility the Fe-rich liquid will take up to 3-5 times more REE than the Si-rich liquid (Watson, 1976 Contrib. to Min. and Pet. vol. 56, p. 119-134). Yet the cumulus apatite in the lower section has relatively low REE concentrations and the apatite in the upper section has approximately 3x higher REE. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by the high sensitivity of the apatite-melt DREE to the SiO2 content of the liquid (with low DREE for low SiO2 melts, and high DREE for highly silicic melts) (Watson and Green, 1981 EPSL v. 56, p. 405-421). Applying a low DREE appropriate for

  11. Experimental study of the immiscible displacement of shear-thinning fluids in pore networks.

    PubMed

    Tsakiroglou, C D; Theodoropoulou, M; Karoutsos, V; Papanicolaou, D; Sygouni, V

    2003-11-01

    The pore scale mechanisms and network scale transient pattern of the immiscible displacement of a shear-thinning nonwetting oil phase (NWP) by a Newtonian wetting aqueous phase (WP) are investigated. Visualization imbibition experiments are performed on transparent glass-etched pore networks at a constant unfavorable viscosity ratio and varying values of the capillary number (Ca), and equilibrium contact angle (theta(e)). Dispersions of ozokerite in paraffin oil are used as the shear-thinning NWP, and aqueous solutions of PEG colored with methylene blue are used as the Newtonian WP. At high Ca values, the tip splitting and lateral spreading of WP viscous fingers are suppressed; at intermediate Ca values, the primary viscous fingers expand laterally with the growth of smaller capillary fingers; at low Ca values, network spanning clusters of capillary fingers separated by hydraulically conductive noninvaded zones of NWP arise. The spatial distribution of the mobility of shear-thinning NWP over the pore network is very broad. Pore network regions of low NWP mobility are invaded through a precursor advancement/swelling mechanism even at relatively high Ca and theta(e) values; this mechanism leads to irregular interfacial configurations and retention of a substantial amount of NWP along pore walls; it becomes the dominant mechanism in displacements performed at low Ca and theta(e) values. The residual NWP saturation increases and the end WP relative permeability decreases as Ca increases and both become more sensitive to this parameter as the shear-thinning behavior strengthens. The shear-thinning NWP is primarily entrapped in individual pores of the network rather than in clusters of pores bypassed by the WP. At relatively high flow rates, the amplitude of the variations of pressure drop, caused by fluid redistribution in the pore network, increase with shear-thinning strengthening, whereas at low flow rates, the motion of stable and unstable menisci in pores is

  12. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-05-15

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO{sub 2} that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S{sub nw}) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S{sub nw}. In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S{sub nw} during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S{sub nw} for either favorable (M ≥ 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement.

  14. Deformation and Break-up of Suspension Droplets Sheared in an Immiscible Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desse, Melinda; Hill, Sandra E.; Mitchell, John R.; Wolf, Bettina; Budtova, Tatiana

    2008-07-01

    The deformation and break-up behaviour of suspension droplets immersed in an immiscible fluid has not been widely studied albeit such systems are frequently encountered in every day multiphase products such as foods and cosmetics. Starch is a common thickener used in the food industry. Starch suspensions have shown to offer better flavour perception than polymer thickened solutions; a better understanding of their behaviour under flow would be beneficial in terms of advancement on product formulation. Deformation and break-up of a droplet of swollen-in-water starch granules placed in high viscosity silicon oil was visualised using a counter-rotating parallel-plate shear cell. The silicon oil had a high viscosity to induce shear stresses high enough to deform the droplet; it is also transparent and inert towards the studied system. The starch suspension was prepared to have a volume fraction of 100% swollen granules, i.e. that all water was bound within the swollen starch granules. The shear flow behaviour of this starch suspension is characterised by an apparent yield stress, shear-thinning and first normal stress differences. The rheo-optical experiments were conducted as start-up flow experiments applying shear stresses above the apparent yield stress. A constant shear stress throughout the experiment allows a constant viscosity of the droplet and therefore rules out the shear thinning aspect. Analysis showed droplet break-up at critical Capillary numbers close to those reported for Newtonian fluids. The results demonstrate that the droplet break-up behaviour in a complex emulsion system submitted to shear flow may not be fully described by the rheology of the individual phases alone but may require a microstructure component.

  15. Simulation of three-dimensional flow of immiscible fluids within and below the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Charles R.; Guswa, John H.; Mercer, James W.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents a two-phase flow model based on a three-dimensional, finite-difference formulation. As three-dimensional simulations can require substantial computer effort, a numerical technique that takes advantage of vector and parallel processing computer architecture is developed. The model is posed in terms of water saturation and nonwetting fluid pressure. It uses three-phase capillary pressure and relative permeability relationships to permit simulation within or below the unsaturated zone. A modified formulation of slice successive overtaxation (an iterative matrix solution technique) is introduced. This technique is designed to use parallel processing capabilities of new computers. The model is applied to immiscible fluid flow at two chemical waste landfills near Niagara Falls, New York. At both sites, denser than water, nonaqueous liquids (NAPLs) are present in the groundwater regimes in relatively large quantities. The model applications address several technical concerns at the two sites, including the effectiveness of clay as a geologic barrier to NAPL migration owing to capillary pressure forces, the three-dimensional aspects of dense NAPL flow, and the sensitivity of NAPL recovery in pumping wells due to various hydrogeologic and fluid properties. The results of the applications show that (1) even under a downward hydraulic gradient, natural differences in capillary pressure relationships for different lithologies can prevent downward migration of NAPL, (2) without any lithologic-capillary barrier, an upward hydraulic gradient induced by a de watering system can prevent downward migration of NAPL, (3) NAPL recovery at wells is sensitive to relative permeability, a relationship that requires field calibration in many settings, and (4) the three-dimensional aspects of two-phase flow and hydrogeologic heterogeneity require explicit treatment in many settings.

  16. A multi-flowpath model for the interpretation of immiscible displacement experiments in heterogeneous soil columns.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, C A; Tsakiroglou, C D

    2009-04-01

    This work focuses on the phenomenon of the immiscible two-phase flow of water and oil in saturated heterogeneous soil columns. The goal is to develop a fast and reliable method for quantifying soil heterogeneities for incorporation into the relevant capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. Such data are commonly used as input data in simulators of contaminant transport in the subsurface. Rate-controlled drainage experiments are performed on undisturbed soil columns and the transient response of the axial distribution of water saturation is determined from electrical measurements. The transient responses of the axial distribution of water saturation and total pressure drop are fitted with the multi-flowpath model (MFPM) where the pore space is regarded as a system of parallel paths of different permeability. The MFPM enables us to quantify soil heterogeneity at two scales: the micro-scale parameters describe on average the effects of pore network heterogeneities on the two-phase flow pattern; the macro-scale parameters indicate the variability of permeability at the scale of interconnected pore networks. The capillary pressure curve is consistent with that measured with mercury intrusion porosimetry over the low pressure range. The oil relative permeability increases sharply at a very low oil saturation (<10(-3)) and tends to a high end value. The water relative permeability decreases abruptly at a low oil saturation (~0.1), whereas the irreducible wetting phase saturation is quite high. The foregoing characteristics of the two-phase flow properties are associated with critical (preferential) flowpaths that comprise a very small percentage of the total pore volume, control the overall hydraulic conductivity, and are consistent with the very broad range of pore-length scales usually probed in soil porous matrix.

  17. Modeling of Immiscible, Two-Phase Flows in a Natural Rock Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2009-01-01

    One potential method of geologically sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) is to inject the gas into brine-filled, subsurface formations. Within these low-permeability rocks, fractures exist that can act as natural fluid conduits. Understanding how a less viscous fluid moves when injected into an initially saturated rock fracture is important for the prediction of CO2 transport within fractured rocks. Our study examined experimentally and numerically the motion of immiscible fluids as they were transported through models of a fracture in Berea sandstone. The natural fracture geometry was initially scanned using micro-computerized tomography (CT) at a fine volume-pixel (voxel) resolution by Karpyn et al. [1]. This CT scanned fracture was converted into a numerical mesh for two-phase flow calculations using the finite-volume solver FLUENT® and the volume-of-fluid method. Additionally, a translucent experimental model was constructed using stereolithography. The numerical model was shown to agree well with experiments for the case of a constant rate injection of air into the initially water-saturated fracture. The invading air moved intermittently, quickly invading large-aperture regions of the fracture. Relative permeability curves were developed to describe the fluid motion. These permeability curves can be used in reservoir-scale discrete fracture models for predictions of fluid motion within fractured geological formations. The numerical model was then changed to better mimic the subsurface conditions at which CO2 will move into brine saturated fractures. The different fluid properties of the modeled subsurface fluids were shown to increase the amount of volume the less-viscous invading gas would occupy while traversing the fracture.

  18. Physical formulation and numerical algorithm for simulating N immiscible incompressible fluids involving general order parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N - 1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N - 1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2 (N - 1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir-de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.

  19. Interfacial tension measurement of immiscible liq uids using a capillary tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, N.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Delsignore, D.

    1992-01-01

    The interfacial tension of immiscible liquids is an important thermophysical property that is useful in the behavior of liquids both in microgravity (Martinez et al. (1987) and Karri and Mathur (1988)) and in enhanced oil recovery processes under normal gravity (Slattery (1974)). Many techniques are available for its measurement, such as the ring method, drop weight method, spinning drop method, and capillary height method (Adamson (1960) and Miller and Neogi (1985)). Karri and Mathur mention that many of the techniques use equations that contain a density difference term and are inappropriate for equal density liquids. They reported a new method that is suitable for both equal and unequal density liquids. In their method, a capillary tube forms one of the legs of a U-tube. The interfacial tension is related to the heights of the liquids in the cups of the U-tube above the interface in the capillary. Our interest in this area arose from a need to measure small interfacial tension (around 1 mN/m) for a vegetable oil/silicon oil system that was used in a thermocapillary drop migration experiment (Rashidnia and Balasubramaniam (1991)). In our attempts to duplicate the method proposed by Karri and Mathur, we found it quite difficult to anchor the interface inside the capillary tube; small differences of the liquid heights in the cups drove the interface out of the capillary. We present an alternative method using a capillary tube to measure the interfacial tensions of liquids of equal or unequal density. The method is based on the combined capillary rises of both liquids in the tube.

  20. Droplet Impact onto an Immiscible, Floating Oil Layer: Splash Behavior and Droplet Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David; Li, Cheng; D'Albignac, Vincent; Morra, David; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The high speed impact of a raindrop on a fluid surface at Wed = ρ u2d/ σ>2000 affects environmental processes like marine aerosol production. High speed imaging shows that a floating immiscible oil layer, such as a crude oil slick, modifies the splash behavior. Tests performed for a wide range of layer thicknesses (h), viscosities, and surface and interfacial tensions facilitate behavioral categorization in terms of Weh =ρh u2h/σh and ReFrh =ρd u3d/μhgh, where h and d subscripts refer to layer and droplet properties, respectively. Included are multi-layer/level crowns, and due to the high Oh = μ /(ρσ d)1/2 of oil, formation of an intact ejecta sheet within 50 μs after impact, which subsequently ruptures to form aerosolized oil droplets. High speed holographic microscopy provides the size and spatial distributions of airborne droplets, which are bimodal with peaks at 50 and 225 μm. Small droplets (50 μm) are ejected primarily at shallow angles and remain at low elevation by microligament breakup within the first 50 μs of impact. Larger droplets (225 μm) are ejected at a steeper angle and produced later by breakup of larger ligaments protruding vertically from the splash crown. Small droplet frequency at high elevation increases when crude oil is introduced, mostly as satellite droplets resulting from the large ligament breakup. Funding provided by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  1. Physical formulation and numerical algorithm for simulating N immiscible incompressible fluids involving general order parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, S.

    2015-02-15

    We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.

  2. A strategy for characterizing the mixing state of immiscible aerosol components and the formation of multiphase aerosol particles through coagulation.

    PubMed

    Mitchem, Laura; Buajarern, Jariya; Ward, Andrew D; Reid, Jonathan P

    2006-07-20

    We demonstrate that the coagulation of two aerosol droplets of different chemical composition can be studied directly through the unique combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy. Multiple optical traps can be established, allowing the manipulation of multiple aerosol droplets. Spontaneous Raman scattering allows the characterization of droplet composition and mixing state, permitting the phase segregation of immiscible components in multiphase aerosol to be investigated with spatial resolution. Stimulated Raman scattering allows the integrity of the droplet and uniformity of refractive index to be probed. The combination of these spectroscopic probes with optical tweezers is shown to yield unprecedented detail in studies of the coagulation of decane and water droplets.

  3. Liquid immiscibility in the system NaF-H2O and microlite solubility at 800°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redkin, A. F.; Kotova, N. P.; Shapovalov, Yu. B.

    2016-07-01

    The NaF effect on microlite solubility at 800°C and 170, 200, and 230 MPa is studied experimentally. The immiscibility boundaries and compositions of fluid phases L1 and L2 are defined in the system NaF-H2O at 800°C. It is established that microlite solubility increase in the L1 phase, as compared with a homogeneous solution, is explained by the appearance in the L1 phase of "free" HF in an amount of 0.025 ± 0.003 mol kg-1 H2O. The model of "acidification" L1 and "alkalizing" L2 is supposed.

  4. Fluid immiscibility and gold deposition in the Birimian quartz veins of the Angovia deposit (Yaouré, Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Y.; Boiron, M. C.; Cathelineau, M.; Kouamelan, A. N.

    2008-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic terranes (Birimian) of West Africa are well known to host numerous economic gold mineralizations. The Angovia gold mineralization is located in a brecciated and mylonitic zone within the Birimian greenstones. The sulfide-gold mineralization is mainly represented by gold associated with pyrite and chalcopyrite. A fluid inclusion study undertaken on mineralized quartz veins revealed the presence of aqueous-carbonic (CO 2-H 2O) fluids, the association of carbonic (CO 2) and early aqueous fluids, followed by later aqueous (H 2O-salt) and finally nitrogen-rich fluids. Entrapment of the initial homogeneous aqueous-carbonic fluids prior to fluid immiscibility depicts the evolution of the P-T conditions during the exhumation of the terranes after the peak of green-schist metamorphism. The CO 2 rich-fluid occurs especially in gold-bearing quartz, and are considered as the main evidence of the ore-forming process in the gold-bearing quartz veins. It is considered as a product of immiscibility of the CO 2-H 2O parent. The volatile fraction of carbonic and aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions is dominated by CO 2, containing minor amounts of N 2, even smaller amounts of CH 4 and sporadically, H 2S. The aqueous-carbonic fluids have moderate salinity (3-10 wt.% eq. NaCl). Late aqueous and N 2 - (CH 4-CO 2) fluids are considered as later, unrelated to the main ore stage, and were trapped during the cooling of the hydrothermal system from 300 to 200 °C. The immiscibility has been favored by a strong pressure drop, the main trapping P-T conditions being 320-370 °C and 105-135 MPa. The mineralizing process is likely related to the immiscibility event, which was probably favored by the release of the fluid pressure after fracturing along the main shear zones. The ore process is likely to have occurred along the main shear zones or related secondary structures affected by cycling of the fluid pressure and quartz sealing-fracturing processes. The superimposed

  5. Rayleigh-Taylor instability for immiscible fluids of arbitrary viscosities: a magnetic levitation investigation and theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Carlès, Pierre; Huang, Zhibin; Carbone, Giovanni; Rosenblatt, Charles

    2006-03-17

    A magnetic field gradient was used to draw down a low density paramagnetic fluid below a more dense fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell. On turning off the field a Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed in situ, and the growth of the most unstable wave vector was measured versus time. A theory for the instability that permits different viscosities for two immiscible fluids was developed, and good agreement was found with the experimental results. The technique of magnetic levitation promises to broaden significantly the accessible parameter space of gravitational interfacial instability experiments.

  6. Silica Transport and Distribution in Saline, Immiscible Fluids: Application to Subseafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Macinnis, M.; Bodnar, R. J.; Lowell, R.; Rimstidt, J. D.

    2009-05-01

    Quartz is a nearly ubiquitous gangue mineral in hydrothermal mineral deposits, most often constituting the bulk of hydrothermal mineralization. The dissolution, transport and precipitation of quartz is controlled by the solubility of silica; in particular, in hot hydrothermal fluids in contact with quartz, silica saturation can generally be assumed, as rates of dissolution and precipitation are generally much faster than fluid flow rates. The solubility of silica in aqueous fluids can be used to understand the evolution of hydrothermal systems by tracing the silica distribution in these systems through time. The solubility of quartz in an aqueous fluid is dependent upon the pressure, temperature and composition (PTX) of the fluid. Silica solubility in pure water as a function of pressure and temperature is well understood. However, natural fluids contain variable amounts of dissolved ionic species, thus it is necessary to include the effects of salinity on silica solubility to accurately predict quartz distribution in hydrothermal systems. In particular, addition of NaCl results in enhanced quartz solubility over a wide range of PT conditions. Furthermore, if phase separation occurs in saline fluids, silica is preferentially partitioned into the higher salinity brine phase; if vapor is removed from the system, the bulk salinity in the system evolves towards the brine end member, and overall silica solubility is enhanced. There is abundant evidence from natural fluid inclusions for fluid immiscibility in hydrothermal ore deposits. Additionally, recent hydrothermal models that include fluid phase equilibria effects predict that phase separation may be an important control on the distribution of dissolved components in seafloor hydrothermal systems. An empirical equation describing the solubility of silica in salt-bearing hydrothermal solutions over a wide range of PTX conditions has been incorporated into a multiphase fluid flow model for seafloor hydrothermal

  7. In situ synchrotron study of liquid phase separation process in Al-10 wt.% Bi immiscible alloys by radiography and small angle X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W. Q.; Zhang, S. G.; Li, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    Liquid phase separation process of immiscible alloys has been repeatedly tuned to create special structure for developing materials with unique properties. However, the fundamental understanding of the liquid phase separation process is still under debate due to the characteristics of immiscible alloys in opacity and high temperature environment of alloy melt. Here, the liquid phase separation process in solidifying Al-Bi immiscible alloys was investigated by synchrotron radiography and small angle X-ray scattering. We provide the first direct evidence of surface segregation prior to liquid decomposition and present that the time dependence on the number of Bi droplets follows Logistic curve. The liquid decomposition results from a nucleation and growth process rather than spinodal decomposition mechanism because of the positive deviation from Porod's law. We also found that the nanometer-sized Bi-rich droplets in Al matrix melt present mass fractal characteristics.

  8. Clast assemblages of possible deep-seated /77517/ and immiscible-melt /77538/ origins in Apollo 17 breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Mansker, W. L.; Keil, K.

    1978-01-01

    Breccia samples 77517 and 77538 are composed of abundant mineral and lithic clasts set in porous, poorly sintered matrices. Clast assemblages in the two rocks are of contrasting composition and origin. Breccia 77517 has Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene and calcic plagioclase clasts, indicating limited, almost exclusively ANT-suite parentage. A significant feature is the presence of an assemblage (aluminous enstatite, forsterite, anorthite, aluminous spinel) corresponding to spinel cataclasite, a rock type of deep-seated (about 60 km) crustal origin. Breccia 77538 contains Fe-rich pyroxene and rather sodic plagioclase clasts, indicative of predominantly KREEP and/or mare derivation. An important feature is the occurrence of high-K and high-Fe lithic clasts whose compositions resemble those of immiscible-melts produced during late-stage magmatic crystallization, and which probably originated via silicate liquid immiscibility in a KREEP or mare basalt magma. Both rocks contain numerous fine-grained breccia clasts which represent material that has been modified by impact processes at or very near the moon's surface.

  9. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: PROJECT OVERVIEW AND INITIAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and the initial results of a pilot-scale experiment designated to test the use of cyclodextrin for enhanced in-situ flushing of an aquifer contaminated by immiscible liquid. This is the first field test of this technology, terme...

  10. Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Carl D.

    1983-03-29

    An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

  11. Tysnes Island - An unusual clast composed of solidified, immiscible, Fe-FeS and silicate melts. [in meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    An inclusion found in the Tysnes Island gas-rich H4 chondrite is described. The clast consists of two distinct portions, separated by a smooth boundary; the portions are a tear-drop shaped Fe-FeS eutecticlike intergrowth (0.5 cm greatest dimension) and a silicate consisting primarily of olivine in glass. Nickel enrichment is found in the metal at the metal-sulfide boundaries and in nodules within the metal. It is thought that the portions separated from one another as immiscible liquids and that the modal composition of each portion agrees with the compositions predicted for a total melt of an H-group chondrite. The inclusion is discussed in terms of the process of metal-silicate fractionation suggested by Fodor and Keil (1976).

  12. Nonequilibrium alloy formation in the immiscible Cu-Mo system studied by thermodynamic calculation and ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, X.; Wang, T. L.; Ding, N.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2010-10-15

    For the equilibrium immiscible Cu-Mo system characterized by a positive heat of formation (+19 kJ mol{sup -1}), thermodynamic calculation showed that by adding an adequate interfacial free energy, the Gibbs free energy of the Cu-Mo multilayered films could be elevated up to a higher level than the convex-shaped free energy curve of the amorphous phase and supersaturated solid solutions. Accordingly, ion beam mixing of the Cu-Mo multilayered samples did result in forming a unique amorphous phase with an alloy composition around 80 at. % Mo and two supersaturated solid solutions of fcc and bcc structures at around 27 at. % and 90 at. % Mo, respectively, matching well with the thermodynamic calculation.

  13. Mixing Efficiency, Coarsening, and Self-Compatibilization in Immiscible Polymer Blends Processed via Solid-State Shear Pulverization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, Albert; Khait, Klementina; Torkelson, John

    2000-03-01

    Solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) is a continuous, mechanical alloying process employing simultaneous effects of high pressure and shear deformation to pulverize and mix polymers. Under certain conditions SSSP can result in limited chain scission and polymeric radical formation. In immiscible blends, these radicals may be able to recombine in interfacial regions or regions of high mixing resulting in block copolymer formation and compatibilization. The effects of SSSP on amorphous polyamide (PA)/polystyrene (PS) and PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends have been studied. As compared to melt-mixed blends, SSSP yields blends with enhanced blend morphology refinement or dispersion, and in certain cases enhanced bulk mechanical properties, particularly elongation at break and impact strength. Comparisons of dispersed-phase coarsening during high temperature, liquid-state annealing of the SSSP - processed and conventionally melt-mixed blends will be discussed in terms of the potential for achieving effective compatibilization of particular blends via SSSP.

  14. Poly(L-lactide) and poly(butylene succinate) immiscible blends: from electrospinning to biologically active materials.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Nikoleta; Paneva, Dilyana; Mincheva, Rosica; Toncheva, Antoniya; Manolova, Nevena; Dubois, Philippe; Rashkov, Iliya

    2014-08-01

    For the first time the preparation of defect-free fibers from immiscible blends of high molar mass poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the whole range of the polyester weight ratios is shown. Electrospinning using the solvent-nonsolvent approach proved most appropriate. Moreover, electrospinning revealed crucial for the obtaining of PLA/PBS materials maintaining integrity. DSC and XRD analyses attested for a plasticizing effect and for increased PLA crystallinity at PBS addition to PLA. The mechanical properties of the PLA/PBS mats were controlled by the alignment of the fibers and changed from plastic to brittle materials upon increasing the PBS content. Drug loading and tests against pathogenic microorganisms suggested that the obtained mats can find application as antibacterial fibrous materials.

  15. Dynamic evolution process of multilayer core-shell microstructures within containerlessly solidifying Fe(50)Sn(50) immiscible alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Wu, Y H; Li, L H; Geng, D L; Wei, B

    2016-03-01

    Multilayer core-shell structures are frequently formed in polymers and alloys when temperature and concentration fields are well symmetrical spatially. Here we report that two- to five-layer core-shell microstructures were the dominant structural morphology of a binary Fe(50)Sn(50) immiscible alloy solidified under the containerless and microgravity states within a drop tube. Three dimensional phase field simulation reveals that both the uniformly dispersive structure and the multilayer core-shells are the various metastable and transitional states of the liquid phase separation process. Only the two-layer core-shell is the most stable microstructure with the lowest chemical potential. Because of the suppression of Stokes motion, solutal Marangoni migration becomes important to drive the evolution of core-shell structures. PMID:27078410

  16. Dynamic evolution process of multilayer core-shell microstructures within containerlessly solidifying F e50S n50 immiscible alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. L.; Wu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Geng, D. L.; Wei, B.

    2016-03-01

    Multilayer core-shell structures are frequently formed in polymers and alloys when temperature and concentration fields are well symmetrical spatially. Here we report that two- to five-layer core-shell microstructures were the dominant structural morphology of a binary F e50S n50 immiscible alloy solidified under the containerless and microgravity states within a drop tube. Three dimensional phase field simulation reveals that both the uniformly dispersive structure and the multilayer core-shells are the various metastable and transitional states of the liquid phase separation process. Only the two-layer core-shell is the most stable microstructure with the lowest chemical potential. Because of the suppression of Stokes motion, solutal Marangoni migration becomes important to drive the evolution of core-shell structures.

  17. Pore-scale Evaluation of Immiscible Fluid Characteristics and Displacements: Comparison Between Ambient- and Supercritical-Condition Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, A. L.; Wildenschild, D.; Andersson, L.; Harper, E.; Sheppard, A.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of immiscible fluids within porous media is a topic of great importance for a wide range of subsurface processes; e.g. oil recovery, geologic sequestration of CO2, gas-water mass transfer in the vadose zone, and remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from groundwater. In particular, the trapping and mobilization of nonwetting phase fluids (e.g. oil, CO2, gas, or NAPL in water-wet media) is of significant concern; and has been well documented to be a function of both wetting and nonwetting fluid properties, morphological characteristics of the porous medium, and system history. However, generalization of empirical trends and results for application between different fluid-fluid-medium systems requires careful consideration and characterization of the relevant system properties. We present a comprehensive and cohesive description of nonwetting phase behaviour as observed via a suite of three dimensional x-ray microtomography imaging experiments investigating immiscible fluid flow, trapping, and interfacial interactions of wetting (brine) and nonwetting (air, oil, and supercritical CO2) phase in sandstones and synthetic media. Microtomographic images, acquired for drainage and imbibition flow processes, allow for precise and extensive characterization of nonwetting phase fluid saturation, topology, and connectivity; imaging results are paired with externally measured capillary pressure data to provide a comprehensive description of fluid states. Fluid flow and nonwetting phase trapping behaviour is investigated as a function of system history, morphological metrics of the geologic media, and nonwetting phase fluid characteristics; and particular emphasis is devoted to the differences between ambient condition (air-brine) and reservoir condition (supercritical CO2-brine) studies. Preliminary results provide insight into the applicability of using ambient condition experiments to explore reservoir condition processes, and also elucidate the

  18. Carbonate-silicate immiscibility and extremely peralkaline silicate glasses from Nasira cone and recent eruptions at Oldoinyo Lengai Volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, J. Barry

    2012-11-01

    Phenocrysts of garnet, pyroxene and nepheline in peralkaline nephelinite from the Nasira parasitic cones at Oldoinyo Lengai contain quenched immiscible silicate (peralkalinity = 2-13) and Na-Ca-carbonate melts. Their bulk compositions further define the limits of liquid immiscibility for peralkaline carbonated nephelinite magmas and confirm this process was operative at Oldoinyo Lengai during older stages of activity. Groundmass glasses in Nasira nephelinites are peralkaline (peralkalinity = 5.5-9.5) but less evolved than melt inclusion glasses (peralkalinity = 8-13) in nepheline phenocrysts, implying that these magmas are hybrids formed by magma mixing. Groundmass glass in diverse peralkaline combeite nephelinite ash clasts with and without melilite and/or wollastonite formed in the January-June 2008 eruptions of Oldoinyo Lengai are also exceptionally peralkaline. Two trends in their compositions are evident: (1) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 10 with SiO2 decreasing from 42 to 33 wt.%; (2) increasing peralkalinity from 6 to 16 with SiO2 decreasing from 45 to 40 wt.%. All recent glasses are considered to be more evolved than groundmass glass in Nasira combeite nephelinite. These data indicate that several varieties of nephelinite exist at Oldoinyo Lengai. Their parental magmas are considered to have been initially enriched in alkalis during partial melting of their metasomatized asthenospheric sources and further by subsequent assimilation, or re-solution, of previously exsolved natrocarbonatite melt in the magma chamber(s) underlying Oldoinyo Lengai. On this basis, none of the bulk compositions of peralkaline stage II lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai, including Nasira, are considered to represent those of liquids as their compositions are determined by rheological factors (phenocryst accumulation; cumulate disruption) and assimilation processes. The formation of combeite is considered to be a consequence of natrocarbonatite melt assimilation.

  19. Large-scale liquid immiscibility and fractional crystallization in the 1780 Ma Taihang dyke swarm: Implications for genesis of the bimodal Xiong'er volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Xinping; Lai, Yong; Wang, Chong; Windley, Brian F.

    2015-11-01

    Immiscibility is a potential mechanism for the formation of high-Fe-Ti-P rocks; however, whether large-scale segregation and eruption of high-Si lavas can occur in nature has yet to be proven. In this study, we investigate the possibility of immiscibility between the cogenetic 1780 Ma high-Fe-Ti-P-bearing Taihang dykes and the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics in North China. The compositions of silicate melt inclusions in plagioclase megacrysts of the dykes provide a new approach to obtain the primary liquid. Mineral and bulk-rock compositions reveal that large compositional variations in the dykes are the result of plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization and of density-driven mineral sorting, which together caused the liquids to be poor in Ca-Al but rich in Fe-Ti-P-K, and thus chemically immiscible. Conjugate interstitial granophyric and ilmenite-rich intergrowths and reactive microstructures especially olivine coronas in the dykes, and Si-/Fe-Ti-rich globules in the volcanics, provide petrographic evidence for the presence of two coeval, coexisting liquids in equilibrium separated by a miscibility gap, and thus for immiscibility and segregation/migration. The fractional crystallization and subsequent segregation were responsible for the compositional diversity of the Taihang dykes and also of the 'bimodal' Xiong'er volcanics. Accordingly, the dacite and rhyolite lavas are potentially the high-Si counterparts of the high-Ti dykes, and the basalt and andesite lavas are the erupted equivalents of the relatively low-Ti dykes. It is likely that the sustained plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-dominated fractional crystallization, and the enhanced fO2 were responsible for the immiscibility. The segregation probably took place during the ascent of the liquid in the pumping system (feeder dykes). This likely represents one natural example of crust-scale immiscibility from which many high-Ti dykes and silicic lavas (~ 1/3 volume of the Xiong

  20. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  1. Substrats poreux biodegradables prepares a partir de phases co-continues dans les melanges de polymeres immiscibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, Pierre

    2003-06-01

    In this thesis a novel approach to preparing biodegradable materials with highly structured and interconnected porosity is proposed. The method involves the controlled preparation of immiscible co-continuous polymer blends using melt-processing technology followed by a bulk solvent extraction step of one of the phases (the porogen phase). A co-continuous structure is defined as the state when each phase of the blend is fully interconnected through a continuous pathway. This method allows for the preparation of porous materials with highly controlled pore size, pore volume and pore shape which can then be transformed and shaped in various forms useful for biomedical applications. Various properties of the skin of the polymeric articles (closed-cell, open-cell, modification of the pore size) can be controlled. Initially, the study on the immiscible binary and compatibilized poly(L-lactide)/polystyrene blends (PLLA/PS) after extraction of the PS phase demonstrated that highly percolated blends exist from 40--75%PS and 40--60%PS for the binary and compatibilized blends, respectively. It is demonstrated that both the pore size and extent of co-continuity can be controlled through composition and interfacial modification. The subsequent part of our work treats of the preparation of porous PLLA from a blend of two biodegradable polymers and the performance of such porous materials. This portion of the work uses only polymer materials which have been medically approved for internal use. In this case, small amounts of the porogen phase can be tolerated in the final porous substrate. Co-continuous blends comprised of poly(L-lactide)/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) PLLA/PCL, were prepared via melt processing. A wide range of phase sizes for the co-continuous blend is generated through a combination of concentration control and quiescent annealing. As the PLLA phase can not be dissolved selectively in PLLA/PS blends, the co-continuity range was evaluated indirectly. To precisely

  2. Simulation results for a multirate mass transfer modell for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M

  3. Crustal contamination and sulfide immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, East Tianshan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao

    2016-11-01

    The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu sulfide-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded sulfide inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that sulfide immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at sulfide saturation reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger sulfide saturation in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing sulfide immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca

  4. Self-organization of Cu-based immiscible alloys under irradiation: An atom-probe tomography study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumphy, Brad D.

    The stability of materials subjected to prolonged irradiation has been a topic of renewed interest in recent years due to the projected growth of nuclear power as an alternative energy source. The irradiating particles impart energy into the material, thereby causing atomic displacements to occur. These displacements result in the creation of point defects and the random ballistic mixing of the atoms. Consequently, the material is driven away from its equilibrium structure. The supersaturation of defects can lead to the degradation of mechanical properties, but a high density of internal interfaces, which act as defect sinks, will suppress the supersaturation and long-range transport of defects. The microstructural evolution of the material is controlled by the ballistic mixing as well as the mobility of the point defects. In immiscible alloys, these two processes compete against one another, as the ballistic mixing acts to solutionize the alloy components, and the thermal diffusion of the large number of defects acts to phase separate the components. The work presented in this dissertation examines the effect of heavy-ion irradiation on immiscible, binary Cu-based alloys. Dilute alloys of Cu-Fe, Cu-V, and V-Cu have been subjected to irradiation, and atom-probe tomography has been utilized in order to better understand the complex nature of the response of these simple model systems to an irradiation environment. The results show that a steady-state, nano-scale patterning structure, with a high density of unsaturable defect sinks, can be maintained under prolonged irradiation. Additionally, precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution is shown to be a function of both the thermal diffusion and the ballistic mixing. Solvent-rich secondary precipitates, termed "cherry-pits," are observed inside of the solute-rich primary precipitates. Through a combination of simulation work and analyzing multiple alloys experimentally, it was determined that this cherry

  5. Partitioning of lanthanides and Y between immiscible silicate and fluoride melts, fluorite and cryolite and the origin of the lanthanide tetrad effect in igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.; Dorfman, Alexander M.; Kamenetsky, Maya; Dulski, Peter; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2005-06-01

    Some F-rich granitic rocks show anomalous, nonchondritic ratios of Y/Ho, extreme negative Eu anomalies, and unusual, discontinuous, segmented chondrite-normalised plots of rare earth elements (REE). The effects of F-rich fluids have been proposed as one of the explanations for the geochemical anomalies in the evolved granitic systems, as the stability of nonsilicate complexes of individual rare earths may affect the fluid-melt element partitioning. The lanthanide tetrad effect, related to different configurations of 4f-electron subshells of the lanthanide elements, is one of the factors affecting such complexing behaviour. We present the first experimental demonstration of the decoupling of Y and Ho, and the tetrad effect in the partitioning of rare earths between immiscible silicate and fluoride melts. Two types of experiments were performed: dry runs at atmospheric pressure in a high-temperature centrifuge at 1100 to 1200°C, and experiments with the addition of H 2O at 700 to 800°C and 100 MPa in rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels. Run products were analysed by electron microprobe (major components), solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (REE in the centrifuged runs), and laser ablation ICP-MS (REE and Li in the products of rapid-quench runs). All the dry centrifuge runs were performed at super-liquidus, two-phase conditions. In the experiments with water-bearing mixtures, minor amounts of aqueous vapour were present in addition to the melts. We found that lanthanides and Y concentrated strongly in the fluoride liquids, with two-melt partition coefficients reaching values as high as 100-220 in water-bearing compositions. In all the experimental samples, two-melt partition coefficients of lanthanides show subtle periodicity consistent with the tetrad effect, and the partition coefficient of Y is greater than that of Ho. One of the mixtures also produced abundant fluorite (CaF 2) and cryolite (Na 3AlF 6) crystals, which enabled

  6. Coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero complex (North Karelia, Russia): Evidence for the existence of an immiscible high-Fe melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Chistyakov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that most subsolidus coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero intrusive complex result from crystallization of drops of immiscible interstitial high-Fe melt scattered among cumulates and containing SiO2, Ti, Al, Ca, Na, K, Ba, and volatiles (water, F, and Cl) as well. Fe-Ti oxides were the first crystal phases, whereas other components were incorporated in the surrounding concentrically zoned rims composed of olivine, phlogopite, and kaersutite-pargasite. Reactional rims at the boundaries between olivine and plagioclase and symplectitic pargasite-muscovite-scapolite rims around the clusters of olivine and Fe-Ti oxides are observed as well. Thus, the coronitic textures in ferrogabbroids of the Elet'ozero Complex provide the first evidence for the existence of an immiscible, relatively low-temperature high-Fe melt in the natural magmatic systems.

  7. Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint And EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L.; Agee, C.; Sutton, S.

    2013-01-01

    Immiscible sulfide melt spherules are locally very abundant in shergottite impact melts. These melts can also contain samples of Martian atmospheric gases [1], and cosmogenic nuclides [2] that are present in impact melt, but not in the host shergottite, indicating some components in the melt resided at the Martian surface. These observations show that some regolith components are, at least locally, present in the impact melts. This view also suggests that one source of the over-abundant sulfur in these impact melts could be sulfates that are major constituents of Martian regolith, and that the sulfates were reduced during shock heating to sulfide. An alternative view is that sulfide spherules in impact melts are produced solely by melting the crystalline sulfide minerals (dominantly pyrrhotite, Fe(1-x)S) that are present in shergottites [3]. In this abstract we report new analyses of the compositions of sulfide immiscible melt spherules and pyrrhotite in the shergottites Tissint, and EETA79001,507, and we use these data to investigate the possible origins of the immiscible sulfide melt spherules. In particular, we use the metal/S ratios determined in these blebs as potential diagnostic criteria for tracking the source material from which the numerous sulfide blebs were generated by shock in these melts.

  8. On the Rigid-Lid Approximation for Two Shallow Layers of Immiscible Fluids with Small Density Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchêne, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    The rigid-lid approximation is a commonly used simplification in the study of density-stratified fluids in oceanography. Roughly speaking, one assumes that the displacements of the surface are negligible compared with interface displacements. In this paper, we offer a rigorous justification of this approximation in the case of two shallow layers of immiscible fluids with constant and quasi-equal mass density. More precisely, we control the difference between the solutions of the Cauchy problem predicted by the shallow-water (Saint-Venant) system in the rigid-lid and free-surface configuration. We show that in the limit of a small density contrast, the flow may be accurately described as the superposition of a baroclinic (or slow) mode, which is well predicted by the rigid-lid approximation, and a barotropic (or fast) mode, whose initial smallness persists for large time. We also describe explicitly the first-order behavior of the deformation of the surface and discuss the case of a nonsmall initial barotropic mode.

  9. Fluorescence Response of Conjugated Polyelectrolyte in an Immiscible Two-Phase System via Nonelectrostatic Interaction with Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomsu Shin-Il; Jin, Young-Jae; Sakaguchi, Toshikazu; Lee, Wang-Eun; Kwak, Giseop

    2015-06-24

    This paper reports a unique fluorescence (FL) response and diverse applications of conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) through nonelectrostatic interaction with appropriate (bio)surfactants in an immiscible two-phase system. A sulfonated microporous conjugated polymer (SMCP) with a conformation-variable intramolecular stacked structure was used as the CPE film. Despite the extremely high hydrophilicity, the SMCP film responded significantly to the hydrophobic circumstances, either physicochemically or electronically, in the presence of water-in-oil (w/o)-type nonionic surfactants with appropriate hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) values. The polymer film became fully wet with hydrophobic solvents due to the addition of small amounts of (bio)surfactant to reveal remarkable FL emission enhancement and chromism. Microcontact and inkjet printing using the SMCP film (or SMCP-adsorbed paper) and the surfactant solution as substrate and ink, respectively, provided high-resolution FL images due to the distinctive surfactant-induced FL change (SIFC) characteristic. Moreover, the additional electrostatic interaction of SMCP film with oppositely charged surfactants further enhanced the FL emission. Our findings will help comprehensive understanding of the nonelectrostatic SIFC mechanism of CPEs and development of novel SIFC-active materials.

  10. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  11. Immiscible displacement of oil by water in consolidated porous media due to capillary imbibition under ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Hamida, Tarek; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2007-09-01

    Numerous studies done in the last four decades have demonstrated that acoustic stimulation may enhance recovery in oil reservoirs. This technology is not only technically feasible, but also serves as an economical, environmentally friendly alternative to currently accepted enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. It requires low capital expenditure, and yields almost immediate improvement without any additional EOR agents. Despite a vast body of empirical and theoretical support, this method lacks sufficient understanding to make meaningful and consistent engineering predictions. This is in part due to the complex nature of the physical processes involved, as well as due to a shortage of fundamental/experimental research. Much of what the authors believe is happening within acoustically stimulated porous media is speculative and theoretical. This paper focuses on the effects of ultrasound on the interfacial forces between immiscible fluids. Capillary (spontaneous) imbibition of an aqueous phase into oil (or air)-saturated Berea sandstone and Indiana limestone samples experiments were conducted. Solutions of water, brine (15,000 and 150,000 ppm NaCl), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate), nonionic surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate) and polymer (xanthan gum) were prepared as the aqueous phase. Both counter-current and co-current geometries were tested. Due to the intrinsically unforced, gentle nature of the process, and their strong dependence on wettability, interfacial tension, viscosity and density, such experiments provide valuable insight into some of the governing mechanisms behind ultrasonic stimulation.

  12. Linear stability analysis of immiscible displacement including continuously changing mobility and capillary effects: Part II - general basic flow profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, A.B.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1984-09-01

    This paper reports on the continuation of previous work in the linear stability of immiscible, two-phase flow displacement processes in porous media that includes continuously changing mobility and capillary effects. In Part I simple basic-flow profiles that allow exact solutions to be obtained were investigated. First, the stability of non-capillary flows corresponding to a straight line fractional flow is examined. Next, the stability of capillary flows for general basic flow profiles is examined. For values of the viscosity ratio above the critical, the numerical results show that the displacement is unstable to small disturbances of wavelength larger than a critical value, and stable otherwise. This effect is attributed to the stabilizing action of capillarity. Values of wavelength corresponding to the highest rate of growth are numerically determined. It is found that stability is enhanced at lower values of the capillary number and the injection rate. Finally, a limited sensitivity study of the effect on stability of the functional forms of relative permeability and capillary pressure is carried out.

  13. Electrohydrodynamic linear stability of two immiscible fluids in channel flow under the influence of a parallel electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerem Uguz, A.; Aubry, Nadine

    2007-11-01

    The instability of a flat interface between two viscous, immiscible and incompressible liquids in plane Poiseuille flow is studied in the presence of an electric field parallel to the flat interface. In practice, either the stability or instability of the interface is desired depending on the application such as material deposition, mixing, or droplet formation. For that purpose the effect of various parameters was studied via linear stability analysis. The electric field was found to be either stabilizing or destabilizing depending on the electrical properties of the fluids. An interesting feature of this problem is the presence of a second window of stability, namely for some parameters there exist two regions of wavenumbers in which the system is stable. Our results are compared with the case where the electric field is normal to the fluid-fluid interface [1, 2]. [1] O. Ozen, N. Aubry, D. T. Papageorgiou and P. G. Petropoulos, Electrochimica Acta, 51, 5316-5323 (2006) [2] F. Li, O. Ozen, N. Aubry, D.T. Papageorgiou and P.G. Petropoulos, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 583, 347-377 (2007)

  14. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids.

    PubMed

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-01-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control. PMID:27534580

  15. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-08-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control.

  16. Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites. PMID:22999219

  17. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  18. 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal velocity field of an immiscible drop in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerdraon, Paul; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Landel, Julien R.; Peaudecerf, Francois J.

    2015-11-01

    We study experimentally the internal flow of a drop attached to a flat substrate and immersed in an immiscible shear flow. Transport inside the drop can play a crucial role in cleaning applications. Internal advection can enhance the mass transfer across the drop surface, thus increasing the cleaning rate. We used microlitre water-glycerol drops on a hydrophobic substrate. The drops were spherical and did not deform significantly under the shear flow. An oil phase of relative viscosity 0.01 to 1 was flowed over the drop. Typical Reynolds numbers inside the drops were of the order of 0.1 to 10. Using confocal microscopy, we performed 3D tomographic reconstruction of the flow field in the drop. The in-plane velocity field was measured using micro-PIV, and the third velocity component was computed from incompressibility. To our knowledge, this study gives the first experimental measurement of the three-dimensional internal velocity field of a drop in a shear flow. Numerical simulations and theoretical models published in the past 30 years predict a toroidal internal recirculation flow, for which the entire surface flows streamwise. However, our measurements reveal a qualitatively different picture with a two-lobed recirculation, featuring two stagnation points at the surface and a reverse surface flow closer to the substrate. This finding appears to be independent of Reynolds number and viscosity ratio in the ranges studied; we conjecture that the observed flow is due to the effect of surfactants at the drop surface.

  19. Electrically Controllable Microparticle Synthesis and Digital Microfluidic Manipulation by Electric-Field-Induced Droplet Dispensing into Immiscible Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Um, Taewoong; Hong, Jiwoo; Im, Do Jin; Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, In Seok

    2016-01-01

    The dispensing of tiny droplets is a basic and crucial process in a myriad of applications, such as DNA/protein microarray, cell cultures, chemical synthesis of microparticles, and digital microfluidics. This work systematically demonstrates droplet dispensing into immiscible fluids through electric charge concentration (ECC) method. It exhibits three main modes (i.e., attaching, uniform, and bursting modes) as a function of flow rates, applied voltages, and gap distances between the nozzle and the oil surface. Through a conventional nozzle with diameter of a few millimeters, charged droplets with volumes ranging from a few μL to a few tens of nL can be uniformly dispensed into the oil chamber without reduction in nozzle size. Based on the features of the proposed method (e.g., formation of droplets with controllable polarity and amount of electric charge in water and oil system), a simple and straightforward method is developed for microparticle synthesis, including preparation of colloidosomes and fabrication of Janus microparticles with anisotropic internal structures. Finally, a combined system consisting of ECC-induced droplet dispensing and electrophoresis of charged droplet (ECD)-driven manipulation systems is constructed. This integrated platform will provide increased utility and flexibility in microfluidic applications because a charged droplet can be delivered toward the intended position by programmable electric control. PMID:27534580

  20. Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Waraich, Palneet Singh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2012-01-01

    : In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites. PMID:22999219

  1. Synthesis of 3D nanostructured metal alloy of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-repetition femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Waraich, Palneet Singh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we have proposed a concept for the generation of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured metal alloys of immiscible materials induced by megahertz-frequency ultrafast laser pulses. A mixture of two microparticle materials (aluminum and nickel oxide) and nickel oxide microparticles coated onto an aluminum foil have been used in this study. After laser irradiation, three different types of nanostructure composites have been observed: aluminum embedded in nickel nuclei, agglomerated chain of aluminum and nickel nanoparticles, and finally, aluminum nanoparticles grown on nickel microparticles. In comparison with current nanofabrication methods which are used only for one-dimensional nanofabrication, this technique enables us to fabricate 3D nanostructured metal alloys of two or more nanoparticle materials with varied composite concentrations under various predetermined conditions. This technique can lead to promising solutions for the fabrication of 3D nanostructured metal alloys in applications such as fuel-cell energy generation and development of custom-designed, functionally graded biomaterials and biocomposites.

  2. Elemental ZOO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2003-04-01

    This puzzle uses the symbols of 39 elements to spell the names of 25 animals found in zoos. Underlined spaces and the names of the elements serve as clues. To solve the puzzle, students must find the symbols that correspond to the elemental names and rearrange them into the animals' names.

  3. Lightning strike fusion: extreme reduction and metal-silicate liquid immiscibility.

    PubMed

    Essene, E J; Fisher, D C

    1986-10-10

    A glassy fulgurite, formed recently on a morainal ridge in southeastern Michigan, contains micrometer- to centimeter-sized metallic globules rich in native silicon, which unmixed from a silica-rich liquid. The unusual character of these globules and their potential for elucidating conditions of fulgurite formation prompted further study. Thermodynamic calculations indicate that temperatures in excess of 2000 K and reducing conditions approaching those of the SiO(2)-Si buffer were needed to form the coexisting metallic and silicate liquids. The phases produced are among the most highly reduced naturally occurring materials known. Some occurrences of other highly reduced minerals may also be due to lightning strike reduction. Extreme reduction and volatilization may also occur during high-temperature events such as lightning strikes in presolar nebulae and impacts of extraterrestrial bodies. As a result of scavenging of platinum-group elements by highly reduced metallic liquids, geochemical anomalies associated with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary may have a significant terrestrial component even if produced through bolide impact. PMID:17746479

  4. Advances in the engineering science of immiscible polymer blends: A powder route for delicate polymer precursors and a highly renewable polyamide/terephthalate blend system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancola, Giorgiana

    Powder processing of thermoplastic polymer composites is an effective way to achieve a high level of component homogenization in raw blends prior to melt processing, thus reducing the thermal and shear stress on the components. Polymer blends can be prepared that would otherwise not be possible due to thermodynamic incompatibility. Evaluation of this concept was conducted by processing PMMA and HDPE micron sized powders which were characterized using DSC and rheology. Optical microscopy and SEM, showed that high-quality, fine domain sized blends can be made by the compression molding process. Silica marker spheres were used to qualitatively assess the level dispersive mixing. EDS chemical analysis was effective in providing image contrast between PMMA and HDPE based on the carbonyl and ester oxygen. EDS image maps, combined with secondary electron images show that compression molding of blended powder precursors produces composites of comparable homogeneity and domain size as extrusion processing. FTIR proved valuable when assessing the intimacy of the constituents at the interface of the immiscible domains. The formation of an in-situ, PMMA nano-network structure resulting from solvent extraction and redeposition using DMF was uniquely found on the surface of these immiscible polymer blends. This work has shown that powder processing of polymers is an effective means to melt processed fragile polymers to high quality blends. Recently, efforts towards the development of sustainable materials have evolved due in part to the increase in price and limited supply of crude oil. Immiscible polymer blending is a paradigm that enables synergistic material performance in certain instances where the composite properties are superior to the sum of the constituents. The addition of PA6,10 to PTT offers an opportunity to increase the bio-based content of PTT while simultaneously maintaining or improving mechanical properties. PA6,10 and PTT are immiscible polymers that can be

  5. Variolites - results of liquid immiscibility or mingling?: Evidence from variolitic lava, axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    Fragment of variolitic lavas was dredged in axial part of the MAR at 6oN during 10th cruise of R/V “Akademik Ioffe” (2001-2002). It is rock where rounded globules of andesite (icelandite) with light trachyandesite rims are enclosed in Fe-Ti picrobasalt matrix. The sample can be subdivided in two different structural parts or “layers”. One of them densely saturated by globules, which closely adjoin to each other, merge in clumpy congregations; in another part matrix predominates. Boundary between both parts, even if irregular due to rounded shape of closed globules, nevertheless is well-defined and has small bays of the matrix material. So, globules were moved in picrobasaltic melt and floated up to the surface of the lava flow. It is shown that formation of the leucocratic rims was evidently linked with thermal diffusion phenomenon (Soret principle) in cooling heterogeneous melt. According to this principle, components in solutions and melts, placed in thermal gradient, are redistributed for leveling of internal energy in that way, when light elements migrate to hot parts and heavy ones to cold. Experimental studies of thermal diffusion in samples of MORB showed enlarge of Si, Al, Na and K concentration to side of hot area of melt and Fe, Mg, Ca, etc. to cold one; resulting melts were andesites and Ne-normative picrite (Walker, DeLong, 1982). The same picture we saw in our sample: enrichment of external zone of globules by Si, Al, and, especially, by high-mobile Na, which diffusion rate in silicate melts in some order higher than speed of remaining elements (Watson, 1982; Borisov, 2008). Simultaneously, this zone impoverished by Fe, Ca and Mg, which were concentrated in rear of rims, forming internal zoning of globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended

  6. Seismoelectric Coupling in a Poroelastic Material Containing Two Immiscible Fluid Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been proposed in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires a complete modeling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two fluid phases, one being the wetting phase for the solid grains and one being the non-wetting phase (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of the poroelastic modeling to two-phase flow conditions with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of an effective charge per unit pore volume that can be dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability. We used finite element approach to simulate the seismoelectric signals in the partially saturated condition to formulate a transfer equation connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P-wave and to study the influence of the water content on the amplitude of the co-seismic waves. The amplitude of the co-seismic wave is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in the amplitude of the electro-coseismic wave with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions occurring at the water table and the absence of conversion below the irreducible water saturation. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones is sharp. Then a relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the ground water level through seismoelectric measurements especially because in this case, the co-seismic signal is very small compared to the seismoelectric conversion response.

  7. Effect of viscous cross coupling between two immiscible fluids on elastic wave propagation and attenuation in unsaturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Yeh, Chao-Lung; Lee, Jhe-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A central issue in the theoretical treatment of a multiphase system is the proper mathematical description of momentum transfer across fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfaces. Although recent studies have advanced our knowledge on modeling the coupling behavior between a porous framework and the fluids permeating it, the effect of viscous resistance caused by two-fluid flow on elastic wave behavior in unsaturated porous media still remains elusive. In the present study, the theoretical model developed for describing immiscible two-phase fluid flows in a deformable porous medium related to harmonic wave perturbation is generalized to account for viscous cross coupling due to relative velocity between two adjacent fluids. The corresponding dispersion relations whose coefficients feature all elasticity, inertial-drag, and viscous-drag parameters are then precisely formulated, in a physical context characterizing three compressional waves and one shear wave. To evaluate quantitatively this as-yet unknown effect, numerical calculations are conducted to solve the dispersion relations for Columbia fine sandy loam bearing an oil-water mixture as a function of water saturation and excitation frequency. Our results show that the phase speed and attenuation coefficient of the P3 wave which has the smallest speed is strongly sensitive to the presence of viscous cross coupling, as expected since this wave is attributed primarily to the out-of-phase motion of the two pore fluids. Viscous cross coupling also exerts an impact on the attenuation coefficient of the shear wave and the P1 wave whose speed is greatest, which exhibits two opposite trends at different ranges of low and high water contents. Relative differences in these wave attributes are principally independent of excitation frequency. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess how changes in viscous cross coupling affect these differences, revealing that some of them become more significant as viscous cross

  8. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  9. The use of rheology to elucidate the granulation mechanisms of a miscible and immiscible system during continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Heeze, Liza; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Oldörp, Klaus; Nopens, Ingmar; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-08-20

    Twin-screw hot melt granulation (TS HMG) is a valuable, but still unexplored alternative to granulate temperature and moisture sensitive drugs in a continuous way. Recently, the material behavior of an immiscible drug-binder blend during TS HMG was unraveled by using a rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, vibrational spectroscopic techniques proved the link between TS HMG and rheology since equal interactions at molecular level did occur in both processes. This allowed to use a rheometer to gain knowledge of the material behavior during hot melt processing of an immiscible drug-binder blend. However, miscibility of a drug-binder formulation and drug-binder interactions appear to influence the rheological properties and, hence conceivably also the granulation mechanism. The aim of this research was to examine if the TS HMG process of a miscible formulation system is comparable with the mechanism of an immiscible system and to evaluate whether rheology still serves as a useful tool to understand and optimize the hot melt granulation (HMG) process. The executed research (thermal analysis, rheological parameters and spectroscopic data) demonstrated the occurrence of a high and broad tan(δ) curve without a loss peak during the rheological temperature ramp which implies a higher material deformability without movement of the softened single polymer chains. Spectroscopic analysis revealed drug-polymer interactions which constrain the polymer to flow independently. As a result, the binder distribution step, which generally follows the immersion step, was hindered. This insight assisted the understanding of the granule properties. Inhomogeneous granules were produced due to large initial nuclei or adhesion of multiple smaller nuclei. Consequently, a higher granulation temperature was required in order to get the binder more homogeneously distributed within the granules. PMID:27374203

  10. Applicability of a multirate mass transfer model for immiscible displacement of two fluids to model two phase flow in fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa

    2014-05-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. Based on such approaches, we derived a multirate mass transfer (mrmt) model for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous media including capillary forces by Homogenization theory (see Tecklenburg et. al. (2013)). For the mrmt model the fractured media is represented by a mobile zone, where "fast" flow takes place, and an immobile zone. The immobile zone would be the rock matrix and the mobile zone would be the connected fracture network, where the fractures are represented by an equivalent porous media. The flow in the mobile zone is modelled by the Buckley-Leverett equation. This equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time to model the mass transfer between the mobile and the immobile zone. For immiscible displacement of two fluids the mass transfer can be driven by capillary diffusion. For particular imbibition cases this diffusive mass transfer process can be linearized. In this contribution we test the applicability of the mrmt model for the two phase flow in two dimensional fracture networks. This is done with numerical simulations of immiscible displacement in fracture networks. We compare the results of the mrmt model and the results of a full two dimensional two phase flow model where the code dumux by Flemisch et. al. (2011) is used. The flow parameters for the mrmt model are calculated by analyzing fracture and matrix geometry and using the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Tecklenburg, J., Neuweiler, I., Dentz, M., Carrera, J., Geiger, S., Abramowski, C. and O. Silva: A non-local two-phase flow model for immiscible displacement in highly heterogeneous porous media and its parametrization, Advances in

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  12. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  13. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  14. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  15. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  16. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  17. Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.

  18. Lateral structuring and stability phenomena induced by block copolymers and core-shell nanogel particles at immiscible polymer/polymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozen, Arif Omer

    We have investigated the parameters such as copolymer/nanoparticle concentration, architecture and molecular weight combined with film thickness, time and temperature in order to develop a molecular-level insight on how lateral interfacial structuring occurs at immiscible polymer/polymer interfaces. I order to develop a molecular-level understanding of how these 'smart' self-assembling materials and core-shell nanogel particles interact both intra- and inter-molecularly and form ordered structures in bulk, as well as at immiscible interfaces, we first focused on the response of core-shell polymer nanoparticles, designated CSNGs, composed of a cross-linked divinylbenzene core and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) arms as they segregate from PMMA homopolymer. We have demonstrated that these nanogel particles exhibit autophobic character when dispersed in high molecular weight homopolymer matrices and segregate to the interface with another fluid. We have further explored the migration of these new-generation nanogel particles (CSNG-Rs) segregating from PS homopolymer to PS/PMMA interfaces. Unlike the instability patterns observed with the CSNGs, which exhibit classical nucleation and growth mechanism with circular hole formation, we have observed an intriguing dewetting pattern and CSNG-Rs forming lateral aggregates and tentacle-like structures at the interface. In parallel with our core-shell particle studies, we have also explored the structuring of copolymer molecules that are far from equilibrium in bulk and complex laminate of polymer thin films. Our early triblock copolymer studies have proven that molecular asymmetry has a profound effect on order-disorder transition temperature. We focused primarily on the effect of the copolymer chemical composition (i.e., block sizes) on the dewetting behavior of PS/SM thin films on PMMA. We elucidate the interfacial segregation and concurrent micellization of diblock copolymers in a dynamically evolving environment with

  19. Fluid inclusion and H-O isotope evidence for immiscibility during mineralization of the Yinan Au-Cu-Fe deposit, Shandong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Gu, X. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, S. Y.; Li, K.; Li, B. H.; Lv, P. R.

    2011-07-01

    The fluid inclusion and H-O isotope studies have provided the evidences for the source of ore-forming fluids, and helped to recognize two types of immiscibility and their relationships with mineralization. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic geochemistry shows that the earlier ore-forming fluids during the anhydrous skarn stage (I) and the hydrous skarn-magnetite stage (II) were mainly derived from magmatic water, while the later fluids during the quartz-sulfide stage (III) and the carbonate stage (IV) were mainly from magmatic water mixed with small amounts of meteoric water. Various types of fluid inclusions, including abundant vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions, CO 2-H 2O inclusions, and less abundant liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions and melt inclusions, are present in hydrothermal minerals of different stages. The liquid-vapor fluid inclusions are mainly composed of H 2O, with significant amounts of CO 2 and a small amount of CH 4. In the opaque-bearing fluid inclusions, the hematite and fahlore (tetrahedrite) were identified. The homogenization temperature of the aqueous fluid inclusions decreases from Stage I (520-410 °C), through Stage II (430-340 °C) and III (250-190 °C), to Stage IV (190-130 °C). The coexistence of melt inclusions with simultaneously trapped vapor- or liquid-rich two-phase aqueous inclusions and daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions in garnet, diopside and epidote of Stages I and II suggests an immiscibility between silicate melt and hydrothermal fluid. It is an effective mechanism on scavenging and transporting ore-forming components from magmas. The aqueous fluid inclusions with various vapor/liquid ratios (from <10% to >65%) commonly coexist with simultaneously trapped liquid inclusions, vapor inclusions, daughter minerals-bearing multiphase inclusions and CO 2-H 2O inclusions in the quartz of Stage III, and the different kinds of the fluid inclusions have

  20. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  1. Potentiometric investigation of the effect of the pH on the ionic transfer of some amino acids at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Spătaru, Tanta; Spătaru, Nicolae; Bonciocat, Nicolae; Luca, Constantin

    2004-04-01

    The effect of the pH on the ionic transfer of glycine and beta-alanine at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) was investigated by a simple potentiometric method. Upon addition of small amounts of solution containing the investigated amino acids, a variation of the potential drop across the interface was recorded, which was found to be pH-dependent. This behavior was explained in terms of a preferential orientation of the amino acid molecules at the ITIES, induced by the different lipoficility of the functional groups. The results enabled the measurement of this voltage variation to be used as the basis for a simple and rapid method for determining the isoelectric point of the investigated compounds. The agreement between the pH(i) values thus estimated and those reported in the literature suggests the possibility of using the method for the interpretation of processes occurring at the level of biological membranes. PMID:14990327

  2. Miscible-immiscible quantum phase transition in coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Fei; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Davis, Matthew J.; McCulloch, Ian P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the miscible-immiscible quantum phase transition in a linearly coupled binary Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension that can describe the low-energy properties of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. With the quantum many-body ground state obtained from the density matrix renormalization group algorithm, we calculate the characteristic physical quantities of the phase transition controlled by the linear coupling between the two components. Furthermore we calculate the Binder cumulant to determine the critical point and construct the phase diagram. The strong-coupling expansion shows that in the Mott insulator regime the model Hamiltonian can be mapped to a spin-1/2 XXZ model with a transverse magnetic field.

  3. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact strength polystyrene (II): mechanical properties and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Guangxin; Zhang, Wanxi

    2001-03-01

    The paper studies the morphology and mechanical properties of immiscible binary blends of the nylon 1010 and HIPS through the radiation crosslinking method. In this blend, the HIPS particles were the dispersed phases in the nylon1010 matrix. With increasing of dose, the elastic modulus increased. However, the tensile strength, elongation at break and the energy of fracture increased to a maximum at a dose of 0.34 MGy, then reduced with the increasing of dose. SEM photographs show that the hole sizes are not changed obviously at low dose and at high dose, remnants that cannot be dissolved in formic acid and THF can be observed in the holes and on the surface. TEM photographs showed that radiation destroys the rubber phases in the polymer blend.

  4. Rapid isolation and purification of 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) from Crambe abyssinica seed meal using immiscible solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Niedoborski, T E; Klein, B P; Wallig, M A

    2001-08-01

    1-Cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (crambene) is a nitrile found in cruciferous vegetables that causes significant upregulation of quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferases in vivo and in vitro, making it a likely candidate as a cancer chemopreventive compound. To investigate further the putative anticarcinogenic mechanisms of crambene, a compound of the highest possible purity is vital. Therefore, a rapid and effective method of purification of crambene is necessary to continue studies of its beneficial health effects. A rapid method to isolate and purify natural crambene from either Crambe abyssinica (crambe) seed or commercially processed crambe seed meal was developed using immiscible solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Use of this methodology eliminated the need for time-consuming and relatively inefficient column chromatography, improved extraction efficiency, and resulted in higher purity than previously used methodologies. Elimination of trace amounts of fatty acid residues, unachievable with previous methodologies, also was accomplished.

  5. Universal model based on the mobile order and disorder theory for predicting lipophilicity and partition coefficients in all mutually immiscible two-phase liquid systems

    PubMed

    Ruelle

    2000-05-01

    The quantitative thermodynamic development of the mobile order and disorder theory in H-bonded liquids has been extended in order to predict partition coefficients. The model enables "a priori" estimation of the partition coefficient (log P) of neutral solutes, not only in the conventional 1-octanol/water reference but also in all mutually saturated two-phase systems made up of largely immiscible solvents. The model is obtained from the thermodynamic treatment of the various physicochemical free energy processes encoded in the overall distribution process and accordingly provides a useful tool for better understanding both the origin and the factors, such as the solute molar volume, that determine the partition coefficient of nonelectrolytes in a given system. From the comparison of the relative magnitude of the processes contributing to the log P value, a lot of information can also be gained regarding the variation in log P of the same substance partitioned between different solvent systems. As a demonstration, the model has been successfully applied to predict the log P of a great number of chemicals of varying structure, size, and chemical nature partitioned in a large set of essentially immiscible solvent pairs, differing either by their nonpolar or by their polar phase. In the systems involving water as the polar phase, the hydrophobic effect is always the driving force that governs the distribution process irrespective of the interacting or noninteracting nature of the substances studied. In the other two-phase systems, the partitioning of complexing solutes in particular appears to be ruled rather by their hydrogen-bonding capabilities than by their hydrophobicities.

  6. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  7. Influence of Viscous and Capillary Forces on Immiscible Fluid Displacement: Pore-Scale Experimental Study in a Water-Wet Micromodel Demonstrating Viscous and Capillary Fingering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Grate, Jay W.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2011-08-18

    Unstable immiscible fluid displacement in porous media affects geological carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and groundwater contamination by nonaqueous phase liquids. Characterization of immiscible displacement processes at the pore-scale is important to better understand macroscopic processes at the continuum-scale. A series of displacement experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of viscous and capillary forces on displacement stability and fluid saturation distributions in a homogeneous water-wet pore network micromodel with precisely-microfabricated pore structures. Displacements were studied using seven wetting-nonwetting fluid pairs with viscosity ratios M (viscosity of the advancing nonwetting fluid divided by the viscosity of the displaced wetting fluid) ranging four orders of magnitude from logM = -1.95 to 1.88. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) or water as a wetting fluid, which was then displaced by a nonwetting alkane fluid under different flow rates. Capillary numbers (Ca) ranged over four orders of magnitude for the reported experiments, from logCa = -5.88 to -1.02. Fluorescent microscopy was used to visualize displacement and measure nonwetting fluid saturation distributions. These experiments extend the classical work by Lenormand et al. by using water-wet micromodels, high-precision fabrication, and enhanced image analysis of the saturation distributions. In the micromodel experiments initially saturated with PEG200, a viscous wetting fluid, unstable displacement occurred by viscous fingering over the whole range of imposed capillary numbers. For the experiments initially saturated with water, unstable displacement occurred by capillary fingering at low capillary numbers. When the viscous forces were increased by increasing the injection rate, crossover into stable displacement was observed for the fluid pairs with M > 0. For unstable displacement experiments applying the same

  8. Compatibilization of immiscible poly(lactic acid)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) blend through electron-beam irradiation with the addition of a compatibilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Boo Young; Han, Do Hung

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compatibilize immiscible poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) blend by using electron-beam radiation method with the addition of a compatibilizing agent. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as the compatibilizing agent, in the expectation that the GMA plays a role as a monomeric compatibilizer and a reactive agent at the interface between the PLA and the PCL phases. Compatibilization process has been investigated through the melt mixing of the PLA/PCL and the GMA by using a twin-screw extruder and the exposure of the PLA/PCL/GMA mixture to electron-beam radiation at room temperature. The melt mixing process was performed to locate the GMA at the interface, thereby expecting a finer morphology due to the GMA as the monomeric plasticizer. The exposure process was carried out to induce definite interfacial adhesion at the interface through electron-beam initiated cross-copolymerization by the medium of the GMA as the reactive agent. To investigate the results of this compatibilization strategy, the morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of the blend were analyzed. The morphological study clearly showed the reduced particle size of dispersed PCL domains and significantly improved interfacial adhesion by the electron-beam irradiation with the addition of the GMA. The stress-strain curves of the blends irradiated at less than 20 kGy showed the typical characteristics of ductile materials. The tensile properties of the blend were strongly affected by the dose of irradiation.

  9. Formation of amorphous alloys by ion beam mixing and its multiscale theoretical modeling in the equilibrium immiscible Sc-W system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Shen, Y X; Yan, H F; Liu, B X

    2005-03-17

    Unique amorphous alloys are synthesized at the compositions of 25 and 40 atom % of W by ion beam mixing in the equilibrium immiscible Sc-W system characterized by a positive heat of formation of +14 kJ/mol. In thermodynamic modeling, a Gibbs free energy diagram is constructed based on Miedema's theory, and the diagram predicts a glass-forming range of the Sc-W system to be within 12-58 atom % of W. To develop an atomistic model, ab initio calculations are first conducted to assist the construction of an n-body Sc-W potential under the embedded atom method. The proven realistic potential is applied in molecular dynamic simulations to study the crystal-to-amorphous transition in the Sc-W solid solutions, thus determining the glass-forming ability of the system to be within 15-50 atom % of W. Apparently, both theoretical predicted glass-forming ranges cover the experimentally measured one, showing an excellent agreement. We report, in this paper, the experimental results from ion beam mixing and the multiscale theoretical modeling concerning the amorphous alloy formation in the Sc-W system together with a brief discussion of the structural transition mechanism. PMID:16851507

  10. Molecular dynamics study of solubilization of immiscible solutes by a micelle: Free energy of transfer of alkanes from water to the micelle core by thermodynamic integration method.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, K; Yoshii, N; Okazaki, S

    2010-08-21

    Free energy of transfer, DeltaG(w-->m), from water phase to a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle core has been calculated for a series of hydrophobic solutes originally immiscible with water by thermodynamic integration method combined with molecular dynamics calculations. The calculated free energy of transfer is in good correspondence to the experiment as well as the theoretical free energy of transfer. The calculated DeltaG(w-->m)'s are all negative, implying that the alkane molecules are more stable in the micelle than in the water phase. It decreases almost linearly as a function of the number of carbon atoms of the alkanes longer than methane with a decrement of 3.3 kJ mol(-1) per one methylene group. The calculated free energy of transfer indicates that, for example, at the micelle concentration of 50 CMC (critical micelle concentration), about only 1 of 6 micelles or 1 of 32 000 micelles does not contain a solute methane or n-octane molecule, respectively. PMID:20726656

  11. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Ba2V2O7 Phosphor Powders and Films Using Immiscible Biphasic Organic-Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mami; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2016-08-15

    A liquid-phase synthesis of inorganic phosphor materials at a moderate temperature was proposed by using immiscible liquid-liquid biphasic systems. A self-activated Ba2V2O7 phosphor was actually synthesized from vanadium alkoxide dissolved in an organic solution and barium acetate in an aqueous solution. A mild hydrolysis reaction of the alkoxide started at the organic-inorganic interface, and an intermediate compound, Ba(VO3)2·H2O, was initially formed. Ba2V2O7 powders were then obtained by the conversion from Ba(VO3)2·H2O promoted in the aqueous solution. Ba2V2O7 films were obtained on surface-modified silica glass substrates through the similar chemical reactions. Factors such as the surface state of substrates, the kind of organic solvents, and the volume of aqueous solutions were examined to improve the film deposition behavior. The resultant Ba2V2O7 materials showed broad-band visible photoluminescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light based on the charge transfer transition in the VO4(3-) units existing as dimers. PMID:27472450

  12. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) I: Gel/dose curves, mathematical expectation theorem and thermal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Zhang, W.; Chen, G.; Liu, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the radiation properties of the immiscible blend of nylon1010 and HIPS. The gel fraction increased with increasing radiation dose. The network was found mostly in nylon1010, the networks were also found in both nylon1010 and HIPS when the dose reaches 0.85 MGy or more. We used the Charleby-Pinner equation and the modified Zhang-Sun-Qian equation to simulate the relationship with the dose and the sol fraction. The latter equation fits well with these polymer blends and the relationship used by it showed better linearity than the one by the Charleby-Pinner equation. We also studied the conditions of formation of the network by the mathematical expectation theorem for the binary system. Thermal properties of polymer blend were observed by DSC curves. The crystallization temperature decreases with increasing dose because the cross-linking reaction inhibited the crystallization procession and destroyed the crystals. The melting temperature also reduced with increasing radiation dose. The dual melting peak gradually shifted to single peak and the high melting peak disappeared at high radiation dose. However, the radiation-induced crystallization was observed by the heat of fusion increasing at low radiation dose. On the other hand, the crystal will be damaged by radiation. A similar conclusion may be drawn by the DSC traces when the polymer blends were crystallized. When the radiation dose increases, the heat of fusion reduces dramatically and so does the heat of crystallization.

  13. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  14. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by sol-gel process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water:TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, x ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  15. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of solubilization of immiscible solutes by a micelle: Free energy of transfer of alkanes from water to the micelle core by thermodynamic integration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Yoshii, N.; Okazaki, S.

    2010-08-01

    Free energy of transfer, ΔGw→m, from water phase to a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle core has been calculated for a series of hydrophobic solutes originally immiscible with water by thermodynamic integration method combined with molecular dynamics calculations. The calculated free energy of transfer is in good correspondence to the experiment as well as the theoretical free energy of transfer. The calculated ΔGw→m's are all negative, implying that the alkane molecules are more stable in the micelle than in the water phase. It decreases almost linearly as a function of the number of carbon atoms of the alkanes longer than methane with a decrement of 3.3 kJ mol-1 per one methylene group. The calculated free energy of transfer indicates that, for example, at the micelle concentration of 50 CMC (critical micelle concentration), about only 1 of 6 micelles or 1 of 32 000 micelles does not contain a solute methane or n-octane molecule, respectively.

  17. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Ba2V2O7 Phosphor Powders and Films Using Immiscible Biphasic Organic-Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mami; Hagiwara, Manabu; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2016-08-15

    A liquid-phase synthesis of inorganic phosphor materials at a moderate temperature was proposed by using immiscible liquid-liquid biphasic systems. A self-activated Ba2V2O7 phosphor was actually synthesized from vanadium alkoxide dissolved in an organic solution and barium acetate in an aqueous solution. A mild hydrolysis reaction of the alkoxide started at the organic-inorganic interface, and an intermediate compound, Ba(VO3)2·H2O, was initially formed. Ba2V2O7 powders were then obtained by the conversion from Ba(VO3)2·H2O promoted in the aqueous solution. Ba2V2O7 films were obtained on surface-modified silica glass substrates through the similar chemical reactions. Factors such as the surface state of substrates, the kind of organic solvents, and the volume of aqueous solutions were examined to improve the film deposition behavior. The resultant Ba2V2O7 materials showed broad-band visible photoluminescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light based on the charge transfer transition in the VO4(3-) units existing as dimers.

  18. Computational modeling technique for numerical simulation of immiscible two-phase flow problems involving flow and transport phenomena in porous media with hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Eduardo; Lambert, Wanderson

    2012-05-01

    Numerical methods are necessary, and are extremely important, in developing an understanding of the dynamics of multiphase flow of fluids in porous media applications to maximize hydrocarbon recovery as well as to simulate contaminant transport of soluble or insoluble species in groundwater contamination problems. This work deals with a problem very common in water-flooding process in petroleum reservoir to motivate the proposed modeling: the flow of two immiscible and incompressible fluid phases. The system of equations which describe this type of flow is a coupled, highly nonlinear system of time-dependent partial differential equations. The equation for the invading fluid (e.g., water phase) is a convection-dominated, degenerate parabolic partial differential equation whose solutions typically exhibit sharp moving fronts (e.g., moving internal layers with strong gradients) and it is very difficult to approximate numerically. We propose a two-stage numerical method to describe the injection problem for a model of two-phase (water-oil) flow in a porous rock, taking into account both gravity and hysteresis effects for solving transport flow problems in porous media. Indeed, we also investigate the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional, purely hyperbolic system, associated to the full differential model problem at hand. Thus, the use of accurate numerical methods in conjunction with one-dimensional semi-analytical Riemann solutions might provide valuable insight into the qualitative solution behavior of the full nonlinear governing flow system.

  19. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquid–liquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-15

    Inorganic–organic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquid–liquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 °C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered yttrium hydroxide exhibits intense red photoluminescence after intercalation of benzoate ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Immiscible biphasic liquid systems were introduced to synthesize layered yttrium hydroxides. • The temperature of the biphasic systems does not exceed 80 °C in one step of the synthesis. • Hydrophobic organic anions were intercalated between the hydroxide layers in one pot. • Structure and morphology of the hydroxides were modulated by changing the kind of organic anions. • Eu{sup 3+}-doping led to red luminescence from the hydroxides in association with the intercalated organic anions.

  20. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples.

  1. A lattice Boltzmann study on the impact of the geometrical properties of porous media on the steady state relative permeabilities on two-phase immiscible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duo; Papadikis, K.; Gu, Sai

    2016-09-01

    In the current paper, the effect of the geometrical characteristics of 2-D porous media on the relative permeability in immiscible two-phase flows is studied. The generation of the different artificial porous media is performed using a Boolean model based on a random distribution of overlapping circles/ellipses, the size and shape of which are chosen to satisfy the specific Minkowski functionals (i.e. volume fraction, solid line contour length, connectivity). The study aims to identify how each different Minkowski functional affects the relative permeability of each phase at various saturations of the non-wetting phase. A 2-D multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) that can handle high density ratios is employed in the simulation. The relationship between the driving forces G and the relative permeabilities of the two phases for every artificial structure is quantified. It is found that for high non-wetting phase saturations (fully connected flow), a non-linear relationship exists between the non-wetting phase flow rate and the driving force, whilst this relationship becomes linear at higher magnitudes of the latter. The force magnitude required to approach the linear region is highly influenced by the pore size distribution and the connectivity of the solid phase. For lower non-wetting phase saturation values, its relative permeability in the linear regime decreases as the fraction of small pores in the structure increases and the non-wetting phase flow becomes disconnected. A strong influence of the solid phase connectivity is also observed.

  2. Development of a microfluidic-chip system for liquid-phase microextraction based on two immiscible organic solvents for the extraction and preconcentration of some hormonal drugs.

    PubMed

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, for the first time, an on-chip liquid phase microextraction (LPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was introduced for the analysis of levonorgestrel (Levo), dydrogesterone (Dydo) and medroxyprogesterone (Medo) as the model analytes in biological samples. The chip-based LPME set-up was composed of two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates with microfabricated channels and a microporous membrane sandwiched between them to separate the sample solution and acceptor phase. These channels were used as a flow path for the sample solution and a thin compartment for the acceptor phase, respectively. In this system, two immiscible organic solvents were used as supported liquid membrane (SLM) and acceptor phase, respectively. During extraction, the model analytes in the sample solution were transported through the SLM (n-dodecane) into the acceptor organic solvent (methanol). The new set-up provided effective and reproducible extractions using low volumes of the sample solution. The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency of the model analytes were optimized using one variable at a time method. Under the optimized conditions, the new set-up provided good linearity in the range of 5.0-500µgL(-1) for the model analytes with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) higher than 0.9909. The relative standard deviations (RSDs%) and limits of detection (LODs) values were less than 6.5% (n=5) and 5.0µgL(-1), respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were obtained using 1.0mL of the sample solution and 20.0µL of the acceptor solution higher than 19.9-fold. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of the model analytes in urine samples. PMID:27591655

  3. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  4. The effect of oxygen as a light element in metallic liquids on partitioning behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Wollack, E. Alex; Humayun, Munir; Shank, Ellen M.

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen has been considered a potentially important light element in metallic liquids during a range of planetary processes, yet the influence of O in a metallic melt on element partitioning behavior is largely unknown. To investigate the effect of O in such systems, we conducted experiments in the Fe-S-O system, doped with 25 trace elements, which produced two immiscible metallic liquids. Our results indicate that the presence of O in the metallic liquid produces a distinctive chemical signature for W and Ga in particular. Tungsten shows an affinity for O in the metallic liquid and partitions more strongly into the metallic melt in the presence of O. The partitioning of Ga is relatively constant despite the presence of O, which is in contrast to the majority of the other siderophile elements in the study. Our experiments from 1400 to 1600 °C show no significant effect from temperature on the partitioning behavior of any trace elements over this limited temperature range. This distinctive chemical signature due to the presence of O in the metallic liquid has potential implications for modeling core formation, evaluating isotopic signatures produced by core crystallization, and interpreting chemical assemblages observed in meteorites.

  5. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  6. Element by Element Abundances in Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Serven, Jedidiah

    2006-02-01

    Element-by-element abundances will be derived from high quality long slit KPNO 4m spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies that span the range of velocity dispersion. Analysis of these spectra will give the abundances of 18 individual elements to bring to extragalactic astronomy the same luxurious situation now enjoyed only by stellar spectroscopists. These spectra will reveal the basic element ratio behavior as a function of galaxy velocity dispersion. For example, [Mg/Fe] is seen to be enhanced in large galaxies, but not small ones. We propose to expand our purview from 2 elements (Mg and Fe) to 18 elements. This, in turn, will tie directly to chemical evolution and chemical enrichment mechanisms. As a byproduct, we also decrease the stellar population age uncertainty by about a factor of ten from today's Balmer-metal index diagram techniques.

  7. Elements of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobker, Lee R.

    A film is the successful combination of two distinct groups of elements: (1) the technical elements by which the film is made (camera, lighting, sound and editing) and (2) the esthetic elements that transform the craft into an art. This book attempts to combine the study of these elements by providing technical information about the process of…

  8. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a literature review on methods used to analyze organic elements. Topic areas include methods for: (1) analyzing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; (2) analyzing oxygen, sulfur, and halogens; (3) analyzing other elements; (4) simultaneously determining several elements; and (5) determing trace elements. (JN)

  9. Melt-melt immiscibility as result of synchronous melting of metapelites and impure marbles at crustal depth in the Moldanubian Zone, Bohemian Massif.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; O´Brien, Patrick J.; Ziemann, Martin A.; Wunder, Bernd; Hecht, Lutz; Wälle, Markus

    2016-04-01

    the commonly observed preferentially partitioning of REE in carbonatic melts with respect to silicatic melts. The formation of this carbonatic melt under conditions of primary melt-melt immiscibility at relatively shallow crustal levels is a novel finding. Primary carbonatic melts, i.e. carbonatites, are characteristically the product of partial melting of carbonates at mantle depths, or result from differentiation of deep, Ca-rich silicate melt during migration toward the surface. In the present case study, the protolith of these migmatites was likely a heterogeneous (meta)sedimentary sequence, mainly composed of pelitic sediments and including scattered lenses of impure limestones, which underwent synchronous partial melting during the Variscan orogeny.

  10. Mixed fluid sources involved in diamond growth constrained by Sr-Nd-Pb-C-N isotopes and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-BenDavid, Ofra; Pearson, D. Graham; Nowell, Geoff M.; Ottley, Chris; McNeill, John C. R.; Cartigny, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Sub-micrometer inclusions in diamonds carry high-density fluids (HDF) from which the host diamonds have precipitated. The chemistry of these fluids is our best opportunity of characterizing the diamond-forming environment. The trace element patterns of diamond fluids vary within a limited range and are similar to those of carbonatitic/kimberlitic melts that originate from beneath the lithospheric mantle. A convecting mantle origin for the fluid is also implied by C isotopic compositions and by a preliminary Sr isotopic study (Akagi, T., Masuda, A., 1988. Isotopic and elemental evidence for a relationship between kimberlite and Zaire cubic diamonds. Nature 336, 665-667.). Nevertheless, the major element chemistry of HDFs is very different from that of kimberlites and carbonatites, varying widely and being characterized by extreme K enrichment (up to ˜ 39 wt.% on a water and carbonate free basis) and high volatile contents. The broad spectrum of major element compositions in diamond-forming fluids has been related to fluid-rock interaction and to immiscibility processes. Elemental signatures can be easily modified by a variety of mantle processes whereas radiogenic isotopes give a clear fingerprint of the time-integrated evolution of the fluid source region. Here we present the results of the first multi radiogenic-isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb) and trace element study on fluid-rich diamonds, implemented using a newly developed off-line laser sampling technique. The data are combined with N and C isotope analysis of the diamond matrix to better understand the possible sources of fluid involved in the formation of these diamonds. Sr isotope ratios vary significantly within single diamonds. The highly varied but unsupported Sr isotope ratios cannot be explained by immiscibility processes or fluid-mineral elemental fractionations occurring at the time of diamond growth. Our results demonstrate the clear involvement of a mixed fluid, with one component originating from ancient

  11. Element-ary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  12. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  13. Orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, J. W.; Smith, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element was developed to adequately represent the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This has been achieved through a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with a center circular hole. The element has been incorporated into COSMIC/NASTRAN as a dummy element. Sample problems have been solved and these results are presented.

  14. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  15. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Gutterson, Milton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews general developments in computerization and data processing of organic elemental analyses; carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyzers; procedures for determining oxygen, sulfur, and halogens, as well as other nometallic elements and organometallics. Selected papers on trace analysis of nonmetals and determination of metallic elements are…

  16. Immiscible Transition from Carbonate-rich to Silicate-rich Melts in Eclogite+CO2 and Genesis of Ocean Island Melilitite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Stalker, K.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    temperature interval of coexisting carbonate and silicate partial melts of carbonated eclogite is distinct from the continuous transition from carbonate to silicate melts observed in carbonated peridotite systems2,5. At high-temperature, the silicate melts generated from SLEC1 are comparable to strongly silica-undersaturated, alkalic OIB lavas and closely resembles ocean island melilitite and nepheline melilitite3,4 in its SiO2, FeO*, MgO, CaO, TiO2, and Na2O content. They are also similar to melilite bearing lavas of continental affinity, though the match is not as close. Although the SLEC1 derived immiscible silicate melts are lower in Al2O3 than primitive alkalic OIB lavas, liquids richer in Al2O3 may be produced at slightly lower pressures. Geochemical and geodynamical investigations of carbonated eclogite sources for melilitic volcanic series thus merit consideration. 1. Brey, G and Green, D. H. 1977, CMP 61, 141-162. 2. Hirose, K. 1997, GRL 24, 2837-2840. 3. Clague, D. A. and Frey, F. A. 1982, JP 23, 447-504. 4. Hoernle, K. and Schmincke, H.-U. 1993, JP 34, 573-597. 5. Moore, K. R. and Wood, B. J. 1998, JP 39, 1943-1951.

  17. Quantification of immiscible fluid distribution of an oil-wet and water-wet bead pack imaged using x-ray computed microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C. J.; Karpyn, Z. T.; Piri, M.

    2009-12-01

    history hysteresis and a zone of distinct saturation history hysteresis. The meniscus specific interfacial area of the fluids is shown to trend towards a maximum at a brine saturation of 0.25 to 0.40, in good agreement with previously reported values, regardless of saturation history and wettability. The total specific interfacial area of the fluids is shown to correlate linearly with non-wetting phase saturation, independent of fluid distribution zone, saturation history and wettability. The fluid-normalized specific interfacial areas are shown to be nearly constant, independent of saturation, saturation history and wettability. Furthermore a population analysis of individual blob volume, surface area, shape, aspect ratio and orientation provides insight into the effect of wettability on immiscible fluid microstructure. The agreement between our measurements and others conducted with natural soils, sands and rock cores is promising for furthering our understanding of how pore-scale processes influence macroscale properties used to describe multiphase flow and transport.

  18. Elemental Solubility Tendency for the Phases of Uranium by Classical Models Used to Predict Alloy Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blackwood; Travis Koenig; Saleem Drera; Brajenda Mishra; Davis Olson; Doug Porter; Robert Mariani

    2012-03-01

    Traditional alloy theory models, specifically Darken-Gurry and Miedema’s analyses, that characterize solutes in solid solvents relative to physical properties of the elements have been used to assist in predicting alloy behavior. These models will be applied relative to the three solid phases of uranium: alpha (orthorhombic), beta (tetragonal), and gamma (bcc). These phases have different solubilities for specific alloy additions as a function of temperature. The Darken-Gurry and Miedema models, with modifications based on concepts of Waber, Gschneider, and Brewer will be used to predict the behavior of four types of solutes: 1) Transition metals that are used for various purposes associated with the containment as alloy additions in the uranium fuel 2) Transuranic elements in the uranium 3) Rare earth fission products (lanthanides) 4) Transition metals and other fission products Using these solute map criteria, elemental behavior will be predicted as highly soluble, marginally soluble, or immiscible (compound formers) and will be used to compare solute effects during uranium phase transformations. The overlapping of these solute maps are convenient first approximation tools for predicting alloy behavior.

  19. Elemental dispersion and stable isotope fractionation during reactive fluid-flow and fluid immiscibility in the Bufa del Diente aureole, NE-Mexico: evidence from radiographies and Li, B, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, Rolf L.; Heinrich, Wilhelm; Schröder-Smeibidl, Birgit; Meixner, Anette; Fischer, Carl-Otto; Schulz, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    The 31.6±0.3 Ma old Bufa del Diente alkali-syenite (NE Mexico) intruded a sequence of Cretaceous limestones with intercalated sub-horizontal chert layers. The cherts acted as aquifers that facilitated transport of brines and pegmatitic melts within the shallow-level (<1 kbar) contact-metamorphic aureole. Fluid-driven reactions between chert and marble wallrock, and the influx of late melts and various fluids gave rise to distinct chemical and isotopic signatures within the aquifer and across the zones of infiltration and fluid-driven reaction. Aqueous brines of magmatic origin produced thick wollastonite mantles around the chert layers. Wollastonite formation occurred at the expense of limestone and chert and generated CO2. This CO2-induced fluid unmixing into an aqueous brine and a low-density CO2-rich fluid, which was lost to the overlying marble where it oxidized organic matter and caused δ13C and δ18O shifts in a zone some 5 10 cm wide. After wollastonite formation, the chert aquifers were locally intruded by pegmatite veins carrying alkali feldspar, quartz, aegirine-augite, eudialyte, zircon, and apatite. Aqueous fluids that exsolved during crystallization of the pegmatite veins escaped along late cross-fractures and migrated along the inner and outer borders of the wollastonite margins. Chemical dispersion patterns of U, Al, Na + K, P, S, Fe, and REE across the chert-to-marble boundary and its metasomatic rims are shown by autoradiography and neutron-induced radiography. Scavenging of cations at mineralogical contacts and cation transport into the marbles occurred only on the mm to cm scale. Isotopic data for Pb and Sr across a simple metachert-marble boundary and for Pb, Sr, Nd, B, and Li across a metachert-pegmatite-marble sequence demonstrate the following: (1) The Pb and Sr isotopic signature of early fluids was buffered by the carbonate wallrock. Only late fluids, shielded from wallrock interaction by a wollastonite mantle, variably preserved a memory of their initial magmatic signature. (2) Since the Nd isotope signature of marble and chert is bound to calcite and clay minerals, systematic shifts to unradiogenic Nd in marble reflect loss of carbonate-bound Nd as the wollastonite margin is approached. Nd in the wollastonite margin is dominated by Nd originally bound to clay minerals. The later emplacement of the pegmatite, which carried the Nd isotope signature of its alkali-syenite source, had little effect on the Nd isotopic composition of the wollastonite rim. (3) Although the Li and B isotopic compositions reflect the alkali-syenite source, they are also affected by isotopic fractionation and partitioning between melt, fluid, and solids.

  20. Chemistry of superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The number of chemical elements has increased considerably in the last few decades. Most excitingly, these heaviest, man-made elements at the far-end of the Periodic Table are located in the area of the long-awaited superheavy elements. While physical techniques currently play a leading role in these discoveries, the chemistry of superheavy elements is now beginning to be developed. Advanced and very sensitive techniques allow the chemical properties of these elusive elements to be probed. Often, less than ten short-lived atoms, chemically separated one-atom-at-a-time, provide crucial information on basic chemical properties. These results place the architecture of the far-end of the Periodic Table on the test bench and probe the increasingly strong relativistic effects that influence the chemical properties there. This review is focused mainly on the experimental work on superheavy element chemistry. It contains a short contribution on relativistic theory, and some important historical and nuclear aspects.

  1. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  2. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  4. Immiscible Fe- and Si-rich silicate melts in plagioclase from the Baima mafic intrusion (SW China): Implications for the origin of bi-modal igneous suites in large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Christina Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in SW China is characterized by voluminous high-Ti and low-Ti basalts and spatially associated Fe-Ti oxide-bearing mafic-ultramafic and syenitic/granitic intrusions. The Baima layered mafic intrusion in the central part of the ELIP is surrounded by syenitic and granitic rocks and contains a Lower Zone of interlayered Fe-Ti oxide ores, troctolites and clinopyroxenites and an Upper Zone of isotropic olivine gabbros and gabbros (UZa) and apatite gabbros and Fe-Ti-P oxide ores (UZb). Polycrystalline mineral inclusions, for the first time, were observed in primocryst plagioclase from the basal part of the UZa through to the top of the UZb and consist mostly of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite with minor orthopyroxene, sulfide and hornblende. These minerals are commonly anhedral and form irregular shapes. Daughter plagioclase usually crystallizes on the walls of host primocryst plagioclase and has An contents typically 3-6 An% lower than the host plagioclase. Daughter clinopyroxene has similar Mg# but lower TiO2 and Al2O3 contents than primocryst clinopyroxene. These polycrystalline mineral inclusions are considered to crystallize from melts contemporaneous with host plagioclase. The compositional differences between daughter and primocryst minerals can be attributed to equilibrium crystallization in a closed system of the trapped melt inclusions in contrast to fractional crystallization and possible magma replenishment in an open system typical for primo-cumulates of large layered intrusions. Heated and homogenized melt inclusions have variable SiO2 (33-52 wt%), CaO (7-20 wt%), TiO2 (0.1-12 wt%), FeOt (5-20 wt%), P2O5 (0.2-10 wt%) and K2O (0-2.2 wt%). The large ranges of melt compositions are interpreted to result from heterogeneous trapping of different proportions of immiscible Si-rich and Fe-Ti-rich silicate liquids, together with entrapment of various microphenocrysts. The separation of micrometer

  5. Effect of silicon on trace element partitioning in iron-bearing metallic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Safko, Trevor M.; McDonough, William F.

    2010-08-01

    Despite the fact that Si is considered a potentially important metalloid in planetary systems, little is known about the effect of Si in metallic melts on trace element partitioning behavior. Previous studies have established the effects of S, C, and P, nonmetals, through solid metal/liquid metal experiments in the corresponding Fe binary systems, but the Fe-Si system is not appropriate for similar experiments because of the high solubility of Si in solid metal. In this work, we present the results from 0.1MPa experiments with two coexisting immiscible metallic liquids in the Fe-S-Si system. By leveraging the extensive available knowledge about the effect of S on trace element partitioning behavior, we explore the effect of Si. Results for 22 trace elements are presented. Strong Si avoidance behavior is demonstrated by As, Au, Ga, Ge, Sb, Sn, and Zn. Iridium, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, and W exhibit weak Si avoidance tendencies. Silicon appears to have no significant effect on the partitioning behaviors of Ag, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, and V, all of which had similar partition coefficients over a wide range of Si liquid concentrations from Si-free to 13 wt%. The only elements in our experiments to show evidence of a potentially weak attraction to Si were Mo and Rh. Applications of the newly determined effects of Si to problems in planetary science indicate that (1) The elements Ni, Co, Mo, and W, which are commonly used in planetary differentiation models, are minimally affected by the presence of Si in the metal, especially in comparison to other effects such as from oxygen fugacity. 2) Reduced enstatite-rich meteorites may record a chemical signature due to Si in the metallic melts during partial melting, and if so, elements identified by this study as having strong Si avoidance may offer unique insight into unraveling the history of these meteorites.

  6. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  7. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  8. The Elements Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dkeidek, Iyad M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an educational game designed for first- or second-year high school students who have already studied themes related to the periodic table elements, such as their symbols, electronic configurations, properties, and uses. The game is designed to help students learn the symbols of the elements and their properties or uses in a fun, engaging…

  9. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  10. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man, man vs.…

  11. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

  12. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  13. Monolithic freeform element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  15. Active element pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1994-08-01

    This review article will discuss the use of the active element pattern for prediction of the scan performance of large phased array antennas. The introduction and application of the concept of the active element pattern goes back at least 30 years (1) -(6) , but the subject is generally not covered in modern antenna engineering textbooks or handbooks, and many contemporary workers are unfamiliar with this simple but powerful idea. In addition, early references on this subject do not provide a rigorous discussion or derivation of the active element pattern, relying instead on a more qualitative interpretation. The purpose of this communication is to make the technique of active element patterns more accessible to antenna engineers, and to provide a new derivation of the basic active element pattern relations in terms of scattering parameters.

  16. The heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1994-05-02

    How long does an atom need to exist before it's possible to do any meaningful chemistry on it Is it possible to learn anything at all about the reactions of an element for which no more than a few dozen atoms have ever existed simultaneously These are some of the questions colleagues in a few laboratories worldwide attempt to answer as they investigate the chemistry of the heaviest elements--elements produced one atom at a time in accelerators by bombarding radioactive targets with high-intensity beams of heavy ions. All of these elements spontaneously decay; the most stable of them have half-lives of only a few minutes, some that are less stable exist for only milliseconds. So far, no chemical studies have been performed on elements whose longest lived isotopes last only milliseconds because the difficulties of doing chemistry on this time scale under highly radioactive conditions are enormous. Over the past 10 years, however, nuclear chemists have developed new techniques or adapted existing ones to begin to probe the chemical properties of those very heavy elements that have half-lives in the range of seconds to minutes. Although the classic experiments are now nearly 40 years old, they are worth describing, as they were the first of their kind and illustrate many of the techniques that are still used and essential in studying these very short-lived, radioactive elements.

  17. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  18. Effect of alloying elements on passivity and breakdown of passivity of Fe- and Ni-based alloys mechanistics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarska-Amialowska, Z.

    1992-06-01

    On the basis of the literature data and the current results, the mechanism of pitting corrosion of Al-alloys is proposed. An assumption is made that the transport of Cl- ions through defects in the passive film of aluminum an aluminum alloys is not a rate determining step in pitting. The pit development is controlled by the solubility of the oxidized alloying elements in acid solutions. A very good correlation was found between the pitting potential and the oxidized alloying elements for metastable Al-Cr, Al-Zr, Al-W, and Al-Zn alloys. We expect that the effect of oxidized alloying elements in other passive alloys will be the same as in Al-alloys. To verify this hypothesis, susceptibility to pitting in the function of alloying elements in the binary alloys and the composition of the oxide film has to be measured. We propose studying Fe- and Ni-alloys produced by a sputtering deposition method. Using this method one-phaseous alloy can be obtained, even when the two metals are immiscible using conventional methods. Another advantage to studying sputtered alloys is to find new materials with superior resistance to localized corrosion.

  19. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  20. Elements of discovery.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    I understand discovery as the essence of thinking man, or to paraphrase the notable French philosopher René Descartes, "I think, therefore I discover." In this study, I introduce discovery as the foundation of modern science. Discovery consists of six stages or elements, including: concept, belief, ability, support, proof, and protection. Each element is discussed within the context of the whole discovery enterprise. Fundamental tenets for understanding discovery are given throughout the paper, and a few examples illustrate the significance of some of the most important elements. I invite clinicians, researchers, and/or clinical researchers to integrate themselves into the active process of discovery. Remember--I think, therefore I discover.

  1. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  2. Discovery of element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  4. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  5. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  6. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  7. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  8. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  10. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  11. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  12. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  13. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  14. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1961-08-15

    A method of preventing diffusible and volatile fission products from diffusing through a fuel element container and contaminating reactor coolant is described. More specifically, relatively volatile and diffusible fission products either are adsorbed by or react with magnesium fluoride or difluoride to form stable, less volatile, less diffusible forms. The magnesium fluoride or difluoride is disposed anywhere inwardly from the outer surface of the fuel element container in order to be contacted by the fission products before they reach and contaminate the reactor coolant. (AEC)

  15. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  16. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sanz, M.C.; Scully, C.N.

    1961-06-27

    The patented fuel element is a hexagonal graphite body having an axial channel therethrough. The graphite is impregnated with uranium which is concentrated near the axial channel. Layers of tantalum nitride and tantalum carbide are disposed on the surface of the body confronting the channel.

  18. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, William C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  19. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.; Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-01

    A chemically nonreactive fuel composition for incorporation in aluminum- clad, plate type fuel elements for neutronic reactors is described. The composition comprises a mixture of aluminum and uranium carbide particles, the uranium carbide particles containing at least 80 wt.% UC/sub 2/.

  1. The Transuranium Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the unusual chemistry of the transuranium elements as well as their impact on the periodic table. Also considers the practical applications of transuranium isotopes, such as their use in nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity. (JN)

  2. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  3. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  4. Elements affecting runway traction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The five basic elements affecting runway traction for jet transport aircraft operation are identified and described in terms of pilot, aircraft system, atmospheric, tire, and pavement performance factors or parameters. Where possible, research results are summarized, and means for restoring or improving runway traction for these different conditions are discussed.

  5. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  7. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  8. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  9. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  10. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Powell, R.W.; Fox, M.

    1959-11-24

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a plurality of nuclear fuel bearing strips is presented. The strips are folded along their longitudinal axes to an angle of about 60 deg and are secured at each end by ferrule to form an elongated assembly suitable for occupying a cylindrical coolant channel.

  12. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  13. Elemental Chem Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  14. Numerical simulation of direct-contact evaporation of a drop rising in a hot, less volatile immiscible liquid of higher density -- Possibilities and limits of the SOLA-VOF/CSF algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Wohak, M.G.; Beer, H.

    1998-05-08

    A contribution toward the full numerical simulation of direct-contact evaporation of a drop rising in a hot, immiscible and less volatile liquid of higher density is presented. Based on a fixed-grid Eulerian description, the classical SOLA-VOF method is largely extended to incorporate, for example, three incompressible fluids and liquid-vapor phase change. The thorough validation and assessment process covers several benchmark simulations, some which are presented, documenting the multipurpose value of the new code. The direct-contact evaporation simulations reveal severe numerical problems that are closely related to the fixed-grid Euler formulation. As a consequence, the comparison to experiments have to be limited to the initial stage. Potential applications using several design variations can be found in waste heat recovery and reactor cooling. Furthermore, direct contact evaporators may be used in such geothermal power plants where the brines cannot be directly fed into a turbine either because of a high salt load causing severe fouling and corrosion or because of low steam fraction.

  15. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  16. Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew

    2013-05-01

    pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).

  17. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  18. Carbon Nanotube Memory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are among the most cited prototypical materials for nanoelectronics and information storage devices, a dominant position that originates from their intrinsic structural and electronic properties. In this chapter we review the developments in memory elements that directly exploit the unique properties of carbon nanotubes. Fundamental operational principles and characteristics are examined for the different types of carbon nanotube-based memory devices along with the current status of experimental fabrication and scalability. These include memory elements based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and electromigration. Many of these devices show tremendous promise for providing enhanced densities, lower power requirements, more efficient read/write processes, and non-volatility of data.

  19. Production of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; Chattin, F.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) has the programmatic responsibility for the Department of Energy`s Transuranium Element Program. Principle elements from the program are einsteinium, berkelium, and fermium. Targets containing curium oxide mixed with aluminum powder are fabricated by the REDC and irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor. Following an irradiation period of 6-12 months, targets are returned to the REDC for chemical processing. Processing operations consists of aluminum dejacketing in a caustic-nitrate solution, filtration, acid dissolution, solvent extraction, anion exchange, and finally a cation exchange to recover the actinides. The processing operations take place in heavily shielded hot cell facilities and all operations are carried out remotely. The chemistry for the separations has been well established over the 26-yr. operating life of the facility.

  20. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Wellman, G.; Gartling, D.

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.

  1. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  2. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Smith, M.; Sjaardema, G.

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or to another format.

  3. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  4. Electrochemical Circuit Elements.

    PubMed

    Maier, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of electrochemical processes can be modelled by resistors and capacitors. These will then be, in addition to usual circuit elements, electrochemical and chemical resistors or chemical capacitors. The paper shows the significance of understanding these parameters and their connections in given systems for a variety of timely scientific examples. This rationale mirrors one of the intellectual facets, if not the most important one, of Janko Jamnik's scientific work. PMID:27640384

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  6. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  7. Trace- and rare-earth-element geochemistry of the June 1993 natrocarbonatite lavas, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania): Implications for the origin of carbonatite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Antonio; Bell, Keith; Shrady, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Major-, trace- and rare-earth-element data from ten natrocarbonatite lavas collected during the June 1993 extrusive activity define two distinct groups. Although both groups are characterized by low Nb and Zr contents, and low Th/U (~1.0); Ba/Sr>1.0; (La/Sm) N>40; high Ba, Mo, Sr, W contents; and LREE contents ~1000 to 2000×chondrite, one group has much higher Al 2O 3, Fe 2O 3, Nb, Pb, SiO 2, Zr and total REEs contents. These differences are attributed to the presence of silicate spheroids in natrocarbonatites that form within the latter group. Similarity in trace- and rare-earth-element-normalized patterns for both groups of natrocarbonatite lavas suggest either a common source or generation from a common parental melt. Models proposed for the origin of natrocarbonatites include immiscible separation from a peralkaline, silicate magma, or late-stage fractionation from a parent olivine sövite magma. Although natrocarbonatite melt formation may be controlled by either of these differentiation processes, certain trace-element ratios for the 1993 lavas, such as Ce/Pb (~9), and Th/Nb (~0.1) are similar to those estimated for primitive mantle, and their Sm/Nd ratios (~0.07) are quite different to the average value of 0.15 for most carbonatites world-wide. The similarity in element ratios in many of the older silicate lavas at Oldoinyo Lengai (e.g., Zr/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/Nb, Rb/Nb, and Ba/La) to those estimated for HIMU and EM I suggest that source characteristics can be reflected in such melts. Even if the natrocarbonatites are formed by liquid immiscibility, recent experiments have shown that partition coefficients for trace elements (e.g., Ba, Ce, Mo, Nb, Pb, Th, U) between conjugate carbonate and silicate melts approach unity with increasing temperature. Alternatively, the similarity in trace-element ratios between those for the silicate lavas from Oldoinyo Lengai and mantle components are simply fortuitous.

  8. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. |

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  9. Effect of alloying elements on passivity and breakdown of passivity of Fe- and Ni-based alloys mechanistics aspects. Annual report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Szklarska-Amialowska, Z.

    1992-06-01

    On the basis of the literature data and the current results, the mechanism of pitting corrosion of Al-alloys is proposed. An assumption is made that the transport of Cl- ions through defects in the passive film of aluminum an aluminum alloys is not a rate determining step in pitting. The pit development is controlled by the solubility of the oxidized alloying elements in acid solutions. A very good correlation was found between the pitting potential and the oxidized alloying elements for metastable Al-Cr, Al-Zr, Al-W, and Al-Zn alloys. We expect that the effect of oxidized alloying elements in other passive alloys will be the same as in Al-alloys. To verify this hypothesis, susceptibility to pitting in the function of alloying elements in the binary alloys and the composition of the oxide film has to be measured. We propose studying Fe- and Ni-alloys produced by a sputtering deposition method. Using this method one-phaseous alloy can be obtained, even when the two metals are immiscible using conventional methods. Another advantage to studying sputtered alloys is to find new materials with superior resistance to localized corrosion.

  10. Method of securing filter elements

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2016-10-04

    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  11. CONCENTEIC TUBULAR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.

    1960-08-16

    An improved fuel element for an organic-moderated reactor was designed that comprises an inner and an outer container tube, a plurality of spaced, concentric fuel tubes positioned between the container tubes, each of the fuel tubes comprising a core of fissionable material with cladding on the sides thereof, each of the sides having a plurality of fins, the fuel tubes and the container tubes defining annular spaces for coolant flow, and the inner container tube defining a channel for a reactor moderator.

  12. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  13. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-08-01

    Fuel elements having a solid core of fissionable material encased in a cladding material are described. A conversion material is provided within the cladding to react with the fission products to form stable, relatively non- volatile compounds thereby minimizing the migration of the fission products into the coolant. The conversion material is preferably a metallic fluoride, such as lead difluoride, and may be in the form of a coating on the fuel core or interior of the cladding, or dispersed within the fuel core. (AEC)

  14. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less

  15. TWISTED RIBBON FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Schultz, A.B.

    1961-06-01

    A reactor core formed of bundles of parallel fuel elements in the form of ribbons is patented. The fuel ribbons are twisted about their axes so as to have contact with one another at regions spaced lengthwise of the ribbons and to be out of contact with one another at locations between these spaced regions. The contact between the ribbons is sufficient to allow them to be held together in a stable bundle in a containing tube without intermediate support, while permitting enough space between the ribbon for coolant flowing.

  16. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  17. Finite Element Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, G.; Forsythe, C.

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases into a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  19. Finite Element Analysis Code

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  20. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  1. Element-by-element Solution Procedures for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Levit, I.

    1984-01-01

    Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in nonlinear structural mechanics. Architectural and data base advantages of the present algorithms over traditional direct elimination schemes are noted. Results of calculations suggest considerable potential for the methods described.

  2. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  3. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  4. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  5. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  6. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  7. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  8. Moonbeams and Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1997-10-01

    To determine how a planetary body formed and evolved, we must determine the chemical compositions of distinctive geologic regions on it. It is never possible to obtain enough samples of a planet to do this job thoroughly, so planetary scientists have searched for ways of determining chemical compositions from orbit, which would allow chemical mapping of the entire surface. A team at the University of Hawaii has developed a method to determine the amount of titanium and iron on the lunar surface from the amount of sunlight reflected at different wavelengths. Most recently, David Blewett, Paul Lucey, B. Ray Hawke (University of Hawaii), and Bradley Jolliff (Washington University in St. Louis) have used Apollo rock samples to carefully calibrate the technique, allowing surprisingly accurate measurements of iron and titanium. These two elements are especially useful in understanding the origin and geological evolution of the Moon.

  9. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  10. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  11. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  12. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1985-03-12

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  13. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  14. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  16. The fantastic four.. elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  17. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  18. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides. PMID:17476264

  19. The Behavior of Chalcophile and Siderophile Elements during Magmatic Differentiation as Observed in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaney, A. T.; Rudnick, R. L.; Helz, R. L.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Ash, R. D.; Piccoli, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In 1959, Kilauea Iki Lava Lake formed as a single pulse of picritic lava ponded in a preexisting crater. The lava cooled and differentiated over the following decades, providing an excellent natural laboratory to study basaltic differentiation. Major element, trace element, and data for numerous isotope systems of both eruption and drill core samples have been previously published. In this study, twelve chalcophile and siderophile elements (V, Ga, Ge, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, W, Tl, and Bi) were measured in sixteen whole rock samples using standard addition solution ICP-MS, which provides high precision data for elements that were previously undetectable. Samples ranging from 26.9 to 2.4 wt% MgO show that all of these elements display incompatible behavior throughout the lake as they increase exponentially with decreasing MgO wt%. Olivine and chromite are the only phases varying significantly in abundance in samples from 27 to 7 wt% MgO. Ferro-diabasic segregation veins and other internal differentiates (5.8 to 2.4 wt% MgO) consist of augite, plagioclase, Fe-Ti oxides, and an immiscible Cu-Fe sulfide phase. These veins are significantly more enriched in the listed elements than are the olivine basalts. Several elements (Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl) are well correlated with Cu (R2>0.84), which is assumed to be chalcophile in this system. Germanium appears to follow Ti while Ga, In, W, and Bi display incompatible behavior but don't directly correlate with other elements. Vanadium shows overall incompatible behavior but is depleted in extremely differentiated samples, suggesting it is sequestered in a late stage fractionating phase. Molybdenum, Sb, Tl, and Sn are also very well correlated (R2>0.95) with several incompatible lithophile elements (REE, Ba, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th). This suggests their overall behavior in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake isn't controlled by any fractionating phase, including sulfides, and they may behave in a more lithophile manner.

  20. Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellin, S.

    1984-01-01

    A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.

  1. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  2. Vesta's Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  3. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  4. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  5. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  6. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models.

  7. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. PMID:25666065

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  9. Archaeal Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spindles, rods, filaments, spheres, head-tails, bottles, and droplets, and some of these new viruses have been classified into one order, 10 families, and 16 genera. Investigation of model archaeal viruses has yielded important insights into mechanisms underlining various steps in the viral life cycle, including infection, DNA replication and transcription, and virion egression. Many of these mechanisms are unprecedented for any known bacterial or eukaryal viruses. Studies of plasmids isolated from different archaeal hosts have also revealed a striking diversity in gene content and innovation in replication strategies. Highly divergent replication proteins are identified in both viral and plasmid genomes. Genomic studies of archaeal ECEs have revealed a modular sequence structure in which modules of DNA sequence are exchangeable within, as well as among, plasmid families and probably also between viruses and plasmids. In particular, it has been suggested that ECE-host interactions have shaped the coevolution of ECEs and their archaeal hosts. Furthermore, archaeal hosts have developed defense systems, including the innate restriction-modification (R-M) system and the adaptive CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, to restrict invasive plasmids and viruses. Together, these interactions permit a delicate balance between ECEs and their hosts, which is vitally important for maintaining an innovative gene reservoir carried by ECEs. In conclusion, while research on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade. PMID

  10. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  11. On the equinoctial orbit elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R. A.; Cefola, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This paper investigates the equinoctial orbit elements for the two-body problem, showing that the associated matrices are free from singularities for zero eccentricities and zero and ninety degree inclinations. The matrix of the partial derivatives of the position and velocity vectors with respect to the orbit elements is given explicitly, together with the matrix of inverse partial derivatives, in order to facilitate construction of the matrizant (state transition matrix) corresponding to these elements. The Lagrange and Poisson bracket matrices are also given. The application of the equinoctial orbit elements to general and special perturbations is discussed.

  12. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.; Lloyd, H.

    1961-07-11

    A method of sheathing a tubular fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described. A low melting metal core member is centered in a die, a layer of a powdered sheathing substance is placed on the bottom of the die, the tubular fuel element is inserted in the die, the space between the tubular fuel element and the die walls and core member is filled with the same powdered sheathing substance, a layer of the same substance is placed over the fissile material, and the charge within the die is subjected to pressure in the direction of the axis of the fuel element at the sintering temperature of the protective substance.

  13. Adaptive mesh generation for edge-element finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Hajime; Gyimothy, Szabolcs

    2001-06-01

    An adaptive mesh generation method for two- and three-dimensional finite element methods using edge elements is proposed. Since the tangential component continuity is preserved when using edge elements, the strategy of creating new nodes is based on evaluation of the normal component of the magnetic vector potential across element interfaces. The evaluation is performed at the middle point of edge of a triangular element for two-dimensional problems or at the gravity center of triangular surface of a tetrahedral element for three-dimensional problems. At the boundary of two elements, the error estimator is the ratio of the normal component discontinuity to the maximum value of the potential in the same material. One or more nodes are set at the middle points of the edges according to the value of the estimator as well as the subdivision of elements where new nodes have been created. A final mesh will be obtained after several iterations. Some computation results of two- and three-dimensional problems using the proposed method are shown.

  14. Element-by-element factorization algorithms for heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Park, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Element-by-element solution strategies are developed for transient heat conduction problems. Results of numerical tests indicate the effectiveness of the procedures proposed. The small database requirements and attractive architectural features of the algorithms suggest considerable potential for solving large scale problems.

  15. 15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. SHOWS AIR FORCE MAN AT EDGE OF TANK. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6176, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Acoustic detection of Immiscible Liquids in Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, Jil T.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Seifert, Patricia K.; Nihei, Kurt T.

    1999-03-01

    Laboratory cross-well P-wave transmission at 90 kHz was measured in a 61 cm diameter by 76 cm tall water-saturated sand pack, before and after introducing a non-aqueous phase organic liquid (NAPL) (n-dodecane). In one experiment NAPL was introduced to form a lens trapped by a low permeability layer; a second experiment considered NAPL residual trapped behind the front of flowing NAPL. The NAPL caused significant changes in the travel time and amplitude of first arrivals, as well as the generation of diffracted waves arriving after the direct wave. The spatial variations in NAPL saturation obtained from excavation at the end of the experiment correlated well with the observed variations in the P-wave amplitudes and travel times. NAPL residual saturation changes from NAPL flow channels of 3 to 4% were detectable and the 40 to 80% NAPL saturation in the NAPL lens was clearly visible at acoustic frequencies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that small NAPL saturations may be more easily detected with amplitude rather than travel time data, but that the relationships between the amplitude changes and NAPL saturation maybe more complex than those for velocity.

  17. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  18. Investigation of immiscible systems and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markworth, A. J.; Oldfield, W.; Duga, J.; Gelles, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    The droplet coalescence kinetics at 0 g and 1 g were considered for two systems which contained liquid droplets in a host liquid. One of these (Al-In) typified a system containing a liquid phase miscibility gap and the order (oil-water) a mixture of two essentially insoluble liquids. A number of coalescence mechanisms potentially prominent at low g in this system were analyzed and explanations are presented for the observed unusual stability of the emulsion. Ground base experiments were conducted on the coalescence of In droplets in and Al-In alloy during cooling through the miscibility gap at different cooling rates. These were in qualitative agreement with the computer simulation. Potential applications for systems with liquid phase miscibility gaps were explored. Possibilities included superconductors, electrical contact materials, superplastic materials, catalysts, magnetic materials, and others. The role of space processing in their production was also analyzed.

  19. Metallic phases and siderophile elements in main group ureilites: Implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Cyrena A.; Ash, Richard D.; Van Orman, James A.; Domanik, Kenneth; McDonough, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic phases and siderophile elements are critical to understanding the petrogenesis of the enigmatic ureilite meteorites. We obtained petrographic, major and minor element, and the first in situ trace element data for metallic phases (metal, sulfides, phosphide, carbide) in 24 main group ureilites of various petrographic types with Fo ˜75-95. The most abundant type of metal (˜1-3 vol.%) occurs as ˜10-40 μm-wide strips along silicate grain boundaries. Ni contents of this metal range from ˜0 to 7.3 wt.% and are correlated with Co among all samples (Ni/Co = 0.64 × CI). A less abundant type of metal occurs as ˜5-150 μm diameter metallic spherules, consisting of cohenite (Fe3C), metal, phosphide and sulfide, enclosed in silicates (preferentially low-Ca pyroxene). Most samples contain 2 types of sulfide: (1) low-Cr (<0.1 wt.%) troilite, and (2) lamellar intergrowths of daubreelite (FeCr2S4) and troilite. Abundances of 17 (mostly siderophile) elements were measured by LA-ICP-MS in grain boundary metal, spherules, graphite, sulfides and silicates. Average compositions of grain boundary metal in 10 samples show decreasing CI-normalized abundance with increasing volatility, interrupted by depletions in W, Mo, Ni and Zn, and enrichments in Au, As, Ga and Ge. CI-normalized Os abundances range from ˜2 to 65, and are correlated with increasing Os/Pt, Os/Ni and Os/Pd ratios. CI-normalized Pt/Os ratios range from ˜0.3 to 1. Bulk cohenite-bearing spherules have siderophile element abundances indistinguishable from those of grain boundary metal in the same sample. CI-normalized patterns of most siderophile elements in the metal are, within error, identical to those of the bulk rock (at 25-40× higher abundances) in each sample. There are no correlations between siderophile element abundances and Fo. We infer that at T ⩾ 1200 °C ureilites contained immiscible Fe-C (3-4 wt.% C) and Fe-S melts, small samples of which were trapped as the spherules within silicates. The

  20. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  1. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  2. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  3. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  4. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  5. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed. PMID:21138073

  6. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83

  7. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity.

  8. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  9. Second order tensor finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.

  10. Chemical elements distribution in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, R.

    2005-04-01

    Analysing, imaging and understanding the cellular chemistry, from macromolecules to monoatomic elements, is probably a major challenge for the scientific community after the conclusion of the genome project. In order to probe the distribution of elements in cells, especially the so-called inorganic elements, it is necessary to apply microanalytical techniques with sub-micrometer resolution and high chemical sensitivity. This paper presents the current status of chemical element imaging inside cells, and a comparison of the different analytical techniques available: nuclear microprobe, electron microprobe and electron energy loss spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy methods. Examples of intracellular chemical elements distributions relevant to cancer pharmacology, medical imaging, metal carcinogenesis and neuropathology studies obtained by nuclear microprobe and other microanalytical techniques are presented.

  11. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present. PMID:26398581

  12. Terminological aspects of data elements

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A. ); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. ); Schuldt, R.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Elemental Impurities in Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Schoneker, Dave; Ulman, Katherine L; Sturm, Jason J; Thackery, Lisa M; Kauffman, John F

    2015-12-01

    Control of elemental impurities in pharmaceutical materials is currently undergoing a transition from control based on concentrations in components of drug products to control based on permitted daily exposures in drug products. Within the pharmaceutical community, there is uncertainty regarding the impact of these changes on manufactures of drug products. This uncertainty is fueled in part by a lack of publically available information on elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients. This paper summarizes a recent survey of elemental impurity levels in common pharmaceutical excipients as well as some drug substances. A widely applicable analytical procedure was developed and was shown to be suitable for analysis of elements that are subject to United States Pharmacopoeia Chapter <232> and International Conference on Harmonization's Q3D Guideline on Elemental Impurities. The procedure utilizes microwave-assisted digestion of pharmaceutical materials and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of these elements. The procedure was applied to 190 samples from 31 different excipients and 15 samples from eight drug substances provided through the International Pharmaceutical Excipient Council of the Americas. The results of the survey indicate that, for the materials included in the study, relatively low levels of elemental impurities are present.

  14. The Quest for New Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Jacklyn

    2013-04-01

    In 1966 Myers and Swiatecki predicted a new closed shell, centered at an element with Z=126 and A=310. In this region, now referred to as the ``Island of Stability,'' shell-effects were predicted to stabilize elements with Z 114-126 against fission, leading to predicted half-lives of years or longer and the predicted existence of so-called ``superheavy'' nuclei. By comparison, the heaviest known element at that time was rutherfordium (Rf), with Z=104 and a half-life of about one minute. Some of the theoretical calculations even predicted half-lives longer than the age of the universe, suggesting that these superheavy elements may even exist in nature. Later predictions suggested that nuclides in the Island of Stability might be produced at rates more characteristic of element with Z<=100. Initial experiments were unsuccessful in discovering superheavy nuclei in nature or at particle accelerators, leading to a concerted effort by experimentalists and theoreticians to i) improve the theoretical predictions ii) develop techniques to improve the sensitivity of experiments and iii) to progressively extend the known elements towards this region. Over the next five decades, fourteen new elements with Z>=105 and more than a hundred isotopes were discovered. Experimental sensitivies were increased by six orders of magnitude. Within the last decade, six new elements and more than fifty new isotopes with Z>=112 have been discovered. These most recent discoveries have begun to approach the edges of the Island of Stability. The nuclei exhibit longer lifetimes and higher production rates than those found in some of the lighter elements. This presentation will discuss the advances that have led us to the shores of the Island of Stability and where the field goes from here.

  15. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  16. Method for detecting an element

    DOEpatents

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  17. Transposable elements: The enemies within.

    PubMed

    Scarfò, Irene; Pellegrino, Elisa; Mereu, Elisabetta; Inghirami, Giorgio; Piva, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Understanding transformation mechanisms other than genetic aberrations has recently captured the attention of cancer researchers. To date, the role of transposable elements (TEs) in tumor development remains largely undefined. However, an increasing number of studies have reported that loss of epigenetic control causes TE reactivation and consequent oncogenic transcription. Here, we discuss principal examples of TEs-driven oncogenesis. Available data suggest that long terminal repeats and long interspersed nuclear elements play a pivotal role as alternative promoters. These findings provide definitive experimental evidence that repetitive elements are a powerful underestimated force toward oncogenesis and open the possibility to new therapeutic treatments.

  18. Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.

    The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.

  19. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  20. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  1. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  2. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  3. A Rainbow of Martian Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum taken by the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the variety of elements present in the soil at the rover's landing site. In agreement with past missions to Mars, iron and silicon make up the majority of the martian soil. Sulfur and chlorine were also observed as expected. Trace elements detected for the first time include zinc and nickel. These latter observations demonstrate the power of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to pick up the signatures of elements too faint to be seen before. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer uses alpha particles and X-rays to measure the presence and abundance of all major rock-forming elements except hydrogen.

  4. Sensing device with whisker elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  5. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  6. Sensing Device with Whisker Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  7. Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-05-26

    ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time.

  8. Polymorphisms affecting trace element bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C; Méplan, Catherine; Hesketh, John E

    2010-10-01

    This review outlines the nature of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability, focusing on genetic and epigenetic determinants. We note that pathogenic mutations responsible for dangerously high (or low) status for the micronutrient are unlikely to make large contributions to variability in bioavailability among the general population. Prospective genotyping (for variants in genes encoding selenoproteins) of participants in human studies illustrate one approach to understanding the complex interactions between genotype and trace element supply, which determine the functional bioavailability of selenium. Rapid advances in technological and bioinformatics tools; e. g., as used in Genome-Wide Association Studies, are opening new avenues for research on the genetic determinants of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability. This may include copy number variants in addition to the more widely studied polymorphisms. Future research on trace element bioavailability should encompass studies of epigenetic variants, including the role of non-coding (micro) RNA.

  9. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  10. Overcoming element erosion limitations within Lagrangian finite element codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignjevic, Rade; Hughes, Kevin; Walker, Andrew; Taylor, Emma A.

    2001-10-01

    Lagrangian finite element methods have been used extensively in the past to study the non-linear transient behaviour of materials, ranging from crash test of cars to simulating bird strikes on planes.... However, as this type of space discretization does not allow for motion of the material through the mesh when modelling extremely large deformations, the mesh becomes highly distorted. This paper describes some limitations and applicability of this type of analysis for high velocity impacts. A method for dealing with this problem is by the erosion of elements is proposed where the main issue is the deformation of element failure strains. Results were compared with empirical perforation results and were found to be in good agreement. The results were then used to simulate high velocity impacts upon a multi-layered aluminium target, in order to predict a ballistic limit curve. LS-DYNA3D was used as the FE solver for all simulations. Meshes were generated with Truegrid.

  11. Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)

    1999-05-01

    For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.

  12. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  13. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  14. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  15. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  16. [Oncological data elements in histopathology].

    PubMed

    Haroske, G; Kramm, T; Mörz, M; Oberholzer, M

    2010-09-01

    In order to cope with increasing demands to supply information to a variety of documentation systems outside pathology, pathologists need to set standards both for the content and the use of the information they generate. Oncological datasets based on a set vocabulary are urgently required for use both in pathology and in further processing. Data elements were defined according to German pathology report guidelines for colorectal cancers in line with ISO 11179 requirements for the relations between data element concepts and value domains, as well as for further formal conditions, which can be exported in XML together with metadata information. Tests on 100 conventionally written diagnoses showed their principal usability and an increasing degree of guideline conformity in diagnoses commensurate with training time. This set of oncological data elements is a valuable checklist tool for pathologists, enabling formatted information export for further use and saving documentation effort. PMID:20544201

  17. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  18. Epochal trace elements and evolution.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, C C; Braverman, E R

    1982-07-01

    The use of some trace elements by plants and animals during the evolutionary process has resulted in epochal changes. Noteworthy is the fact that plants (but not animals) needed boron in order to grow stems and roots as they left the seas and became anchored on land. Iodine is plentiful in sea water but rare on land. Therefore, the iodination of tyrosine provided an iodine transport mechanism which allowed for the metamorphosis and the development of warm bloodedness--a great evolutionary advantage. Zinc from clay was needed for the formation of the first primitive nucleic acids and, later, the presence of zinc in the retina provide the enhanced night vision of the nocturnal predators--a natural advantage. Hence, boron, iodine and zinc can be termed epochal trace elements. Inquiry should be directed towards the possible roles of other trace elements, which may have been epochal in evolution. PMID:7136960

  19. An Overview of Climatic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Johnson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) addresses some climatic elements with emphasis on atmospheric composition, including gas radiative characteristics. Solar radiation is discussed with considerable information on the mathematical and statistical formulae. On a worldwide basis, temperature and precipitation for the globe are discussed along with interaction in drought. Also included is the simultaneous interaction with winds, humidity, and solar radiation. Volcanology gets minimum treatment. The oceans and seas are treated in chart form along with the interrelationship of oceanic currents and El Nino and La Nina, and ENSO phenomena. Upper air circulations are discussed. Various cloud formations up to 85-95 km altitude are described. Information on tornadoes and hurricanes is also included. One section is devoted to the climate physical-chemical elements. A short discussion is given on the importance for the quality of data and/or information in descriptions of the climate. This TP presents only an overview or survey of these and other various climatic elements.

  20. Status of transuranium element production

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 369 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 1.4 mg of /sup 253/Es, and 0.7 pg of /sup 257/Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  2. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  3. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Carney, K.G. Jr.

    1959-07-14

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a large number og wafers of fissionable material and a protective jacket having compartments holding these wafers is described. The compartments of the jacket aid the removal of heat from the wafers, keep the wafers or fragments thereof from migrating in the jacket, and permit the escape of gaseous fission products.

  4. Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micrococci are Gram-positive G + C-rich, nonmotile, nonspore-forming actinomycetous bacteria. Micrococcus comprises ten members, with Micrococcus luteus being the type species. Representatives of the genus play important roles in the biodegradation of xenobiotics, bioremediation processes, production of biotechnologically important enzymes or bioactive compounds, as test strains in biological assays for lysozyme and antibiotics, and as infective agents in immunocompromised humans. The first description of plasmids dates back approximately 28 years, when several extrachromosomal elements ranging in size from 1.5 to 30.2 kb were found in Micrococcus luteus. Up to the present, a number of circular plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance, the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, and osmotolerance are known, as well as cryptic elements with unidentified functions. Here, we review the Micrococcus extrachromosomal traits reported thus far including phages and the only quite recently described large linear extrachromosomal genetic elements, termed linear plasmids, which range in size from 75 kb (pJD12) to 110 kb (pLMA1) and which confer putative advantageous capabilities, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances (inferred from sequence analyses and curing experiments). The role of the extrachromosomal elements for the frequently proven ecological and biotechnological versatility of the genus will be addressed as well as their potential for the development and use as genetic tools. PMID:23138713

  5. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  6. New elements produced at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    1998-12-21

    In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using lead or bismuth targets and 1n-deexcitation channels. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  7. Superheavy Elements - Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2009-03-04

    The search for superheavy elements (SHE) has yielded exciting results for both the 'cold fusion' approach with reactions employing Pb and Bi targets and the ''hot fusion'' reactions with {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. The most recent activities at GSI were the successful production of a more neutron rich isotope of element 112 in the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U confirming earlier result from FLNR, and the attempt to synthesize an isotope with Z 120 in the reaction {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U. Apart from the synthesis of new elements, advanced nuclear structure studies for heavy and super heavy elements promise a detailed insight in the properties of nuclear matter under the extreme conditions of high Z and A. The means are evaporation residue(ER)-{alpha}-{alpha} and -{alpha}-{gamma} coincidence techniques applied after separation of the reaction products from the beam. Recent examples of interesting physics to be discovered in this region of the chart of nuclides are the investigation of K-isomers observed for {sup 252,254}No and indicated for {sup 270}Ds. Fast chemistry and precision mass measurements deliver in addition valuable information on the fundamental properties of the SHE.

  8. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  9. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  10. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  11. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  12. Fast acting multiple element valve

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jefferson Y. S.; Wada, James M.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of slide valve elements having plural axial-spaced annular parts and an internal slide are inserted into a bulkhead in a fluid conduit from a downstream side of the bulkhead, locked in place by a bayonet coupling and set screw, and project through the bulkhead into the upstream conduit. Pneumatic lines connecting the slide valve element actuator to pilot valves are brought out the throat of the valve element to the downstream side. Pilot valves are radially spaced around the exterior of the valve to permit the pneumatic lines to be made identical, thereby to minimize adverse timing tolerances in operation due to pressure variations. Ring manifolds surround the valve adjacent respective pilot valve arrangements to further reduce adverse timing tolerances due to pressure variations, the manifolds being directly connected to the respective pilot valves. Position sensors are provided the valve element slides to signal the precise time at which a slide reaches or passes through a particular point in its stroke to initiate a calibrated timing function.

  13. Dryout of BWR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, Frigyes

    2006-07-01

    To increase the power output of the presently operating power reactors is a worldwide trend. One limiting factor from the safety and commercial point of views is the maximum allowable thermal load of the fuel. The findings of the presented loop experiments are that the margin to the burnout of the fuel elements can be defined by a single parameter the void. (authors)

  14. Structural Truss Elements and Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Steve; Griffis, Kurt; Shackelford, Ray

    2005-01-01

    In the field of construction, most structures are supported by several groups of truss systems working together synergistically. A "truss" is a group of centered and balanced elements combined to carry a common load (Warner, 2003). Trusses provide strength against loads and forces within a structure. Though a complex field of study, structural…

  15. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  16. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  17. Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on turbulence detection and mitigation technologies in weather accident prevention. The topics include: 1) Organization; 2) Scope of Turbulence Effort; 3) Background; 4) Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Program Metrics; 5) Approach; 6) Turbulence Team Relationships; 7) WBS Structure; 8) Deliverables; 9) TDAM Changes; 10) FY-01 Results/Accomplishments; 11) Out-year Plans; and 12) Element Status.

  18. Documentary Elements in Early Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Richard A.

    Focusing on documentary elements, this study examines the film content and film techniques of 681 motion pictures produced in the United States prior to 1904. Analysis of films by type, subject matter, and trends in subject matter shows that one-third of the early films are documentary in type and three-fourths of the films use subject matter of a…

  19. SEPARATION PROCESS FOR TRANSURANIC ELEMENT AND COMPOUNDS THEREOF

    DOEpatents

    Calvin, M.

    1958-10-14

    S> A process is presented for the separation of pluto nium from uranium and fission products in an aqueous acidic solution by use of a chelating agent. The plutonium is maintained in the tetravalent state and the uranium in the hexavalent state, and the acidic concentration is adjusted to about 1 N bar. The aqueous solution is then contacted with a water-immiscible organic solvent solution and the chelating agent. The chelating agents covered by this invention comprise a group of compounds characterized as fluorinated beta-diketones.

  20. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  1. Rhenium and chalcophile elements in basaltic glasses from Ko'olau and Moloka'i volcanoes: Magmatic outgassing and composition of the Hawaiian plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Garcia, Michael O.; Bennett, Victoria C.

    2004-09-01

    The behavior of chalcophile metals in volcanic environments is important for a variety of economic and environmental applications, and for understanding large-scale processes such as crustal recycling into the mantle. In order to better define the behavior of chalcophile metals in ocean island volcanoes, we measured the concentrations of Re, Cd, Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Pt, S, and a suite of major elements and lithophile trace elements in moderately evolved (6-7% MgO) tholeiitic glasses from Ko'olau and Moloka'i volcanoes. Correlated variations in the Re, Cd, and S contents of these glasses are consistent with loss of these elements as volatile species during magmatic outgassing. Bismuth also shows a good correlation with S in the Ko'olau glasses, but undegassed glasses from Moloka'i have unexpectedly low Bi contents. Rhenium appears to have been more volatile than either Cd or Bi in these magmas. Undegassed glasses with 880-1400 ppm S have 1.2-1.5 ppb Re and 130-145 ppb Cd. In contrast, outgassed melts with low S (<200 ppm) are depleted in these elements by factors of 2-5. Key ratios such as Re/Yb and Cu/Re are fractionated significantly from mantle values. Copper, Pb, and Pt contents of these glasses show no correlation with S, ruling out segregation of an immiscible magmatic sulfide phase as the cause of these variations. Undegassed Hawaiian tholeiites have Re/Yb ratios significantly higher than those of MORB, and extend to values greater than that of the primitive mantle. Loss of Re during outgassing of ocean island volcanoes, may help resolve the apparent paradox of low Re/Os ratios in ocean island basalts with radiogenic Os isotopic compositions. Plume source regions with Re/Yb ratios greater than that of the primitive mantle may provide at least a partial solution to the "missing Re" problem in which one or more reservoirs with high Re/Yb are required to balance the low Re/Yb of MORB. Lithophile trace element compositions of most Ko'olau and Moloka'i tholeiites are

  2. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  3. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  4. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  5. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  6. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  7. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  8. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  9. Superheavy element flerovium (element 114) is a volatile metal.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Alexander; Gates, Jacklyn M; Türler, Andreas; Schädel, Matthias; Düllmann, Christoph E; Ackermann, Dieter; Andersson, Lise-Lotte; Block, Michael; Brüchle, Willy; Dvorak, Jan; Eberhardt, Klaus; Essel, Hans G; Even, Julia; Forsberg, Ulrika; Gorshkov, Alexander; Graeger, Reimar; Gregorich, Kenneth E; Hartmann, Willi; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Hessberger, Fritz P; Hild, Daniel; Hübner, Annett; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Kindler, Birgit; Kratz, Jens V; Krier, Jörg; Kurz, Nikolaus; Lommel, Bettina; Niewisch, Lorenz J; Nitsche, Heino; Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Parr, Edward; Qin, Zhi; Rudolph, Dirk; Runke, Jörg; Schausten, Brigitta; Schimpf, Erwin; Semchenkov, Andrey; Steiner, Jutta; Thörle-Pospiech, Petra; Uusitalo, Juha; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    The electron shell structure of superheavy elements, i.e., elements with atomic number Z ≥ 104, is influenced by strong relativistic effects caused by the high Z. Early atomic calculations on element 112 (copernicium, Cn) and element 114 (flerovium, Fl) having closed and quasi-closed electron shell configurations of 6d(10)7s(2) and 6d(10)7s(2)7p1/2(2), respectively, predicted them to be noble-gas-like due to very strong relativistic effects on the 7s and 7p1/2 valence orbitals. Recent fully relativistic calculations studying Cn and Fl in different environments suggest them to be less reactive compared to their lighter homologues in the groups, but still exhibiting a metallic character. Experimental gas-solid chromatography studies on Cn have, indeed, revealed a metal-metal bond formation with Au. In contrast to this, for Fl, the formation of a weak bond upon physisorption on a Au surface was inferred from first experiments. Here, we report on a gas-solid chromatography study of the adsorption of Fl on a Au surface. Fl was produced in the nuclear fusion reaction (244)Pu((48)Ca, 3-4n)(288,289)Fl and was isolated in-flight from the primary (48)Ca beam in a physical recoil separator. The adsorption behavior of Fl, its nuclear α-decay product Cn, their lighter homologues in groups 14 and 12, i.e., Pb and Hg, and the noble gas Rn were studied simultaneously by isothermal gas chromatography and thermochromatography. Two Fl atoms were detected. They adsorbed on a Au surface at room temperature in the first, isothermal part, but not as readily as Pb and Hg. The observed adsorption behavior of Fl points to a higher inertness compared to its nearest homologue in the group, Pb. However, the measured lower limit for the adsorption enthalpy of Fl on a Au surface points to the formation of a metal-metal bond of Fl with Au. Fl is the least reactive element in the group, but still a metal. PMID:24456007

  10. Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Lin, W. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.

    2010-05-01

    Some pre-tensioned 4-node rectangular elements and 8-node triangular elements are constructed for the free vibration analysis of membranes by finite element. The shape functions are given to derive the element stiffness and mass matrices in accordance with the minimum potential energy principle. Two typical examples show that the calculation by the 4-node rectangular element is very close to the theoretical solution, and 8-node rectangular element has higher accuracy than the 4-node rectangular element. For dense grid, the result is almost consistent with the theoretical solution.

  11. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  12. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOEpatents

    Story, Grosvenor Cook; Baldonado, Ray Orico

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  13. Surface energies of elemental crystals.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard; Xu, Zihan; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Winston, Donald; Sun, Wenhao; Persson, Kristin A; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    The surface energy is a fundamental property of the different facets of a crystal that is crucial to the understanding of various phenomena like surface segregation, roughening, catalytic activity, and the crystal's equilibrium shape. Such surface phenomena are especially important at the nanoscale, where the large surface area to volume ratios lead to properties that are significantly different from the bulk. In this work, we present the largest database of calculated surface energies for elemental crystals to date. This database contains the surface energies of more than 100 polymorphs of about 70 elements, up to a maximum Miller index of two and three for non-cubic and cubic crystals, respectively. Well-known reconstruction schemes are also accounted for. The database is systematically improvable and has been rigorously validated against previous experimental and computational data where available. We will describe the methodology used in constructing the database, and how it can be accessed for further studies and design of materials. PMID:27622853

  14. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  15. The Origin of the Elements

    ScienceCinema

    Murphy, Edward

    2016-07-12

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  16. The Origin of the Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Edward

    2012-11-20

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  17. Replacement element for automobile thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, W.

    1988-06-07

    This patent describes a thermostat replacement element for use in a cooling system in which a continuous stream of coolant normally flows from a radiator through a thermostat to an engine. The thermostat is mounted within a mounting cavity and permits maximum flow of coolant through the cooling system when in an open position. The replacement element comprises a disc-shaped member having a diameter substantially corresponding to the diameter of the mounting cavity. The member is provided with apertures of a predetermined size to permit flow of coolant therethrough at a rate generally corresponding to the rate of flow of coolant through the thermostat when the thermostat is in an open position.

  18. Element of an inductive coupler

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-08-15

    An element for an inductive coupler in a downhole component comprises magnetically conductive material, which is disposed in a recess in annular housing. The magnetically conductive material forms a generally circular trough. The circular trough comprises an outer generally U-shaped surface, an inner generally U-shaped surface, and two generally planar surfaces joining the inner and outer surfaces. The element further comprises pressure relief grooves in at least one of the surfaces of the circular trough. The pressure relief grooves may be scored lines. Preferably the pressure relief grooves are parallel to the magnetic field generated by the magnetically conductive material. The magnetically conductive material is selected from the group consisting of soft iron, ferrite, a nickel iron alloy, a silicon iron alloy, a cobalt iron alloy, and a mu-metal. Preferably, the annular housing is a metal ring.

  19. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  20. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.