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Sample records for immobilization form development

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Form Development Interim and Final Data Report Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    VanKonynenburg, R.; Ebbinghaus, B.

    2000-06-01

    Contained within this report are summaries of the available interim and final data summary reports provided by ANSTO, ANL, LLNL, and WSRC in support of work in the Form Development activity in the Plutonium Immobilization Development and Testing Program. Milestone reports and technical papers prepared for journals or conference proceedings are not included in this list. This document covers work from about 1997 to the present. All of the following reports are available from the Plutonium Immobilization Program Document Control Center (DCC) at LLNL. In most cases, the documents can also be obtained from the libraries the originating site or from the document's authors. All samples of the various formulations discussed in the following summaries were prepared by one of four processes: Wet-milling, dry-milling, an alkoxide-nitrate process, or attritor milling. The fabrication processes differ primarily in the mixing steps. The wet milling process is the one most commonly used. It is a simple ball milling process where water is added that provides intimate mixing of the materials. The dry milling process is a worst case dry mixing process. The alkoxide-nitrate process provides for very intimate mixing and is used when equilibrium samples are desired. The attritor milling process simulates the process being developed for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant. After mixing, the subsequent calcination and consolidation steps are generally the same. Most samples were consolidated by cold pressing and sintering although some of the earlier samples or Some of the single-phase samples were prepared by hot pressing. The sample identification numbers (ID's) that are referenced in the summaries (e.g. A-0, B3-13, etc.) are described in the Sample Test Matrix (PIP-99-012 and PIP-00-016). Samples which contain both plutonium and uranium are given the designation Hf-Pu-U samples. When Ce was used as a surrogate for Pu, the designation is Hf-Ce-U. When Th was used as a surrogate for Pu

  2. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  3. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  4. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  5. Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Pierce, Eric M.; Cozzi, Alex; Chung, Chul-Woo; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-05-31

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stone—a cementitious waste form—are being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

  6. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  7. Development of a new generation of waste form for entrapment and immobilization of highly volatile and soluble radionuclides.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Murphy, Andrew Wilson; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Turnham, Rigney; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole; Tellez, Hernesto; Miller, Andy; Xiong, Yongliang; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-09-01

    The United States is now re-assessing its nuclear waste disposal policy and re-evaluating the option of moving away from the current once-through open fuel cycle to a closed fuel cycle. In a closed fuel cycle, used fuels will be reprocessed and useful components such as uranium or transuranics will be recovered for reuse. During this process, a variety of waste streams will be generated. Immobilizing these waste streams into appropriate waste forms for either interim storage or long-term disposal is technically challenging. Highly volatile or soluble radionuclides such as iodine ({sup 129}I) and technetium ({sup 99}Tc) are particularly problematic, because both have long half-lives and can exist as gaseous or anionic species that are highly soluble and poorly sorbed by natural materials. Under the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), we have developed a suite of inorganic nanocomposite materials (SNL-NCP) that can effectively entrap various radionuclides, especially for {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc. In particular, these materials have high sorption capabilities for iodine gas. After the sorption of radionuclides, these materials can be directly converted into nanostructured waste forms. This new generation of waste forms incorporates radionuclides as nano-scale inclusions in a host matrix and thus effectively relaxes the constraint of crystal structure on waste loadings. Therefore, the new waste forms have an unprecedented flexibility to accommodate a wide range of radionuclides with high waste loadings and low leaching rates. Specifically, we have developed a general route for synthesizing nanoporous metal oxides from inexpensive inorganic precursors. More than 300 materials have been synthesized and characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area measurements, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The sorption capabilities of the synthesized materials have been quantified by using stable

  8. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  9. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-10-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations.

  10. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  11. Integrated development and testing plan for the plutonium immobilization project

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, T.

    1998-07-01

    This integrated plan for the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) describes the technology development and major project activities necessary to support the deployment of the immobilization approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. The plan describes details of the development and testing (D&T) tasks needed to provide technical data for design and operation of a plutonium immobilization plant based on the ceramic can-in-canister technology (''Immobilization Fissile Material Disposition Program Final Immobilization Form Assessment and Recommendation'', UCRL-ID-128705, October 3, 1997). The plan also presents tasks for characterization and performance testing of the immobilization form to support a repository licensing application and to develop the basis for repository acceptance of the plutonium form. Essential elements of the plant project (design, construction, facility activation, etc.) are described, but not developed in detail, to indicate how the D&T results tie into the overall plant project. Given the importance of repository acceptance, specific activities to be conducted by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) to incorporate the plutonium form in the repository licensing application are provided in this document, together with a summary of how immobilization D&T activities provide input to the license activity. The ultimate goal of the Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize from about 18 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials in a manner that meets the ''spent fuel'' standard (Fissile Materials Storage and Disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, ''Storage and Disposition Final PEIS'', issued January 14, 1997, 62 Federal Register 3014) and is acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. In the can-in-canister technology, this is accomplished by encapsulating the plutonium

  12. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  13. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  14. The building of free-form customized immobilizers.

    PubMed

    Buscher, M

    1990-03-01

    Unusual immobilization problems occur in radiation therapy. A solution using styrofoam sheet and blocks, mylar sheet and urethane foaming chemicals is suggested here. The technique is extremely versatile and produces a light weight and reliable immobilizer.

  15. Recent developments and applications of immobilized laccase.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Moldes, Diego

    2013-12-01

    Laccase is a promising biocatalyst with many possible applications, including bioremediation, chemical synthesis, biobleaching of paper pulp, biosensing, textile finishing and wine stabilization. The immobilization of enzymes offers several improvements for enzyme applications because the storage and operational stabilities are frequently enhanced. Moreover, the reusability of immobilized enzymes represents a great advantage compared with free enzymes. In this work, we discuss the different methodologies of enzyme immobilization that have been reported for laccases, such as adsorption, entrapment, encapsulation, covalent binding and self-immobilization. The applications of laccase immobilized by the aforementioned methodologies are presented, paying special attention to recent approaches regarding environmental applications and electrobiochemistry.

  16. The Efficacy of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in Cervical Spine Immobilization of the Equipped Football Player

    PubMed Central

    Ransone, Jack; Kersey, Robert; Walsh, Katie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in controlling the cervical spine movements of a football player wearing shoulder pads and a helmet. Design and Setting: We used a 1-group, repeated-measures experimental design to radiographically assess cervical spine range of motion with and without the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer. Two experimental conditions (with and without vacuum splint) were applied to 10 subjects in a repeated-measures design. Each subject was radiographed in cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion under each experimental condition. Subjects: Ten healthy male subjects without a history of cervical spine pathology or abnormality volunteered for this study. Measurements: Cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion range of motion were compared under both treatment conditions. Joint angles were determined by straightedge tangential lines drawn on the radiographs along the foramen magnum, inferior ring border of the atlas, and along the inferior tips of the 2nd through 7th vertebral bodies. The total range of motion was determined and compared with the treatment condition by multiple paired t tests. Results: The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The secondary statistical analysis for the effect size determined that each group had a large effect size, indicating that the power of the experimental or vacuum splint group was high. Conclusions: We found that the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer can be easily placed on an injured, fully equipped football player and serves to limit cervical spine range of motion while the athlete is immobilized and transported. Future research should determine how the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limits range of motion with the athlete

  17. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  18. Furnace System Development for the Plutonium Immobilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.

    2001-07-10

    A furnace system is being developed to meet the requirements for disposition of approximately 13 metric tons of excess weapons useable plutonium. The proposed immobilization form is a titanate based ceramic consisting primarily of a pyrochlore phase. Actinides (or surrogates) are mixed with the ceramic precursors, cold-pressed, and then densified via a reactive sintering process. A number of items must be considered to specify the design, operation and maintenance of a furnace system for the glovebox environment. Furthermore, throughput requirements drive certain design features and dictate the number of furnaces required for the immobilization plant. A test program is ongoing to evaluate these design considerations resulting in the specification of a furnace system for plant operations.

  19. The development, characterization, and application of biomimetic nanoscale enzyme immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Nicholas R.

    The utilization of enzymes is of interest for applications such as biosensors and biofuel cells. Immobilizing enzymes provides a means to develop these applications. Previous immobilization efforts have been accomplished by exposing surfaces on which silica-forming molecules are present to solutions containing an enzyme and a silica precursor. This approach leads to the enzyme being entrapped in a matrix three orders of magnitude larger than the enzyme itself, resulting in low retention of enzyme activity. The research herein introduces a method for the immobilization of enzymes during the layer-by-layer buildup of Si-O and Ti-O coatings which are nanoscale in thickness. This approach is an application of a peptide-induced mineral deposition method developed in the Sandhage and Kroger groups, and it involves the alternating exposure of a surface to solutions containing the peptide protamine and then an aqueous precursor solution of silicon- or titanium-oxide at near-neutral pH. A method has been developed that enables in situ immobilization of enzymes in the protamine/mineral oxide coatings. Depending on the layer and mineral (silica or titania) within which the enzyme is incorporated, the resulting multilayer biocatalytic hybrid materials retain 20 -- 100% of the enzyme activity. Analyses of kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme, coupled with characterization of physical properties of the mineral-bearing layers (thickness, porosity, pore size distribution), indicates that the catalytic activities of the enzymes immobilized in the different layers are largely determined by substrate diffusion. The enzyme was also found to be substantially stabilized against heat-induced denaturation and largely protected from proteolytic attack. These functional coatings are then developed for use as antimicrobial materials. Glucose oxidase, which catalyzes production of the cytotoxic agent hydrogen peroxide, was immobilized with silver nanoparticles, can release

  20. [Development of preparation of immobilized enzyme reactors in proteomics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyi; Wang, Bingbing; Shangguan, Lulu; Zhang, Runsheng; Chen, Jianhu; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-11-01

    As an important part in "bottom-up" strategy of proteomics, immobilized enzyme reactors have great significance in the development of fast and more efficient protein analytical method, owing to its advantages of high speed and enzymatic efficiency, good stability and activity, easy operation, and the possibility of hyphenating with multiple detection instruments. In this paper, the preparation methods of immobilized enzyme reactors and their applications in proteomic investigation are introduced, focusing on the nature of enzymes, the immobilization methods and the carrier materials used for immobilizing enzyme. In recent years, the investigations are focused on increasing the immobilization amounts of enzyme, keeping enzymatic activity, improving enzymatic efficiency and decreasing nonspecific adsorption. The investigation results showed that by using novel carriers such as nanomaterial and monolith, increasing of hydrophilicity of carrier and tandem hydrolysis with multiple enzymes can greatly improve the performance of immobilized enzyme reactors and increase protein identification efficiencies.

  1. Development of Technology for Immobilization of Waste Salt from Electrorefining Spent Nuclear Fuel in Zeolite-A for Eventual Disposition in a Ceramic Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Prateek Sachdev

    2008-04-01

    The results of process development for the blending of waste salt from the electrorefining of spent fuel with zeolite-A are presented. This blending is a key step in the ceramic waste process being used for treatment of EBR-II spent fuel and is accomplished using a high-temperature v-blender. A labscale system was used with non-radioactive surrogate salts to determine optimal particle size distributions and time at temperature. An engineering-scale system was then installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility hot cell and used to demonstrate blending of actual electrorefiner salt with zeolite. In those tests, it was shown that the results are still favorable with actinide-loaded salt and that batch size of this v-blender could be increased to a level consistent with efficient production operations for EBR-II spent fuel treatment. One technical challenge that remains for this technology is to mitigate the problem of material retention in the v-blender due to formation of caked patches of salt/zeolite on the inner v-blender walls.

  2. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  3. HIPed Tailored Ceramic Waste Forms for the Immobilization of Cs, Sr and Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Melody L. Carter; Martin W. A. Stewart; Eric R. Vance; Bruce D. Begg; Sam Moricca; Julia Tripp

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing advanced technologies to allow for the safe and economical disposal of waste from nuclear reactors. An important element of this initiative is the separation of key radionuclides . One of the systems being developed to separate key radionuclides is the UREX+1 process. The Tc and Cs/Sr solutions from UREX+1 process will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. This paper illustrates the benefits of HIPed tailored ceramic waste forms, to provide for the immobilization of separated Cs, Sr and Tc. Experimental data are presented for a Cs and Sr-bearing hollandite-rich tailored ceramic prepared with 12 wt% waste (on an oxide basis). Normalized MCC-1 type leach testing at 90oC for 28 days revealed extremely low Cs and Sr release rates of 0.003 and 0.004 g/m2/day respectively. Experimental data on the immobilization of Tc in titanate ceramics containing up to 40wt% TcO2 are also be presented.

  4. Immobilization of Technetium in a Metallic Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; K. C. Marsden

    2007-09-01

    Fission-product technetium accumulated during treatment of spent nuclear fuel will ultimately be disposed of in a geological repository. The exact form of Tc for disposal has yet to be determined; however, a reasonable solution is to incorporate elemental Tc into a metallic waste form similar to the waste form produced during the pyrochemical treatment of spent, sodium-bonded fuel. This metal waste form, produced at the Idaho National Laboratory, has undergone extensive qualification examination and testing for acceptance to the Yucca Mountain geological repository. It is from this extensive qualification effort that the behavior of Tc and other fission products in the waste form has been elucidated, and that the metal waste form is extremely robust in the retention of fission products, such as Tc, in repository like conditions. This manuscript will describe the metal waste form, the behavior of Tc in the waste form; and current research aimed at determining the maximum possible loading of Tc into the metal waste and subsequent determination of the performance of high Tc loaded metal waste forms.

  5. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000°C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  6. Antibody immobilization on a nanoporous aluminum surface for immunosensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Changhoon; Lee, Jooyoung; Park, Jiyong; Takhistov, Paul

    2012-12-01

    A method of antibody (Ab) immobilization on a nanoporous aluminum surface for an electrochemical immunosensor is presented. To achieve good attachment and stability of Ab on an aluminum surface, aluminum was silanized with 3-aminopropyltryethoxysilane (APTES), and then covalently cross-linked to self-assembled layers (SALs) of APTES. Both the APTES concentration and the silanization time affected the formation of APTES-SALs as Ab immobilization. The formation of APTES-SALs was confirmed using the water contact angle on the APTES-SALs surface. The reactivity of APTES-SALs with Ab was investigated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Ab-immobilized on the aluminum surface. Silanization of aluminum in 2% APTES for 4 h resulted in higher water contact angles and greater amounts of immobilized Ab than other APTES concentrations or silanization times. More Ab was immobilized on the nanoporous surface than on a planar aluminum surface. Electrochemical immunosensors developed on the nanoporous aluminum via the Ab immobilization method established in this study responded functionally to the antigen concentration in the diagnostic solution.

  7. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Xiangdong; Einziger, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  8. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.

    1997-08-12

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  9. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, X.; Einziger, R.E.

    1997-01-28

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  10. Epsilon metal waste form for immobilization of noble metals from used nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ɛ-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass, thus the processing problems related to their insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high alloying temperatures, expected to be 1500-2000 °C, making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  11. Immobilization of lipases on hydrophobic supports involves the open form of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Manoel, Evelin A; Dos Santos, José C S; Freire, Denise M G; Rueda, Nazzoly; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus and Pseudomonas cepacia have been immobilized on octyl and cyanogen bromide (CNBr) agarose beads. The immobilization on octyl-agarose is slowed with increasing ionic strength, while the immobilization on CNBr is not significantly affected by the ionic strength. The inhibition of the immobilized preparations with diethyl p-nitrophenylphosphate (D-pNPP) was analyzed. The inhibition was more rapid using octyl-lipase preparations than using covalent preparations, and the covalent preparations were much more sensitive to the reaction medium. The addition of detergent increased the inhibition rate of the covalent preparation while an increase on the ionic strength produced a slowdown of the inhibition rate by D-pNPP for both lipases. The effect of the medium on the activity versus fully soluble substrate (methyl mandelate) was in the same direction. The octyl preparations presented a slight decrease in activity when comparing the results using different concentrations of sodium phosphate buffer (between 0.025 and 1M), while the CNBr preparations suffered drastic drops in its activity at high ionic strength. The results confirm that the lipases immobilized on octyl agarose presented their open form stabilized while the covalent preparation maintains a closing/opening equilibrium that may be modulated by altering the medium.

  12. Glass as a waste form for the immobilization of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Ellison, A.J.G.; Emery, J.W.; Hoh, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Several alternatives for disposal of surplus plutonium are being considered. One method is incorporating Pu into glass and in this paper we discuss the development and corrosion behavior of an alkali-tin-silicate glass and update results in testing Pu doped Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference glasses. The alkali-tin-silicate glass was engineered to accommodate a high Pu loading and to be durable under conditions likely to accelerate glass reaction. The glass dissolves about 7 wt% Pu together with the neutron absorber Gd, and under test conditions expected to accelerate the glass reaction with water, is resistant to corrosion. The Pu and the Gd are released from the glass at nearly the same rate in static corrosion tests in water, and are not segregated into surface alteration phases when the glass is reacted in water vapor. Similar results for the behavior of Pu and Gd are found for the DWPF reference glasses, although the long-term rate of reaction for the reference glasses is more rapid than for the alkali-tin-silicate glass.

  13. Evaluation of sulfur polymer cement as a waste form for the immobilization of low-level radioactive or mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC), also called modified sulphur cements, is a relatively new material in the waste immobilization field, although it was developed in the late seventies by the Bureau of Mines. The physical and chemical properties of SPC are interesting (e.g., development of high mechanical strength in a short time and high resistance to many corrosive environments). Because of its very low permeability and porosity, SPC is especially impervious to water, which, in turn, has led to its consideration for immobilization of hazardous or radioactive waste. Because it is a thermosetting process, the waste is encapsulated by the sulfur matrix; therefore, very little interaction occurs between the waste species and the sulfur (as there can be when waste prevents the set of portland cement-based waste forms).

  14. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased.

  15. External Criticality Risk of Immobilized Plutonium Waste Form in a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect

    J. McClure

    2001-03-12

    This purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the waste package (WP) external criticality-related risk of the Plutonium Disposition ceramic waste form, which is being developed and evaluated by the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Potential accumulation of the fissile materials, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U, in rock formations having a favorable chemical environment for such actions, requires analysis because autocatalytic configurations, while unlikely to form, never-the-less have consequences which are undesirable and require evaluation. Secondly, the WP design has evolved necessitating a re-evaluation of the internal WP degradation scenarios that contribute to the external source terms. The scope of this study includes a summary of the revised WP degradation calculations, a summary of the accumulation mechanisms in fractures and lithophysae in the tuff beneath the WP footprint, and a summary of the criticality risk calculations from any accumulated fissile material. Accumulations of fissile material external to the WP sufficient to pose a potential criticality risk require a deposition mechanism operating over sufficient time to reach required levels. The transporting solution concentrations themselves are well below critical levels (CRWMS 2001e). The ceramic waste form consists of Pu immobilized in ceramic disks, which would be embedded in High-Level Waste (HLW) glass in the standard HLW glass disposal canister. The ceramic disks would occupy approximately 12% of the HLW canister volume, while most of the remaining 88% of the volume would be occupied by HLW glass.

  16. Spin forming development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equiment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  17. Spin forming development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  18. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  19. Less common applications of monoliths: IV. Recent developments in immobilized enzyme reactors for proteomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krenkova, Jana; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-03-01

    Use of monolithic supports for enzyme immobilization has rapidly expanded since we published the preceding paper in the series of articles concerned with this topic almost three years ago. Many groups worldwide have realized the benefits of applying monoliths as support structures and used a variety of techniques to immobilize many different enzymes. Although some of these new developments are just refinements of the methods developed previously, some notable new approaches have also been reported. This review summarizes the literature published since 2006 and demonstrates the broad variability of reactive monoliths prepared from silica as well as from organic polymers in the form of disks, columns, and capillaries. All these monoliths were prepared by direct formation from reactive precursors or activation of preformed inactive structures. Interestingly, most of the applications of monolithic enzyme reactors target proteolytic digestion of proteins for proteomic analysis.

  20. Degradation of diesel oil by immobilized Candida tropicalis and biofilm formed on gravels.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Preethy; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-11-01

    The performance of diesel oil degradation by Candida tropicalis immobilized on various conventional matrices (sodium alginate, carboxyl methyl cellulose, chitosan) and biowaste materials (wheat bran, sawdust, peanut hull powder) was investigated using the method of entrapment and physical adsorption. The yeast species immobilized in wheat bran showed enhanced efficiency in degrading diesel oil (98%) compared to free cells culture (80%) over a period of 7 days. Copious amount of exopolysaccharides were also produced in the presence of diesel oil. The biofilm forming ability of C. tropicalis on PVC strips was evaluated using XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) reduction assay and monitored by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Yeast biofilm formed on gravels showed 97% degradation of diesel oil over a period of 10 days. The potential use of the biofilms for preparing trickling filters (gravel particles), for attenuating hydrocarbons in oily liquid wastes before their disposal in the open environment is suggested and discussed. This is the first successful attempt for 'artificially' establishing hydrocarbon degrading yeast biofilm on solid substrates.

  1. Solubility and changes of mercury binding forms in contaminated soils after immobilization treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Biester, H.; Zimmer, H.

    1998-09-15

    Mobility at different pH and binding forms of mercury (Hg) have been investigated in three Hg-contaminated soils after immobilization treatment with alkali-polysulfide (APS) and trimercapto-s-triazine trisodium salt solution (TMT). Changes of solid-phase Hg binding forms after immobilization were determined by Hg pyrolysis. Hg concentrations in the water extracts of all samples increased after treatments due to the formation of soluble mercury sulfides (APS treatment), and the mobilization of humic acid bound Hg at the high pH of the reagents. In contrast, Hg concentrations decreased sharply at low pH due to decomposition of soluble mercury sulfides and precipitation of humic acid-bound Hg. Inorganic Hg compounds such as Hg{sup 0} or HgCl{sub 2} are effectively transformed to mercury sulfides by APS treatment, whereas TMT could transform HgCl{sub 2} but not Hg{sup 0}. Both reagents were found to affect humic acid bound Hg by way of increasing Hg desorption temperatures, although APS was found not to desorb Hg completely from humic acids and TMT-Hg complexes are actually incorporated into humic acids.

  2. Waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time).

  3. Development of electrochemical biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized in composite biopolymeric film.

    PubMed

    Tembe, Sanket; Karve, Meena; Inamdar, Shaukat; Haram, Santosh; Melo, Jose; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2006-02-01

    An electrochemical enzyme electrode for dopa and dopamine was developed via an easy and effective immobilization method. The enzyme tyrosinase was extracted from a plant source Amorphophallus companulatus and immobilized in a novel composite of two biopolymers: agarose and guar gum. This composite matrix-containing enzyme forms a self-adhering layer on the active surface of glassy carbon electrode, making it a selective and sensitive phenol sensor. Dopa and dopamine were determined by the direct reduction of biocatalytically liberated quinone species at -0.18V versus Ag/AgCl (3M KCl). The analytical characteristics of this sensor, including linear range, lower detection limit, pH, and storage stability, are described. It has reusability up to 15 cycles and a shelf life of more than 2 months.

  4. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  5. Development of Alternative Technetium Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth

    2013-09-13

    The UREX+1 process is under consideration for the separation of transuranic elements from spent nuclear fuel. The first steps of this process extract the fission product technicium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) into an organic phase containing tributylphosphate together with uranium. Treatment of this stream requires the separation of Tc from U and placement into a suitable waste storage form. A potential candidate waste form involves immobilizing the Tc as an alloy with either excess metallic zirconium or stainless steel. Although Tc-Zr alloys seem to be promising waste forms, alternative materials must be investigated. Innovative studies related to the synthesis and behavior of a different class of Tc materials will increase the scientific knowledge related to development of Tc waste forms. These studies will also provide a better understanding of the behavior of {sup 99}Tc in repository conditions. A literature survey has selected promising alternative waste forms for further study: technetium metallic alloys, nitrides, oxides, sulfides, and pertechnetate salts. The goals of this project are to 1) synthesize and structurally characterize relevant technetium materials that may be considered as waste forms, 2) investigate material behavior in solution under different conditions of temperature, electrochemical potential, and radiation, and 3) predict the long-term behavior of these materials.

  6. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  7. Development of phage/antibody immobilized magnetostrictive biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liling

    There is an urgent need for biosensors that are able to detect and quantify the presence of a small amount of pathogens in a real-time manner accurately and quickly to guide prevention efforts and assay food and water quality. Acoustic wave (AW) devices, whose performance is defined by mass sensitivity (Sm) and quality factor (Q value), have been extensively studied as high performance biosensor platforms. However, current AW devices still face some challenges such as the difficulty to be employed in liquid and low Q value in practical applications. The objective of this research is to develop magnetostrictive sensors which include milli/microcantilever type (MSMC) and particle type (MSP). Compared to other AW devices, MSMC exhibits the following advantages: (1) wireless/remote driving and sensing; (2) easy to fabricate; (3) works well in liquid; (4) exhibits a high Q value (> 500 in air). The fundamental study of the damping effect on MSMCs from the surrounding media including air and liquids were conducted to improve the Q value of MSMCs. The experiment results show that the Q value is dependent on the properties of surrounding media (e.g. viscosity, density), the geometry of the MSMCs, and the harmonic mode on the resonance behavior of MSMCs, etc. The phage-coated MSMC has high specificity and sensitivity even while used in water with a low concentration of targeted bacteria. Two currently developed phages, JRB7 and E2, respectively respond to Bacillus anthracis spores and Salmonella typhimurium, were employed as bio-recognition elements in this research. The phage-immobilized MSMC biosensors exhibited high performance and detection of limit was 5 x 104 cfu/ml for the MSMC in size of 1.4 x 0.8 x 0.035 mm. The MSMC-based biosensors were indicated as a very potential method for in-situ monitoring of the biological quality in water. The MSP combine antibody was used to detect Staphylococcus aureus in this experiment. The interface between MSPs and antibody was

  8. Technetium Waste Form Development Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.

    2010-02-26

    The approach being followed to evaluate the use of an iron-based alloy waste form to immobilize the Tc-bearing waste streams generated during the aqueous and electrochemical processing of used fuel that is being studied in the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is presented in this report. The objective is to develop an alloy waste form that provides high waste loading within waste form processing limitations, meets waste form performance requirements for durability and the long-term retention of radionuclides, and can be produced with consistent physical, chemical, and radiological properties that meet regulatory acceptance requirements for disposal. Microanalysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze non-radioactive Fe-Mo-Re samples. A sample was prepared for SEM; however, significant unforeseen instrument problems led to delays in conducting the detailed work. The TEM was not available for this particular sample and therefore only preliminary SEM work can be reported. The results are in agreement with previous studies [Ebert 2009]; however, a rhenium-rich region within the Re-Mo phase is clearly visible.

  9. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-03-07

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

  10. [Influence of immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite on the immediate and long-term results of treatment of the patients with diffuse peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Sukovatykh, B S; Blinkov, Iu Iu; Makienko, K G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of complex examination and results of treatment was made in 290 patients with diffuse peritonitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to way of sanation of the abdominal cavity. The sanation with 0.03% aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite was used for the first group of 155 patients. The immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite in carboxymethyl cellulose gel were applied in the second group. The rate of postoperative complications was decreased on 15.4%, the lethality--on 8.2% in the case of application of the immobilized forms of sodium hypochlorite. The developed technology allowed increasing of physical component of life quality of the patients in 1.3 times, though it didn't influence on psychical component.

  11. SRNL CRP progress report [Development of Melt Processed Ceramics for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-10-02

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multiphase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing.

  12. Hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal formed on gel-immobilized colloidal crystal via solvent substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Sho; Mori, Atsushi; Nagashima, Ken; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

    2017-06-01

    Gel-immobilized colloidal crystals were prepared to obtain hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystals, in which electric field enhancement to a greater extent than that due to localized surface plasmons (LSP) alone was expected due to coupling between LSP and the photonic band. Polystyrene colloidal crystals immobilized by the N-(hydroxymethyl)acrylamide gel were immersed in an aqueous dispersion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Then, the gel-immobilized colloidal crystals were picked out and immersed in an ionic liquid mixture. The surfaces of the gel-immobilized colloidal crystals immersed in the AuNP dispersion were observed via scanning electron microscopy after this solvent substitution. The lattice spacing of the colloidal crystal varied as the composition of the ionic liquid mixture was changed. The composition was determined so that the photonic band gap wavelength coincided with the LSP wavelength. Further, the reflection spectra were measured. Thus, we successfully prepared a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal.

  13. Report on a randomized trial comparing two forms of immobilization of the head for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarz, Greg; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Downes, Beverly; Bogner, Joachim; Hyslop, Terry; Galvin, James; Evans, James; Curran, Walter Jr.; Andrews, David

    2009-01-15

    Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires accurate and reproducible immobilization of the patient's head. This randomized study compared the efficacy of two commonly used forms of immobilization used for SRT. Two routinely used methods of immobilization, which differ in their approach to reproduce the head position from day to day, are the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) frame and the BrainLab thermoplastic mask. The GTC frame fixates on the patient's upper dentition and thus is in direct mechanical contact with the cranium. The BrainLab mask is a two-part masking system custom fitted to the front and back of the patient's head. After patients signed an IRB-approved informed consent form, eligible patients were randomized to either GTC frame or mask for their course of SRT. Patients were treated as per standard procedure; however, prior to each treatment a set of digital kilovolt images (ExacTrac, BrainLabAB, Germany) was taken. These images were fused with reference digitally reconstructed radiographs obtained from treatment planning CT to yield lateral, longitudinal, and vertical deviations of isocenter and head rotations about respective axes. The primary end point of the study was to compare the two systems with respect to mean and standard deviations using the distance to isocenter measure. A total of 84 patients were enrolled (69 patients evaluable with detailed positioning data). A mixed-effect linear regression and two-tiled t test were used to compare the distance measure for both the systems. There was a statistically significant (p<0.001) difference between mean distances for these systems, suggesting that the GTC frame was more accurate. The mean 3D displacement and standard deviations were 3.17+1.95 mm for mask and 2.00+1.04 mm for frame. Both immobilization techniques were highly effective, but the GTC frame was more accurate. To optimize the accuracy of SRT, daily kilovolt image guidance is recommended with either immobilization system.

  14. Report on a randomized trial comparing two forms of immobilization of the head for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bednarz, Greg; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Downes, Beverly; Bogner, Joachim; Hyslop, Terry; Galvin, James; Evans, James; Curran, Walter; Andrews, David

    2009-01-01

    Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires accurate and reproducible immobilization of the patient's head. This randomized study compared the efficacy of two commonly used forms of immobilization used for SRT. Two routinely used methods of immobilization, which differ in their approach to reproduce the head position from day to day, are the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) frame and the BrainLab thermoplastic mask. The GTC frame fixates on the patient's upper dentition and thus is in direct mechanical contact with the cranium. The BrainLab mask is a two-part masking system custom fitted to the front and back of the patient's head. After patients signed an IRB-approved informed consent form, eligible patients were randomized to either GTC frame or mask for their course of SRT. Patients were treated as per standard procedure; however, prior to each treatment a set of digital kilovolt images (ExacTrac, BrainLabAB, Germany) was taken. These images were fused with reference digitally reconstructed radiographs obtained from treatment planning CT to yield lateral, longitudinal, and vertical deviations of isocenter and head rotations about respective axes. The primary end point of the study was to compare the two systems with respect to mean and standard deviations using the distance to isocenter measure. A total of 84 patients were enrolled (69 patients evaluable with detailed positioning data). A mixed-effect linear regression and two-tiled t test were used to compare the distance measure for both the systems. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) difference between mean distances for these systems, suggesting that the GTC frame was more accurate. The mean 3D displacement and standard deviations were 3.17+1.95 mm for mask and 2.00+1.04 mm for frame. Both immobilization techniques were highly effective, but the GTC frame was more accurate. To optimize the accuracy of SRT, daily kilovolt image guidance is recommended with either immobilization system.

  15. Immobilization of Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 (an acetonitrile-degrading bacterium) with biofilm-forming bacteria for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Li, Yue; Cheng, Xiaosong; Feng, Liping; Xi, Chuanwu; Zhang, Ying

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a unique biofilm consisting of three bacterial strains with high biofilm-forming capability (Bacillus subtilis E2, E3, and N4) and an acetonitrile-degrading bacterium (Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2) was established for acetonitrile-containing wastewater treatment. The results indicated that this biofilm exhibited strong resistance to acetonitrile loading shock and displayed a typical spatial and structural heterogeneity and completely depleted the initial concentration of acetonitrile (800mgL(-1)) within 24h in a moving-bed-biofilm reactor (MBBR) after operation for 30days. The immobilization of BX2 cells in the biofilm was confirmed by PCR-DGGE. It has been demonstrated that biofilm-forming bacteria can promote the immobilization of contaminant-degrading bacteria in the biofilms and can subsequently improve the degradation of contaminants in wastewater. This approach offers a novel strategy for enhancing biological oxidation of toxic pollutants in wastewater.

  16. Development of a microfluidic “click chip” incorporating an immobilized Cu(I) catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hairong; Whittenberg, Joseph J.; Zhou, Haiying; Ranganathan, David; Desai, Amit V.; Koziol, Jan; Zeng, Dexing; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Reichert, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic “click chip” incorporating an immobilized Cu(I) catalyst for click reactions. The microfluidic device was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass and featured ~14,400 posts on the surface to improve catalyst immobilization. This design increased the immobilization efficiency and reduces the reagents’ diffusion time to active catalyst site. The device also incorporates five reservoirs to increase the reaction volume with minimal hydrodynamic pressure drop across the device. A novel water-soluble tris-(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA) derivative capable of stabilizing Cu(I), ligand 2, was synthesized and successfully immobilized on the chip surface. The catalyst immobilized chip surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The immobilization efficiency was evaluated via radiotracer methods: the immobilized Cu(I) was measured as 1136±272 nmol and the surface immobilized Cu(I) density was 81±20 nmol cm−2. The active Cu(I)-ligand 2 could be regenerated up to five times without losing any catalyst efficiency. The “click” reaction of Flu568-azide and propargylamine was studied on chip for proof-of-principle. The on-chip reaction yields were ca. 82% with a 50 min reaction time or ca. 55% with a 15 min period at 37 °C, which was higher than those obtained in the conventional reaction. The on-chip “click” reaction involving a biomolecule, cyclo(RGDfK) peptide was also studied and demonstrated a conversion yield of ca. 98%. These encouraging results show promise on the application of the Cu(I) catalyst immobilized “click chip” for the development of biomolecule based imaging agents. PMID:25598970

  17. Development of a microfluidic "click chip" incorporating an immobilized Cu(I) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairong; Whittenberg, Joseph J; Zhou, Haiying; Ranganathan, David; Desai, Amit V; Koziol, Jan; Zeng, Dexing; Kenis, Paul J A; Reichert, David E

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic "click chip" incorporating an immobilized Cu(I) catalyst for click reactions. The microfluidic device was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass and featured ~14,400 posts on the surface to improve catalyst immobilization. This design increased the immobilization efficiency and reduces the reagents' diffusion time to active catalyst site. The device also incorporates five reservoirs to increase the reaction volume with minimal hydrodynamic pressure drop across the device. A novel water-soluble tris-(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA) derivative capable of stabilizing Cu(I), ligand 2, was synthesized and successfully immobilized on the chip surface. The catalyst immobilized chip surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The immobilization efficiency was evaluated via radiotracer methods: the immobilized Cu(I) was measured as 1136±272 nmol and the surface immobilized Cu(I) density was 81±20 nmol cm(-2). The active Cu(I)-ligand 2 could be regenerated up to five times without losing any catalyst efficiency. The "click" reaction of Flu568-azide and propargylamine was studied on chip for proof-of-principle. The on-chip reaction yields were ca. 82% with a 50 min reaction time or ca. 55% with a 15 min period at 37 °C, which was higher than those obtained in the conventional reaction. The on-chip "click" reaction involving a biomolecule, cyclo(RGDfK) peptide was also studied and demonstrated a conversion yield of ca. 98%. These encouraging results show promise on the application of the Cu(I) catalyst immobilized "click chip" for the development of biomolecule based imaging agents.

  18. Morphological and molecular aspects of immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats at different stages of postnatal development: the role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Foresto, Camila Silva; Paula-Gomes, Sílvia; Silveira, Wilian Assis; Graça, Flávia Aparecida; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Gonçalves, Dawit Albieiro Pinheiro; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Muscle loss occurs following injury and immobilization in adulthood and childhood, which impairs the rehabilitation process; however, far fewer studies have been conducted analyzing atrophic response in infants. This work investigated first the morphological and molecular mechanisms involved in immobilization-induced atrophy in soleus muscles from rats at different stages of postnatal development [i.e., weanling (WR) and adult (AR) rats] and, second, the role of autophagy in regulating muscle plasticity during immobilization. Hindlimb immobilization for 10 days reduced muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area, with more pronounced atrophy in WR, and induced slow-to-fast fiber switching. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in markers of protein synthesis and an increase in autophagy. The ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase MuRF1 and the ubiquitinated proteins were upregulated by immobilization in AR while the autolyzed form of μ-calpain was increased in WR. To further explore the role of autophagy in muscle abnormalities, AR were concomitantly immobilized and treated with colchicine, which blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Colchicine-treated immobilized muscles had exacerbated atrophy and presented degenerative features. Despite Igf1/Akt signaling was downregulated in immobilized muscles from both age groups, Foxo1 and 4 phosphorylation was increased in WR. In the same group of animals, Foxo1 acetylation and Foxo1 and 4 content was increased and decreased, respectively. Our data show that muscle disorders induced by 10-day-immobilization occur in both age-dependent and -independent manners, an understanding that may optimize treatment outcomes in infants. We also provide further evidence that the strong inhibition of autophagy may be ineffective for treating muscle atrophy.

  19. Coated particle waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  20. Osteoinductive Effects of Free and Immobilized Bone Forming Peptide-1 on Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianghui; Ge, Yanjun; Chen, Tong; Liu, Yunsong; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Most synthetic polymeric materials currently used for bone tissue engineering lack specific signals through which cells can identify and interact with the surface, resulting in incompatibility and compromised osteogenic activity. Soluble inductive factors also have issues including a short half-live in vivo. Bone forming peptide-1 is a truncated peptide from the immature form of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) that displays higher osteogenic activity than full-length, mature BMP-7. In this study, we used a mussel-inspired immobilization strategy mediated by polymerization of dopamine to introduce recently discovered stimulators of bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1) onto the surface of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) substrate to form a biomaterial that overcomes these challenges. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), being abundant and easy accessible, were used to test the osteogenic activity of BFP-1 and the novel biomaterial. Under osteoinductive conditions, cells treated with both BFP-1 alone and BFP-1-coated biomaterials displayed elevated expression of the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and RUNX2. Furthermore, hASCs associated with poly-dopamine-assisted BFP-1-immobilized PLGA (pDA-BFP-1-PLGA) scaffolds promoted in vivo bone formation in nude mice. Our novel materials may hold great promise for future bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26930062

  1. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Chick, L.A.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing /sup 239/Pu.

  2. Development of surface immobilized 3-azidocoumarin-based fluorogenic probe via strain promoted click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, M Vijaya; Chhabra, Mohit; Paira, Priyankar

    2015-12-15

    A new class of imaging probe, a fluorogenic version of 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes has been developed. 3-azidocoumarin scaffolds were selectively immobilized on the DBCO modified bead surface via SPAAC and provide direct and strong fluorescence in fluorescence microscopy. This developed click-on beads could be applied to label various biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and other molecules. To this end, 5'(7-hydroxy 3-azido coumarin) labelled DNA primer also displayed strong fluorescence upon successful immobilization on the bead surface.

  3. Progress in biocatalysis with immobilized viable whole cells: systems development, reaction engineering and applications.

    PubMed

    Polakovič, Milan; Švitel, Juraj; Bučko, Marek; Filip, Jaroslav; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Gemeiner, Peter

    2017-02-08

    Viable microbial cells are important biocatalysts in the production of fine chemicals and biofuels, in environmental applications and also in emerging applications such as biosensors or medicine. Their increasing significance is driven mainly by the intensive development of high performance recombinant strains supplying multienzyme cascade reaction pathways, and by advances in preservation of the native state and stability of whole-cell biocatalysts throughout their application. In many cases, the stability and performance of whole-cell biocatalysts can be highly improved by controlled immobilization techniques. This review summarizes the current progress in the development of immobilized whole-cell biocatalysts, the immobilization methods as well as in the bioreaction engineering aspects and economical aspects of their biocatalytic applications.

  4. Development of an SH-SAW sensor for detection of DNA immobilization and hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Yongrae; Woo, Jeongdong; Hur, Youngjune; Pak, Yukeun E.

    2005-05-01

    We have developed SH (shear horizontal) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for detection of the immobilization and hybrdization of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) on the gold coated delay line of transverse SAW devices. The experiments of DNA immobilization and hybridization were performed with 15-mer oligonucleotides (probe and complementary target DNA). The sensor consists of twin SAW delay line oscillators (sensing channel and reference channel) operating at 100 MHz fabricated on 36° rotated Y-cut X-propagation LiTaO3 piezoelectric single crystals. The relative change in the frequency of the two oscillators was monitored to detect the immobilization of probe DNA with thiol group on the Au coated delay line and the hybridization between target DNA and immobilized probe DNA in a pH 7.4 PBS (phosphate buffered saline) solution. The measurement results showed a good response of the sensor to the mass loading effects of the DNA immobilization and hybridization with the sensitivity up to 1.5 ng/ml/Hz.

  5. Recent Developments in the Site-Specific Immobilization of Proteins onto Solid Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Camarero, J A

    2007-02-21

    Immobilization of proteins onto surfaces is of great importance in numerous applications, including protein analysis, drug screening, and medical diagnostics, among others. The success of all these technologies relies on the immobilization technique employed to attach a protein to the corresponding surface. Non-specific physical adsorption or chemical cross-linking with appropriate surfaces results in the immobilization of the protein in random orientations. Site-specific covalent attachment, on the other hand, leads to molecules being arranged in a definite, orderly fashion and allows the use of spacers and linkers to help minimize steric hindrances between the protein and the surface. The present work reviews the latest chemical and biochemical developments for the site-specific covalent attachment of proteins onto solid supports.

  6. Development of an optical formaldehyde sensor based on the use of immobilized pararosaniline.

    PubMed

    Baker, M E; Narayanaswamy, R

    1994-05-01

    The colorimetric indicator pararosaniline has been immobilized onto the cation-exchange resins Amberlite IRC-50, Dowex 50W-X8 and cellulose phosphate by electrostatic bonding. The reflectance of each reagent phase was measured using a bifurcated fibre-optic system and a flow cell. Pararosaniline immobilized on cellulose phosphate was found to respond to formaldehyde without requiring the addition of sulfite to develop the purple chromogen. This immobilized system demonstrated a linear response to 50-2500 micrograms of formaldehyde and had a correlation coefficient of 0.9979. Acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde did not produce any interference. However, exposure to the unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, gave rise to responses that were much greater than that observed with formaldehyde.

  7. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-07-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

  8. Systematic investigation of the strontium zirconium phosphate ceramic form for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, Vladimir; Asabina, Elena; Loshkarev, Vladimir; Sukhanov, Maksim

    2016-04-01

    We have summarized our data and literature ones on the thermophysical properties and hydrolytic stability of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 compound as a host NaZr2(PO4)3-type (NZP) structure for immobilization of 90Sr-containing radioactive waste. Absence of any polymorphic transformations on the temperature dependence of its heat capacity between 7 and 665 K is caused by the stability of crystalline Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3. Calculated values of thermal conductivity coefficients at zero porosity in the range 298-673 K were 1.86-2.40 W·m-1 K-1. The compound may be classified as low thermal expanding material due to its average linear thermal expansion coefficient. Study of the hydrolytic stability in acid and alkaline media has shown that the relative mass fraction of Sr2+ ions, released into aggressive leaching media, didn't exceed 1% of the mass of sample. Soxhlet leaching studies have shown substantial resistance towards the release of Sr2+ ions into distilled water. Feeble sinterability constrains practical applications of NZP substances, that is why known in literature methods of Sr0.5Zr2(PO4)3 dense ceramics obtaining have been reviewed.

  9. "Active surfaces" formed by immobilization of enzymes on solid-supported polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Camelia; Kowal, Justyna; Darjan, Alina; Meier, Wolfgang; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2014-10-07

    In various domains ranging from catalysis to medical and environmental sciences, there is currently much focus on the design of surfaces that present active compounds at the interface with their environments. Here, we describe the design of "active surfaces" based on solid-supported monolayers of asymmetric triblock copolymers, which serve as templates for the attachment of enzymes. A group of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-methyl-ε-caprolactone)-block-poly[(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] amphiphilic copolymers, with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains (PEG45-b-PMCLx-b-PDMAEMAy) was selected to generate solid-supported polymer membranes. The behavior of the copolymers in terms of their molecular arrangements at the air-water interface was established by a combination of Langmuir isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy. Uniform thin layers of copolymers were obtained by transferring films onto silica solid supports at optimal surface pressure. These solid-supported polymer membranes were characterized by assessing various properties, such as monolayer thickness, hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, topography, and roughness. Laccase, used as an enzyme model, was successfully attached to copolymer membranes by stable interactions as followed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation measurements, and its activity was preserved, as indicated by activity assays. The interaction between the amphiphilic triblock copolymer films and immobilized enzymes represents a straightforward approach to engineer "active surfaces", with biomolecules playing the active role by their intrinsic bioactivity.

  10. Immobilizing affinity proteins to nitrocellulose: a toolbox for paper-based assay developers.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Carly A; Chevalier, Aaron; Bennett, Steven; Anderson, Caitlin E; Keniston, Karen; Olsen, Cathryn; Li, Bing; Bales, Brian; Moore, David R; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2016-02-01

    To enable enhanced paper-based diagnostics with improved detection capabilities, new methods are needed to immobilize affinity reagents to porous substrates, especially for capture molecules other than IgG. To this end, we have developed and characterized three novel methods for immobilizing protein-based affinity reagents to nitrocellulose membranes. We have demonstrated these methods using recombinant affinity proteins for the influenza surface protein hemagglutinin, leveraging the customizability of these recombinant "flu binders" for the design of features for immobilization. The three approaches shown are: (1) covalent attachment of thiolated affinity protein to an epoxide-functionalized nitrocellulose membrane, (2) attachment of biotinylated affinity protein through a nitrocellulose-binding streptavidin anchor protein, and (3) fusion of affinity protein to a novel nitrocellulose-binding anchor protein for direct coupling and immobilization. We also characterized the use of direct adsorption for the flu binders, as a point of comparison and motivation for these novel methods. Finally, we demonstrated that these novel methods can provide improved performance to an influenza hemagglutinin assay, compared to a traditional antibody-based capture system. Taken together, this work advances the toolkit available for the development of next-generation paper-based diagnostics.

  11. Development of repeatable arrays of proteins using immobilized DNA microplate (RAPID-M) technology.

    PubMed

    Ashaari, Nur Suhanawati; Ramarad, Suganti; Khairuddin, Dzulaikha; Akhir, Nor Azurah Mat; Hara, Yuka; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Mohamed, Rahmah; Nathan, Sheila

    2015-11-12

    Protein microarrays have enormous potential as in vitro diagnostic tools stemming from the ability to miniaturize whilst generating maximum evaluation of diagnostically relevant information from minute amounts of sample. In this report, we present a method known as repeatable arrays of proteins using immobilized DNA microplates (RAPID-M) for high-throughput in situ protein microarray fabrication. The RAPID-M technology comprises of cell-free expression using immobilized DNA templates and in situ protein purification onto standard microarray slides. To demonstrate proof-of-concept, the repeatable protein arrays developed using our RAPID-M technology utilized green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a bacterial outer membrane protein (OmpA) as the proteins of interest for microarray fabrication. Cell-free expression of OmpA and GFP proteins using beads-immobilized DNA yielded protein bands with the expected molecular sizes of 27 and 30 kDa, respectively. We demonstrate that the beads-immobilized DNA remained stable for at least four cycles of cell-free expression. The OmpA and GFP proteins were still functional after in situ purification on the Ni-NTA microarray slide. The RAPID-M platform for protein microarray fabrication of two different representative proteins was successfully developed.

  12. Immobilization of NTPDase-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi and Development of an Online Label-Free Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Juliana Maria; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    The use of IMERs (Immobilized Enzyme Reactors) as a stationary phase coupled to high performance chromatographic systems is an interesting approach in the screening of new ligands. In addition, IMERs offer many advantages over techniques that employ enzymes in solution. The enzyme nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1) from Trypanosoma cruzi acts as a pathogen infection facilitator, so it is a good target in the search for inhibitors. In this paper, immobilization of NTPDase-1 afforded ICERs (Immobilized Capillary Enzyme Reactors). A liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to monitor the ICER activity. The conditions for the application of these bioreactors were investigated, and excellent results were obtained. The enzyme was successfully immobilized, as attested by the catalytic activity detected in the TcNTPDase-1-ICER chromatographic system. Kinetic studies on the substrate ATP gave KM of 0.317 ± 0.044 mmol·L−1, which still presented high affinity compared to in solution. Besides that, the ICER was stable for 32 days, enough time to investigate samples of possible inhibitors, including especially the compound Suramin, that inhibited 51% the enzyme activity at 100 µmol·L−1, which is in accordance with the data for the enzyme in solution. PMID:28070446

  13. Immobilization of NTPDase-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi and Development of an Online Label-Free Assay.

    PubMed

    Calil, Felipe Antunes; Lima, Juliana Maria; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The use of IMERs (Immobilized Enzyme Reactors) as a stationary phase coupled to high performance chromatographic systems is an interesting approach in the screening of new ligands. In addition, IMERs offer many advantages over techniques that employ enzymes in solution. The enzyme nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1) from Trypanosoma cruzi acts as a pathogen infection facilitator, so it is a good target in the search for inhibitors. In this paper, immobilization of NTPDase-1 afforded ICERs (Immobilized Capillary Enzyme Reactors). A liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to monitor the ICER activity. The conditions for the application of these bioreactors were investigated, and excellent results were obtained. The enzyme was successfully immobilized, as attested by the catalytic activity detected in the TcNTPDase-1-ICER chromatographic system. Kinetic studies on the substrate ATP gave KM of 0.317 ± 0.044 mmol·L(-1), which still presented high affinity compared to in solution. Besides that, the ICER was stable for 32 days, enough time to investigate samples of possible inhibitors, including especially the compound Suramin, that inhibited 51% the enzyme activity at 100 µmol·L(-1), which is in accordance with the data for the enzyme in solution.

  14. Development of continuous microwave-assisted protein digestion with immobilized enzyme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengyi; Li, Yongle; Lin, Shuhai; Wei, Meiping; Du, Fuyou; Ruan, Guihua

    2014-03-07

    In this study, an easy and efficiency protein digestion method called continuous microwave-assisted protein digestion (cMAED) with immobilized enzyme was developed and applied for proteome analysis by LC-MS(n). Continuous microwave power outputting was specially designed and applied. Trypsin and bromelain were immobilized onto magnetic micropheres. To evaluate the method of cMAED, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and protein extracted from ginkgo nuts were used as model and real protein sample to verify the digestion efficiency of cMAED. Several conditions including continuous microwave power, the ratio of immobilized trypsin/BSA were optimized according to the analysis of peptide fragments by Tricine SDS-PAGE and LC-MS(n). Subsequently, the ginkgo protein was digested with the protocols of cMAED, MAED and conventional heating enzymatic digestion (HED) respectively and the LC-MS(n) profiles of the hydrolysate was compared. Results showed that cMAED combined with immobilized enzyme was a fast and efficient digestion method for protein digestion and microwave power tentatively affected the peptide producing. The cMAED method will be expanded for large-scale preparation of bioactive peptides and peptide analysis in biological and clinical research.

  15. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on cellulose acetate membrane for free cholesterol biosensor development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenqi; Li, Shipu; Yu, Yaoting

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on a cellulose acetate (CA) membrane activated by Sodium periodate, ethylenediamine, and glutaraldehyde etc. The properties of the immobilized enzyme membrane were investigated. The factors affecting the activity of immobilized enzyme such as the concentration of glutaraldehyde, the concentration of enzyme used during immobilization, temperature, pH, and immobilizing time etc. were also studied. The immobilized COD membrane has been used to construct fibre-optic fluorescent biosensor.

  16. Fractionation of the genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the native form by chromatography on an immobilized copper(II) affinity adsorbent. Heterogeneity of the separate variants by isoelectrofocusing and by concanavalin A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hervé, F; Gomas, E; Duché, J C; Tillement, J P

    1993-05-19

    Fractionation of the three main genetic variants (F1, S and A) of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), in their native (sialylated) form, by chromatography on immobilized copper(II) affinity adsorbent was investigated. This chromatographic method had been previously developed to fractionate the desialylated protein variants. For that purpose, the three main AAG phenotypes samples (F1S/A, F1/A and S/A), which had been previously isolated from individual human plasma samples, and an AAG sample from commercial source (a mixture of the phenotypes) were used in the native form. Affinity chromatography of these different samples on an iminodiacetate Sepharose-copper(II) gel at pH 7 resolved two protein peaks, irrespective of the origin of the native AAG sample used. The unbound peak 1 was found to consist of the F1, the S or both variants, depending on the phenotype of the AAG sample used in the chromatography. The bound peak 2 was found to consist of the A variant in a pure form. The fractionation results obtained with native AAG were found to be the same as those originally yielded by the desialylated protein. However, comparison of the interactions of native and desialylated AAG with immobilized copper(II) ions, using an affinity chromatographic method and a non-chromatographic equilibrium binding technique, respectively, showed that desialylation increased the non-specific interactions of the protein with immobilized copper(II) ions. The AAG variants were not fractionated when affinity chromatography was performed using immobilized zinc, nickel or cobalt(II) ions, instead of copper. After purification of each variant in the sialylated form (F1, S and A), their respective heterogeneity was studied by analytical isoelectrofocusing with carrier ampholytes in the pH range 2.5-4.5. In addition, the lectin-binding behaviour of the separate sialylated AAG variants was investigated by affinity chromatography on immobilized concanavalin A.

  17. The Reticulon and Dp1/Yop1p Proteins Form Immobile Oligomers in the Tubular Endoplasmic Reticulum*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yoko; Voss, Christiane; Rist, Julia M.; Hu, Junjie; Rapoport, Tom A.; Prinz, William A.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2008-01-01

    We recently identified a class of membrane proteins, the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, which shape the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast and mammalian cells. These proteins are highly enriched in the tubular portions of the ER and virtually excluded from other regions. To understand how they promote tubule formation, we characterized their behavior in cellular membranes and addressed how their localization in the ER is determined. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we found that yeast Rtn1p and Yop1p are less mobile in the membrane than normal ER proteins. Sucrose gradient centrifugation and cross-linking analyses show that they form oligomers. Mutants of yeast Rtn1p, which no longer localize exclusively to the tubular ER or are even totally inactive in inducing ER tubules, are more mobile and oligomerize less extensively. The mammalian reticulons and DP1 are also relatively immobile and can form oligomers. The conserved reticulon homology domain that includes the two membrane-embedded segments is sufficient for the localization of the reticulons to the tubular ER, as well as for their diffusional immobility and oligomerization. Finally, ATP depletion in both yeast and mammalian cells further decreases the mobilities of the reticulons and DP1. We propose that oligomerization of the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p is important for both their localization to the tubular domains of the ER and for their ability to form tubules. PMID:18442980

  18. Dextran-lipase conjugates as tools for low molecular weight ligand immobilization in microarray development.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Sonia; Marciello, Marzia; Olea, David; Hernández, Margarita; Domingo, Concepción; Vélez, Marisela; Gheber, Levi A; Guisán, Jose M; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2013-08-06

    The development of effective array biosensors relies heavily on careful control of the density of surface-immobilized ligands on the transducing platform. In this paper we describe the synthesis of new dextran-lipase conjugates for use in immobilizing low molecular weight haptens onto glass planar waveguides for immunosensor development. The conjugates were synthesized by immobilizing bacterial thermoalkalophilic lipases (Geobacillus thermocatenulatus lipase 2, BTL2) on agarose macroporous beads, followed by covalent coupling to dextran networks of variable molecular weight (1500-40000). The chimeras were immobilized via nonspecific hydrophobic interactions onto glass planar waveguides modified with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane to obtain highly ordered and homogeneous molecular architectures as confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Microcystin LR (MCLR) was covalently bound to the dextran-BTL2 conjugates. The usefulness of this approach in immunosensor development was demonstrated by determining amounts of MCLR down to a few picograms per liter with an automated array biosensor and evanescent wave excitation for fluorescence measurements of attached DyLight649-labeled secondary antibody. Modifying BTL2 with dextrans of an increased molecular weight (>6000) provided surfaces with an increased loading capacity that was ascribed to the production of three-dimensional surfaces by the effect of analyte binding deep in the volume, leading to expanded dynamic ranges (0.09-136.56 ng L(-1)), lower limits of detection (0.007 ± 0.001 ng L(-1)), and lower IC50 values (4.4 ± 0.7 ng L(-1)). These results confirm the effectiveness of our approach for the development of high-performance biosensing platforms.

  19. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200°C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ~93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200°C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 g/cm3 and contained ~39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  20. Silica-based waste form for immobilization of iodine from reprocessing plant off-gas streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyáš, Josef; Canfield, Nathan; Sulaiman, Sannoh; Zumhoff, Mac

    2016-08-01

    A high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine and a feasible consolidation to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes silver-functionalized silica aerogel (Ag0-aerogel) an attractive choice for the removal and sequestration of iodine compounds from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Hot uniaxial pressing of iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel (20.2 mass% iodine) at 1200 °C for 30 min under 29 MPa pressure provided a partially sintered product with residual open porosity of 16.9% that retained ∼93% of sorbed iodine. Highly iodine-loaded Ag0-aerogel was successfully consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1200 °C with a 30-min hold and under 207 MPa. The fully densified waste form had a bulk density of 3.3 × 103 kg/m3 and contained ∼39 mass% iodine. The iodine was retained in the form of nano- and micro-particles of AgI that were uniformly distributed inside and along boundaries of fused silica grains.

  1. The durability of single, dual, and multiphase titanate ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkins, Devin J. H.

    A significant amount of the energy used in the United States comes from nuclear power, which produces a large amount of waste materials. Recycling nuclear waste is possible, but requires a way to permanently fix the unusable radionuclides remaining from the recycling process in a stable, leach resistant structure. Multiphase titanate ceramic waste forms are one promising option under consideration. However, there is insufficient work on the long term corrosion of the individual phases, as well as the multiphase systems of these ceramics. These multiphase titanate ceramic waste forms have three targeted phases: hollandite, pyrochlore, and zirconolite. Hollandite is a promising candidate for the incorporation of Cs, while pyrochlore is readily formed with lanthanides, such as Nd, the most prevalent lanthanide in the waste stream. The third targeted phase, zirconolite, is for the incorporation of zirconium and the actinides. This work looks into the formation of single phase systems of lanthanide titanates, formation of dual phase systems of Ga doped Ba hollandites and Nd titanate, durability of single phase hollandites and multiphase model systems using Vapor Hydration Testing (ASTM C 1663-09), dissolution of dual phase systems of Ga doped Ba hollandites and Nd titanate using Product Consistency Testing (ASTM C 1285-02), as well investigating how grain size affects amount of alterative phases formed using Vapor Hydration Testing. The dual phase systems of hollandites and Nd titanate show significant amounts of secondary phases forming, heavily influenced by the composition of hollandite used in the systems. The most significant phase present was BaNd2Ti5O14. This phase proves to be problematic due to the degradation to the hollandite structure. Using Vapor Hydration Testing to investigate single and multiphase systems presented many some possible alteration phases that could occur in the long term aging of these ceramics. Most notably, Cs rich phases were found in

  2. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  3. Development of a sampling method for qualification of a ceramic high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Holleran, T. P.

    2002-07-02

    A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form was originally prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). Small HIP capsules called witness tubes were used to obtain representative samples of material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Since installation of a full-scale HIP in existing facilities proved impractical, a new fabrication process was developed. This process fabricates waste forms inside a stainless steel container using a conventional furnace. Progress in developing a new method of obtaining representative samples is reported.

  4. Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P.; Roberts, S.; Bourcier, W.L.

    2000-12-03

    This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.

  5. Technical Progress Report on Single Pass Flow Through Tests of Ceramic Waste Forms for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P; Roberts, S; Bourcier, W

    2000-12-01

    This report updates work on measurements of the dissolution rates of single-phase and multi-phase ceramic waste forms in flow-through reactors at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Previous results were reported in Bourcier (1999). Two types of tests are in progress: (1) tests of baseline pyrochlore-based multiphase ceramics; and (2) tests of single-phase pyrochlore, zirconolite, and brannerite (the three phases that will contain most of the actinides). Tests of the multi-phase material are all being run at 25 C. The single-phase tests are being run at 25, 50, and 75 C. All tests are being performed at ambient pressure. The as-made bulk compositions of the ceramics are given in Table 1. The single pass flow-through test procedure [Knauss, 1986 No.140] allows the powdered ceramic to react with pH buffer solutions traveling upward vertically through the powder. Gentle rocking during the course of the experiment keeps the powder suspended and avoids clumping, and allows the system to behave as a continuously stirred reactor. For each test, a cell is loaded with approximately one gram of the appropriate size fraction of powdered ceramic and reacted with a buffer solution of the desired pH. The buffer solution compositions are given in Table 2. All the ceramics tested were cold pressed and sintered at 1350 C in air, except brannerite, which was sintered at 1350 C in a CO/CO{sub 2} gas mixture. They were then crushed, sieved, rinsed repeatedly in alcohol and distilled water, and the desired particle size fraction collected for the single pass flow-through tests (SPFT). The surface area of the ceramics measured by BET ranged from 0.1-0.35 m{sup 2}/g. The measured surface area values, average particle size, and sample weights for each ceramic test are given in the Appendices.

  6. Towards cell-free isobutanol production: Development of a novel immobilized enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Joseph; Collins, Cynthia H; Belfort, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Producing fuels and chemical intermediates with cell cultures is severely limited by low product concentrations (≤0.2%(v/v)) due to feedback inhibition, cell instability, and lack of economical product recovery processes. We have developed an alternate simplified production scheme based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. Two immobilized enzymes (keto-acid decarboxylase (KdcA) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)) and one enzyme in solution (formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for NADH recycle) produced isobutanol titers 8 to 20 times higher than the highest reported titers with S. cerevisiae on a mol/mol basis. These high conversion rates and low protein leaching were achieved by covalent immobilization of enzymes (ADH) and enzyme fusions (fKdcA) on methacrylate resin. The new enzyme system without in situ removal of isobutanol achieved a 55% conversion of ketoisovaleric acid to isobutanol at a concentration of 0.135 (mole isobutanol produced for each mole ketoisovaleric acid consumed). Further increasing titer will require continuous removal of the isobutanol using an in situ recovery system.

  7. Development of a phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems using thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle.

    PubMed

    Inata, Hiroki; Semba, Takatoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Murayama, Suetoshi; Nishizaki, Osamu; Araki, Fujio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems. The phantom was made of papers formed into a human shape, paper clay, and filling rigid polyester. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes were inserted at anterior-posterior (A-P) and right-left (R-L) directions in the phantom to give static load by pulling ropes through the pipes. First, the positioning precision of the phantom utilizing a target locating system (TLS) was evaluated by moving the phantom on a couch along inferior-superior (I-S), A-P, and R-L directions in a range from -5 mm to +5 mm. The phantom's positions detected with the TLS were compared with values measured by a vernier caliper. Second, the phantom movements in a tensile test were chosen from patient movements determined from 15 patients treated for intracranial lesions and immobilized with a thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle. The phantom movement was given by minimum or maximum values of patient movements in each direction. Finally, the relationship between phantom movements and the static load in the tensile test was characterized from measurements using the new phantom and the TLS. The differences in all positions between the vernier caliper measurement and the TLS detected values were within 0.2 mm with frequencies of 100%, 95%, and 90% in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively. The phantom movements according to patient movements in clinical application in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions were within 0.58 mm, 0.94 mm, and 0.93 mm from the mean value plus standard deviation, respectively. The regression lines between the phantom movements and static load were given by y = 0.359x, y = 0.241x, and y = 0.451x in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively, where x is the phantom movement (mm) and y is the static load (kgf). The relationship between the phantom movements and static load may represent the performance of inhibiting patient movements, so the

  8. Development of a phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems using thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle.

    PubMed

    Inata, Hiroki; Semba, Takatoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Murayama, Suetoshi; Nishizaki, Osamu; Araki, Fujio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems. The phantom was made of papers formed into a human shape, paper clay, and filling rigid polyester. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes were inserted at anterior-posterior (A-P) and right-left (R-L) directions in the phantom to give static load by pulling ropes through the pipes. First, the positioning precision of the phantom utilizing a target locating system (TLS) was evaluated by moving the phantom on a couch along inferior-superior (I-S), A-P, and R-L directions in a range from -5 mm to +5 mm. The phantom's positions detected with the TLS were compared with values measured by a vernier caliper. Second, the phantom movements in a tensile test were chosen from patient movements determined from 15 patients treated for intracranial lesions and immobilized with a thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle. The phantom movement was given by minimum or maximum values of patient movements in each direction. Finally, the relationship between phantom movements and the static load in the tensile test was characterized from measurements using the new phantom and the TLS. The differences in all positions between the vernier caliper measurement and the TLS detected values were within 0.2 mm with frequencies of 100%, 95%, and 90% in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively. The phantom movements according to patient movements in clinical application in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions were within 0.58 mm, 0.94 mm, and 0.93 mm from the mean value plus standard deviation, respectively. The regression lines between the phantom movements and static load were given by y = 0.359x, y = 0.241x, and y = 0.451x in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively, where x is the phantom movement (mm) and y is the static load (kgf). The relationship between the phantom movements and static load may represent the performance of inhibiting patient movements, so the

  9. Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J; Mansourov, O A

    1999-01-25

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  10. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program “New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization,” in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction

  11. Development of Batch and Flow Immobilized Catalytic Systems with High Catalytic Activity and Reusability.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2017-01-01

    My mission in catalysis research is to develop highly active and reusable supported catalytic systems in terms of fundamental chemistry and industrial application. For this purpose, I developed three types of highly active and reusable supported catalytic systems. The first type involves polymeric base-supported metal catalysts: Novel polymeric imidazole-Pd and Cu complexes were developed that worked at the mol ppm level for a variety of organic transformations. The second involves catalytic membrane-installed microflow reactors: Membranous polymeric palladium and copper complex/nanoparticle catalysts were installed at the center of a microtube to produce novel catalytic membrane-immobilized flow microreactor devices. These catalytic devices mediated a variety of organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yield within 1-38 s. The third is a silicon nanowire array-immobilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst. This device promoted a variety of organic transformations as a heterogeneous catalyst. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction proceeded with 280 mol ppb (0.000028 mol%) of the catalyst, affording the corresponding products in high yield.

  12. Waste form development program. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, P.; Kalb, P.D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work conducted for the Waste Form Development/Test Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory in FY 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. The primary focus of this work is the investigation of new solidification agents which will provide improved immobilization of low-level radioactive wastes in an efficient, cost-effective manner. A working set of preliminary waste form evaluation criteria which could impact upon the movement of radionuclides in the disposal environment was developed. The selection of potential solidification agents for further investigation is described. Two thermoplastic materials, low-density polyethylene and a modified sulfur cement were chosen as primary candidates for further study. Three waste types were selected for solidification process development and waste form property evaluation studies which represent both new volume reduction wastes (dried evaporator concentrates and incinerator ash) and current problem wastes (ion exchange resins). Preliminary process development scoping studies were conducted to verify the compatibility of selected solidification agents and waste types and the potential for improved solidification. Waste loadings of 60 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 25 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 25 wt % incinerator ash and 50 wt % dry ion exchange resin were achieved using low density polyethylene as a matrix material. Samples incorporating 65 wt % Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 40 wt % H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, 20 wt % incinerator ash and 40 wt % dry ion exchange resin were successfully solidified in modified sulfur cement. Additional improvements are expected for both matrix materials as process parameters are optimized. Several preliminary property evaluation studies were performed to provide the basis for an initial assessment of waste form acceptability. These included a two-week water immersion test and compressive load testing.

  13. Polydopamine-mediated immobilization of multiple bioactive molecules for the development of functional vascular graft materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Bin; Shin, Young Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Jun, Indong; Kang, Jae Kyeong; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Heungsoo

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we introduced a simple method for polydopamine-mediated immobilization of dual bioactive factors for the preparation of functionalized vascular graft materials. Polydopamine was deposited on elastic and biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-ɛ-caprolactone) (PLCL) films, and a cell adhesive RGD-containing peptide and basic fibroblast growth factor were subsequently immobilized by simple dipping. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescamine assay to confirm that we had stably immobilized bioactive molecules on the polydopamine-coated PLCL film in a reaction time-dependent manner. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured on the prepared substrates, the number of adherent cells and proliferation of HUVEC for up to 14 days were greatest on the film immobilized with dual factors. On the other hand, the film immobilized with RGD peptide exhibited the highest migration speed compared to the other groups. The expression of cluster of differentiation 31 and von Willebrand factor, which indicates maturation of endothelial cells, was highly stimulated in the dual factor-immobilized group, and passively adsorbed factors showed a negligible effect. The immobilization of bioactive molecules inspired by polydopamine was successful, and adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of HUVEC were synergistically accelerated by the presence of multiple signaling factors. Collectively, our results have demonstrated that a simple coating with polydopamine enables the immobilization of multiple bioactive molecules for preparation of polymeric functionalized vascular graft materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and tests of a paediatric and neonatal immobilizer for ambulance transfers.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Tomás; Arana, Ignacio; Pérez Ezcurdia, Amaya; Alfaro, José Ramón

    2014-05-01

    There are many stretcher models able to adequately achieve the spinal immobilization of adult patients during emergency transports but do not work well with children. A paediatric and neonatal immobilizer has been designed, constructed and tested. It is simple, radio-transparent, able to be adequately fastened to an ambulance, adaptable to a wide range of paediatric patient's size, providing a correct spinal immobilization without an excessive immobilization of the rest of the body, without impairing the aperture of an aerial way or the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and without reducing the accessibility of the medical personnel to the paediatric patient. It is able to be adapted to the size and injuries of the patient instead of adapting the position of the patient to the characteristics of the immobilizer. It can also be effectively fastened to the bed of an emergency helicopter, allowing the aerial transport of the paediatric patients.

  15. Process Developed for Forming Urethane Ice Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannuyen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A new process for forming ice shapes on an aircraft wing was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The innovative concept was formed by Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) team, and the hardware was manufactured by Lewis' Manufacturing Engineering Division. This work was completed to increase our understanding of the stability and control of aircraft during icing conditions. This project will also enhance our evaluation of true aerodynamic wind tunnel effects on aircraft. In addition, it can be used as a design tool for evaluating ice protection systems.

  16. Development of a novel antifouling platform for biosensing probe immobilization from methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-containing copolymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Akkahat, Piyaporn; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Hoven, Voravee P; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2012-04-03

    The immobilization of thiol-terminated poly[(methacrylic acid)-ran-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)] (PMAMPC-SH) brushes on gold-coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips was performed using the "grafting to" approach via self-assembly formation. The copolymer brushes provide both functionalizability and antifouling characteristics, desirable features mandatorily required for the development of an effective platform for probe immobilization in biosensing applications. The carboxyl groups from the methacrylic acid (MA) units were employed for attaching active biomolecules that can act as sensing probes for biospecific detection of target molecules, whereas the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units were introduced to suppress unwanted nonspecific adsorption. The detection efficiency of the biotin-immobilized PMAMPC brushes with the target molecule, avidin (AVD), was evaluated in blood plasma in comparison with the conventional 2D monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and homopolymer brushes of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) also immobilized with biotin using the SPR technique. Copolymer brushes with 79 mol % MPC composition and a molecular weight of 49.3 kDa yielded the platform for probe immobilization with the best performance considering its high S/N ratio as compared with platforms based on MUA and PMA brushes. In addition, the detection limit for detecting AVD in blood plasma solution was found to be 1.5 nM (equivalent to 100 ng/mL). The results have demonstrated the potential for using these newly developed surface-attached PMAMPC brushes for probe immobilization and subsequent detection of designated target molecules in complex matrices such as blood plasma and clinical samples.

  17. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  18. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  19. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    SciTech Connect

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  20. Plasma activated coating immobilizes apolipoprotein A-I to stainless steel surfaces in its bioactive form and enhances biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Vanags, Laura Z; Tan, Joanne T M; Santos, Miguel; Michael, Praveesuda S; Ali, Ziad; Bilek, Marcela M M; Wise, Steven G; Bursill, Christina A

    2017-06-29

    We utilized a plasma activated coating (PAC) to covalently bind the active component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, to stainless steel (SS) surfaces. ApoA-I suppresses restenosis and thrombosis and may therefore improve SS stent biocompatibility. PAC-coated SS significantly increased the covalent attachment of apoA-I, compared to SS alone. In static and dynamic flow thrombosis assays, PAC+apoA-I inhibited thrombosis and reduced platelet activation marker p-selectin. PAC+apoA-I reduced smooth muscle cell attachment and proliferation, and augmented EC attachment to PAC. We then coated PAC onto murine SS stents and found it did not peel or delaminate following crimping/expansion. ApoA-I was immobilized onto PAC-SS stents and was retained as a monolayer when exposed to pulsatile flow in vivo in a murine stent model. In conclusion, ApoA-I immobilized on PAC withstands pulsatile flow in vivo and retains its bioactivity, exhibiting anti-thrombotic and anti-restenotic properties, demonstrating the potential to improve stent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Summary report on the development of a cement-based formula to immobilize Hanford facility waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.; Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.; Loflin, J.A.; Mattus, A.J.; Morgan, I.L.; Tallent, O.K.; West, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report recommends a cement-based grout formula to immobilize Hanford Facility Waste in the Transportable Grout Facility (TGF). Supporting data confirming compliance with all TGF performance criteria are presented. 9 refs., 24 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Development of 170 MHz Electrodeless Quartz-Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor with Nonspecifically Immobilized Receptor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Hironao; Fukunishi, Yuji; Yanagida, Taiji; Hirao, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA) shows high nonspecific binding affinity on a naked quartz surface, and it can be used as the receptor protein for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most important immunoglobulin. The immunosensor ability, however, significantly depends on the immobilization procedure. In this work, the effect of the nonspecific immobilization procedure on the sensor sensitivity is studied using a home-built electrodeless quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor. The pure-shear vibration of a 9.7-µm-thick AT-cut quartz plate is excited and detected in liquids by the line antenna located outside the flow channel. SPA molecules are immobilized on the quartz surfaces, and human IgG is injected to monitor the binding reaction between SPA and IgG. This study reveals that a long (nearly 24 h) immersion procedure is required for immobilizing SPA to achieve the tight biding with the quartz surfaces.

  3. Development of 170 MHz Electrodeless Quartz-Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor with Nonspecifically Immobilized Receptor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirotsugu Ogi,; Hironao Nagai,; Yuji Fukunishi,; Taiji Yanagida,; Masahiko Hirao,; Masayoshi Nishiyama,

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA) shows high nonspecific binding affinity on a naked quartz surface, and it can be used as the receptor protein for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most important immunoglobulin. The immunosensor ability, however, significantly depends on the immobilization procedure. In this work, the effect of the nonspecific immobilization procedure on the sensor sensitivity is studied using a home-built electrodeless quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor. The pure-shear vibration of a 9.7-μm-thick AT-cut quartz plate is excited and detected in liquids by the line antenna located outside the flow channel. SPA molecules are immobilized on the quartz surfaces, and human IgG is injected to monitor the binding reaction between SPA and IgG. This study reveals that a long (nearly 24 h) immersion procedure is required for immobilizing SPA to achieve the tight biding with the quartz surfaces.

  4. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P.; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%. PMID:26999137

  5. Developing an Efficient and General Strategy for Immobilization of Small Molecules onto Microarrays Using Isocyanate Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenggang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Landry, James P; Cui, Zhaomeng; Li, Quanfu; Dang, Yongjun; Mi, Lan; Zheng, Fengyun; Fei, Yiyan

    2016-03-16

    Small-molecule microarray (SMM) is an effective platform for identifying lead compounds from large collections of small molecules in drug discovery, and efficient immobilization of molecular compounds is a pre-requisite for the success of such a platform. On an isocyanate functionalized surface, we studied the dependence of immobilization efficiency on chemical residues on molecular compounds, terminal residues on isocyanate functionalized surface, lengths of spacer molecules, and post-printing treatment conditions, and we identified a set of optimized conditions that enable us to immobilize small molecules with significantly improved efficiencies, particularly for those molecules with carboxylic acid residues that are known to have low isocyanate reactivity. We fabricated microarrays of 3375 bioactive compounds on isocyanate functionalized glass slides under these optimized conditions and confirmed that immobilization percentage is over 73%.

  6. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Agyei, Nana M.

    2012-01-01

    Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. PMID:22368503

  7. Development of metal organic fromwork-199 immobilized zeolite foam for adsorption of common indoor VOCs.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vipin K; Pires, João

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated foam shaped adsorbents are more efficient for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly from low VOC-concentration indoor air streams. In this study composite structure of zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), referred as ZMF, has been fabricated by immobilization of fine MOF-199 powder on foam shaped Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) Zeolitic structure, referred as ZF. The ZMF possess a uniform and well-dispersed coating of MOF-199 on the porous framework of ZF. It shows higher surface area, pore volume, and VOCs adsorption capacity, as compared to ZF-structure. Post-fabrication changes in selective adsorption properties of ZMF were studied with three common indoor VOCs (benzene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane), using gravimetric adsorption technique. The adsorption capacity of ZMF with different VOCs follow the order of benzene>n-hexane>cyclohexane. In comparison with MOF-199 and ZF, the composite structure ZMF shows improvement in selectivity for benzene from other two VOCs. Further, improvement in efficiency and stability of prepared ZMF was found to be associated with its high MOF loading capacity and unique morphological and structural properties. The developed composite structure with improved VOCs removal and recyclability could be a promising material for small to limited scale air pollution treatment units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS AND CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC FORMS FOR DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Cozzi, A; Crawford, C.; Herman, C.; Marra, John; Peeler, D.

    2009-09-10

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has identified up to 50 metric tons of excess plutonium that needs to be dispositioned. The bulk of the material is slated to be blended with uranium and fabricated into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel for subsequent burning in commercial nuclear reactors. Excess plutonium-containing impurity materials making it unsuitable for fabrication into MOX fuel will need to be dispositioned via other means. Glass and crystalline ceramics have been developed and studied as candidate forms to immobilize these impure plutonium feeds. A titanate-based ceramic was identified as an excellent actinide material host. This composition was based on Synroc compositions previously developed for nuclear waste immobilization. These titanate ceramics were found to be able to accommodate extremely high quantities of fissile material and exhibit excellent aqueous durability. A lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass was developed to accommodate high concentrations of plutonium and to be very tolerant of impurities yet still maintain good aqueous durability. Recent testing of alkali borosilicate compositions showed promise of using these compositions to disposition lower concentrations of plutonium using existing high level waste vitrification processes. The developed waste forms all appear to be suitable for Pu disposition. Depending on the actual types and concentrations of the Pu residue streams slated for disposition, each waste form offers unique advantages.

  10. Development of a new Emergency Medicine Spinal Immobilization Protocol for trauma patients and a test of applicability by German emergency care providers.

    PubMed

    Kreinest, Michael; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Schüler, Svenja; Grützner, Paul A; Münzberg, Matthias

    2016-05-14

    In order to match the challenges of quickly recognizing and treating any life-threatening injuries, the ABCDE principles were established for the assessment and treatment of trauma patients. The high priority of spine protection is emphasized by the fact that immobilization of the cervical spine is performed at the very first step in the ABCDE principles. Immobilization is typically performed to prevent or minimize secondary damage to the spinal cord if instability of the spinal column is suspected. Due to increasing reports about disadvantages of spinal immobilization, the indications for performing spinal immobilization must be refined. The aim of this study was (i) to develop a protocol that supports decision-making for spinal immobilization in adult trauma patients and (ii) to carry out the first applicability test by emergency medical personnel. A structured literature search considering the literature from 1980 to 2014 was performed. Based on this literature and on the current guidelines, a new protocol that supports on scene decision-making for spinal immobilization has been developed. Parameters found in the literature concerning mechanisms and factors increasing the likelihood of spinal injury have been included in the new protocol. In order to test the applicability of the new protocol two surveys were performed on German emergency care providers by means of a questionnaire focused on correct decision-making if applying the protocol. Based on the current literature and guidelines, the Emergency Medicine Spinal Immobilization Protocol (E.M.S. IMMO Protocol) for adult trauma patients was developed. Following a fist applicability test involving 21 participants, the first version of the E.M.S. IMMO Protocol has to be graphically re-organized. A second applicability test comprised 50 participants with the current version of the protocol confirmed good applicability. Questions regarding immobilization of trauma patients could be answered properly using the E

  11. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  12. Status of immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L; Mansourov, O A

    1999-02-03

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  13. Isomaltulose production using immobilized cells.

    PubMed

    Chhetham, P S; Garrett, C; Clark, J

    1985-04-01

    Three strains of Erwinia rhapontici especially suitable for use in the form of nongrowing immobilized cells were selected by screening strains of cells for high activity and operational stability in an immobilized form. Immobilization in calcium alginate gel pellets was easily the best method of immobilizing E. rhapontici. Much greater operational stabilities were obtained than when other immobilization methods were used. Conditions of operation which optimize the activity, stability, and yield and the ease of operation of the immobilized cell columns working in a steady state are described. These include the effects of substrate concentration, diffusional restrictions and water activity, the concentration of cells immobilized, and the type of reactor used. Thus, the immobilized cells produce about 1500 times their own weight of isomaltulose during one half-life of use (ca. 1 year). Loss of activity was most closely correlated with the volume of substrate processed and so presumably is due to the presence of low concentrations of a cummulative inhibitor in the substrate. Methods for regenerating the activity of the immobilized cells by the periodic administration of nutrients, of forming isomaltulose by continuously supplying nutrients to growing immobilized cells, and of crystallizing isomaltulose from the column eluate are also described.

  14. Immobilized organoruthenium(II) complexes onto polyethyleneimine-wrapped carbon nanotubes/in situ formed gold nanoparticles as a novel electrochemical sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Azadbakht, Azadeh; Abbasi, Amir Reza; Derikvand, Zohreh; Amraei, Shiba

    2015-03-01

    The polyethyleneimine (PEI) wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with a carboxylic acid group (CNTs-COOH) gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-modified gold (Au) electrode has been utilized as a platform to immobilize organoruthenium(II) complexes (ORC). The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrocatalytic reduction of iodate and nitrite on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrodynamic voltammetry methods. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated the ability of AuNPs/PEI/CNT-COOH/ORC modified Au electrode to catalyze the reduction of this compound. AuNPs/PEI/CNTs-COOH nanocomposite combined the advantages of PEI-well dispersed CNTs-COOH and in situ formed AuNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for glucose using carbon nanosphere/sodium alginate composite matrix for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Han, En; Li, Xia; Cai, Jian-Rong; Cui, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xing-Ai

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed a highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for glucose detection based on glucose oxidase immobilized in a novel carbon nanosphere (CNS)/sodium alginate (SA) composite matrix. This hybrid material combined the advantages of CNS and natural biopolymer SA. This composite film was characterized by scanning electron microscope, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and UV-vis, which indicated that the hybrid material was suitable for immobilization of glucose oxidase. Various experimental conditions were investigated that influenced the performance of the biosensor, such as pH, applied potential and temperature. Under the optimum conditions, the biosensor showed excellent performance for glucose over a wide linear concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-6) to 4.6 × 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 0.5 μM based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent long-term stability and satisfactory reproducibility.

  16. Development of immobilization technology for Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dodson, K.E.; Trotter, D.R.

    1989-08-01

    The leachabilities of technetium and nitrate wastes immobilized in cement-based materials (i.e., grouts) have been investigated using ANS -- 16.1 test procedures. Factors found to affect the leachabilities include grout/mix ratio, grout fluid density, dry/solid blends (including ground blast-furnace slag), and waste concentration. 10 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Development of a high-performance immunolatex based on "soft landing" antibody immobilization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaofei; Fabregat, Dolça; Yoshimoto, Keitaro; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit anti-human ferritin (anti-hFT) polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were sequentially co-immobilized onto polystyrene submicroparticles (sMPs) to construct sMP/anti-hFT/PEG (SAP) immunolatex. Chemical immobilization of anti-hFT was performed at different pH levels to evaluate variations in antigen recognition. Basic pH disfavored conjugation of anti-hFT to sMPs, but remarkably increased its antigen recognition in comparison to that at neutral pH. We investigated this intriguing phenomenon further by assessing the kinetics of antibody binding, including the time-dependency of immobilization, antigen recognition, and orientation of bound anti-hFT. Therefore, we attributed high antigen recognition to significant electrostatic repulsion between sMPs and anti-hFT at basic pH, which predominately prevented anti-hFT access to sMPs and concurrently promoted anti-hFT orientations suitable for antigen recognition. Subsequent PEG modification maintained such anti-hFT orientation, without which antigen-accessible orientations would have decreased with time. Thus, properly oriented antibody and immediate PEGylation after antibody immobilization contributed to the formation of a high-performance SAP immunolatex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Developments in enzyme immobilization and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy with downstream renewable energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on techniques for (1) increasing ethanol yields from saccharification and fermentation of cellulose using immobilized cellulase, and (2) the characterization and classification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, and quantification of useful parameters such as the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomer content using 1064 nm dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

  19. Development of electrochemical immunosensors based on different serum antibody immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Huy; Hanh Nguyen, Thi Hong; Mai, Anh Tuan; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Khue Vu, Quang; Nga Phan, Thi

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development of electrochemical immunosensors based on human serum antibodies with different immobilization methods for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Human serum containing anti-JEV antibodies was used to immobilize onto the surface of silanized interdigitated electrodes by four methods: direct adsorption (APTES-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde (APTES-GA-serum), covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with anti-human IgG (APTES-GA-anti-HIgG-serum) and covalent binding with a cross linker of glutaraldehyde combined with a bioaffinity of protein A (APTES-GA-PrA-serum). Atomic force microscopy was used to verify surface characteristics of the interdigitated electrodes before and after treatment with serum antibodies. The output signal of the immunosensors was measured by the change of conductivity resulting from the specific binding of JEV antigens and serum antibodies immobilized on the electrodes, with the help of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody against JEV. The results showed that the APTES-GA-PrA-serum method provided the highest signal of the electrochemical immunosensor for detection of JEV antigens, with the linear range from 25 ng ml-1 to 1 μg ml-1, and the limit of detection was about 10 ng ml-1. This study shows a potential development of novel electrochemical immunosensors applied for virus detection in clinical samples in case of possible outbreaks.

  20. Development of a two-stage immobilized cell bioreactor for the production of methane from organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kitsos, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was on the design and development of an immobilized cell bioreactor for the conversion of alcohol stillage to methane. The study also included the development of optimization methods for the inoculation and operation of the reactor, and the quantitation of mass transfer limitations within the immobilized biomass. A two-stage fixed-film bioreactor using immobilized anaerobic bacteria on a microporous support matrix evolved after testing different reactor configurations and support materials. The specifically enriched methanogenic cultures used as inocula for the start-up of the reactor reached a methanogenic activity of 4.2 acetate consumption/1 of culture/day. This was a 20-fold increase over the activity of conventional inoculum obtained from a municipal digestor. The second part of this work was dedicated to the measurement of the effective diffusivities of the common intermediate, rate-limiting metabolic compounds, acetate and propionate. This was accomplished with an experimental biofilm/support matrix system configured as a two-chamber continuous flow apparatus. The effective diffusivity of a Li tracer through a biofilm, with a thickness that ranged from 400 to 1600 {mu}m, was calculated as being less than 10% of its diffusivity in water at infinite dilution. By applying zero-order kinetics the maximum acetate consumption rate was 1.04 g acetate/g Volatile Solids of biofilm/day. The system became mass transfer limited for thickness above 480 {mu} for an external liquid phase concentration of 1 g acetate/1.

  1. Stablization and immobilization of excess Russian weapons origin plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Borisov, G.B.; Mansourov, O.A.

    1998-04-10

    This paper summarizes a strategy, logic, and framework for the development of a capability for immobilizing excess Russian weapons origin plutonium by the year 2004. We describe the initial activities underway in Russia and a schedule to implement the strategy. These activities include engineering feasibility studies of the select facilities at the Mayak and Krasnoyarsk industrial sites, and research and development studies on plutonium glass and ceramic immobilization forms at several Russian institutes.

  2. Effects of immobilization on spermiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of immobilization stress on spermiogenesis in rats was investigated. After 96 hour immobilization, histological changes began to manifest themselves in the form of practically complete disappearance of cell population of the wall of seminiferous tubule as well as a markedly increased number of cells with pathologic mitoses. Enzymological investigations showed various changes of activity (of acid and alkaline phosphatase and nonspecific esterase) in the 24, 48, and 96 hour immobilization groups.

  3. Development of curcumin loaded sodium hyaluronate immobilized vesicles (hyalurosomes) and their potential on skin inflammation and wound restoring.

    PubMed

    Manca, M L; Castangia, I; Zaru, M; Nácher, A; Valenti, D; Fernàndez-Busquets, X; Fadda, A M; Manconi, M

    2015-12-01

    In the present work new highly biocompatible nanovesicles were developed using polyanion sodium hyaluronate to form polymer immobilized vesicles, so called hyalurosomes. Curcumin, at high concentration was loaded into hyalurosomes and physico-chemical properties and in vitro/in vivo performances of the formulations were compared to those of liposomes having the same lipid and drug content. Vesicles were prepared by direct addition of dispersion containing the polysaccharide sodium hyaluronate and the polyphenol curcumin to a commercial mixture of soy phospholipids, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. An extensive study was carried out on the physico-chemical features and properties of curcumin-loaded hyalurosomes and liposomes. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that vesicles were spherical, uni- or oligolamellar and small in size (112-220 nm). The in vitro percutaneous curcumin delivery studies on intact skin showed an improved ability of hyalurosomes to favour a fast drug deposition in the whole skin. Hyalurosomes as well as liposomes were biocompatible, protected in vitro human keratinocytes from oxidative stress damages and promoted tissue remodelling through cellular proliferation and migration. Moreover, in vivo tests underlined a good effectiveness of curcumin-loaded hyalurosomes to counteract 12-O-tetradecanoilphorbol (TPA)-produced inflammation and injuries, diminishing oedema formation, myeloperoxydase activity and providing an extensive skin reepithelization. Thanks to the one-step and environmentally-friendly preparation method, component biocompatibility and safety, good in vitro and in vivo performances, the hyalurosomes appear as promising nanocarriers for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Development of thermo-responsive hydrogels with immobilized metal affinity groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young-Seo

    A Hydrogel is defined as a polymeric material which possesses the ability to swell in water and retain a significant fraction of water within its structure, but which will not dissolve in water. Hydrogels have been studied by many researchers because they have many useful applications in bio related fields such as drug delivery, bioseparation, and etc. In this thesis, a new hydrogel system that possesses the characteristics of thermo-responsive swelling property and immobilized metal affinity was developed. This affinity material consists of a hydrogel with stimuli responsive swelling characteristics to provide modulated diffusivity and size selectivity. Covalently bound ligands within hydrogels provide highly selective and tunable affinity-based separation. Swelling and affinity properties can be independently controlled by regulating the temperature or pH of the solution to provide a sequential separations scheme. The developed affinity hydrogels incorporate multiple modes of separations or recovery and concentrate specific solutes in chromatographic systems. Thermal sensitive affinity hydrogels were synthesized from a N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer, a crosslinker (1,4-bismethylene acrylamide) and a ligand attachable co-monomer acrylamide (AAm), using free radical chemistry. The ligand of choice is the metal affinity iminodiacetic acid (IDA) which is bound to hydrogel backbone via a spacer arm. The challenge lay in incorporating affinity ligands without affecting the temperature induced swelling of the hydrogel. Thus, PNIPAAm-Am hydrogels are functionalized with a spacer arm (1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether), the chelating ligand IDA and a divalent metal ion (Cu2+). This ligand binds histidine groups at high pH and releases them upon protonation of histidine at low pH. This can be used to separate proteins based on the occurrence of surface histidine residues in them. The resulting affinity hydrogel was shown to adsorb the protein chicken egg white

  5. Industrial use of immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    DiCosimo, Robert; McAuliffe, Joseph; Poulose, Ayrookaran J; Bohlmann, Gregory

    2013-08-07

    Although many methods for enzyme immobilization have been described in patents and publications, relatively few processes employing immobilized enzymes have been successfully commercialized. The cost of most industrial enzymes is often only a minor component in overall process economics, and in these instances, the additional costs associated with enzyme immobilization are often not justified. More commonly the benefit realized from enzyme immobilization relates to the process advantages that an immobilized catalyst offers, for example, enabling continuous production, improved stability and the absence of the biocatalyst in the product stream. The development and attributes of several established and emerging industrial applications for immobilized enzymes, including high-fructose corn syrup production, pectin hydrolysis, debittering of fruit juices, interesterification of food fats and oils, biodiesel production, and carbon dioxide capture are reviewed herein, highlighting factors that define the advantages of enzyme immobilization.

  6. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  7. Spectroscopic investigations on glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics developed for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurant, D.

    2014-05-01

    Highly radioactive nuclear waste must be immobilized in very durable matrices such as glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics in order to avoid their dispersion in the biosphere during their radioactivity decay. In this paper, we present various examples of spectroscopic investigations (optical absorption, Raman, NMR, EPR) performed to study the local structure of different kinds of such matrices used or envisaged to immobilize different kinds of radioactive wastes. A particular attention has been paid on the incorporation and the structural role of rare earths—both as fission products and actinide surrogates—in silicate glasses and glass-ceramics. An example of structural study by EPR of a ceramic (hollandite) irradiated by electrons (to simulate the effect of the β-irradiation of radioactive cesium) is also presented.

  8. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of prototypes of bioactive packaging materials based on immobilized bacteriophages for control of growth of bacterial pathogens in foods.

    PubMed

    Lone, Ayesha; Anany, Hany; Hakeem, Mohammed; Aguis, Louise; Avdjian, Anne-Claire; Bouget, Marina; Atashi, Arash; Brovko, Luba; Rochefort, Dominic; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-01-18

    significantly reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes at both storage temperatures, 4°C and 10°C, for 25 days regardless of bacteriophage application format (immobilized or non-immobilized (free)). In conclusion, the developed phage-based materials demonstrated significant antimicrobial effect, when applied to the artificially contaminated foods, and can be used as prototypes for developing bioactive antimicrobial packaging materials capable of enhancing the safety of fresh produce and RTE meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Constructed Brackish Tidal Marsh and its Effect on Trace Metal Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBishlawi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Two tidal marshes along the Hackensack River in the New Jersey Meadowlands, one constructed and the other natural and well established, were characterized to determine and compare their ability to immobilize trace metals including as Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in their sediments. Pore-waters were sampled throughout the year, and sediment cores were collected to determine the dynamics of trace metals in sediments and their interactions with redox active species such as iron and sulfide as well as organic matter. Precipitation of metals with sulfides played a major factor in immobilizing certain metals including Pb and Zn. However, the constructed marsh, which exhibited lower dissolved sulfide concentrations, but higher dissolved iron species, removed certain dissolved trace metals including Zn and Pb more effectively than the established marsh. At both sites, the presence of sulfide did not result in the expected precipitation of elements such as Cu and Zn with sulfide and a small dissolved concentration these metals was detectable in the sediment pore water. These trace metals exhibited an association with heterogeneous dissolved organic matter, which was further confirmed through thermodynamic equilibrium modeling. The constructed high marsh immobilized the most trace metals in the region where sulfide produced through sulfate reduction reacted with but had not yet been completely titrated out of solution by dissolved iron. Additionally, the intermittently oxic/anoxic tidal zone of the high marsh removed more metals than the permanently inundated low marsh due to its higher tidal water exchange. Building constructed wetlands that maximize intertidal high marsh areas may optimize trace metal immobilization.

  11. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  12. Microorganism immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  13. Immobilization of iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria with a biofilm-forming bacterium for the effective removal of iron and manganese from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Shuting; Du, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Xiaosong; Fu, Meng; Hou, Ning; Li, Dapeng

    2016-11-01

    In this study, three bacteria with high Fe- and Mn-oxidizing capabilities were isolated from groundwater well sludge and identified as Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus megaterium and Sphingobacterium sp. The maximum removal ratios of Fe and Mn (99.75% and 96.69%) were obtained by an optimal combination of the bacteria at a temperature of 20.15°C, pH 7.09 and an inoculum size of 2.08%. Four lab-scale biofilters were tested in parallel for the removal of iron and manganese ions from groundwater. The results indicated that the Fe/Mn removal ratios of biofilter R4, which was inoculated with iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria and a biofilm-forming bacterium, were approximately 95% for each metal during continuous operation and were better than the other biofilters. This study demonstrated that the biofilm-forming bacterium could promote the immobilization of the iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria on the biofilters and enhance the removal efficiency of iron and manganese ions from groundwater.

  14. Development of an iodine immobilization technique by low temperature vitrification with BiPbO{sub 2}I

    SciTech Connect

    Mukunoki, Atsushi; Chiba, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Seiichiro; Asano, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Tsutomu

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes low temperature vitrification process with BiPbO{sub 2}I (BPI) as a promising immobilization technique in which Iodine-129 reacts with BiPbO{sub 2}NO{sub 3} (BPN) to form BPI, which is then solidified into a lead-boron-zinc glass matrix (PbO-B{sub 2}0{sub 3}-ZnO) using a low temperature vitrification process. Studies with EPMA, STEM-EDS and XRD found that iodine, lead and zinc were homogeneously dispersed in the waste form, and that there were no residual crystalline minerals in the amorphous glass matrix. Leaching tests conducted under typical geological disposal conditions show that iodine dissolves congruently with the BPI glass matrix in simulated seawater, whereas it dissolves incongruently in alkaline Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions. This is due to retention within an altered surface layer. (authors)

  15. Forms of Knowing and Academic Development Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Academic development has emerged as an important new site of practice in higher education internationally over the past 40 years, and has been influential in shaping the terms of debate about teaching and learning in higher education. Academic development has shifted its focus from the individual teacher to strategic interventions at institutional…

  16. Covalent immobilization of rabbit-antiaflatoxin-antibodies onto the poly-acrylamideacrylonitrile as well as hybrid material UREASIL and developing an optical immunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavova, M.; Georgieva-Nikolova, R.; Hristov, H.; Nikolova, M.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to describe a covalent immobilization of antibodies onto the poly- acrylamide-acrylonitrile or hybrid material UREASIL and creation of optical immunosensor for determination of aflatoxin Bl. For this purpose, mouse-anti-aflatoxin B1 antibodies with oxidized carbohydrate moieties were covalently immobilized on the membranes of polyacrylamide- polyacrylonitrile copolymer, as well as the hybrid material UREASIL. To determine the affinity> binding of the immobilized antibody with afatoxin Bl was used "sandwich" method. Associated with the immobilized antibody sought ingredients interact with a surplus of secondary' signal antibodies. The described method has been developed as a model system, which can easily be applied for the determination of aflatoxins in samples of different origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that in the establishment of biosensor was used hybrid material UREASIL.

  17. Technetium Waste Form Development - Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Seffens, Rob J.; Chamberlin, Clyde E.

    2009-01-07

    Analytical electron microscopy using SEM and TEM has been used to analyze a ~5 g. ingot with composition 71.3 wt% 316SS-5.3 wt% Zr-13.2 wt% Mo-4.0 wt% Rh-6.2 wt% Re prepared at the Idaho National Laboratory. Four phase fields have been identified two of which are lamellar eutectics, with a fifth possibly present. A Zr rich phase was found distributed as fine precipitate, ~10µm in diameter, often coating large cavities. A Mo-Fe-Re-Cr lamellar eutectic phase field appears as blocky regions ~30µm in diameter, surrounded by a Fe-Mo-Cr lamellar eutectic phase field, and that in turn is surrounded by a Zr-Fe-Rh-Mo-Ni phase field. The eutectic phase separation reactions are different. The Mo-Fe-Re-Cr lamellar eutectic appears a result of austenitic steel forming at lower volume fraction within an Mo-Fe-Re intermetallic phase, whereas the Fe-Mo-Cr lamellar eutectic may be a result of the same intermetallic phase forming within a ferritic steel phase. Cavitation may have arisen either as a result of bubbles, or from loss of equiaxed particles during specimen preparation.

  18. Development of L-histidine immobilized CIM(®) monolithic disks for purification of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Rajasekar R; Kamalanathan, Agamudi S; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A

    2015-03-01

    The pseudobiospecific affinity ligand l-histidine was immobilized on epoxy, carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), and ethylenediamine (EDA) convective interaction media (BIA Separations, Slovenia) monolithic disks to obtain the histidyl affinity column for purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The kinetics and the mass transfer properties of the affinity columns were studied to determine the optimum buffer condition, flow rate, and concentration of IgG for maximum IgG adsorption. The binding capacities of all the three affinity columns were higher with zwitterionic buffer morpholinopropanesulfonic acid than with charged buffers such as tris-HCl and phosphate buffers, and the optimum pH was 6.5. The interaction of IgG with histidine immobilized CDI and epoxy disks was found to be predominantly driven by ionic interaction, while the interaction with EDA-histidine disk could be partially governed by multiple non-covalent forces of interaction. The maximum binding capacity (Qm ) of l-histidine immobilized on EDA-, CDI-, and epoxy-activated convective interaction media disks were 19.83 ± 0.25, 15.85 ± 0.18 and 12.11 ± 0.17 mg/ml of support, respectively, and the dissociation constant (Kd ) were calculated to be in the micromolar range for all the three histidyl monolithic columns. Purification of IgG from untreated human serum was also attempted, and the results indicate the high potential of this method for purification of total IgG from complex biological sources and also for separation of IgG1 from other subclasses.

  19. Development of a biosensor for environmental monitoring based on microalgae immobilized in silica hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Yannis; Perullini, Mercedes; Jobbagy, Matias; Bilmes, Sara A; Durrieu, Claude

    2012-12-06

    A new biosensor was designed for the assessment of aquatic environment quality. Three microalgae were used as toxicity bioindicators: Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These microalgae were immobilized in alginate and silica hydrogels in a two step procedure. After studying the growth rate of entrapped cells, chlorophyll fluorescence was measured after exposure to (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) (DCMU) and various concentrations of the common herbicide atrazine. Microalgae are very sensitive to herbicides and detection of fluorescence enhancement with very good efficiency was realized. The best detection limit was 0.1 µM, obtained with the strain C. reinhardtii after 40 minutes of exposure.

  20. Form and process in developing channels

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid

    1988-01-01

    The topographic grain of a landscape is strongly influenced by the drainage density, and the drainage density reflects the balance between processes active on hillslopes and those in channels. This balance was explored by constructing sediment budgets for a sequence of stages in the development of a discontinuously incising channel.

  1. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

    2011-09-22

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that

  3. Development of an immobilization process for heavy metal containing galvanic solid wastes by use of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper; Aydın, Adnan

    2014-04-15

    Heavy metal containing sludges from wastewater treatment plants of electroplating industries are designated as hazardous waste since their improper disposal pose high risks to environment. In this research, heavy metal containing sludges of electroplating industries in an organized industrial zone of Istanbul/Turkey were used as real-sample model for development of an immobilization process with sodium tetraborate and sodium silicate as additives. The washed sludges have been precalcined in a rotary furnace at 900°C and fritted at three different temperatures of 850°C, 900°C and 950°C. The amounts of additives were adjusted to provide different acidic and basic oxide ratios in the precalcined sludge-additive mixtures. Leaching tests were conducted according to the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure Method 1311 of US-EPA. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) have been used to determine the physical and chemical changes in the products. Calculated oxide molar ratios in the precalcined sludge-additive mixtures and their leaching results have been used to optimize the stabilization process and to determine the intervals of the required oxide ratios which provide end-products resistant to leaching procedure of US-EPA. The developed immobilization-process provides lower energy consumption than sintering-vitrification processes of glass-ceramics.

  4. Development of a Biosensor for Environmental Monitoring Based on Microalgae Immobilized in Silica Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Yannis; Perullini, Mercedes; Jobbagy, Matias; Bilmes, Sara A.; Durrieu, Claude

    2012-01-01

    A new biosensor was designed for the assessment of aquatic environment quality. Three microalgae were used as toxicity bioindicators: Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These microalgae were immobilized in alginate and silica hydrogels in a two step procedure. After studying the growth rate of entrapped cells, chlorophyll fluorescence was measured after exposure to (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) (DCMU) and various concentrations of the common herbicide atrazine. Microalgae are very sensitive to herbicides and detection of fluorescence enhancement with very good efficiency was realized. The best detection limit was 0.1 μM, obtained with the strain C. reinhardtii after 40 minutes of exposure. PMID:23223083

  5. Development of a biosensor based on gilo peroxidase immobilized on chitosan chemically crosslinked with epichlorohydrin for determination of rutin.

    PubMed

    Zwirtes de Oliveira, Inês Rosane W; Fernandes, Suellen Cadorin; Vieira, Iolanda Cruz

    2006-05-03

    A new reagentless biosensor for the square-wave voltammetric determination of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations was developed by immobilization of gilo (Solanum gilo) crude extract in chitosan matrix. The gilo tissue acts as a source of peroxidase. The highest biosensor performance was obtained after immobilization of the peroxidase in chemically crosslinked chitosan with epichlorohydrin and glutaraldehyde that was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide this enzyme catalyses the oxidation of rutin to quinone and the electrochemical reduction of the product was obtained at a fixed potential of +124 mV versus Ag/AgCl (3.0 M KCl). The performance and factors influencing the resulting biosensor were studied in detail. The bioelectrode exhibited a linear response for rutin concentrations from 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M (r=0.9998) and the recovery of rutin from the samples ranged from 96.2 to 102.4%. The detection and quantification limits were 2.0x10(-8) and 6.3x10(-8) M, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.0% for solutions containing 3.4x10(-7) to 7.2x10(-6) M rutin in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.0 (n=10). The lifetime of this biosensor was 8 months (at least 500 determinations).

  6. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish.

    PubMed

    Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R; Jagadale, Ashwini D; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2015-01-01

    A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant-bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  7. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; ...

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. In this paper, five new glasses with ~20 mass% Na2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in themore » glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. Finally, these improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.« less

  8. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; Kroll, Jared O.; Peterson, Jacob A.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Zhu, Zihua; Zhang, Jiandong; Kruska, Karen; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. Here, five new glasses with ∼20 mass% Na2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. These improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.

  9. Protein immobilization onto various surfaces using a polymer-bound isocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Jin; Cha, Eun Ji; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-01-01

    Silane coupling agents have been widely used for immobilizing proteins onto inorganic surfaces. However, the immobilization method using silane coupling agents requires several treatment steps, and its application is limited to only surfaces containing hydroxyl groups. The aim of this study was to develop a novel method to overcome the limitations of the silane-based immobilization method using a polymer-bound isocyanate. Initially, polymer-bound isocyanate was dissolved in organic solvent and then was used to dip-coat inorganic surfaces. Proteins were then immobilized onto the dip-coated surfaces by the formation of urea bonds between the isocyanate groups of the polymer and the amine groups of the protein. The reaction was verified by FT-IR in which NCO stretching peaks disappeared, and CO and NH stretching peaks appeared after immobilization. The immobilization efficiency of the newly developed method was insensitive to reaction temperatures (4-50 °C), but the efficiency increased with reaction time and reached a maximum after 4 h. Furthermore, the method showed comparable immobilization efficiency to the silane-based immobilization method and was applicable to surfaces that cannot form hydroxyl groups. Taken together, the newly developed method provides a simple and efficient platform for immobilizing proteins onto surfaces.

  10. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  11. Development of amperometric glucose biosensor through immobilizing enzyme in a Pt nanoparticles/mesoporous carbon matrix.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingjing; Yu, Donglei; Zhao, Tian; Zeng, Baizhao

    2008-02-15

    Pt nanoparticles were deposited on mesoporous carbon material CMK-3. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the resulting Pt nanoparticles/mesoporous carbon (Pt/CMK-3) matrix, and then the mixture was cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using gelatin as a binder. The glucose biosensor exhibited excellent current response to glucose after cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. At 0.6V (vs. SCE) the response current was linear to glucose concentration in the range of 0.04-12.2mM. The response time (time for achieving 95% of the maximum current) was 15s and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 1 microM. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) and the maximum current density (i(max)) were 10.8 mM and 908 microAcm(-2), respectively. The activation energy of the enzymatic reaction was estimated to be 22.54 kJ mol(-1). The biosensor showed good stability. It achieved the maximum response current at about 52 degrees C and retained 95.1% of its initial response current after being stored for 30 days. In addition, some fabrication and operation parameters for the biosensor were optimized in this work. The biosensor was used to monitor the glucose levels of serum samples after being covered with an extra Nafion film to improve its anti-interferent ability and satisfied results were obtained.

  12. Development of a Short Form: The Ball Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, George A.; Bolin, Aaron U.; Briggs, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    High school seniors (n=474), high school freshmen (n=1,153), salespersons (n=374), sheet metal workers (n=148), sheet metal applicants (n=424), and carpenter applicants (n=279) were used to test the short-form Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB). The development of the short-form BAB indicates comparable results to the long-form BAB in terms of…

  13. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form O: Development and Standardization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    the subtests using the Kuder - Richardson Formula 20. The subtests were then combined to form the five composites, and the reliabilities of the composites...were based on a formula developed by Wherry and Gaylord (1943). Tables 5 and 6 present the reliabilities and standard errors of measurement of Form 0...statistics, reliabilities , and intercorrelatlons were computed and found to be similar to corresponding Form N statistics. Standardization of Form 0 was

  14. Proposed research and development plan for mixed low-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    O`Holleran, T.O.; Feng, X.; Kalb, P.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this report is to recommend a waste form program plan that addresses waste form issues for mixed low-level waste (MLLW). The report compares the suitability of proposed waste forms for immobilizing MLLW in preparation for permanent near-surface disposal and relates them to their impact on the U.S. Department of Energy`s mixed waste mission. Waste forms are classified into four categories: high-temperature waste forms, hydraulic cements, encapsulants, and specialty waste forms. Waste forms are evaluated concerning their ability to immobilize MLLW under certain test conditions established by regulatory agencies and research institutions. The tests focused mainly on leach rate and compressive strength. Results indicate that all of the waste forms considered can be tailored to give satisfactory performance immobilizing large fractions of the Department`s MLLW inventory. Final waste form selection will ultimately be determined by the interaction of other, often nontechnical factors, such as economics and politics. As a result of this report, three top-level programmatic needs have been identified: (1) a basic set of requirements for waste package performance and disposal; (2) standardized tests for determining waste form performance and suitability for disposal; and (3) engineering experience operating production-scale treatment and disposal systems for MLLW.

  15. Development of Cold-Formed Steel Seismic Design Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    thickness can be much greater than for columns built up from standard cold- formed steel studs. The panel D1 test panel uses HSS 6 x 6 x 3/16 in...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 15 -1 6 Basic Research in Military Construction Development of Cold- Formed Steel Seismic Design Recommendations Co ns...Construction ERDC/CERL TR-15-16 August 2015 Development of Cold- Formed Steel Seismic Design Recommendations James Wilcoski Construction Engineering

  16. Immobilized metal complexes in porous organic hosts: development of a material for the selective and reversible binding of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Padden, K M; Krebs, J F; MacBeth, C E; Scarrow, R C; Borovik, A S

    2001-02-14

    Delivery of NO to specific targets is important in fundamental studies and therapeutic applications. Various methods have been reported for delivery of NO in vivo and in vitro; however, there are few examples of systems that reversibly bind NO. Reported herein is the development of a new polymer (P-1[Co(II)]) that reversibly binds NO. P-1[Co(II)] has a significantly higher affinity for NO compared to O(2), CO(2), and CO. The polymer is synthesized by template copolymerization methods and consists of a porous methacrylate network, containing immobilized four-coordinate Co(II) sites. Binding of NO causes an immediate color change, indicating coordination of NO to the site-isolated Co(II) centers. The formation of P-1[Co(NO)] has been confirmed by EPR, electronic absorbance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Electronic and X-ray absorbance results for P-1[Co(II)] and P-1[Co(NO)] show that the coordination geometry of the immobilized cobalt complexes are similar to those of their monomeric analogues and that NO binds directly to the cobalt centers. EPR spectra show that the binding of NO to P-1[Co(II)] is reversible in the solid state; the axial EPR signal associated with the four-coordinate Co(II) sites in P-1[Co(II)] is quenched upon NO binding. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, 40% conversion of P-1[Co(NO)] to P-1[Co(II)] is achieved in 14 days; under vacuum at 120 degrees C this conversion is complete in approximately 1 h. The binding of NO to P-1[Co(II)] is also observed when the polymer is suspended in liquids, including water.

  17. Co-immobilization of Palm and DNase I for the development of an effective anti-infective coating for catheter surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alves, Diana; Magalhães, Andreia; Grzywacz, Daria; Neubauer, Damian; Kamysz, Wojciech; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2016-10-15

    Biomaterial-associated infections, in particular, catheter-associated infections (CAI) are a major problem in clinical practice due to their ability to resist antimicrobial treatment and the host immune system. This study aimed to co-immobilize the antimicrobial lipopeptide Palm and the enzyme DNase I to introduce both antimicrobial and anti-adhesive functionalities to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material, using dopamine chemistry. Surface characterization confirmed the immobilization of both compounds and no leaching of Palm from the surfaces for up to 5days. Co-immobilization of both agents resulted in a bifunctional coating with excellent surface antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The modified surfaces demonstrated superior biocompatibility. To better discriminate co-adhesion of both species on modified surfaces, PNA FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes) was employed, and results showed that P. aeruginosa was the dominant organism, with S. aureus adhering afterwards on P. aeruginosa agglomerates. Furthermore, Palm immobilization exhibited no propensity to develop bacterial resistance, as opposite to the immobilization of an antibiotic. The overall results highlighted that co-immobilization of Palm and DNase I holds great potential to be applied in the development of catheters. Catheter-associated infections (CAI) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Several coating strategies have been proposed to fight these infections but most of them present some important limitations, including the emergence of resistant bacteria and toxicity concerns. The present work describes a two-step polydopamine-based surface modification strategy to successfully co-immobilize an antimicrobial peptide (Palm) and an enzyme targeting an important component of biofilm matrix (DNase I). This immobilization approach imparted polydimethylsiloxane surfaces with

  18. Immobilized Cell Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-31

    beads, the plasmid is twice as stable as in cells In a process where immobilized cells produce material grown in continuous culture over 200...carrageenan) or chemically cross-linked, or- Penicillium chrysogenum than in washed freely suspended ganic polymer (Ca-alginate, polyacrylamide, and mycelium ...these materials are formed into the freely suspended cells stopped after 6 days. If the beads of several millimeters in diameter by allowing the

  19. Development of immobilized-pepsin microreactors coupled to nano liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Bonichon, Maud; Combès, Audrey; Desoubries, Charlotte; Bossée, Anne; Pichon, Valérie

    2016-08-26

    Human butyrylcholinesterase is a serine hydrolase that reacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) to form stable adducts. These adducts are valuable biomarkers for OP exposure and can be analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after a preliminary digestion step in solution. However, this digestion step is time-consuming and cannot be directly coupled with LC-MS set ups. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop pepsin-based immobilized enzyme microreactors (IMERs) for the rapid digestion of human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE). Various IMERs were synthesized by grafting different amounts of pepsin on a CNBr-sepharose gel and the grafting yield was measured by a bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA). A sensitive nanoLC-MS/MS method was developed to evaluate the digestion yields of HuBuChE on IMERs which was made possible by a synthetic peptide which was used as a calibrant. The digestion was optimized by studying the impact of different parameters such as the digestion time, the temperature and the amount of pepsin grafted on IMER. This optimization allowed HuBuChE to be digested with-in 20min without pretreatment and with digestion yields up to 20%. The repeatability of the IMER synthesis and HuBuChE digestion was highlighted with the characterization of 3 similar IMERs. Finally, the digestion yields of HuBuChE were higher with IMERs when compared to a typical in solution digestion.

  20. Development of cholesterol biosensor based on immobilized cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase on oxygen electrode for the determination of total cholesterol in food samples.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anjan Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Parimal; Roychoudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2007-05-01

    The development of a cholesterol biosensor by co-immobilization of cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOX) on oxygen electrode is described. The electrode consists of gold cathode and Ag/AgCl anode. The enzymes were immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The immobilized enzymatic membrane was attached to the tip of the electrode by a push cap system. The optimum pH and temperature of the sensor was determined, these are 6 and 25 degrees C respectively. The developed sensor was calibrated from 1-75 mg/dl of cholesterol palmiate and found linear in the range of 2-50 mg/dL. The calibration curve was drawn with V(i) (ppm/min)(initial velocity) vs different concentrations of cholesterol palmiate (mg/dL). The application of the sensor to determine the total cholesterol in different real food samples such as egg, meat was investigated. The immobilized enzymatic layer can be reused over 30 times and the stability of the enzymatic layer was studied up to 9 weeks.

  1. pH-dependent immobilization of urease on glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Seema; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2015-05-01

    Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the enzyme serves a significant role in several detoxification and analytical processes, its usability is restricted due to high cost, availability in small amounts, instability, and a limited possibility of economic recovery from a reaction mixture. Hence, there is a need to develop an efficient, simple, and reliable immobilization strategy for the enzyme. In this study, the carboxyl terminated surface of glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles have been utilized as a solid support for the covalent attachment of urease. The immobilization has been carried out at different pH conditions so as to elucidate its effect on the immobilization efficiency and enzyme bioactivity. The binding of the enzyme has been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed through techniques like ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, intrinsic steady state fluorescence, and circular dichorism. The bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme was investigated with respect to the native enzyme under different thermal conditions. Recyclability and shelf life studies of the immobilized enzyme have also been carried out. Results reveal that the immobilization is most effective at pH of 7.4 followed by that in an acidic medium and is least in alkaline environment. The immobilized enzyme also exhibits enhance activity in comparison to the native form at physiological temperature. The immobilized urease (on gold glutathione nanoconjugates surface) can be effectively employed for biosensor fabrication, immunoassays and as an in vivo diagnostic tool in the future.

  2. Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form O: Development and Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Deborah L.; And Others

    This report presents the rationale, development, and standardization of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) Form O. The test is used to select individuals for officer commissioning programs, and candidates for pilot and navigator training. Form O contains 380 items organized in 16 subtests. All items are administered in a single test…

  3. Assessment Battery for Communication: Development of Two Equivalent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with…

  4. Assessment Battery for Communication: Development of Two Equivalent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with…

  5. Hyperthermostable, Ca(2+)-independent, and high maltose-forming alpha-amylase production by an extreme thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans: whole cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Rao, J L Uma Maheswar; Satyanarayana, T

    2009-11-01

    The synthesis of extracellular alpha-amylase in Geobacillus thermoleovorans was constitutive. The enzyme was secreted in metabolizable carbon sources as well as non-metabolizable synthetic analogues of glucose, but the titers were higher in the former than that in the latter. G. thermoleovorans is a fast-growing facultatively anaerobic bacterium that grows under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and produces an extracellular amylolytic enzyme alpha-amylase with the by-product of lactic acid. G. thermoleovorans is a rich source of various novel thermostable biocatalysts for different industrial applications. alpha-Amylase synthesis was subject to catabolite repression in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. The addition of cAMP to the medium containing glucose did not result in the repression of alpha-amylase synthesis. The addition of maltose (1%) to the starch arginine medium resulted in a twofold enhancement in enzyme titers. Polyurethane foam (PUF)-immobilized cells secreted alpha-amylase, which was higher than that with the free cells. PUF appeared to be a better matrix for immobilization of the thermophilic bacterium than the other commonly used matrices. The repeated use of PUF-immobilized cells was possible over 15 cycles with a sustained alpha-amylase secretion. The use of this enzyme in starch saccharification eliminates the addition of Ca(2+) in starch liquefaction and its subsequent removal by ion exchangers from the product streams.

  6. Immobilization of Dystrophin and Laminin α2-Chain Deficient Zebrafish Larvae In Vivo Prevents the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Arner, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are often caused by genetic alterations in the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex or its extracellular ligands. These structures are associated with the cell membrane and provide mechanical links between the cytoskeleton and the matrix. Mechanical stress is considered a pathological mechanism and muscle immobilization has been shown to be beneficial in some mouse models of muscular dystrophy. The zebrafish enables novel and less complex models to examine the effects of extended immobilization or muscle relaxation in vivo in different dystrophy models. We have examined effects of immobilization in larvae from two zebrafish strains with muscular dystrophy, the Sapje dystrophin-deficient and the Candyfloss laminin α2-chain-deficient strains. Larvae (4 days post fertilization, dpf) of both mutants have significantly lower active force in vitro, alterations in the muscle structure with gaps between muscle fibers and altered birefringence patterns compared to their normal siblings. Complete immobilization (18 hrs to 4 dpf) was achieved using a small molecular inhibitor of actin-myosin interaction (BTS, 50 μM). This treatment resulted in a significantly weaker active contraction at 4 dpf in both mutated larvae and normal siblings, most likely reflecting a general effect of immobilization on myofibrillogenesis. The immobilization also significantly reduced the structural damage in the mutated strains, showing that muscle activity is an important pathological mechanism. Following one-day washout of BTS, muscle tension partly recovered in the Candyfloss siblings and caused structural damage in these mutants, indicating activity-induced muscle recovery and damage, respectively.

  7. Developing a community mental health nursing handover form.

    PubMed

    Burleton, Laurie

    While nursing handovers are predominantly used in ward settings, this essential form of communication is also used by community mental health teams to promote continuity of care. A community mental health nursing handover form was developed to overcome poor communication of patient information. It is expected that the form will increase efficiency and reduce handover time by focusing on pertinent and current patient information. Implementation of a community mental health nursing handover form requires the willingness of staff to be proactive and embrace change. The involvement of nurse leaders is essential to implement successful change, overcome barriers and motivate staff.

  8. Development and characterization of immobilized human organic anion transporter-based liquid chromatographic stationary phase: hOAT1 and hOAT2.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Perry, J; Anzai, N; Pritchard, J B; Moaddel, R

    2007-11-15

    This paper reports the development of liquid chromatographic columns containing immobilized organic anion transporters (hOAT1 and hOAT2). Cellular membrane fragments from MDCK cells expressing hOAT1 and S2 cells expressing hOAT2 were immobilized on the surface of the immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) liquid chromatographic stationary phase. The resulting stationary phases were characterized by frontal affinity chromatography, using the marker ligand [3H]-adefovir for the hOAT1 and [14C]-p-aminohippurate for the hOAT2 in the presence of multiple displacers. The determined binding affinities (Kd) for eight OAT1 ligands and eight OAT2 ligands were correlated with literature values and a statistically significant correlation was obtained for both the hOAT1 and hOAT2 columns: r2=0.688 (p<0.05) and r2=0.9967 (p<0.0001), respectively. The results indicate that the OAT1 and OAT2 have been successfully immobilized with retention of their binding activity. The use of these columns to identify ligands to the respective transporters will be presented.

  9. Development of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene cardiovascular graft platform based on immobilization of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles using a wet chemical modification technique.

    PubMed

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M; Mahmoud, Gihan F; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-08-30

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE grafts are mostly employed to replace damaged blood vessels and to restore normal blood flow. However, the dilemma of early thrombosis, inflammation, and development of biofilms after implantation limit ePTFE long-term patency and restrict the patient's life quality. In this study, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were covalently immobilized on ePTFE surface for local therapeutic purposes. First, the ePTFE surface was primarily oxidized by H2O2/H2SO4 solution to create hydroxyl groups. Consequently, free amino groups were introduced onto ePTFE surface by an aminolyzation reaction of the activated hydroxyl groups using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The produced amino groups were further used as anchor sites for covalent immobilization of previously prepared PLGA nanoparticles. The functional groups originated on ePTFE surface were confirmed by FTIR analysis. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy visualization evidenced a homogeneous distribution pattern of the immobilized PLGA nanoparticles on the surface. The immobilized PLGA nanoparticles showed stability on ePTFE surface under blood flow mimetic conditions. Additionally, light microscopy observation confirmed the biocompatibility of mouse L929 fibroblasts on the nano-coated ePTFE graft. The cellular adhesion and growth did not reveal remarkable cytotoxicity in the tested modified ePTFE grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of catechol production by membrane-immobilized polyphenol oxidase: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, A; Burton, M H; Burton, S G

    2003-07-05

    Although previous research has focused on phenol removal efficiencies using polyphenol oxidase in nonimmobilized and immobilized forms, there has been little consideration of the use of polyphenol oxidase in a biotransformation system for the production of catechols. In this study, polyphenol oxidase was successfully immobilized on various synthetic membranes and used to convert phenolic substrates to catechol products. A neural network model was developed and used to model the rates of substrate utilization and catechol production for both nonimmobilized and immobilized polyphenol oxidase. The results indicate that the biotransformation of the phenols to their corresponding catechols was strongly influenced by the immobilization support, resulting in differing yields of catechols. Hydrophilic membranes were found to be the most suitable immobilization supports for catechol production. The successful biocatalytic production of 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and 4-chlorocatechol is demonstrated.

  11. Development of immobilized ligands for actinide separations. Final report, June 1991--May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    Primary goals during this grant period were to (1) synthesize new bifunctional chelating ligands, (2) characterize the structural features of the Ln and An coordination complexes formed by these ligands, (3) use structural data to iteratively design new classes of multifunctional ligands, and (4) explore additional routes for attachment of key ligands to solid supports that could be useful for chromatographic separations. Some highlights of recently published work as well as a summary of submitted, unpublished and/or still in progress research are outlined.

  12. Development of mathematical model for simulating biosorption of dissolved metals on Bacillus drentensis immobilized in biocarrier beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, J.; Wang, S.; Lee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biocarrier beads with dead biomass, Bacillus drentensis, immobilized in polymer polysulfone were synthesized to remove heavy metals from wastewater. To identify the sorption mechanisms and theoretical nature of underlying processes, a series of batch experiments were carried out and a mathematical model was developed to quantify the biosorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) by the biocarrier beads. A series of mass balance equations for representing mass transfer of metal sorbents in a biocarrier beads and surrounding solution were established and solved using a finite difference method. Major model parameters such as external mass transfer coefficient and maximum sorption capacity, etc. were determined from pseudo-first and second-order kinetic models and Langmuir isotherm model based on kinetic and equilibrium experimental measurements. The model simulation displays reasonable representations of experimental data and implied that the proposed model can be applied to quantitative analysis on biosorption mechanisms by porous granular beads. The simulation results also confirms that the biosorption of heavy metal by the biocarrier beads largely depended on surface adsorption.

  13. Biochip-based instruments development for space exploration: influence of the antibody immobilization process on the biochip resistance to freeze-drying, temperature shifts and cosmic radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussot, G.; Moreau, T.; Faye, C.; Vigier, F.; Baqué, M.; Le Postollec, A.; Incerti, S.; Dobrijevic, M.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.

    2017-04-01

    Due to the diversity of antibody (Ab)-based biochips chemistries available and the little knowledge about biochips resistance to space constraints, immobilization of Abs on the surface of the biochips dedicated to Solar System exploration is challenging. In the present paper, we have developed ten different biochip models including covalent or affinity immobilization with full-length Abs or Ab fragments. Ab immobilizations were carried out in oriented/non-oriented manner using commercial activated surfaces with N-hydroxysuccinic ester (NHS-surfaces) or homemade surfaces using three generations of dendrimers (dendrigraft of poly L-lysine (DGL) surfaces). The performances of the Ab -based surfaces were cross-compared on the following criteria: (i) analytical performances (expressed by both the surface density of immobilized Abs and the amount of antigens initially captured by the surface) and (ii) resistance of surfaces to preparation procedure (freeze-drying, storage) or spatial constraints (irradiation and temperature shifts) encountered during a space mission. The latter results have been expressed as percentage of surface binding capacity losses (or percentage of remaining active Abs). The highest amount of captured antigen was achieved with Ab surfaces having full-length Abs and DGL-surfaces that have much higher surface densities than commercial NHS-surface. After freeze-drying process, thermal shift and storage sample exposition, we found that more than 80% of surface binding sites remained active in this case. In addition, the resistance of Ab surfaces to irradiation with particles such as electron, carbon ions or protons depends not only on the chemistries (covalent/affinity linkages) and strategies (oriented/non-oriented) used to construct the biochip, but also on the type, energy and fluence of incident particles. Our results clearly indicate that full-length Ab immobilization on NHS-surfaces and DGL-surfaces should be preferred for potential use in

  14. Biomolecule immobilization in biosensor development: tailored strategies based on affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Simín, B; Campàs, M; Marty, J-L

    2008-01-01

    The exponential development of biosensors as powerful analytical tools in the last four decades mainly relies on the high sensitivity and selectivity offered when detecting the target analyte. The transducer and the biological receptor are the bases of the biosensor development. Nevertheless, the bioreceptor immobilisation is also important, playing a key role in the retention of the biological activity, and thus affecting the sensitivity. Parameters such as shelf-life and surface regeneration also depend on the biomolecule immobilisation. Researchers are focusing their efforts towards random and oriented immobilisation procedures. Adsorption, entrapment, cross-linking and electrostatic interactions provide randomly immobilised biomolecules, sometimes partially hindering their biological activity. Covalent binding and affinity interactions may enable oriented biomolecule immobilisations, providing controlled, reproducible and highly active modified surfaces. This paper reviews the main immobilisation strategies used in the biosensors development, putting special emphasis on our contribution to mild and oriented immobilisation techniques.

  15. Assessment Battery for Communication: development of two equivalent forms.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca M; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury. Equivalent forms of the same test are useful in clinical practice and intervention research, when performance needs to be tested on two separate occasions, for example before and after a rehabilitation program. The present results provide additional evidence on the psychometric functioning of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and their usability in a clinical context. The reader will be able to discuss the evidence of the psychometric propriety of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and describe its potential usefulness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic modeling of a multiple immobilized enzyme system. I. Development and testing of the model

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D.G.; O'Driscoll, K.F.

    1981-11-01

    A kinetic model for the reaction sequence catalyzed by coimmobilized invertase and glucose oxidase with a sucrose substrate in a tubular reactor has been developed. The computerized mathematical model employs an orthogonal collocation technique for solving the set of simultaneous equations generated by this treatment. The invertase and glucose oxidase were coimmobilized in poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) gels and used in a continuous flow packed-bed tubular reactor system. In addition to describing the development of the kinetic model, this article compares experimentally determined reactor effluent concentrations for various sucrose feed solutions to those predicted by the model. Variations between experimental and predicted reactor effluent concentrations were found to be on the micromolar level for sucrose feed concentrations as low as 1.38mM. (Refs. 27).

  17. Immobilization of α-amylase onto a calix[4]arene derivative: Evaluation of its enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Veesar, Irshad Ali; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Memon, Shahabuddin

    2015-06-01

    In order to enhance the cost-effectiveness practicability of enzymes in many industries such as pharmaceutical, food, medical and some other technological processes, there is great need to immobilize them onto a solid supports. In this study, a new and efficient immobilization of α-amylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed by using the surface functionalization of calix[4]arene as support. A glutaraldehyde-containing amino group functionalized calix[4]arene was used to immobilize α-amylase covalently. In this procedure, imide bonds are formed between amino groups on the protein and aldehyde groups on the calix[4]arene surface. The surface modified support was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of various preparation conditions on the immobilized α-amylase process such as immobilization time, enzyme concentration, temperature and pH were investigated. The influence of pH and temperature on the activity of free and immobilized α-amylase was also studied using starch as substrate. The optimum reaction temperature and pH value for the enzymatic conversion catalyzed by the immobilized α-amylase were 25°C and 7, respectively. Compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized α-amylase retained 85% of its original activity and exhibited significant thermal stability than the free one and excellent durability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  19. Material Recover and Waste Form Development--2016 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Terry A.; Vienna, John; Paviet, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress (April 2010). This MRWFD accomplishments report summarizes the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within MRWFD in Fiscal Year (FY) 2016. Each section of the report contains an overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the FY. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments of FY 2016. The campaign continued to use an engineering-driven, science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus.

  20. Collaborative Design as a Form of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Joke; Laferrière, Therese; Breuleux, Alain; Itow, Rebecca C.; Hickey, Daniel T.; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher involvement in collaborative design of curriculum is viewed as a form of professional development. However, the research base for this stance is limited. While it is assumed that the activities teachers undertake during collaborative design of curricular materials can be beneficial for teacher learning, only a few studies…

  1. The Development of Cortical Sensitivity to Visual Word Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to extract visual word forms quickly and efficiently is essential for using reading as a tool for learning. We describe the first longitudinal fMRI study to chart individual changes in cortical sensitivity to written words as reading develops. We conducted four annual measurements of brain function and reading skills in a heterogeneous…

  2. Enhanced uranium immobilization and reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cologgi, Dena L; Speers, Allison M; Bullard, Blair A; Kelly, Shelly D; Reguera, Gemma

    2014-11-01

    Biofilms formed by dissimilatory metal reducers are of interest to develop permeable biobarriers for the immobilization of soluble contaminants such as uranium. Here we show that biofilms of the model uranium-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens immobilized substantially more U(VI) than planktonic cells and did so for longer periods of time, reductively precipitating it to a mononuclear U(IV) phase involving carbon ligands. The biofilms also tolerated high and otherwise toxic concentrations (up to 5 mM) of uranium, consistent with a respiratory strategy that also protected the cells from uranium toxicity. The enhanced ability of the biofilms to immobilize uranium correlated only partially with the biofilm biomass and thickness and depended greatly on the area of the biofilm exposed to the soluble contaminant. In contrast, uranium reduction depended on the expression of Geobacter conductive pili and, to a lesser extent, on the presence of the c cytochrome OmcZ in the biofilm matrix. The results support a model in which the electroactive biofilm matrix immobilizes and reduces the uranium in the top stratum. This mechanism prevents the permeation and mineralization of uranium in the cell envelope, thereby preserving essential cellular functions and enhancing the catalytic capacity of Geobacter cells to reduce uranium. Hence, the biofilms provide cells with a physically and chemically protected environment for the sustained immobilization and reduction of uranium that is of interest for the development of improved strategies for the in situ bioremediation of environments impacted by uranium contamination.

  3. Enhanced Uranium Immobilization and Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cologgi, Dena L.; Speers, Allison M.; Bullard, Blair A.; Kelly, Shelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by dissimilatory metal reducers are of interest to develop permeable biobarriers for the immobilization of soluble contaminants such as uranium. Here we show that biofilms of the model uranium-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens immobilized substantially more U(VI) than planktonic cells and did so for longer periods of time, reductively precipitating it to a mononuclear U(IV) phase involving carbon ligands. The biofilms also tolerated high and otherwise toxic concentrations (up to 5 mM) of uranium, consistent with a respiratory strategy that also protected the cells from uranium toxicity. The enhanced ability of the biofilms to immobilize uranium correlated only partially with the biofilm biomass and thickness and depended greatly on the area of the biofilm exposed to the soluble contaminant. In contrast, uranium reduction depended on the expression of Geobacter conductive pili and, to a lesser extent, on the presence of the c cytochrome OmcZ in the biofilm matrix. The results support a model in which the electroactive biofilm matrix immobilizes and reduces the uranium in the top stratum. This mechanism prevents the permeation and mineralization of uranium in the cell envelope, thereby preserving essential cellular functions and enhancing the catalytic capacity of Geobacter cells to reduce uranium. Hence, the biofilms provide cells with a physically and chemically protected environment for the sustained immobilization and reduction of uranium that is of interest for the development of improved strategies for the in situ bioremediation of environments impacted by uranium contamination. PMID:25128347

  4. Development and Validation of a Small Animal Immobilizer and Positioning System for the Study of Delivery of Intracranial and Extracranial Radiotherapy Using the Gamma Knife System.

    PubMed

    Awan, Musaddiq J; Dorth, Jennifer; Mani, Arvind; Kim, Haksoo; Zheng, Yiran; Mislmani, Mazen; Welford, Scott; Yuan, Jiankui; Wessels, Barry W; Lo, Simon S; Letterio, John; Machtay, Mitchell; Sloan, Andrew; Sohn, Jason W

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish a process of irradiating mice using the Gamma Knife as a versatile system for small animal irradiation and to validate accurate intracranial and extracranial dose delivery using this system. A stereotactic immobilization device was developed for small animals for the Gamma Knife head frame allowing for isocentric dose delivery. Intercranial positional reproducibility of a reference point from a primary reference animal was verified on an additional mouse. Extracranial positional reproducibility of the mouse aorta was verified using 3 mice. Accurate dose delivery was validated using film and thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements with a solid water phantom. Gamma Knife plans were developed to irradiate intracranial and extracranial targets. Mice were irradiated validating successful targeted radiation dose delivery. Intramouse positional variability of the right mandible reference point across 10 micro-computed tomography scans was 0.65 ± 0.48 mm. Intermouse positional reproducibility across 2 mice at the same reference point was 0.76 ± 0.46 mm. The accuracy of dose delivery was 0.67 ± 0.29 mm and 1.01 ± 0.43 mm in the coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. The planned dose delivered to a mouse phantom was 2 Gy at the 50% isodose with a measured thermoluminescent dosimeter dose of 2.9 ± 0.3 Gy. The phosphorylated form of member X of histone family H2A (γH2AX) staining of irradiated mouse brain and mouse aorta demonstrated adjacent tissue sparing. In conclusion, our system for preclinical studies of small animal irradiation using the Gamma Knife is able to accurately deliver intracranial and extracranial targeted focal radiation allowing for preclinical experiments studying focal radiation.

  5. Developing mixed films of immobilized oligonucleotides and quantum dots for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using a combination of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and direct excitation of fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Algar, W Russ; Krull, Ulrich J

    2010-04-20

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous and selective detection of three target nucleic acid sequences based on mixed films of immobilized quantum dots (QDs) and oligonucleotide probes. CdSe/ZnS QDs were immobilized on optical fibers and conjugated with mixtures of different probe oligonucleotides. Hybridization events were detected using a combination of fluorescence from direct excitation and fluorescence sensitized by resonance energy transfer (FRET). A sandwich assay format was used to associate dye labeled reporter oligonucleotides with probe-target hybrids formed at the surface of the optical fiber. One detection channel utilized direct excitation of Pacific Blue and the two other detection channels were based on FRET. In one strategy, green emitting QDs were used as donors with Cy3 and Rhodamine Red-X acceptors. In a second strategy, green and red emitting QDs were coimmobilized and used as donors with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 acceptors, respectively. Selective three-plex detection was demonstrated with both strategies. Several key design criteria that were explored to optimize the relative signal magnitude between channels included: the ratio of probe associated with direct excitation versus probes associated with FRET; the relative amounts of each FRET probe and corresponding spectral overlap; and the photoluminescence ratio between immobilized green and red emitting QDs (where applicable). Careful selection of probe sequences and lengths were important for the discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms in one channel without suppressing binding of target in the other two channels. This work provides a basis for the development of multiplexed biosensors that are ensemble compatible and do not require discrete sensor elements, spatial registration, sorting technology, or single molecule spectroscopy.

  6. Destructive testings: dry drilling operations with TruPro system to collect samples in a powder form, from two hulls containing immobilized wastes in a hydraulic binder

    SciTech Connect

    Pombet, Denis; Desnoyers, Yvon; Charters, Grant; Aggarwal, Sue

    2013-07-01

    The TruPro{sup R} process enables to collect a significant number of samples to characterize radiological materials. This innovative and alternative technique is experimented for the ANDRA quality-control inspection of cemented packages. It proves to be quicker and more prolific than the current methodology. Using classical statistics and geo-statistics approaches, the physical and radiological characteristics of two hulls containing immobilized wastes (sludges or concentrates) in a hydraulic binder are assessed in this paper. The waste homogeneity is also evaluated in comparison to ANDRA criterion. Sensibility to sample size (support effect), presence of extreme values, acceptable deviation rate and minimum number of data are discussed. The final objectives are to check the homogeneity of the two characterized radwaste packages and also to validate and reinforce this alternative characterization methodology. (authors)

  7. Development of a Novel Optical Biosensor for Detection of Organophoshorus Pesticides Based on Methyl Parathion Hydrolase Immobilized by Metal-Chelate Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Chen, Guoping; Cui, Feng; Tan, Feng; Liu, Ran; Yushupujiang, Maolidan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel optical biosensor device using recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) enzyme immobilized on agarose by metal-chelate affinity to detect organophosphorus (OP) compounds with a nitrophenyl group. The biosensor principle is based on the optical measurement of the product of OP catalysis by MPH (p-nitrophenol). Briefly, MPH containing six sequential histidines (6× His tag) at its N-terminal was bound to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) agarose with Ni ions, resulting in the flexible immobilization of the bio-reaction platform. The optical biosensing system consisted of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and one photodiode. The LED that emitted light at the wavelength of the maximum absorption for p-nitrophenol served as the signal light, while the other LED that showed no absorbance served as the reference light. The optical sensing system detected absorbance that was linearly correlated to methyl parathion (MP) concentration and the detection limit was estimated to be 4 μM. Sensor hysteresis was investigated and the results showed that at lower concentration range of MP the difference got from the opposite process curves was very small. With its easy immobilization of enzymes and simple design in structure, the system has the potential for development into a practical portable detector for field applications. PMID:23012501

  8. Development of a novel optical biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides based on methyl parathion hydrolase immobilized by metal-chelate affinity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wensheng; Chen, Guoping; Cui, Feng; Tan, Feng; Liu, Ran; Yushupujiang, Maolidan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel optical biosensor device using recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) enzyme immobilized on agarose by metal-chelate affinity to detect organophosphorus (OP) compounds with a nitrophenyl group. The biosensor principle is based on the optical measurement of the product of OP catalysis by MPH (p-nitrophenol). Briefly, MPH containing six sequential histidines (6 × His tag) at its N-terminal was bound to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) agarose with Ni ions, resulting in the flexible immobilization of the bio-reaction platform. The optical biosensing system consisted of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and one photodiode. The LED that emitted light at the wavelength of the maximum absorption for p-nitrophenol served as the signal light, while the other LED that showed no absorbance served as the reference light. The optical sensing system detected absorbance that was linearly correlated to methyl parathion (MP) concentration and the detection limit was estimated to be 4 μM. Sensor hysteresis was investigated and the results showed that at lower concentration range of MP the difference got from the opposite process curves was very small. With its easy immobilization of enzymes and simple design in structure, the system has the potential for development into a practical portable detector for field applications.

  9. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer III, H. M.; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  10. Waste form development for a DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Bloomer, P.E.; Chantaraprachoom, N.; Gong, M.; Lamar, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A laboratory crucible study was conducted to develop waste forms to treat nonradioactive simulated {sup 238}Pu heterogeneous debris waste from Savannah River, metal waste from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and nominal waste also from INEL using DC arc melting. The preliminary results showed that the different waste form compositions had vastly different responses for each processing effect. The reducing condition of DC arc melting had no significant effects on the durability of some waste forms while it decreased the waste form durability from 300 to 700% for other waste forms, which resulted in the failure of some TCLP tests. The right formulations of waste can benefit from devitrification and showed an increase in durability by 40%. Some formulations showed no devitrification effects while others decreased durability by 200%. Increased waste loading also affected waste form behavior, decreasing durability for one waste, increasing durability by 240% for another, and showing no effect for the third waste. All of these responses to the processing and composition variations were dictated by the fundamental glass chemistry and can be adjusted to achieve maximal waste loading, acceptable durability, and desired processing characteristics if each waste formulation is designed for the result according to the glass chemistry.

  11. Development of cast alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; ...

    2016-09-06

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt. % are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt. % Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use atmore » temperatures up to 800 C - 850 C in H2O-, S-, and C- containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloy along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Lastly, challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.« less

  12. Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, G.; Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Walker, L. R.; Meyer, H. M., III; Leonard, D. N.

    2016-11-01

    Cast Fe-Ni-Cr chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels with Ni levels up to 45 wt.% are used at high temperatures in a wide range of industrial applications that demand microstructural stability, corrosion resistance, and creep strength. Although alumina scales offer better corrosion protection at these temperatures, designing cast austenitic alloys that form a stable alumina scale and achieve creep strength comparable to existing cast chromia-forming alloys is challenging. This work outlines the development of cast Fe-Ni-Cr-Al austenitic stainless steels containing about 25 wt.% Ni with good creep strength and the ability to form a protective alumina scale for use at temperatures up to 800-850°C in H2O-, S-, and C-containing environments. Creep properties of the best alloy were comparable to that of HK-type cast chromia-forming alloys along with improved oxidation resistance typical of alumina-forming alloys. Challenges in the design of cast alloys and a potential path to increasing the temperature capability are discussed.

  13. Development of cholesterol biosensor with high sensitivity using dual-enzyme immobilization into the mesoporous silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Kazuki; Kato, Katsuya

    2011-12-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) materials with different pore diameters were synthesized by a sol-gel method where organic templates such as cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and triblock co-polymer of (poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) (Pluronic P123, EO 20PO 70EO 20)), were used. MPS surface was organo-functionalized using a silane coupling reagent (ethyl-, phenyl-, or 3-mercaptpropyltriethoxysilane). Dual-enzyme, cholesterol esterase (10.0 nm × 5.4 nm × 11.0 nm) and cholesterol oxidase (6.8 nm × 8.5 nm × 8.8 nm), was immobilized on MPS materials by physical adsorption. Amount of dual-enzyme immobilized on all MPS materials, having a different pore size (2.7, 6.4, 12.4, 14.7, and 22.6 nm), and organo-functionalized MPS was similar (CE: 1.5 mg/mg silica and CO: 0.01 mg/mg silica). High activity of dual-enzyme was obtained by adjacently immobilizing on MPS materials. Its activity on MPS-2 (pore diameter: 6.4 nm) or MPS-5 (pore diameter: 22.6 nm) showed approximately 60% of native activity. Moreover, dual-enzyme immobilized on MPS with highly hydrophobic organo-functional groups (phenyl- or mercaptopropyl-group) exhibited higher activity than that on no-substituted MPS. Relative activity of dual-enzyme immobilized on organo-functionalized MPS-2 increased from 58% to 93%, under the optimum conditions.

  14. Economic development and fertility: a note on functional form specification.

    PubMed

    Bollen, K A; Entwisle, B

    1984-01-01

    Beginning with a brief review of cross-national fertility research, this research note examines the cross-national relationship between economic development and fertility levels and documents 4 major ways in which the development-fertility relation has been modeled. It then evaluates the fit of these functional forms, according to theoretical expectations and using cross-national data for 114 countries in 1975. A table summarizes major corss-national studies that include a development indicator as a determinant of fertility levels in a multivariate analysis. A column of the table indicates the form of the development-fertility relatnship assumed, validating the earlier assertion that most analyses have incorporated a linear specification. Yet, a few studies have allowed for curvilinearity. Another column of the table reports the sign and statistical significance of the development term. The note documents curvilinearity in the relationship between economic development and fertility levels for the sample of 114 countries in 1975. Of the 4 functional forms used in cross-national research, the exponential transformation suggested by Saunders and Reinhart (1967) leads to a fitted curve that is closer to curves associated with the demographic transition and has a better fit to the data than do the linear or logarithmic forms. Since most cross-national studies assume a linear relationship, the cumulation of this research may provide misleading information about the importance of development in bringing down the fertility levels of 3rd world nations. The apparent strength of development effects depends on which part of the curve is represented in the data. Frequent inappropriate use of a linear specification to describe a curvilinear relationship may account not only for the widely varying estimates of development effects in previous cross-national studies but for the infrequency with which statistially significant, inverse development-fertility relationships are found

  15. Development of an immunosensor using oriented immobilized anti-OmpW for sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Rahimi, Fereshteh; Mohammadnejad, Javad; Kamali, Mehdi

    2016-12-15

    The first SPR sensor for detection of bacteria was reported in 1998 with high detection limit as much as 10(7)cfu/mL. Since then, a lot of effort has been made to lower detection limit and increase sensitivity of detection mainly by using of different assay formats, immobilization strategies, suitable antibodies, minimizing non-specific adsorption and improving the quality of SPR devices. The aim of this paper is to introduce the potential of an antibody against recombinant outer membrane protein (anti-OmpW) in sensitive detection of Vibrio cholerae by developing an immunosensor based on SPR and compare the sensitivity of this method with former report for detection of V. cholerae published in 2006. Recombinant OmpW antigen (a bacterial outer-membrane protein) of V. cholerae was expressed and purified and raising of polyclonal rabbit anti-OmpW was done. Protein G was covalently immobilized on 11-MUA SAM via amine coupling and bioaffinity-based oriented immobilization of anti-OmpW was done on protein G layer. The results showed high affinity interaction between OmpW and anti-OmpW (KD=2.4×10(-9)M) and the detection limit of fabricated immunosensor was 43 cells/mL. The apparent reasons for achieving this low LOD are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  17. Secondary Waste Form Development and Optimization—Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, S. K.; Parker, Kent E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pitman, Stan G.; Chun, Jaehun; Chung, Chul-Woo; Kimura, Marcia L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Um, Wooyong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-07-14

    Washington River Protection Services is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-permitted, multi-waste, treatment and storage unit and can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid wastes generated during operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP.

  18. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Terry Allen; Braase, Lori Ann

    2015-11-01

    The Material Recovery and Waste Form Development (MRWFD) Campaign under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The FY 2015 Accomplishments Report provides a highlight of the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within the MRWFD Campaign in FY-14. Each section contains a high-level overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the fiscal year. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities, but primarily focuses on the many technical accomplishments made during FY-15. The campaign continued to utilize an engineering driven-science-based approach to maintain relevance and focus. There was increased emphasis on development of technologies that support near-term applications that are relevant to the current once-through fuel cycle.

  19. Generation of pattern and form in the developing limb.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-01-01

    The developing limb is a major model for pattern formation in vertebrate embryos. Many of the seminal discoveries of the mechanisms involved in patterning have been made using chick embryos because of the ease of manipulating their developing limbs. More recently, the molecular basis of limb pattern formation has been increasingly uncovered and now, with the availability of genomic resources, the genetic approaches available are even more powerful. Nevertheless, since the limb is ultimately built of cells, gene action must ultimately be translated into cell behaviour and a major challenge will be to integrate genetics with molecular and cellular biology. In this review, we will first outline the stages in limb development, the major interacting signalling pathways that pattern the limb and the molecules involved. We will describe fate maps of the developing limb, and discuss what is known about cellular activities including proliferation, death, adhesiveness, communication and migration during the patterning process. Finally we will explore how these cell activities produce form.

  20. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-05-08

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  1. Development of immobilized biophotonic beads consisting of Photobacterium leiognathi for the detection of heavy metals and pesticide.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Rastogi, Navin K; Thakur, M S

    2012-07-30

    The present communication deals with construction of immobilized robust biophotonic bead using P. leiognathi, a marine luminescent bacterium for their possible application in monitoring of environmental toxicants. Immobilization efficiency of agar, carrageenan and sodium alginate was evaluated separately in terms of luminescence response and was recorded as 30.3, 77.4 or 99.5%, respectively. Under optimized storage conditions, the luminescent response of P. leiognathi in the immobilized state was studied over a period of 30 days. These biophotonic beads were further used as a rapid and reliable optical biosensing tool for the detection of heavy metals [Hg(II), As(V) or Cd(II)] and pesticide [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] in water systems. The concentration range for the detection of Hg(II), As(V), Cd(II) and 2,4-D was 2-32ppm, 4-128ppm, 16-512ppm and 100-600ppm, respectively, while corresponding sensitivity threshold was 2.0ppm, 4.0ppm, 16.0ppm and 100ppm. A comparison of inhibition constant (K(d)) (or EC(20)) values indicated that the sensitivity thresholds rank as Hg(II)>As(V)>Cd(II)>2,4-D. Moreover, the time taken for the detection of heavy metals and pesticide was less than 30min. Using the bioluminescence inhibition method, the concentration of heavy metals and pesticide could be predicted.

  2. Development of a short form of the elemental psychopathy assessment.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Sherman, Emily D; Samuel, Douglas; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a 178-item self-report measure designed to assess the basic elements of psychopathy from a Five-Factor Model perspective: Anger, Arrogance, Callousness, Coldness, Disobliged, Distrust, Dominance, Impersistence, Invulnerable, Manipulation, Opposition, Rashness, Self-Assurance, Self-Centered, Self-Contentment, Thrill-Seeking, Unconcern, and Urgency. The present article reports on the development of a short-form version of the EPA in two large undergraduate samples using item response theory. The validity of the resultant, 72-item, item response theory-derived short form is compared against the validity for the full scale in the undergraduate samples and smaller forensic sample. Results indicate that the 18 subscales of the EPA short form remain relatively reliable, possess an internal structure virtually identical to the full version, and manifest highly similar correlational profiles to a variety of criterion measures. The EPA short form is offered as a viable assessment of psychopathy when assessment time is limited. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. The development of cortical sensitivity to visual word forms.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F; Deutsch, Gayle K; Wandell, Brian A

    2011-09-01

    The ability to extract visual word forms quickly and efficiently is essential for using reading as a tool for learning. We describe the first longitudinal fMRI study to chart individual changes in cortical sensitivity to written words as reading develops. We conducted four annual measurements of brain function and reading skills in a heterogeneous group of children, initially 7-12 years old. The results show age-related increase in children's cortical sensitivity to word visibility in posterior left occipito-temporal sulcus (LOTS), nearby the anatomical location of the visual word form area. Moreover, the rate of increase in LOTS word sensitivity specifically correlates with the rate of improvement in sight word efficiency, a measure of speeded overt word reading. Other cortical regions, including V1, posterior parietal cortex, and the right homologue of LOTS, did not demonstrate such developmental changes. These results provide developmental support for the hypothesis that LOTS is part of the cortical circuitry that extracts visual word forms quickly and efficiently and highlight the importance of developing cortical sensitivity to word visibility in reading acquisition.

  4. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  5. Multicultural personality questionnaire: development of a short form.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Karen; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G; Fietzer, Alexander W

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form (MPQ-SF) from the original 91-item Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; van der Zee & van Oudenhoven, 2000, 2001). In Study 2 (N = 251), the MPQ-SF was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and resulted in a reasonably good fit to the data (comparative fit index = .94; root mean squared error of approximation = .066). Satisfactory coefficient alphas and high correlations with the original scales were found. Moreover, relationships with related scales were largely in the predicted direction. Specific directions for follow-up research are posited.

  6. Development of a Computerized Multifunctional Form and Position Measurement Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Tian, W. Y.

    2006-10-01

    A model machine of multifunctional form and position measurement instrument controlled by a personal computer has been successfully developed. The instrument is designed in rotary table type with a high precision air bearing and the radial rotation error of the rotary table is 0.08 μm. Since a high precision vertical sliding carriage supported by an air bearing is used for the instrument, the straightaway motion error of the carriage is 0.3 μm/200 mm and the parallelism error of the motion of the carriage relative to the rotation axis of the rotary table is 0.4 μm/200 mm. The mathematical models have been established for assessing planar and spatial straightness, flatness, roundness, cylindricity, and coaxality errors. By radial deviation measurement, the instrument can accurately measure form and position errors of such workpieces as shafts, round plates and sleeves of medium or small dimensions with the tolerance grades mostly used in industry.

  7. Development of Pyrrone structural forms for honeycomb filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of Pyrrone structural foams for use as honeycomb filler is described. The feasibility of preparing foams from polymers formed by the condensation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), or 3,3',4,4'-tetraaminobenzophenone (TABP), with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was investigated. Initially, most of the effort was devoted to preparing Pyrrone prepolymers with improved and more reproducible foaming properties for making chemically blown foams. When it became apparent that very high curing shrinkages would not allow the use of unfilled Pyrrone prepolymers in a foam-in-place process, emphasis was shifted from chemically blown foams to syntactic foams. Syntactic foam formulations containing hollow carbon microspheres were developed. Syntactic foams made from selected formulations were found to have very low coefficients of thermal expansion. A technique was developed for the emplacement of Pyrrone syntactic foam formulations in honeycomb core structures.

  8. The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Barbara L

    2008-02-04

    Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies.

  9. A-site compositional effects in Ga-doped hollandite materials of the form BaxCsyGa2x+yTi8−2x−yO16: implications for Cs immobilization in crystalline ceramic waste forms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yun; Wen, Yi; Grote, Rob; Amoroso, Jake; Shuller Nickles, Lindsay; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2016-01-01

    The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization. A series of Ga-doped hollandite BaxCsyGa2x+yTi8−2x−yO16 (x = 0, 0.667, 1.04, 1.33; y = 1.33, 0.667, 0.24, 0) was synthesized through a solid oxide reaction method resulting in a tetragonal hollandite structure (space group I4/m). The lattice parameter associated with the tunnel dimension was found to increases as Cs substitution in the tunnel increased. A direct investigation of cation mobility in tunnels using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was conducted to evaluate the ability of the hollandite structure to immobilize cations over a wide compositional range. Hollandite with the largest tunnel size and highest aspect ratio grain morphology resulting in rod-like microstructural features exhibited the highest ionic conductivity. The results indicate that grain size and optimized Cs stoichiometry control cation motion and by extension, the propensity for Cs release from hollandite. PMID:27273791

  10. Dissolution test development for complex veterinary dosage forms: oral boluses.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Raafat; Marnane, Bill; Bensley, Dennis; Hollenbeck, R Gary

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of electrolyte chemistry were used to design an appropriate dissolution medium with the capacity to maintain sink conditions throughout the test. Dissolution of various bolus dosage forms was studied using USP Apparatus II at various stirring speeds. Complete dissolution of each drug in the designed medium was achieved, and there is evidence that such a dissolution test could be discriminating. This review details the development of potentially discriminating in vitro dissolution tests for veterinary boluses using USP Apparatus II and examines the potential role of such testing during product quality assessments, in the evaluation of postapproval manufacturing changes and for the establishment of the generic equivalence of veterinary products.

  11. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  12. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Salas-Jara, María José; Ilabaca, Alejandra; Vega, Marco; García, Apolinaria

    2016-09-20

    Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms.

  13. Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Jara, María José; Ilabaca, Alejandra; Vega, Marco; García, Apolinaria

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics. Up to now, reviews have focused on the detrimental effects of biofilms associated with pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, this work aims to amalgamate information describing the biofilms of Lactobacillus strains which are used as probiotics, particularly L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. reuteri, and L. fermentum. Additionally, we have reviewed the development of probiotics using technology inspired by biofilms. PMID:27681929

  14. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project

  15. Development of Enhanced Capacity Affinity Microcolumns by using a Hybrid of Protein Cross-linking/Modification and Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiwei; Podariu, Maria; Bi, Cong; Hage, David S.

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid method was examined for increasing the binding capacity and activity of protein-based affinity columns by using a combination of protein cross-linking/modification and covalent immobilization. Various applications of this approach in the study of drug-protein interactions and in use with affinity microcolumns were considered. Human serum albumin (HSA) was utilized as a model protein for this work. Bismaleimidohexane (BMH, a homobifunctional maleimide) was used to modify and/or cross-link HSA through the single free sulfhydryl group that is present on this protein. Up to a 75-113% increase in protein content was obtained when comparing affinity supports that were prepared with BMH versus reference supports that were made by using only covalent immobilization. Several drugs that are known to bind HSA (e.g., warfarin, verapamil and carbamazepine) were further found to have a significant increase in retention on HSA microcolumns that were treated with BMH (i.e., a 70-100% increase in protein-based retention). These BMH-treated HSA microcolumns were used in chiral separations and in ultrafast affinity extraction to measure free drug fractions in drug/protein mixtures, with the latter method giving association equilibrium constants that had good agreement with literature values. In addition, it was found that the reversible binding of HSA with ethacrynic acid, an agent that can combine irreversibly with the free sulfhydryl group on this protein, could be examined by using the BMH-treated HSA microcolumns. The same hybrid immobilization method could be extended to other proteins or alternative applications that may require protein-based affinity columns with enhanced binding capacities and activities. PMID:25981291

  16. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  17. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  18. Development of a stable oral liquid dosage form of spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Pramar, Y; Das Gupta, V; Bethea, C

    1992-08-01

    A clear, stable, oral liquid dosage form of spironolactone has been developed. Solubility profiles of spironolactone were obtained in several co-solvent blends. Using this data, a co-solvent blend containing polyethylene glycol 400 (30% v/v), propylene glycol (10% v/v), glycerin (10% v/v) and ethyl alcohol (10% v/v) was used to solubilize spironolactone at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. The final formulation contained sweetening agents (sucrose, saccharin sodium), flavours (cherry, sweet), a desensitizing agent (menthol), a dye (FD&C Red #40) and a preservative (benzoic acid) to incorporate the desired organoleptic and preservative properties. A phosphate buffer was used to maintain a pH value of 4.5 (pH of maximum stability as reported earlier) to minimize hydrolysis. The final dosage form was stable for at least 93 days at 40 degrees C (loss of potency less than 4%). According to FDA guidelines, a tentative expiration date of 2 years at 25 degrees C is justifiable.

  19. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of “archaic” Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis). PMID:11805284

  20. Holographic lens formed in a self-developing photopolymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjányi, Norbert; Káčik, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We created a record of an interference field of reference plane wave and convergent wave in a self-developing photopolymer film using a He-Ne laser and Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Due to Bragg reflections the record acts as holographic lens and transforms the reference plane wave onto a convergent one. To achieve the best performance of the lens the response of the photopolymer film is found and proper conditions for recording are determined. After successful recording the optical parameters of the lens - focal length and diffraction efficiency are measured and compared with values following from the theory. The formed holographic lens has focal length f = 160 mm and reaches diffraction efficiency of 78% at Bragg angle. The used photopolymer meets criteria for the purpose of creating various holographic optical elements.

  1. Development of a liquid chromatographic system with fluorescent detection for beta-secretase immobilized enzyme reactor on-line enzymatic studies.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesca; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2010-07-08

    A novel liquid chromatographic method has been developed for use in throughput screening of new inhibitors of human recombinant beta-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (hrBACE1). The approach is based on the use of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) containing the target enzyme (hrBACE1-IMER) and uses fluorescence detection. The bioreactor was prepared by immobilizing hrBACE1 on an ethylendiamine (EDA) monolithic disk (CIM) and a fluorogenic peptide (M-2420) containing the beta-secretase site of the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was used as substrate. After injection into the hrBACE1-IMER system, M-2420 was enzymatically cleaved, giving rise to a fluorescent methoxycoumaryl-fragment (Rt=1.6min), which was separated from the substrate and selectively detected at lambda(exc)=320 and lambda(em)=420nm. Product and substrate were characterized by using a post monolithic C18 stationary phase coupled to an ion trap mass analyser. A calibration curve was constructed to determine the immobilized hrBACE1-IMER rate of catalysis and kinetic constants. Specificity of the enzymatic cleavage was confirmed by injecting the substrate on a blank CIM-EDA. The proposed method was validated by the determination of the inhibitory potency of five reference compounds with activities ranked over four order of magnitude (four peptidic inhibitors and a green tea polyphenol, (-)gallocatechin gallate). The obtained results were found in agreement with the data reported in literature, confirming the validity and the applicability of the hrBACE1-IMER as a tool for the fast screening of unknown inhibitors (more than 6 compounds per hour). Moreover, the hrBACE1-IMER showed high stability during the analysis, permitting its use for more than three months without affecting enzyme activity.

  2. Development of a dosage form for accelerated release.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C; Friedl, H E; Dünnhaupt, S; Köllner, S; Leonaviciute, G; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    2014-08-25

    It was the aim of this study to develop an oral capsule delivery system capable of rapidly ejecting the incorporated payload in the small intestine. The capsule consists of four parts: a reaction mixture comprising of a basic and a corresponding acidic component, a plunger necessary to separate the reaction mixture from the inserted ingredients, capsule cap and body (made out of ethylcellulose (EC)), where at the bottom of the body a semipermeable filter membrane is mounted. As soon as water permeates through the membrane, the reaction mixture dissolves and carbon dioxide (CO2) is released resulting in a high speed liberation of inserted compounds onto the intestinal mucosa. Several filter membranes were investigated regarding water influx, capillary force and water retention capacity. CO2 release of sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) was examined in presence of several acidic components in different morphological forms (powder, lyophilisate and granule) and the amount of CO2 liberation out of prepared capsules was determined. Furthermore, release of enteric coated capsules was tested within 0.1M HCl and 100mM phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The rank order regarding membrane permeability was determined to be: cellulose acetate with a pore diameter of 12-15 μm>4-12 μm cellulose acetate>8 μm cellulose nitrate>8-12 μm cellulose acetate. NaHCO3 in combination with tartaric acid in form of a granule could be identified as the most promising reaction mixture with the highest amount of released CO2 compared to all other reaction mixture combinations. Stability of enteric coated capsules in HCl and a spontaneous release in phosphate puffer could be demonstrated within in vitro release studies. In light of these results, the developed releasing system seems to be a promising tool for an accelerated delivery of several incorporated excipients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Support for DOE program in mineral waste-form development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmour, H. III; Hare, T.M.; Russ, J.C.; Batchelor, A.D.; Paisley, M.J.; Freed, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    This research investigation relates to sintered simulation ceramic waste forms of the generic SYNROC compositional type. Though they have been formulated with simulated wastes only, they serve as prototypes for potential hot, processed, crystalline waste forms whose combined thermodynamic stability and physical integrity are considered to render them capable of long-term imobilization of high-level radwastes under deep geologic disposal conditions. The problems involved are nontrivial, largely because of the very complex nature of the radwastes: a typical waste stream would contain more than 31 cation species. When the stabilizing matrix constituents are included, the final batch composition must successfully account (and find substitutional homes for some 35 different cation species. One of the important objectives of this study thus has been to develop a computer-based method for simulating these complex ion substitutions, and for calculating the resultant phase demands and batch formulations. Primary goals of the study have been (1) use of that computer simulation capability to incorporate rationally the radwaste ions from a specific waste stream (PW-7a) into the available SYNROC lattice sites and (2) utilization of existing ceramic processing and sintering methodologies to assure (and to understand) the attainment of high density, fine microstructure, full phase development and other features of the sintered product which are known to relate directly to its integrity and leach resistance. Though improved resistance to leaching has been a continuing goal, time and budget constraints have precluded initiation of any leachability studies of these new compositions during this contract period. 27 references, 15 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Immobilization routes - they're not standing still

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.

    1982-04-19

    This paper reviews recent developments in the applications of enzyme immobilization techniques in various industries. Following success in high-fructose corn syrup production, enzyme immobilization is now making inroads in food processing and biomass-energy conversion. New studies focus on the immobilization of whole cells.

  5. A spectrophotometric assay for lipase activity utilizing immobilized triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Safarík, I

    1991-01-01

    New substrates for the determination of lipase activity have been developed. Triacylglycerols were immobilized by adsorption on an appropriate carrier or adsorbent yielding a lipase substrate in a powder form. The adsorbed triacylglycerols were easily hydrolyzed by lipases present in a reaction mixture. The released fatty acids were extracted with benzene and converted to the corresponding Cu (II) salts (copper soaps) which were measured spectrophotometrically.

  6. Immobilized yeast for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-03

    Construction of a pilot alcohol plant has been completed in Japan to test a new idea in fermentation that could cut the time required from three or four days to several hours. According to developers, the key is an unidentified radiation-cured polymer that is used to immobilize yeast, permitting the process to run continuously.

  7. Keep your eyes on development: the behavioral and neurophysiological development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing.

    PubMed

    van den Boomen, C; van der Smagt, M J; Kemner, C

    2012-01-01

    Visual form perception is essential for correct interpretation of, and interaction with, our environment. Form perception depends on visual acuity and processing of specific form characteristics, such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency, color, orientation, depth, and even motion information. As other cognitive processes, form perception matures with age. This paper aims at providing a concise overview of our current understanding of the typical development, from birth to adulthood, of form-characteristic processing, as measured both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Two main conclusions can be drawn. First, the current literature conveys that for most reviewed characteristics a developmental pattern is apparent. These trajectories are discussed in relation to the organization of the visual system. The second conclusion is that significant gaps in the literature exist for several age-ranges. To complete our understanding of the typical and, by consequence, atypical development of visual mechanisms underlying form processing, future research should uncover these missing segments.

  8. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could crack

  9. Numerical Studies and Equipment Development for Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabuto, S. R.; Sena, J. I. V.; Afonso, D.; Martins, M. A. B. E.; Coelho, R. M.; Ferreira, J. A. F.; Valente, R. A. F.; de Sousa, R. J. Alves

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in the context of a research project carried out at the University of Aveiro, Portugal on both numerical and experimental viewpoints concerning Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). On the experimental side, the general guidelines on the development of a new SPIF machine are detailed. The innovation features are related to the choice of a six-degrees-of-freedom, parallel kinematics machine, with a high payload, to broad the range of materials to be tested, and allowing for a higher flexibility on tool-path generation. On the numerical side, preliminary results on simulation of SPIF processes resorting to an innovative solid-shell finite element are presented. The final target is an accurate and fast simulation of SPIF processes by means of numerical methods. Accuracy is obtained through the use of a finite element accounting for three-dimensional stress and strain fields. The developed formulation allows for an unlimited number of integration points through its thickness direction, which promotes accuracy without loss of CPU efficiency. Preliminary results and designs are shown and discussions over the obtained solutions are provided in order to further improve the research framework.

  10. Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry

    1998-10-01

    Immobilized enzymes have many practical applications. They may be used in clinical, industrial, and biotechnological laboratories and in many clinical diagnostic kits. For educational purposes, use of immobilized enzymes can easily be taught at the undergraduate or even secondary level. We have developed an immobilized enzyme experiment that combines many practical techniques used in the biochemistry laboratory and fits within a three-hour time frame. In this experiment, lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit. We have determined the optimal conditions to give the greatest turnover of lactose while allowing the immobilized enzymes to be active for long periods at room temperature.

  11. Immobilization of whole cells using polymeric coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, C.W.; Klei, H.E.; Sunstrom, D.V.; Voronka, P.J.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    A cell immobilization procedure was developed using latex coatings on solid particles. The method's widespread applicability has been demonstrated by successfully immobilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ethanol production), Bacillus subtilis (tryptophan production). Penicillium chrysogenum (penicillin G production), and Escherichia coli (aspartic acid production). In contrast to other immobilization methods, this procedure produces a pellicular particle that is porous, allowing rapid substrate and gas transfer, has a hard core to avoid compression in large beds, and is dense to allow use in fluidized beds. The immobilization procedure was optimized with S. cerevisiae. Kinetic constants obtained were used to calculate effectiveness factors to show that there was minimal intraparticle diffusion resistance. Reactors utilizing the optimized particles were run for 300 hours to evaluate immobilized particle half-life which was 250 hours.

  12. pH dependent immobilization of Urease on glutathione capped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Seema; De, Arnab; Mozumdar, Subho

    2014-09-08

    Urease is a nickel-dependent metallonzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. Although the enzyme serves a significant role in several detoxification and analytical processes, its usability is restricted due to high cost, availability in small amounts, instability and a limited possibility of economic recovery from a reaction mixture. Hence, there is a need to develop an efficient, simple and reliable immobilization strategy for the enzyme. In this work, the carboxyl terminated surface of glutathione capped gold nanoparticles have been utilized as a solid support for the covalent attachment of Urease. The immobilization has been carried out at different pH conditions so as to elucidate its effect on the immobilization efficiency and enzyme bio-activity. The binding of the enzyme has been quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed through techniques like UV-Vis spectroscopy, intrinsic steady state fluorescence and Circular Dichorism. The bio-activity of the immobilized enzyme was investigated with respect to the native enzyme under different thermal conditions. Recyclability and shelf life studies of the immobilized enzyme have also been carried out. Results reveal that the immobilization is most effective at pH of 7.4 followed by that in an acidic medium and is least in alkaline environment. The immobilized enzyme also exhibits enhance activity in comparison to the native form at physiological temperature. The immobilized urease (on gold glutathione nano-conjugates surface) can be effectively employed for biosensor fabrication, immunoassays and as an in vivo diagnostic tool in the future.

  13. Development of pharmacophoric maps for cardiovascular depression by intravenous anaesthetic agents: comparison with maps for immobilizing activity.

    PubMed

    Sear, J W

    2010-06-01

    The molecular basis of the cardiovascular effects of i.v. anaesthetics was investigated using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The cardiovascular effects, measured as changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), compared with awake values of continuous infusions of 13 structurally diverse i.v. anaesthetics were compared at EC(50) plasma concentrations, and by determination of plasma-free drug concentrations associated with a 20% decrease in MAP (dMAP(20)). Data were obtained both from the literature and from unpublished data of the author. The results were fitted to a CoMFA activity model using field-fit minimization techniques to maximize similarities in molecular bulk and electrostatic potential to the lead compound, eltanolone. The final model for cardiovascular depression based on free drug concentrations associated with dMAP(20) explained 95.8% of the variance in observed activities, with a cross-validated q(2) of 0.824 (n=12). A second model based on change in MAP at EC(50) plasma concentrations explained 98.3% of the variance in arterial pressure, but performed poorly at cross-validation (q(2) 0.526). The comparative model for immobilizing potency had an r(2) value of 0.987 and q(2) 0.823. Comparison of pharmacophoric maps showed several key electrostatic and steric regions common to both models when isocontours were constructed linking lattice grid points, making the greatest 40% contributions (87.57% for electrostatic fields and 86.16% for steric fields). Comparison of activity models for cardiovascular depression and immobilizing potency for i.v. anaesthetics shows significant commonality, suggesting that it may not be possible to separate those molecular features associated with each of these effects.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  15. Multiple forms of thymidine kinase during human development.

    PubMed

    Bernard, B; Preston, B; Beaupre, P; Elliott, K; Sadava, D

    1977-01-01

    The developmental progression of thymidine kinase from the electrophoretically slow-migrating 'fetal' forms to the fast-migrating 'adult' form was examined in human serum and fetal liver. In fetal liver, only the fetal forms of the enzyme were present at 17 weeks' gestation. A transitional period followed in that both enzyme forms were identified and by 24 weeks only the adult form was detected in fetal liver. This same enzyme changeover pattern--fetal to transitional to adult--occurred at a later time in human serum as it took place between 30 and 40 weeks' gestation.

  16. The Safety Behavior Assessment Form: Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Jason T; Haeffel, Gerald J; Raush, David A; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    To develop and validate an easy to administer measure of safety behaviors called the Safety Behavior Assessment Form (SBAF). We provide reliability and validity evidence from four studies. The first study used a cross-sectional design with a sample consisting of both clinical (U.S. military Veterans; n = 42) and nonclinical participants (undergraduates; n = 198). Study 2 used a cross-sectional design with a sample of U.S. military Veterans (n = 215). Study 3 used a pre-post treatment design with a sample of U.S. military Veterans (n = 42). Study 4 used a 2-time-point longitudinal design with a sample of undergraduates (n = 77). The SBAF demonstrated strong levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability in all four studies. The SBAF also demonstrated predictive and discriminant validity. In Study 3, the SBAF predicted anxious, but not depressive, treatment outcomes in a sample of Veterans. In Study 4, the SBAF predicted prospective changes in anxiety over a 2-week interval in a sample of undergraduates even after controlling for a competing measure of safety behaviors. Results of these four studies indicate that the SBAF is a reliable and valid measure of safety behaviors that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The development of bioactive triple helix-forming oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael M; Puri, Nitin; Majumdar, Alokes; Cuenoud, Bernard; Miller, Paul S; Alam, Rowshon

    2005-11-01

    We are developing triple helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) as gene targeting reagents in mammalian cells. We have described psoralen-conjugated TFOs containing 2'-O-methyl (2'OMe) and 2'-O-aminoethoxy (AE) ribose substitutions. TFOs with a cluster of 3-4 AE residues, with all other sugars as 2'OMe, were bioactive in a gene knockout assay in mammalian cells. In contrast, TFOs with one or two clustered, or three dispersed, AE residues were inactive. Thermal stability analysis of the triplexes indicated that there were only incremental differences between the active and inactive TFOs. However the active and inactive TFOs could be distinguished by their association kinetics. The bioactive TFOs showed markedly greater on-rates than the inactive TFOs. It appears that the on-rate is a better predictor of TFO bioactivity than thermal stability. Our data are consistent with a model in which a cluster of 3-4 AE residues stabilizes the nucleation event that precedes formation of a complete triplex. It is likely that triplexes in cells are much less stable than triplexes in vitro probably as a result of elution by chromatin-associated translocases and helicases. Consequently the biologic assay will favor TFOs that can bind and rebind genomic targets quickly.

  18. [Genes, forces and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development].

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2007-12-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His [36], Carey [13, 14], and Blechschmidt [5]. These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form.

  19. Genes, forces, and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2006-05-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His (1874), Carey (1920), and Blechschmidt (1948). These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form.

  20. Development of rare earth regenerator materials in fine wire form

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.; Seuntjens, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    The use of rare earth metals, both in the pure and alloyed state, have been examined for use as regenerators in cryocooler applications and as the working material in active magnetic refrigerators. In both applications there is a requirement for the rare earth material to have a constant and uniform cross section, an average size on the order of 50-200 microns in diameter, and low levels of impurities. Existing powder production methods have drawbacks such as oxygen contamination, non-uniform size, inconsistent cross sections, and low production yields. A novel approach for the production of rare earth metals and alloys in fine wire form has been developed. This is accomplished by assembling a copperjacket and niobium barrier around a RE ingot, extruding the assembly, and reducing it with standard wire drawing practices. Strand anneals are utilized between drawing passes when necessary in order to recrystallize the RE core and restore ductility. The copperjacket is removed by chemical means at final size, leaving the Nb barrier in place as a protective coating. This process has been applied to gadolinium, dysprosium and a GdDy alloy.

  1. Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Bei, Hongbin; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the continued development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides and intermetallic precipitates. Efforts in fiscal year 2009 focused on the characterization and understanding of long-term oxidation resistance and tensile properties as a function of alloy composition and microstructure. Computational thermodynamic calculations of the austenitic matrix phase composition and the volume fraction of MC, B2-NiAl, and Fe2(Mo,Nb) base Laves phase precipitates were used to interpret oxidation behavior. Of particular interest was the enrichment of Cr in the austenitic matrix phase by additions of Nb, which aided the establishment and maintenance of alumina. Higher levels of Nb additions also increased the volume fraction of B2-NiAl precipitates, which served as an Al reservoir during long-term oxidation. Ageing studies of AFA alloys were conducted at 750 C for times up to 2000 h. Ageing resulted in near doubling of yield strength at room temperature after only 50 h at 750 C, with little further increase in yield strength out to 2000 h of ageing. Elongation was reduced on ageing; however, levels of 15-25% were retained at room temperature after 2000 h of total ageing.

  2. Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P; Santella, Michael L; Bei, Hongbin; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Work in fiscal year 2008 focused on the development of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys, which exhibit a unique combination of an excellent oxidation resistance via protective alumina (Al2O3) scale formation and high-temperature creep strength through the formation of stable nano-scale MC carbides [1-8]. High levels of Nb additions (> 1 wt.% Nb) and/or Ni additions (25-30 wt.%), at Al levels of 2.5-4 wt.%, were found to correlate with increased upper-temperature limit for Al2O3 scale formation in air ( 900 aC) and air with 10% water vapor ( 800 aC). Creep resistance also showed a strong dependence on the level of Nb additions, and was correlated with volume fraction of MC-type carbides using thermodynamic computational tools. A trial heat of a 50 lb AFA alloy ingot was made using conventional single-melt vacuum techniques, and the alloy was successfully hot-rolled without any cracking [2]. This heat showed good weldability, using filler material of the same alloy.

  3. Urease immobilized on modified polysulphone membrane: preparation and properties.

    PubMed

    Poźniak, G; Krajewska, B; Trochimczuk, W

    1995-01-01

    Porous asymmetric membranes were formed by the phase inversion method from one-to-one blends of polysulphone and its aminated derivative. Amino groups were introduced into polysulphone UDEL P 1700 by chlorosulphonation followed by amination. Urease was immobilized on the modified polysulphone membranes. The properties of the immobilized urease were investigated and related to the free enzyme. The Michaelis constant was 4.4 times higher for the immobilized than for the free urease. Immobilization improved the pH stability of the enzyme at pH < 6.5 as well as its temperature stability. However, the immobilization did not protect the enzyme against heat inactivation at 70 degrees C; the half-times for the activity decay were equal to 120 and 50 min for the free and immobilized enzymes, respectively. The immobilized urease exhibited good storage and operational stability, and good reusability, properties that prove the applicability of the obtained system in enzymatic-membrane reactors.

  4. Task Complexity, Focus on Form, and Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revesz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Tasks have received increased attention in SLA research for the past decade, as has the role of focus on form. However, few empirical studies have investigated the relationship among tasks, focus-on-form techniques, and second language (L2) learning outcomes. To help address this gap, the present study examined how the task variable +/- contextual…

  5. Origins, Form, and Development of the Son Jarocho: Veracruz, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loza, Steven J.

    1982-01-01

    Son Jarocho (specifically from Veracruz) is a song-and-dance form originating in Spain and implanted in Mexico during 17th- and 18th-century colonization. The jarocho style of music today is one of Latin America's most unique forms, using one to four instruments and characterized by its distinctive rhythm. (LC)

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  7. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  8. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-06

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report.

  9. [Gel immobilization of human genome].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yingqiu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To develop a solid phase PCR method by covalent single point immobilization for recycle utilization of human genome. Polymethacrylamide gel was selected as a solid PCR carrier based on DNA-hydrogel copolymer chemistry presented by Mirzabekov. (CH2)6NH2 amino-modified PCR product and randomly fractured formic acid-modified plasmid pGEM-T-HLA-G were used as templates. The specificity of the attachment chemistry was characterized by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the thermal stability of method was demonstrated by PCR. This method was applied for the recycle utilization of human genome. Sequencing was used to exclude the possibility of introduced mutations during modification and immobilization procedures. The PCR detections of plasmid DNA and human genome DNA immobilized by polymethacrylamide gel was successful. The thermal stability of method was successfully demonstrated by performing PCR after 16 rounds of standard 36 PCR cycles. And the sequencing was found no mutation. The DNA immobilization method with polymethacrylamide gel as a solid phase carrier is stable and specific, which can be a possible approach for realizing recycle utilization of human genome for whole-genome sequencing and SNP detection.

  10. Clinical development of two innovative pharmaceutical forms of leuprorelin acetate

    PubMed Central

    Geiges, Goetz; Schapperer, Elisabeth; Thyroff-Friesinger, Ursula; Engert, Zoltán Vendel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Two innovative pharmaceutical forms of leuprorelin acetate have been developed as 1-month and 3-month implants for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. These products contain active substance dispersed homogeneously in a biodegradable polymer. Here we present the key results from the clinical development of these slow-release implant formulations of leuprorelin. Methods: Two therapeutic studies of the 1-month implant were performed: a randomized, controlled study comparing the leuprorelin implant with leuprorelin prolonged-release microspheres (Enantone) as the active control; and a single-arm study of the leuprorelin implant. For the 3-month implant, four therapeutic studies were performed: a randomized, controlled study comparing the leuprorelin implant with leuprorelin prolonged-release microspheres (Trenantone) as the active control; a single-arm study of the leuprorelin implant; and two long-term studies with the 3-month implant administered twice, either 12 or 16 weeks apart. A pooled analysis of data from the comparator-controlled and single-arm studies of the 3-month implant was also conducted. The main inclusion criterion for all studies was histologically confirmed advanced prostate cancer, with primary endpoints based around successful testosterone suppression (≤0.5 ng/ml). Results: In the comparator-controlled studies, both implants were as effective as the microspheres for achieving successful testosterone suppression and normalization of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the single-arm and long-term studies were consistent with those from the comparator-controlled studies. In the pooled analysis, significantly more patients treated with the 3-month implant achieved successful testosterone suppression compared with the comparator (p ≤ 0.01). The safety profile of the implants in the comparator-controlled studies was similar to that of the prolonged-release microsphere formulation, and consistent

  11. Development and characterization of a novel immobilized microbial membrane for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand load in industrial waste-waters.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Shikha; Kumar, Anil; Mehra, N K; Makhijani, S D; Manoharan, A; Gangal, V; Kumar, Rita

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of waste-water quality of waste-water treatment plants in terms of pollutional strength, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is difficult or even impossible using the chemical determination method. The present study reports the determination of BOD within minutes using microbial BOD sensors, as compared to the 5-day determination using the conventional method. Multiple criteria establish the basis for the development of a BOD biosensor useful for rapid and reliable BOD estimation in industrial waste-waters. Of these, preparation of a suitable novel immobilized microbial membrane used in conjunction with an apt transducer is discussed. As a result, a microbial biosensor based on a formulated, synergistic, pre-tested microbial consortium has been developed for the measurement of BOD load of various industrial waste-waters. The sensor showed maximum response in terms of current difference, when a cell concentration of 2.25 x 10(10) CFU, harvested in their log phase of growth were utilized for microbial membrane construction. The sensor showed a stability of 180 days when the prepared membranes were stored at a temperature of 4 degrees C in 50 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. The reusability of the immobilized membranes was up to 200 cycles without appreciable loss of their response characteristics. A linear relationship between the current change and a glucose-glutamic acid (GAA) concentration up to 60 mg l(-1) was observed (r=0.999). The lower detection limit was 1.0 mg l(-1) BOD. The sensor response was reproducible within +/-5% of the mean in a series of ten samples having 44 mg l(-1) BOD using standard a GGA solution. When used for the BOD estimation of industrial waste-waters, a relatively good agreement was found between the two methods, i.e. 5-day BOD and that measured by the developed microbial sensor.

  12. [Pathophysiology of immobilization osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori

    Enhancement of bone resorption and suppression of bone formation in response to reduced mechanical stress cause rapid bone loss. pharmacotherapy for immobilization osteoporosis in motor paralysis and long-term bedrest is effective therapy. Early intervention for rapid bone loss is important for immobilization osteoporosis.

  13. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    PubMed

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of "Focus on Form" versus "Focus on Forms" Pragmatic Instruction on Development of Pragmatic Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    To develop target language pragmatic competence, language learners' attention must be directed toward not only linguistic but also pragmatic aspect of the target language expressions (Schmidt, 2001). Thus, some sorts of pragmatic awareness-raising instruction, using either explicit "Focus on Forms" or implicit "Focus on Form"…

  15. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  16. Development of a Prototype Model-Form Uncertainty Knowledge Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainties are generally classified as either aleatory or epistemic. Aleatory uncertainties are those attributed to random variation, either naturally or through manufacturing processes. Epistemic uncertainties are generally attributed to a lack of knowledge. One type of epistemic uncertainty is called model-form uncertainty. The term model-form means that among the choices to be made during a design process within an analysis, there are different forms of the analysis process, which each give different results for the same configuration at the same flight conditions. Examples of model-form uncertainties include the grid density, grid type, and solver type used within a computational fluid dynamics code, or the choice of the number and type of model elements within a structures analysis. The objectives of this work are to identify and quantify a representative set of model-form uncertainties and to make this information available to designers through an interactive knowledge base (KB). The KB can then be used during probabilistic design sessions, so as to enable the possible reduction of uncertainties in the design process through resource investment. An extensive literature search has been conducted to identify and quantify typical model-form uncertainties present within aerospace design. An initial attempt has been made to assemble the results of this literature search into a searchable KB, usable in real time during probabilistic design sessions. A concept of operations and the basic structure of a model-form uncertainty KB are described. Key operations within the KB are illustrated. Current limitations in the KB, and possible workarounds are explained.

  17. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  18. The immobilization of lipase on PVDF-co-HFP membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayhan, Naciye; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Adem, Şevki

    2016-04-01

    Lipase is an enzyme having a lot of different industrial applications such as biodiesel production, biopolymer synthesis, enantiopure pharmaceutical productions, agrochemicals, etc. Its immobilized form on different substances is more conventional and useful than its free form. Supporting material was prepared using PVDF-co-HFP in laboratory conditions and attached 1,4-diaminobutane (DA) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) ligands to the membrane to immobilize lipase enzyme. The immobilization conditions such as enzyme amount, pH, the concentration of salt, thermal stability and activity were stabilized for our experimental setup. Then, biochemical characterizations were performed on immobilized lipase PVDF-co-HFP regarding optimal pH activity, temperature and thermal stability. Also, the desorption ratios of immobilized enzyme in two different pathway were investigated to confirm immobilization stability for 24 hours.

  19. Development of bimetal-grown multi-scale carbon micro-nanofibers as an immobilizing matrix for enzymes in biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Hood, Amit R; Saurakhiya, Neelam; Deva, Dinesh; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Nishith

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the development of a novel bimetal (Fe and Cu)-grown hierarchical web of carbon micro-nanofiber-based electrode for biosensor applications, in particular to detect glucose in liquids. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are grown on activated carbon microfibers (ACFs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Cu and Fe as the metal catalysts. The transition metal-fiber composite is used as the working electrode of a biosensor applied to detect glucose in liquids. In such a bi-nanometal-grown multi-scale web of ACF/CNF, Cu nanoparticles adhere to the ACF-surface, whereas Fe nanoparticles used to catalyze the growth of nanofibers attach to the CNF tips. By ultrasonication, Fe nanoparticles are dislodged from the tips of the CNFs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is subsequently immobilized on the tips by adsorption. The dispersion of Cu nanoparticles at the substrate surface results in increased conductivity, facilitating electron transfer from the glucose solution to the ACF surface during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. The prepared Cu-ACF/CNF/GOx electrode is characterized for various surface and physicochemical properties by different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical tests show that the prepared electrode has fast response current, electrochemical stability, and high electron transfer rate, corroborated by CV and calibration curves. The prepared transition metal-based carbon electrode in this study is cost-effective, simple to develop, and has a stable immobilization matrix for enzymes. © 2013.

  20. Materials and processes for the effective capture and immobilization of radioiodine: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Strachan, Denis M.; McCloy, John S.; Jerden, James L.

    2016-03-01

    The immobilization of radioiodine produced from reprocessing used nuclear fuel is a growing priority for research and development of nuclear waste forms. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current issues surrounding processing and containment of 129I, the isotope of greatest concern due to its long half-life of 1.6 × 107 y and potential incorporation into the human body. Strategies for disposal of radioiodine, captured by both wet scrubbing and solid sorbents, are discussed, as well as potential iodine waste streams for insertion into an immobilization process. Next, consideration of direct disposal of salts, incorporation into glasses, ceramics, cements, and other phases is discussed. The bulk of the review is devoted to an assessment of various sorbents for iodine and of waste forms described in the literature, particularly inorganic minerals, ceramics, and glasses. This review also contains recommendations for future research needed to address radioiodine immobilization materials and processes.

  1. Immobilized lipid-bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Loy, Douglas A.; Yamanaka, Stacey A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials in a silica matrix comprising preparing a silica sol, mixing a lipid-bilayer material in the silica sol and allowing the mixture to gel to form the encapsulated lipid-bilayer material. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of pre-formed lipid-bilayer materials without modification to the material's spectral characteristics. The method allows for the immobilization of lipid membranes to surfaces. The encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials perform as sensitive optical sensors for the detection of analytes such as heavy metal ions and can be used as drug delivery systems and as separation devices.

  2. Preliminary assessment of candidate immobilization technologies for retrieved single-shell tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.; Mendel, J.E.; Kruger, A.A.; Bunnell, L.R.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the initial work that has been performed to select technologies for immobilization of wastes that may be retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Two classes of waste will require immobilization. One is the combined high-level waste/transuranic (HLW/TRU) fraction, the other the low-level waste (LLW) fraction. A number of potential immobilization technologies are identified for each class of waste. Immobilization technologies were initially selected based on a number of considerations, including (1) the waste loading that could likely be achieved within the constraint of producing acceptable waste forms, (2) process flexibility (primarily compatibility with anticipated waste variability), (3) process complexity, and (4) state of development. Immobilization technologies selected for further development include the following: for HLW/TRU waste -- borosilicate glass, lead-iron phosphate glass, glass-calcine composites, glass-ceramics, and cement based forms; for non-denitrated LLW -- grout, laxtex-modified concrete, and polyethylene; and for denitrated LLW -- silicate glass, phosphate glass, and clay calcination or tailored ceramic in various matrices.

  3. Process Control Development for the Spray Forming Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Craig Madden, Mr. Robert Mattox, Mr. Steven Szpara and Mr. Paul Kelley. Dr. Moran was the group leader of the Spray Forming Technology Group until...Kelley were responsible for the actual runs studied herein and Mr. Robert Mattox and Mr. Steve Szpara provided significant technical support for

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  5. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    PubMed

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McPheeters, C.C; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant.

  7. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  8. Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. E.

    2006-01-31

    The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass

  9. [Biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate by diatomite adsorptive immobilized microorganism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Qi-Fang

    2006-01-01

    To study the biodegradation characteristics of seeding type immobilized microorganism on dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The immobilized microorganism was made to adsorb DBP degradation dominant bacteria by using modified diatomite as carrier, then it degraded DBP under different primary concentration, vibration rate, pH, temperature and at the presence of metal compounds. The degradation kinetics was analyzed. When DBP primary concentration was 100-500 mg/L, the adsorptive immobilized microorganism could maintain relatively high activity and the DBP degraded rate was above 80% in 24h. Dissociative and immobilized microorganism could get higher degradation activity in vibration than in stillness. When pH was 6.0 - 9.0, the degradation rate of immobilized microorganism on DBP was above 82% in 24h and its activity is higher than dissociative microorganism. In the range of 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C, the DBP degraded rate by immobilized microorganism could reach 84.5% in 24h. If mental compounds existed in the DBP water sample, the degradation activities of dissociative and immobilized microorganism were inhibited obviously. The form of DBP degradation kinetics could be described as the first-order model. The immobilized microorganisms using diatomite as carrier could degrade DBP effectively. The adsorptive immobilized microorganism was more adapted to DBP load, temperature and pH than dissociative microorganism. The mental compounds could inhibited their activities. The degradation reaction of adsorptive immobilized microorganisms on DBP was according with the first-order model.

  10. Activity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuki, Toru; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukushima, Tadamasa; Morimoto, Hisao; Usami, Ron; Maekawa, Toru

    2010-03-19

    We immobilize {alpha}-amylase extracted from Bacillus Iicheniformis on the surfaces of superparamagnetic particles and investigate the effect of a rotational magnetic field on the enzyme's activity. We find that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on superparamagnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency. We clarify the effect of the cluster structures formed by the superparamagnetic particles on the activity. Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS).

  11. Material Recovery and Waste Form Development FY 2014 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori

    2014-11-01

    Develop advanced nuclear fuel cycle separation and waste management technologies that improve current fuel cycle performance and enable a sustainable fuel cycle, with minimal processing, waste generation, and potential for material diversion.

  12. Problems of the Development of Alternative Forms of Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballaeva, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    An insufficient number of affordable places in Russia's preschool system is affecting the educational development of many young children and reducing the number of mothers who could be working in the economy.

  13. Problems of the Development of Alternative Forms of Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballaeva, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    An insufficient number of affordable places in Russia's preschool system is affecting the educational development of many young children and reducing the number of mothers who could be working in the economy.

  14. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-12-01

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet.

  15. Development and Standardization of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test Form L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert E.

    In accordance with the normal replacement cycle, a new form of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) was developed for implementation in Fiscal Year 1972. The new form is designated Form L. It resembles other recent forms in type of content, organization, and norming strategy. Like other forms, it yields pilot, navagation-technical,…

  16. Nitrogenase activity of immobilized Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, E; Kirwan, D J

    1979-02-01

    As part of a program to investigate the use of biological nitrogen fixation for fertilizer ammonia production, an investigation into the immobilization of the aerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Azotobacter vinelandii was undertaken. Immobilization was acaccomplished by adsorption onto an anionic exchange cellulose (Cellex E) with loadings as high as 10'' cells/g resin. Immobilized cell preparations were tested under both batch and continuous-flow conditions. Nitrogenase activities as high as 4200 nmol/min g resin were observed as measured by the acetylene reduction assay. Immobilized cells retained their activity for as long as 117 hr in a continuous-flow reactor. Activity loss appeared to be related to the development of a variant strain.

  17. Immobilization induced hypercalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Torres, Edgar Alonso; González-Cantú, Arnulfo; Hinojosa-Garza, Gabriela; Castilleja-Leal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Summary Immobilization hypercalcemia is an uncommon diagnosis associated with increased bone remodeling disorders and conditions associated with limited movement such as medullar lesions or vascular events. Diagnosis requires an extensive evaluation to rule out other causes of hypercalcemia. This is a report of a woman with prolonged immobilization who presented with severe hypercalcemia. This case contributes to identification of severe hypercalcemia as a result of immobility and the description of bone metabolism during this state. PMID:27252745

  18. Development of iodine waste forms using low-temperature sintering glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Rademacher, David

    2010-06-01

    This presentation will describe our recent work on the use of low temperature-sintering glass powders mixed with either AgI or AgI-zeolite to produce a stable waste form. Radioactive iodine ({sup 129}I, half-life of 1.6 x 10{sup 7} years) is generated in the nuclear fuel cycle and is of particular concern due to its extremely long half-life and its effects on human health. As part of the DOE/NE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the separation of {sup 129}I from spent fuel during fuel reprocessing is being studied. In the spent fuel reprocessing scheme under consideration, the iodine is released in gaseous form and collected using Ag-loaded zeolites, to form AgI. Although AgI has extremely low solubility in water, it has a relatively high vapor pressure at moderate temperatures (>550 C), thus limiting the thermal processing. Because of this, immobilization using borosilicate glass is not feasible. Therefore, a bismuth oxide-based glasses are being studied due to the low solubility of bismuth oxide in aqueous solution at pH > 7. These waste forms were processed at 500 C, where AgI volatility is low but the glass powder is able to first densify by viscous sintering and then crystallize. Since the glass is not melted, a more chemically stable glass can be used. The AgI-glass mixture was found to have high iodine leach resistance in these initial studies.

  19. Point-of-need detection using surface-based biosensors with an examination of protein immobilization and development of magnetic labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, China Ye-Ling

    Over the past decade, our research group has worked on developing surface-based immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers. Our immunoassay platforms use a gold surface coated with an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-based monolayer and a layer of antibodies to capture a target antigen. Readout is achieved by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) after labeling of the captured antigen with Raman dye-modified gold nanoparticles or magnetic particles, which are also coated with antibodies. Both of these platforms enable the low-level detection of numerous biomarkers and have the potential for translation into a point-of-need (PON) (i.e., rapid, easy to use, and field deployable) test. As part of an effort to develop a PON test, this dissertation includes investigations of: (1) SERS-based detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), (2) protein immobilization procedures, and (3) magnetic microcapsules (MMCs) for use with GMR detection. First, a SERS-based immunoassay for bioterrorism agents, botulinum neurotoxins A (BoNT-A) and B (BoNT-B) with picomolar (or lower) detection limits for BoNT-A and BoNT-B in buffer and serum is described. These results not only demonstrate sufficient detection of these markers at levels important to homeland security and human health monitoring, but also the potential to translate this methodology to a PON test. Next, the reactivity of NHS ester-terminated monolayers, a common approach in protein immobilization chemistry, is investigated to assess the competition of the purported amidization reaction to that of hydrolysis. Results of kinetic studies on hydrolysis and aminolysis under relevant assay conditions show the rate of hydrolysis is 300x faster than that of aminolysis. These results indicate that it is highly unlikely that proteins are covalently linked to the surface and suggest that the protein layer is adsorbed via hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions. The last section

  20. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  1. Production, immobilization and thermodynamic studies of free and immobilized Aspergillus awamori amylase.

    PubMed

    Karam, Eman A; Abdel Wahab, Walaa A; Saleh, Shireen A A; Hassan, Mohamed E; Kansoh, Amany L; Esawy, Mona A

    2017-09-01

    Enzyme cost, stability and its thermodynamic characteristics are the main criteria for industrial use. In this study, Aspergillus awamori amylase was constitutively produced using various agro-industrial wastes. Olive oil cake gave the highest activity (230U/g). The amylase was partially purified to 2.81-fold purification. Immobilization was achieved using different carriers by covalent binding. The novel carrier Ca(+2) alginate (Alg) starch (St)/polyethyleneimine (PEI)/glutaraldehyde (GA), showed the highest operational stability and was selected for further studies. The optimum temperature for the free and immobilized form was 50°C and 55-60°C, respectively. The immobilization process had a major role in improving enzyme thermal stability. In comparison to free enzyme, the immobilized form showed the highest optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea) and deactivation rate constants (kd). Also, t1/2, D-values (decimal reduction time), change in enthalpy (ΔH° kJmol(-1)), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) increased and was higher than the native enzyme within 50-80°C. The magnitude of negative value of entropy (ΔS° kJmol(-1)) for immobilized enzyme was negative for the free and immobilized enzymes revealing that native form of enzyme was in more ordered state. Km and Vmax values were slightly affected by the temperature variations 40-70°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lymphatic vessel development: fluid flow and valve-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Kume, Tsutomu

    2015-08-03

    Hemodynamic forces regulate many aspects of blood vessel disease and development, including susceptibility to atherosclerosis and remodeling of primary blood vessels into a mature vascular network. Vessels of the lymphatic circulatory system are also subjected to fluid flow-associated forces, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which these forces regulate the formation and maintenance of lymphatic vessels remain largely uncharacterized. This issue of the JCI includes two articles that begin to address how fluid flow influences lymphatic vessel development and function. Sweet et al. demonstrate that lymph flow is essential for the remodeling of primary lymphatic vessels, for ensuring the proper distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and for the development and maturation of lymphatic valves. Kazenwadel et al. show that flow-induced lymphatic valve development is initiated by the upregulation of GATA2, which has been linked to lymphedema in patients with Emberger syndrome. Together, these observations and future studies inspired by these results have potential to lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of lymphatic disorders.

  3. Mechanochemical models for generating biological pattern and form in development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. D.; Maini, P. K.; Tranquillo, R. T.

    1988-12-01

    The central issue in development is the formation of spatial patterns of cells in the early embryo. The mechanisms which generate these patterns are unknown. Here we describe the new Oster-Murray mechanochemical approach to the problem, the elements of which are experimentally well documented. By way of illustration we derive one of the basic models from first principles and apply it to a variety of problems of current interest and research. We specifically discuss the formation of skin organ patterns, such as feather and scale germs, cartilage condensations in the developing vertebrate limb and finally wound healing.

  4. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-09-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the

  5. Immobilization of Fast Reactor First Cycle Raffinate

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, K. F.; Partridge, B. A.; Wise, M.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the results of work to bring forward the timing for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate from reprocessing fuel from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). First cycle raffinate is the liquor which contains > 99% of the fission products separated from spent fuel during reprocessing. Approximately 203 m3 of raffinate from the reprocessing of PFR fuel is held in four tanks at the UKAEA's site at Dounreay, Scotland. Two methods of immobilization of this high level waste (HLW) have been considered: vitrification and cementation. Vitrification is the standard industry practice for the immobilization of first cycle raffinate, and many papers have been presented on this technique elsewhere. However, cementation is potentially feasible for immobilizing first cycle raffinate because the heat output is an order of magnitude lower than typical HLW from commercial reprocessing operations such as that at the Sellafield site in Cumbria, England. In fact, it falls within the upper end of the UK definition of intermediate level waste (ILW). Although the decision on which immobilization technique will be employed has yet to be made, initial development work has been undertaken to identify a suitable cementation formulation using inactive simulant of the raffinate. An approach has been made to the waste disposal company Nirex to consider the disposability of the cemented product material. The paper concentrates on the process development work that is being undertaken on cementation to inform the decision making process for selection of the immobilization method.

  6. Surface cell immobilization within perfluoroalkoxy microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Krivec, Matic; Vesel, Alenka; Marinšek, Marjan; Žnidaršič-Plazl, Polona

    2014-11-01

    Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) is one of the most promising materials for the fabrication of cheap, solvent resistant and reusable microfluidic chips, which have been recently recognized as effective tools for biocatalytic process development. The application of biocatalysts significantly depends on efficient immobilization of enzymes or cells within the reactor enabling long-term biocatalyst use. Functionalization of PFA microchannels by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (ATPES) and glutaraldehyde was used for rapid preparation of microbioreactors with surface-immobilized cells. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to accurately monitor individual treatment steps and to select conditions for cell immobilization. The optimized protocol for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization on PFA microchannel walls comprised ethanol surface pretreatment, 4 h contacting with 10% APTES aqueous solution, 10 min treatment with 1% glutaraldehyde and 20 min contacting with cells in deionized water. The same protocol enabled also immobilization of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis cells on PFA surface in high densities. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been proved to be very efficient also for surface immobilization of tested cells on other materials that are used for microreactor fabrication, including glass, polystyrene, poly (methyl methacrylate), polycarbonate, and two olefin-based polymers, namely Zeonor® and Topas®.

  7. Development of an in vitro liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to evaluate stereo and chemical stability of new drug candidates employing immobilized artificial membrane column.

    PubMed

    Cannazza, Giuseppe; Battisti, Umberto M; Carrozzo, Marina M; Cazzato, Addolorata S; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Troisi, Luigino

    2014-10-10

    A stopped-flow HPLC method was developed to evaluate configurational and chemical stability of pharmaceutical compounds employing immobilized artificial membranes (IAM) column to simulate conditions that pharmaceutical compounds will meet in vivo. The method was applied to recent developed chiral 5-arylbenzothiadiazine derivatives possessing high positive allosteric modulatory (PAM) activity on AMPA receptor. In particular the stopped-flow HPLC method developed used a chiral column to separate single enantiomer of the compounds that are forced into an IAM column where configurational and chemical stability was evaluated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2 and 6.8 at 37.5 °C) to simulate in vivo conditions. The results were compared to those obtained by dynamic and off-column methods to evaluate the effects of stationary phases on kinetic constant of enantiomerization and hydrolysis. The results suggested that the phospholipids environment of IAM stationary phases, which mimes biological membrane, greatly influence the hydrolysis process increasing the chemical stability of tested compounds while no influence on enantiomerization kinetic was observed. Therefore it is possible to suppose that 5-arylbenzothiadiazine derivatives should not hydrolysed in vivo while they should rapidly racemized in aqueous solvents. The method could represents a rapid and value tool to predict chemical and configurational stability of new chemical entities to decrease the number of animal studies.

  8. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  9. Towards automation in protein digestion: Development of a monolithic trypsin immobilized reactor for highly efficient on-line digestion and analysis.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Marina; Černigoj, Urh; Štrancar, Ales; Bartolini, Manuela

    2017-05-15

    Reducing experimental variability, limiting contamination and increasing automation are essential goals in the development of reliable analytical platforms for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. In this work novel trypsin-based monolithic immobilized enzyme reactors (tryp-IMERs), obtained by covalent immobilization on convective interaction media (CIMac™) analytical columns (5mm×5.2mm I.D.), were developed. Notwithstanding the small dimensions, column format allowed the insertion in common high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems, thus avoiding the use of expensive micro- or nano-platforms. Monolith pore diameter and surface chemistry were optimized to achieve high digestion efficiency even with high molecular weight proteins and to avoid protein/peptide adsorption, peak broadening and sample loss. A full characterization of the tryp-IMERs was undertaken to select the best protocol for preparation and type of trypsin. Optimization of the operational and storage conditions was carried out by an off-line approach. On-line studies were performed by setting a multidimensional analytical platform, which included the tryp-IMER, a trapping column, an analytical C4 column and a high resolution hybrid mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF). In the optimized conditions rapid protein digestion (90±9s), high protein coverage (≥60%) and high score values were achieved for five selected sample proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin and albumins from different sources) differing in molecular size, isoelectric point and accessibility to cleavage sites as well as for a protein mixture of 200ng. The best performing tryp-IMERs showed high sensitivity down to the pmole level. The platform also resulted suitable for the analysis of high-molecular weight proteins such as a pool of human immunoglobulins G (hIgG) and for the high molecular weight fraction of human plasma proteins, which were digested in less than two minutes to an extent similar to that achieved by overnight

  10. Ceramic Hosts for Fission Products Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C Kong

    2010-07-01

    Natural spinel, perovskite and zirconolite rank among the most leach resistant of mineral forms. They also have a strong affinity for a large number of other elements and including actinides. Specimens of natural perovskite and zirconolite were radioisotope dated and found to have survived at least 2 billion years of natural process while still remain their loading of uranium and thorium . Developers of the Synroc waste form recognized and exploited the capability of these minerals to securely immobilize TRU elements in high-level waste . However, the Synroc process requires a relatively uniform input and hot pressing equipment to produce the waste form. It is desirable to develop alternative approaches to fabricate these durable waste forms to immobilize the radioactive elements. One approach is using a high temperature process to synthesize these mineral host phases to incorporate the fission products in their crystalline structures. These mineral assemblages with immobilized fission products are then isolated in a durable high temperature glass for periods measured on a geologic time scale. This is a long term research concept and will begin with the laboratory synthesis of the pure spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3) and zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from their constituent oxides. High temperature furnace and/or thermal plasma will be used for the synthesis of these ceramic host phases. Nonradioactive strontium oxide will be doped into these ceramic phases to investigate the development of substitutional phases such as Mg1-xSrxAl2O4, Ca1-xSrxTiO3 and Ca1-xSrxZrTi2O7. X-ray diffraction will be used to establish the crystalline structures of the pure ceramic hosts and the substitution phases. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) will be performed for product morphology and fission product surrogates distribution in the crystalline hosts. The range of strontium doping is planned to reach the full substitution of the divalent

  11. Castleman's disease: an intrapulmonary form with intrafissural development.

    PubMed

    Racil, Hajer; Cheikh Rouhou, Sana; Ismail, Olfa; Hantous-Zannad, Saoussen; Chaouch, Nawel; Zarrouk, Mourad; Smati, Belhassen; Mezni, Faouzi; Chabbou, Abdellatif

    2009-09-14

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon, mainly benign, lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, mostly involving the mediastinum. Parenchymal lung involvement of the disease is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of CD in a 23-year-old woman with a 4-year history of recurring dyspnea and nonproductive cough, whose chest X-ray showed an abnormal shadow of the right hilum. Chest computed tomography confirmed the presence of a tissue-density mass of the right lower lobe, demonstrating poor contrast enhancement, associated with multiple laterotracheal and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The patient underwent curative surgery, revealing a right hilar compressive mass, with an intrafissural development between the superior and middle lobes. Pneumonectomy was performed due to profuse bleeding. This case of CD is particular because of its unusual intrapulmonary location and its intrafissural development. Poor contrast enhancement is atypical in CD.

  12. Novel Platform Development Using an Assembly of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold and Immobilized RNA Capture Element Towards Rapid, Selective Sensing of Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-12

    Using an Assembly of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold and Immobilized RNA Capture Element towards Rapid, Selective Sensing of Bacteria Elizabeth I. Maurer...direct synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the nanotube surface, and the attachment of thiolated RNA to the bound nanoparticles. The application of...Immobilized RNA Capture Element Towards Rapid, Selective Sensing Of Bacteria 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  13. Production of acid-stable and high-maltose-forming α-amylase of Bacillus acidicola by solid-state fermentation and immobilized cells and its applicability in baking.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Archana; Satyanarayana, T

    2012-11-01

    Among matrices used for immobilizing Bacillus acidicola cells [calcium alginate, chitosan + alginate, scotch brite, and polyurethane foam (PUF)], α-amylase production was highest by PUF-immobilized cells (9.1 U ml(-1)), which is higher than free cells (7.2 U ml(-1)). The PUF-immobilized cells could be reused over seven cycles with sustained α-amylase production. When three variables (moisture, starch, and ammonium sulfate), which significantly affected enzyme production in solid-state fermentation (SSF), were optimized using response surface methodology, 5.6-fold enhancement in enzyme production was attained. The enzyme production in SSF is 3.8-fold higher than that in submerged fermentation. The bread made by supplementing dough with α-amylase of B. acidicola scored better than those with the xylanase of Bacillus halodurans and thermostable α-amylase of Geobacillus thermoleovorans.

  14. Forming and developing your professional identity: easy as PI.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Heather Honoré; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2014-11-01

    Health education and promotion specialists and professional organizations have worked hard to successfully establish and maintain the status of health education/promotion (HE/P) as a unique and essential profession and to solidify practitioners' sense of professional identity. A professional identity is critical to a person's sense of self: It is about connecting with roles, responsibilities, values, and ethical standards unique to a specific profession. Professional identity is a complex issue in the HE/P profession; the distinction between personal and professional identities has been debated repeatedly over the years (e.g., should HE/P professionals be role models for clients?). The purpose of this Tool is to explain the concept of professional identity; provide new, emerging, and experienced HE/P with a greater understanding of what it means to have a professional identity; present processes and benchmarks of professional identity development; and offer specific tips and strategies for developing and enhancing an HE/P professional identity. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Forming design teams to develop healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Naveed; Jones, Donald R; Van Tran, Hien; Moses, Beulah

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare information systems are assuming an increasingly critical role in providing quality patient care in an effective and efficient manner. However, the success of these systems in achieving these goals remains a lingering concern. Consequently, investigating and devising strategies to enhance the likelihood of success of a healthcare information system continues to draw research interest. One strategy recommended by both researchers and practitioners alike is the participation of the target users in the design and development of the information system. However, practical considerations mandate representative, rather than universal, participation of users. Unfortunately, the information systems literature offers few guidelines for selecting user representatives to serve on a design team. This lack of guidelines easily results in system designers talking with the wrong users or managers assigning the wrong users to the design team. On the basis of the theoretical paradigms underlying the user participation and design team concepts, the authors examined and derived user characteristics that are considered the most critical criteria for selecting user members of a design team. They then report on a field survey they conducted to validate the derived criteria in healthcare information systems context. The authors conclude that the system-related functional expertise should be the primary criterion employed to select healthcare personnel to participate in system design and development. Other criteria, such as users' communication skills, computing backgrounds, and personality traits, should be given secondary considerations. Ignoring these guidelines can render user participation superfluous, resulting in system failures.

  16. Industrial applications of immobilized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Linko, P.; Linko, Y.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Although the application of the natural attraction of many microorganisms to surfaces has been applied in vinegar production since the early 1980s, and has long been utilized in waste water purification, the development of microbial cell immobilization techniques for special applications dates back only to the early 1960s. The immobilization may involve whole cells, cell fragments, or lysed cells. Whole cells may retain their metabolic activity with their complex multienzyme systems and cofactor regeneration mechanisms intact, or they may be killed in the process with only a few desired enzymes remaining active in the final biocatalyst. Cells may also be coimmobilized with an enzyme to carry out special reactions. Although relatively few industrial scale applications exist today, some are of very large scale. Current applications vary from relatively small scale steroid conversions to amino acid production and high fructose syrup manufacture. A vast number of potential applications are already known, and one of the most interesting applications may be in continuous fermentation such as ethanol production by immobilized living microorganisms. 373 references.

  17. Photo induced surface heparin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method providing durable layering of heparin immobilized hydrogels on fabricated devices. The preparation method is based on photochemistry of a dithiocarbamate group that is dissociated into a highly reactive radical pair upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. By taking advantage of characteristics of the photo generated radicals, hydrogel formation and its fixation onto a substrate surface were attained. The immobilization of heparin onto poly(ethylene terephtalate) was demonstrated. First, a mixed aqueous solution containing a photoreactive water soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-covinylbenzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and heparin was coated on the substrate. Subsequent UV irradiation resulted in the simultaneous formation of a heparin immobilized hydrogel and its chemical fixation onto the substrate. No delamination was found after vigorous washing with water. Significant inhibition of platelet adhesion and markedly prolonged blood coagulation times were observed, which are apparently derived from the surface hydrogel, and from released and chemically fixed surface heparin. Thus, it is expected that the photochemical method developed here provides potent antithrombogenicity to artificial organs.

  18. The mechanism of cesium immobilization in densified silica-fume blended cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Nes, G. Katz, A.; Peled, Y.; Zeiri, Y.

    2008-05-15

    The role of silica-fume agglomerates, found in densified silica-fume (DSF) pastes, in the immobilization mechanism of Cs ions was studied. Samples of cementitious pastes containing two different forms of silica fume - DSF and raw silica fume (RSF) - were prepared. Leaching experiments showed that both additives reduced the leachability of the metal ion, but the effect of the DSF paste was much stronger. Scanning Electron Microscopy, together with Differential Thermal Analysis, proved that no agglomerated particles were present in the RSF pastes and that the extent of pozzolanic reactivity was higher. We therefore believe that unreacted silica within the DSF agglomerates adsorbs Cs ions and consequently increases their immobilization. Furthermore, this work suggests that during the pozzolanic reaction, a hydrated rim develops around the agglomerate that acts as an additional diffusion barrier for the Cs ions, resulting in an increased efficiency of Cs immobilization.

  19. Near infrared spectroscopy in the development of solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Eetu; Sandler, Niklas

    2007-02-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has rapidly grown partly due to demands of process analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Furthermore, newest regulatory guidelines have advanced the increase of the use of NIR technologies. The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of measurements makes NIR a powerful tool in characterization of pharmaceutical solids. These benefits among others often make NIR advantageous over traditional analytical methods. However, in addition to NIR, a wide variety of other tools are naturally also available for analysis in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, and those can often be more suitable for a given application. The versatility and rapidness of NIR will ensure its contribution to increased process understanding, better process control and improved quality of drug products. This review concentrates on the use of NIR spectroscopy from a process research perspective and highlights recent applications in the field.

  20. Application of magnetic nanoparticles in smart enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Vaghari, Hamideh; Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Hoda; Mohammadlou, Mojgan; Berenjian, Aydin; Anarjan, Navideh; Jafari, Nahideh; Nasiri, Shahin

    2016-02-01

    Immobilization of enzymes enhances their properties for efficient utilization in industrial processes. Magnetic nanoparticles, due to their high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio and easy separation under external magnetic fields, are highly valued. Significant progress has been made to develop new catalytic systems that are immobilized onto magnetic nanocarriers. This review provides an overview of recent developments in enzyme immobilization and stabilization protocols using this technology. The current applications of immobilized enzymes based on magnetic nanoparticles are summarized and future growth prospects are discussed. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  1. Interim Report on Development of a Model to Predict Dissolution Behavior of the Titanate Waste Form in a Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1999-08-16

    Dissolution testing performed to date on a titanate waste form under development for plutonium immobilization reveals the following: (1) The wasteform is very durable. Many of the test results have shown the dissolution rate to be below detection or less than background levels of the constituent elements; (2) elemental release is non-stoichiometric with Pu, U, Ca, and Gd released faster than Ti and Hf at most pH conditions; (3) dissolution rates measured in flow-through tests sometimes show a continuous decrease with time in tests of up to two years duration; (4) attempts to model the dissolution as a transport-controlled process with diffusion through a leached layer as the rate limiting mechanism show reasonable agreement at low pH conditions but poor agreement at neutral to alkaline pHs. Based on present uncertainties in our understanding of rate control, we have provided conservative estimates of radionuclide release rates based on the fastest observed release rates measured in short-term tests. These dissolution rates under repository-relevant conditions are in the range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -6}g/m{sup 2}/day.

  2. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Development of a fully integrated falling film microreactor for gas-liquid-solid biotransformation with surface immobilized O2 -dependent enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan M; Krämer, Christina E M; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-09-01

    Microstructured flow reactors are powerful tools for the development of multiphase biocatalytic transformations. To expand their current application also to O2 -dependent enzymatic conversions, we have implemented a fully integrated falling film microreactor that provides controllable countercurrent gas-liquid phase contacting in a multi-channel microstructured reaction plate. Advanced non-invasive optical sensing is applied to measure liquid-phase oxygen concentrations in both in- and out-flow as well as directly in the microchannels (width: 600 μm; depth: 200 μm). Protein-surface interactions are designed for direct immobilization of catalyst on microchannel walls. Target enzyme (here: d-amino acid oxidase) is fused to the positively charged mini-protein Zbasic2 and the channel surface contains a negatively charged γ-Al2 O3 wash-coat layer. Non-covalent wall attachment of the chimeric Zbasic2 _oxidase resulted in fully reversible enzyme immobilization with fairly uniform surface coverage and near complete retention of biological activity. The falling film at different gas and liquid flow rates as well as reactor inclination angles was shown to be mostly wavy laminar. The calculated film thickness was in the range 0.5-1.3 × 10(-4)  m. Direct O2 concentration measurements at the channel surface demonstrated that the liquid side mass transfer coefficient (KL ) for O2 governed the overall gas/liquid/solid mass transfer and that the O2 transfer rate (≥0.75 mM · s(-1) ) vastly exceeded the maximum enzymatic reaction rate in a wide range of conditions. A value of 7.5 (±0.5) s(-1) was determined for the overall mass transfer coefficient KL a, comprising a KL of about 7 × 10(-5)  m · s(-1) and a specific surface area of up to 10(5)  m(-1) . Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1862-1872. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immobilized enzymes in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mosbach, K

    1985-01-01

    The immobilization of enzymes and cells by different methods and the possible stabilization of immobilized preparations are discussed. An outlook on 'second generation enzyme technology', which involves immobilized multi-enzyme systems and coenzymes, is given with examples: the immobilization of dehydrogenases with their active sites facing one another, and systems containing NAD(H) coenzymes immobilized by coupling to dextran (in an enzyme electrode), to polyethylene glycol (in a membrane reactor), or to enzymes themselves. The use of immobilized enzymes to synthesize peptides and disaccharides is described.

  5. Development and analytical application of a glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle-immobilized onion inner epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Huilun; Chen, Ke; Zhou, Yong; Ceccanti, Brunello; Zaray, Gyula; Choi, Martin M F

    2010-06-15

    A glucose biosensor comprising a glucose oxidase/O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle (O-HTCC NP)-immobilized onion inner membrane and a dissolved oxygen (O(2)) sensor has been successfully developed. The detection scheme is based on the depletion of dissolved O(2) content upon exposure to glucose. The decrease in O(2) level was monitored and related to the glucose concentration. The biosensor shows linear response to glucose from 0.0 to 0.60 mM with a detection limit of 50 microM (S/N=3). The effect of O-HTCC NP and enzyme loading, pH, temperature, and phosphate buffer concentration on the sensitivity of the biosensor was studied in detail. The biosensor exhibits fast response time (70s), good repeatability (3.2%, n=10) and storage stability (90% of initial sensitivity after 3-week storage). Common interferents including acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, folic acid, methanol, glycine, DL-alpha-alanine and DL-cysteine do not cause significant interferences on the biosensor. The proposed biosensor method was successfully applied to determine the glucose content in real samples such as orange juice, red wine and tea drink and the results were comparable to that obtained from a spectrophotometric method. The glucose recovery test demonstrates that the proposed glucose biosensor offers an excellent, accurate and precise method for the determination of glucose in real samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microfluidic flow cell for sequential digestion of immobilized proteoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Erik T; Trkulja, Carolina L; Olofsson, Jessica; Millingen, Maria; Wikström, Jennie; Jesorka, Aldo; Karlsson, Anders; Karlsson, Roger; Davidson, Max; Orwar, Owe

    2012-07-03

    We have developed a microfluidic flow cell where stepwise enzymatic digestion is performed on immobilized proteoliposomes and the resulting cleaved peptides are analyzed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The flow cell channels consist of two parallel gold surfaces mounted face to face with a thin spacer and feature an inlet and an outlet port. Proteoliposomes (50-150 nm in diameter) obtained from red blood cells (RBC), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, were immobilized on the inside of the flow cell channel, thus forming a stationary phase of proteoliposomes. The rate of proteoliposome immobilization was determined using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) which showed that 95% of the proteoliposomes bind within 5 min. The flow cell was found to bind a maximum of 1 μg proteoliposomes/cm(2), and a minimum proteoliposome concentration required for saturation of the flow cell was determined to be 500 μg/mL. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed an even distribution of immobilized proteoliposomes on the surface. The liquid encapsulated between the surfaces has a large surface-to-volume ratio, providing rapid material transfer rates between the liquid phase and the stationary phase. We characterized the hydrodynamic properties of the flow cell, and the force acting on the proteoliposomes during flow cell operation was estimated to be in the range of 0.1-1 pN, too small to cause any proteoliposome deformation or rupture. A sequential proteolytic protocol, repeatedly exposing proteoliposomes to a digestive enzyme, trypsin, was developed and compared with a single-digest protocol. The sequential protocol was found to detect ~65% more unique membrane-associated protein (p < 0.001, n = 6) based on peptide analysis with LC-MS/MS, compared to a single-digest protocol. Thus, the flow cell described herein is a suitable tool for shotgun proteomics on proteoliposomes, enabling more detailed characterization

  7. An overview of technologies for immobilization of enzymes and surface analysis techniques for immobilized enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Nur Royhaila; Marzuki, Nur Haziqah Che; Buang, Nor Aziah; Huyop, Fahrul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The current demands of sustainable green methodologies have increased the use of enzymatic technology in industrial processes. Employment of enzyme as biocatalysts offers the benefits of mild reaction conditions, biodegradability and catalytic efficiency. The harsh conditions of industrial processes, however, increase propensity of enzyme destabilization, shortening their industrial lifespan. Consequently, the technology of enzyme immobilization provides an effective means to circumvent these concerns by enhancing enzyme catalytic properties and also simplify downstream processing and improve operational stability. There are several techniques used to immobilize the enzymes onto supports which range from reversible physical adsorption and ionic linkages, to the irreversible stable covalent bonds. Such techniques produce immobilized enzymes of varying stability due to changes in the surface microenvironment and degree of multipoint attachment. Hence, it is mandatory to obtain information about the structure of the enzyme protein following interaction with the support surface as well as interactions of the enzymes with other proteins. Characterization technologies at the nanoscale level to study enzymes immobilized on surfaces are crucial to obtain valuable qualitative and quantitative information, including morphological visualization of the immobilized enzymes. These technologies are pertinent to assess efficacy of an immobilization technique and development of future enzyme immobilization strategies. PMID:26019635

  8. Not all stressors are equal: behavioral and endocrine evidence for development of contextual fear conditioning after a single session of footshocks but not of immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Daviu, Núria; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of animals to footshocks (FS) in absence of any specific cue results in the development of fear to the compartment where shocks were given (contextual fear conditioning), and this is usually evaluated by time spent freezing. However, the extent to which contextual fear conditioning always develops when animals are exposed to other stressors is not known. In the present work we firstly demonstrated, using freezing, that exposure of adult rats to a single session of FS resulted in short-term and long-term contextual fear conditioning (freezing) that was paralleled by increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation. In contrast, using a similar design, no HPA or behavioral evidence for such conditioning was found after exposure to immobilization on boards (IMO), despite this stressor being of similar severity as FS on the basis of standard physiological measures of stress, including HPA activation. In a final experiment we directly compared the exposure to the two stressors in the same type of context and tested for the development of conditioning to the context and to a specific cue for IMO (the board). We observed the expected high levels of freezing and the conditioned HPA activation after FS, but not after IMO, regardless of the presence of the board during testing. Therefore, it can be concluded that development of fear conditioning to context or particular cues, as evaluated by either behavioral or endocrine measures, appears to be dependent on the nature of the aversive stimuli, likely to be related to biologically preparedness to establish specific associations. PMID:23112767

  9. Low-temperature setting phosphate ceramics for stabilization of DOE problem low level mixed-waste: I. Material and waste form development

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-03-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.

  10. Immobilization of lysozyme on polyvinylalcohol films for active packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Bevilacqua, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2006-04-01

    A new technique for the immobilization of lysozyme onto the surface of polyvinylalcohol films is presented. The active compound was sprayed along with a suitable bonding agent onto the surface of the cross-linked polymeric matrix. Active compound release tests determined the amount of lysozyme immobilized on the film surface. With the use of Micrococcus lysodeikticus, the antimicrobial activity of the films was determined and the results correlated with the amount of immobilized lysozyme. This new technique was effective for immobilizing the enzyme, and the developed films were active against the test microorganism. Results were compared with those obtained with a different immobilizing technique, in which the active compound was bound into the bulk of the polymeric film. As expected, the surface-immobilized lysozyme films have a higher antimicrobial activity than bulk-bound films.

  11. Calmodulin-mediated reversible immobilization of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Daunert, Sylvia; Bachas, Leonidas G; Schauer-Vukasinovic, Vesna; Gregory, Kalvin J; Schrift, G; Deo, Sapna

    2007-07-01

    steps, which could cause inactivation of the immobilized enzyme. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the CaM affinity tag allows immobilization of enzymes on a variety of surfaces without compromising their enzymatic activity substantially; for example, the immobilized OPH retained more than 80% of the activity of the free enzyme. Our results with beta-lactamase showed the feasibility of using a phenothiazine surface in several consecutive loading and regeneration cycles. This can be advantageous when expensive and/or difficult to obtain immobilization surfaces have to be employed; the immobilization surface could be reused to immobilize the same or a different enzyme using the CaM affinity tail. We also determined that the phenothiazine-modified silica particles are stable for long periods of time, i.e., up to 2 years when stored at 4 degrees C. It is envisioned that this type of reversible immobilization may find applications in the development of reversible, reusable biosensors and bioreactors endowed with the additional advantage that the biological element at the surface of the sensor or bioreactor could be replaced under mild conditions when needed to sense or process a different target molecule.

  12. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  13. [Space flight/bedrest immobilization and bone. Development a devise to maintain the skeletal muscles in space].

    PubMed

    Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Nago, Takeshi; Masayuki, Omoto; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Tagawa, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a "hybrid training system" (HTS) that is designed to maintain the musculoskeletal system of astronauts by using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of agonist muscles in weightlessness. In other words, electrical stimulation generates a resistive force instead of gravity. HTS will become a useful back-up for the standard training device in the International Space Station, or a useful training device in the small space ship for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.

  14. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  15. Nanoporous Gold as a Solid Support for Protein Immobilization for the Development of Immunoassays, and for Biomolecular Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Binod Prasad

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is a versatile material of high surface area to volume ratio that can be readily modified with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols to which biomolecules can be linked. NPG presents new opportunities for the development of immunoassays, and for the development of carbohydrate based assays. This thesis explores the use of NPG as a support for self-assembled monolayers, their linkage to antibody-enzyme conjugates for immunoassay development, and for the study and application of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Direct kinetic electrochemical immunoassays were developed on NPG for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The decrease in enzymatic conversion of p-aminophenylphosphate to p-aminophenol, by alkaline phosphatase conjugated to an antibody, due to steric hindrance caused by the presence of antigen on antibody, was observed as a drop in peak current in square-wave voltammetry. Detection limit of these assays was 0.075 ng mL -1 and 0.015 ng mL-1 for PSA and CEA, respectively. Similarly, the linear range of determination of these biomarkers extended up to 30 ng mL-1 and 10 ng mL-1 for PSA and CEA, respectively. Minimal interference was observed using newborn calf serum as a substitute for the human serum matrix. A rapid and sensitive enzyme linked lectinsorbant assay was also developed for the study of glycoprotein-lectin interactions on the NPG surface. Self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on NPG were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Similarly, the applicability of this surface for the formation of carbohydrate monolayers and its application for lectin carbohydrate interactions was also studied. Pure and mixed SAMs of 8-mercaptooctyl β-D-mannopyranoside (αMan-C8-SH) and α-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Gal-(1α)-D-Glc-1-O-mercaptooctane (Gb3-C8-SH) with alkanethiols having varying tail groups were prepared. Binding affinity and binding kinetics of concanavalin A

  16. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  17. Development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical assay for evaluating the viability of small immobile arthropods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Craig B; Iline, Ilia I; Richards, Nicola K; Novoselov, Max; McNeill, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    Quickly, accurately, and easily assessing the efficacy of treatments to control sessile arthropods (e.g., scale insects) and stationary immature life stages (e.g., eggs and pupae) is problematic because it is difficult to tell whether treated organisms are alive or dead. Current approaches usually involve either maintaining organisms in the laboratory to observe them for development, gauging their response to physical stimulation, or assessing morphological characters such as turgidity and color. These can be slow, technically difficult, or subjective, and the validity of methods other than laboratory rearing has seldom been tested. Here, we describe development and validation of a quick easily used biochemical colorimetric assay for measuring the viability of arthropods that is sufficiently sensitive to test even very small organisms such as white fly eggs. The assay was adapted from a technique for staining the enzyme hexokinase to signal the presence of adenosine triphosphate in viable specimens by reducing a tetrazolium salt to formazan. Basic laboratory facilities and skills are required for production of the stain, but no specialist equipment, expertise, or facilities are needed for its use.

  18. Scaffolds for oriented and close-packed immobilization of immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masumi; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2017-03-15

    Immunosensing is a widely used technique that detects the interactions between antibodies and antigens such as biochemical markers, pathogens, allergens, and tumor-associated antigens. Since target antigens are often of high molecular mass and their binding affinities are sometimes weak, the spatial arrangement of immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) on immunosensing probes should be optimized by presenting them in as close-packed a manner as possible and reducing steric hindrance around the antigen-binding Fv regions. Both clustering and oriented immobilization of IgGs on immunosensing probes are thus important for enhancing the sensitivity and antigen-binding capacity of probes. Intact IgGs, IgG-derived fragments, or IgG-compatible fragments have previously been clustered onto solid phases with a variety of scaffold chemistries (e.g., crosslinkers, polymers, self-assembled monolayers, protein A/G, avidin, DNA) to improve immunosensing probes, none of these strategies has yet accomplished both clustering and oriented immobilization of IgGs. Recently, we developed an ~30-nm bio-nanocapsule (ZZ-BNC), consisting of transmembrane ZZ-L protein deploying a tandem form of the IgG Fc-binding Z domain derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A on its outer surface that functioned as a scaffold for the clustering and oriented immobilization of IgGs and Fc-fused biosensing molecules. In this review, we present an overview of conventional techniques for IgG immobilization and describe the molecular basis of the ZZ-BNC-based technology, discussing the potential and versatility of this technology not only in immunosensors but also in other types of biosensors.

  19. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  20. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  1. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  2. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. 141.14 Section 141.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development...

  3. New device for interdental immobilization.

    PubMed

    Divis, B O

    1992-09-01

    The immobilization of a simple fractured jaw with arch bars is a time-consuming, laborious procedure. The alternative method of immobilization described here uses a precisely threaded, 22-gauge, malleable stainless steel wire and a threaded nylon nut. It affords the surgeon relative safety from accidental puncture trauma and makes the interdental immobilization a precise and speedy procedure.

  4. Development of a novel pH sensor based upon Janus Green B immobilized on triacetyl cellulose membrane: Experimental design and optimization.

    PubMed

    Chamkouri, Narges; Niazi, Ali; Zare-Shahabadi, Vali

    2016-03-05

    A novel pH optical sensor was prepared by immobilizing an azo dye called Janus Green B on the triacetylcellulose membrane. Condition of the dye solution used in the immobilization step, including concentration of the dye, pH, and duration were considered and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed sensor showed good behavior and precision (RSD<5%) in the pH range of 2.0-10.0. Advantages of this optical sensor include on-line applicability, no leakage, long-term stability (more than 6 months), fast response time (less than 1 min), high selectivity and sensitivity as well as good reversibility and reproducibility.

  5. Development of a novel pH sensor based upon Janus Green B immobilized on triacetyl cellulose membrane: Experimental design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamkouri, Narges; Niazi, Ali; Zare-Shahabadi, Vali

    2016-03-01

    A novel pH optical sensor was prepared by immobilizing an azo dye called Janus Green B on the triacetylcellulose membrane. Condition of the dye solution used in the immobilization step, including concentration of the dye, pH, and duration were considered and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed sensor showed good behavior and precision (RSD < 5%) in the pH range of 2.0-10.0. Advantages of this optical sensor include on-line applicability, no leakage, long-term stability (more than 6 months), fast response time (less than 1 min), high selectivity and sensitivity as well as good reversibility and reproducibility.

  6. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  7. Determination of conformation and orientation of immobilized peptides and proteins at buried interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Ulrich, Nathan W.; Mello, Charlene M.; Chen, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Surface immobilized peptides/proteins have important applications such as antimicrobial coating and biosensing. We report a study of such peptides/proteins using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ATR-FTIR. Immobilization on surfaces via physical adsorption and chemical coupling revealed that structures of chemically immobilized peptides are determined by immobilization sites, chemical environments, and substrate surfaces. In addition, controlling enzyme orientation by engineering the surface immobilization site demonstrated that structures can be well-correlated to measured chemical activity. This research facilitates the development of immobilized peptides/proteins with improved activities by optimizing their surface orientation and structure.

  8. 18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND PUBLIC... existing and potential recreational use at developments within projects under major and minor license,...

  9. Lindane removal by pure and mixed cultures of immobilized actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Saez, Juliana M; Benimeli, Claudia S; Amoroso, María J

    2012-11-01

    Lindane (γ-HCH) is an organochlorine insecticide that has been widely used in developing countries. It is known to persist in the environment and can cause serious health problems. One of the strategies adopted to remove lindane from the environment is bioremediation using microorganisms. Immobilized cells present advantages over free suspended cells, like their high degradation efficiency and protection against toxins. The aims of this work were: (1) To evaluate the ability of Streptomyces strains immobilized in four different matrices to remove lindane, (2) To select the support with optimum lindane removal by pure cultures, (3) To assay the selected support with consortia and (4) To evaluate the reusability of the immobilized cells. Four Streptomyces sp. strains had previously shown their ability to grow in the presence of lindane. Lindane removal by microorganisms immobilized was significantly higher than in free cells. Specifically immobilized cells in cloth sachets showed an improvement of around 25% in lindane removal compared to the abiotic control. Three strains showed significantly higher microbial growth when they were entrapped in silicone tubes. Strains immobilized in PVA-alginate demonstrated lowest growth. Mixed cultures immobilized inside cloth sachets showed no significant enhancement compared to pure cultures, reaching a maximum removal of 81% after 96 h for consortium I, consisting of the four immobilized strains together. Nevertheless, the cells could be reused for two additional cycles of 96 h each, obtaining a maximum removal efficiency of 71.5% when each of the four strains was immobilized in a separate bag (consortium III).

  10. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientific insights into widely used TiO2 supported on carbonaceous materials emanating from biopolymeric materials such as lignin, cellulose, cellulose acetate, bacterial cellulose, bamboo, wood, starch, chitosan and agricultural residues (biochar, charcoal, activated carbon and their magnetic forms, coal fly ash) or seafood wastes namely eggshell, clamshell and fish scales; materials that serve as a support/template for TiO2. Heightened awareness and future inspirational developments for the valorisation of various forms of carbonaceous functional materials is the main objective. This appraisal abridges various strategies available to upgrade renewable carbon-based feedstock via the generation of sustainable TiO2/carbon functional materials and provides remarks on their future prospects. Hopefully, this will stimulate the development of efficient and novel composite photocatalysts and engender the necessary knowledge base for further advancements in greener photocatalytic technologies. Prepared as a Critical Review for the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry. This review discusses the sustainable use of earth-abundant materials exemplified by Titanium dioxide and carbon.

  11. Immobilization of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes on inorganic supports

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, K.; Ishihara, M.

    1987-02-05

    Commercial cellulase preparations from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger were immobilized on porous silica glass and ceramics such as alumina and titania with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl/sub 4/) and on their silanized derivatives with glutaraldehyde (GLUT). The amounts of the immobilized enzymes were in the range 10-50 mg/g carrier (dry) depending on the kind of carrier and immobilization method. Their activities toward carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xylan, aryl-..beta..-glucoside, and aryl-..beta..-xyloside were 3-53% of those of the native enzymes. The optimum pH of the enzymes shifted to the acidic side in most cases, whereas the optimum temperatures were nearly the same as those of native ones. The activity of immobilized enzyme preparations toward CMC did not change significantly during continuous operation over a period of 60 days. Finally, xylan was hydrolyzed with the immobilized enzymes, and the sugars formed were investigated. 22 reference.

  12. Glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscles from immobilized limbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, W. F.; Watson, P. A.; Booth, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    Defects in glucose metabolism in muscles of immobilized limbs of mice were related to alterations in insulin binding, insulin responsiveness, glucose supply, and insulin activation of glycogen synthase. These were tested by in vitro methodology. A significant lessening in the insulin-induced maximal response of 2-deoxyglucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle occurred between the 3rd and 8th h of limb immobilization, suggesting a decreased insulin responsiveness. Lack of change in the specific binding of insulin to muscles of 24-h immobilized limbs indicates that a change in insulin receptor number did not play a role in the failure of insulin to stimulate glucose metabolism. Its inability to stimulate glycogen synthesis in muscle from immobilized limbs is due, in part, to a lack of glucose supply to glycogen synthesis and also to the ineffectiveness of insulin to increase the percentage of glycogen synthase in its active form in muscles from 24-h immobilized limbs.

  13. Development of Reliable and Valid Short Forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William M.

    1982-01-01

    Developed, on the basis of responses from 608 undergraduate students to the 33-item Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, three short forms of the scale. Comparisons made between the short forms examined in this investigation suggest the 13-item form as a viable substitute for the regular 33-item Marlowe-Crowne scale. (Author)

  14. Plasma-enhanced antibody immobilization for the development of a capillary-based carcinoembryonic antigen immunosensor using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaoling; Zhan, Xuefang; Liu, Kunping; Lv, Hao; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-05-07

    In this study, antibody immobilization using a microwave-induced H2O/Ar plasma pretreatment was achieved for the first time. Plasma was used to activate the surface of a capillary-based immunosensor by increasing the density of silicon hydroxyls and dangling bonds to ensure better silanization. The capture antibodies were covalently immobilized after the silanized surface reacted with glutaraldehyde and antibodies. A Cy3-labeled detection antibody was used in combination with the antigen captured by the immunosensor to complete the sandwich-type immunoassay, and the signals were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence system. Microwave-induced H2O/Ar plasma pretreatment of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) immunosensor improved the antibody immobilization, and there was an obvious improvement in the linear detection range, i.e., 1 order of magnitude compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This novel immobilization method dramatically improved the detection limit (0.5 pmol/L CEA) and sensitivity. Assay validation studies indicated that the correlation coefficient reached 0.9978, and the relative standard deviations were <7% for all samples, with recoveries of 99.7-107.1%. Furthermore, the immunosensor was applied successfully to CEA determination in actual saliva specimens with high sensitivity, acceptable precision, and reasonable accuracy. This enhanced CEA immunosensor based on microwave-induced H2O/Ar plasma was demonstrated to be a sensitive tool for CEA diagnostics.

  15. Biopharmaceutical considerations and characterizations in development of colon targeted dosage forms for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Malayandi, Rajkumar; Kondamudi, Phani Krishna; Ruby, P K; Aggarwal, Deepika

    2014-04-01

    Colon targeted dosage forms have been extensively studied for the localized treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. These dosage forms not only improve the therapeutic efficacy but also reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions and hence improve the patient compliance. However, complex and highly variable gastro intestinal physiology limits the clinical success of these dosage forms. Biopharmaceutical characteristics of these dosage forms play a key role in rapid formulation development and ensure the clinical success. The complexity in product development and clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms are based on the biopharmaceutical characteristics such as physicochemical properties of drug substances, pharmaceutical characteristics of dosage form, physiological conditions and pharmacokinetic properties of drug substances as well as drug products. Various in vitro and in vivo techniques have been employed in past to characterize the biopharmaceutical properties of colon targeted dosage forms. This review focuses on the factors influencing the biopharmaceutical performances of the dosage forms, in vitro characterization techniques and in vivo studies.

  16. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Clinical immobilization techniques for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Wroe, Andrew J; Bush, David A; Schulte, Reinhard W; Slater, Jerry D

    2015-02-01

    Proton therapy through the use of the Bragg peak affords clinicians a tool with which highly conformal dose can be delivered to the target while minimizing integral dose to surrounding healthy tissue. To gain maximum benefit from proton therapy adequate patient immobilization must be maintained to ensure accurate dose delivery. While immobilization in external beam radiation therapy is designed to minimize inter- and intra-fraction target motion, in proton therapy there are other additional aspects which must be considered, chief of which is accurately determining and maintaining the targets water-equivalent depth along the beam axis. Over the past 23 years of treating with protons, the team at the James M. Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center have developed and implemented extensive immobilization systems to address the specific needs of protons. In this publication we review the immobilization systems that are used at Loma Linda in the treatment of head and neck, prostate, upper GI, lung and breast disease, along with a description of the intracranial radiosurgery immobilization system used in the treatment of brain metastasis and arteriovenous malformations (AVM's). © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Evaluation of Fungal Laccase Immobilized on Natural Nanostructured Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zou, Min; Hong, Feng F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of using native bacterial nanocellulose (BC) as a carrier for laccase immobilization. BC was synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was statically cultivated in a mannitol-based medium and was freeze-dried to form BC sponge after purification. For the first time, fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on the native nanofibril network-structured BC sponge through physical adsorption and cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The properties including morphologic and structural features of the BC as well as the immobilized enzyme were thoroughly investigated. It was found that enzyme immobilized by cross-linking exhibited broader pH operation range of high catalytic activity as well as higher running stability compared to free and adsorbed enzyme. Using ABTS as substrate, the optimum pH value was 3.5 for the adsorption-immobilized laccase and 4.0 for the crosslinking-immobilized laccase. The immobilized enzyme retained 69% of the original activity after being recycled seven times. Novel applications of the BC-immobilized enzyme tentatively include active packaging, construction of biosensors, and establishment of bioreactors. PMID:26617585

  19. Highly efficient method towards in situ immobilization of invertase using cryogelation.

    PubMed

    Olcer, Zehra; Ozmen, Mehmet Murat; Sahin, Zeynep M; Yilmaz, Faruk; Tanriseven, Aziz

    2013-12-01

    A novel method was developed for the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase within supermacroporous polyacrylamide cryogel and was used to produce invert sugar. First, the cross-linking of invertase with soluble polyglutaraldehyde (PGA) was carried out prior to immobilization in order to increase the bulkiness of invertase and thus preventing the leakage of the cross-linked enzyme after immobilization by entrapment. And then, in situ immobilization of PGA cross-linked invertase within cryogel synthesis was achieved by free radical polymerization in semi-frozen state. The method resulted in 100 % immobilization and 74 % activity yields. The immobilized invertase retained all the initial activity for 30 days and 30 batch reactions. Immobilization had no effect on optimum temperature and it was 60 °C for both free and immobilized enzyme. However, optimum pH was affected upon immobilization. Optimum pH values for free and immobilized enzyme were 4.5 and 5.0, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at high pH and temperatures. The kinetic parameters for free and immobilized invertase were also determined. The newly developed method is simple yet effective and could be used for the immobilization of some other enzymes and microorganisms.

  20. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  1. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  2. Development and Validation of a Rasch-Derived CES-D Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jason C.; Rabin, Adele S.; Smith, Tom L.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    The current study presents a Rasch-derived short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for use as a depression screening tool in the general population. In contrast to short forms developed with reliance on classical measurement techniques, those developed using techniques based on item response theory produce a…

  3. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  4. 48 CFR 52.246-9 - Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Clauses 52.246-9 Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form). As prescribed in 46.309, insert the following clause: Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Government has the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of Research and...

  5. Item Selection for the Development of Short Forms of Scales Using an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Huang, I-Chan; Marcoulides, George A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the use of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the development of short forms of scales. An example 22-item short form is developed for the Diabetes-39 scale, a quality-of-life scale for diabetes patients, using a sample of 265 diabetes patients. A simulation study comparing the performance of the ACO algorithm and…

  6. Item Selection for the Development of Short Forms of Scales Using an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Huang, I-Chan; Marcoulides, George A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the use of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the development of short forms of scales. An example 22-item short form is developed for the Diabetes-39 scale, a quality-of-life scale for diabetes patients, using a sample of 265 diabetes patients. A simulation study comparing the performance of the ACO algorithm and…

  7. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  9. How we developed eForms: an electronic form and data capture tool to support assessment in mobile medical education.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Jane S; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Lumsden, Colin J

    2014-12-01

    Mobile learning technologies are being introduced and adopted by an increasing number of medical schools. Following the implementation of these devices, institutions are tasked with the challenge of their integration into curriculum delivery and presented with the opportunity to facilitate data collection from large student cohorts. Since 2011, Manchester Medical School (MMS) has undertaken the largest deployment of iPads within UK Higher Education. Working towards the more efficient collation of students' compulsory workplace-based assessment data led us to evaluate how existing information management software could replace previously paper-based systems. Following an evaluation of six, and a trial of one, commercially available packages, the existing software solutions were found to be inflexible and unfit for purpose. This resulted in the development of a new digital solution that addressed the limitations of the previous system. "University of Manchester (UoM) eForms" consists of an app and a web-based administration system that respectively permit high volume data collection and management. UoM eForms has now replaced the preceding paper-based and electronic systems within MMS for workplace-based assessment administration, due to the improved usability and dynamicity built into its interface and infrastructure. This new system has found many further useful applications, including research data collection, feedback, placement evaluations, quality assurance and interview marking.

  10. 48 CFR 46.309 - Research and development contracts (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and development... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.309 Research and development contracts... Development (Short Form), in solicitations and contracts for research and development when the clause...

  11. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  12. IN SITU LEAD IMMOBILIZATION BY APATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead contamination is of environmental concern due to its effect on human health. The purpose of this study was to develop a technology to immobilize Pb in situ in contaminated soils and wastes using apatite. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(O...

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  14. Characteristics of potential repository wastes. Volume 3, Appendix 3A, ORIGEN2 decay tables for immobilized high-level waste; Appendix 3B, Interim high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This appendix presents the results of decay calculations using the ORIGEN2 code to determine the radiological properties of canisters of immobilized high-level waste as a function of decay time for decay times up to one million years. These calculations were made for the four HLW sites (West Valley Demonstration Project, Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) using the composition data discussed in the HLW section of this report. Calculated ({alpha},n) neutron production rates are also shown.

  15. From protein engineering to immobilization: promising strategies for the upgrade of industrial enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raushan Kumar; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2013-01-10

    Enzymes found in nature have been exploited in industry due to their inherent catalytic properties in complex chemical processes under mild experimental and environmental conditions. The desired industrial goal is often difficult to achieve using the native form of the enzyme. Recent developments in protein engineering have revolutionized the development of commercially available enzymes into better industrial catalysts. Protein engineering aims at modifying the sequence of a protein, and hence its structure, to create enzymes with improved functional properties such as stability, specific activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Soluble enzymes are often immobilized onto solid insoluble supports to be reused in continuous processes and to facilitate the economical recovery of the enzyme after the reaction without any significant loss to its biochemical properties. Immobilization confers considerable stability towards temperature variations and organic solvents. Multipoint and multisubunit covalent attachments of enzymes on appropriately functionalized supports via linkers provide rigidity to the immobilized enzyme structure, ultimately resulting in improved enzyme stability. Protein engineering and immobilization techniques are sequential and compatible approaches for the improvement of enzyme properties. The present review highlights and summarizes various studies that have aimed to improve the biochemical properties of industrially significant enzymes.

  16. From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raushan Kumar; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes found in nature have been exploited in industry due to their inherent catalytic properties in complex chemical processes under mild experimental and environmental conditions. The desired industrial goal is often difficult to achieve using the native form of the enzyme. Recent developments in protein engineering have revolutionized the development of commercially available enzymes into better industrial catalysts. Protein engineering aims at modifying the sequence of a protein, and hence its structure, to create enzymes with improved functional properties such as stability, specific activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Soluble enzymes are often immobilized onto solid insoluble supports to be reused in continuous processes and to facilitate the economical recovery of the enzyme after the reaction without any significant loss to its biochemical properties. Immobilization confers considerable stability towards temperature variations and organic solvents. Multipoint and multisubunit covalent attachments of enzymes on appropriately functionalized supports via linkers provide rigidity to the immobilized enzyme structure, ultimately resulting in improved enzyme stability. Protein engineering and immobilization techniques are sequential and compatible approaches for the improvement of enzyme properties. The present review highlights and summarizes various studies that have aimed to improve the biochemical properties of industrially significant enzymes. PMID:23306150

  17. Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Singh, Minashree; Norman, Lana; Kaur, Kamaljit; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, we developed and optimized a technique to produce a thin, stable silane layer on silicon substrate in a controlled environment using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). The effect of APTES concentration and silanization time on the formation of silane layer is studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biomolecules of interest are immobilized on optimized silane layer formed silicon substrates using glutaraldehyde linker. Surface analytical techniques such as ellipsometry, FTIR, contact angle measurement system, and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize the bio-chemically modified silicon surfaces at each step of the biomolecule immobilization process. It is observed that a uniform, homogenous and highly dense layer of biomolecules are immobilized with optimized silane layer on the silicon substrate. The developed immobilization method is successfully implemented on different silicon substrates (flat and pillar). Also, different types of biomolecules such as anti-human IgG (rabbit monoclonal to human IgG), Listeria monocytogenes, myoglobin and dengue capture antibodies were successfully immobilized. Further, standard sandwich immunoassay (antibody-antigen-antibody) is employed on respective capture antibody coated silicon substrates. Fluorescence microscopy is used to detect the respective FITC tagged detection antibodies bound to the surface after immunoassay.

  18. The Design of Simple Bacterial Microarrays: Development towards Immobilizing Single Living Bacteria on Predefined Micro-Sized Spots on Patterned Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Arnfinnsdottir, Nina Bjørk; Ottesen, Vegar; Lale, Rahmi; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a procedure for preparing bacterial arrays that is fast, easy, and applicable in a standard molecular biology laboratory. Microcontact printing is used to deposit chemicals promoting bacterial adherence in predefined positions on glass surfaces coated with polymers known for their resistance to bacterial adhesion. Highly ordered arrays of immobilized bacteria were obtained using microcontact printed islands of polydopamine (PD) on glass surfaces coated with the antiadhesive polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG). On such PEG-coated glass surfaces, bacteria were attached to 97 to 100% of the PD islands, 21 to 62% of which were occupied by a single bacterium. A viability test revealed that 99% of the bacteria were alive following immobilization onto patterned surfaces. Time series imaging of bacteria on such arrays revealed that the attached bacteria both divided and expressed green fluorescent protein, both of which indicates that this method of patterning of bacteria is a suitable method for single-cell analysis. PMID:26039378

  19. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  20. Bone tunnel change develops within two weeks of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring autograft: A comparison of different postoperative immobilization periods using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ryo; Adachi, Nobuo; Ishifuro, Minoru; Nakamae, Atsuo; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone tunnel changes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction during the early postoperative period using computed tomography (CT), and to understand the impact of postoperative immobilization on these changes. Twenty patients who underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendon autografts were included. We subcategorized patients into two groups: patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction and had three days of knee immobilization (Group A, n=10); and patients with concomitant meniscus injuries who underwent ACL reconstruction and meniscus repair simultaneously (Group B, n=10) had their knees immobilized for two weeks after surgery. Bone tunnel enlargement was evaluated using CT imaging at one to three days, two weeks, one month, three months and six months after surgery. The cross-sectional area of the femoral and tibial tunnels was measured, and enlargement rate was calculated. The tunnel center location at two weeks after surgery was also evaluated. The mean cross-sectional area adjacent to the joint space of the femoral and tibial tunnels significantly increased immediately after surgery, especially in the first month (P<0.01). However, after one to six months they were not increased (P>0.01). There was no significant difference in tunnel enlargement rate between group A and B. Tunnel center location changed even in the first two weeks. Bone tunnel enlargement following double-bundle ACL reconstruction occurred at an earlier time point after surgery than anticipated. Postoperative immobilization could not prevent bone tunnel enlargement, but might prevent tunnel migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immobilization of catalase on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane for the development of efficient and reusable enzyme membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quan; Zhao, Yong; Wei, Anfang; Li, Changlong; Wei, Qufu; Fong, Hao

    2014-09-02

    In this study, a mat/membrane consisting of overlaid PVA/PA6-Cu(II) composite nanofibers was prepared via the electrospinning technique followed by coordination/chelation with Cu(II) ions; an enzyme of catalase (CAT) was then immobilized onto the PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane. The amount of immobilized catalase reached a high value of 64 ± 4.6 mg/g, while the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of enzyme were 3774 μmol/mg·min and 41.13 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal stability and storage stability of immobilized catalase were improved significantly. Thereafter, a plug-flow type of immobilized enzyme membrane reactor (IEMR) was assembled from the PVA/PA6-Cu(II)-CAT membrane. With the increase of operational pressure from 0.02 to 0.2 MPa, the flux value of IEMR increased from 0.20 ± 0.02 to 0.76 ± 0.04 L/m(2)·min, whereas the conversion ratio of H2O2 decreased slightly from 92 ± 2.5% to 87 ± 2.1%. After 5 repeating cycles, the production capacity of IEMR was merely decreased from 0.144 ± 0.006 to 0.102 ± 0.004 mol/m(2)·min. These results indicated that the assembled IEMR possessed high productivity and excellent reusability, suggesting that the IEMR based on electrospun PVA/PA6-Cu(II) nanofibrous membrane might have great potential for various applications, particularly those related to environmental protection.

  2. The potential of computed crystal energy landscapes to aid solid-form development.

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Solid-form screening to identify all solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) has become increasingly important in ensuring the quality by design of pharmaceutical products and their manufacturing processes. However, despite considerable enlargement of the range of techniques that have been shown capable of producing novel solid forms, it is possible that practically important forms might not be found in the short timescales currently allowed for solid-form screening. Here, we report on the state-of-the-art use of computed crystal energy landscapes to complement pharmaceutical solid-form screening. We illustrate how crystal energy landscapes can help establish molecular-level understanding of the crystallization behavior of APIs and enhance the ability of solid-form screening to facilitate pharmaceutical development.

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  4. Biocatalytic behaviour of immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the 1,3-selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil to obtain a biofuel similar to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos; Verdugo, Cristóbal; Sancho, Enrique D; Luna, Diego; Calero, Juan; Posadillo, Alejandro; Bautista, Felipa M; Romero, Antonio A

    2014-08-04

    A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt %) support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively). Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses) without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  5. Can Embedding Prompts in the IFSP Form Improve the Quality of IFSPs Developed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in what ways the quality of plans developed by individualized family service plan (IFSP) teams changed following targeted revisions to the IFSP form and instruction manual. IFSPs were collected from 94 family service coordinators, one IFSP from each before and one from each after the form revision. The…

  6. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  7. Can Embedding Prompts in the IFSP Form Improve the Quality of IFSPs Developed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine in what ways the quality of plans developed by individualized family service plan (IFSP) teams changed following targeted revisions to the IFSP form and instruction manual. IFSPs were collected from 94 family service coordinators, one IFSP from each before and one from each after the form revision. The…

  8. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  9. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  10. The Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Childhood Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hui; Tse, Shek Kam; Sin Wong, Jessie Ming; Mei Wong, Eileen Chin; Leung, Shing On

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated question acquisition in Cantonese-speaking young children with a focus on the development of interrogative forms and functions. Data from a child Cantonese corpus (492 children aged 36, 48 and 60 months) were analysed. The main results were that: (1) all the interrogative forms and functions were produced by the three age…

  11. Pedagogical Guest Room as an Educational Form of Students' Pedagogical Competence Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabirova, Elvira G.

    2016-01-01

    Actuality of the studied problem is conditioned by the fact that certain work forms with students represent possibilities for organizing educative activity of more complex level. The article is aimed on revealing educative potentiality of "pedagogical guest room" as one of the forms intended on development of students' pedagogical…

  12. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  13. Factor Structure and Construct Validity of the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Wilbur, Michael P.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Phan, Loan T.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory factor analysis of the scores of 248 counselors-in-training on the Counselor Skills Personal Development Rating Form (CSPD-RF). Authors of the test hypothesized that the CPSD-RF measured 2 factors, personal development and skills development. Factor analysis revealed 4 factors accounting for 58.4% of the total variance,…

  14. Effect of low molecular weight additives on immobilization strength, activity, and conformation of protein immobilized on PVC and UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Nosworthy, Neil J; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2011-05-17

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized onto both plasticized and unplasticized polyvinylchloride (PVC) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) in a nitrogen plasma with 20 kV bias was used to facilitate covalent immobilization and to improve the wettability of the surfaces. The surfaces and immobilized protein were studied using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Protein elution on exposure to repeated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) washing was used to assess the strength of HRP immobilization. The presence of low molecular weight components (plasticizer, additives in solvent, unreacted monomers, adsorbed molecules on surface) was found to have a major influence on the strength of immobilization and the conformation of the protein on the samples not exposed to the PIII treatment. A phenomenological model considering interactions between the low molecular weight components, the protein molecule, and the surface is developed to explain these observations.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a green nano-support for the covalent immobilization of glucoamylase from Neurospora sitophila.

    PubMed

    Syed, Fatima; Ali, Khurshid; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Fraz, Muhammad Gul; Khan, Zahid; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Raheela; Ahmad, Aftab

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of green nano supports for the covalent immobilization of enzymes is of special interest both from the economic and environmental point of view. In this contribution, we report on the synthesis of phytochemicals coated silver nanoparticles, which were used as a novel green support for the covalent immobilization of glucoamylase isolated from Neurospora sitophila. The aqueous extract of Fagonia indica was used as a source of reducing and capping agents for the reduction of silver ions into silver nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to detect the characteristic surface plasmon resonance bands (426, 438nm) of the silver nanoparticles. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were mostly spherical in shapes with an average particle size of 30-40nm (TEM and DLS measurements). X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray studies confirmed the face centered cubic crystalline form and elemental composition of the biogenic silver nanoparticles respectively. FTIR study revealed that plant polyphenolics and protein were mainly involved in the reduction and capping of silver ions. Glucoamylase from Neurospora sitophila was covalently immobilized to these nanoparticles via EDC (1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl) 3-ethylcarbodiimidehydrochloride) coupling reaction. The immobilized enzyme exhibited higher pH and thermal stabilities as compared to the free enzyme. The kinetic constant (KM) value for the immobilized glucoamylase was higher (0.73mg/mL) than its free counterpart (0.44mg/mL), whereas the Vmax value was slightly higher for the immobilized glucoamylase. The findings of this study conclude that the newly developed green method for the synthesis of green nano-support is simple, cost effective and could be successfully used for the immobilization of various enzymes and other macromolecules.

  16. Phosphatidylserine immobilization of lentivirus for localized gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungjin; Tuinstra, Hannah M.; Salvay, David M.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2010-01-01

    Localized and efficient gene transfer can be promoted by exploiting the interaction between the vector and biomaterial. Regulation of the vector-material interaction was investigated by capitalizing on the binding between lentivirus and phosphatidylserine (PS), a component of the plasma membrane. PS was incorporated into microspheres composed of the copolymers of lactide and glycolide (PLG) using an emulsion process. Increasing the weight ratio of PS to PLG led to a greater incorporation of PS. Lentivirus, but not adenovirus, associated with PS-PLG microspheres, and binding was specific to PS relative to PLG alone or PLG modified with phosphatidylcholine. Immobilized lentivirus produced large numbers of transduced cells, and increased transgene expression relative to virus alone. Microspheres were subsequently formed into porous tissue engineering scaffolds, with retention of lentivirus binding. Lentivirus immobilization resulted in long-term and localized expression within a subcutaneously implanted scaffold. Microspheres were also formed into multiple channel bridges for implantation into the spinal cord. Lentivirus delivery from the bridge produced maximal expression at the implant and a gradient of expression rostrally and caudally. This specific binding of lentiviral vectors to biomaterial scaffolds may provide a versatile tool for numerous applications in regenerative medicine or within model systems that investigate tissue development. PMID:20206382

  17. Immobilization of Procerain B, a Cysteine Endopeptidase, on Amberlite MB-150 Beads

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Singh, Sushant; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in several crucial biological processes and reported to have important physiological functions. They also have multifarious applications in different industries. The immobilized form of the enzyme further improves its industrial applicability. Here, we report covalent immobilization of a novel cysteine endopeptidase (procerain B) on amberlite MB-150 beads through glutaraldehyde by Schiff base linkage. The immobilized product was examined extensively by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The characterization of the immobilized product showed broader pH and thermal optima compared to the soluble form of the enzyme. The immobilized form of procerain B also showed lower Km (180.27±6 µM) compared to the soluble enzyme using azocasein as substrate. Further, immobilized procerain B retains 38.6% activity till the 10th use, which strongly represents its industrial candidature. PMID:23776589

  18. Immobilization of chloride-rich radioactive wastes produced by pyrochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Terry, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    A a result of its former role as a producer of nuclear weapons components, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Golden, Colorado accumulated a variety of plutonium-contaminated materials. When the level of contamination exceeded a predetermined level (the economic discard limit), the materials were classified as residues rather than waste and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. Although large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, remain in storage at the site. It is planned for the residues with lower concentrations of plutonium to be disposed of as wastes at an appropriate disposal facility, probably the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because the plutonium concentration is too high or because the physical or chemical form would be difficult to get into a form acceptable to WIPP, it may not be possible to dispose of a portion of the residues at WIPP. The pyrochemical salts are among the residues that are difficult to dispose of. For a large percentage of the pyrochemical salts, safeguards controls are required, but WIPP was not designed to accommodate safeguards controls. A potential solution would be to immobilize the salts. These immobilized salts would contain substantially higher plutonium concentrations than is currently permissible but would be suitable for disposal at WIPP. This document presents the results of a review of three immobilization technologies to determine if mature technologies exist that would be suitable to immobilize pyrochemical salts: cement-based stabilization, low-temperature vitrification, and polymer encapsulation. The authors recommend that flow sheets and life-cycle costs be developed for cement-based and low-temperature glass immobilization.

  19. Enhanced stability of catalase covalently immobilized on functionalized titania submicrospheres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Shi, Jiafu; Wang, Xiaoli; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a novel approach combing the chelation and covalent binding was explored for facile and efficient enzyme immobilization. The unique capability of titania to chelate with catecholic derivatives at ambient conditions was utilized for titania surface functionalization. The functionalized titania was then used for enzyme immobilization. Titania submicrospheres (500-600 nm) were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method and functionalized with carboxylic acid groups through a facile chelation method by using 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propionic acid as the chelating agent. Then, catalase (CAT) was covalently immobilized on these functionalized titania submicrospheres through 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. The immobilized CAT retained 65% of its free form activity with a loading capacity of 100-150 mg/g titania. The pH stability, thermostability, recycling stability and storage stability of the immobilized CAT were evaluated. A remarkable enhancement in enzyme stability was achieved. The immobilized CAT retained 90% and 76% of its initial activity after 10 and 16 successive cycles of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Both the Km and the Vmax values of the immobilized CAT (27.4 mM, 13.36 mM/min) were close to those of the free CAT (25.7 mM, 13.46 mM/min).

  20. Enhanced growth of lactobacilli in soymilk upon immobilization on agrowastes.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Ahmad, Rosma; Wan-Abdullah, Wan-Nadiah; Liong, Min-Tze

    2010-04-01

    Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) as immobilizers for lactobacilli grown in soymilk. Rinds from the agrowastes were separated from the skin, dried, and ground (150 microm) to form powders and used as immobilizers. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lactobacilli cells were attached and bound to the surface of the immobilizers. Immobilized cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411 were inoculated into soymilk, stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) and growth properties were evaluated over 168 h. Soymilk inoculated with nonimmobilized cells was used as the control. Utilization of substrates, concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, and changes in pH were evaluated in soymilk over 186 h. Immobilized lactobacilli showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) compared to the control, accompanied by higher production of lactic and acetic acids in soymilk. Soymilk containing immobilized cells showed greater reduction of soy sugars such as stachyose, raffinose, sucrose, fructose, and glucose compared to the control (P < 0.05).

  1. Manipulating of living cells by micropattern-immobilized biosignal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yoshihiro

    2001-03-01

    Recent progress in biological science has revealed many types of biosignal proteins. The signal proteins regulate various cell functions such as growth, differentiation, mobility, secretion, and apotosis. It was known that the proteins interact with the cognate receptor on the cell surface to form complexes, and that the complexes are internalized into the cells and are decomposed in the cell. Recently we found that immobilized biosignal proteins had the potential to regulate the cell's functions without internalization. This was confirmed by micropattern-immobilization of biosignal molecules. Micropattern immobilization of proteins was peformed by photolithography as follows. The protein was mixed with photo-reactive polymers synthesized and the mixture was deposited on a polymeric plate. The cast plate was covered with photo-mask and photo-irradiated. Protein just on the irraditated regions was immobilized. Micropattern-immobilized insulin or epidermal growth factor significantly enhanced cell growth. In addition, icropattern-immobilized tumor necrosis factor and nerve growth factor induced apotosis and neural differentiation of cells, respectively. Micropatterning technology enabled us not only to visualize the effects of immobilized proteins on the cell functions, but also to make new micro-fabricated biomaterials.

  2. Immobilization of fungal laccase onto a nonionic surfactant-modified clay material: application to PAH degradation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Tang; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Liu, Keng-Hua; Liao, Yi-Fen; Yang, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    Nonionic surfactant-modified clay is a useful absorbent material that effectively removes hydrophobic organic compounds from soil/groundwater. We developed a novel material by applying an immobilized fungal laccase onto nonionic surfactant-modified clay. Low-water-solubility polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene/phenanthrene) were degraded in the presence of this bioactive material. PAH degradation by free laccase was higher than degradation by immobilized laccase when the surfactant concentration was allowed to form micelles. PAH degradation by immobilized laccase on TX-100-modified clay was higher than on Brij35-modified clay. Strong laccase degradation of PAH can be maintained by adding surfactant monomers or micelles. The physical adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto clay plays an important role in PAH degradation by laccase, which can be explained by the structure and molecular interactions of the surfactant with the clay and enzyme. A system where laccase is immobilized onto TX-100-monomer-modified clay is a good candidate bioactive material for in situ PAHs bioremediation.

  3. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods. PMID:22163450

  4. Sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B based on immobilized thiolated antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chatrathi, Madhu Prakash; Wang, Joseph; Collins, Greg E

    2007-06-15

    A new approach for the sensitive detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is presented based upon an electrochemical enzymatic immunoassay that utilizes thiolated antibodies immobilized on a gold surface. This method relies on the use of amine- or sulfhydryl-reactive heterobifunctional cross-linkers for the introduction of 2-pyridyl-disulfide groups to the antibody. The disulfide-containing linkages are subsequently cleaved with a suitable reducing agent, such as dithiothreitol (DTT), and the thiolated antibody-gold bond is covalently formed on a gold working electrode. Various cross-linking agents for immobilization of the capture antibody onto the gold electrode were investigated and compared. Factors influencing the thiolation and immobilization were investigated and optimized. The feasibility of such antibody immobilization and the subsequent sandwich enzyme immunoassay is demonstrated for the sensitive detection of SEB. The detection limit estimated from a representative dose-response curve is 1 ng/mL, corresponding to 5 pg in a 5-microL sample. Coupling the specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and low detection limits of electrochemical detection shows real promise for future sensing technology in enabling the development of single-use disposable devices.

  5. A potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor based on immobilization of alcohol oxidase on acryloxysuccinimide-modified acrylic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2010-01-01

    A new alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide) [poly(nBA-NAS)] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS) microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE). Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor's analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3-316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R(2) = 0.9776, n = 3). The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation) and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3). The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor's performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  6. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Sigawi, Sasi; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21), a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR) was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA) beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde. PMID:24672387

  7. Bioconversion of airborne methylamine by immobilized recombinant amine oxidase from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Sigawi, Sasi; Nisnevitch, Marina; Zakalska, Oksana; Zakalskiy, Andriy; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2014-01-01

    Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21), a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR) was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA) beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde.

  8. Atomic force microscopy imaging of DNA covalently immobilized on a functionalized mica substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Shlyakhtenko, L S; Gall, A A; Weimer, J J; Hawn, D D; Lyubchenko, Y L

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for covalent binding of DNA to a functionalized mica substrate is described. The approach is based on photochemical cross-linking of DNA to immobilized psoralen derivatives. A tetrafluorphenyl (TFP) ester of trimethyl psoralen (trioxalen) was synthesized, and the procedure to immobilize it onto a functionalized aminopropyl mica surface (AP-mica) was developed. DNA molecules were cross-linked to trioxalen moieties by UV irradiation of complexes. The steps of the sample preparation procedure were analyzed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results from XPS show that an AP-mica surface can be formed by vapor phase deposition of silane and that this surface can be derivatized with trioxalen. The derivatized surface is capable of binding of DNA molecules such that, after UV cross-linking, they withstand a thorough rinsing with SDS. Observations with atomic force microscopy showed that derivatized surfaces remain smooth, so DNA molecules are easily visualized. Linear and circular DNA molecules were photochemically immobilized on the surface. The molecules are distributed over the surface uniformly, indicating rather even modification of AP-mica with trioxalen. Generally, the shapes of supercoiled molecules electrostatically immobilized on AP-mica and those photocross-linked on trioxalen-functionalized surfaces remain quite similar. This suggests that UV cross-linking does not induce formation of a noticeable number of single-stranded breaks in DNA molecules. PMID:10388781

  9. Vertebrate limb development and possible clues to diversity in limb form.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2002-04-01

    Chick embryos are good models for vertebrate development. The principles that underlie chick wing development have been discovered and there is increasing knowledge about the molecules involved. The importance of identifying molecules is that this provides a direct link to understanding the genetic basis of diversity in form. Chick wing development will be compared with limb development in other vertebrates. Possible mechanisms that could lead to variations in form, including limb reductions and limblessness, differences between fore- and hindlimbs, limb proportions, and interdigital webbing can be suggested.

  10. Development and validation of a Rasch-derived CES-D short form.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jason C; Rabin, Adele S; Smith, Tom L; Kaufman, Alan S

    2004-12-01

    The current study presents a Rasch-derived short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for use as a depression screening tool in the general population. In contrast to short forms developed with reliance on classical measurement techniques, those developed using techniques based on item response theory produce a measure that offers true interval scaling, provide enhanced information about responders with extreme scores, and expand understanding of the underlying latent structure. Cross-validation of the Rasch-derived CES-D short form supported its utility and structural validity across samples. Tests of structural validity using latent variable modeling methodology indicated that a hierarchical, single-factor model of depression had the best fit for the original full form and the Rasch-derived short form of the CES-D. This finding challenges depression researchers and theorists to reconsider the interfactor relationships in the study and assessment of depression. Copyright 2004 APA.

  11. Developing the ability of hearing-impaired students to comprehend and generate question forms.

    PubMed

    LaSasso, C J

    1990-12-01

    Hearing-impaired students have trouble with question forms, a fact that is well-documented. To date, the implications of this linguistic difficulty on their reading comprehension have been virtually unexplored. This article discusses the importance of questions as a means of acquiring and clarifying information and as a way to develop independent learning processes. The article also discusses roadblocks to learning faced by hearing-impaired students who have difficulty comprehending question forms, especially WH-question forms. Strategies for diagnosing and developing students' ability to understand questions are described, and the importance of parents and teachers working together is explained.

  12. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production Using Immobilized Glutamate Decarboxylase Followed by Downstream Processing with Cation Exchange Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step. PMID:23322022

  13. A novel method for immobilization of proteins via entrapment of magnetic nanoparticles through epoxy cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Iype, Tessy; Thomas, Jaiby; Mohan, Sangeetha; Johnson, Kochurani K; George, Ligi E; Ambattu, Lizebona A; Bhati, Aniruddha; Ailsworth, Kristen; Menon, Bindu; Rayabandla, Sunayana M; Jesudasan, Rachel A; Santhosh, Sam; Ramchand, Chaniyilparampu N

    2017-02-15

    A method for immobilization of functional proteins by chemical cross-linking of the protein of interest and uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of Epichlorohydrin is described. As a result of the cross-linking, the proteins form a matrix in which the particles get entrapped. The optimum concentration of Epichlorohydrin that facilitates immobilization of protein without affecting the functional properties of the protein was determined. This method was used to immobilize several functional proteins and the development and functional activity of Protein A-magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is described here in detail. The Protein A-MNPs possess high binding capacity due to the increased surface area of uncoated nanoparticles and robust magnetic separation due to the absence of polymeric coating materials. Protein A-MNPs were successfully used for purification of antibodies and also for immunoprecipitation. We also immobilized enzymes such as horse radish peroxidase and esterase and found that by providing the optimum incubation time, temperature and protein to nanoparticle ratio, we can retain the activity and improve the stability of the enzyme. This study is the first demonstration that Epichlorohydrin can be used to entrap nanoparticles in a cross-linked matrix of protein without impairing the activity of immobilized protein.

  14. Developing short-form measures of oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Locker, David; Allen, P Finbarr

    2002-01-01

    Using the item-impact method, we developed an alternative short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) that has good psychometric properties and minimal floor effects. OHIP data were collected from a sample of older Canadians at two points in time. Data from the first administration were used to develop a 14-item short-form measure; data from the second compare the latter's psychometric properties with those of the original short form developed by Slade (1997), who used a controlled regression procedure. The short form based on the item-impact method had only two items in common with the short form derived from the regression approach and contained more high-prevalence items. The regression short form was subject to marked floor effects, while the impact short form had floor effects comparable to those of the full 49-item OHIP. The former discriminated between dentate and edentulous subjects, while the latter did not. Both discriminated between dentate subjects who did and did not wear dentures, those with and without dry mouth, and those with and without chewing problems. Both were also significantly associated with self-ratings of oral health, satisfaction with oral health, and self-perceived need for dental treatment. The strength of the associations was somewhat stronger with the regression short form, indicating that it performed better as a discriminatory instrument. However, because of its floor effects, it was markedly less sensitive to change than the impact short form. There was an indication that item-impact methods of shortening oral health-related quality of life measures produced more stable results across samples than the statistical approach. Because the content validity of short-form measures is always compromised, different short forms are required for different purposes and different patient populations. The regression short form developed by Slade (1997) is likely to be better when the aim is to discriminate, while the impact short form

  15. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors Using Immobilized Bioreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walt, David R.; Luo, Shufang; Munkholm, Christiane

    1988-06-01

    Optrodes employing immobilized enzymes were developed using covalent attachment of sensor reagents. This development is an extension of the original application of this sensor technology in which a pH sensor was constructed with the pH sensitive dye fluorescein incorporated into a polymer covalently attached to the fiber tip. This sensor displayed significantly improved response times over previous fiber optic sensors because of reduced diffusion limitations. In addition, the signal intensities were greatly enhanced by the high concentration of fluorescent dye localized at the fiber tip. With the anticipation that these qualities would be preserved, a class of sensors based on the immobilization of biomolecules in the polymer matrix became the next goal. This paper will first describe a fiber optic probe prepared by immobilizing esterase in a crosslinked polyacrylamide matrix. The immobilized esterase converts the nonfluorescent fluoresceindiacetate into fluorescein. Both the steady state level and kinetic generation of fluorescence can be related to the concentration of fluoresceindiacetate. A fiber optic sensor for penicillin has been made by coimmobili zing penicillinase with a pH sensitive fluorescent dye. Penicillinase converts penicillin to penicilloic acid which produces a microenvironmental pH change in the dye-containing polymer matrix resulting in a concommitant change in fluorescence. The change in fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of penicillin and a 95% response is reached in 40-60 seconds. The sensor has a detection limit of 2.5 x 10-4 M. Another class of sensors using immobilized bioreceptors will be based on the principles of fluoroimmunoassay. This paper will discuss some basic principles and problems of 1) fluorescence quenching immunoassays, 2) fluorescence excitation transfer immunoassays, and 3) energy transfer immunoassays for digoxin. Both advantages and inherent problems for these sensor preparations will be addressed.

  16. Development of a short form of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory for acceptability of psychological interventions.

    PubMed

    Newton, J T; Sturmey, P

    2004-04-01

    The Treatment Evaluation Inventory of Kazdin, French, and Sherick is a 19-item measure of the perceived acceptability of behavioural treatments. Development of two brief forms was based on data from two sources. For Study 1, data from 218 completed questionnaires were used to develop internally consistent brief scales. In Study 2 internal consistency and the validity of the brief forms were estimated for a set of 131 questionnaires. Item reduction was achieved by analysis of item-total minus item correlations. Brief forms with 3, 6, 9, and 12 items were proposed. Their internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity were based on correlations of scores on each short form with the full scale scores and on comparing means of different forms. Discriminant validity was based on the difference between two groups (estimated effect size 0.7). Scores for all forms showed high internal consistency and correlated highly with total scale scores. Only the 12-item brief scale yielded mean scores similar to the full scale. The 3-item form could be used as a quick screen, and the 12-item form for more intensive purposes as it is most similar to the full-scale.

  17. Developing Item Response Theory-Based Short Forms to Measure the Social Impact of Burn Injuries.

    PubMed

    Marino, Molly; Dore, Emily C; Ni, Pengsheng; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M; Kazis, Lewis E

    2017-09-06

    To develop self-reported short forms for the LIBRE Profile. Participants were selected for inclusion in the short forms based upon the item parameters of discrimination and average difficulty. Test information function, as well as floor and ceiling effects, were evaluated for both the full item bank and the short forms. Participants were recruited were from the Phoenix Society (a support network for burn survivors), peer support networks, social media, and mailings. 601 burn survivors over 18 years of age in North America. none MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The LIBRE-Profile RESULTS: Ten-item short forms were developed to cover the six LIBRE Profile scales: Relationships with Family & Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work & Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships. Ceiling effects were ≤15% for all scales; floor effects were all <1%. The marginal reliability of the short forms ranged from 0.85-0.89. The LIBRE Profile-Short Forms demonstrated credible psychometric properties. The short form version provides a viable alternative to administering the LIBRE Profile when resources do not allow for computer/internet access. The full item bank, Computerized Adaptive Test, and short forms are all scored along the same metric and therefore scores are comparable regardless of mode of administration. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of forming and joining technology for TD-NiCr sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Forming joining techniques and properties data were developed for thin-gage TD-NiCr sheet in the recrystallized and unrecrystallized conditions. Theoretical and actual forming limit data are presented for several gages of each type of material for five forming processes: brake forming, corrugation forming, joggling, dimpling and beading. Recrystallized sheet can be best formed at room temperature, but unrecrystallized sheet requires forming at elevated temperature. Formability is satisfactory with most processes for the longitudinal orientation but poor for the transverse orientation. Dimpling techniques require further development for both material conditions. Data on joining techniques and joint properties are presented for four joining processes: resistance seam welding (solid-state), resistance spot welding (solid-state), resistance spot welding (fusion) and brazing. Resistance seam welded (solid-state) joints with 5t overlap were stronger than parent material for both material conditions when tested in tensile-shear and stress-rupture. Brazing studies resulted in development of NASA 18 braze alloy (Ni-16Cr-15Mo-8Al-4Si) with several properties superior to baseline TD-6 braze alloy, including lower brazing temperture, reduced reaction with Td-Ni-Cr, and higher stress-rupture properties.

  19. Development of an IRT-based Short Form to Assess Applied Cognitive Function in Outpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Christine M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Coster, Wendy J.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) methods allow the development of a large calibrated item bank from which different subsets of questions can be selected for administration and scored on a common scale. Our objective was to develop an outpatient rehabilitation self-report short form for the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care Applied Cognition item bank. Design Using data from a convenience sample of 235 rehabilitation outpatients, item content and IRT-based test information function parameters were employed in item selection. Internal consistency reliability, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and percent at the lowest (floor) and highest (ceiling) scores were evaluated for the short form and full item bank. Results A 15-item short form was developed. The internal consistency of the short form was 0.86. The ICC3,1 for the short form and item bank was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98). No floor effects were noted, and ceiling effects were 27.66 % (short form) and 26.38% (full item bank). Conclusions The Applied Cognition outpatient short form demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and provides a bridge to IRT-based measurement for settings where point of care computing is not available. PMID:26135369

  20. [Immobilized microorganisms and water purification].

    PubMed

    Mogilevich, N F

    1995-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of cells of aerobic microorganisms immobilized by the type of adhesion and incorporation into the gel beads, the amount of retained biomass, limitations of diffusion of oxygen and nutrients, viability, morphology, biochemical properties are described. Immobilized biocatalysts are discussed in the aspect of their use in purification of sewage waters.

  1. Immobilization of β-galactosidase on modified polypropilene membranes.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Nastya; Iotov, Vladislav; Ivanov, Yavor; Godjevargova, Tzonka; Kotia, Nana

    2012-12-01

    A new immobilized system: β-galactosidase-modified polypropylene membrane was created. It was obtained 13 different carriers by chemical modification of polypropylene membranes by two stages. The first stage is treatment with K(2)Cr(2)O(7) to receive carboxylic groups on membrane surface. The second stage is treatment with different modified agents ethylendiamine, hexamethylenediamine, hydrazine dihydrochloride, hydroxylamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, N,N'-dibenzyl ethylenediamine diacetate to receive amino groups. The quantity of the amino groups, carboxylic groups and the degree of hydrophilicity of unmodified and modified polypropilene membranes were determined. β-Galactosidase was chemically immobilized on the obtained carries by glutaraldehyde. The highest relative activity of immobilized enzyme was recorded at membrane modified with 10% hexamethylenediamine (Membrane 5) - 92.77%. The properties of immobilized β-galactosidase on different modified membranes - pH optimum, temperature optimum, pH stability and thermal stability were investigated and compared with those of free enzyme. The storage stability of all immobilized systems was studied. It was found that the most stable system is immobilized enzyme on Membrane 5. The system has kept 90% of its initial activity at 300th day (pH=6.8; 4°C). The stability of the free and immobilized β-galactosidase on the modified membrane 5 with 10% HMDA in aqueous solutions of alcohols - mono-, diol and triol was studied. The kinetics of enzymatic reaction of free and immobilized β-galactosidase on the modified membrane 5 at 20°C and 40°C and at the optimal pH for both forms of the enzyme were investigated. It was concluded that the modified agent - hexamethylenediamine, with long aliphatic chain ensures the best immobilized β-galactosidase system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Developing Mental Lexicon: Evidence from Morphological Priming of Irregular Hebrew Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Raveh, Michal; Kahta, Shani

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the development of automatic word recognition processes, in particular the development of the morphological level of processing. We examined masked priming of Hebrew irregular forms at two levels of reading experience. Both third- and seventh-grade children showed morphological priming for defective roots when primes and…

  3. The Developing Mental Lexicon: Evidence from Morphological Priming of Irregular Hebrew Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Raveh, Michal; Kahta, Shani

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the development of automatic word recognition processes, in particular the development of the morphological level of processing. We examined masked priming of Hebrew irregular forms at two levels of reading experience. Both third- and seventh-grade children showed morphological priming for defective roots when primes and…

  4. The Forms of Capital and the Developed Achievement of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the association of the various forms of capital on the developed achievement of Black males. As one of the richest longitudinal family economic data sets, the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics is used to estimate multilevel growth models of the math and reading achievement of Black…

  5. The development of alumina-forming austenitic stainless steels for high-temperature structural use

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Santella, Michael L; Maziasz, Philip J; Pint, Bruce A; Lu, Zhao Ping; Liu, Chain T; Bei, Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    Efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to developAl2O3-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels for high-temperature (600-900 aC) structural use under aggressive oxidizing conditions are overviewed. Data obtained to date indicate the potential to achieve superior oxidation resistance to conventional Cr2O3-forming Fe- and Ni-base heat-resistant alloys, with creep strength comparable to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic stainless steels. Preliminary assessment also indicates the developed alloys are amenable to welding. Details of the alloy design approach and composition-microstructure-property relationships are presented.

  6. Development of a biofilm formation method for waste forms stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Idachaba, M A; Nyavor, K; Egiebor, N O; Rogers, R D

    2000-10-02

    The development of an accurate assessment protocol is critical for the prediction of long-term performance of waste disposal systems under field conditions. In this study, the development of a biofilm formation method for the evaluation of waste forms stability to microbially induced degradation (MID) is reported. The development process involved significant modifications to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach. In the biofilm formation method, the control media and fermenter broths are designed to be of similar pH to avoid overestimation of the microbe's capability to degrade the waste forms. In the NRC approach, the pH values are different. The existing one-stage process of the NRC approach is also replaced with a two-stage process in the biofilm formation method. This is to ensure full evaluation of the microbe's involvement in waste forms degradation. The first stage of the two-stage process is for biofilm formation and the second is for biofilm evaluation. The use of a two-stage process eliminates the possibility of substrate limitation, resulting in values of degradation indices that are about two times higher than those obtained using the single-stage NRC approach. Two waste forms (100% Tuskegee cement and 21% cobalt chloride/79% cement) were used in the development of the biofilm formation method. Both waste forms showed evidence of biofilm formation. The formation of biofilm on the cobalt-containing waste form indicates a lack of anti-microbial capability of cobalt.

  7. Cellulase immobilization on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymer nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Lima, Janaina S; Araújo, Pedro H H; Sayer, Claudia; Souza, Antonio A U; Viegas, Alexandre C; de Oliveira, Débora

    2017-04-01

    Immobilization of cellulases on magnetic nanoparticles, especially magnetite nanoparticles, has been the main approach studied to make this enzyme, economically and industrially, more attractive. However, magnetite nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, are very reactive and easily oxidized in air, which has strong impact on their useful life. Thus, it is very important to provide proper surface coating to avoid the mentioned problems. This study aimed to investigate the immobilization of cellulase on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymeric nanospheres. The support was characterized in terms of morphology, average diameter, magnetic behavior and thermal decomposition analyses. The polymer nanospheres containing encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior and intensity average diameter about 150 nm. Immobilized cellulase exhibited broader temperature stability than in the free form and great reusability capacity, 69% of the initial enzyme activity was maintained after eight cycles of use. The magnetic support showed potential for cellulase immobilization and allowed fast and easy biocatalyst recovery through a single magnet.

  8. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  9. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  10. Selection of CalB immobilization method to be used in continuous oil transesterification: analysis of the economical impact.

    PubMed

    Séverac, Etienne; Galy, Olivier; Turon, Fabrice; Pantel, Catherine Azzaro; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane; Monsan, Pierre; Marty, Alain

    2011-01-05

    Enzymatic transesterification of triglycerides in a continuous way is always a great challenge with a large field of applications for biodiesel, bio-lubricant, bio-surfactant, etc. productions. The lipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) is the most appreciated enzyme because of its high activity and its non-regio-selectivity toward positions of fatty acid residues on glycerol backbone of triglycerides. Nevertheless, in the field of heterogeneous catalysis, we demonstrated that the medium hydrophilic nature of the support used for its commercial form (Lewatit VPOC1600) is a limitation. Glycerol is adsorbed onto support inducing drastic decrease in enzyme activity. Glycerol would form a hydrophilic layer around the enzyme resulting in diffusional limitations during triglyceride transfer to the enzyme. Accurel MP, a very hydrophobic macroporous polymer of propylene, was found not to adsorb glycerol. Immobilization conditions using this support were optimized. The best support was Accurel MP1001 (particle size<1000 μm) and a pre-treatment of the support with acetone instead of ethanol enables the adsorption rate and the immobilized enzyme quantity to be maximized. An economical approach (maximization of the process net present value) was expanded in order to explore the impact of immobilization on development of an industrial packed bed reactor. The crucial ratio between the quantity of lipase and the quantity of support, taking into account enzyme, support and equipped packed bed reactor costs was optimized in this sense. The biocatalyst cost was found as largely the main cost centre (2-10 times higher than the investments for the reactor vessel). In consequence, optimal conditions for immobilization were a compromise between this immobilization yield (90% of lipase immobilized), biocatalyst activity, reactor volume and total investments. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Annual report on the development and characterization of solidified forms for nuclear wastes, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; McVay, G.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Roberts, F.P.

    1980-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified nuclear waste forms is a major continuing effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Contributions from seven programs directed at understanding chemical composition, process conditions, and long-term behaviors of various nuclear waste forms are included in this report. The major findings of the report are included in extended figure captions that can be read as brief technical summaries of the research, with additional information included in a traditional narrative format. Waste form development proceeded on crystalline and glass materials for high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. Leaching studies emphasized new areas of research aimed at more basic understanding of waste form/aqueous solution interactions. Phase behavior and thermal effects research included studies on crystal phases in defense and TRU waste glasses and on liquid-liquid phase separation in borosilicate waste glasses. Radiation damage effects in crystals and glasses from alpha decay and from transmutation are reported.

  12. Chimeric lactase capable of spontaneous and strong immobilization on cellulose and development of a continuous-flow system for lactose hydrolysis at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Velikodvorskaya, G A; Tikhonova, T V; Gurvits, I D; Karyagina, A S; Lavrova, N V; Sergienko, O V; Tashlitskii, V N; Lunina, N A; Lunin, V G

    2010-12-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing fusion proteins composed of two different modules were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The modules encoded the lactase LacA (LacZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and the cellulase CelD, a cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Anaerocellum thermophilum. The CelD CBM provides a spontaneous and strong sorption of the fusion proteins onto a cellulose carrier. The enzymatic activities of both the free LacA protein and LacA-CelD CBM fusion proteins immobilized onto the cellulose carrier were assessed. The LacA activity of the fusion protein was dependent upon its position with respect to the CBM. The highest level of lactase activity and stability was observed when the lactase domain was localized at its N terminus. A continuous-flow column reactor of lactase immobilized on a cellulose carrier was constructed, and its activity was assessed. The lactose hydrolysis rate for a 150 mM (5%) solution at a flow rate of 1 reactor volume per min was 75%, which is a value optimal for further whey transformation into glucose/galactose syrup.

  13. Chimeric Lactase Capable of Spontaneous and Strong Immobilization on Cellulose and Development of a Continuous-Flow System for Lactose Hydrolysis at High Temperatures▿

    PubMed Central

    Velikodvorskaya, G. A.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Gurvits, I. D.; Karyagina, A. S.; Lavrova, N. V.; Sergienko, O. V.; Tashlitskii, V. N.; Lunina, N. A.; Lunin, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing fusion proteins composed of two different modules were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The modules encoded the lactase LacA (LacZ) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and the cellulase CelD, a cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Anaerocellum thermophilum. The CelD CBM provides a spontaneous and strong sorption of the fusion proteins onto a cellulose carrier. The enzymatic activities of both the free LacA protein and LacA-CelD CBM fusion proteins immobilized onto the cellulose carrier were assessed. The LacA activity of the fusion protein was dependent upon its position with respect to the CBM. The highest level of lactase activity and stability was observed when the lactase domain was localized at its N terminus. A continuous-flow column reactor of lactase immobilized on a cellulose carrier was constructed, and its activity was assessed. The lactose hydrolysis rate for a 150 mM (5%) solution at a flow rate of 1 reactor volume per min was 75%, which is a value optimal for further whey transformation into glucose/galactose syrup. PMID:20935120

  14. Detection of immobilized amplicons by ELISA-like techniques.

    PubMed

    Oroskar, A A; Rasmussen, S E; Rasmussen, H N; Rasmussen, S R; Sullivan, B M; Johansson, A

    1996-09-01

    The NucleoLink surface is a physically modified, thermostable, optically clear resin. It allows the covalent binding of 5'-phosphorylated oligonucleotides. Target DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is accomplished by asymmetric amplification on the covalently immobilized primer that develops into immobilized amplicons. A DNA fragment of bovine leukemia virus is used as a model system for the detection of immobilized amplicons by ELISA-like techniques. Covalently bound oligonucleotides are also utilized as capture probe in the hybridization-based signal amplification for detection of an infectious organism.

  15. Immobilization of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds on chitosan beads and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2014-03-01

    Acid phosphatase isolated from Vigna aconitifolia seeds was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde activated chitosan beads by crosslinking method. Chitosan beads activated with 2% of glutaraldehyde have demonstrated maximum immobilization yield (∼ 83%). The immobilized enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, while soluble form was maximally active in acidic range (pH 5.0). With respect to free form, immobilized acid phosphatase showed better activity in alkaline range. On the other side, immobilization does not affect the optimum temperature range i.e., both, soluble and immobilized acid phosphatase exhibited maximum activity at 60 °C. The Km and Vmax values for the immobilized enzyme were calculated to be 0.37 mM and 13.5 U/mg. The immobilization on chitosan beads enhanced the shelf life of acid phosphatase. The immobilized enzyme retained its more than 50% hydrolytic activity for approximately two months. The immobilized acid phosphatase was reusable for more than 40 cycles of reaction.

  16. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  17. The patient safety climate in healthcare organizations (PSCHO) survey: Short-form development.

    PubMed

    Benzer, Justin K; Meterko, Mark; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    Measures of safety climate are increasingly used to guide safety improvement initiatives. However, cost and respondent burden may limit the use of safety climate surveys. The purpose of this study was to develop a 15- to 20-item safety climate survey based on the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey, a well-validated 38-item measure of safety climate. The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations was administered to all senior managers, all physicians, and a 10% random sample of all other hospital personnel in 69 private sector hospitals and 30 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. Both samples were randomly divided into a derivation sample to identify a short-form subset and a confirmation sample to assess the psychometric properties of the proposed short form. The short form consists of 15 items represented 3 overarching domains in the long-form scale-organization, work unit, and interpersonal. The proposed short form efficiently captures 3 important sources of variance in safety climate: organizational, work-unit, and interpersonal. The short-form development process was a practical method that can be applied to other safety climate surveys. This safety climate short form may increase response rates in studies that involve busy clinicians or repeated measures. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Practical considerations in development of solid dosage forms that contain cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lee A; Carrier, Rebecca L; Ahmed, Imran

    2007-07-01

    The following is a review of the literature that addresses the use of cyclodextrin in solid dosage forms. Care was taken to exclude physical and chemical characteristics of cyclodextrin, which have been discussed in the literature. A flow diagram is provided to outline the decision-making steps that are involved in the development process. Both preparation of physical mixtures and inclusion complexes are considered. Analytical techniques to determine the presence of inclusion complexes, the effect of other excipients on complex formation, the effect of size limitation of solid dosages forms, powder processing, and storage of solid dosage forms are discussed.

  19. Immobilization of Active Bacteriophages on Polyhydroxyalkanoate Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chanchan; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2016-01-20

    A rapid, efficient technique for the attachment of bacteriophages (phages) onto polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) surfaces has been developed and compared to three reported methods for phage immobilization. Polymer surfaces were modified to facilitate phage attachment using (1) plasma treatment alone, (2) plasma treatment followed by activation by 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS), (3) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting, or (4) plasma-initiated acrylic acid grafting with activation by EDC and sulfo-NHS. The impact of each method on the surface chemistry of PHA was investigated using contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Each of the four treatments was shown to result in both increased hydrophilicity and in the modification of the surface functional groups. Modified surfaces were immersed in suspensions of phage T4 for immobilization. The highest level of phage binding was observed for the surfaces modified by plasma treatment alone. The change in chemical bond states observed for surfaces that underwent plasma treatment is suspected to be the cause of the increased binding of active phages. Plasma-treated surfaces were further analyzed through phage-staining and fluorescence microscopy to assess the surface density of immobilized phages and their capacity to capture hosts. The infective capability of attached phages was confirmed by exposing the phage-immobilized surfaces to the host bacteria Escherichia coli in both plaque and infection dynamic assays. Plasma-treated surfaces with immobilized phages displayed higher infectivity than surfaces treated with other methods; in fact, the equivalent initial multiplicity of infection was 2 orders of magnitude greater than with other methods. Control samples - prepared by immersing polymer surfaces in phage suspensions (without prior plasma treatment) - did not show any bacterial growth inhibition, suggesting they did not bind

  20. Advances in ethanol production using immobilized cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Merchant, F.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The application of immobilized cell systems for the production of ethanol has resulted in substantial improvements in the efficiency of the process when compared to the traditional free cell system. In this review, the various methods of cell immobilization employed in ethanol production systems have been described in detail. Their salient features, performance characteristics, advantages and limitations have been critically assessed. More recently, these immobilized cell systems have also been employed for the production of ethanol from non-conventional feedstocks such as Jerusalem artichoke extracts, cheese whey, cellulose, cellobiose and xylose. Ethanol production by immobilized yeast and bacterial cells has been attempted in various bioreactor types. Although most of these studies have been carried out using laboratory scale prototype bioreactors, it appears that only fluidized bed, horizontally packed bed bioreactors and tower fermenters may find application on scale-up. Several studies have indicated that upon immobilization, yeast cells performing ethanol fermentation exhibit more favourable physiological and metabolic properties. This, in addition to substantial improvements in ethanol productivities by immobilized cell systems, is indicative of the fact that future developments in the production of ethanol and alcoholic beverages will be directed towards the use of immobilized cell systems. 291 references.

  1. Adsorption of CO2 by alginate immobilized zeolite beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratman, A.; Kunarti, E. S.; Aprilita, N. H.; Pamurtya, I. C.

    2017-03-01

    Immobilized zeolit in alginate beads for adsorption of CO2 was developed. Alginate immobilized zeolit beads was generated by dropping the mixture of Na-alginate and zeolite solution into Ca2+ solution. The adsorption efficacy such as the influence of contact time, mass of zeolite, flowrate of CO2, and mass of adsorbent was evaluated. The adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolit beads was investigated by performing both equilibrium and kinetic batch test. Bead was characterized by FTIR and SEM. Alginate immobilized zeolit beads demonstrated significantly higher sorption efficacy compared to plain alginate beads and zeolite with 0.25 mmol CO2 adsorbed /g adsorbent. Optimum condition was achieved with mass composition of alginate:zeolite (3:1), flowrate 50 mL/min for 20 minutes. The alginate immobilized zeolit beads showed that adsorption of CO2 followed Freundlich isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic model. Adsorption of CO2 onto alginate immobilized zeolite beads is a physisorption with adsorption energy of 6.37 kJ/mol. This results indicates that the alginate immobilized zeolit beads can be used as promising adsorbents for CO2.

  2. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    PubMed

    Cook, Karon F; Choi, Seung W; Johnson, Kurt L; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-08-01

    There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue). Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.

  3. Phase transformation considerations during process development and manufacture of solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geoff G Z; Law, Devalina; Schmitt, Eric A; Qiu, Yihong

    2004-02-23

    The quality and performance of a solid oral dosage form depends on the choice of the solid phase, the formulation design, and the manufacturing process. The potential for process-induced solid phase transformations must be evaluated during design and development of formulations and manufacturing processes. This article briefly reviews the basic principles of polymorphism, defines the classes of phase transformation and the underlying transformation mechanisms, and discusses respective kinetic factors. The potential phase transformations associated with common unit operations employed in manufacturing solid oral dosage forms are highlighted. Specific examples are given to illustrate the importance of solid phases, and process-induced phase transitions in formulation and process development.

  4. Wastewater treatment by immobilized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, R.D.; Vembu, K.

    1990-01-01

    Immobilized cell processes for wastewater treatment have only recently been intensively studied and applied. Essential information on the feasibility of various immobilization methods has been reviewed and examined with special reference to wastewater treatment. Included are the suitability of various supports, techniques used for microbial attachment factors affecting affinity for the support, strength of fixation, nature of polymers, role of radical groups, properties of attached microorganisms, effects of carriers on settling properties of biomass, characteristics of biofilm on carriers, and changes in cell metabolism as a result of immobilization. The morphologies for identification of immobilized cells, the methods of identification of structure and composition of microbial aggregates, and analytical methods for the estimate of biomass in the presence of carriers are discussed. Applications of immobilized cells to toxic wasted, anaerobic and aerobic systems, and operational criteria for different wastes are specified. The results of immobilized microalgae and cyanobacteria for wastewater treatment are reported and their future prospects are highlighted. Various immobilized cell bioreactor configurations have been critically reviewed with respect to design and granulation process including the topics of: biomass retention, resistance to washout, diffusional resistances, response to toxic shocks, theoretical aspects of hydrodynamic characteristics, start-up and steady-state processes, selection of support particles, particle size and active biomass, head loss considerations, surface area, reactor liquid velocity, hydraulic retention time aerobic versus anaerobic systems, temperature and substrate concentration effects, metabolic interspecies transfer, stability, suspended solids and microbial film interactions, solids residence time requirements, and operational issues.

  5. Functional expression of a novel alkaline-adapted lipase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from stinky tofu brine and development of immobilized enzyme for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xianghai; Ma, Jing; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Lin, Jin-Ping; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Using enrichment procedures, a lipolytic strain was isolated from a stinky tofu brine and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (named B. amyloliquefaciens Nsic-8) by morphological, physiological, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Meanwhile, the key enzyme gene (named lip BA) involved in ester metabolism was obtained from Nsic-8 with the assistance of homology analysis. The novel gene has an open reading frame of 645 bp, and encodes a 214-amino-acid lipase (LipBA). The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest identity with the lipase from B. amyloliquefaciens IT-45 (NCBI database) and belongs to the family of triacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3). The lipase gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using plasmid pET-28a. The enzyme activity and specific activity were 250 ± 16 U/ml and 1750 ± 153 U/mg, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant enzyme were 9.0 and 40 °C respectively. LipBA showed much higher stability under alkaline conditions and was stable at pH 7.0-11.0. The Km and Vmax values of purified LipBA using 4-nitrophenyl palmitate as the substrate were 1.04 ± 0.06 mM and 119.05 ± 7.16 μmol/(ml min), respectively. After purification, recombinant lipase was immobilized with the optimal conditions (immobilization time 3 h at 30 °C, with 92 % enzyme recovery) and the immobilized enzyme was applied in biodiesel production. This is the first report of the lipase activity and lipase gene obtained from B. amyloliquefaciens (including wild strain and recombinant strain) and the recombinant LipBA with the detailed enzymatic properties. Also the preliminary study of the transesterification shows the potential value in biodiesel production applications.

  6. Heparin-conjugated gelatin as a growth factor immobilization scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shintaro; Kubo, Takafumi; Ijima, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    Tissue engineering requires growth factors, cells and a scaffold to permit effective tissue regeneration. This study aimed to develop a scaffold with a focus on immobilizing growth factors within gelatin. We focused on the extracellular matrix and developed a heparin-conjugated gelatin (Hep-gela). Conjugation was confirmed using the alcian blue assay and X-ray diffraction patterns. The mechanical strength and stability of the Hep-gela gel in protease solution were improved compared with collagen gel. Hep-gela was able to immobilize vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) even in the presence of albumin, with an efficiency of 54.2%. Immobilized VEGF promoted proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Hep-gela-immobilized VEGF maintained its native biological activity. In summary, Hep-gela has the potential to become an effective material in the field of regenerative medicine.

  7. Microbially-induced Carbonate Precipitation for Immobilization of Toxic Metals.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Deepika; Qian, Xin-Yi; Pan, Xiangliang; Achal, Varenyam; Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization resulting from growing populations contribute to environmental pollution by toxic metals and radionuclides which pose a threat to the environment and to human health. To combat this threat, it is important to develop remediation technologies based on natural processes that are sustainable. In recent years, a biomineralization process involving ureolytic microorganisms that leads to calcium carbonate precipitation has been found to be effective in immobilizing toxic metal pollutants. The advantage of using ureolytic organisms for bioremediating metal pollution in soil is their ability to immobilize toxic metals efficiently by precipitation or coprecipitation, independent of metal valence state and toxicity and the redox potential. This review summarizes current understanding of the ability of ureolytic microorganisms for carbonate biomineralization and applications of this process for toxic metal bioremediation. Microbial metal carbonate precipitation may also be relevant to detoxification of contaminated process streams and effluents as well as the production of novel carbonate biominerals and biorecovery of metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoassembly of immobilized ligninolytic enzymes for biocatalysis, bioremediation, and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, Debasish; Tien, Ming; Lvov, Yuri M.; McShane, Michael J.; Aithal, Rajendra K.; Singh, Saurabh; Potluri, Avinash; Kaul, Swati; Patel, Devendra S.; Krishna, Gopal

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) from white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosoporium, have been shown to degrade various harmful organic compounds ranging from chlorinated compounds to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to polymeric dyes. The problems in using immobilized enzymes for biocatalysis/bioremediation are their loss of activity and long-term stability. To address these issues, adsorption by layer-by-layer assembly (LbL) using polyelectrolytes, entrapment using gelatin, and chmisorption using coupling reagents have been investigated. In order to increase surface area for catalysis, porous silicon, formed by electrochemical etching of silicon, has been considered. The efficacy of these extremely stable nanoassemblies towards degradation of model organic compounds-veratryl alcohol (VA and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP)-in aqueous and in a mixture of aqueous/acetone has already been demonstrated. In parallel, we are pursuing development of sensors using these immobilized enzymes. Experiments carried out in solution show that NO can reversibly bind Ferri-LiP to produce a diamagnetic complex with a distinct change in its optical spectrum. NO can be photolyzed off to produce the spectrum of native paramagnetic ferri-species. Preliminary data on the detection of NO by LiP, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using fiber optic probe, are presented.

  9. Kinetic Measurements for Enzyme Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis and ever since the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adapted to the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V max, K M) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  10. Kinetic measurements for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten had advanced this work by studying the kinetics of the enzyme saccharase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. They published their analysis, and ever since, the Michaelis-Menten equation has been used as the standard to describe the kinetics of many enzymes. Unfortunately, soluble enzymes must generally be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors. In addition, other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, selectivity toward nonnatural substrates. Immobilization is by far the chosen process to achieve these goals.Although the Michaelis-Menten approach has been regularly adopted for the analysis of immobilized enzyme activity, its applicability to the immobilized state is limited by the barriers the immobilization matrix places upon the measurement of compounds that are used to model enzyme kinetics. That being said, the estimated value of the Michaelis-Menten coefficients (e.g., V(max), K(M)) can be used to evaluate effects of immobilization on enzyme activity in the immobilized state when applied in a controlled manner. In this review, enzyme activity and kinetics are discussed in the context of the immobilized state, and a few novel protocols are presented that address some of the unique constraints imposed by the immobilization barrier.

  11. Modelling the development of defects during composite reinforcements and prepreg forming

    PubMed Central

    Hamila, N.; Madeo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in composite materials are created during manufacture to a large extent. To avoid them as much as possible, it is important that process simulations model the onset and the development of these defects. It is then possible to determine the manufacturing conditions that lead to the absence or to the controlled presence of such defects. Three types of defects that may appear during textile composite reinforcement or prepreg forming are analysed and modelled in this paper. Wrinkling is one of the most common flaws that occur during textile composite reinforcement forming processes. The influence of the different rigidities of the textile reinforcement is studied. The concept of ‘locking angle’ is questioned. A second type of unusual behaviour of fibrous composite reinforcements that can be seen as a flaw during their forming process is the onset of peculiar ‘transition zones’ that are directly related to the bending stiffness of the fibres. The ‘transition zones’ are due to the bending stiffness of fibres. The standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy is not sufficient to model these defects. A second gradient approach is presented that allows one to account for such unusual behaviours and to master their onset and development during forming process simulations. Finally, the large slippages that may occur during a preform forming are discussed and simulated with meso finite-element models used for macroscopic forming. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242300

  12. Modelling the development of defects during composite reinforcements and prepreg forming.

    PubMed

    Boisse, P; Hamila, N; Madeo, A

    2016-07-13

    Defects in composite materials are created during manufacture to a large extent. To avoid them as much as possible, it is important that process simulations model the onset and the development of these defects. It is then possible to determine the manufacturing conditions that lead to the absence or to the controlled presence of such defects. Three types of defects that may appear during textile composite reinforcement or prepreg forming are analysed and modelled in this paper. Wrinkling is one of the most common flaws that occur during textile composite reinforcement forming processes. The influence of the different rigidities of the textile reinforcement is studied. The concept of 'locking angle' is questioned. A second type of unusual behaviour of fibrous composite reinforcements that can be seen as a flaw during their forming process is the onset of peculiar 'transition zones' that are directly related to the bending stiffness of the fibres. The 'transition zones' are due to the bending stiffness of fibres. The standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy is not sufficient to model these defects. A second gradient approach is presented that allows one to account for such unusual behaviours and to master their onset and development during forming process simulations. Finally, the large slippages that may occur during a preform forming are discussed and simulated with meso finite-element models used for macroscopic forming. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  13. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Raijada, Dhara; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Wisaeus, Erik; Peltonen, Jouko; Rantanen, Jukka; Sandler, Niklas

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet printing (PIJ) and impression printing (flexography). The printed dosage forms were characterized using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and the amount of drug was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Solutions of PRX in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400):ethanol (40:60) and in PEG-400 were found to be optimal formulations for PIJ and flexography, respectively. SEM-EDX analysis revealed no visible solid particles on the printed dosage forms indicating the drug most likely remained in solution after printing. More accurate drug deposition was obtained by PIJ as compared with flexography. More than 90% drug release was achieved within 5 min regardless of printing method used. The solubility of drug in solvents/cosolvents, rheological properties of formulations, properties of substrate, feasibility and accuracy of the printing methods, and detection limit of analytical techniques for characterization of printed dosage forms are some of the concerns that need to be addressed for development of printable dosage forms of poorly soluble drugs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Optimizing immobilization of avidin on surface-modified magnetic nanoparticles: characterization and application of protein-immobilized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Shuguo; Ma, Meihu; Lin, Qinlu; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yan; Luo, Feijun

    2015-10-01

    A simple optimization method of immobilization of avidin on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)' surface was proposed in this study. The avidin-immobilized MNPs were then developed and used to immobilize a model enzyme [Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)]. The loading capacity (LC) and activity of avidin-immobilized MNPs were optimized through selecting the most appropriate nanoparticle's size and shape, glutaraldehyde concentration, cross-linking reaction time, ultrasonic processing time, and initial concentration of avidin. The LC under optimized conditions was 63.37 ± 1.29 mg avidin/g MNPs, and the immobilized protein was still able to maintain its high biological activity of 10.86 ± 0.13 U/mg (biotin-binding activity of nature avidin was 14.1 U/mg) and better thermal stability compared to free avidin. A highly reusable, stable, and easily recovered immobilized HRP was obtained using MNPs as carriers. The immobilized HRP was reused repeatedly more than 9 times and retained more than 65 % of its original activity.

  15. 1-Step Versus 2-Step Immobilization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 onto Implant Surfaces Using Polydopamine

    PubMed Central

    Nijhuis, Arnold W.G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J.J.P.; Boerman, Otto C.; Jansen, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is highly relevant in many areas of biomaterial research. Recently, a 2-step immobilization procedure was developed for the facile conjugation of biomolecules onto various surfaces using self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine. In the current study, a 1-step polydopamine-based approach was applied for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilization, and compared to the conventional 2-step polydopamine-based immobilization and plain adsorption. To this end, ALP and BMP-2 were immobilized onto titanium and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The absolute quantity and biological activity of immobilized ALP were assessed quantitatively to compare the three types of immobilization. Plain adsorption of both ALP and BMP-2 was inferior to both polydopamine-based immobilization approaches. ALP was successfully immobilized onto titanium and PTFE surfaces via the 1-step approach, and the immobilized ALP retained its enzymatic activity. Using the 1-step approach, the amount of immobilized ALP was increased twofold to threefold compared to the conventional 2-step immobilization process. In contrast, more BMP-2 was immobilized using the conventional 2-step immobilization approach. Retention of ALP and BMP-2 was measured over a period of 4 weeks and was found to be similar for the 1-step and 2-step methods and far superior to the retention of adsorbed biomolecules due to the formation of covalent linkages between catechol moieties and immobilized proteins. The biological behavior of ALP and BMP-2 coatings immobilized using polydopamine (1- and 2-step) as well as adsorption was assessed by culturing rat bone marrow cells, which revealed that the cell responses to the various experimental groups were not statistically different. In conclusion, the 1-step polydopamine-based immobilization method was shown to be more efficient for immobilization of ALP, whereas the conventional 2

  16. 1-step versus 2-step immobilization of alkaline phosphatase and bone morphogenetic protein-2 onto implant surfaces using polydopamine.

    PubMed

    Nijhuis, Arnold W G; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Boerman, Otto C; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2013-08-01

    Immobilization of biomolecules onto implant surfaces is highly relevant in many areas of biomaterial research. Recently, a 2-step immobilization procedure was developed for the facile conjugation of biomolecules onto various surfaces using self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine. In the current study, a 1-step polydopamine-based approach was applied for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilization, and compared to the conventional 2-step polydopamine-based immobilization and plain adsorption. To this end, ALP and BMP-2 were immobilized onto titanium and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. The absolute quantity and biological activity of immobilized ALP were assessed quantitatively to compare the three types of immobilization. Plain adsorption of both ALP and BMP-2 was inferior to both polydopamine-based immobilization approaches. ALP was successfully immobilized onto titanium and PTFE surfaces via the 1-step approach, and the immobilized ALP retained its enzymatic activity. Using the 1-step approach, the amount of immobilized ALP was increased twofold to threefold compared to the conventional 2-step immobilization process. In contrast, more BMP-2 was immobilized using the conventional 2-step immobilization approach. Retention of ALP and BMP-2 was measured over a period of 4 weeks and was found to be similar for the 1-step and 2-step methods and far superior to the retention of adsorbed biomolecules due to the formation of covalent linkages between catechol moieties and immobilized proteins. The biological behavior of ALP and BMP-2 coatings immobilized using polydopamine (1- and 2-step) as well as adsorption was assessed by culturing rat bone marrow cells, which revealed that the cell responses to the various experimental groups were not statistically different. In conclusion, the 1-step polydopamine-based immobilization method was shown to be more efficient for immobilization of ALP, whereas the conventional 2

  17. Development and Application of Modern Optimal Controllers for a Membrane Structure Using Vector Second Order Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Ipar

    With increasing advancement in material science and computational power of current computers that allows us to analyze high dimensional systems, very light and large structures are being designed and built for aerospace applications. One example is a reflector of a space telescope that is made of membrane structures. These reflectors are light and foldable which makes the shipment easy and cheaper unlike traditional reflectors made of glass or other heavy materials. However, one of the disadvantages of membranes is that they are very sensitive to external changes, such as thermal load or maneuvering of the space telescope. These effects create vibrations that dramatically affect the performance of the reflector. To overcome vibrations in membranes, in this work, piezoelectric actuators are used to develop distributed controllers for membranes. These actuators generate bending effects to suppress the vibration. The actuators attached to a membrane are relatively thick which makes the system heterogeneous; thus, an analytical solution cannot be obtained to solve the partial differential equation of the system. Therefore, the Finite Element Model is applied to obtain an approximate solution for the membrane actuator system. Another difficulty that arises with very flexible large structures is the dimension of the discretized system. To obtain an accurate result, the system needs to be discretized using smaller segments which makes the dimension of the system very high. This issue will persist as long as the improving technology will allow increasingly complex and large systems to be designed and built. To deal with this difficulty, the analysis of the system and controller development to suppress the vibration are carried out using vector second order form as an alternative to vector first order form. In vector second order form, the number of equations that need to be solved are half of the number equations in vector first order form. Analyzing the system for control

  18. Application of iron magnetic nanoparticles in protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiakun; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Yuejun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Sun, Mi

    2014-08-04

    Due to their properties such as superparamagnetism, high surface area, large surface-to-volume ratio, easy separation under external magnetic fields, iron magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in the past few decades. Various modification methods have been developed to produce biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles for protein immobilization. This review provides an updated and integrated focus on the fabrication and characterization of suitable magnetic iron nanoparticle-based nano-active materials for protein immobilization.

  19. Expedited technology demonstration project final report: final forms

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, R W

    1999-05-01

    ETDP Final Forms was an attempt to demonstrate the fabrication and performance of a ceramic waste form immobilizing the hazardous and radioactive elements of the MSO/SR mineral residues. The ceramic material had been developed previously. The fabrication system was constructed and functioned as designed except for the granulator. Fabrication of our particular ceramic, however, proved unsatisfactory. The ceramic material design was therefore changed toward the end of the project, replacing nepheline with zircon as the sink for silica. Preliminary results were encouraging, but more development is needed. Fabrication of the new ceramic requires major changes in the processing: Calcination and granulation would be replaced by spray drying; and sintering would be at higher temperature. The main goal of the project--demonstrating the fabrication and performance of the waste form--was not achieved. This report summarizes Final Forms' activities. The problem of immobilizing the MSO/SR mineral residues is discussed.

  20. Separations and Waste Forms Research and Development FY 2013 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-12-01

    The Separations and Waste Form Campaign (SWFC) under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is responsible for developing advanced separation and waste form technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year (FY) 2013 accomplishments report provides a highlight of the results of the research and development (R&D) efforts performed within SWFC in FY 2013. Each section contains a high-level overview of the activities, results, technical point of contact, applicable references, and documents produced during the fiscal year. This report briefly outlines campaign management and integration activities, but the intent of the report is to highlight the many technical accomplishments made during FY 2013.

  1. Use of similarity scoring in the development of oral solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana P; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Sprockel, Omar; Abebe, Admassu; Nikfar, Faranak; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-12-05

    In the oral solid dosage form space, material physical properties have a strong impact on the behaviour of the formulation during processing. The ability to identify materials with similar characteristics (and thus expected to exhibit similar behaviour) within the company's portfolio can help accelerate drug development by enabling early assessment and prediction of potential challenges associated with the powder properties of a new active pharmaceutical ingredient. Such developments will aid the production of robust dosage forms, in an efficient manner. Similarity scoring metrics are widely used in a number of scientific fields. This study proposes a practical implementation of this methodology within pharmaceutical development. The developed similarity metrics is based on the Mahalanobis distance. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm morphological similarity between the reference material and the closest matches identified by the metrics proposed. The results show that the metrics proposed are able to successfully identify material with similar physical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microstructural development of adiabatic shear bands formed by ballistic impact in a WELDALITE 049 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.G.; Park, W.J.; Lee, S.; Shin, K.S.

    1998-02-01

    The object of the present study is to investigate the microstructural development of the adiabatic shear band formed by ballistic impact in a WELDALITE 049 alloy. The microstructure of the shear band was examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that the adiabatic shear band consisted of fine recrystallized grains with a high dislocation density. This microstructure was considered to be formed in an extremely short time by the combined effects of the highly localized shear deformation and the high-temperature rise that occurred within the shear band. However, no precipitates could be observed in the interior of the grains, since the temperature rise in the shear band formation process was inferred to be above 460 C and below the solidus temperature. Dynamic recrystallization was suggested as a possible mechanism to explain the microstructural development of the adiabatic shear band formed in the WELDALITE alloy.

  3. Ionic immobilization, diversification, and release: application to the generation of a library of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, Punitha; Guerra, Jennifer M; Schoenen, Frank; Huang, Min; Gor, Parul J; Georg, Gunda I; Wang, Jenna L; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Lushington, Gerald H; Mitscher, Lester A; Ye, Qi-Zhuang; Hanson, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Development of an ionic immobilization, diversification, and release method for the generation of methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors is reported. This method involves the immobilization of 5-bromofuran-2-carboxylic acid and 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxylic acid onto PS-BEMP, followed by Suzuki reaction on a resin-bound intermediate and subsequent release to provide products in moderate yields and excellent purities. Compound potencies were evaluated on the Co(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) forms of Escherichia coli MetAP1. The furoic-acid analogs were found to be Mn(II) selective with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range. Qualitative SAR analysis, supplemented by molecular modeling studies, provides valuable information on structural elements responsible for potency and selectivity.

  4. Salt-occluded zeolites as an immobilization matrix for chloride waste salt

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Smith, L.J. . Chemical Technology Div.)

    1993-11-01

    The pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel from the integral fast reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor under development at Argonne National Laboratory, will generate a chloride salt waste containing the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and some of the rare-earth fission products. Salt-occluded zeolite A, formed by equilibrating simulated molten waste salt and zeolite A, has been investigated as an immobilization matrix for this salt waste. In this concept, the chloride waste salt is loaded into the zeolite cavities, and cesium and strontium from the salt are preferentially sorbed by the zeolite. Experiments showed that the salt occluded zeolite powders are leach resistant and radiation stable. The conclusion is that the salt-occluded zeolite is a promising immobilization matrix for the IFR waste salt.

  5. Localization of type II collagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, and short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts in the developing chick notochord and axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-06-01

    In this study we compare, by in situ hybridization, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of transcripts of avian type II collagen and the long and short forms of the (alpha 1) chain of type IX collagen during the development of the notochord and axial skeleton. We observed type II collagen and short form type IX collagen transcripts in the developing (stage 25-28) nonchondrogenic notochord. Conversely, long form type IX transcripts were not detectable in the notochord or perinotochordal sheath. Interestingly, all three transcripts colocalized in the developing chondrogenic vertebrae of the axial skeleton as well as in the chondrocranium and Meckel's cartilage. The expression of the short form of type IX collagen in these regions was more restricted than that of the long form. This report provides additional support for a complex regulatory pathway of cartilage marker gene expression in chondrogenic vs. nonchondrogenic tissues during avian embryogenesis.

  6. Collaborative Working and Contested Practices: Forming, Developing and Sustaining Social Partnerships in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Ovens, Carolyn; Clemans, Allie; Seddon, Terri

    2007-01-01

    Despite a lack of applied research, social partnerships are increasingly being adopted by both government and non-government agencies to meet localized needs in education and other fields. This article discusses the findings of an investigation of how social partnerships can best be formed, developed and sustained over time. Earlier work…

  7. Collaboration as a Form of Professional Development: Improving Learning for Faculty and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta; Sardone, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    One form of professional development available to faculty is the opportunity to co-teach. Studies of team teaching report increased communication between teachers and students and improved retention and achievement. This article describes a multiyear collaboration between two faculty members that began with a training relationship and expanded…

  8. The Development of the Pilot Form of the Parent Attitudes toward School Effectiveness (PATSE) Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert K.; And Others

    The development of the Parent Attitudes toward School Effectiveness (PATSE) questionnaire was conducted in two phases. The pilot test form contained 47 items reflecting parents' attitudes toward 6 categories: (1) school and community relationships; (2) clear school mission; (3) high expectations; (4) safe and orderly environment; (5) instructional…

  9. The Development of Substitute Object Pretense: The Differential Importance of Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Emily J.; Smith, Eric D.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2016-01-01

    Substitute object pretense is one of the earliest-developing forms of pretense, and yet it changes considerably across the preschool years. By 3.5 years of age, children can pretend with substitutes that are highly dissimilar from their intended referents (Elder & Pederson, 1978), but even older children have difficulty understanding such…

  10. Development of Forms and Functions of Interrogatives in Children: A Longitudinal Study in Tamil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the development of the forms and functions of interrogatives in Tamil-speaking parent-child interactions during early stages of language acquisition revealed that children first acquired and used intonation questions, followed by questions using "where,""what," and "who." Yes/no questions using the…

  11. Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

  12. The Physician Values in Practice Scale-Short Form: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy; Hartung, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to develop and test a short form of the 60-item Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS, which draws on the theory of work adjustment for its theoretical base, measures personal values specific to medical occupations. In Study 1, 217 first- and final-year medical students completed a Web-based…

  13. Development of a Rating Form to Evaluate Grant Applications to the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Rodriguez, Reymundo; Alexander, Laurel A.

    2006-01-01

    Reliance on subjective grant proposal review methods leads private philanthropies to underfund mental health programs, even when foundations have mental health focuses. This article describes a private mental health foundation's efforts to increase the objectivity of its proposal review process by developing a reliable, valid proposal rating form.…

  14. Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

  15. The Physician Values in Practice Scale-Short Form: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy; Hartung, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to develop and test a short form of the 60-item Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS, which draws on the theory of work adjustment for its theoretical base, measures personal values specific to medical occupations. In Study 1, 217 first- and final-year medical students completed a Web-based…

  16. The Development of Luminance- and Texture-Defined Form Perception during the School-Aged Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertone, Armando; Hanck, Julie; Guy, Jacalyn; Cornish, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the development of luminance- and texture-defined static form perception in school-aged children. This was done using an adapted Landolt-C technique where C-optotypes were defined by either luminance or texture information, the latter necessitating extra-striate neural processing to be perceived.…

  17. Creative Workshop as a Form of Contemporary Art and a Space for Subjective Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Józefowski, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the original concept of the author's creative workshop which is treated as an art form and the method of education. It contains a presentation of the structure of the original workshop developed by the author in the context of multi-layered relations occurring in the interconnected areas of art and education leading to…

  18. The Development of Substitute Object Pretense: The Differential Importance of Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Emily J.; Smith, Eric D.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2016-01-01

    Substitute object pretense is one of the earliest-developing forms of pretense, and yet it changes considerably across the preschool years. By 3.5 years of age, children can pretend with substitutes that are highly dissimilar from their intended referents (Elder & Pederson, 1978), but even older children have difficulty understanding such…

  19. Creative Workshop as a Form of Contemporary Art and a Space for Subjective Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Józefowski, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the original concept of the author's creative workshop which is treated as an art form and the method of education. It contains a presentation of the structure of the original workshop developed by the author in the context of multi-layered relations occurring in the interconnected areas of art and education leading to…

  20. Development of sensitivity to global form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne; Price, Tracy; Hall-Haro, Cynthia; Movshon, J Anthony

    2012-06-15

    To explore the relative development of the dorsal and ventral extrastriate processing streams, we studied the development of sensitivity to form and motion in macaque monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). We used Glass patterns and random dot kinematograms (RDK) to assay ventral and dorsal stream function, respectively. We tested 24 animals, longitudinally or cross-sectionally, between the ages of 5 weeks and 3 years. Each animal was tested with Glass patterns and RDK stimuli with each of two pattern types--circular and linear--at each age using a two alternative forced-choice task. We measured coherence threshold for discrimination of the global form or motion pattern from an incoherent control stimulus. Sensitivity to global motion appeared earlier than to global form and was higher at all ages, but performance approached adult levels at similar ages. Infants were most sensitive to large spatial scale (Δx) and fast speeds; sensitivity to fine scale and slow speeds developed more slowly independently of pattern type. Within the motion domain, pattern type had little effect on overall performance. However, within the form domain, sensitivity for linear Glass patterns was substantially poorer than that for concentric patterns. Our data show comparatively early onset for global motion integration ability, perhaps reflecting early development of the dorsal stream. However, both pathways mature over long time courses reaching adult levels between 2 and 3 years after birth.

  1. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  2. Collaborative Working and Contested Practices: Forming, Developing and Sustaining Social Partnerships in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Ovens, Carolyn; Clemans, Allie; Seddon, Terri

    2007-01-01

    Despite a lack of applied research, social partnerships are increasingly being adopted by both government and non-government agencies to meet localized needs in education and other fields. This article discusses the findings of an investigation of how social partnerships can best be formed, developed and sustained over time. Earlier work…

  3. Transport of fine sediment over a coarse, immobile riverbed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grams, Paul E.; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment transport in cobble-boulder rivers consists mostly of fine sediment moving over a coarse, immobile bed. Transport rate depends on several interrelated factors: boundary shear stress, the grain size and volume of fine sediment, and the configuration of fine sediment into interstitial deposits and bed forms. Existing models do not incorporate all of these factors. Approaches that partition stress face a daunting challenge because most of the boundary shear is exerted on immobile grains. We present an alternative approach that divides the bed into sand patches and interstitial deposits and is well constrained by two clear end-member cases: full sand cover and absence of sand. Entrainment from sand patches is a function of their aerial coverage. Entrainment from interstices among immobile grains is a function of sand elevation relative to the size of the immobile grains. The bed-sand coverage function is used to predict the ratio of the rate of entrainment from a partially covered bed to the rate of entrainment from a completely sand-covered bed, which is determined using a standard sand transport model. We implement the bed-sand coverage function in a morphodynamic routing model and test it against observations of sand bed elevation and suspended sand concentration for conditions of nonuniform fine sediment transport in a large flume with steady uniform flow over immobile hemispheres. The results suggest that this approach may provide a simple and robust method for predicting the transport and migration of fine sediment through rivers with coarse, immobile beds.

  4. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes with dopamine for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chao, Cong; Liu, Jindun; Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Yanwu; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Yatao; Xiang, Xu; Chen, Rongfeng

    2013-11-13

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been proposed as a potential support to immobilize enzymes. Improving enzyme loading on HNTs is critical to their practical applications. Herein, we reported a simple method on the preparation of high-enzyme-loading support by modification with dopamine on the surface of HNTs. The modified HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that dopamine could self-polymerize to adhere to the surface of HNTs and form a thin active coating. While the prepared hybrid nanotubes were used to immobilize enzyme of laccase, they exhibited high loading ability of 168.8 mg/g support, which was greatly higher than that on the pristine HNTs (11.6 mg/g support). The immobilized laccase could retain more than 90% initial activity after 30 days of storage and the free laccase only 32%. The immobilized laccase could also maintain more than 90% initial activity after five repeated uses. In addition, the immobilized laccase exhibited a rapid degradation rate and high degradation efficiency for removal of phenol compounds. These advantages indicated that the new hybrid material can be used as a low-cost and effective support to immobilize enzymes.

  5. Addressed immobilization of biofunctionalized diatoms on electrodes by gold electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, S; Garibo, D; Fernández-Tejedor, M; O'Sullivan, C K; Campàs, M

    2017-03-23

    Diatoms are single cell microalgae with a silica shell (frustule), which possess a micro/nanoporous pattern of unparalleled diversity far beyond the possibilities of current micro- and nanofabrication techniques. To explore diatoms as natural three-dimensional nanostructured supports in sensing and biosensing devices, a simple, rapid and stable method to immobilize diatoms via gold electrodeposition is described. In this process, gold microstructures are formed, immobilizing diatoms by entrapment or crossing their nanopores. Varying the applied potential, time and HAuCl4 concentration, gold deposits of different morphologies and roughness are obtained, thereby determining the diatom immobilization process. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize diatom immobilization yields, the morphology of the gold microstructures, and the morphological integrity of diatoms. Cyclic voltammetry has been performed to characterize the gold deposits and to demonstrate the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the gold-diatom electrodes. Electro-addressed immobilization of different diatoms on specific bands of interdigitated electrode arrays has been achieved, highlighting the potential application of diatoms for site-specific immobilization on microarrays. The feasibility to combine tailored immobilization with diatom biofunctionalization has also been demonstrated. Antibody-functionalized diatoms were immobilized on electrodes retaining their ability to detect its cognate antigen. The reported method exploits the natural three-dimensional nanostructures of diatoms together with their easy modification with biomolecules and the simplicity of gold electrodeposition to produce micro/nanostructured and highly electrocatalytic electrodes, providing low-cost and eco-friendly platforms and arrays with potential application in biosensing devices.

  6. Characterization of a hybrid-smectite nanomaterial formed by immobilizing of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid onto (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified smectite and its potentiometric sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Cihan; Caglar, Sema; Caglar, Bulent; Coldur, Fatih; Cubuk, Osman; Sarp, Gokhan; Gedik, Kubra; Bozkurt Cirak, Burcu; Tabak, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    A novel N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectite nanomaterial was synthesized by immobilizing of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid through chemical bonding onto (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified smectite. The structural, thermal, morphological and surface properties of raw, silane-grafted and the N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectites were investigated by various characterization techniques. The thermal analysis data showed the presence of peaks in the temperature range from 200 °C to 600 °C due to the presence of physically adsorbed silanes, intercalated silanes, surface grafted silanes and chemically grafted silane molecules between the smectite layers. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns clearly indicated that the aminopropyl molecules also intercalated into the smectite interlayers as bilayer arrangement whereas N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules were only attached to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane molecules on the external surface and edges of clay and they did not intercalate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules bonding through the amide bond between the amine group of aminopropyltriethoxysilane molecules and a carboxylic acid functional group of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules. The guest molecules functionalized onto the smectite caused significant alterations in the textural and morphological parameters of the raw smectite. The anchoring of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules led to positive electrophoretic mobility values when compared to starting materials. N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectite was employed as an electroactive ingredient in the structure of potentiometric PVC-membrane sensor. The sensor exhibited more selective potentiometric response towards chlorate ions compared to the other common anionic species.

  7. Photochemically Initiated Single Polymer Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This Concept article surveys methods for attaching single polymer molecules on solid substrates. A general approach to single polymer immobilization based on the photochemistry of perfluorophenylazides is elaborated. PMID:17444538

  8. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  9. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  10. Materials and processes for the effective capture and immobilization of radioiodine: A review

    DOE PAGES

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Strachan, Denis M.; ...

    2015-12-02

    In this study, the immobilization of radioiodine produced from reprocessing used nuclear fuel is a growing priority for research and development of nuclear waste forms. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current issues surrounding processing and containment of 129I, the isotope of greatest concern due to its long half-life of 1.6 × 107 y and potential incorporation into the human body. Strategies for disposal of radioiodine, captured by both wet scrubbing and solid sorbents, are discussed, as well as potential iodine waste streams for insertion into an immobilization process. Next, consideration of direct disposal of salts, incorporation intomore » glasses, ceramics, cements, and other phases is discussed. The bulk of the review is devoted to an assessment of various sorbents for iodine and of waste forms described in the literature, particularly inorganic minerals, ceramics, and glasses. This review also contains recommendations for future research needed to address radioiodine immobilization materials and processes.« less

  11. Enzyme stabilization and immobilization by sol-gel entrapment.

    PubMed

    David, Allan E; Yang, Arthur J; Wang, Nam Sun

    2011-01-01

    While biocatalysts show tremendous potential for the industrial production of fine chemicals, their integration into large-scale processes has been slow. One of the main reasons for slow acceptance in industry is the inherent instability of the enzymes. Recent developments in bioengineering have shed some light on methods of improving enzyme stability. One method that has been used for many decades, successfully to varying degrees, has been the immobilization of enzymes. To this regards, silica gels have attracted much attention because of the ease of surface functionalization, high surface areas, mechanical and thermal stability, and resistance to both chemical and biological attack. We have previously shown the immobilization of invertase on silica gels with high immobilized activity and significantly improved stability. Here, we provide greater details on the methods for effecting the immobilization.

  12. Effective immobilization of BMP-2 mediated by polydopamine coating on biodegradable nanofibers for enhanced in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeong-jin; Perikamana, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakkat; Lee, Ji-hye; Lee, Jinkyu; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Shin, Choongsoo S; Shin, Heungsoo

    2014-07-23

    Although bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) have been widely used for bone regeneration, the ideal delivery system with optimized dose and minimized side effects is still active area of research. In this study, we developed bone morphogenetic protein-2(BMP-2) immobilized poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) nanofibers inspired by polydopamine, which could be ultimately used as membranes for guided bone regeneration, and investigated their effect on guidance of in vitro cell behavior and in vivo bone formation. Surface chemical analysis of the nanofibers confirmed successful immobilization of BMP-2 mediated by polydopamine, and about 90% of BMP-2 was stably retained on the nanofiber surface for at least 28 days. The alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) after 14 days of in vitro culture was significantly enhanced on nanofibers immobilized with BMP-2. More importantly, BMP-2 at a relatively small dose was highly active following implantation to the critical-sized defect in the cranium of mice; radiographic analysis demonstrated that 77.8 ± 11.7% of newly formed bone was filled within the defect for a BMP-2-immobilized groups at the concentration of 124 ± 9 ng/cm(2), as compared to 5.9 ± 1.0 and 34.1 ± 5.5% recovery, for a defect-only and a polydopamine-only group, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of samples from the BMP-2 immobilized group showed fibroblasts and osteoblasts with nanofiber strands in the middle of regenerated bone tissue, revealing the importance of interaction between implanted nanofibers and the neighboring extracellular environment. Taken together, our data support that the presentation of BMP-2 on the surface of nanofibers as immobilized by utilizing polydopamine chemistry may be an effective method to direct bone growth at relatively low local concentration.

  13. Waste form development and characterization in pyrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.

    1998-04-16

    Electrometallurgical treatment is a compact, inexpensive method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to deal with spent nuclear fuel, primarily metallic and oxide fuels. In this method, metallic nuclear fuel constituents are electrorefined in a molten salt to separate uranium from the rest of the spent fuel. Oxide and other fuels are subjected to appropriate head end steps to convert them to metallic form prior to electrorefining. The treatment process generates two kinds of high-level waste--a metallic and a ceramic waste. Isolation of these wastes has been developed as an integral part of the process. The wastes arise directly from the electrorefiner, and waste streams do not contain large quantities of solvent or other process fluids. Consequently, waste volumes are small and waste isolation processes can be compact and rapid. This paper briefly summarizes waste isolation processes then describes development and characterization of the two waste forms in more detail.

  14. Electroenzymatic degradation of azo dye using an immobilized peroxidase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gha-Young; Lee, Ki-Beom; Cho, Seung-Hee; Shim, Joonmok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2005-11-11

    Azo dyes are largely resistant to biodegradation and persist in conventional wastewater treatment processes. Combining enzymatic catalysis and the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an electroenzymatic process was developed, which is a potential alternative to traditional processes. In this study, an electroenzymatic method that uses an immobilized horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP), was investigated to degrade orange II (azo dye) within a two-compartment packed-bed flow reactor. To evaluate the electroenzymatic degradation of orange II, electrolytic experiments were carried out with 0.42 U/mL HRP at -0.5 V. It was found that removal of orange II was partly due to its adsorption to the graphite felt. The overall application of the electroenzymatic led to a greater degradation rate than the use of electrolysis alone. Also the by-products formed were found to consist primarily of an aromatic amine, sulfanilic acid, and unknown compounds.

  15. Molecular nanotechnologies of gelatin-immobilization using macrocyclic metal chelates

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, Oleg V.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of recent developments in the self-assembled nanostructures based on chelate coordination compounds. Molecular nanotechnologies of self-assembly of 3d-element aza- and thiazametalmacrocyclic complexes that happen in nanoreactors on the basis of metal hexacyanoferrate(II) gelatin-immobilized matrix under their contact with water solutions containing various (N,O,S)-donor atomic ligands and organic compounds having one or two carbonyl groups have been considered in this review. It has been noted that the assortment of macrocyclic metal chelates obtained as a result of using molecular nanotechnologies in such specific conditions considerably differs from the assortment of metal chelates formed at the conditions traditional for chemical synthesis. PMID:24516711

  16. [Development of Triticale and soft wheat forms with substituted wheat and rye chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Suvorova, E Iu; Cherednichenko, V N; Semenov, V I

    2000-01-01

    During hybridization between winter forms of hexaploid (6x) triticale and soft wheat varieties the intergenomic substitution of alian chromosomes occurs. As a result of these crosses the forms of 6x-triticale with D(R)-substitution of chromosomes in R-rye genome by wheat ones of D-genome and wheat revertants with rye chromosomes replacing the wheat ones are originated. This is the simplest and the most effective technique for developing of selected lines of triticale and soft wheat with alien substituted chromosomes and valuable genes transfer.

  17. Mosaic parental germline mutations causing recurrent forms of malformations of cortical development.

    PubMed

    Zillhardt, Julia Lauer; Poirier, Karine; Broix, Loïc; Lebrun, Nicolas; Elmorjani, Adrienne; Martinovic, Jelena; Saillour, Yoann; Muraca, Giuseppe; Nectoux, Juliette; Bessieres, Bettina; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Dulac, Olivier; Odent, Sylvie; Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Rivier, Francois; Pinson, Lucile; Geneviève, David; Musizzano, Yuri; Bigi, Nicole; Leboucq, Nicolas; Giuliano, Fabienne; Philip, Nicole; Vilain, Catheline; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Maurey, Hélène; Beldjord, Cherif; Artiguenave, François; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Masson, Cécile; Nitschké, Patrick; Deleuze, Jean-François; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Chelly, Jamel

    2016-04-01

    To unravel missing genetic causes underlying monogenic disorders with recurrence in sibling, we explored the hypothesis of parental germline mosaic mutations in familial forms of malformation of cortical development (MCD). Interestingly, four families with parental germline variants, out of 18, were identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES), including a variant in a new candidate gene, syntaxin 7. In view of this high frequency, revision of diagnostic strategies and reoccurrence risk should be considered not only for the recurrent forms, but also for the sporadic cases of MCD.

  18. (Immobilization of radioactive wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.

    1986-12-18

    The traveler participated as the co-chairman of the France/US Workshop in Cadarache, France, on the immobilization of radioactive wastes in cement-based materials. These meetings and site visits were conducted under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Commissariate a l'Energie Atomique (CEA-France). Visits in France included the Cadarache, Valduc, Saclay, and Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centers. As a result of these discussions, an exchange of scientists between Saclay and ORNL was proposed. The traveler continued on to the FRG to visit a hazardous waste site remedial action project in Sprendlingen and the nuclear research and production facilities at the Karlsruhe Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) and the Alkem/Nukem/Transnuklear facilities at Hanau. Visits in the FRG were under the bilateral exchange agreement between the US-DOE and the Bundes Ministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT). The FRG supplied the traveler data on studies of super-compaction volume reduction efficiencies by KfK and Nukem. Also, Transnuklear is considering contributing two of their larger Konrad-certified packages to the MDU studies at ORNL. 1 tab.

  19. [Biosensors based on the luminous bacteria Photobaterium phosphoreum immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol cryogel for the monitoring of ecotoxicants].

    PubMed

    Efremenko, E N; Sen'ko, O V; Aleskerova, L É; Alenina, K A; Mazhul', M M; Ismailov, A D

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization of Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria in polyvinyl alcohol cryogel was performed in order to develop biosensors used for ecotoxicant biomonitoring. The immobilization procedure, storage, and application of the immobilized cells for biomonitoring were optimized. It was shown that the immobilized cells demonstrate significantly higher stability and a longer duration of light emission than free bacteria. A discrete analysis of heavy metals and chlorophenols was conducted using the obtained biosensor samples.

  20. Development of gold-immobilized P450 platform for exploring the effect of oligomer formation on P450-mediated metabolism for in vitro to in vivo drug metabolism predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabulski, Jarod L.

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme family is responsible for the biotransformation of a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, as well as being the major metabolic enzyme in first pass drug metabolism. In vivo drug metabolism for P450 enzymes is predicted using in vitro data obtained from a reconstituted expressed P450 system, but these systems have not always been proven to accurately represent in vivo enzyme kinetics, due to interactions caused by oligomer formation. These in vitro systems use soluble P450 enzymes prone to oligomer formation and studies have shown that increased states of protein aggregation directly affect the P450 enzyme kinetics. We have developed an immobilized enzyme system that isolates the enzyme and can be used to elucidate the effect of P450 aggregation on metabolism kinetics. The long term goal of my research is to develop a tool that will help improve the assessment of pharmaceuticals by better predicting in vivo kinetics in an in vitro system. The central hypothesis of this research is that P450-mediated kinetics measured in vitro is dependent on oligomer formation and that the accurate prediction of in vivo P450-mediated kinetics requires elucidation of the effect of oligomer formation. The rationale is that the development of a P450 bound to a Au platform can be used to control the aggregation of enzymes and bonding to Au may also permit replacement of the natural redox partners with an electrode capable of supplying a constant flow of electrons. This dissertation explains the details of the enzyme attachment, monitoring substrate binding, and metabolism using physiological and electrochemical methods, determination of enzyme kinetics, and the development of an immobilized-P450 enzyme bioreactor. This work provides alternative approaches to studying P450-mediated kinetics, a platform for controlling enzyme aggregation, electrochemically-driven P450 metabolism, and for investigating the effect of protein

  1. Periodic operation of immobilized live cell bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N.

    1988-01-01

    A complete system for computer-assisted fermentation research was set up. The system consisted of a 16 liter laboratory fermentor connected to a mass spectrometer for off-gas analysis, a flow injection analyzer for on-line enzymatic and colorimetric analysis, and an on-line HPLC. This system was interfaced to a Micro VAX II computer. The kinetics of growth and candicidin production by S. griseus in complex and in synthetic media were investigated. On-line glucose analysis of the fermentation was used to identify nutrient limitation by multiple substrates during the fermentation. The growth kinetics of S. griseus under limitation by two nutrients were studied. The Monod type of model was used to analyze cell growth under multiple substrate limitation. Regions of phosphate limitation were identified by analysis of the environmental state space. Based on this analysis the nutrient medium for the forced periodic operation of the immobilized bioreactor was developed. A lumped model for cell growth and candicidin production in an immobilized live cell bioreactor was developed. The model was used to perform a simulation study of the periodic operation of an immobilized bioreactor. Finally, an immobilzed bioreactor with forced periodic operation was used to study the effect of cycling frequency on reactor performance. The results of the studies on the periodic operation suggest that periodically operated immobilized live cell bioreactors can provide a potent alternative for the production of non-growth associated biochemicals, as compared to free cell fermentations, pulsed fermentations with process cycle regeneration, and non-regenerated bioreactors. This work has demonstrated that by frequent pulsing of growth limiting nutrient, stable extended production can be obtained at high specific cellular productivities.

  2. Photo selective protein immobilization using bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Kim, Ansoon; Huh, Chul; Park, Chan Woo; Ah, Chil Seong; Kim, Bong Kyu; Yang, Jong-Heon; Chung, Kwang Hyo; Choi, Yo Han; Hong, Jongcheol; Sung, Gun Yong

    2012-11-01

    A simple and selective technique which immobilizes protein onto a solid substrate by using UV illumination has been developed. In protein immobilization, a Bovine serum albumin (BSA) performed bifunctional role as a cross-linker between substrate and proteins and as a blocker inhibiting a nonspecific protein adsorption. A new photo-induced protein immobilization process has been investigated at each step by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. A UV photomask has been used to induce selective protein immobilization on target regions of the surface of the SiO2 substrates under UV illumination with negligible nonspecific binding. The UV illumination also showed improved photostability than the conventional methods which employed bifunctional photo-crosslinker molecules of photo-reactive diazirine. This new UV illumination-based photo-addressable protein immobilization provides a new approach for developing novel protein microarrays for multiplexed sensing as well as other types of bio-immobilization in biomedical devices and biotechnologies.

  3. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanová, Soňa; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2015-03-01

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels.The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed

  4. Selection of a glass-ceramic formulation to immobilize fluorinel- sodium calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, B.A.; Wood, H.C.

    1994-12-01

    One option for immobilizing calcined high level wastes produced by nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is conversion to a glass-ceramic form through hot isostatic pressing. Calcines exist in several different chemical compositions, and thus candidate formulations have been developed for converting each to glass-ceramic forms which are potentially resistant to aqueous corrosion and stable enough to qualify for repository storage. Fluorinel/Na, a chemically complex calcine type, is one of the types being stored at ICPP, and development efforts have identified three formulations with potential for immobilizing it. These are a glass forming additive that uses aluminum metal to enhance reactivity, a second glass forming additive that uses titanium metal to enhance reactivity and a third that uses not only a combination of silicon and titanium metals but enough phosphorous pentoxide to form a calcium phosphate host phase in the glass-ceramic product. Glass-ceramics of each formulation performed well in restricted characterization tests. However, none of the three was subjected to rigorous testing that would provide information on whether each was processable, that is able to retain favorable characteristics over a practical range of processing conditions.

  5. Effect of chemical form of selenium on tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in developing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Strength, Ralph; Johnson, Janet; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that the stage of development of rats may affect the availability of various forms of selenium for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the rat was experimentally investigated. One experiment evaluated the availability of selenium as selenite or selenomethionine for GSPHx activity during three developmental states in rats: fetus and 7-day old and 14-day old nursing pups. In all tissues studied, GSHPx activity was highest in the 14-day-old pups whose dams were in the selenomethionine group. Rat pups given intraperitoneal selenite had higher liver and kidney GSHPx activity than pups given the same amount of selenium as intraperitoneal selenomethionine. In a second experiment, all dams were fed the same basal diet and pups were weaned to diets containing one of two levels of selenium and one of three forms of selenium (selenite, selenomethionine, or selenocystine). The results also supported the hypothesis these dietary forms of selenium are differentially available for GSHPx activity.

  6. Development of a short-form Learning Organization Survey: the LOS-27.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Moore, Scott C; Meterko, Mark; Williams, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Despite urgent need for innovation, adaptation, and change in health care, few tools enable researchers or practitioners to assess the extent to which health care facilities perform as learning organizations or the effects of initiatives that require learning. This study's objective was to develop and test a short-form Learning Organization Survey to fill this gap. The authors applied exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to data from Veterans Health Administration personnel to derive a short-form survey and then conducted further confirmatory factor analysis and factor invariance testing on additional Veterans Health Administration data to evaluate the short form. Results suggest that a 27-item, 7-factor survey (2 environmental factors, 1 on leadership, and 4 on concrete learning processes and practices) reliably measures key features of organizational learning, allowing researchers to evaluate theoretical propositions about organizational learning, its antecedents, and outcomes and enabling managers to assess and enhance organizations' learning capabilities and performance.

  7. [A short form of the positions on nursing diagnosis scale: development and psychometric testing].

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina; Gabaldón-Bravo, Eva Maria; González-Domínguez, Maria Eugenia; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) is a scale that uses the semantic differential technique to measure nurses' attitudes towards the nursing diagnosis concept. The aim of this study was to develop a shortened form of the Spanish version of this scale and evaluate its psychometric properties and efficiency. A double theoretical-empirical approach was used to obtain a short form of the PND, the PND-7-SV, which would be equivalent to the original. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct (exploratory factor analysis, known-groups technique and discriminant validity) and criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), sensitivity to change and efficiency of the PND-7-SV were assessed in a sample of 476 Spanish nursing students. The results endorsed the utility of the PND-7-SV to measure attitudes toward nursing diagnosis in an equivalent manner to the complete form of the scale and in a shorter time.

  8. Radiation-induced polymerization for the immobilization of penicillin acylase

    SciTech Connect

    Boccu, E.; Carenza, M.; Lora, S.; Palma, G.; Veronese, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    The immobilization of Escherichia coli penicillin acylase was investigated by radiation-induced polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate at low temperature. A leak-proof composite that does not swell in water was obtained by adding the cross-linking agent trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate to the monomer-aqueous enzyme mixture. Penicillin acylase, which was immobilized with greater than 70% yield, possessed a higher Km value toward the substrate 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid than the free enzyme form (Km = 1.7 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-5) M, respectively). The structural stability of immobilized penicillin acylase, as assessed by heat, guanidinium chloride, and pH denaturation profiles, was very similar to that of the free-enzyme form, thus suggesting that penicillin acylase was entrapped in its native state into aqueous free spaces of the polymer matrix.

  9. Development of advanced techniques for identification of flow stress and friction parameters for metal forming analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyunjoong

    The accuracy of process simulation in metal forming by finite element method depends on the accuracy of flow stress data and friction value that are input to FEM programs. Therefore, it is essential that these input values are determined using reliable tests and evaluation methods. This study presents the development of inverse analysis methodology and its application to determine flow stress data of bulk and sheet materials at room and elevated temperatures. The inverse problem is defined as the minimization of the differences between the experimental measurements and the corresponding FEM predictions. Rigid-viscoplastic FEM is used to analyze the metal flow while a numerical optimization algorithm adjusts the material parameters used in the simulation until the calculated response matches the measured data within a specified tolerance. The use of the developed inverse analysis methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to the selected reference rheological tests; cylinder compression test, ring compression test, instrumented indentation test, modified limiting dome height test, and sheet hydraulic bulge test. Furthermore, using the determined material property data, full 3-D finite element simulation models, as examples of industrial applications for orbital forming and thermoforming processes have been developed for reliable process simulation. As results of this study, it was shown that the developed inverse analysis methodology could identify both the material parameters and friction factors from one set of tests, simultaneously. Therefore, this technique can offer a systematic and cost effective way for determining material property data for simulation of metal forming processes.

  10. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y < 2 and M = divalent or trivalent cation appeared as the best candidates. In this study, hollandite ceramics were prepared using oxide route from oxide, carbonate and nitrate powders with and without Cs for different cations M (Al 3+, Cr 3+, Ga 3+, Fe 3+, Mg 2+, Sc 3+) of increasing size, in order to evaluate the effect of composition on ceramics microstructure and structure and on cesium incorporation. To reduce the risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  11. 5,5-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) pyrene derivative-carbon nanotube electrodes for NADH electrooxidation and oriented immobilization of multicopper oxidases for the development of glucose/O2 biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Fabien; Sawada, Koichi; Taya, Masahito; Cosnier, Serge

    2017-01-15

    We report the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) electrodes by a bifunctional nitroaromatic molecule accomplished via π-π interactions of a pyrene derivative. DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) has the particularity to possess both electroactivable nitro groups and negatively charged carboxylic groups. The integration of the DTNB-modified MWCNTs was evaluated for different bioelectrocatalytic systems. The immobilized DTNB-based electrodes showed electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) with low overpotential of -0.09V vs Ag/AgCl at neutral pH. Glucose dehydrogenase was successfully immobilized at the surface of DTNB-based electrodes and, in the presence of NAD(+), the resulting bioelectrode achieved efficient glucose oxidation with high current densities of 2.03mAcm(-2). On the other hand, the aromatic structure and the negatively charged nature of the DTNB provoked orientation of both laccase and bilirubin oxidase onto the electrode, which enhanced their ability to undergo a direct electron transfer for oxygen reduction. Due to the proper orientation, low overpotentials were obtained (ca. 0.6V vs Ag/AgCl) and high electrocatalytic currents of about 3.5mAcm(-)(2) were recorded at neutral pH in O2 saturated conditions for bilirubin oxidase electrodes. The combination of these bioanodes and bilirubin oxidase biocathodes provided glucose/O2 enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFC) exhibiting an open-circuit potential of 0.640V, with an associated maximum current density of 2.10mAcm(-)(2). Moreover, the fuel cell delivered a maximum power density of 0.50mWcm(-)(2) at 0.36 V.

  12. A novel electrochemiluminescence ethanol biosensor based on tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II) and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in graphene/bovine serum albumin composite film.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Yunsheng; Xi, Jing; Lin, Shaoyu; Chen, Yaowen; Lin, Yuejuan; Chen, Zhanguang

    2013-03-15

    We developed a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ethanol biosensor based on Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized by graphene/bovine serum albumin composite film. The graphene film was directly formed on a glassy carbon electrode surface via an in situ reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) was immobilized during its formation. The graphene film acted as both a decorating agent for immobilization of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and a matrix to immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA), meanwhile BSA not only acted as a reductant to reduce GO, but also provided a friendly environment for ADH immobilization. Furthermore, ADH was separated from Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) by the electron-conductive graphene/BSA composite film to retain its enzymatic activity. The experimental results indicated that the biosensor had excellent electrochemical activity, ECL response to ethanol and stability. Such a design of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-graphene/BSA film to modify electrode holds a great promise as a new biocompatible platform for the development of enzyme-based ECL biosensors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  14. Development and testing of matrices for the encapsulation of glass and ceramic nuclear waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.; Brite, D.W.; Gurwell, W.E.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Blair, H.T.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report details the results of research on the matrix encapsulation of high level wastes at PML over the past few years. The demonstrations and tests described were designed to illustrate how the waste materials are effected when encapsulated in an inert matrix. Candidate materials evaluated for potential use as matrices for encapslation of pelletized ceramics or glass marbles were categorized into four groups: metals, glasses, ceramics, and graphite. Two processing techniques, casting and hot pressing, were investigated as the most promising methods of formation or densification of the matrices. The major results reported deal with the development aspects. However, chemical durability tests (leach tests) of the matrix materials themselves and matrix-waste form composites are also reported. Matrix waste forms can provide a low porosity, waste-free barrier resulting in increased leach protection, higher impact strength and improved thermal conductivity compared to unencapsulated glass or ceramic waste materials. Glass marbles encapsulated in a lead matrix offer the most significant improvement in waste form stability of all combinations evaluated. This form represents a readily demonstrable process that provides high thermal conductivity, mechanical shock resistance, radiation shielding and increased chemical durability through both a chemical passivation mechanism and as a physical barrier. Other durable matrix waste forms evaluated, applicable primarily to ceramic pellets, involved hot-pressed titanium or TiO/sub 2/ materials. In the processing of these forms, near 100% dense matrices were obtained. The matrix materials had excellent compatibility with the waste materials and superior potential chemical durability. Cracking of the hot-pressed ceramic matrix forms, in general, prevented the realization of their optimum properties.

  15. Connectivity precedes function in the development of the visual word form area

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, Z.M.; Osher, D.E.; Norton, E.S.; Youssoufian, D.A.; Beach, S.D.; Feather, J.; Gaab, N.; Gabrieli, J.D.E.; Kanwisher, N.

    2016-01-01

    What determines the cortical location where a given functionally specific region will arise in development? Here we test the hypothesis that functionally specific regions develop in their characteristic locations because of pre-existing differences in the extrinsic connectivity of that region to the rest of the brain. We exploit the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) as a test case, scanning children with diffusion and functional imaging at age five, before they learned to read, and at age 8, after they learned to read. We find the VWFA develops functionally in this interval and that its location in a particular child at age 8 can be predicted from that child’s connectivity fingerprints (but not functional responses) at age 5. These results suggest that early connectivity instructs the functional development of the VWFA, possibly reflecting a general mechanism of cortical development. PMID:27500407

  16. Connectivity precedes function in the development of the visual word form area.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Zeynep M; Osher, David E; Norton, Elizabeth S; Youssoufian, Deanna A; Beach, Sara D; Feather, Jenelle; Gaab, Nadine; Gabrieli, John D E; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    What determines the cortical location at which a given functionally specific region will arise in development? We tested the hypothesis that functionally specific regions develop in their characteristic locations because of pre-existing differences in the extrinsic connectivity of that region to the rest of the brain. We exploited the visual word form area (VWFA) as a test case, scanning children with diffusion and functional imaging at age 5, before they learned to read, and at age 8, after they learned to read. We found the VWFA developed functionally in this interval and that its location in a particular child at age 8 could be predicted from that child's connectivity fingerprints (but not functional responses) at age 5. These results suggest that early connectivity instructs the functional development of the VWFA, possibly reflecting a general mechanism of cortical development.

  17. Immobilization of Cr (VI) in stainless steel slag and Cd, As, and Pb in wastewater using blast furnace slag via a hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tae, Soon-Jae; Morita, Kazuki

    2017-05-01

    The immobilization of hexavalent chromium in stainless steel slag using blast furnace slag as the immobilizing agent and by performing a hydrothermal treatment was investigated. The results showed that there was no immobilization in the absence of the blast furnace slag. On the other hand, the hexavalent chromium in stainless steel slag could be immobilized through the hydrothermal reaction when blast furnace slag was used at 250 °C for 24 h. A leaching test was performed to evaluate the degree of immobilization of hexavalent chromium in the products formed by the hydrothermal reaction. It was found that the degree of immobilization was very high. Based on the results obtained, the immobilization mechanism of hexavalent chromium in stainless steel slag, resulting from the hydrothermal treatment of blast furnace slag, could be elucidated. Finally, the immobilization of cadmium, lead, and arsenic using blast furnace slag as the immobilization agent was also studied while focusing on the effects of the hydrothermal treatment.

  18. Development of a neonate lung reconstruction algorithm using a wavelet AMG and estimated boundary form.

    PubMed

    Bayford, R; Kantartzis, P; Tizzard, A; Yerworth, R; Liatsis, P; Demosthenous, A

    2008-06-01

    Objective, non-invasive measures of lung maturity and development, oxygen requirements and lung function, suitable for use in small, unsedated infants, are urgently required to define the nature and severity of persisting lung disease, and to identify risk factors for developing chronic lung problems. Disorders of lung growth, maturation and control of breathing are among the most important problems faced by the neonatologists. At present, no system for continuous monitoring of neonate lung function to reduce the risk of chronic lung disease in infancy in intensive care units exists. We are in the process of developing a new integrated electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system based on wearable technology to integrate measures of the boundary diameter from the boundary form for neonates into the reconstruction algorithm. In principle, this approach could provide a reduction of image artefacts in the reconstructed image associated with incorrect boundary form assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the required accuracy of the boundary form that would be suitable to minimize artefacts in the reconstruction for neonate lung function. The number of data points needed to create the required boundary form is automatically determined using genetic algorithms. The approach presented in this paper is to assist quality of the reconstruction using different approximations to the ideal boundary form. We also investigate the use of a wavelet algebraic multi-grid (WAMG) preconditioner to reduce the reconstruction computation requirements. Results are presented that demonstrate a full 3D model is required to minimize artefact in the reconstructed image and the implementation of a WAMG for EIT.

  19. Development of an optical character recognition pipeline for handwritten form fields from an electronic health record

    PubMed Central

    Peissig, Peggy L; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the penetration of electronic health records is increasing rapidly, much of the historical medical record is only available in handwritten notes and forms, which require labor-intensive, human chart abstraction for some clinical research. The few previous studies on automated extraction of data from these handwritten notes have focused on monolithic, custom-developed recognition systems or third-party systems that require proprietary forms. Methods We present an optical character recognition processing pipeline, which leverages the capabilities of existing third-party optical character recognition engines, and provides the flexibility offered by a modular custom-developed system. The system was configured and run on a selected set of form fields extracted from a corpus of handwritten ophthalmology forms. Observations The processing pipeline allowed multiple configurations to be run, with the optimal configuration consisting of the Nuance and LEADTOOLS engines running in parallel with a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a sensitivity of 13.5%. Discussion While limitations exist, preliminary experience from this project yielded insights on the generalizability and applicability of integrating multiple, inexpensive general-purpose third-party optical character recognition engines in a modular pipeline. PMID:21890871

  20. Development and in vitro evaluation of expandable gastroretentive dosage forms based on compressed collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Gröning, R; Cloer, C; Müller, R S

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new collagen gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) which expand in the stomach after contact with gastric fluids. The GRDFs should remain in the stomach for a prolonged period of time due to their size. The dosage forms were prepared from collagen sponges. The sponges were manufactured by freeze-drying a riboflavin-containing collagen solution. A computer controlled material supply was constructed to transport precompressed collagen into a tablet machine. A second type of tablet was manufactured by combining compressed collagen sponges with hydrophilic matrix layers of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Matrix layers containing captopril or aciclovir were developed. In vitro experiments were performed with both types of dosage forms. The collagen tablets expand within a few minutes after contact with artificial gastric juice and form a drug delivery system with a size of 8 mm x 18 mm x 60 mm. Riboflavin is released over 16 h. If two layer tablets are used, the release of aciclovir or captopril can be controlled by the composition of the sustained release layer.